Vannini, Natalie; Enz, Sibylle; Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter; Watson, Scott; Woods, Sarah; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Hall, Lynne; Paiva, Ana; Andre, Elizabeth; Aylett, Ruth; Schneider, Wolfgang
Bullying is widespread in European schools, despite multiple intervention strategies having been proposed over the years. The present study investigates the effects of a novel virtual learning strategy ("FearNot!") to tackle bullying in both UK and German samples. The approach is intended primarily for victims to increase their coping…
The challenge for high schools to adopt effective measures to reduce bullying has been underscored by international media coverage highlighting the consequences of school bullying. Despite whole-school anti-bullying programs being accepted as the best evidence-based approaches to intervention, research continues to yield ambiguous findings, and…
Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean
This article presents a conceptual strategy which uses the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM) as a health promotion framework to guide school-based bullying awareness programs and subsequent anti-bullying strategies for school nursing practice. Anti-bullying frameworks and tools are scarce despite the extent of the problem of bullying. This article…
McGrath, Linda; Jones, Robert S P; Hastings, Richard P
Although existing research is scarce, evidence suggests that children and adults with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of being bullied (as they are for maltreatment generally) and possibly more likely than those without disabilities to also engage in bullying behavior. Despite significant clinical interest in bullying, we could find no published research on the outcomes of bullying intervention for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Adults with intellectual disabilities in three work center settings participated in one of two interventions for perpetrators and/or victims of bullying: (a) psychoeducational intervention with a cognitive behavioral orientation (n=20), or (b) the same intervention but with additional involvement of community stakeholders such as parents, the police, and local schools (n=22). A third work center (n=18) acted as a waiting list control comparison. Pre-intervention, 43% of participants reported that they had been bullied within the preceding three months and 28% identified themselves as having bullied others. Reports of being bullied decreased significantly within the two intervention groups over time but not in the control group. There were no differences between the two intervention groups, and no statistically significant reduction in self-reported bullying behavior. Initial data on this intervention suggest that its effects might be clinically meaningful with an associated Numbers Needed to Treat for reduction in exposure to bullying of 5.55.
Boulton, Michael J.; Boulton, Richard
Despite three decades of research and development of anti-bullying intervention, this form of systematic aggression continues to be common in schools. The present study investigated if a contributing factor might be that some pupils are unreceptive to teachers' anti-bullying lessons. It invited 8-11-year-old junior school pupils (N = 227) to…
Vaught, Sabina E.
This article investigates the legal, semantic, and material implications of Massachusetts' anti-bullying law through an analytic framework of structural liberalism. Specifically, this article asks how the law produces categories of fit and unfit subjects of the state through raced and gendered practices of individualism, paternalism, meliorism,…
Salmivalli, Christina; Kaukiainen, Ari; Voeten, Marinus
Background: The participant role approach represents a view of bullying as a group process in which bystanders often encourage the bullying or silently witness it, while little support is given to the victim (e.g. Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Bjorkqvist, Osterman, & Kaukiainen, 1996). There is a discrepancy between students' attitudes (which are…
Social aggression, or victimization using social exclusion, rumors, and body language, has been overlooked in state anti-bullying policies since the policy surge following the 1999 Columbine Massacres. Social aggression has been associated with social anxiety disorder, depression and suicide, and lowered academic achievement and involvement. An…
Lester, Robin Rawlings; Maldonado, Nancy
Bullying has become a nationwide concern at the K-12 level. Guided by the theoretical framework of social learning theory, this study explored the perceptions of secondary education teachers about the bully-proofing program in place at one target middle school. Despite the target middle school's anti-bullying program, the incidence of bullying had…
Jones, Joseph R.; Augustine, Sharon Murphy
Bullying in schools is a tremendous challenge that many secondary educators are attempting to address within their school environments. However, educators are often unsure of the attributes of an effective anti-bullying program; thus, they tend to create programs on a "trial and error" basis. This article provides an overview of the…
van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René
Background: School bullying is a wide-spread problem with severe consequences for victims, bullies and bystanders. Schools are strongly encouraged to implement both schoolwide, preventive interventions and reactive measures to handle existing bullying situations. In the Dutch implementation of the KiVa anti-bullying programme, pervasive-bullying…
Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.
Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…
Smith, Peter K.; Smith, Cherise; Osborn, Rob; Samara, Muthanna
Schools in England are legally required to have an anti-bullying policy, but the little research so far suggests that they may lack coverage in important areas. An analysis of 142 school anti-bullying policies, from 115 primary schools and 27 secondary schools in one county was undertaken. A 31-item scoring scheme was devised to assess policy.…
Hillsberg, Carol; Spak, Helene
This article describes an anti-bullying program with young adult literature as its centerpiece that the authors created. It explores the nature of bullying and its emotional impact on the victims, focusing on its prevalence in schools, and then describes the comprehensive anti-bullying program instituted in grades 6 to 8 at Wood Oaks Junior High…
Kull, Ryan M.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.
"From Statehouse to Schoolhouse: Anti-Bullying Policy Efforts in U.S. States and School Districts," examines the anti-bullying policies of all 13,181 school districts across the country. It provides the prevalence of anti-bullying policies in all U.S. school districts and whether state laws and guidance are being implemented at the…
Simmonds, Beverly A.; And Others
The Stanford Computer-Based Educator Training Intervention (SCETI) was designed to provide teachers with extensive instruction in cardiovascular disease risk factor concepts and to assess the intervention's effects on a number of teacher variables mediating program implementation. The SCETI program was an interactive computer program which used…
Wieland, L. Susan; Falzon, Louise; Sciamanna, Chris N; Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Folse, Suzanne Brodney; Schwartz, Joseph E; Davidson, Karina W
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the number of obese or overweight individuals worldwide will increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. Chronic diseases associated with overweight or obesity include diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. Objectives To assess the effects of interactive computer-based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people. Search methods We searched several electronic databases, including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and PsycINFO, through 25 May 2011. We also searched clinical trials registries to identify studies. We scanned reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. Selection criteria Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated interactive computer-based weight loss or weight maintenance programs in adults with overweight or obesity. We excluded trials if the duration of the intervention was less than four weeks or the loss to follow-up was greater than 20% overall. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Where interventions, control conditions, outcomes and time frames were similar between studies, we combined study data using meta-analysis. Main results We included 14 weight loss studies with a total of 2537 participants, and four weight maintenance studies with a total of 1603 participants. Treatment duration was between four weeks and 30 months. At six months, computer-based interventions led to greater weight loss than minimal interventions (mean difference (MD) −1.5 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.1 to −0.9; two trials) but less weight loss than in-person treatment (MD 2.1 kg; 95% CI 0.8 to 3.4; one trial). At six months, computer-based interventions were superior to a minimal control intervention in limiting weight regain (MD −0.7 kg; 95% CI −1.2 to −0.2; two trials), but not
Demaso, David Ray; Marcus, Nicole Eldridge; Kinnamon, Carolyn; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph
Objective: This study tested the feasibility and safety of a computer-based application for families facing childhood depression. The Depression Experience Journal (EJ) is a psychoeducational intervention based on a narrative model involving the sharing of personal stories about childhood depression. Method: Semistructured interviews assessed…
Moore, Michele J.; Werch, Chudley E.; Bian, Hui
Objective: Given the documented multiple health risks college students engage in, and the dearth of effective programs addressing them, the authors developed a computer-based brief multiple-health behavior intervention. This study reports immediate outcomes and feasibility of a pilot of this program. Participants: Two hundred students attending a…
Hetzroni, Orit E.; Tannous, Juman
This study investigated the use of computer-based intervention for enhancing communication functions of children with autism. The software program was developed based on daily life activities in the areas of play, food, and hygiene. The following variables were investigated: delayed echolalia, immediate echolalia, irrelevant speech, relevant…
Hill, Wade; Schillo, Leah; Weinert, Clarann
Social support is a key factor in illness management. Despite the positive effects of support groups, there are barriers to participation by rural dwellers in face-to-face groups. To address these barriers, a computer-based support group intervention, the Women to Women Project, was designed to provide peer support and health information through a computer-based intervention. Data from three groups (intervention, information, comparison) of woman who participated in the program were analyzed. The pattern of improvement in social support was in the anticipated direction, but not significant in the main analysis. Exploratory analysis was conducted on a vulnerable subsample of women reporting low social support and high psychosocial distress. Results suggest that improvement in social support, based on the intervention, was greater for the vulnerable subsample as compared with the sample as a whole. An effective and efficient means of providing social support and facilitating the mobilization of this support is through self-help groups; this study demonstrates that virtual support groups can increase perceived social support.
Elliott, Alison; Hall, Neil
This study investigated ways of using computer-based learning activities to complement curriculum practices in preschool programs with an early intervention component through the use of computer-based learning activities. Particular attention was given to supporting the development of young children's early mathematical skills. The study took…
Kanive, Rebecca; Nelson, Peter M.; Burns, Matthew K.; Ysseldyke, James
The authors' purpose was to determine the effects of computer-based practice and conceptual interventions on computational fluency and word-problem solving of fourth- and fifth-grade students with mathematics difficulties. A randomized pretest-posttest control group design found that students assigned to the computer-based practice intervention…
Given, Barbara K; Wasserman, John D; Chari, Sharmila A; Beattie, Karen; Eden, Guinevere F
The current study was conducted to test the premise that computer-based intervention that targets auditory temporal processing combined with language exercises (Fast ForWord) is effective in remediating children with disorders of language and reading. Sixty-five middle school struggling readers were randomly assigned to one of five groups and over a 12-week-period received one of the following interventions: (1) two phases of intervention with Fast ForWord (FFW, experimental group), (2) two phases of intervention with SuccessMaker (SM, active control group), (3) FFW followed by SM, (4) SM followed by FFW, or (5) no intervention beyond the regular class curriculum (developmental control group). Changes in reading, phonemic awareness, spelling and language skills were assessed via a repeated measures MANOVA. Results indicated significant within-subjects effects (i.e., change for all participants over time), but no between-subject group differences, failing to show that Fast ForWord resulted in any gains over and above those seen in the other groups.
Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter; Vannini, Natalie; Watson, Scott; Woods, Sarah; Schneider, Wolfgang; Enz, Sibylle; Hall, Lynne; Paiva, Ana; Andre, Elizabeth; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Aylett, Ruth
Background: Anti-bullying interventions to date have shown limited success in reducing victimization and have rarely been evaluated using a controlled trial design. This study examined the effects of the FearNot! anti-bullying virtual learning intervention on escaping victimization, and reducing overall victimization rates among primary school…
Villarruel, Antonia M.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Ronis, David L.
The efficacy of a computer-based intervention to increase parent-adolescent communication among Latino parents and adolescents was tested in a randomized controlled trial. Parents assigned to receive the 2-session intervention reported greater general communication, sexual communication, and comfort with communication at 3-month follow-up than did…
Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; Lang, Russell; Mulloy, Austin; Franco, Jessica; O'Reilly, Mark; Didden, Robert; Lancioni, Giulio
The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies involving the use of computer-based interventions (CBI) to teach communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review evaluates intervention outcomes, appraises the certainty of evidence, and describes software and system requirements for each…
Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; Mulloy, Austin; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; El Zein, Farah
The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic analysis of studies investigating computer-based interventions (CBI) to improve literacy skills (e.g., reading, writing, and vocabulary) in students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review synthesizes intervention outcomes, appraises the certainty of evidence, and describes software…
Sherer, Yiping C.; Nickerson, Amanda B.
A random sample of 213 school psychologists working in a school setting completed a survey on their schools' current anti-bullying practices. Talking with bullies following bullying incidents, disciplinary consequences for bullies, and increasing adult supervision were the three most frequently used strategies. Peer juries/court, an anti-bullying…
Vaughn, Brandy Elise Robinson
The researcher proposed to determine the expansiveness of Louisiana's public school districts' anti-bullying policies. Specifically, student codes of conduct and board polices were analyzed to determine the extent to which schools define, outline reporting procedures, keep written records of, investigate, and render disciplinary sanctions against…
Kilpatrick, Michelle; Christine, Demaray; Malecki, Kerres
Bullying is a significant problem in schools across America. Educators are dealing with the problem of bullying through the implementation of various anti-bullying programs. Additionally, researchers are studying the problem and have begun to focus on the importance of contextual factors surrounding bullying such as social support (Beran & Tutty,…
Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.
This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…
Smith, Peter K.; Kupferberg, Allison; Mora-Merchan, Joaquin A.; Samara, Muthanna; Bosley, Sue; Osborn, Rob
An analysis was undertaken of 217 English school anti-bullying policies, from 169 primary schools and 48 secondary schools, using a 34-item scoring scheme. Findings were compared with an analysis of 142 schools six years earlier. Overall schools in the current analysis had about 49% of the items in their policies, a modest increase over the…
Ahtola, Annarilla; Haataja, Anne; Kärnä, Antti; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina
Background: Evidence suggests that the KiVa anti-bullying programme may contribute to a reduction in bullying and victimisation, especially in primary school level. What is more, the level of implementation moderates the programme effects: the more the programme was implemented, the more bullying was reduced. Purpose: Consequently, it is of…
Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.
Bullying is one of the most challenging issues facing students and schools worldwide. The disastrous consequences for victims and offenders are experienced daily by teachers and students and documented by numerous studies. The demand for evidence-based practice (EBP) in schools' anti-bullying work has increased in the last decade, consequently…
Hetzroni, Orit E; Tannous, Juman
This study investigated the use of computer-based intervention for enhancing communication functions of children with autism. The software program was developed based on daily life activities in the areas of play, food, and hygiene. The following variables were investigated: delayed echolalia, immediate echolalia, irrelevant speech, relevant speech, and communicative initiations. Multiple-baseline design across settings was used to examine the effects of the exposure of five children with autism to activities in a structured and controlled simulated environment on the communication manifested in their natural environment. Results indicated that after exposure to the simulations, all children produced fewer sentences with delayed and irrelevant speech. Most of the children engaged in fewer sentences involving immediate echolalia and increased the number of communication intentions and the amount of relevant speech they produced. Results indicated that after practicing in a controlled and structured setting that provided the children with opportunities to interact in play, food, and hygiene activities, the children were able to transfer their knowledge to the natural classroom environment. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Dong Hee
Bullying is a serious public health problem, and many studies have examined the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs. However, these programs and those outcomes are complex, broad, and diverse. Research is needed into the optimal strategies for these comprehensive programs, which consider both the effectiveness and cost of programs. We performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software package to calculate effect size (ES) and the Q statistic. We conducted subgroup analyses to examine the differences based on student grade level, program duration, and program strategy. The pooled ES calculation indicated that school-based anti-bullying programs have a small to moderate effect on victimization. The results of the Q test indicated significant heterogeneity across studies of victimization (Q = 39.625; I (2) = 69.7%; p < .001). Studies involving training in emotional control (p < .01), peer counseling (p < .05), or the establishment of a school policy on bullying (p < .05) showed significantly larger ESs on victimization than did studies that did not involve these strategies. Effective school-based anti-bullying programs should include training in emotional control, peer counseling, and the establishment of a school policy on bullying.
Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M
State anti-bullying laws have been enacted across the United States to address bullying both by and of youths. Although these statutes can provide critical protection to youth, there is debate about whether such laws should enumerate protected classes of youth. Weight-based bullying is an increasingly prevalent form of harassment and it has been overlooked in policy initiatives. Enumeration in existing laws might help protect overweight victims. As no research has examined this issue, we conducted a national survey of American adults (N=1155) to assess public opinion about enactment of anti-bullying laws that vary according to whether or not they enumerate distinguishing characteristics. Our results demonstrated substantial public agreement (ranging from 2/3 to 3/4 of participants) with enactment of state and federal anti-bullying laws that enumerate distinguishing characteristics, including physical appearance and weight, which are currently absent in most statutes. Our evidence can inform policy and legal approaches to protect youth effectively from bullying.
Galante, E; Venturini, G; Fiaccadori, C
Dementia is a highly invalidating condition and, given the progressive aging of the population, one of the major issues that health systems will have to face in future years. Recently there has been an increase in the potential of diagnostic tools and pharmacological treatments for dementia; moreover, considerable interest has been expressed regarding non pharmacological interventions. However, the current evidence in support of non pharmacological treatments in patients affected by dementia still does not allow to draw definitive conclusions on what is the most effective treatment to apply, largely because of methodological difficulties and limitations of the studies so far carried out due to the complex nature of the disease. To address this need, we carried out a single blind randomized controlled study on the efficacy of computer cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive decline. We here present preliminary data on 11 patients with diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and mild cognitive decline randomly assigned to treatment (a) or control (b) condition (i.e. specific vs. aspecific treatment). The specific treatment (a) consisted in a cycle of 12 individual sessions of computer exercises, while the control condition (b) consisted in sessions of semi-structured interviews with patients, conducted with the same frequency and time period as (a). Cognitive, behavioural and functional assessment was performed by an expert evaluator, blinded to the patients' group allocation. Preliminary results show a significant performance decline only in the control group at the 9-month follow-up compared to both baseline and the 3-month follow-up. Our results suggest that computer based cognitive training in patients with AD and mild cognitive decline is effective at least in delaying the continuous progression of cognitive impairment in AD.
Yaw, Jared S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Taylor, Cora M.; Booher, Joshua; Chambers, Karen
A multiple-baseline design across tasks (i.e., word lists) was used to evaluate the effects of a computer-based sight-word reading intervention (CBSWRI) on the sight-word reading of a sixth-grade student with Autism. Across 3 lists of primer and first-grade Dolch words, the student showed immediate increases in sight-word reading after the CBSWRI…
Hopkins, Ingrid Maria; Gower, Michael W.; Perez, Trista A.; Smith, Dana S.; Amthor, Franklin R.; Wimsatt, F. Casey; Biasini, Fred J.
This study assessed the efficacy of "FaceSay," a computer-based social skills training program for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This randomized controlled study (N = 49) indicates that providing children with low-functioning autism (LFA) and high functioning autism (HFA) opportunities to practice attending to eye gaze,…
Ebert, David Daniel; Lehr, Dirk; Cuijpers, Pim; Berking, Matthias; Nobis, Stephanie; Riper, Heleen
Background Stress has been identified as one of the major public health issues in this century. New technologies offer opportunities to provide effective psychological interventions on a large scale. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of Web- and computer-based stress-management interventions in adults relative to a control group. Methods A meta-analysis was performed, including 26 comparisons (n=4226). Cohen d was calculated for the primary outcome level of stress to determine the difference between the intervention and control groups at posttest. Analyses of the effect on depression, anxiety, and stress in the following subgroups were also conducted: risk of bias, theoretical basis, guidance, and length of the intervention. Available follow-up data (1-3 months, 4-6 months) were assessed for the primary outcome stress. Results The overall mean effect size for stress at posttest was Cohen d=0.43 (95% CI 0.31-0.54). Significant, small effects were found for depression (Cohen d=0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.48) and anxiety (Cohen d=0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.47). Subgroup analyses revealed that guided interventions (Cohen d=0.64, 95% CI 0.50-0.79) were more effective than unguided interventions (Cohen d=0.33, 95% CI 0.20-0.46; P=.002). With regard to the length of the intervention, short interventions (≤4 weeks) showed a small effect size (Cohen d=0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.44) and medium-long interventions (5-8 weeks) were moderately effective (Cohen d=0.59; 95% CI 0.45-0.74), whereas long interventions (≥9 weeks) produced a nonsignificant effect (Cohen d=0.21, 95% CI –0.05 to 0.47; P=.006). In terms of treatment type, interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and third-wave CBT (TWC) showed small-to-moderate effect sizes (CBT: Cohen d=0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.61; TWC: Cohen d=0.53, 95% CI 0.35-0.71), and alternative interventions produced a small effect size (Cohen d=0.24, 95% CI 0.12-0.36; P=.03). Early evidence on follow-up data indicates
Lin, Yen-Jui; Israel, Tania
Internalized heterosexism (IH) is a strong predictor of the psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), or other same-sex attracted individuals. To respond to the call for interventions to address IH, the current study developed and tested an online intervention to reduce IH among gay, bisexual, and other same-sex attracted men. A…
Aronson, Ian David; Cleland, Charles M; Perlman, David C; Rajan, Sonali; Sun, Wendy; Bania, Theodore C
Young people face greatly increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and high rates of undiagnosed HIV, yet are unlikely to test. Many also have limited or inconsistent access to health care, including HIV testing and prevention education, and prior research has documented that youth lack knowledge necessary to understand the HIV test process and to interpret test results. Computer-based interventions have been used to increase HIV test rates and knowledge among emergency department (ED) patients, including those who decline tests offered at triage. However, patients aged 18-24 years have been less likely to test, even after completing an intervention, compared to older patients in the same ED setting. The current pilot study sought to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new tablet-based video intervention designed to address established barriers to testing among ED patients aged 18-24 years. In particular, we examined whether young ED patients would: agree to receive the intervention; complete it quickly enough to avoid disrupting clinical workflows; accept HIV tests offered by the intervention; demonstrate increased postintervention knowledge; and report they found the intervention acceptable. Over 4 weeks, we recruited 100 patients aged 18-24 in a high-volume urban ED; all of them declined HIV tests offered at triage. Almost all (98%) completed the intervention (mean time <9 mins), 30% accepted HIV tests offered by the tablets. Knowledge was significantly higher after than before the intervention (t = -6.67, p < .001) and patients reported generally high acceptability. Additional research appears warranted to increase postintervention HIV testing.
Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Gray, Sky; Carter, Susan; Gass, Michael
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an experiential, adventure-based "Anti-Bullying Initiative" on levels of resilience. The goal of this initiative was to create a more positive, caring, and safe learning environment for all students at a local elementary school in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Activities were designed to…
Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia
The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the KiVa anti-bullying program in Italy through a randomized control trial of students in grades 4 and 6. The sample involved 2042 students (51 % female; grade 4, mean age = 8.85; ds = 0.43; grade 6, mean age = 10.93; ds = 0.50); 13 comprehensive schools were randomly assigned into intervention (KiVa) or control (usual school provision) conditions. Different outcomes (bullying, victimization, pro-bullying attitudes, pro-victim attitudes, empathy toward victims), analyses (longitudinal mixed model with multiple-item scales; longitudinal prevalence of bullies and victims using Olweus' single question), and estimates of effectiveness (Cohen's d; odds ratios) were considered in order to compare the Italian results with those from other countries. Multilevel models showed that KiVa reduced bullying and victimization and increased pro-victim attitudes and empathy toward the victim in grade 4, with effect sizes from 0.24 to 0.40. In grade 6, KiVa reduced bullying, victimization, and pro-bullying attitudes; the effects were smaller as compared to grade 4, yet significant (d ≥ 0.20). Finally, using Olweus dichotomous definition of bullies and victims, results showed that the odds of being a victim were 1.93 times higher for a control student than for a KiVa student in grade 4. Overall, the findings provide evidence of the effectiveness of the program in Italy; the discussion will focus on factors that influenced successfully the transportability of the KiVa program in Italy.
Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Hill, Wade
The study's purpose was to examine retention factors in a computer intervention with 158 chronically ill rural women. After a 22-week intervention, 18.9% of the women had dropped out. A Cox regression survival analysis was performed to assess the effects of selected covariates on retention. Reasons for dropping out were tallied and categorized. Major reasons for dropping out were as follows: lack of time, decline in health status, and nonparticipation in study activities. Four covariates predicted survival time: level of computer skills, marital status, work outside the home, and impact of social events on participants' lives. Retention-enhancing strategies are suggested for implementation.
Reed, Marissa S.
Over thirty years of extant literature exists regarding reading instruction, yet consensus in the field continues to diverge in the area of reading intervention. Despite the establishment of research-based programs in all five areas of reading (phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension), educators continue to…
Aronson, Ian David; Rajan, Sonali; Marsch, Lisa A.; Bania, Theodore C.
The current study examines predictors of HIV test acceptance among emergency department patients who received an educational video intervention designed to increase HIV testing. A total of 202 patients in the main treatment areas of a high-volume, urban hospital emergency department used inexpensive netbook computers to watch brief educational…
Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B.; Lang, Ariel J.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and debilitating condition characterized by persistent intrusive memories. Although effective treatments exist for PTSD, there is a need for development of alternative treatments. Diminished ability to control proactive interference may contribute to re-experiencing symptoms and may be a novel intervention target. The present study tested an intervention designed to modify proactive interference control. Forty-two women with PTSD were randomly assigned to a computerized cognitive training or a control condition. The impact of these programs on cognitive performance and symptoms was assessed. PTSD re-experiencing symptoms and interference control performance improved significantly more for individuals in the training group relative to those in the control group. Other PTSD and general distress symptoms improved equally over time in both groups. Cognitive training of this type may hold promise as a novel intervention for reducing PTSD symptoms, although the mechanism of action and implications for models of PTSD requires future study. PMID:26114901
Ferreira, Patrícia; Taveira-Gomes, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
Background Computer-based learning (CBL) has been widely used in medical education, and reports regarding its usage and effectiveness have ranged broadly. Most work has been done on the effectiveness of CBL approaches versus traditional methods, and little has been done on the comparative effects of CBL versus CBL methodologies. These findings urged other authors to recommend such studies in hopes of improving knowledge about which CBL methods work best in which settings. Objective In this systematic review, we aimed to characterize recent studies of the development of software platforms and interventions in medical education, search for common points among studies, and assess whether recommendations for CBL research are being taken into consideration. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature published from 2003 through 2013. We included studies written in English, specifically in medical education, regarding either the development of instructional software or interventions using instructional software, during training or practice, that reported learner attitudes, satisfaction, knowledge, skills, or software usage. We conducted 2 latent class analyses to group articles according to platform features and intervention characteristics. In addition, we analyzed references and citations for abstracted articles. Results We analyzed 251 articles. The number of publications rose over time, and they encompassed most medical disciplines, learning settings, and training levels, totaling 25 different platforms specifically for medical education. We uncovered 4 latent classes for educational software, characteristically making use of multimedia (115/251, 45.8%), text (64/251, 25.5%), Web conferencing (54/251, 21.5%), and instructional design principles (18/251, 7.2%). We found 3 classes for intervention outcomes: knowledge and attitudes (175/212, 82.6%), knowledge, attitudes, and skills (11.8%), and online activity (12/212, 5.7%). About a quarter of the
Cohen, Wendy; Hodson, Ann; O'Hare, Anne; Boyle, James; Durrani, Tariq; McCartney, Elspeth; Mattey, Mike; Naftalin, Lionel; Watson, Jocelynne
Seventy-seven children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, with severe mixed receptive-expressive specific language impairment (SLI), participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Fast ForWord (FFW; Scientific Learning Corporation, 1997, 2001). FFW is a computer-based intervention for treating SLI using acoustically enhanced speech…
Waight, Noemi; Gillmeister, Kristina
This study examined teachers' and students' initial conceptions of computer-based models--Flash and NetLogo models--and documented how teachers and students reconciled notions of multiple representations featuring macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic representations prior to actual intervention in eight high school chemistry…
Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
Many victimized youngsters are at risk of developing internalizing problems, and this risk seems to be especially pronounced when they are genetically vulnerable for these problems. It is unclear, however, whether protective features of the school environment such as anti-bullying classroom policies and teacher's perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations can mitigate these negative outcomes. Using a genetically informed design based on twins, this study examined the potential moderating role of classroom anti-bullying policies and teachers' perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations in regard to the additive and interactive effects of peer victimization and genetic vulnerability on anxiety symptoms. To this end, 208 monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins (120 girls) rated their level of anxiety and peer victimization in grade 6 (mean age = 12.1 years, SD = 2.8). Teachers rated their self-efficacy in handling bullying situations and the extent of anti-bullying classroom policies. Multilevel regressions revealed triple interactions showing that genetic disposition for anxiety predicted actual anxiety for twins who were highly victimized by their peers, but only when their teachers had low perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations or when anti-bullying classroom rules were absent or rarely enforced. In contrast, for victimized youth with teachers who perceive themselves as effective or in classrooms where anti-bullying classroom policies were strongly enforced, genetic disposition for anxiety was not associated with actual anxiety symptoms. Anti-bullying programs should continue to promote teachers' involvement, as well as the enforcement of anti-bullying classroom policies, in order to diminish peer victimization and its related consequences.
McGrath, Linda; Jones, Robert S. P.; Hastings, Richard P.
Although existing research is scarce, evidence suggests that children and adults with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of being bullied (as they are for maltreatment generally) and possibly more likely than those without disabilities to also engage in bullying behavior. Despite significant clinical interest in bullying, we could…
Cohen, Wendy; Hodson, Ann; O'Hare, Anne; Boyle, James; Durrani, Tariq; McCartney, Elspeth; Mattey, Mike; Naftalin, Lionel; Watson, Jocelynne
Seventy-seven children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, with severe mixed receptive-expressive specific language impairment (SLI), participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Fast ForWord (FFW; Scientific Learning Corporation, 1997, 2001). FFW is a computer-based intervention for treating SLI using acoustically enhanced speech stimuli. These stimuli are modified to exaggerate their time and intensity properties as part of an adaptive training process. All children who participated in the RCT maintained their regular speech and language therapy and school regime throughout the trial. Standardized measures of receptive and expressive language were used to assess performance at baseline and to measure outcome from treatment at 9 weeks and 6 months. Children were allocated to 1 of 3 groups. Group A (n = 23) received the FFW intervention as a home-based therapy for 6 weeks. Group B (n = 27) received commercially available computer-based activities designed to promote language as a control for computer games exposure. Group C (n = 27) received no additional study intervention. Each group made significant gains in language scores, but there was no additional effect for either computer intervention. Thus, the findings from this RCT do not support the efficacy of FFW as an intervention for children with severe mixed receptive-expressive SLI.
Regtvoort, Anne G. F. M.; van der Leij, Aryan
The hereditary basis of dyslexia makes it possible to identify children at risk early on. Pre-reading children genetically at risk received during 14 weeks a home- and computer-based training in phonemic awareness and letter-sound relationships in the context of reading instruction. At posttest training effects were found for both phonemic…
Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Keyes, Starr E.
This study examined the effects of culturally relevant/responsive, computer-based social skills instruction on the social skill acquisition and generalization of 6 urban African American sixth graders with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A multiple-probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the social skills…
Carlfjord, Siw; Johansson, Kjell; Bendtsen, Preben; Nilsen, Per; Andersson, Agneta
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff experiences of the use of a computer-based concept for lifestyle testing and tailored advice implemented in routine primary health care (PHC). Design: The design of the study was a cross-sectional, retrospective survey. Setting: The study population consisted of staff at nine PHC units in the…
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.
Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a skills-based CD-ROM intervention, with and without a parent component, to reduce alcohol use among urban youth at 6-year follow-up. Method: At recruitment, 513 youths with a mean age of 10.8 years were randomly assigned to one of three study arms: youth CD-ROM intervention plus parent component, youth CD-ROM intervention only, or control. All youths completed pretest, posttest, and annual follow-up measures. Youths and parents in their respective arms received the initial intervention program between pretest and posttest measures and received booster interventions between each follow-up measure. Results: With 80% sample retention at 6-year follow-up, youths in both intervention arms reported less past-month alcohol and cigarette use and fewer instances of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. Despite having similar numbers of drinking peers as youths in the control arm, youths in both intervention arms reported greater alcohol-refusal skills. Only past-month cigarette use differed between the two intervention arms, with youths in the intervention-plus-parent-component arm smoking less than youths in the CD-ROM intervention-only arm. Conclusions: Six years after initial intervention, youths who received a culturally tailored, skills-based prevention program had reduced alcohol use and lower rates of related risky behaviors than youths in the control arm. PMID:20553661
Anti-bullying is much more than pointing fingers and labeling perpetrators. Teens who are labeled as bullies are unlikely to simply change their ways just because they have been accused of bullying. Preventing bullying also goes beyond hanging rules on a classroom wall. The real goal should be to undermine bullying by fostering compassion in…
Cron, Alan H
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the leadership practice of an 11-member district team of educators assembled to respond to one of the most comprehensive bullying laws in the nation--the Massachusetts Anti-Bullying Law of 2010. This three-year case study provides school leaders and legislators with an in-depth, fine-grained…
This study presents an analysis of the anti-bullying policies of 24 South Carolina middle schools that were involved in the "Abbeville" lawsuit. These schools sued the state of South Carolina alleging that the school finding system was inadequate. The schools are plagued with numerous problems including being among the lowest performing…
Müller, Birgit H; Kull, Sandra; Wilhelm, Frank H; Michael, Tanja
Computer-based self-help treatments have been proposed to provide greater access to treatment while requiring minimum input from a therapist. The authors employed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of one-session computer-based exposure (CBE) as a self-help treatment for spider-fearful individuals. Spider-fearful participants in a CBE group underwent one 27-min session of standardised exposure to nine fear-eliciting spider pictures. Treatment outcome was compared to spider-fearful control participants exposed to nine neutral pictures. Fear reduction was quantified on a subjective level by the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) and complemented with a behavioural approach test (BAT). Results demonstrate that compared to control participants, CBE participants showed greater fear reduction from pre- to posttreatment on both the subjective level (FSQ) and the behavioural level (BAT). Moreover, in contrast to the control group, the obtained subjective fear reduction effect remained stable in the CBE group at 1-month follow-up. These findings highlight the role of computer-based self-help as a minimal but effective intervention to reduce fear of spiders.
Christoff, Adriana de Oliveira; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli
The prevalence of alcohol and other drug use is high among college students. Reducing their consumption will likely be beneficial for society as a whole. Computer and web-based interventions are promising for providing behaviorally based information. The present study compared the efficacy of three interventions (computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIc], non-computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIi], and screening only [control]) in college students in Curitiba, Brazil. A convenience sample of 458 students scored moderate and high risk on the ASSIST. They were then randomized into the three arms of the randomized controlled trial (ASSIST/MBIc, ASSIST/MBIi [interview], and assessment-only [control]) and assessed at baseline and 3 months later. The ASSIST involvement scores decreased at follow-up compared with baseline in the three groups, suggesting that any intervention is better than no intervention. For alcohol, the specific involvement scores decreased to a low level of risk in the three groups and the MBIc group showed a positive outcome compared with control, and the scores for each question were reduced in the two intervention groups compared to baseline. For tobacco, involvement scores decreased in the three groups, but they maintained moderate risk. For marijuana, a small positive effect was observed in the ASSIST/MBIi and control groups. The ASSIST/MBIc may be a good alternative to interview interventions because it is easy to administer, students frequently use such computer-based technologies, and individually tailored content can be delivered in the absence of a counselor.
Leigh, Laurie; Ellison, Susan C.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Wu, Shengjie; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Wright, Karen; Wetmore, Cynthia; Broniscer, Alberto; Gajjar, Amar
Objective To investigate the feasibility of a computer-based reading intervention completed by patients diagnosed with a brain tumor. Methods Patients were randomized to the intervention (n = 43) or standard of care group (n = 38). The intervention consisted of 30 sessions using Fast ForWord® exercises in a game-like format. Change in reading decoding scores over time since diagnosis was examined. Gender, race, parent education, parent marital status, and age at diagnosis were examined as covariates. Results 17 patients (39.5%) were able to complete the target goal of 30 intervention sessions. Females had significantly greater training time than males (p = .022). Age at diagnosis was associated with average training time/session for females (r = .485, p = .041). No significant differences were found in reading scores between the randomized groups. Conclusions The study was well accepted by families and adherence by patients undergoing radiation therapy for medulloblastoma was moderate. Suggestions for improved methodology are discussed. PMID:24369366
Waight, Noemi; Gillmeister, Kristina
This study examined teachers' and students' initial conceptions of computer-based models—Flash and NetLogo models—and documented how teachers and students reconciled notions of multiple representations featuring macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic representations prior to actual intervention in eight high school chemistry classrooms. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 students and 6 teachers. Findings revealed an interplay of complex factors that functioned as opportunities and obstacles in the implementation of technologies in science classrooms. Students revealed preferences for the Flash models as opposed to the open-ended NetLogo models. Altogether, due to lack of content and modeling background knowledge, students experienced difficulties articulating coherent and blended understandings of multiple representations. Concurrently, while the aesthetic and interactive features of the models were of great value, they did not sustain students' initial curiosity and opportunities to improve understandings about chemistry phenomena. Most teachers recognized direct alignment of the Flash model with their existing curriculum; however, the benefits were relegated to existing procedural and passive classroom practices. The findings have implications for pedagogical approaches that address the implementation of computer-based models, function of models, models as multiple representations and the role of background knowledge and cognitive load, and the role of teacher vision and classroom practices.
Chylińska, Joanna; Lazarewicz, Magdalena; Rzadkiewicz, Marta; Jaworski, Mariusz; Adamus, Miroslawa; Haugan, Gørill; Lillefjell, Monica; Espnes, Geir Arild
Background Demographic changes over the past decades call for the promotion of health and disease prevention for older patients, as well as strategies to enhance their independence, productivity, and quality of life. Objective Our objective was to examine the effects of a computer-based educational intervention designed for general practitioners (GPs) to promote active aging. Methods The Promoting Active Aging (PRACTA) study consisted of a baseline questionnaire, implementation of an intervention, and a follow-up questionnaire that was administered 1 month after the intervention. A total of 151 primary care facilities (response rate 151/767, 19.7%) and 503 GPs (response rate 503/996, 50.5%) agreed to participate in the baseline assessment. At the follow-up, 393 GPs filled in the questionnaires (response rate, 393/503, 78.1%), but not all of them took part in the intervention. The final study group of 225 GPs participated in 3 study conditions: e-learning (knowledge plus skills modelling, n=42), a pdf article (knowledge only, n=89), and control (no intervention, n=94). We measured the outcome as scores on the Patients Expectations Scale, Communication Scale, Attitude Toward Treatment and Health Scale, and Self-Efficacy Scale. Results GPs participating in e-learning demonstrated a significant rise in their perception of older patients’ expectations for disease explanation (Wald χ2=19.7, P<.001) and in perception of motivational aspect of older patients’ attitude toward treatment and health (Wald χ2=8.9, P=.03) in comparison with both the control and pdf article groups. We observed additional between-group differences at the level of statistical trend. GPs participating in the pdf article intervention demonstrated a decline in self-assessed communication, both at the level of global scoring (Wald χ2=34.5, P<.001) and at the level of 20 of 26 specific behaviors (all P<.05). Factors moderating the effects of the intervention were the number of patients per GP and
Joshi, Ashish; Amadi, Chioma; Meza, Jane; Aguirre, Trina; Wilhelm, Sue
Examine association between socio-demographic characteristics and breastfeeding knowledge, self-efficacy and breastfeeding attrition prediction among rural Hispanic women. 46 rural Hispanic women, aged 18-38 years were enrolled from Regional West Medical Center, Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Intervention (n = 23) and attention control groups (n = 23) received bi-lingual breastfeeding education using touch screen computer and printed educational material. Participants were enrolled during last 6 weeks of pregnancy. Follow up assessments were at days 3 and 7, weeks 2 and 6, and months 3 and 6 postpartum. More than half of participants were single and had 10-12 years of education. Less than half of them had ever breastfed their children. No differences in knowledge, self-efficacy and intent to breastfeed scores were seen between two groups. Significant positive association was seen between self-efficacy and intent to breastfeed. Self-efficacy is an important predictor of intent to breastfeed among rural Hispanic women.
Garandeau, Claire F; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina
Whether cases of bullying should be handled in a direct, condemning mode or in a manner that does not involve blaming the perpetrator is a controversial issue among school professionals. This study compares the effectiveness of a Confronting Approach where the bully is openly told that his behavior must cease immediately to a Non-Confronting Approach where the adult shares his concern about the victim with the bully and invites him to provide suggestions on what could improve the situation. We analysed 339 cases of bullying involving 314 children from grades 1 to 9 (mean age = 11.95). Cases were handled in 65 schools as part of the implementation of the KiVa anti-bullying program. In each school, a team of three teachers addressed cases coming to their attention by organizing discussions with the bullies using either a Confronting or a Non-Confronting Approach; schools were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions. Victims reported that bullying stopped in 78 % of the cases. Logistic regression analyses indicated that neither approach was overall more effective than the other, controlling for grade level, duration of victimization and type of aggression. The Confronting Approach worked better than the Non-Confronting Approach in secondary school (grades 7 to 9), but not in primary school (grades 1 to 6). The Confronting Approach was more successful than the Non-Confronting Approach in cases of short-term victimization, but not in cases of long-term victimization. The type of aggression used did not moderate the effectiveness of either approach.
Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Dill, Edward J.; Little, Todd D.; Sargent, John A.
Background: While school-based anti-bullying programs are widely used, there have been few controlled trials of effectiveness. This study compared the effect of manualized School Psychiatric Consultation (SPC), CAPSLE (a systems and mentalization focused whole school intervention), and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in reducing aggression and…
O'Callaghan, Paul; McIvor, Aimee; McVeigh, Claire; Rushe, Teresa
Background: Many school-based interventions are being delivered in the absence of evidence of effectiveness (Snowling & Hulme, 2011, "Br. J. Educ. Psychol., 81," 1). Aims: This study sought to address this oversight by evaluating the effectiveness of the commonly used the Lexia Reading Core5 intervention, with 4- to 6-year-old pupils…
Price, Rebecca B; Wallace, Meredith; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Amir, Nader; Graur, Simona; Cummings, Logan; Popa, Paul; Carlbring, Per; Bar-Haim, Yair
Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of children and adults with high-anxiety. Attentional bias (AB) towards threat, the target mechanism of ABM, was tested as an outcome and a mechanistic mediator and moderator of anxiety reduction. Diagnostic remission and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were clinical outcomes available in enough studies to enable pooling. Per-patient data were obtained on at least one outcome from 13/16 eligible studies [86% of eligible participants; n=778]. Significant main effects of ABM on diagnostic remission (ABM-22.6%, control-10.8%; OR=2.57; p=0.006) and AB (β* (95%CI)=-0.63 (-0.83, -0.42); p<0.00005) were observed. There was no main effect of ABM on LSAS. However, moderator analyses suggested ABM was effective for patients who were younger (≤37y), trained in the lab, and/or assessed by clinicians. Under the same conditions where ABM was effective, mechanistic links between AB and anxiety reduction were supported. Under these specific circumstances, ABM reduces anxiety and acts through its target mechanism, supporting ABM's theoretical basis while simultaneously suggesting clinical indications and refinements to improve its currently limited clinical potential.
Joronen, Katja; Konu, Anne; Rankin, H Sally; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi
Drama, theater and role-playing methods are commonly used in health promotion programs, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based drama program to enhance social relationships and decrease bullying at school in children in grades 4-5 (mean age of 10.4 years). Students (n = 190) were recruited from two primary schools with similar demographics and socio-economics in the Southern Finland and purposively allocated either to an intervention group or a control group. The drama program included classroom drama sessions, follow-up activities at home and three parents' evenings concerning issues of social well being during the school year September 2007-May 2008. Data on social relationships in the class room and experiences of bullying were obtained before and after the program using self-completed questionnaire from the same students (n = 134). The response rate was 71%. No differences in socio-demographics existed between intervention group and control group at pretest. The positive effect on social relationships resulting from the intervention approached statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the positive effect was found to be statistically significant in the high-intensity intervention classes (p = 0.011). Bullying victimization decreased 20.7 percentage units from pretest (58.8%) to posttest (38.1%) in the intervention group (p < 0.05). The study indicates that using applied drama and theater methods in the classroom may improve children's social relationships at school.
Chen, H T; Grimley, D M; Waithaka, Y; Aban, I B; Hu, J; Bachmann, L H
There is increasing interest in using healthcare providers to deliver HIV-prevention services to their patients. Unfortunately, lack of counselling skills and time constraints within busy clinics serve as barriers to such efforts. The Providers Advocating for Sexual Health Initiative (PASHIN) study used state-of-the-art computer technology to assess each participant's risk behaviours and to determine the patient's readiness for changing each behaviour. The computer synthesized the participant-entered data, determined the targeted risk behaviour and printed a behavioural theory-based provider advice sheet and a 3-point patient prescription for the targeted risk behaviour. Since the intervention does not require providers to spend time performing a detailed sexual-risk assessment and it does not require providers to have received extensive counselling training, it has the potential to minimize some of the barriers associated with provider-delivered interventions. Thus, the purpose of this process evaluation was to assess how the PASHIN intervention was implemented in the field, including issues such as the fidelity of implementation and health providers' views on and experience with implementing the intervention. Overall, the results demonstrated that the computer-based, provider-delivered intervention was successfully delivered by providers within the context of regularly scheduled treatment sessions with HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) patients. The majority of providers (79.4%) and patients (83.5%) reported that the quality of HIV-prevention services delivered during these sessions was 'good'. The majority of the providers also reported that they had received adequate training, felt more confident in communicating HIV-prevention issues with their patients and provided more HIV-prevention counselling to their patients, due to the project. However, the experience of delivering HIV-prevention counselling during an 18-month period did not appear to change
Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron; Noland, Brian; Little, Todd D; Kärnä, Antti; Salmivalli, Christina
The present study investigated the effects of the KiVa antibullying program on students' anxiety, depression, and perception of peers in Grades 4-6. Furthermore, it was investigated whether reductions in peer-reported victimization predicted changes in these outcome variables. The study participants included 7,741 students from 78 schools who were randomly assigned to either intervention or control condition, and the program effects were tested with structural equation modeling. A cross-lagged panel model suggested that the KiVa program is effective for reducing students' internalizing problems and improving their peer-group perceptions. Finally, changes in anxiety, depression, and positive peer perceptions were found to be predicted by reductions in victimization. Implications of the findings and future directions for research are discussed.
Enz, Sibylle; Zoll, Carsten; Vannini, Natalie; Schneider, Wolfgang; Hall, Lynne; Paiva, Ana; Aylett, Ruth
Addressing the problems of bullying in schools, this paper presents a novel and highly innovative pedagogical approach, building on the immersive power of virtual role-play. Educational role-play is widely accepted as a powerful instrument to change attitudes and behaviour, but faces some difficulties and disadvantages when applied to sensitive…
Bhatia, Tej K.
This paper brings out the structure and salient features of the Computer-Based Hindi Teaching (CBHT) course, which is being developed at the University of Illinois. The following topics are treated specifically: (1) areas of the Hindi Language course that can be efficiently and economically taught with computer-based pedagogy; (2) a demonstration…
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Wofford, M M; Spickard, A W; Wofford, J L
Advancing computer technology, cost-containment pressures, and desire to make innovative improvements in medical education argue for moving learning resources to the computer. A reasonable target for such a strategy is the traditional clinical lecture. The purpose of the lecture, the advantages and disadvantages of "live" versus computer-based lectures, and the technical options in computerizing the lecture deserve attention in developing a cost-effective, complementary learning strategy that preserves the teacher-learner relationship. Based on a literature review of the traditional clinical lecture, we build on the strengths of the lecture format and discuss strategies for converting the lecture to a computer-based learning presentation.
Clark, Kenneth F.; Hosticka, Alice; Schriver, Martha; Bedell, Jackie
This paper discusses computer based virtual field trips that use technologies commonly found in public schools in the United States. The discussion focuses on the advantages of both using and creating these field trips for an instructional situation. A virtual field trip to Cumberland Island National Seashore, St. Marys, Georgia is used as a point…
This report compares the projected savings of using computer based training to conduct training for newly hired pilots to the results of that application. New Hire training, one of a number of programs conducted continuously at the United Airline Flight Operations Training Center, is designed to assure that any newly hired pilot will be able to…
Fisher, K. M.; And Others
Described is a computer-based tool, SemNet, which can be used by good and poor students to facilitate, extend, and polish their learning skills. Emphasized are skills associated with meaningful or deep-level learning. The components, use, and theoretical background of the software are discussed. (CW)
Presents a review of the basic foundations and recent challenges of the main instructional design traditions. Topics include learner characteristics; learner-controlled instruction; learning environments; the role of instructional interventions; computer-based instruction and other new technologies; and new theories of learning and design.…
This book provides professionals in environmental research and management with the information they need for computer modeling. Highlights include: A detailed summary of available software tools Presents cutting-edge mathematical methodology (e.g. fuzzy logic, hybrid Petri nets, optimum control theory) in a clear, understandable way Colour illustrations, flowcharts and worked examples that visualise and explain complex mathematical tasks. Case studies from various fields of application making it easier to apply simulation models for the solution of real-world problems Computer-Based Environmental Management is a unique reference for all environmental chemists, ecologists and agricultural scientists.
Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah
The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL. PMID:26494932
Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah
The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL.
Ravenel, Jessica; Lambeth, Dawn T.; Spires, Bob
The purpose of the research study was to identify the effects of computer-based programs on mathematical achievement, perceptions, and engagement of fourth-grade students. The 31 student participants were divided into two intervention groups, as a hands-on group and a computer-based group. Student achievement was measured by comparing the pretest…
Cognitive remediation for adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS): A preliminary study examining effectiveness, feasibility, and fidelity of a hybrid strategy, remote and computer-based intervention
Mariano, Margaret A.; Tang, Kerri; Kurtz, Matthew; Kates, Wendy R.
Background 22q11DS is a multiple anomaly syndrome involving intellectual and behavioral deficits, and increased risk for schizophrenia. As cognitive remediation (CR) has recently been found to improve cognition in younger patients with schizophrenia, we investigated the efficacy, feasibility, and fidelity of a remote, hybrid strategy, computerized CR program in youth with 22q11DS. Methods A longitudinal design was implemented in which 21 participants served as their own controls. Following an eight month baseline period in which no interventions were provided, cognitive coaches met with participants remotely for CR via video conferencing three times a week over a targeted 8 month timeframe and facilitated their progress through the intervention, offering task-specific strategies. A subset of strategies were examined for fidelity. Outcomes were evaluated using a neurocognitive test battery at baseline, pre-treatment and post-treatment. Results All participants adhered to the intervention. The mean length of the treatment phase was 7.96 months. A moderately high correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.73) was found for amount and type of strategies offered by coaches. Participants exhibited significant improvements (ES = .36–.55, p ≤ .009) in working memory, shifting attention and cognitive flexibility. All significant models were driven by improvements in pre to post-treatment scores. Conclusions Based on our preliminary investigation, a remote, hybrid strategy, computerized CR program can be implemented with 22q11DS youth despite geographic location, health, and cognitive deficits. It appears effective in enhancing cognitive skills during the developmental period of adolescence, making this type of CR delivery useful for youth with 22q11DS transitioning into post-school environments. PMID:26044111
da Silva, Jorge Luiz; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio; Braga, Iara Falleiros; Farias, Marilurdes Silva; da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi
This study's objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students' individual aspects.
da Silva, Jorge Luiz; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio; Braga, Iara Falleiros; Farias, Marilurdes Silva; da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi
This study’s objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students’ individual aspects. PMID:27792206
At present there is a rapid growth of aging population groups worldwide, which brings about serious economic and social problems. Thus, there is considerable effort to prolong the active life of these older people and keep them independent. The purpose of this mini review is to explore available clinical studies implementing computer-based cognitive training programs as intervention tools in the prevention and delay of cognitive decline in aging, with a special focus on their effectiveness. This was done by conducting a literature search in the databases Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE and Springer, and consequently by evaluating the findings of the relevant studies. The findings show that computerized cognitive training can lead to the improvement of cognitive functions such as working memory and reasoning skills in particular. However, this training should be performed over a longer time span since a short-term cognitive training mainly has an impact on short-term memory with temporary effects. In addition, the training must be intense to become effective. Furthermore, the results indicate that it is important to pay close attention to the methodological standards in future clinical studies. PMID:28066236
Wallen, E; Mulloy, K
Background: Computer based methods are increasingly being used for training workers, although our understanding of how to structure this training has not kept pace with the changing abilities of computers. Information on a computer can be presented in many different ways and the style of presentation can greatly affect learning outcomes and the effectiveness of the learning intervention. Many questions about how adults learn from different types of presentations and which methods best support learning remain unanswered. Aims: To determine if computer based methods, which have been shown to be effective on younger students, can also be an effective method for older workers in occupational health and safety training. Methods: Three versions of a computer based respirator training module were developed and presented to manufacturing workers: one consisting of text only; one with text, pictures, and animation; and one with narration, pictures, and animation. After instruction, participants were given two tests: a multiple choice test measuring low level, rote learning; and a transfer test measuring higher level learning. Results: Participants receiving the concurrent narration with pictures and animation scored significantly higher on the transfer test than did workers receiving the other two types of instruction. There were no significant differences between groups on the multiple choice test. Conclusions: Narration with pictures and text may be a more effective method for training workers about respirator safety than other popular methods of computer based training. Further study is needed to determine the conditions for the effective use of this technology. PMID:15778259
Clyman, S. G.; Julian, E. R.; Orr, N. A.; Dillon, G. F.; Cotton, K. E.
The National Board of Medical Examiners has developed computer-based examination formats for use in evaluating physicians in training. This paper describes continued research on these formats including attitudes about computers and effects of factors not related to the trait being measured; differences between paper-administered and computer-administered multiple-choice questions; and the characteristics of simulation formats. The implications for computer-based testing and further research are discussed. PMID:1807703
Eckstein, H H; Dörfler, A; Klemm, K; Schumacher, H; Winter, R; Bardenheuer, H J; Weigand, M; Werner, U; Mehrabi, A; Schwarzer, H; Kallinowski, F; Allenberg, J R
The purpose of computer-based training (CBT) is interactive use of multimedia components, such as text, graphics, animation, sound, digital slide shows, and videos. This CD-ROM illuminates different aspects of carotid surgery: cerebrovascular insufficiency, sonographic and neuroradiological diagnostics, indications and results of carotid surgery in the literature, perioperative complications and new developments such as interventional procedures. Digital imaging (60 minutes of video sequences and 250 graphics) especially focus on operative standard procedures (conventional and eversion technique) and alternative methods. CBT is an evolving supplement to improve education programs in vascular surgery.
Owhoso, Vincent; Malgwi, Charles A.; Akpomi, Margaret
The authors examine whether students who completed a computer-based intervention program, designed to help them develop abilities and skills in introductory accounting, later declared accounting as a major. A sample of 1,341 students participated in the study, of which 74 completed the intervention program (computer-based assisted learning [CBAL])…
Schroeder, Lois; Kent, Phyllis
Details the development and system design of a computer-based instruction (CBI) program designed to provide tutorial training in diet modification as part of renal therapy and provides the results of a study that compared the effectiveness of the CBI program with the traditional lecture/laboratory method. (EAO)
Federal Interagency Group for Computer-Based Training, Washington, DC.
Intended for use by training professionals with little or no background in the application of automated data processing (ADP) systems, processes, or procurement requirements, this reference manual provides guidelines for establishing a computer based training (CBT) program within a federal agency of the United States government. The manual covers:…
Swann, D. LaDon; Branson, Floyd, Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen
Extension educators (n=17) completed two of five technical sections from an aquaculture CD-ROM tutorial. Evidence from pre/post-training questionnaires, content assessments, and follow-up interviews reveals favorable attitudes toward computer-based inservice training. The ability to spend less time out of their county and to review materials after…
Wagner, Ina-Veronika; Schneider, Werner
The paper discusses computer-based decision support in the following areas: the dental patient record system; diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the oral mucosa; treatment strategy in complex clinical situations; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the masticatory system; and patient recall. (DB)
Edward, Norrie S.
Examines computer based simulations of practical laboratory experiments in engineering. Discusses the aims and achievements of lab work (cognitive, process, psychomotor, and affective); types of simulations (model building and behavioral); and the strengths and weaknesses of simulations. Describes the development of a centrifugal pump simulation,…
The history, purpose, and operation of six computer-based information networks are described in general and nontechnical terms. In the introduction the many definitions of an information network are explored. Ohio College Library Center's network (OCLC) is the first example. OCLC began in 1963, and since early 1973 has been extending its services…
Barker, Philip; Manji, Karim
Discussion of issues related to computer-assisted learning (CAL) and computer-based training (CBT) describes approaches to electronic learning; principles underlying courseware development to support these approaches; and a plan for creation of a CAL/CBT development center, including its functional role, campus services, staffing, and equipment…
Rosen, Gerald A.
Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…
Currently not many people would doubt that computers play an essential role in both public and private life in many countries. However, somewhat surprisingly, evidence of computer use is difficult to find in German state schools although other countries have managed to implement computer-based teaching and learning in their schools. This paper…
Stevens, J. M.; Harris, F. T. C.
A computer-based review system has been developed, based on the multiple-choice technique, at the University of London for medical students. The user can enter an answer or can have a list of questions to take away and enter later. Student response has been favorable. (LBH)
Micheli, Gene S.; And Others
This report discusses developments in computer based instruction (CBI) and presents initiatives for the improvement of Navy instructional management in the 1985 to 1995 time frame. The state of the art in instructional management and delivery is assessed, projections for the capabilities for instructional management and delivery systems during…
Gray, D. E.; Black, T. R.
Defines prototyping as an original version or model on which a completed software system for computer-based training is formed; examines the development process of a prototype; describes how prototyping can assist in facilitating communication between educational technology, software engineering, and project management; and discusses why…
Anderson, Richard Ivan
Describes confidence testing methods (confidence weighting, probabilistic marking, multiple alternative selection) as alternative to computer-based, multiple choice tests and explains potential benefits (increased reliability, improved examinee evaluation of alternatives, extended diagnostic information and remediation prescriptions, happier…
Objective: To evaluate the benefits of using computer-based interventions to provide patient education to individuals with hypertension. Methods: MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, ERIC, EMBASE, and PsychINFO were searched from 1995 to April 2009 using keywords related to "computers," "hypertension," "education," and "clinical trial." Additional…
Wells, J.; Clark, K. D.; Sarno, K.
Background: Despite recent recognition of the need for preventive sexual health materials for people with intellectual disability (ID), there have been remarkably few health-based interventions designed for people with mild to moderate ID. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer-based interactive multimedia (CBIM)…
Why do some computer based information systems succeed while others fail. It concludes with eleven recommended areas that middle management must...understand in order to effectively use computer based information systems . (Modified author abstract)
Compares the computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial with its non-computerized pedagogical roots: the Socratic Dialog with Skinner's Programmed Instruction. Tests the effectiveness of a CAI tutorial on diffusion and osmosis against four other interactive and non-interactive instructional strategies. Notes computer based strategies were…
Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.
Display of procedural information as found in aircraft operating manuals is discussed. The problem of converting hardcopy manuals to a computer-based presentation is considered. The trade-off of faster retrieval and display integration possible with a cathode-ray tube (CRT) versus the limited size of a CRT is emphasized. Nine subjects participated in an experimental study of the effectiveness of three alternative displays. Displays were evaluated for the task of retrieving and carrying out emergency procedures in an environment where task interruptions were prevalent. It was found that an on-line manual which provided considerable user assistance was superior to a hardcopy manual in terms of both task completion time and errors. However, an on-line manual without user assistance was inferior to a hardcopy manual in terms of errors.
Shiffman, Richard N.; Liaw, Yischon; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Corb, Geoffrey J.
In this systematic review, the authors analyze the functionality provided by recent computer-based guideline implementation systems and characterize the effectiveness of the systems. Twenty-five studies published between 1992 and January 1998 were identified. Articles were included if the authors indicated an intent to implement guideline recommendations for clinicians and if the effectiveness of the system was evaluated. Provision of eight information management services and effects on guideline adherence, documentation, user satisfaction, and patient outcome were noted. All systems provided patient-specific recommendations. In 19, recommendations were available concurrently with care. Explanation services were described for nine systems. Nine systems allowed interactive documentation, and 17 produced paper-based output. Communication services were present most often in systems integrated with electronic medical records. Registration, calculation, and aggregation services were infrequently reported. There were 10 controlled trials (9 randomized) and 10 time-series correlational studies. Guideline adherence improved in 14 of 18 systems in which it was measured. Documentation improved in 4 of 4 studies. PMID:10094063
Wood, Sara K; Eckley, Lindsay; Hughes, Karen; Hardcastle, Katherine A; Bellis, Mark A; Schrooten, Jochen; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Voorham, Lotte
The last few decades have seen increasing use of computer-based programmes to address illicit recreational drug use but knowledge about their effectiveness is limited. We conducted a systematic review to examine evidence on these programmes. Eight electronic databases were searched to identify primary research studies evaluating computer-based programmes to prevent or reduce use of illicit recreational drugs. From an initial 3413 extracted studies, 10 were identified for inclusion, covering a range of intervention types, target groups and settings. Universal drug prevention programmes were effective in reducing the frequency of recreational drug use in the mid-term (<12 months), but not immediately post intervention. Programmes targeting recreational drug users showed more inconsistent results but were generally effective in reducing use of drugs both immediately and in the mid-term. Computer-based programmes have the potential for use in addressing recreational drug use when targeted both universally and at illicit drug users, at least in the mid-term. However, longer term evaluations are needed to better understand the duration of effects. Given the benefits that computer-based programmes can have over traditional delivery methods, research is needed to better understand the value of human contact in health interventions and help inform whether, and how much, professional contact should be involved in computer-based programmes.
Discusses the history and theory of computer-based education (CBE) and reviews five meta-analyses that investigated the effectiveness of computer-based applications on individuals by measuring student achievement on a final exam for both CBE and traditional teaching. Concludes that CBE should supplement traditional instruction, not replace it.…
Rudner, Lawrence M.
Computer-based testing can be a powerful means to make all aspects of test administration not only faster and more efficient, but also more accurate and more secure. While the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exam is a computer adaptive test, there are other approaches. This installment presents a primer of computer-based testing terms.
Hativa, Nira, Ed.; Becker, Henry Jay, Ed.
The eight chapters of this theme issue discuss recent research and theory concerning computer-based integrated learning systems. Following an introduction about their theoretical background and current use in schools, the effects of using computer-based integrated learning systems in the elementary school classroom are considered. (SLD)
Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information, Eugene, OR. Clearinghouse.
This document presents standards for computer-based career information systems developed by the Association of Computer-Based Systems for Career Information (ACSCI). The adoption of ACSCI standards constitutes a voluntary means for organizations to declare that they subscribe to certain quality measures. These standards can be used to: (1) foster…
Kennedy, David; McNaught, Carmel
With computers, tangible tools are represented by the hardware (e.g., the central processing unit, scanners, and video display unit), while intangible tools are represented by the software. There is a special category of computer-based software tools (CBSTs) that have the potential to mediate cognitive processes--computer-based cognitive tools…
Sanchez, Karen Renee
This study explores the self-efficacy of students learning English as a Second Language on the computer-based Rosetta Stone program. The research uses a qualitative approach to explore how a readily available computer-based learning program, Rosetta Stone, can help adult immigrant students gain some English competence and so acquire a greater…
Terzis, Vasileios; Economides, Anastasios A.
The effective development of a computer based assessment (CBA) depends on students' acceptance. The purpose of this study is to build a model that demonstrates the constructs that affect students' behavioral intention to use a CBA. The proposed model, Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model (CBAAM) is based on previous models of technology…
Gevarter, William B.
Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines using natural languages (English, Japanese, German, etc.) rather than formal computer languages. NLP is a major research area in the fields of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Commercial…
Gibbs, William J.; Lario-Gibbs, Annette M.
This paper discusses a computer-based prototype called TestMaker that enables educators to create computer-based tests. Given the functional needs of faculty, the host of research implications computer technology has for assessment, and current educational perspectives such as constructivism and their impact on testing, the purposes for developing…
Falke, Tricia Rae
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a computer-based reading intervention on the reading achievement of sixth grade students in one elementary school in a suburban school district located in the Midwest region of the United States. Data were collected through two district mandated reading assessments and a computer-based…
Harris, R.V. Jr.; Angel, L.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Park, W.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Taylor, T.T.
This report presents the principles, practices, terminology, and technology of computer-based ultrasonic testing for inservice inspection (UT/ISI) of nuclear power plants, with extensive use of drawings, diagrams, and LTT images. The presentation is technical but assumes limited specific knowledge of ultrasonics or computers. The report is divided into 9 sections covering conventional LTT, computer-based LTT, and evaluation methodology. Conventional LTT topics include coordinate axes, scanning, instrument operation, RF and video signals, and A-, B-, and C-scans. Computer-based topics include sampling, digitization, signal analysis, image presentation, SAFI, ultrasonic holography, transducer arrays, and data interpretation. An evaluation methodology for computer-based LTT/ISI systems is presented, including questions, detailed procedures, and test block designs. Brief evaluations of several computer-based LTT/ISI systems are given; supplementary volumes will provide detailed evaluations of selected systems.
Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Frankforter, Tami; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.
The limited role of therapists in some technology-based interventions raises questions as to whether clients may develop a ‘working alliance’ with the program, and the impact on relationships with a therapist and/or treatment outcomes. In this study, the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and an adapted version for technology-based interventions (WAI-Tech), were administered within a subsample (n = 66) of cocaine-dependent individuals participating in a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of Computer-Based Training for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT4CBT) as an adjunct to treatment as usual (TAU). Results suggest the WAI-Tech has relatively similar psychometric characteristics as the standard WAI; however the ‘bond’ subscale scores were lower on the WAI-Tech [F(1,52) = 5.78, p<.05]. Scores on the WAI-Tech were not associated with cocaine use outcomes, whereas total scores on the WAI for those assigned to TAU were associated with the percentage of days abstinent from cocaine (r = .43, p < .05). There was little evidence that adding a technology-based intervention adversely affected the working alliance with a therapist in this sample. These preliminary findings suggest some concepts of working alliance may apply to computer-based CBT, yet the function of the alliance may be different in technology-based interventions than in face-to-face psychotherapies. PMID:25461789
Puhl, Rebecca M; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg
Weight-Based Victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents who are overweight or obese, and is associated with numerous psychosocial and physical consequences for those who are targets of victimization. Assessing targets` preferences for different types of support and intervention has been absent in the context of weight-based victimization, but is needed to help inform potential interventions, motivate action, and identify strategies to help adolescents cope with experiences of weight-related teasing or bullying. Adolescents (14-18 years, N = 361, 40 % female, 71 % Caucasian) enrolled in national weight-loss camps completed an on-line survey. Participants who reported previous experiences of weight-based victimization were surveyed about their preferred interventions from peers, friends, teachers, Physical Education (PE) teachers/coaches, and parents. Participants indicated their preferences for specific strategies pertaining to target support, bullying intervention and prevention (e.g., inclusion in peer activities, confronting the bully, telling an adult, and improving anti-bullying policies). Friends (66 %) and peers (58 %) were the most highly preferred intervention agents followed by teachers (55 %), PE teachers/coaches (44 %), and parents (43 %). Participants who experienced more weight-based victimization expressed increased desire for intervention. The frequency of victimization, social support from friends and family, and perceived likelihood and helpfulness of intervention significantly influenced participant preferences for certain types of intervention, although preferences were generally consistent across participants' characteristics. The current study is the first to document youth's preferences for interventions in response to weight-based victimization. The findings have important implications for encouraging appropriate intervention and informing bystanders, which may help to reduce the prevalence, recurrence, and consequences for youth
Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hanley, Gregory P
Although greeting parents by name facilitates subsequent parent-teacher communication, baseline measures revealed that 4 preschool teachers never or rarely greeted parents by name during morning check-in. To promote frequent and accurate use of parents' names by teachers, the effects of a fully automated computerized assessment and programmed instruction (CAPI) intervention were evaluated in a multiple baseline design. The CAPI intervention involved assessment and training of relations among parents' and children's pictures and names, and produced rapid learning of parent names. The CAPI intervention also resulted in substantial improvements in the classroom use of parents' names for 3 of the 4 teachers; however, a supervisor-mediated feedback package (consisting of instructions, differential reinforcement, and error correction) was necessary to maintain name use for 2 of those teachers. The practical strengths and limitations of computer-based teacher training are discussed.
Li, Kitsum; Alonso, Jonathan; Chadha, Nisha; Pulido, Jennifer
Computer-based cognitive retraining (CBCR) intervention has gained great popularity in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of skill generalization to daily living task for individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) after completion of eight modules of a commercially available CBCR program, the Parrot Software. The study investigated changes in individuals' global cognition as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and changes in individuals' performance during a medication-box sorting task, a novel instrumental activity of daily living. The medication-box sorting task resembled real life medication management with daily prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Twelve individuals with ABI from a community-based program completed the study. Results indicated that CBCR intervention brought about improvement in global cognition, but the improvement did not appear in any particular cognitive domain. Additionally, the gains in global cognition failed to enhance performance in the medication-box sorting task. This exploratory study demonstrated that while CBCR may be a promising intervention for improving global cognition in individuals with ABI, additional intervention might be needed for generalization to occur to a novel daily task. Future studies should look for the ultimate therapeutic outcome from CBCR interventions or include interventions that could bridge the gap between CBCR intervention and performance improvement in daily living occupations.
Massy, William F.
Computer-based administrative support tools are having a profound effect on the management of colleges and universities. Several such systems at Stanford University are discussed, including modeling, database management systems, networking, and electronic mail. (JN)
Ervin, Naomi E; Berry, Michelle M
The need for timely and accurate communication among healthcare providers has prompted the development of computer-based health information networks that allow patient and client information to be shared among agencies. This article reports the findings of a study to assess whether residents of an upstate New York community were ready for a computer-based health information network to facilitate delivery of long term care services. Focus group sessions, which involved both consumers and professionals, revealed that security of personal information was of concern to healthcare providers, attorneys, and consumers. Physicians were the most enthusiastic about the possibility of a computer-based health information network. Consumers and other healthcare professionals, including nurses, indicated that such a network would be helpful to them personally. Nurses and other healthcare professionals need to be knowledgeable about the use of computer-based health information networks and other electronic information systems as this trend continues to spread across the U.S.
Barman, Charles R.
Described are the development and validation of two computer-based Piagetian assessment instruments, designed to assist teachers in identifying cognitive reasoning patterns. Implications for teachers are presented. (Author/MT)
Kane, D.; Sherwood, B.
Describes and illustrates the tutorial and homework exercise lessons, student routing, course organization, administration, and evaluation of a PLATO computer-based course in classical mechanics. An appendix lists 41 lessons developed for the course. (CMV)
Richards, Derek; Richardson, Thomas
The aim of the paper was to systematically review the literature on computer-based psychological treatments for depression and conduct a meta-analysis of the RCT studies, including examining variables which may effect outcomes. Database and hand searches were made using specific search terms and inclusion criteria. The review included a total of 40 studies (45 published papers), and 19 RCTs (23 published papers) were included in a standard meta-analysis. The review describes the different computer-based treatments for depression, their design, communication types employed: synchronous, asynchronous, and face-to-face (F:F); alongside various types and frequency of support delivered. The evidence supports their effectiveness and highlights participant satisfaction. However, pertinent limitations are noted. Across 19 studies the meta-analysis revealed a moderate post-treatment pooled effect size d=.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] -.71, -.41), Z=7.48, p<.001). Supported interventions yielded better outcomes, along with greater retention. The results reported statistically significant clinical improvement and recovery post-treatment. The review and meta-analysis support the efficacy and effectiveness of computer-based psychological treatments for depression, in diverse settings and with different populations. Further research is needed, in particular to investigate the influence of therapist factors in supported treatments, the reasons for dropout, and the maintenance of gains post-treatment.
Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.
Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC≤0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC≤0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390
Vollmer, Anna-Maria; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas
This study was undertaken in the planning phase for the introduction of a comprehensive computer based nursing documentation system at Erlangen University Hospital. There, we expect a wide range of difficult organizational changes, because the nurses currently neither used computer based nursing documentation nor did they follow strongly the nursing process model within paper based documentation. Thus we were eager to recognize potential pitfalls early and to identify potential barriers for digital nursing documentation. In a questionnaire study we surveyed all German university hospitals for their experience with the implementation of computer based nursing documentation implementation. We received answers from 11 of the 23 hospitals. Furthermore we performed a questionnaire study about expectations and fears among the nurses of four pilot wards of our hospital. Most respondents stated a positive attitude towards the nursing process documentation, but many respondents note technical (e.g. bad performance of the software) and organizational barriers (e.g. lack of time).
This presentation reviews the logistical, ergonomic, and psychometric issues and data related to the development and operational use of a computer-based system for the psychological screening of astronaut applicants. The Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHPG) at the Johnson Space Center upgraded its astronaut psychological screening and selection procedures for the 1999 astronaut applicants and subsequent astronaut selection cycles. The questionnaires, tests, and inventories were upgraded from a paper-and-pencil system to a computer-based system. Members of the BHPG and a computer programmer designed and developed needed interfaces (screens, buttons, etc.) and programs for the astronaut psychological assessment system. This intranet-based system included the user-friendly computer-based administration of tests, test scoring, generation of reports, the integration of test administration and test output to a single system, and a complete database for past, present, and future selection data. Upon completion of the system development phase, four beta and usability tests were conducted with the newly developed system. The first three tests included 1 to 3 participants each. The final system test was conducted with 23 participants tested simultaneously. Usability and ergonomic data were collected from the system (beta) test participants and from 1999 astronaut applicants who volunteered the information in exchange for anonymity. Beta and usability test data were analyzed to examine operational, ergonomic, programming, test administration and scoring issues related to computer-based testing. Results showed a preference for computer-based testing over paper-and -pencil procedures. The data also reflected specific ergonomic, usability, psychometric, and logistical concerns that should be taken into account in future selection cycles. Conclusion. Psychological, psychometric, human and logistical factors must be examined and considered carefully when developing and
A D/A-000 102 A COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEM FOR STUDIES IN LEARNING Donald K. Centner, el al C a 1 i f o r n i a U n i v e nit v...DvlCUMENTATION PAGE I HEAD INSTRUCTIONS 1 1 Rf P;B’r S ^MBE R Tj GOVT ACCESSION NO 4 Ti T .. E ami f.itnlli- A Computer-Based System for...uuibisEinns D ams Th e views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily
Owen, C., LLNL
The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.
Workplace bullying is a phenomenon that is currently affecting as many as 70% of the workforce in the United States (Lutgen-Sandvic & McDermott, 2011). This phenomenon decreases morale, increases turn-over, and could soon lead to massive and costly litigation. In response to this I have proposed a two hour training course meant to educate workers…
Trump, Kenneth S.
Bullying has captured the news headlines and the attention of legislators, educators, and special interest advocates over the past three years at a greater rate. High-profile teen suicides have raised questions about the role bullying may have played in student deaths. School administrators and safety officials agree that bullying is a serious…
Raskauskas, Juliana; Modell, Scott
"Bullying" is defined as any aggressive behavior with the intent to harm that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. Bullying is identified as one of the most predominant problems faced by children in the United States education system, as well as one of the most significant health risks to children. Exactly how prevalent this issue is…
For over a decade national attention to bullying in American schools has increased, fueled by publicity about suicides of severely bullied youth. Schools have the charge of maintaining the safety of all students in order to ensure a positive learning environment, but there is little information about what they are doing to prevent bullying. The…
Rep. Davis, Danny K. [D-IL-7
03/21/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Callman, Joshua L.; And Others
This paper analyzes the hardware and software features that would be desirable in a computer-based semantic network system for representing biology knowledge. It then describes in detail a prototype network of molecular biology knowledge that has been developed using Filevision software and a Macintosh computer. The prototype contains about 100…
Suppes, Patrick; And Others
Reported is research related to the use of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) drill-and-practice systems in the elementary schools. The investigators attempted to determine the variables related to problem difficulty by analyzing the solutions of a problem series. Students were first taught the mechanics of utilizing a computer-based teletype to…
A review of good human resource management practice outside higher education provides a framework for the academic use of computer-based training in teaching and learning. The framework acknowledges academic freedom and autonomy and builds on a platform of academic research. (SK)
Edwards, Ethan A.; Siegel, Martin A.
The Corrective Feedback Paradigm (CFP), a computer-based instruction model, addresses the problem of inefficient sequencing of items in a set to be learned by suggesting the use of an increasing ratio review schedule for presenting drill items. With this system, items answered correctly are either removed from the list entirely or replaced at the…
Martin, Florence; Klein, James D.; Sullivan, Howard
This study investigated the effects of several elements of instruction (objectives, information, practice, examples and review) when they were combined in a systematic manner. College students enrolled in a computer literacy course used one of six different versions of a computer-based lesson delivered on the web to learn about input, processing,…
Barros, B.; Verdejo, M. F.
We review our research with "DEGREE" and analyse how our work has impacted the collaborative learning community since 2000. Our research is framed within the context of computer-based interaction analysis and the development of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) tools. We identify some aspects of our work which have been…
Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles
This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol
The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves the students' problems solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: i) finds step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept ii) enable students' to solve word problems on their own…
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol
The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves students' problem solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: (1) find step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept; (2) enable students to solve word problems on their own by…
Baker-Eveleth, Lori; Eveleth, Daniel M.; O'Neill, Michele; Stone, Robert W.
The College of Business and Economics at the University of Idaho conducted a pilot study that used commercially available encryption software called Securexam to deliver computer-based examinations. A multi-step implementation procedure was developed, implemented, and then evaluated on the basis of what students viewed as valuable. Two key aspects…
Moskal, Patrick; Caldwell, Richard; Ellis, Taylor
In 2003, faced with increasing growth in technology-based and large-enrollment courses, the College of Business Administration at the University of Central Florida opened a computer-based testing lab to facilitate administration of course examinations. Patrick Moskal, Richard Caldwell, and Taylor Ellis describe the development and evolution of the…
Frisse, Mark E.
The newly incorporated Computer-Based Patient Record Institute (CPRI) is discussed in the context of the history of medical records, the need for change (mainly because of health care reimbursement and regulation), and the need for involvement by all medical professionals in the development of standards of data collection which reflect public…
This paper reports on a project aimed at finding out what students do when working cloze passages on computer. To generate data, a computer-based cloze program, "Super Cloze," was configured so that all student keypresses would be recorded. This was worked by several classes of students at Sultan Qaboos University (Oman) during their…
Fluck, Andrew; Pullen, Darren; Harper, Colleen
Electronic supported assessment or e-Assessment is a field of growing importance, but it has yet to make a significant impact in the Australian higher education sector (Byrnes & Ellis, 2006). Current computer based assessment models focus on the assessment of knowledge rather than deeper understandings, using multiple choice type questions,…
We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…
Weiss, David J.
During 1975-1979 this research into the potential of computerized adaptive testing to reduce errors in the measurement of human capabilities used Marine recruits for a live-testing validity comparison of computerized adaptive and conventional tests. The program purposes were to: (1) identify the most useful computer-based adaptive testing…
Berkowitz, Melissa S.; Szabo, Michael
Problem solving performance of individuals was compared with that of dyads at three levels of mental ability using a computer-based inquiry into the riddle of the frozen Wooly Mammoth. Results indicated significant interactions between grouping and mental ability for certain problem solving internal measures. (RAO)
Sorensen, Bettye D.
Computer-based instruction (CBI) encompasses the functions of computer administered and managed instruction supplemented by utilities and interfaces. The course author's function in computer-administered instruction (CAI) is to construct the lesson for input in one of three formats: (1) batch entry used by those with knowledge of programing…
Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.
Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…
Blanchard, Jay S.
Evaluates the Computer-Based Assessment Instrument (CRAI) as a test for reading proficiency. Notes strengths of CRAI, including its use as a quick assessment of silent reading comprehension level, and the problems with readability and content specific words lists and the lack of scoring features. (JC)
Kurtz, Barry L.; O'Neal, Micheal B.
This paper describes a National Science Foundation-sponsored project at Louisiana Technological University to develop computer-based laboratories for "hands-on" introductions to major topics of computer science. The underlying strategy is to develop structured laboratory environments that present abstract concepts through the use of…
Mitchell, James V., Jr.
Computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) is discussed in terms of its potential dangers to the public interest, problems with professional review of CBTI systems, and needed policies for these systems. Several problems with CBTI systems are outlined: (1) they may be nicely packaged, but it is difficult to establish their value; (2) they do not…
The approach to computer-based instruction for third and fourth grade elementary students which is sketched teaches component placement, capitalization, and punctuation skills of addressing envelopes within the context of a simulated envelope. Part of a larger design for a complete program of composition instruction, this program comprises a set…
Reported is a project involving seven chemists, six mathematicians, and six physicists in the production of computer-based, self-study modules for use in introductory college courses in chemistry, physics, and mathematics. These modules were designed to be used by students and instructors with little or no computer backgrounds, in institutions…
Zhou, Feng; Cloninger, Todd
Visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely used as power indicators. However, after the power is switched off, it takes a while for the LED to go off. Many students were fascinated by this simple demonstration. In this paper, by making use of computer-based data acquisition and modeling, we show the voltage across the LED undergoing an…
Chen, Li-Ju; Ho, Rong-Guey; Yen, Yung-Chin
This study aimed to explore the effects of marking and metacognition-evaluated feedback (MEF) in computer-based testing (CBT) on student performance and review behavior. Marking is a strategy, in which students place a question mark next to a test item to indicate an uncertain answer. The MEF provided students with feedback on test results…
This dissertation study examined a broad question of whether computer-based grammar tutorials are effective and welcome tools to review grammar for language learners by investigating effects of three different modes of such tutorials on learners' knowledge and satisfaction. For this study, I developed experimental tutorials in three different…
Snetsinger, Wendy; Grabowski, Barbara
It was hypothesized that a visual strategy that incorporates a humorous theme and cartoons with humorous comments relevant to the content helps motivate students to focus on and retain computer-based instructional material. An experiment to assess this hypothesis was undertaken with 43 college students who received a humorous presentation on…
An organized systems design approach is dictated by the increasing complexity of computer based systems. Computer based systems are unique in many respects but share many of the same problems that have plagued design engineers for decades. The design of complex systems is difficult at best, but as a design becomes intensively dependent on the computer processing of external and internal information, the design process quickly borders chaos. This situation is exacerbated with the requirement that these systems operate with a minimal quantity of information, generally corrupted by noise, regarding the current state of the system. Establishing performance requirements for such systems is particularly difficult. This paper briefly sketches a general systems design approach with emphasis on the design of computer based decision processing systems subject to parameter and environmental variation. The approach will be demonstrated with application to an on-board diagnostic (OBD) system for automotive emissions systems now mandated by the state of California and the Federal Clean Air Act. The emphasis is on an approach for establishing probabilistically based performance requirements for computer based systems.
Wang, Xinchun; Munro, Murray J.
Computer-based training can be effective in improving second language learners' perceptions and productions of segmental speech contrasts. However, because most previous studies have addressed specific theoretical problems in speech learning, an impact on pedagogy has hardly been felt. Research participants are commonly subjected to rigid research…
Hawley, Chandra L.; Duffy, Thomas M.
This paper presents a model for designing computer-based simulation environments within a constructivist framework for the K-12 school setting. The following primary criteria for the development of simulations are proposed: (1) the problem needs to be authentic; (2) the cognitive demand in learning should be authentic; (3) scaffolding supports a…
Morin, Alfred J.
"SpecialNet," a computer-based communications network for educators at all administrative levels, has been established and is managed by National Systems Management, Inc. Users can send and receive electronic mail, share information on electronic bulletin boards, participate in electronic conferences, and send reports and other documents to each…
Kulik, James A.; And Others
This metaanalysis of 32 comparative studies shows that computer-based education has generally had positive effects on the achievement of elementary school pupils. However, these effects are different for off-line computer managed instruction and interactive computer assisted instruction (CAI); interactive CAI produces greater increases in student…
Barnes, Susan Kubic
In this era of increased accountability in education, there is a need for tools to use in assessing the abilities and instructional levels of young children. Computers have been used successfully to assess older children and adults. However, there is a dearth of empirical research to provide evidence that computer-based testing (CBT) is…
Sterman, Nanette T.; Allen, Brockenbrough S.
Describes the use of computer-based tools and techniques in museums. The integration of realia with media-based advice and interpretation is described, electronic replicas of ancient Greek vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum are explained, examples of mediated exhibits are presented, and the use of hypermedia is discussed. (five references) (LRW)
Andresen, Lee W.
Discussion of computer-based communications (CBC) focuses on issues involved with screen design and layout for electronic text, based on experiences with electronic messaging, conferencing, and publishing within the Australian Open Learning Information Network (AOLIN). Recommendations for research on design and layout for printed text are also…
Spencer, S.; And Others
The Centre Computer Base is a list of hardware which can effectively operate the software of the Research Centre for the Education of the Visually Handicapped. Essential hardware contained on the list is described, along with a variety of "add-on" devices such as joysticks, touch-screens, speech synthesizers, braille embossers, etc.…
Walcott, Christy M.; Phillips, Miranda E.
The purpose of this article is to summarize empirical findings for school-age computer-based cognitive training (CCT) programs and to provide specific guidelines to practitioners who may be consulting with parents and schools about the utility of such programs. CCT programs vary in nature and in their targeted functions, but they share similar…
Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy
A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…
Shale, Douglas; Cowper, Donald
An inexpensive computer-based system supporting mastery instruction is described. Components include an optically scanned card accommodating scores for hand-scored portions of examinations, software for making objective items and scoring, and software for reporting total test scores and designated subscore sets. Subscores can be provided for…
Booth, Alison O.; Lowis, Carole; Hunter, Steven J.; Dean, Moira; Cardwell, Chris R.; McKinley, Michelle C.
Aim. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a computer-based, dietary, and physical activity self-management program for people recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The computer-based program was developed in conjunction with the target group and evaluated in a 12-week randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were randomised to the intervention (computer-program) or control group (usual care). Primary outcomes were diabetes knowledge and goal setting (ADKnowl questionnaire, Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ)) measured at baseline and week 12. User feedback on the program was obtained via a questionnaire and focus groups. Results. Seventy participants completed the 12-week RCT (32 intervention, 38 control, mean age 59 (SD) years). After completion there was a significant between-group difference in the “knowledge and beliefs scale” of the DOQ. Two-thirds of the intervention group rated the program as either good or very good, 92% would recommend the program to others, and 96% agreed that the information within the program was clear and easy to understand. Conclusions. The computer-program resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in diet-related knowledge and user satisfaction was high. With some further development, this computer-based educational tool may be a useful adjunct to diabetes self-management. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT number NCT00877851. PMID:27446961
Chang, Yao-Jen; Kang, Ya-Shu; Liu, Fang-Lin
This study assessed the possibility of training three people with cognitive impairments using a computer-based interactive game. A game was designed to provide task prompts in recycling scenarios, identify incorrect task steps on the fly, and help users learn to make corrections. Based on a multiple baseline design, the data showed that the three participants considerably increased their target response, which improved their vocational job skills during the intervention phases and enabled them to maintain the acquired job skills after intervention. The practical and developmental implications of the results are discussed.
Khot, Zaid; Quinlan, Kaitlyn; Norman, Geoffrey R.; Wainman, Bruce
There is increasing use of computer-based resources to teach anatomy, although no study has compared computer-based learning to traditional. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of three formats of anatomy learning: (1) a virtual reality (VR) computer-based module, (2) a static computer-based module providing Key Views (KV), (3) a plastic…
Gandomkar, Ziba; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia
Whole slide imaging (WSI) has the potential to be utilized in telepathology, teleconsultation, quality assurance, clinical education, and digital image analysis to aid pathologists. In this paper, the potential added benefits of computer-assisted image analysis in breast pathology are reviewed and discussed. One of the major advantages of WSI systems is the possibility of doing computer-based image analysis on the digital slides. The purpose of computer-assisted analysis of breast virtual slides can be (i) segmentation of desired regions or objects such as diagnostically relevant areas, epithelial nuclei, lymphocyte cells, tubules, and mitotic figures, (ii) classification of breast slides based on breast cancer (BCa) grades, the invasive potential of tumors, or cancer subtypes, (iii) prognosis of BCa, or (iv) immunohistochemical quantification. While encouraging results have been achieved in this area, further progress is still required to make computer-based image analysis of breast virtual slides acceptable for clinical practice. PMID:28066683
Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.
The Computer-Based Training portion of the Hanford General Employee Training course is designed to be used in a classroom setting with a live instructor. Future references to this course'' refer only to the computer-based portion of the whole. This course covers the basic Safety, Security, and Quality issues that pertain to all employees of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The topics that are covered were taken from the recommendations and requirements for General Employee Training as set forth by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in INPO 87-004, Guidelines for General Employee Training, applicable US Department of Energy orders, and Westinghouse Hanford Company procedures and policy. Besides presenting fundamental concepts, this course also contains information on resources that are available to assist students. It does this using Interactive Videodisk technology, which combines computer-generated text and graphics with audio and video provided by a videodisk player.
Haag, Martin; Bauch, Matthias; Garde, Sebastian; Heid, Jörn; Weires, Thorsten; Leven, Franz-Josef
Computer-based training (CBT) systems can efficiently support modern teaching and learning environments. In this paper, we demonstrate on the basis of the case-based CBT system CAMPUS that current learning theories and design principles (Bloom's Taxonomy and practice fields) are (i) relevant to CBT and (ii) are feasible to implement using computer-based training and adequate learning environments. Not all design principles can be fulfilled by the system alone, the integration of the system in adequate teaching and learning environments therefore is essential. Adequately integrated, CBT programs become valuable means to build or support practice fields for learners that build domain knowledge and problem-solving skills. Learning theories and their design principles can support in designing these systems as well as in assessing their value.
Koenig, Alan; Iseli, Markus; Wainess, Richard; Lee, John J
Computer-based instructional simulations are becoming more and more ubiquitous, particularly in military and medical domains. As the technology that drives these simulations grows ever more sophisticated, the underlying pedagogical models for how instruction, assessment, and feedback are implemented within these systems must evolve accordingly. In this article, we review some of the existing educational approaches to medical simulations, and present pedagogical methodologies that have been used in the design and development of games and simulations at the University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. In particular, we present a methodology for how automated assessments of computer-based simulations can be implemented using ontologies and Bayesian networks, and discuss their advantages and design considerations for pedagogical use.
Gevarter, W. B.
Computer based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.
Desaulniers, David R.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Rudisill, Marianne
Two experiments were conducted to investigate display variables likely to influence the effectiveness of computer-based procedure displays. In experiment 1, procedures were presented in three formats, text, extended-text, and flowchart. Text and extended-text are structured prose formats which differ in the spatial density of presentation. The flowchart format differs from the text format in both syntax and spatial representation. Subjects were required to use the procedures to diagnose a hypothetical system anomaly. The results indicate that performance was most accurate with the flowchart format. In experiment 2, procedure window size was varied (6-line, 12-line, and 24-line) in addition to procedure format. In the six line window condition, experiment 2 replicated the findings of experiment 1. As predicted, completion times for flowchart procedures decreased with increasing window size; however, accuracy of performance decreased substantially. Implications for the design of computer-based procedure displays are discussed.
Belland, Brian R.; Walker, Andrew E.; Kim, Nam Ju; Lefler, Mason
Computer-based scaffolding assists students as they generate solutions to complex problems, goals, or tasks, helping increase and integrate their higher order skills in the process. However, despite decades of research on scaffolding in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education, no existing comprehensive meta-analysis has synthesized the results of these studies. This review addresses that need by synthesizing the results of 144 experimental studies (333 outcomes) on the effects of computer-based scaffolding designed to assist the full range of STEM learners (primary through adult education) as they navigated ill-structured, problem-centered curricula. Results of our random effect meta-analysis (a) indicate that computer-based scaffolding showed a consistently positive (ḡ = 0.46) effect on cognitive outcomes across various contexts of use, scaffolding characteristics, and levels of assessment and (b) shed light on many scaffolding debates, including the roles of customization (i.e., fading and adding) and context-specific support. Specifically, scaffolding’s influence on cognitive outcomes did not vary on the basis of context-specificity, presence or absence of scaffolding change, and logic by which scaffolding change is implemented. Scaffolding’s influence was greatest when measured at the principles level and among adult learners. Still scaffolding’s effect was substantial and significantly greater than zero across all age groups and assessment levels. These results suggest that scaffolding is a highly effective intervention across levels of different characteristics and can largely be designed in many different ways while still being highly effective. PMID:28344365
Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne
Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.
KEY .ORDS (CUMue M mum. Wif. of aeeeM. am 8 F Wp Wi MMW) technical literacy , problem solving, computer based job aiding comliute~r based instruction...discourse processes, although those notions are opera- tionalized in a new way. Infomation Search in Technical Literacy as Problem Solving The dimensions of...computer-assisted technical literacy , information seeking strategies employed during an assembly task were analyzed in terms of overall group frequencies
Tschopp, Mathias; Despond, Magali; Grauser, Damien; Staub, Jean-Christophe; Lovis, Christian
Computer-based physician order entry (CPOE) is a key feature of electronic health record systems. A fully-featured CPOE system, capable of dealing with drug prescription, but also with all the other aspects of patients care, can be used to implement standardized clinical pathways. This classic design can be improved upon by using a workflow engine to drive and bring together the different tasks incorporated in a pathway, including clinical documentation.
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Subject Matter POC: Jean L. Dyer 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words): Five computer-based training approaches for learning digital skills...Training assessment Exploratory Learning Guided ExploratoryTraining Guided Discovery SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. LIMITATION OF 20. NUMBER 21...the other extreme of letting Soldiers learn a digital interface on their own. The research reported here examined these two conditions and three other
Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike
The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.
Renshaw, Carl E.; Taylor, Holly A.
Although numerous studies have shown that computer-based education is effective for enhancing rote memorization, the impact of these tools on higher-order cognitive skills, such as critical thinking, is less clear. Existing methods for evaluating educational effectiveness, such as surveys, quizzes and pre- or post-interviews, may not be effective for evaluating impact on critical thinking skills because students are not always aware of the effects the software has on their thought processes. We review an alternative evaluation strategy whereby the student's mastery of a specific cognitive skill is directly assessed both before and after participating in a computer-based exercise. Methodologies for assessing cognitive skill are based on recent advances in the fields of cognitive science. Results from two studies show that computer-based exercises can positively impact the higher-order cognitive skills of some students. However, a given exercise will not impact all students equally. This suggests that further work is needed to understand how and why CAI software is more or less effective within a given population.
Levine, J A; Madden, A M; Morgan, M Y
Dietary intake was assessed in 50 patients in hospital by using a dietary history method and computer based system for data collection and standard food tables to calculate the composition of nutrients. The results were compared with those from a weighed assessment that was calculated by using both food tables and manufacturers' food analyses. The use of the food tables overestimated mean (SEM) individual nutrient intakes by between 2.5% (1.5%) and 15.5% (3.0%). The mean errors associated with the dietary history assessment varied from -23% (7.8%) for fat intake to +21.4% (8.5%) for carbohydrate intake. Overall, 30% of the assessments of total nutrient intakes that were calculated using this method were within -20% to +20% of actual values; 18% were within -10% to +10%. The mean errors associated with the computer based assessment varied from -1.0% (4.3%) for carbohydrate intake to +8.5% (3.4%) for protein intake. Overall, 56% of the assessments of total nutrient intakes were within -20% to +20% of actual intakes; 31% were within -10% to +10%. The computer based system provides an accurate, reproducible, convenient, and inexpensive method for assessing dietary intake. PMID:3115455
Boring, Ronald; Mandelli, Diego; Joe, Jeffrey; Smith, Curtis; Groth, Katrina
The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.
Pun, Sut-Kam; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Choi, Kup-Sze
Patients undergoing hemodialysis are highly susceptible to infections, which could lead to morbidity and mortality. One of the major sources of infections stems from the mishandling of hemodialysis access sites. Although healthcare workers receive training on how to aseptically handle hemodialysis catheters, the increasing number of blood infections associated with dialysis suggests that the conventional approach to training may not be sufficient to ensure a clear understanding of the necessary knowledge and skills. With advancements in digital technology, computer-assisted learning has been gaining popularity as an approach to teaching clinical skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based training system developed to teach healthcare workers catheter-access hemodialysis management. Forty nurses were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: the control group, which received conventional training only; and the experimental group, which received both conventional and computer-based training. A knowledge test and a skills competence test were administered to both groups before and after the intervention to evaluate their performance. The results show that the performance of the nurses in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group, indicating that the proposed training system is an effective tool for supplementing the learning of catheter-access hemodialysis management.
Aronson, Ian David; Bania, Theodore C
Computer-based video provides a valuable tool for HIV prevention in hospital emergency departments. However, the type of video content and protocol that will be most effective remain underexplored and the subject of debate. This study employs a new and highly replicable methodology that enables comparisons of multiple video segments, each based on conflicting theories of multimedia learning. Patients in the main treatment areas of a large urban hospital's emergency department used handheld computers running custom-designed software to view video segments and respond to pre-intervention and postintervention data collection items. The videos examine whether participants learn more depending on the race of the person who appears onscreen and whether positive or negative emotional content better facilitates learning. The results indicate important differences by participant race. African American participants responded better to video segments depicting White people. White participants responded better to positive emotional content.
Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna
Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation.
Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.; Forbush, David E.
The ability to read is essential to school-based learning and skilled responding in an information rich society. Unfortunately, many students in today's schools do not become skilled readers. Many reading researchers (Blachman 1996, 1997; Felton, 1993; Fletcher & Lyon, 1998; Torgesen, 1997) agree that the vast majority of problems experienced…
Rabiner, David L.; Murray, Desiree W.; Skinner, Ann T; Malone, Patrick S.
Few studies have examined whether attention can be improved with training, even though attention difficulties adversely affect academic achievement. The present study was a randomized-controlled trial evaluating the impact of Computerized Attention Training (CAT) and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on attention and academic performance in 77…
McConatha, Jasmin Tahmaseb; And Others
In a group of 29 nursing home residents, 14 were taught to use Prodigy for electronic mail, bulletin boards, and electronic games; 15 participated in regular activities. Computer interaction effectively increased cognitive abilities and daily living skills and decreased the level of depression. (SK)
In recent years, creative industries based on the computer technology is booming and leads a new trend in this field. This creative industries considers innovation as a driving force. It combines the various cultural art resources with the latest computer technology, estabilshes new production and consumption patterns, promotes new industrial clusters, cultivates new consumer groups and generates enormous economic and social value. Therefore, computer-based creative industries is not only a cultural or educational philosophy, but also a development strategy with practical and sustainable features.
Computer-based Natural Language processing and understanding is the key to enabling humans and their creations to interact with machines in natural language (in contrast to computer language). The doors that such an achievement can open has made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural languages interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and the future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state-of-the-art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants, and finally, future trends and expectations.
O'HARA,J.M.; PIRUS,D.; BELTRATCCHI,L.
This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.
Doré, L.; Lavril, M.; Jean, F. C.; Degoulet, P.
In the context of health care information systems based on client/server architecture, we address the problem of a common Computer-based Patient Record (CPR). We define it as a collection of faithful observations about patients care, with respect to the free expression of physicians. This CPR model supports several views of the medical data, in order to provide applications with a comprehensive and standardized access to distributed patient data. Finally, we validated our CPR approach as a primary data model server for an application for hypertensive patient management. PMID:8563306
Mpourmpakis, G.; Vlachos, D. G.
Future energy production and storage in the chemical and refinery industries, stationary power generation, and transportation sectors will employ a diverse suite of technologies, including renewables, such as biomass, untapped energy resources, and processes with improved energy efficiency. Heterogeneous nanocatalysts will play an ever-increasing role in these technologies. Increased precision in molecular architecture over multiple length scales and/or tailored multi-functionality will often be needed in these materials. Advances in computational-based discovery of such nanomaterials are described through examples that predict the molecular architecture of emergent catalytic materials and reveal mechanisms of colloidal metal nanoparticle growth.
Andrianov, S N; Moiseev, S A
We propose a scheme of a quantum computer based on nanophotonic elements: two buses in the form of nanowaveguide resonators, two nanosized units of multiatom multiqubit quantum memory and a set of nanoprocessors in the form of photonic quantum transistors, each containing a pair of nanowaveguide ring resonators coupled via a quantum dot. The operation modes of nanoprocessor photonic quantum transistors are theoretically studied and the execution of main logical operations by means of them is demonstrated. We also discuss the prospects of the proposed nanophotonic quantum computer for operating in high-speed optical fibre networks. (quantum computations)
Thomas, Graham Roland
With its friendly language and completely integrated graphics and communications capabilities the Flight Dynamics Computer Based Training (CBT) Facility is everything the developer requires to turn their knowledge into sophisticated, technical training cources. It incorporates high quality graphics and has an open communications interface to allow current and future connections to external applications. For the author it provides a simple and effective suite of commands to develop training material. For the trainee, logical layout and access to help and graphical data via hypertext, provides a quick and pleasant learning system.
Albuha Al-Mussawi, Raja’a M.; Farid, Farzaneh
During dental education, dental students learn how to examine patients, make diagnosis, plan treatment and perform dental procedures perfectly and efficiently. However, progresses in computer-based technologies including virtual reality (VR) simulators, augmented reality (AR) and computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have resulted in new modalities for instruction and practice of dentistry. Virtual reality dental simulators enable repeated, objective and assessable practice in various controlled situations. Superimposition of three-dimensional (3D) virtual images on actual images in AR allows surgeons to simultaneously visualize the surgical site and superimpose informative 3D images of invisible regions on the surgical site to serve as a guide. The use of CAD/CAM systems for designing and manufacturing of dental appliances and prostheses has been well established. This article reviews computer-based technologies, their application in dentistry and their potentials and limitations in promoting dental education, training and practice. Practitioners will be able to choose from a broader spectrum of options in their field of practice by becoming familiar with new modalities of training and practice. PMID:28392819
Georgia Professional Standards' guidelines suggest that kindergarten (K) students should use higher order critical thinking skills (HOCTS). However, educators have noted a majority of kindergartener's lack the ability to answer the most basic "why" questions. Thus, to answer academic reasoning questions, K students need to be trained how to answer…
Grosse, Ian R.; Katragadda, Prasanna; Bhattacharya, Sandeepan; Kulkarni, Sarang
To deliver reliable Multichip (MCM's) in the face of rapidly changing technology, computer-based tools are needed for predicting the thermal mechanical behavior of various MCM package designs and selecting the most promising design in terms of performance, robustness, and reliability. The design tool must be able to address new design technologies manufacturing processes, novel materials, application criteria, and thermal environmental conditions. Reliability is one of the most important factors for determining design quality and hence must be a central condition in the design of Multichip Module packages. Clearly, design engineers need computer based simulation tools for rapid and efficient electrical, thermal, and mechanical modeling and optimization of advanced devices. For three dimensional thermal and mechanical simulation of advanced devices, the finite element method (FEM) is increasingly becoming the numerical method of choice. FEM is a versatile and sophisticated numerical techniques for solving the partial differential equations that describe the physical behavior of complex designs. AUTOTHERM(TM) is a MCM design tool developed by Mentor Graphics for Motorola, Inc. This tool performs thermal analysis of MCM packages using finite element analysis techniques. The tools used the philosophy of object oriented representation of components and simplified specification of boundary conditions for the thermal analysis so that the user need not be an expert in using finite element techniques. Different package types can be assessed and environmental conditions can be modeled. It also includes a detailed reliability module which allows the user to choose a desired failure mechanism (model). All the current tools perform thermal and/or stress analysis and do not address the issues of robustness and optimality of the MCM designs and the reliability prediction techniques are based on closed form analytical models and can often fail to predict the cycles of failure (N
Pryce, Sarah; Frederickson, Norah
Anti-bullying commitment across school communities is seen as crucial to the effectiveness of interventions. This exploratory study used a mixed-methods design to investigate bullying behaviour, intentions and aspects of the classroom ecology within the context of an anti-bullying initiative that was launched with a declaration of commitment.…
Johnson, Douglas A.; Dickinson, Alyce M.
Self-pacing, although often seen as one of the primary benefits of computer-based instruction (CBI), can also result in an important problem, namely, computer-based racing. Computer-based racing is when learners respond so quickly within CBI that mistakes are made, even on well-known material. This study compared traditional CBI with two forms of…
... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...
... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...
... information in manual and computer-based record systems. 3b.204 Section 3b.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Collection of Records § 3b.204 Safeguarding information in manual and computer-based record systems. (a) The administrative and physical controls to protect the information in the manual and computer-based record...
Grabowski, Barbara; Pearson, Robert
This paper describes the development of a conceptual framework for conducting research using computer based interactive video and a generic disc as research tools. It is argued that computer based interactive video represents the beginnings of a truly computer based learning system. An altered version of the 1984 Grabowski and Whitney conceptual…
This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…
Computer-based interaction analysis (IA) is an automatic process that aims at understanding a computer-mediated activity. In a CSCL system, computer-based IA can provide information directly to learners for self-assessment and regulation and to tutors for coaching support. This article proposes a customizable computer-based IA approach for a…
Iversen, K R; Heimly, V; Lundgren, T I
In Norway, organizational changes in hospitals and a stronger focus on patient safety have changed the way of organizing and managing paper based patient records. Hospital-wide patient records tend to replace department based records. Since not only clinicians, but also other non-medical staff have access to the paper records, they also have easy access to all the information which is available on a specific patient; such a system has obvious 'side effects' on privacy and security. Computer based patient records (CPRs) can provide the solution to this apparent paradox if the complex aspects of security, privacy, effectiveness, and user friendliness are focused on jointly from the outset in designing such systems. Clinical experiences in Norway show that it is possible to design patient record systems that provide a very useful tool for clinicians and other health care personnel (HCP) while fully complying with comprehensive security and privacy requirements.
Al-Saleem, Saleh M; Ullah, Hanif
Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee.
Silbar, Richard R.; Browman, Andrew A.; Mead, William C.; Williams, Robert A.
WhistleSoft is developing a set of computer-based, self-paced tutorials on particle accelerators that targets a broad audience, including undergraduate science majors and industrial technicians. (See http://www.whistlesoft.com/s~ilbar/.) We use multimedia techniques to enhance the student's rate of learning and retention of the material. The tutorials feature interactive On-Screen Laboratories and use hypertext, colored graphics, two- and three-dimensional animations, video, and sound. Parts of our Dipoles module deal with the double-focusing spectrometer and occur throughout the piece. Radial focusing occurs in the section on uniform magnets, while vertical focusing is in the non-uniform magnets section. The student can even understand the √2π bend angle on working through the (intermediate-level) discussion on the Kerst-Serber equations. This talk will present our discussion of this spectrometer, direct to you from the computer screen.
Cunningham, Laura M; Nugent, Chris D; Moore, George; Finlay, Dewar D; Craig, David
The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing due to an ageing population. It is an unpredictable disease which requires regular assessment and monitoring. Current techniques used to assess PD are subjective. Clinicians observe movements made by a patient and subsequently rate the level of severity of, for example tremor or slowness of movement. Within this work, we have developed and evaluated a prototype computer-based assessment tool capable of collecting information on the movement difficulties present in PD. Twenty participants took part in an assessment of the tool, 10 of whom were diagnosed with PD and 10 were without the disease. Following the usage of the tool, it was found that there was a significant difference (p = 0.038) in the speed of movement between the two groups. We envisage that this tool could have the potential to enable more objective clinical conclusions to be made.
Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge
Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.
Finnerup, N B; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A; Røssel, P; Jennum, P
This paper describes a standardised computer-based information system for electroencephalography (EEG) focusing on epilepsy. The system was developed using a prototyping approach. It is based on international recommendations for EEG examination, interpretation and terminology, international guidelines for epidemiological studies on epilepsy and classification of epileptic seizures and syndromes and international classification of diseases. It is divided into: (1) clinical information and epilepsy relevant data; and (2) EEG data, which is hierarchically structured including description and interpretation of EEG. Data is coded but is supplemented with unrestricted text. The resulting patient database can be integrated with other clinical databases and with the patient record system and may facilitate clinical and epidemiological research and development of standards and guidelines for EEG description and interpretation. The system is currently used for teleconsultation between Gentofte and Lisbon.
Ralph, J.; Bickner, L.
Security personnel training is an integral part of a total physical security program, and is essential in enabling security personnel to perform their function effectively. Several training tools are currently available for use by security supervisors, including: textbook study, classroom instruction, and live simulations. However, due to shortcomings inherent in each of these tools, a need exists for the development of low-cost alternative training methods. This paper discusses one such alternative: a computer-based, game-type security training system. This system would be based on a personal computer with high-resolution graphics. Key features of this system include: a high degree of realism; flexibility in use and maintenance; high trainee motivation; and low cost.
Agarwal, Ankur; Henehan, Nathan; Somashekarappa, Vivek; Pandya, A. S.; Kalva, Hari; Furht, Borko
This chapter discusses an emerging concept of a cloud computing based Patient Centric Medical Information System framework that will allow various authorized users to securely access patient records from various Care Delivery Organizations (CDOs) such as hospitals, urgent care centers, doctors, laboratories, imaging centers among others, from any location. Such a system must seamlessly integrate all patient records including images such as CT-SCANS and MRI'S which can easily be accessed from any location and reviewed by any authorized user. In such a scenario the storage and transmission of medical records will have be conducted in a totally secure and safe environment with a very high standard of data integrity, protecting patient privacy and complying with all Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.
Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Martins-da-Silva, António; Trinka, Eugen; Visser, Gerhard; Rubboli, Guido; Hjalgrim, Helle; Stefan, Hermann; Rosén, Ingmar; Zarubova, Jana; Dobesberger, Judith; Alving, Jørgen; Andersen, Kjeld V; Fabricius, Martin; Atkins, Mary D; Neufeld, Miri; Plouin, Perrine; Marusic, Petr; Pressler, Ronit; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; Emde Boas, Walter; Wolf, Peter
The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, “episodes” (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make
Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Martins-da-Silva, António; Trinka, Eugen; Visser, Gerhard; Rubboli, Guido; Hjalgrim, Helle; Stefan, Hermann; Rosén, Ingmar; Zarubova, Jana; Dobesberger, Judith; Alving, Jørgen; Andersen, Kjeld V; Fabricius, Martin; Atkins, Mary D; Neufeld, Miri; Plouin, Perrine; Marusic, Petr; Pressler, Ronit; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; van Emde Boas, Walter; Wolf, Peter
The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, "episodes" (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make possible
Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron
The Computer-Based Procedure (CBP) research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. One area that could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety is in improving procedure use. A CBP provides the opportunity to incorporate context-driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, and just-in-time training. The presentation of information in CBPs can be much more flexible and tailored to the task, actual plant condition, and operation mode. The dynamic presentation of the procedure will guide the user down the path of relevant steps, thus minimizing time spent by the field worker to evaluate plant conditions and decisions related to the applicability of each step. This dynamic presentation of the procedure also minimizes the risk of conducting steps out of order and/or incorrectly assessed applicability of steps. This report provides a summary of the main research activities conducted in the Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers effort since 2012. The main focus of the report is on the research activities conducted in fiscal year 2016. The activities discussed are the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages – Enterprise Requirements initiative, the development of a design guidance for CBPs (which compiles all insights gained through the years of CBP research), the facilitation of vendor studies at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a pilot study for how to enhance the plant design modification work process, the collection of feedback from a field evaluation study at Plant Vogtle, and path forward to
Mahnke, Andrea N; Plasek, Joseph M; Hoffman, David G; Partridge, Nathan S; Foth, Wendy S; Waudby, Carol J; Rasmussen, Luke V; McManus, Valerie D; McCarty, Catherine A
Many informed consent studies demonstrate that research subjects poorly retain and understand information in written consent documents. Previous research in multimedia consent is mixed in terms of success for improving participants’ understanding, satisfaction, and retention. This failure may be due to a lack of a community-centered design approach to building the interventions. The goal of this study was to gather information from the community to determine the best way to undertake the consent process. Community perceptions regarding different computer-based consenting approaches were evaluated, and a computer-based consent was developed and tested. A second goal was to evaluate whether participants make truly informed decisions to participate in research. Simulations of an informed consent process were videotaped to document the process. Focus groups were conducted to determine community attitudes towards a computer-based informed consent process. Hybrid focus groups were conducted to determine the most acceptable hardware device. Usability testing was conducted on a computer-based consent prototype using a touch-screen kiosk. Based on feedback, a computer-based consent was developed. Representative study participants were able to easily complete the consent, and all were able to correctly answer the comprehension check questions. Community involvement in developing a computer-based consent proved valuable for a population-based genetic study. These findings may translate to other types of informed consents, such as genetic clinical trials consents. A computer-based consent may serve to better communicate consistent, clear, accurate, and complete information regarding the risks and benefits of study participation. Additional analysis is necessary to measure the level of comprehension of the check-question answers by larger numbers of participants. The next step will involve contacting participants to measure whether understanding of what they consented to is
This study was designed to explore the process of students' conceptual change and investigate the effectiveness of computer simulations in fostering students' conceptual change. Since the 1980s students' preconceptions have been an interesting topic in science education, and many scholars have been trying to formulate effective approaches to address students' preconceptions. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, I examine the two dimensions of constructivism, radical and social, reflected on the most popular model of conceptual change, Posner's model, and propose an argument format of science instruction that includes six steps. According to this approach, teaching should start from where students are. Students are given enough opportunities to express their ideas and defend and examine their positions through argument with others. Instead of forcing students to buy scientific concepts, the instructor moves to the position of persuading students to appreciate science. In Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7, I investigate the effectiveness of computer-based simulations in addressing students' preconceptions through qualitative and quantitative methods. This investigation lasted four terms, with 10 classes and a total of approximately 800 students involved. Interactive computer simulations, as demonstration and phenomena that require students to explain or make a prediction, were proved to be a helpful device in fostering conceptual change. Students' attitudes toward physics were somewhat independent of the use of simulations, although most of the students studied showed a preference for the use of simulations in physics classes. My theoretical study on teaching for conceptual change suggests that the events that are applied to foster conceptual change, including simulations, would be better used in the construction or invention stage of a new concept rather than in the application stage. My findings from the evaluation of the use of computer applets supported this prediction. I
Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya
Here we see that computer-based tools have dramatically increased ease and efficiency of everyday tasks. Gone are the days of paging through a paper catalog, transcribing product numbers, and calculating totals. Today, a consumer can find a product online with a simple search engine, and then purchase it in a matter of a few clicks. Paper catalogs have their place, but it is hard to imagine life without on-line shopping sites. All tasks conducted in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures, which helps ensure safe and reliable operation of the plants. One prominent goal of the nuclear industrymore » is to minimize the risk of human errors. To achieve this goal one has to ensure tasks are correctly and consistently executed. This is partly achieved by training and by a structured approach to task execution, which is provided by procedures and work instructions. Procedures are used in the nuclear industry to direct workers' actions in a proper sequence. The governing idea is to minimize the reliance on memory and choices made in the field. However, the procedure document may not contain sufficient information to successfully complete the task. Therefore, the worker might have to carry additional documents such as turnover sheets, operation experience, drawings, and other procedures to the work site. The nuclear industry is operated with paper procedures like paper catalogs of the past. A field worker may carry a large stack of documents needed to complete a task to the field. Even though the paper process has helped keep the industry safe for decades, there are limitations to using paper. Paper procedures are static (i.e., the content does not change after the document is printed), difficult to search, and rely heavily on the field worker’s situational awareness and ability to consistently meet the high expectation of human performance excellence. With computer-based procedures (CBPs) that stack of papers may be reduced to the size of a small tablet or even
Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya
Here we see that computer-based tools have dramatically increased ease and efficiency of everyday tasks. Gone are the days of paging through a paper catalog, transcribing product numbers, and calculating totals. Today, a consumer can find a product online with a simple search engine, and then purchase it in a matter of a few clicks. Paper catalogs have their place, but it is hard to imagine life without on-line shopping sites. All tasks conducted in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures, which helps ensure safe and reliable operation of the plants. One prominent goal of the nuclear industry is to minimize the risk of human errors. To achieve this goal one has to ensure tasks are correctly and consistently executed. This is partly achieved by training and by a structured approach to task execution, which is provided by procedures and work instructions. Procedures are used in the nuclear industry to direct workers' actions in a proper sequence. The governing idea is to minimize the reliance on memory and choices made in the field. However, the procedure document may not contain sufficient information to successfully complete the task. Therefore, the worker might have to carry additional documents such as turnover sheets, operation experience, drawings, and other procedures to the work site. The nuclear industry is operated with paper procedures like paper catalogs of the past. A field worker may carry a large stack of documents needed to complete a task to the field. Even though the paper process has helped keep the industry safe for decades, there are limitations to using paper. Paper procedures are static (i.e., the content does not change after the document is printed), difficult to search, and rely heavily on the field worker’s situational awareness and ability to consistently meet the high expectation of human performance excellence. With computer-based procedures (CBPs) that stack of papers may be reduced to the size of a small tablet or even a smart
Evans, William S.; Quimby, Megan; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Dickerson, Bradford C.
Although anomia treatments have often focused on training small sets of words in the hopes of promoting generalization to untrained items, an alternative is to directly train a larger set of words more efficiently. The current case study reports on a novel treatment for a patient with semantic variant Primary Progressive Aphasia (svPPA), in which the patient was taught to make and practice flashcards for personally-relevant words using an open-source computer program (Anki). Results show that the patient was able to relearn and retain a large subset of her studied words for up to 20 months, the full duration of the study period. At the end of treatment, she showed good retention for 139 words. While only a subset of the 591 studied overall, this is still far more words than is typically targeted in svPPA interventions. Furthermore, she showed evidence of generalization to perceptually distinct stimuli during confrontation naming and temporary gains in semantic fluency, suggesting limited gains in semantic knowledge as a result of training. This case represents a successful example of patient-centered treatment, where the patient used a computer-based intervention independently at home. It also illustrates how data captured from computer-based treatments during routine clinical care can provide valuable “practice-based evidence” for motivating further treatment research. PMID:27899886
Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L.
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) computer-based procedure (CBP) research team is exploring how best to design a CBP system that will deliver the intended benefits of increased efficiency and improved human performance. It is important to note that no “off-the-shelf” technology exists for the type of CBP system that is investigated and developed by the INL researchers. As more technology is integrated into the procedure process the importance of an appropriate and methodological approach to the design of the procedure system increases. Technological advancements offer great opportunities for efficiency and safety gains, however if the system is not designed correctly there is a large risk of unintentionally introducing new opportunities for human errors. The INL research team is breaking new ground in the area of CBPs with the prototype they have developed. Current electronic procedure systems are most commonly electronic versions of the paper-based procedures with hyperlinks to other procedures, limited user input functionality, and the ability to mark steps completed. These systems do not fully exploit the advantages digital technology. It is a part of the INL researchers’ role to develop and validate new CBP technologies that greatly increase the benefits of a CBP system to the nuclear industry.
Ilie, Carolina; Lee, Kevin
We discuss collaborative problem solving computer-based recitation style. The course is designed by Lee , and the idea was proposed before by Christian, Belloni and Titus [2,3]. The students find the problems on a web-page containing simulations (physlets) and they write the solutions on an accompanying worksheet after discussing it with a classmate. Physlets have the advantage of being much more like real-world problems than textbook problems. We also compare two protocols for web-based instruction using simulations in an introductory physics class . The inquiry protocol allowed students to control input parameters while the worked example protocol did not. We will discuss which of the two methods is more efficient in relation to Scientific Discovery Learning and Cognitive Load Theory. 1. Lee, Kevin M., Nicoll, Gayle and Brooks, Dave W. (2004). ``A Comparison of Inquiry and Worked Example Web-Based Instruction Using Physlets'', Journal of Science Education and Technology 13, No. 1: 81-88. 2. Christian, W., and Belloni, M. (2001). Physlets: Teaching Physics With Interactive Curricular Material, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 3. Christian,W., and Titus,A. (1998). ``Developing web-based curricula using Java Physlets.'' Computers in Physics 12: 227--232.
Burblies, Andreas; Busse, Matthias
A numerical simulation technique called Multi Phase Topology Optimization (MPTO) based on finite element method has been developed and refined by Fraunhofer IFAM during the last five years. MPTO is able to determine the optimum distribution of two or more different materials in components under thermal and mechanical loads. The objective of optimization is to minimize the component's elastic energy. Conventional topology optimization methods which simulate adaptive bone mineralization have got the disadvantage that there is a continuous change of mass by growth processes. MPTO keeps all initial material concentrations and uses methods adapted from molecular dynamics to find energy minimum. Applying MPTO to mechanically loaded components with a high number of different material densities, the optimization results show graded and sometimes anisotropic porosity distributions which are very similar to natural bone structures. Now it is possible to design the macro- and microstructure of a mechanical component in one step. Computer based porosity design structures can be manufactured by new Rapid Prototyping technologies. Fraunhofer IFAM has applied successfully 3D-Printing and Selective Laser Sintering methods in order to produce very stiff light weight components with graded porosities calculated by MPTO.
Drape, Gaylen W.
This paper describes the hardware and software systems approach used in the Automated Recertification Training System (ARTS), a Phase 2 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project for NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The goal of this project is to optimize recertification training of technicians who process the Space Shuttle before launch by providing computer-based training courseware. The objectives of ARTS are to implement more effective CBT applications identified through a need assessment process and to provide an ehanced courseware production system. The system's capabilities are demonstrated by using five different pilot applications to convert existing classroom courses into interactive courseware. When the system is fully implemented at NASA/KSC, trainee job performance will improve and the cost of courseware development will be lower. Commercialization of the technology developed as part of this SBIR project is planned for Phase 3. Anticipated spin-off products include custom courseware for technical skills training and courseware production software for use by corporate training organizations of aerospace and other industrial companies.
Abstract The present study aimed to compare the whole-cell protein profiles of Haemophilus parasuis field isolates by using a computer-based analysis, and evaluate the relationship between polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) type and virulence potential based on isolation site. A dendrogram clustering isolates with similar protein profiles was generated. Haemophilus parasuis isolates were grouped into 2 major PAGE type groups. The PAGE type II isolates were characterized by the presence of major proteins with molecular weights varying from between 36 and 38 kDa and included 90.7% of the isolates recovered from systemic sites, such as pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, lymph nodes, joints, and brain. Isolates classified as PAGE type I were characterized by the absence of this group of proteins and included 83.4% of the isolates recovered from the upper respiratory tract of healthy animals. The present study further corroborates the existence of a unique group of major proteins in potentially virulent H. parasuis isolates. PMID:14979439
Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui
This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738
Rusinaru, D.; Bratu, C.; Dinu, R. C.; Manescu, L. G.
Beside the performance, the safety level according to the actual standards is a compulsory condition for distribution grids’ operation. Some of the measures leading to improvement of the overhead lines reliability ask for installations’ modernization. The constraints imposed to the new lines components refer to the technical aspects as thermal stress or voltage drop, and look for economic efficiency, too. The mechanical sizing of the overhead lines is after all an optimization problem. More precisely, the task in designing of the overhead line profile is to size poles, cross-arms and stays and locate poles along a line route so that the total costs of the line's structure to be minimized and the technical and safety constraints to be fulfilled.The authors present in this paper an application for the Computer-Based Mechanical Design of the Overhead Lines and the features of the corresponding Visual Basic program, adjusted to the distribution lines. The constraints of the optimization problem are adjusted to the existing weather and loading conditions of Romania. The outputs of the software application for mechanical design of overhead lines are: the list of components chosen for the line: poles, cross-arms, stays; the list of conductor tension and forces for each pole, cross-arm and stay for different weather conditions; the line profile drawings.The main features of the mechanical overhead lines design software are interactivity, local optimization function and high-level user-interface
Pronk, Jeroen; Goossens, Frits A; Olthof, Tjeert; De Mey, Langha; Willemen, Agnes M
This study examined the social cognitions of outsiders and defenders about intervening in situations of victimization by bullying. Do outsiders and defenders behave differently in victimization situations because of differences in competence beliefs, or because of a selectivity effect in intervening? These issues were examined in a sample of 102 outsiders and 107 defenders who were classified into these bullying roles through a peer-nomination procedure out of a total sample of 761 10- to 14-year-old Dutch children. These children were presented with imaginary victimization events. They answered questions about their cognitions and self-efficacy beliefs about intervening in victimization situations and about handling such situations. Outsiders, compared to defenders, claimed to intervene indirectly in victimization situations rather than directly. Defenders, compared to outsiders, claimed to intervene directly in victimization situations rather than indirectly. Both outsiders and defenders claimed to be more likely to intervene when a friend was being victimized than when a neutral classmate was being victimized. Outsiders and defenders did not differ in their self-efficacy for indirect intervention, but only defenders claimed a high self-efficacy for direct intervention. Both outsiders and defenders claimed to benefit from direct help when they themselves are victimized, but only outsiders also reported to need indirect help. The results suggest that outsiders and defenders behave differently in victimization situations because of differences in competence beliefs rather than because of a selectivity effect. More generally, the results suggest that not only defenders but also outsiders have the intention to help children who are being bullied. However, outsiders' anti-bullying attempts are likely to be indirect and less firm than those of defenders.
Peters, T J
Retrospective diagnosis of illness in historical figures is a popular but somewhat unreliable pastime due to the lack of detailed information and reliable reports about clinical features and disease progression. Modern computer-based diagnostic programmes have been used to supplement historical documents and accounts, offering new and more objective approaches to the retrospective investigations of the medical conditions of historical persons. In the case of King George III, modern technology has been used to strengthen the findings of previous reports rejecting the popular diagnosis of variegate porphyria in the King, his grandson Augustus d'Esté and his antecedent King James VI and I. Alternative diagnoses based on these programmes are indicated. The Operational Criteria in Studies of Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) programme and the Young mania scale have been applied to the features described for George III and suggest a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. The neuro-diagnostic programme SimulConsult was applied to Augustus d'Esté and suggests a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica rather than acute porphyria with secondarily multiple sclerosis, as proposed by others. James VI and I's complex medical history and the clinical features of his behavioural traits were also subjected to SimulConsult analysis; acute porphyria was rejected and the unexpected diagnosis of attenuated (mild) Lesch-Nyhan disease offered. A brief review of these approaches along with full reference listings to the methodology including validation are provided. Textual analysis of the written and verbal outputs of historical figures indicate possible future developments in the diagnosis of medical disorders in historical figures.
Moore, Loretta A.
The user interface is the component of a software system that connects two very complex system: humans and computers. Each of these two systems impose certain requirements on the final product. The user is the judge of the usability and utility of the system; the computer software and hardware are the tools with which the interface is constructed. Mistakes are sometimes made in designing and developing user interfaces because the designers and developers have limited knowledge about human performance (e.g., problem solving, decision making, planning, and reasoning). Even those trained in user interface design make mistakes because they are unable to address all of the known requirements and constraints on design. Evaluation of the user inter-face is therefore a critical phase of the user interface development process. Evaluation should not be considered the final phase of design; but it should be part of an iterative design cycle with the output of evaluation being feed back into design. The goal of this research was to develop a set of computer-based tools for objectively evaluating graphical user interfaces. The research was organized into three phases. The first phase resulted in the development of an embedded evaluation tool which evaluates the usability of a graphical user interface based on a user's performance. An expert system to assist in the design and evaluation of user interfaces based upon rules and guidelines was developed during the second phase. During the final phase of the research an automatic layout tool to be used in the initial design of graphical inter- faces was developed. The research was coordinated with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Mission Operations Laboratory's efforts in developing onboard payload display specifications for the Space Station.
Evans, M. L.; Ishikawa, H.
Two key issues in studies of the nature of the gravitropic response in roots have been the determination of the precise pattern of differential elongation responsible for downward bending and the identification of the cells that show the initial motor response. The main approach for examining patterns of differential growth during root gravitropic curvature has been to apply markers to the root surface and photograph the root at regular intervals during gravitropic curvature. Although these studies have provided valuable information on the characteristics of the gravitropic motor response in roots, their labor intensive nature limits sample size and discourages both high frequency of sampling and depth of analysis of surface expansion data. In this brief review we describe the development of computer-based video analysis systems for automated measurement of root growth and shape change and discuss some key features of the root gravitropic response that have been revealed using this methodology. We summarize the capabilities of several new pieces of software designed to measure growth and shape changes in graviresponding roots and describe recent progress in developing analysis systems for studying the small, but experimentally popular, primary roots of Arabidopsis. A key finding revealed by such studies is that the initial gravitropic response of roots of maize and Arabidopsis occurs in the distal elongation zone (DEZ) near the root apical meristem, not in the main elongation zone. Another finding is that the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ following gravistimulation appears to be related to rapid membrane potential changes in this region of the root. These observations have provided the incentive for ongoing studies examining possible links between potential growth modifying factors (auxin, calcium, protons) and gravistimulated changes in membrane potential and growth patterns in the DEZ.
van de Ven, Renate M.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Schmand, Ben A.
Background: Stroke commonly results in cognitive impairments in working memory, attention, and executive function, which may be restored with appropriate training programs. Our aim was to systematically review the evidence for computer-based cognitive training of executive dysfunctions. Methods: Studies were included if they concerned adults who had suffered stroke or other types of acquired brain injury, if the intervention was computer training of executive functions, and if the outcome was related to executive functioning. We searched in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. Study quality was evaluated based on the CONSORT Statement. Treatment effect was evaluated based on differences compared to pre-treatment and/or to a control group. Results: Twenty studies were included. Two were randomized controlled trials that used an active control group. The other studies included multiple baselines, a passive control group, or were uncontrolled. Improvements were observed in tasks similar to the training (near transfer) and in tasks dissimilar to the training (far transfer). However, these effects were not larger in trained than in active control groups. Two studies evaluated neural effects and found changes in both functional and structural connectivity. Most studies suffered from methodological limitations (e.g., lack of an active control group and no adjustment for multiple testing) hampering differentiation of training effects from spontaneous recovery, retest effects, and placebo effects. Conclusions: The positive findings of most studies, including neural changes, warrant continuation of research in this field, but only if its methodological limitations are addressed. PMID:27148007
Caviola, Sara; Gerotto, Giulia; Mammarella, Irene C
The literature on intervention programs to improve arithmetical abilities is fragmentary and few studies have examined training on the symbolic representation of numbers (i.e. Arabic digits). In the present research, three groups of 3rd- and 5th-grade schoolchildren were given training on mental additions: 76 were assigned to a computer-based strategic training (ST) group, 73 to a process-based training (PBT) group, and 71 to a passive control (PC) group. Before and after the training, the children were given a criterion task involving complex addition problems, a nearest transfer task on complex subtraction problems, two near transfer tasks on math fluency, and a far transfer task on numerical reasoning. Our results showed developmental differences: 3rd-graders benefited more from the ST, with transfer effects on subtraction problems and math fluency, while 5th-graders benefited more from the PBT, improving their response times in the criterion task. Developmental, clinical and educational implications of these findings are discussed.
TECHNICAL REPORT 80-02 QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT: THE DESIGN AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED COMMAND AND CONTROL (C 2 ) COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS ARPA...The Tasks/Objectives and/or Purposes of the overall project are connected with the design , development, demonstration and transfer of advanced...command and control (C2 ) computer-based systems; this report covers work in the computer-based design and transfer areas only. The Technical Problems thus
Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya; Bly, Aaron
Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with nuclear power plant systems are guided by procedures, instructions, or checklists. Paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by most utilities have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield significant savings in increased efficiency, as well as improved safety through human performance gains. The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease human error rates, especially human error rates associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving field workers’ procedure use and adherence and hence improve human performance and overall system reliability, the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been investigating the possibility and feasibility of replacing current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedures (CBPs). PBPs have ensured safe operation of plants for decades, but limitations in paper-based systems do not allow them to reach the full potential for procedures to prevent human errors. The environment in a nuclear power plant is constantly changing, depending on current plant status and operating mode. PBPs, which are static by nature, are being applied to a constantly changing context. This constraint often results in PBPs that are written in a manner that is intended to cover many potential operating scenarios. Hence, the procedure layout forces the operator to search through a large amount of irrelevant information to locate the pieces of information relevant for the task and situation at hand, which has potential consequences of taking up valuable time when operators must be responding to the situation, and potentially leading operators down an incorrect response path. Other challenges related to use of PBPs are management of multiple procedures, place-keeping, finding the correct procedure for a task, and relying
Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc; Seth Hays
This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The introduction of advanced technology in existing nuclear power plants may help to manage the effects of aging systems, structures, and components. In addition, the incorporation of advanced technology in the existing LWR fleet may entice the future workforce, who will be familiar with advanced technology, to work for these utilities rather than more newly built nuclear power plants. Advantages are being sought by developing and deploying technologies that will increase safety and efficiency. One significant opportunity for existing plants to increase efficiency is to phase out the paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used at most nuclear power plants and replace them, where feasible, with computer-based procedures (CBPs). PBPs have ensured safe operation of plants for decades, but limitations in paper-based systems do not allow them to reach the full potential for procedures to prevent human errors. The environment in a nuclear power plant is constantly changing depending on current plant status and operating mode. PBPs, which are static by nature, are being applied to a constantly changing context. This constraint often results in PBPs that are written in a manner that is intended to cover many potential operating scenarios. Hence, the procedure layout forces the operator to search through a large amount of irrelevant information to locate the pieces of information
Sheriff, Kelli A; Boon, Richard T
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of computer-based graphic organizers, using Kidspiration 3© software, to solve one-step word problems. Participants included three students with mild intellectual disability enrolled in a functional academic skills curriculum in a self-contained classroom. A multiple probe single-subject research design (Horner & Baer, 1978) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of computer-based graphic organizers to solving mathematical one-step word problems. During the baseline phase, the students completed a teacher-generated worksheet that consisted of nine functional word problems in a traditional format using a pencil, paper, and a calculator. In the intervention and maintenance phases, the students were instructed to complete the word problems using a computer-based graphic organizer. Results indicated that all three of the students improved in their ability to solve the one-step word problems using computer-based graphic organizers compared to traditional instructional practices. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research directions are discussed.
Howard, Bruce C.; McGee, Steven; Shia, Regina; Hong, Namsoo Shin
This study sought to examine the effects of meta cognitive self-regulation on problem solving across three conditions: (1) an interactive, computer-based treatment condition; (2) a noninteractive computer-based alternative treatment condition; and (3) a control condition. Also investigated was which of five components of metacognitive…
Belland, Brian R.; Walker, Andrew E.; Olsen, Megan Whitney; Leary, Heather
This paper employs meta-analysis to determine the influence of computer-based scaffolding characteristics and study and test score quality on cognitive outcomes in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education at the secondary, college, graduate, and adult levels. Results indicate that (a) computer-based scaffolding positively…
This document describes the need and justification for the development of a design guide for safety-relevant computer-based systems. This document also makes a contribution toward the design guide by presenting an overview of computer-based systems design, lifecycle, and safety.
This study aims to find out whether there are any statistically significant differences in participants' achievements on three different types of instruction: computer-based instruction, teacher-driven instruction, and teacher-driven grammar supported by computer-based instruction. Each type of instruction follows the deductive approach. The…
Brinkley-Etzkorn, Karen E.; Ishitani, Terry T.
The purpose of this study was to understand the process of transitioning from the 2002 version of the GED test to the new 2014 computer-based version. Specifically, this research sought to identify: (1) stakeholder attitudes regarding the new computer-based test; (2) the relationship between students' computer access/comfort and their perceptions…
Lian, Peter-Andrew; And Others
Considers computer-based technology as a change agent for methodological emphasis in the use of language learning applications; examines the issues of language learning methodology, the relationship of methodology and computer-based technology, and changes in institutional learning environments; and highlights some of the computer-aided language…
Describes the results of the use of computer-based tutorials to teach the pathology of the cardiovascular system in a veterinary school in the United Kingdom. Concludes that the combined worksheet and computer based learning format is suitable for teaching veterinary pathology. (LRW)
Bloch, Deborah Perlmutter; Kinnison, Joyce Ford
Developed a three-part rating system for computer-based career information delivery systems in the areas of comprehensiveness, accuracy, and effectiveness. Used system to rate five popular computer-based systems (C-LECT, CHOICES, CIS, DISCOVER, and GIS). Four systems were evaluated as being very similar, with CIS receiving highest scores.…
This study investigates whether information saved in the log files of a computer-based tutor can be used to predict the problem solving performance of students. The log files of a computer-based physics tutoring environment called Andes Physics Tutor was analyzed to build a logistic regression model that predicted success and failure of students'…
Rieber, Lloyd P.; Tzeng, Shyh-Chii; Tribble, Kelly
The purpose of this research was to explore how adult users interact and learn during an interactive computer-based simulation supplemented with brief multimedia explanations of the content. A total of 52 college students interacted with a computer-based simulation of Newton's laws of motion in which they had control over the motion of a simple…
Ricketts, C.; Wilks, S. J.
Compared student performance on computer-based assessment to machine-graded multiple choice tests. Found that performance improved dramatically on the computer-based assessment when students were not required to scroll through the question paper. Concluded that students may be disadvantaged by the introduction of online assessment unless care is…
Kim, Kioh; Jain, Sachin; Westhoff, Guy; Rezabek, Landra
Based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory, the purpose of this study is to identify the relationship of preservice teachers' perceptions of faculty modeling of computer-based technology and preservice teachers' intent of using computer-based technology in educational settings. There were 92 participants in this study; they were enrolled in…
Knerr, Bruce W.; And Others
Three research efforts that used computer-based simulations for maintenance training were in progress when this report was written: Game-Based Learning, which investigated the use of computer-based games to train electronics diagnostic skills; Human Performance in Fault Diagnosis Tasks, which evaluated the use of context-free tasks to train…
The Future of Computer-Based Toxicity Prediction:
Mechanism-Based Models vs. Information Mining Approaches
When we speak of computer-based toxicity prediction, we are generally referring to a broad array of approaches which rely primarily upon chemical structure ...
Hettinger, Gary A.
This study of the application of cognitive style theory to the development of computer-based instruction explored two questions, i.e., whether computer-based courseware can be designed to address specific learner characteristics, and, if so, which characteristics. Several factors involved in the optimization of instruction are described: learner…
Bukova-Guzel, Esra; Canturk-Gunhan, Berna
The purpose of the study is to determine prospective mathematics teachers' views about using computer-based instructional materials in constructing mathematical concepts and to reveal how the sample computer-based instructional materials for different mathematical concepts altered their views. This is a qualitative study involving twelve…
As technology has become more advanced and accessible in instructional settings, there has been an upward trend in computer-based testing in the last decades. The present experimental study examines students' behaviors during computer-based testing in two different conditions and explores how these conditions affect the test results. Results…
Worrell, Jamie L.
The computer-based testing mode has received limited research as a task condition for elementary students as it relates to comprehension for both narrative and expository text. The majority of schools now use computer-based testing to measure students' progress for end of the year exams. Additionally, schools are also delivering state-wide…
This paper describes an English language listening test intended as computer-based testing material for secondary school students in Hong Kong, where considerable attention is being invested in online and computer-based testing. As well as providing a school-based testing facility, the study aims to contribute to the knowledge base regarding the…
Fyfe, Emily R.
Homework is transforming at a rapid rate with continuous advances in educational technology. Computer-based homework, in particular, is gaining popularity across a range of schools, with little empirical evidence on how to optimize student learning. The current aim was to test the effects of different types of feedback on computer-based homework.…
Computer-based assessment of problem solving. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 269–282. Booher, H.R. (1978). Job performance aids: Research and...Perspectives on computer-based performance assessment of problem solving. Computers in Human Behavior , 15, 255–268. Orasanu, J., and Connolly, T. (1993). The
Zigic, Sasha; Lemckert, Charles J.
The following paper presents a computer-based learning strategy to assist in introducing and teaching water quality modelling to undergraduate civil engineering students. As part of the learning strategy, an interactive computer-based instructional (CBI) aid was specifically developed to assist students to set up, run and analyse the output from a…
Hofstetter, Fred T.
The University of Delaware's work with computer-based instruction since 1974 is summarized with attention to the history and development of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, university applications, outside user applications, and research and evaluation. PLATO was the system that met the university's criteria, which included support for…
Sapriati, Amalia; Zuhairi, Aminudin
This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: (1) students' inability to sit for the scheduled test; (2) conflicting test…
Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hwang, Fu-Kwun
Sandholtz, Ringstaff, & Dwyer (1996) list five stages in the "evolution" of a teacher's capacity for computer-based instruction--entry, adoption, adaptation, appropriation and invention--which hereafter will be called the teacher's computer-based instructional evolution. In this study of approximately six hundred junior high school…
Obdeijn, M C; Alewijnse, J V; Mathoulin, C; Liverneaux, P; Tuijthof, G J M; Schijven, M P
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based module for wrist arthroscopy to which a group of experts could consent. The need for such a module was assessed with members of the European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS). The computer-based module was developed through several rounds of consulting experts on the content. The module's learning enhancement was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 28 medical students who were assigned to the computer-based module group or lecture group. The design process led to a useful tool, which is supported by a panel of experts. Although the computer based module did not enhance learning, the participants did find the module more pleasant to use. Developing learning tools such as this computer-based module can improve the teaching of wrist arthroscopy skills.
Kao, Tsui-Sui; Gibbs, Marilyn Beth; Clemen-Stone, Susan; Duffy, Sonia
The purpose of this integrative review is to describe, compare, and synthesize traditional and computer-based family interventions that aim to change adolescents' risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse. Family interventions have been shown to generate protective effects for preventing adolescents from risky behaviors. It is not clear, however, whether there are significant differences or similarities in the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. An integrative literature review was conducted to describe and compare the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. Both interventions have generated significant effects on reducing risky behavior among adolescents. Interventions guided by theory, tailored to participants' culture/gender, and which included sufficient boosting dosages in their designs demonstrated significant short- or long-term effects in terms of reducing adolescents' risky behaviors. Regardless of delivery method, well-designed family interventions are noted to maximize familial protective effects and reduce risky behaviors.
Nair, Sankaran N.; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph
This article explores the role of age, cognitive abilities, prior experience, and knowledge in skill acquisition for a computer-based simulated customer service task. Fifty-two participants aged 50–80 performed the task over 4 consecutive days following training. They also completed a battery that assessed prior computer experience and cognitive abilities. The data indicated that overall quality and efficiency of performance improved with practice. The predictors of initial level of performance and rate of change in performance varied according to the performance parameter assessed. Age and fluid intelligence predicted initial level and rate of improvement in overall quality, whereas crystallized intelligence and age predicted initial e-mail processing time, and crystallized intelligence predicted rate of change in e-mail processing time over days. We discuss the implications of these findings for the design of intervention strategies. PMID:17565169
Graham, Michael W; Gibbs, Jason D; Higgins, William E
Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners produce high-resolution images of the chest. Given a patient's MDCT scan, a physician can use an image-guided intervention system to first plan and later perform bronchoscopy to diagnostic sites situated deep in the lung periphery. An accurate definition of complete routes through the airway tree leading to the diagnostic sites, however, is vital for avoiding navigation errors during image-guided bronchoscopy. We present a system for the robust definition of complete airway routes suitable for image-guided bronchoscopy. The system incorporates both automatic and semiautomatic MDCT analysis methods for this purpose. Using an intuitive graphical user interface, the user invokes automatic analysis on a patient's MDCT scan to produce a series of preliminary routes. Next, the user visually inspects each route and quickly corrects the observed route defects using the built-in semiautomatic methods. Application of the system to a human study for the planning and guidance of peripheral bronchoscopy demonstrates the efficacy of the system.
Henry, Suzanne Bakken; Warren, Judith J.; Lange, Linda; Button, Patricia
Building on the work of previous authors, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute (CPRI) Work Group on Codes and Structures has described features of a classification scheme for implementation within a computer-based patient record. The authors of the current study reviewed the evaluation literature related to six major nursing vocabularies (the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Taxonomy 1, the Nursing Interventions Classification, the Nursing Outcomes Classification, the Home Health Care Classification, the Omaha System, and the International Classification for Nursing Practice) to determine the extent to which the vocabularies include the CPRI features. None of the vocabularies met all criteria. The Omaha System, Home Health Care Classification, and International Classification for Nursing Practice each included five features. Criteria not fully met by any systems were clear and non-redundant representation of concepts, administrative cross-references, syntax and grammar, synonyms, uncertainty, context-free identifiers, and language independence. PMID:9670127
Background Despite recent recognition of the need for preventive sexual health materials for people with intellectual disability (ID), there have been remarkably few health-based interventions designed for people with mild to moderate ID. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer-based interactive multimedia (CBIM) program to teach HIV/AIDS knowledge, skills, and decision-making. Methods Twenty-five women with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The study used a quasi-experimental within-subjects design to assess the efficacy of the CBIM program. Research participants completed five qualitative and quantitative instruments that assessed HIV knowledge, and decision-making skills regarding HIV prevention practices and condom application skills (i.e., demonstration of skills opening a condom and putting it on a model penis). In addition, 18 service providers who work with women with ID reviewed the program and completed a demographics questionnaire and a professional customer satisfaction survey. Results Women with ID showed statistically significant increases from pretest to posttest in all knowledge and skill domains. Furthermore, the statistical gains were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability). Conclusions The results of this study indicate the CBIM program was effective in increasing HIV/AIDS knowledge and skills among women with ID, who live both semi-independently and independently, in a single-session intervention. Since the CBIM program is not dependent on staff for instructional delivery, it is a highly efficient teaching tool; and CBIM is an efficacious means to provide behavioral health content, compensating for the dearth of available health promotion materials for people with ID. As such, it has a potential for broad distribution and implementation by medical practitioners, and
Seufert, R; Pfarrer, C; Leiser, R; Lellé, R
The new computer based image analysis techniques are powerful tools for mophometrical and quantitative image analysis in case of clinical and experimental morphology. Digital image analysis requires a distinction between two phases 1. generation of fundamental data (x,y coordinates and grey values of the pixel) and 2. calculation of parameters from these data. Stereological procedures are very powerful in quantifying morphological phenomenons, but computer based image analysing techniques allow multiple analysis of morphological objects and analysis of statistical distributions. There is great scientific benefit using modern computer based image analysing techniques.
Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.
Information seeking by human operators of technical systems is considered. Types of information and forms of presentation are discussed and important issues reviewed. This broad discussion provides a framework within which flight management is considered. The design of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft is discussed. The aiding possibilities of a computer-based system are emphasized. Results of an experimental evaluation of a prototype system are presented. It is concluded that a computer-based information system can substantially lessen the frequency of human errors.
Creswell, J David
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.
Frick, Theodore W.; And Others
The document is part of the final report on Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory) intended to extend the utilization of technology in the training of preservice special education teachers. This volume focuses on the third of four project objectives, the development and implementation of a computer-based testing…
Nix, Ingrid; Wyllie, Ali
Many institutions encourage formative computer-based assessment (CBA), yet competing priorities mean that learners are necessarily selective about what they engage in. So how can we motivate them to engage? Can we facilitate learners to take more control of shaping their learning experience? To explore this, the Learning with Interactive…
Hall, Donald W.
Describes the use of computer-based animations in demonstrating and enlivening scientific principles. Discusses frame-based animation, cel-based animation, object animation, the creation of simple animations, and the use of animation software. (JRH)
Lahey, George F.
Studied the performance of the U.S. Navy trainees on three computer-based lessons under programed control in order to determine whether variations in the sequence of instructional presentation improved learning. Sixteen references are cited. (FM)
Shea, James Herbert
Describes the author's computer-based program for a subduction-zone-earthquake exercise. Instructions for conducting the activity and obtaining the program from the author are provided. Written in IBM QuickBasic. (PR)
Franklin, Sue; Peat, Mary; Lewis, Alison
Describes a study that investigates both the use and usefulness of laboratory dissections and computer-based dissections in a tertiary, first-year human biology course. Explores attitudes toward dissection. (DDR)
Esche, Carol Ann; Warren, Joan I; Woods, Anne B; Jesada, Elizabeth C; Iliuta, Ruth
The goal of the Nurse Professional Development specialist is to utilize the most effective educational strategies when educating staff nurses about pressure ulcer prevention. More information is needed about the effect of computer-based learning and traditional classroom learning on pressure ulcer education for the staff nurse. This study compares computer-based learning and traditional classroom learning on immediate and long-term knowledge while evaluating the impact of education on pressure ulcer risk assessment, staging, and documentation.
Engelbrecht, R; Hildebrand, C; Jung, E
Over the past decades, technology has advanced in all areas. Medical documentation, however, has not altered considerably. This means that medical care is often below standard. This article tries to point out how healthcare could benefit from a computer-based medical record. It also discusses the use of a medical smart card as a computer-based patient record--exemplified by the European DIABCARD-project which develops a chip card for persons with diabetes.
Whyte, Elisabeth M; Smyth, Joshua M; Scherf, K Suzanne
The design of "Serious games" that use game components (e.g., storyline, long-term goals, rewards) to create engaging learning experiences has increased in recent years. We examine of the core principles of serious game design and examine the current use of these principles in computer-based interventions for individuals with autism. Participants who undergo these computer-based interventions often show little evidence of the ability to generalize such learning to novel, everyday social communicative interactions. This lack of generalized learning may result, in part, from the limited use of fundamental elements of serious game design that are known to maximize learning. We suggest that future computer-based interventions should consider the full range of serious game design principles that promote generalization of learning.
Umanodan, Rino; Shimazu, Akihito; Minami, Masahide; Kawakami, Norito
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management training (SMT) program in improving employees' psychological well-being and work performance. A total of 12 work units (N=263) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (8 work units, n=142) or to a wait-list control group (4 work units, n=121). All participants were requested to answer online questionnaires assessing psychological well-being as a primary outcome, and coping style, social support, and knowledge about stress management as secondary outcomes at baseline (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1), and 2 months after the intervention (T2). The group × time interaction was tested using a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA. Results showed a group × time interaction for "knowledge about stress management" in the entire sample. Among participants who had more than 3 d of training, a significant group × time interaction was observed for "problem-solving" and "avoidance and suppression" as well as "knowledge about stress management." Our computer-based stress management program was effective for improving knowledge about stress management. It was also effective for improving coping skills in instances where participants had enough time (at least 3 d) to complete all sessions.
Presents a study that used computer-based rat anatomy to compare student learning outcomes from computer-based instruction with a conventional dissection. Indicates that there was a significant relationship between the time spent on both classes and the marks gained. Shows that computer-based instruction can be a viable alternative to the use of…
Sundaram, V; Lazzeroni, L C; Douglass, L R; Sanders, G D; Tempio, P; Owens, D K
Despite recommendations for voluntary HIV screening, few medical centres have implemented screening programmes. The objective of the study was to determine whether an intervention with computer-based reminders and feedback would increase screening for HIV in a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health-care system. The design of the study was a randomized controlled trial at five primary care clinics at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System. All primary care providers were eligible to participate in the study. The study intervention was computer-based reminders to either assess HIV risk behaviours or to offer HIV testing; feedback on adherence to reminders was provided. The main outcome measure was the difference in HIV testing rates between intervention and control group providers. The control group providers tested 1.0% (n = 67) and 1.4% (n = 106) of patients in the preintervention and intervention period, respectively; intervention providers tested 1.8% (n = 98) and 1.9% (n = 114), respectively (P = 0.75). In our random sample of 753 untested patients, 204 (27%) had documented risk behaviours. Providers were more likely to adhere to reminders to test rather than with reminders to perform risk assessment (11% versus 5%, P < 0.01). Sixty-one percent of providers felt that lack of time prevented risk assessment. In conclusion, in primary care clinics in our setting, HIV testing rates were low. Providers were unaware of the high rates of risky behaviour in their patient population and perceived important barriers to testing. Low-intensity clinical reminders and feedback did not increase rates of screening.
Pawl, Jeree, Ed.
This newsletter focuses on the theme of early intervention which infants and young children with special needs in nine brief articles: "Early Intervention: A Matter of Context" (Samuel J. Meisels); "Early Intervention Research: Asking and Answering Meaningful Questions" (Jack P. Shonkoff); "From Case Management to Service…
Lehmann, Harold P.; Freedman, Joan A.; Massad, John; Dintzis, Renee Z.
Objective: To evaluate the use and effect of a computer-based histology atlas during required laboratory sessions in a medical school histology course. Design: Ethnographic observation of students' interactions in a factorial, controlled setting. Measurements: Ethnographer's observations; student and instructor self-report survey after each laboratory session with items rated from 1 (least) to 7 (best); microscope practicum scores at the end of the course. Results: Between groups assigned the atlas and those not, the ethnographer found qualitative differences in the semantic categories used by students in communicating with each other and with the faculty. Differences were also found in the quality of the interactions and in the learning styles used with and without the computer present in the laboratory. The most interactive learning style was achieved when a pair of students shared a computer and a microscope. Practicum grades did not change with respect to historical controls. Students assigned the atlas, compared with those not assigned, reported higher overall satisfaction (a difference in score of 0.1, P = 0.003) and perceived their fellow students to be more helpful (a difference of 0.11, P = 0.035). They rated the usefulness of the microscope lower (a difference of 0.23, P < 0.001). Conclusion: A computer-based histology atlas induces qualitative changes in the histology laboratory environment. Most students and faculty reacted positively. The authors did not measure the impact on learning, but they found that there are aspects of using the atlas that instructors must manipulate to make learning optimal. Ethnographic techniques can be helpful in delineating the context and defining what the interventions might be. PMID:9925227
Khot, Zaid; Quinlan, Kaitlyn; Norman, Geoffrey R; Wainman, Bruce
There is increasing use of computer-based resources to teach anatomy, although no study has compared computer-based learning to traditional. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of three formats of anatomy learning: (1) a virtual reality (VR) computer-based module, (2) a static computer-based module providing Key Views (KV), (3) a plastic model. We conducted a controlled trial in which 60 undergraduate students had ten minutes to study the names of 20 different pelvic structures. The outcome measure was a 25 item short answer test consisting of 15 nominal and 10 functional questions, based on a cadaveric pelvis. All subjects also took a brief mental rotations test (MRT) as a measure of spatial ability, used as a covariate in the analysis. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. The group learning from the model performed significantly better than the other two groups on the nominal questions (Model 67%; KV 40%; VR 41%, Effect size 1.19 and 1.29, respectively). There was no difference between the KV and VR groups. There was no difference between the groups on the functional questions (Model 28%; KV, 23%, VR 25%). Computer-based learning resources appear to have significant disadvantages compared to traditional specimens in learning nominal anatomy. Consistent with previous research, virtual reality shows no advantage over static presentation of key views.
Background The purpose of this article is to give an integrative insight into the theoretical and empirical-based development of the Online Pestkoppenstoppen (Stop Bullies Online/Stop Online Bullies). This intervention aims to reduce the number of cyberbully victims and their symptoms of depression and anxiety (program goal), by teaching cyberbully victims how to cope in an adequate and effective manner with cyberbully incidents (program’s outcomes). Method/Design In developing the program the different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol are systematically used. In this article we describe each step of Intervention Mapping. Sources used for the development were a literature review, a Delphi study among experts, focus group interviews with the target group, and elements from a proven effective anti-bullying program. The result is a fully automated web-based tailored intervention for cyberbully victims (12-15 years) consisting of three web-based advice sessions delivered over three months. The first advice aims to teach participants how behavior is influenced by the thoughts they have, how to recognize and dispute irrational thoughts and how to form rational thoughts. In the second advice, participants will learn about the way bullying emerges, how their behavior influences bullying and how they can use effective coping strategies in order to stop (online) bullying. In the third advice, participants receive feedback and will learn how to use the Internet and mobile phones in a safe manner. Each advice is tailored to the participant’s personal characteristics (e.g., personality, self-efficacy, coping strategies used and (ir)rational thoughts). To ensure implementation of the program after testing it for effectiveness, the intervention was pretested in the target-population and an implementation plan was designed. Finally, we will elaborate on the planned randomized controlled trial in which the intervention will be compared to a general information group
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Khan, Abdul Sattar; Kuruvilla, Joel; Feroze, Kaberi
Many teaching centers have now adopted objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as an assessment method for undergraduate dermatology courses. A modification of the standard OSCE in dermatology is computer based or electronic OSCE (eOSCE). We attempted to validate the use of a computer-based OSCE in dermatology in a group of fifth year medical students. The scores of the students in the computer-based OSCE showed a strong positive correlation with the scores on the clinical presentation (Pearson's co-efficient - 0.923, P value <0.000, significant at the 0.01 level) and a good correlation with overall scores of the student (Pearson's co-efficient - 0.728, P value <0.000, significant at the 0.01 level), indicating that this is a reliable method for assessment in dermatology. Generally, the students' feedback regarding the methods was positive.
Ji, S.H.; Kim, DAI. I.; Park, H.S.; Kim, B.R.; Kang, Y.D.; Oh, S.H.
Computer based systems are used in safety related applications in safety critical applications as well as safety related applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features, certain functions of the process control and monitoring system. In this context, the IAEA released the safety standard series, NS-G-1.11 (hereafter: IAEA Guideline), 'Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in NPPs', in 2000 as a guideline for evaluating the software of digitalized computer based system applied in instrumentation and control system of nuclear plants. This paper discusses about the equivalency between IAEA Guideline and codes and standards adopted by Korea Institute Nuclear Safety (hereafter: KINS Guideline) as regulatory basis. (authors)
Björn, Piia Maria; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.
The results of Fast ForWord® training on English decoding-related skills were examined. Finnish fifth-grade students were identified as having reading fluency problems and poor skills in English as a foreign language learned at school and were randomly assigned to either a training group (TRG) or a control group. The TRG ("n"?=?13)…
Cipolla, Dayna Summer
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from numerous social and communicative deficits that create difficulties when interacting with their peers, adults, and their social community. An increased prevalence of problem behaviors has also been found in children with ASD, and it is likely that such problem behaviors interfere with the…
Koul, Rajinder; Corwin, Melinda; Hayes, Summer
The study employed a single-subject multiple baseline design to examine the ability of 9 individuals with severe Broca's aphasia or global aphasia to produce graphic symbol sentences of varying syntactical complexity using a software program that turns a computer into a speech output communication device. The sentences ranged in complexity from…
Background Evidence indicates that post − stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n = 5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms
Wentink, M M; Berger, M A M; de Kloet, A J; Meesters, J; Band, G P H; Wolterbeek, R; Goossens, P H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M
Cognitive impairment after stroke has a direct impact on daily functioning and quality of life (QoL) of patients and is associated with higher mortality and healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-based brain training programme on cognitive functioning, QoL and self-efficacy compared to a control condition in stroke patients. Stroke patients with self-perceived cognitive impairment were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week brain training programme (Lumosity Inc.®). The control group received general information about the brain weekly. Assessments consisted of a set of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. In addition, adherence with trained computer tasks was recorded. No effect of the training was found on cognitive functioning, QoL or self-efficacy when compared to the control condition, except for very limited effects on working memory and speed. This study found very limited effects on neuropsychological tests that were closely related to trained computer tasks, but no transfers to other tests or self-perceived cognitive failures, QoL or self-efficacy. These findings warrant the need for further research into the value of computer-based brain training to improve cognitive functioning in the chronic phase after stroke.
Peskin, Melissa F.; Shegog, Ross; Markham, Christine M.; Thiel, Melanie; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Gabay, Efrat K.; Emery, Susan Tortolero
Purpose Few computer-based HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs are available, and even fewer target early adolescents. In this study, we tested the efficacy of It’s Your Game (IYG)-Tech, a completely computer-based, middle school sexual health education program. The primary hypothesis was that students who received IYG-Tech would significantly delay sexual initiation by ninth grade. Methods We evaluated IYG-Tech using a randomized, two-arm nested design among 19 schools in a large, urban school district in southeast Texas (20 schools were originally randomized). The target population was English-speaking eighth-grade students who were followed into the ninth grade. The final analytic sample included 1,374 students. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to test for differences in sexual initiation between intervention and control students, while adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, time between measures, and family structure. Results There was no significant difference in the delay of sexual activity or in any other sexual behavior between intervention and control students. However, there were significant positive between-group differences for psychosocial variables related to STI and condom knowledge, attitudes about abstinence, condom use self-efficacy, and perceived norms about sex. Post-hoc analyses conducted among intervention students revealed some significant associations: “full exposure” (completion of all 13 lessons) and “mid-exposure” (5–8 lessons) students were less likely than “low exposure” (1–4 lessons) students to initiate sex. Conclusions Collectively, our findings indicate that IYG-Tech impacts some determinants of sexual behavior, and that additional efficacy evaluation with full intervention exposure may be warranted. PMID:25739520
The Austrian Program for Suicide Prevention defines as Point 2: "Support and treatment". The suicide-preventive outcome of the development of psychotherapeutic-psychosocial care in Austria has been proved. This means, that the further development of institutions with focus on crisis intervention is a central agenda of Suicide prevention Austria (SUPRA). First, in this article are defined the terms crisis and crisis intervention, also the close connection to programs of suicide prevention is pointed out. Furthermore general aims and standards for crisis intervention are defined and the current situation of crisis intervention in Austria is described. Finally recommendations for practical aims and their implementation in the context of SUPRA are made.
Boevé, Anja J; Meijer, Rob R; Albers, Casper J; Beetsma, Yta; Bosker, Roel J
The introduction of computer-based testing in high-stakes examining in higher education is developing rather slowly due to institutional barriers (the need of extra facilities, ensuring test security) and teacher and student acceptance. From the existing literature it is unclear whether computer-based exams will result in similar results as paper-based exams and whether student acceptance can change as a result of administering computer-based exams. In this study, we compared results from a computer-based and paper-based exam in a sample of psychology students and found no differences in total scores across the two modes. Furthermore, we investigated student acceptance and change in acceptance of computer-based examining. After taking the computer-based exam, fifty percent of the students preferred paper-and-pencil exams over computer-based exams and about a quarter preferred a computer-based exam. We conclude that computer-based exam total scores are similar as paper-based exam scores, but that for the acceptance of high-stakes computer-based exams it is important that students practice and get familiar with this new mode of test administration.
Green, Bert F.
This article refutes a recent claim that computer-based tests produce biased scores for very proficient test takers who make mistakes on one or two initial items and that the "bias" can be reduced by using a four-parameter IRT model. Because the same effect occurs with pattern scores on nonadaptive tests, the effect results from IRT scoring, not…
Cope, Eric W.; Suppes, Patrick
Examined student performance in distance computer-based calculus and linear algebra courses offered by Stanford University to pre-college students as part of their Education Program for Gifted youth (EPGY). Puts special emphasis on modeling student performance over time and on capturing long-term trend effects using stochastic and nonlinear…
Rabinowitz, Stanley; Brandt, Tamara
Computer-based assessment appears to offer the promise of radically improving both how assessments are implemented and the quality of the information they can deliver. However, as many states consider whether to embrace this new technology, serious concerns remain about the fairness of the new systems and the readiness of states (and districts and…
Darrah, Marjorie; Fuller, Edgar; Miller, David
This paper discusses a possible solution to a problem frequently encountered by educators seeking to use computer-based or multiple choice-based exams for mathematics. These assessment methodologies force a discrete grading system on students and do not allow for the possibility of partial credit. The research presented in this paper investigates…
Luecht, Richard M.
The Microsoft Certification Program (MCP) includes many new computer-based item types, based on complex cases involving the Windows 2000 (registered) operating system. This Innovative Item Technology (IIT) has presented challenges beyond traditional psychometric considerations such as capturing and storing the relevant response data from…
Evmenova, Anya S.; Regan, Kelley; Boykin, Andrea; Good, Kevin; Hughes, Melissa; MacVittie, Nichole; Sacco, Donna; Ahn, Soo Y.; Chirinos, David
The authors conducted a multiple-baseline study to investigate the effects of a computer-based graphic organizer (CBGO) with embedded self-regulated learning strategies on the quantity and quality of persuasive essay writing by students with high-incidence disabilities. Ten seventh- and eighth-grade students with learning disabilities, emotional…
Stevens, Ronald H.; And Others
A study to determine the feasibility of creating and administering computer-based problem-solving examinations for evaluating second-year medical students in immunology and to determine how students would perform on these tests relative to their performances on concurrently administered objective and essay examinations is described. (Author/MLW)
Online and paper instruments were used by 159 learners to evaluate 5 computer-based learning materials requiring information technology skills. Top factors influencing perceptions of quality were as follows: user friendliness, presentation, graphics, engagement, information, knowledge, understanding, level, learning mode, and language. (SK)
Timmers, Caroline F.; Braber-van den Broek, Jannie; van den Berg, Stephanie M.
Feedback can only be effective when students seek feedback and process it. This study examines the relations between students' motivational beliefs, effort invested in a computer-based formative assessment, and feedback behaviour. Feedback behaviour is represented by whether a student seeks feedback and the time a student spends studying the…
Hannafin, Robert D.; Scott, Barry N.
Investigated the effects of student working-memory capacity, preference for amount of instruction, spatial problem-solving ability, and school mathematics grades on eighth graders' recall of factual information and conceptual understanding. Pairs of students worked through 16 activities using a dynamic, computer-based geometry program. Presents…
Caldwell, Robert M.; Hedl, John J., Jr.
Reports on a study that (1) examined the effectiveness of computer-based education in developing literacy and mathematics skills in young adults to enable them to secure unsubsidized employment and (2) compared motivation of CETA-funded students with those who sought training voluntarily. Discusses failures of CETA training projects and makes…
Because different types of computerized tests exist and continue to emerge, the term "computer-based testing" does not encompass all of the various models that may exist. As a result, test delivery model (TDM) is used to describe the variety of methods that exist in delivering tests to examinees. The criterion that is used to distinguish…
Chen, Chi-Fen Emily; Cheng, Wei-Yuan
The invention of computer-based writing program has revolutionized the way of teaching second language writing. Embedded with artificial intelligence scoring engine, it can provide students with both immediate score and diagnostic feedback on their essays. In addition, some of such programs offer convenient writing and editing tools to facilitate…
Tiemann, Philip W.; Markle, Susan M.
Discussion of interaction in computer-based tutorials (CBT) focuses on a study that compared the performance of adult learners from training with three CBTs that varied the level of interactivity. The degrees of learner control, system control, and domain control are discussed, and the Lotus spreadsheet tutorials used are described. (24…
Choi, Inn-Chull; Kim, Kyoung Sung; Boo, Jaeyool
Utilizing the Test of English Proficiency, developed by Seoul National University (TEPS), examined comparability between the paper-based language test and the computer-based language test based on content and construct validation employing content analyses based on corpus linguistic techniques in addition to such statistical analyses as…
Ockey, Gary J.
Computer-based testing (CBT) to assess second language ability has undergone remarkable development since Garret (1991) described its purpose as "the computerized administration of conventional tests" in "The Modern Language Journal." For instance, CBT has made possible the delivery of more authentic tests than traditional paper-and-pencil tests.…
Hilbert, T. S.; Renkl, A.; Schworm, S.; Kessler, S.; Reiss, K.
Learning from worked-out examples has been shown to be very effective in initial cognitive skill acquisition. In order to fully exploit the potential of example-based learning, teachers should, however, know how to effectively employ such examples in classroom instruction. Therefore, we have designed a computer-based learning environment in which…
Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura
This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…
Akcay, Hüsamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…
Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue
Describes the development of a variety of computer-based assessment opportunities, both formative and summative, that are available to a large first-year biology class at the University of Sydney (Australia). Discusses online access to weekly quizzes, a mock exam, and special self-assessment modules that are beneficial to student learning.…
Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen
This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…
Ciullo, Stephen; Reutebuch, Colleen
This article presents a systematic review of the literature for studies that utilized computer-based graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities. A comprehensive search yielded 12 studies that were coded and analyzed. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the treatments on academic outcomes, and selected integral…
Wentz, Elizabeth A.; Vender, Joann C.; Brewer, Cynthia A.
Compares student reactions to traditional teaching methods and an approach where computer-based tools (GEODe CD-ROM and GIS-based exercises) were either integrated with or replaced the traditional methods. Reveals that the students found both of these tools valuable forms of instruction when used in combination with the traditional methods. (CMK)
Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.
Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions…
Rubin, David; And Others
Third in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled students, the paper explores program design strategies for computer-based instructional materials. Section 1 summarizes ideas related to models of perception and cognition, theories of instruction, and key characteristics of intelligent…
Gallagher, Ann; Bridgeman, Brent; Cahalan, Cara
Examined data from several national testing programs to determine whether the change from paper-based administration to computer-based tests influences group differences in performance. Results from four college and graduate entrance examinations and a professional licensing test show that African Americans and, to a lesser degree, Hispanics,…
Hayes, Debra; Schuck, Sandy; Segal, Gilda; Dwyer, Joanne; McEwen, Celina
This study examined the impact on learning of the integration of computer-based technology (CBT). The study focused on six New South Wales (Australia) government schools that were at different stages of development of the integration of CBT. Data were gathered through classroom observations and structured interviews with key personnel, students,…
Montoya, Louise A.; Egnatovitch, Reginald; Eckhardt, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Marjorie; Goldstein, Richard A.; Steinberg, Annie G.
This article describes the translation goals, challenges, strategies, and solutions employed in the development of a computer-based, self administered, psychiatric diagnostic instrument, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for the Deaf (D-DIS-IV) in American Sign Language (ASL) with English captions. The article analyzes the impact of the…
Ayres, Kevin M.; Maguire, Amy; McClimon, Desiree
Three elementary aged students with autism participated in an evaluation of computer based video instruction that targeted functional life skills. The effects of the software were analyzed in the context of a multiple probe design across and replicated across participants. This study represents a departure from more traditional video based…
Glogger-Frey, I.; Kappich, J.; Schwonke, R.; Holzäpfel, L.; Nückles, M.; Renkl, A.
A brief, problem-oriented phase such as an inventing activity is one potential instructional method for preparing learners not only cognitively but also motivationally for learning. Student teachers often need to overcome motivational barriers in order to use computer-based learning opportunities. In a preliminary experiment, we found that student…
Mohsen, Mohammed Ali
One of the main issues in language learning is to find ways to enable learners to interact with the language input in an involved task. Given that computer-based simulation allows learners to interact with visual modes, this article examines how the interaction of students with an online video simulation affects their second language video…
Mayer, Richard E.; Lieberman, Debra A.
This article is a guide for researchers interested in assessing the effectiveness of serious computer-based games (or video games, digital games, or electronic games) intended to improve health and health care. It presents a definition of health games, a rationale for their use, an overview of the current state of research, and recommendations for…
Rehberg, Robb S.; Gazzillo Diaz, Linda; Middlemas, David A.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computer-based CPR training is comparable to traditional classroom training. Design and Setting: This study was quantitative in design. Data was gathered from a standardized examination and skill performance evaluation which yielded numerical scores. Subjects: The subjects were 64…
Judd, Terry; Kennedy, Gregor
Logs of on-campus computer and Internet usage were used to conduct a study of computer-based task switching and multitasking by undergraduate medical students. A detailed analysis of over 6000 individual sessions revealed that while a majority of students engaged in both task switching and multitasking behaviours, they did so less frequently than…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact that computer based information systems (CBIS) could have on U.S. multinational corporations operating in Canada, particularly in the province of Quebec, and the implications for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that went into effect on January 1, 1994. The study focused on how the…
Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R.
This article reports large item effects in a study of computer-based learning of neuroanatomy. Outcome measures of the efficiency of learning, transfer of learning, and generalization of knowledge diverged by a wide margin across test items, with certain sets of items emerging as particularly difficult to master. In addition, the outcomes of…
Kwon, So Young; Cifuentes, Lauren
The researchers investigated the comparative effects of individually-constructed and collaboratively-constructed computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. One hundred and sixty one students completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups,…
Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger
Although computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are becoming more prevalent in the classroom, empirical research has demonstrated that some students have difficulty learning with these environments. The motivation construct of computer-self efficacy plays an integral role in learning with CBLEs. This literature review synthesizes research…
Levy, Roy; Mislevy, Robert J.
The challenges of modeling students' performance in computer-based interactive assessments include accounting for multiple aspects of knowledge and skill that arise in different situations and the conditional dependencies among multiple aspects of performance. This article describes a Bayesian approach to modeling and estimating cognitive models…
Vician, Chelley; Brown, Susan A.
Integrating computer-based communication into the delivery of a course is not a simple task, but it need not be a daunting one. With conscientious planning, coordination with institutional resources, preparation of training materials, and flexible responses to student learning, an instructor can readily succeed. Concerns and problems encountered…
Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard
Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…
This article sets out a practitioner's perspective on the International Test Commission (ITC) guidelines. After setting the scene and describing the testing environment in which the need for the Guidelines on Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing (ITC, 2005) is established, the article goes on to identify specific issues of relevance to…
Coyne, Iain; Bartram, Dave
This article describes the design and development of the International Test Commission's (ITC, this issue) Guidelines for Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing. It examines some of the reasons why the ITC Council decided to invest in a program of research, consultation, and conferences designed to develop internationally agreed-on…
Luecht, Richard M.; Sireci, Stephen G.
Over the past four decades, there has been incremental growth in computer-based testing (CBT) as a viable alternative to paper-and-pencil testing. However, the transition to CBT is neither easy nor inexpensive. As Drasgow, Luecht, and Bennett (2006) noted, many design engineering, test development, operations/logistics, and psychometric changes…
Behnke, Carl Alan
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between postsecondary students' emotional-social intelligence and attitudes toward computer-based instructional materials. Research indicated that emotions and emotional intelligence directly impact motivation, while instructional design has been shown to impact student attitudes and…
Kenny, Richard F.
This study compared the use of three instructional organizers--the advance organizer (AO), the participatory pictorial graphic organizer (PGO), and the final form pictorial graphic organizer (FGO)--in the design and use of computer-based interactive video (CBIV) programs. That is, it attempted to determine whether a less generative or more…
Bennett, Deborah E.; Arvidson, Helen H.; Giorgetti, Karen
This article describes the development of a computer-based assessment system for children in early childhood programs, The Indiana Assessment System of Educational Proficiencies: Early Childhood (IASEP: EC). Skills in five developmental domains (i.e., cognitive, communication, social, sensory motor, and self-help) were selected and content…
García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo
Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience of 23…
Describes a study that investigated the effects of visual display within a college computer-based learning program that taught computer programming language through analogies. Three types of visual displays (text, static graphics, and animation) are compared, and assessment measures that included posttests and attitude questionnaires are…
Cound, William T.
In contrast to the usual approach in computer-based reference services, which is to go into a specific data base to retrieve citations to material on a specific, narrowly-defined topic, this report demonstrates how such services could be useful in a broad approach to a complex subject, using an investigation of trends in the world aluminum…
Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…
Russell, Michael; Hoffmann, Thomas; Higgins, Jennifer
Michael Russell, Thomas Hoffmann, and Jennifer Higgins describe how the principles of universal design were applied to the development of an innovative computer-based test delivery system, NimbleTools, to meet the accessibility and accommodation needs of students with a wide range of disabilities and special needs. Noting the movement to…
Malmskold, Lennart; Ortengren, Roland; Carlson, Blair E.; Nylen, Per
This article describes two studies conducted to compare assembly performance and learning rate between computer based training and traditional training of skilled assembly operators. The studies were performed with pre-series production parts from a car cockpit and they were integrated as part of the overall training activities during a new…
Paquin, David C.
A computer-based training program was used to teach technical instructors at the Long Island Lighting Company how to create student handouts of textbook quality with a computer, software, and laser printer. All five learners successfully completed the course objective, which was to produce a one-page handout that contained text and graphics,…
Ho, Tracy Kwei-Liang; Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Ching-Kong; Tsai, Jih-Long
Traditional methods of teaching music are largely subjective, with the lack of objectivity being particularly challenging for violin students learning vibrato because of the existence of conflicting theories. By using a computer-based analysis method, this study found that maintaining temporal coincidence between the intensity peak and the target…
Morrison, Gary R.; Ross, Steven M.
Describes a flexible planning process for developing computer based instruction (CBI) in which the CBI design is implemented on paper between the lesson design and the program production. A four-stage model is explained, including (1) an initial flowchart, (2) storyboards, (3) a detailed flowchart, and (4) an evaluation. (16 references)…
King, Anne Truscott
To determine whether contact with computer-assisted instruction (CAI) leads to feelings of "depersonalization" and "dehumanization" a review was conducted of investigations to explore attitudes toward various modes of computer-based instruction before, during, or after exposure. Evaluation of pertinent factors which influenced attitudes was made…
Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool f...
Jarvela, Sanna; Bonk, Curtis Jay; Lehtinen, Erno; Lehti, Sirpa
Presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of social interactions in computer-based learning environments. Explores technology use to support reciprocal understanding between teachers and students based on three technology-based learning environments in Finland and the United States, and discusses situated learning, cognitive apprenticeships,…
Koul, Ravinder; Clariana, Roy B.; Salehi, Roya
This article reports the results of an investigation of the convergent criterion-related validity of two computer-based tools for scoring concept maps and essays as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of these tools. In pairs, participants researched a science topic online and created a concept map of the topic. Later, participants…
Clariana, Roy B.; Koul, Ravinder; Salehi, Roya
This investigation seeks to confirm a computer-based approach that can be used to score concept maps (Poindexter & Clariana, 2004) and then describes the concurrent criterion-related validity of these scores. Participants enrolled in two graduate courses (n=24) were asked to read about and research online the structure and function of the heart…
Zakrzewski, Stan; Steven, Christine
This paper proposes a model for computer-based assessment systems that utilizes a step-wise approach to assessment design and implementation, within which the management and assessment of operational, technical, pedagogic, and financial risks are made explicit. The cyclic model has five components: planning, risk analysis and management,…
Illinois Univ., Urbana. Computer-Based Education Research Lab.
The project sought to adapt a maternity nursing course and a series of pharmacology lessons for use on a computer-based teaching system (PLATO, Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) and to study the relationships of process variables to student achievement in a self-directed learning situation. A combination of tutorial-inquiry…
Bitzer, D.; Skaperdas, D.
This report describes the development of an economically viable teaching system using a computer-based educational system. The PLATO system, used at the University of Illinois for the past nine years, is discussed. The authors report that by using newly-developed technological devices it is economically and technically feasible to develop…
Kottenstette, James P.; And Others
The microterminal/microfiche (MT/MF) system described is part of a continuing effort to investigate the feasibility of a low-cost, stand-alone device for the delivery of the testing component of technical training in a computer-based instructional (CBI) environment. A description of the hardware for the system includes the basic microterminal…
Cosky, Michael J.
Cognitive style is a potentially rich, but typically overlooked, source of individualization in computer based instruction (CBI). Using information about learners' cognitive styles in the design, development, and evaluation phases of CBI production can maximize individualization. In the design phase, for example, learners' cognitive styles can be…
Adesope, Olusola O.; Cavagnetto, Andy; Hunsu, Nathaniel J.; Anguiano, Carlos; Lloyd, Joshua
This study used a between-subjects experimental design to examine the effects of three different computer-based instructional strategies (concept map, refutation text, and expository scientific text) on science learning. Concept maps are node-link diagrams that show concepts as nodes and relationships among the concepts as labeled links.…
Kim, Jieun; Ryu, Hokyoung; Katuk, Norliza; Wang, Ruili; Choi, Gyunghyun
The present study aims to show if a skill-challenge balancing (SCB) instruction strategy can assist learners to motivationally engage in computer-based learning. Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory (self-control, curiosity, focus of attention, and intrinsic interest) was applied to an account of the optimal learning experience in SCB-based learning…
Van Acker, Richard; Grant, Sharon H.
This study explored the use of a computer-based requesting system, employing animated graphics and touch-sensitive screen input, with three girls with Rett syndrome (characterized by severe motor disorder, impaired cognitive function, and language disorder). All three girls displayed increased item requesting when provided computer-based…
This study investigated the influence of cognitive support for learning computer-based tasks using animated demonstration (AD) on instructional efficiency. Cognitive support included (1) segmentation and learner control introducing interactive devices that allow content sequencing through a navigational menu, and content pacing through stop and…
Cuevas, Haydee M.; Fiore, Stephen M.
The present study investigated the utility of an instructional strategy known as the "query method" for enhancing learning outcomes in computer-based training. The query method involves an embedded guided, sentence generation task requiring elaboration of key concepts in the training material that encourages learners to "stop and…
Howard, Beverly J.
The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…
The intent of this study was to explore the intrinsic aspects of motivation, and to see if the design of instruction could positively affect learners' levels of intrinsic motivation toward the subject matter. The following questions were addressed: (1) Will different computer-based instructional treatments which have been designed to reflect…
This article presents key steps in the design and analysis of a computer based problem-solving assessment featuring interactive tasks. The purpose of the assessment is to support targeted instruction for students by diagnosing strengths and weaknesses at different stages of problem-solving. The first focus of this article is the task piloting…
Frick, Theodore W.; Roberto, Joseph; Korkmaz, Ali; Oh, Jeong-En; Twal, Riad
The purpose of this study was to examine problems with the current computer-based electronic communication systems and to initially test and revise a new and different paradigm for e-collaboration, Relate@IU. Understanding the concept of sending links to resources, rather than sending the resource itself, is at the core of how Relate@IU differs…
Flanagan, Mindy E; Saleem, Jason J; Millitello, Laura G; Russ, Alissa L; Doebbeling, Bradley N
Background Healthcare professionals develop workarounds rather than using electronic health record (EHR) systems. Understanding the reasons for workarounds is important to facilitate user-centered design and alignment between work context and available health information technology tools. Objective To examine both paper- and computer-based workarounds to the use of EHR systems in three benchmark institutions. Methods Qualitative data were collected in 11 primary care outpatient clinics across three healthcare institutions. Data collection methods included direct observation and opportunistic questions. In total, 120 clinic staff and providers and 118 patients were observed. All data were analyzed using previously developed workaround categories and examined for potential new categories. Additionally, workarounds were coded as either paper- or computer-based. Results Findings corresponded to 10 of 11 workaround categories identified in previous research. All 10 of these categories applied to paper-based workarounds; five categories also applied to computer-based workarounds. One new category, no correct path (eg, a desired option did not exist in the computer interface, precipitating a workaround), was identified for computer-based workarounds. The most consistent reasons for workarounds across the three institutions were efficiency, memory, and awareness. Conclusions Consistent workarounds across institutions suggest common challenges in outpatient clinical settings and failures to accommodate these challenges in EHR design. An examination of workarounds provides insight into how providers adapt to limiting EHR systems. Part of the design process for computer interfaces should include user-centered methods particular to providers and healthcare settings to ensure uptake and usability. PMID:23492593
Baz, Fatih Çagatay; Tekdal, Mehmet
The aim of this study is to evaluate Computer Based Foreign Language Learning software called Dynamic Education (DYNED) by teachers and students. The study is conducted with randomly chosen ten primary schools with the participants of 522 7th grade students and 7 English teachers. Three points Likert scale for teachers and five points Likert scale…
Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah
The large volume of material to be learned in biomedical disciplines requires optimizing the efficiency of instruction. In prior work with computer-based instruction of neuroanatomy, it was relatively efficient for learners to master whole anatomy and then transfer to learning sectional anatomy. It may, however, be more efficient to continuously…
Zakrzewski, Stan; Steven, Christine; Ricketts, Chris
There are three purposes for evaluation: evaluation for action to aid the decision making process, evaluation for understanding to further enhance enlightenment and evaluation for control to ensure compliance to standards. This article argues that the primary function of evaluation in the "Catherine Wheel" computer-based assessment (CBA)…
Crowley, Rebecca S.; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Reitmeyer, Kayse; Tseytlin, Eugene; Castine, Melissa; Jukic, Drazen; Mello-Thoms, Claudia
The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to develop an automated, computer-based method to detect heuristics and biases as pathologists examine virtual slide cases, (2) to measure the frequency and distribution of heuristics and errors across three levels of training, and (3) to examine relationships of heuristics to biases, and biases to…
Rieber, Lloyd P.
Describes the Space Shuttle Commander software package, which utilizes the dynaturtle microworld to teach elementary and middle school students about Newton's laws of motion. Design considerations for computer-based microworlds that represent a compromise between the philosophies of constructivism and direct instruction are presented. (91…
Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R.
A longitudinal experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of new methods for learning neuroanatomy with computer-based instruction. Using a three-dimensional graphical model of the human brain and sections derived from the model, tools for exploring neuroanatomy were developed to encourage "adaptive exploration". This is an…
Scheuneman, Janice Dowd; And Others
As part of the research leading to the implementation of computer-based case simulations (CCS) for the licensing examinations of the National Board of Medical Examiners, gender differences in performance were studied for one form consisting of 18 cases. A secondary purpose of the study was to note differences in style or approach that might…
Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Davis, Rodney E.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in postsecondary marketing student performance on essay tests based on test format (i.e., computer-based or handwritten). Specifically, the variables of performance, test completion time, and gender were explored for differences based on essay test format. Results of the study…
Hall, Keith A.
This bibliography contains annotations of reports, reviews, conference proceedings, other documents, and journal articles on computer based education (CBE), most of which were derived from a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system. Covering June 1976 through August 1980, this compilation serves as an update to two…
Mellar, Harvey, Ed.; And Others
With the advent of the British National Curriculum, computer-based modeling has become an integral part of the school curriculum. This book is about modeling in education and providing children with computer tools to create and explore representations of the world. Members of the London Mental Models Group contributed their research: (1)…
Hall, Keith A.
This revision of the annotated bibliography, "Computer-Based Education: The Best of ERIC, June 1976-August 1980," includes 224 new entries as well as most of the 156 ERIC documents and journal articles originally cited. The new materials reflect the increased activity in the field with contributions about new technology (artificial…
Lahey, George F.
This study compared the effects of several presentation sequences on lesson performance to deterimine whether sequence has a significant effect on performance in computer-based instruction, and whether using the same sequence consistently is more effective than not being consistent. Thirty-six students from the Basic Electricity and Electronics…
Molenaar, Inge; Roda, Claudia; van Boxtel, Carla; Sleegers, Peter
The aim of this study is to test the effects of dynamically scaffolding social regulation of middle school students working in a computer-based learning environment. Dyads in the scaffolding condition (N=56) are supported with computer-generated scaffolds and students in the control condition (N=54) do not receive scaffolds. The scaffolds are…
Çiftçi, Emrullah Yasin
Intercultural communication is now a crucial part of our globalizing lives; however, not everyone has an opportunity to engage in an intercultural interaction with people from different cultures. Computer-based technologies are promising in creating environments for people to communicate with people from diverse cultures. This qualitative…
Wilder, Anna; Brinkerhoff, Jonathan
This study assessed the effectiveness of computer-based biomolecular visualization activities on the development of high school biology students' representational competence as a means of understanding and visualizing protein structure/function relationships. Also assessed were students' attitudes toward these activities. Sixty-nine students…
Holbert, K. E.; Karady, G. G.
The introduction of computer-equipped classrooms into engineering education has brought with it a host of opportunities and issues. Herein, some of the challenges and successes for creating an environment for active learning within computer-based classrooms are described. The particular teaching approach developed for undergraduate electrical…
Jelden, D. L.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate college student attitudes toward the PHOENIX computer-based education system and to gauge the instructional effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) achievement and testing in a variety of disciplines in a university setting. Data for the study were obtained from 400 students enrolled in five…
Xu, Q.; Lai, L. L.; Tse, N. C. F.; Ichiyanagi, K.
An interactive computer-based learning tool with multiple sessions is proposed in this paper, which teaches students to think and helps them recognize the merits and limitations of simulation tools so as to improve their practical abilities in electrical circuit simulation based on the case of a power converter with progressive problems. The…
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
In response to a growing need for effective and efficient means for auditing computer-based systems, a number of studies dealing primarily with batch-processing type computer operations have been conducted to explore the impact of computers on auditing activities in the Federal Government. This report first presents some statistical data on…
Yucesoy Ozkan, Serife; Oncul, Nuray; Kaya, Ozlem
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of computer-based instruction on teaching students with intellectual disability the skills of telling which emergency services to call in specific emergency situations and reciting the correct telephone number of that specific emergency service. In this study, a multiple probe design…
Bosworth, Kris; Yoast, Richard
Describes Drug Information, Assessment and Decisions for Schools (DIADS), computer-based information and decisions support system for development of school drug abuse prevention programs. Explains how DIADS provides access to cost-effective planning resource, helps schools assess program effectiveness, and guides selection of future activities.…
Claims evidence from meta-analysis justifies the use of computer-based instruction in reading comprehension. Discusses specific applications of comprehension strategies that foster knowledge building and understanding. Provides annotated URLs for teaching critical reading and offers URLs for on-line programs and information on teaching critical…
Papadouris, Nicos; Constantinou, Constantinos P.
This paper demonstrates a methodology for effectively integrating computer-based learning tools in science teaching and learning. This methodology provides a means of systematic analysis to identify the capabilities of particular software tools and to formulate a series of competencies relevant to physical science that could be developed by means…
Rees, Fred J.; Michelis, Rainer M.
Examines relationships between musical information processed by a computer-based sound analysis system and the audiovisual record of a performer's response to musical assignments. Concludes that computer analysis permits identification of performance behavior. Suggests that a database could be designed to provide both diagnostic response to…
Little, Glenn A.; And Others
This report documents a computer-based gaming system for assessing recognition performance (RECOG). The game management system is programmed in a modular manner to: instruct the student on how to play the game, retrieve and display individual images, keep track of how well individuals play and provide them feedback, and link these components by…
Burk, C. F., Jr.
The publication of papers describing activity in computer-based storage and retrieval and geoscience information has continued at a vigorous pace since release of the last bibliography, which covered the period 1946-69 (ED 076 203). A total of 211 references are identified, nearly all of which were published during the three-year period 1970-72…
Ownby, Raymond L.; Czaja, Sara J.; Loewenstein, David; Rubert, Mark
Purpose: The purposes of this study were (a) to identify cognitive abilities and other factors related to successful completion of training for computer-based tasks that simulated real jobs and (b) to create a brief assessment battery useful in assessing older adults for these kinds of jobs. Design and Methods: Participants from three age groups…
Van Gerven, Pascal W. M.; Paas, Fred; Tabbers, Huib K.
In this article, the most relevant literature on cognitive aging and instructional design is merged to formulate recommendations for designing computer-based training material aimed at elderly learners. The core message is that researchers and instructional designers do not need to develop special computerized instruction for older adults. Rather,…
Kenny, Richard F.
Research literature pertaining to the use of instructional organizers is reviewed, and a comparative analysis is made of their effectiveness with computer-based instruction (CBI). One of the earliest forms of instructional organizer is the advance organizer, first proposed by David Ausubel (1960, 1963) which is meant to facilitate the retention of…
A formative computer-based assessment (CBA) was one of three instruments used for assessment in a Bachelor of Education course at Queen's University (Ontario, Canada) with an enrolment of approximately 700 students. The formative framework fostered a self-regulated learning environment whereby feedback on the CBA was used to support rather than…
USM piloted the Math Zone in Spring 2007, a computer-based program in teaching MAT 101 and MAT 099 in order to improve student performance. This research determined the effect of the re-design of MAT 101 on student achievements in comparison to a traditional approach to the same course. Meanwhile, the study investigated possible effects of the…
A computer-based training (CBT) system was designed to train learners to recognize six styles of 18th century American antique chairs. The project consisted of five phases. The first phase consisted of a needs analysis to determine the training needs for the target population. Three groups of learners were identified: antique sales personnel,…
Luecht, Richard M.
Computer-based testing (CBT) is typically implemented using one of three general test delivery models: (1) multiple fixed testing (MFT); (2) computer-adaptive testing (CAT); or (3) multistage testing (MSTs). This article reviews some of the real cost drivers associated with CBT implementation--focusing on item production costs, the costs…
Walker, Bonnie L.; Harrington, Susan S.
Residential care board members, administrators, and caregivers were randomly assisted to injury prevention training: 38 computer based, 40 instructor led. Both groups significantly increased knowledge. The computer group enjoyed the training and had no difficulties even if they lacked computer experience. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)
Rosen, Yigal; Tager, Maryam
Major educational initiatives in the world place great emphasis on fostering rich computer-based environments of assessment that make student thinking and reasoning visible. Using thinking tools engages students in a variety of critical and complex thinking, such as evaluating, analyzing, and decision making. The aim of this study was to explore…
Givhan, Shawn T.
This dissertation study chronicles the creation of a computer-based, asynchronously delivered diversity training course for a state agency. The course format enabled efficient delivery of a mandatory curriculum to the Massachusetts Department of State Police workforce. However, the asynchronous format posed a challenge to achieving the learning…
Kendricks, Kimberly D.
Significant research in K-12 education has shown that computer based learning in mathematics positively impacts students' attitudes toward mathematics and greatly increases academic performance. Little research has shown, however, how this success can be replicated in a postsecondary classroom for minority students. This paper is a case study that…
Breland, Hunter; Lee, Yong-Won
The objective of the present investigation was to examine the comparability of writing prompts for different gender groups in the context of the computer-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]-CBT). A total of 87 prompts administered from July 1998 through March 2000 were analyzed. An extended version of logistic regression for…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a computer-based story, which was designed in anchored instruction framework, on sixth-grade students' mathematics word problem-solving achievement. Problems were embedded in a story presented on a computer as computer story, and then compared with the paper-based version of the same story…
Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Shih, Chang-Ming
It generally is accepted that concept mapping has a noticeable impact on learning. But literatures show the use of concept mapping is not benefit all learners. The present study explored the effects of incorporating computer-based concept mapping in physics instruction. A total of 61 9th-grade students participated in this study. By using a…
Ponce, Hector R.; Mayer, Richard E.; Lopez, Mario J.
This article explores the effectiveness of a computer-based spatial learning strategy approach for improving reading comprehension and writing. In reading comprehension, students received scaffolded practice in translating passages into graphic organizers. In writing, students received scaffolded practice in planning to write by filling in graphic…
Dobson, Douglas; Cook, Thomas J.
A major problem in social science research is that of successfully carrying out the random assignment of persons to experimental and control groups. In this study a computer-based random assignment procedure operated successfully on a weekly basis for 17 consecutive weeks in a program serving over 360 ex-offenders. (CTM)
Waugh, Michael L.
Designed to investigate whether or not science teachers can positively influence student achievement in, and attitude toward, science, this study focused on a specific teaching strategy and utilization of a computer-based simulation. The software package used in the study was the simulation, Volcanoes, by Earthware Computer Services. The sample…
Proske, Antje; Narciss, Susanne; McNamara, Danielle S.
Research on expert performance suggests that deliberate practice provides optimal opportunities for expertise development. This study examined whether the provision of computer-based scaffolding (CBS) guiding deliberate practice facilitates students' development of writing expertise. A CBS environment "escribo" was designed to externally…
Heckler, Andrew F.; Mikula, Brendon D.
In experiments including over 450 university-level students, we studied the effectiveness and time efficiency of several levels of feedback complexity in simple, computer-based training utilizing static question sequences. The learning domain was simple vector math, an essential skill in introductory physics. In a unique full factorial design, we…
Song, Hyuksoon S.; Kalet, Adina L.; Plass, Jan L.
We developed a Self-Regulation Measure for Computer-based learning (SRMC) tailored toward medical students, by modifying Zimmerman's Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) for K-12 learners. The SRMC's reliability and validity were examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 109 first-year medical students were asked to complete the SRMC.…
Bennett, R. E.; Goodman, M.; Hessinger, J.; Kahn, H.; Ligget, J.; Marshall, G.; Zack, J.
Discusses the use of multimedia in large-scale computer-based testing programs to measure problem solving and related cognitive constructs more effectively. Considers the incorporation of dynamic stimuli such as audio, video, and animation, and gives examples in history, physical education, and the sciences. (Author/LRW)
Stephenson, Stanley D.
Recent work in small-group computer-based training (CBT) reveals that the approach does not necessarily lead to higher achievement. Many of the studies, however, have methodological weaknesses. If proper guidance and structure can be provided to group members, using small group CBT should lead to higher achievement than individual CBT. (Contains…
Herl, H. E.; O'Neil, H. F., Jr.; Chung, G. K. W. K.; Schacter, J.
Presents results from two computer-based knowledge-mapping studies developed by the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST): in one, middle and high school students constructed group maps while collaborating over a network, and in the second, students constructed individual maps while searching the Web.…
Azevedo, Roger; And Others
This paper explains the rationale for utilizing computer-based, hypermedia tutorials for radiology education and presents the results of a field test of this educational technique. It discusses the development of the hypermedia tutorials at Montreal General Hospital (Quebec, Canada) in 1991-92 and their use in the radiology residency program. The…
This book helps readers imagine new instructional possibilities, try new classroom activities, and question their own teaching--learning process through the use of computers to support student literacy growth. Maureen Carroll shares her study of how one teacher and her elementary-grade students integrated computer-based literacy instruction into…
This study explores and describes different viewpoints on Computer Based Assessment (CBA) by using Q methodology to identify perspectives of students and instructors and classify these into perceptional typologies. Thirty undergraduate students taking CBA courses and fifteen instructors adopting CBA into their curriculum at a university in Korea,…
Juarez Collazo, Norma A.; Corradi, David; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine
Research has documented the use of tools in computer-based learning environments as problematic, that is, learners do not use the tools and when they do, they tend to do it suboptimally. This study attempts to disentangle cause and effect of this suboptimal tool use for experienced learners. More specifically, learner variables (metacognitive and…
Olori, Abiola Lateef; Igbosanu, Adekunle Olusegun
The study was carried out to determine the use of computer-based multimedia presentation on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science. The study was a quasi-experimental, pre-test, post-test control group research design type, using intact classes. A sample of eighty (80) Senior Secondary School One (SS II) students was…
Hosizah; Kuntoro; Basuki N., Hari
The computer-based information system (CBIS) is adopted by almost all of in health care setting, including the primary health center in East Java Province Indonesia. Some of softwares available were SIMPUS, SIMPUSTRONIK, SIKDA Generik, e-puskesmas. Unfortunately they were most of the primary health center did not successfully implemented. This…
Kim, Scott Sungki
The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…
Marks, Anthony M.; Cronje, Johannes C.
Computer-based assessments are becoming more commonplace, perhaps as a necessity for faculty to cope with large class sizes. These tests often occur in large computer testing venues in which test security may be compromised. In an attempt to limit the likelihood of cheating in such venues, randomised presentation of items is automatically…
Furberg, Anniken; Kluge, Anders; Ludvigsen, Sten
This paper reports on a study of students' conceptual sensemaking with science diagrams within a computer-based learning environment aimed at supporting collaborative learning. Through the microanalysis of students' interactions in a project about energy and heat transfer, we demonstrate "how" representations become productive social and cognitive…
Johnson, Douglas A.; Rubin, Sophie
Computer-based instruction (CBI) has been growing rapidly as a training tool in organizational settings, but close attention to behavioral factors has often been neglected. CBI represents a promising instructional advancement over current training methods. This review article summarizes 12 years of comparative research in interactive…
Behnke, Carl; Greenan, James P.
This study examined the relationship between postsecondary students' emotional-social intelligence and attitudes toward computer-based instructional materials. Research indicated that emotions and emotional intelligence directly impact motivation, while instructional design has been shown to impact student attitudes and subsequent engagement with…
Simpson, Tamara; Camfield, David; Pipingas, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Stough, Con
In an increasingly aging population, a number of adults are concerned about declines in their cognitive abilities. Online computer-based cognitive training programs have been proposed as an accessible means by which the elderly may improve their cognitive abilities; yet, more research is needed in order to assess the efficacy of these programs. In…
Corbin, John, Ed.
The computer-based procedures described in this report form the basis of book acquisitions performed by the Automation and Technical Services Division in serving the Learning Resources Centers of the multi-campus Tarrant County Junior College District. The procedures, which are off-line in a batch mode, have been operational since 1968. Since 1970…
Marshall, Neil; Buteau, Chantal
As part of their undergraduate mathematics curriculum, students at Brock University learn to create and use computer-based tools with dynamic, visual interfaces, called Exploratory Objects, developed for the purpose of conducting pure or applied mathematical investigations. A student's Development Process Model of creating and using an Exploratory…
Jamil, Mubashrah; Tariq, R. H.; Shami, P. A.
This research reported teachers' perceptions about computer-based (CB) vs. paper-based (PB) examinations. Teachers were divided into 7 major categories i.e., gender, departments, designations, qualifications, teaching experiences, computer training certifications and CB examination experiences, which were the key factors to be observed and…
Shamir, Haya; Johnson, Erin Phinney
This paper presents an effectiveness study of a computer-based English reading program, the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), among first and second grade students in Israel. Students who used the program were compared to a control group only receiving English as a foreign language (EFL) instruction as part of the school curriculum. First…
McMinn, Mark R.; Ellens, Brent M.; Soref, Erez
Surveyed 364 members of the Society for Personality Assessment to determine how they use computer-based test interpretation software (CBTI) in their work, and their perspectives on the ethics of using CBTI. Psychologists commonly use CBTI for test scoring, but not to formulate a case or as an alternative to a written report. (SLD)
Kumar, David D.; Helgeson, Stanley L.
Studies the effect of gender on a computer-based approach to solving stoichiometric chemical equations. Implies that the feedback provided by the software might have had an effect on reducing the gender gap. However, upon closer examination, the results showed that the correctness means for males were higher than that for females, and the rate of…
Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Chen, Wei-Fan
This experimental study investigated whether computer-based video games facilitate children's cognitive learning. In comparison to traditional computer-assisted instruction (CAI), this study explored the impact of the varied types of instructional delivery strategies on children's learning achievement. One major research null hypothesis was…
Maynes, Bill; And Others
For over a decade, the University of Alberta's Educational Policy Studies Department has been developing and using computer-based simulations of the principalship. The program successfully invites students to suspend disbelief and engage in the simulations (interruptions, investigations, and walking tours) as though they were real work. Recent…
Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.
This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…
Yilmaz, Nursel; Alici, Sule
The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' attitudes towards using Computer Based Education (CBE) while implementing science activities. More specifically, the present study examined the effect of different variables such as gender, year in program, experience in preschool, owing a computer, and the…
Reisslein, Jana; Atkinson, Robert K.; Reisslein, Martin
This study investigated whether it was more beneficial to provide the learners in computer-based learning environments access to on demand (self-regulated) help after they committed an error in problem solving or for the learning environment to externally regulate the presentation of instructional help. Furthermore, two different resentational…
Reisslein, Jana; Atkinson, Robert K.; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin
This study examined the effectiveness of a computer-based environment employing three example-based instructional procedures (example-problem, problem-example, and fading) to teach series and parallel electrical circuit analysis to learners classified by two levels of prior knowledge (low and high). Although no differences between the…
Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.
This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…
A randomized controlled trial of the computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for children (CoTras-C) to examine cognitive function and visual perception in children with developmental disabilities
Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for children with developmental disabilities. [Subjects] Subjects included 29 children with developmental disabilities. [Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental group or control group. Experimental group subjects received computer-based cognitive rehabilitation using the CoTras-C while control group subjects received conventional cognitive rehabilitation. All subjects received 20 sessions (2 days a week for 10 weeks) of the experimental or control intervention for 30 minutes. To compare the two groups, the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children were performed before and after the intervention. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in their scores after intervention. Additionally, there were significant differences in the scores between the two groups. [Conclusion] The computer-based cognitive rehabilitation with CoTras-C may be helpful in improving the recovery of cognitive function and visual perception in children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26834318
A randomized controlled trial of the computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for children (CoTras-C) to examine cognitive function and visual perception in children with developmental disabilities.
Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for children with developmental disabilities. [Subjects] Subjects included 29 children with developmental disabilities. [Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental group or control group. Experimental group subjects received computer-based cognitive rehabilitation using the CoTras-C while control group subjects received conventional cognitive rehabilitation. All subjects received 20 sessions (2 days a week for 10 weeks) of the experimental or control intervention for 30 minutes. To compare the two groups, the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children were performed before and after the intervention. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in their scores after intervention. Additionally, there were significant differences in the scores between the two groups. [Conclusion] The computer-based cognitive rehabilitation with CoTras-C may be helpful in improving the recovery of cognitive function and visual perception in children with developmental disabilities.
Rothman, Alan H.
This study reports the results of research designed to examine the impact of computer-based science instruction on elementary school level students' science content achievement, their attitude about science learning, their level of critical thinking-inquiry skills, and their level of cognitive and English language development. The study compared these learning outcomes resulting from a computer-based approach compared to the learning outcomes from a traditional, textbook-based approach to science instruction. The computer-based approach was inherent in a curriculum titled The Voyage of the Mimi , published by The Bank Street College Project in Science and Mathematics (1984). The study sample included 209 fifth-grade students enrolled in three schools in a suburban school district. This sample was divided into three groups, each receiving one of the following instructional treatments: (a) Mixed-instruction primarily based on the use of a hardcopy textbook in conjunction with computer-based instructional materials as one component of the science course; (b) Non-Traditional, Technology-Based -instruction fully utilizing computer-based material; and (c) Traditional, Textbook-Based-instruction utilizing only the textbook as the basis for instruction. Pre-test, or pre-treatment, data related to each of the student learning outcomes was collected at the beginning of the school year and post-test data was collected at the end of the school year. Statistical analyses of pre-test data were used as a covariate to account for possible pre-existing differences with regard to the variables examined among the three student groups. This study concluded that non-traditional, computer-based instruction in science significantly improved students' attitudes toward science learning and their level of English language development. Non-significant, positive trends were found for the following student learning outcomes: overall science achievement and development of critical thinking
Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Scherf, K. Suzanne
The design of "Serious games" that use game components (e.g., storyline, long-term goals, rewards) to create engaging learning experiences has increased in recent years. We examine of the core principles of serious game design and examine the current use of these principles in computer-based interventions for individuals with autism.…
Ghose, Supriyo; Parmar, Twinkle; Dada, Tanuj; Vanathi, Murugesan; Sharma, Sourabh
To evaluate a computer-based Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100-hue test and compare it with a manual FM 100-hue test in normal and congenital color-deficient individuals. Fifty color defective subjects and 200 normal subjects with a best-corrected visual acuity ≥ 6/12 were compared using a standard manual FM 100-hue test and a computer-based FM 100-hue test under standard operating conditions as recommended by the manufacturer after initial trial testing. Parameters evaluated were total error scores (TES), type of defect and testing time. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the test scores. Cohen's kappa was used to assess agreement of color defect classification between the two tests. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off score for the computer-based FM 100-hue test. The mean time was 16 ± 1.5 (range 6-20) min for the manual FM 100-hue test and 7.4 ± 1.4 (range 5-13) min for the computer-based FM 100-hue test, thus reducing testing time to <50 % (p < 0.05). For grading color discrimination, Pearson's correlation coefficient for TES between the two tests was 0.91 (p < 0.001). For color defect classification, Cohen's agreement coefficient was 0.98 (p < 0.01). The computer-based FM 100-hue is an effective and rapid method for detecting, classifying and grading color vision anomalies.
Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Theriault-Lauzier, Pascal; Piazza, Nicolo
Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease worldwide. Despite the widespread availability of curative surgical intervention, a considerable proportion of patients with severe mitral regurgitation are not referred for treatment, largely due to the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, advanced age, and comorbid illnesses. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement is a promising therapeutic alternative to traditional surgical valve replacement. The complex anatomical and pathophysiological nature of the mitral valvular complex, however, presents significant challenges to the successful design and implementation of novel transcatheter mitral replacement devices. Patient-specific 3-dimensional computer-based models enable accurate assessment of the mitral valve anatomy and preprocedural simulations for transcatheter therapies. Such information may help refine the design features of novel transcatheter mitral devices and enhance procedural planning. Herein, we describe a novel medical image-based processing tool that facilitates accurate, noninvasive assessment of the mitral valvular complex, by creating precise three-dimensional heart models. The 3-dimensional computer reconstructions are then converted to a physical model using 3-dimensional printing technology, thereby enabling patient-specific assessment of the interaction between device and patient. It may provide new opportunities for a better understanding of the mitral anatomy-pathophysiology-device interaction, which is of critical importance for the advancement of transcatheter mitral valve replacement.
Kim, Sunny J.; Marsch, Lisa A.; Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia
Background Although empirical evidence for the effectiveness of technology-mediated interventions for substance use disorders is rapidly growing, the role of baseline characteristics of patients in predicting treatment outcomes of a technology-based therapy is largely unknown. Method Participants were randomly assigned to either standard methadone maintenance treatment or reduced standard treatment combined with the computer-based Therapeutic Education System (TES). An array of demographic and behavioral characteristics of participants (N=160) were measured at baseline. Opioid abstinence and treatment retention were measured weekly for a 52-week intervention period. Generalized linear model and Cox-regression were used to estimate the predictive roles of baseline characteristics in predicting treatment outcomes. Results We found significant predictors of opioid abstinence and treatment retention within and across conditions. Among 21 baseline characteristics of participants, employment status, anxiety, and ambivalent attitudes toward substance use predicted better opioid abstinence in the reduced-standard-plus-TES condition compared to standard treatment. Participants who had used cocaine/crack in the past 30 days at baseline showed lower dropout rates in standard treatment, whereas those who had not used exhibited lower dropout rates in the reduced-standard-plus-TES condition. Conclusions This study is the first randomized controlled trial, evaluating over a 12-month period, how various aspects of participant characteristics impact outcomes for treatments that do or do not include technology-based therapy. Compared to standard alone treatment, including TES as part of the care was preferable for patients who were employed, highly anxious, and ambivalent about substance use and did not produce worse outcomes for any subgroups of participants. PMID:26433562
Yaw, Jared; Skinner, Christopher H.; Delisle, Jean; Skinner, Amy L.; Maurer, Kristin; Cihak, David; Wilhoit, Brian; Booher, Joshua
Working with elementary students with disabilities, we used alternating treatment designs to evaluate and compare the effects of 2 computer-based flash card sight-word reading interventions, 1 with 1-s response intervals and another with 5-s response intervals. In Study 1, we held instructional time constant, applying both interventions for 3?min.…
Crerar, M A; Ellis, A W; Dean, E C
Byng (1988) has argued that some aphasic patients who show problems in sentence comprehension are unable to "map" a syntactic analysis of the sentence form onto the thematic roles specified by the verb or preposition in the sentence. In Byng's study, therapy aimed at improving the mapping process as applied to sentences containing locative prepositions led to improvements not only in the comprehension of such sentences but also in the comprehension of reversible verb sentences. In the present study, 14 aphasic patients were selected for having problems with sentence-picture matching involving reversible verb and preposition sentences. These problems were shown to be stable across three pre-intervention assessments. All assessments were computer-based and involved the matching of written sentences to pictures. A small vocabulary was used in assessment and therapy which involved a "microworld" of three characters (ball, box, and star) which could engage in a limited number of actions and could occupy a limited set of spatial relationships. Before therapy began, all the patients were given an assessment battery which included a 40-item Verb Test and a 40-item Preposition Test. The patients were then divided into two groups, A and B. Group A received two 1-hr sessions of therapy per week for 3 weeks aimed at improving the comprehension of verb sentences, then a second full assessment, followed by the same amount of therapy aimed at improving the comprehension of preposition sentences, and finally a third assessment. Group B received the preposition therapy first, followed by the verb therapy. The therapy involved the patient and therapist interacting with the computer, either assembling pictures to match written sentences ("picture-building mode") or assembling sentences to match pictures ("sentence-building mode"). Group A showed a classical "cross-over" treatment outcome. Performance on treated verb sentences improved during verb therapy and was retained when therapy
Buitenweg, Jessika I. V.; Schmand, Ben; Veltman, Dick J.; Aaronson, Justine A.; Nijboer, Tanja C. W.; Kruiper-Doesborgh, Suzanne J. C.; van Bennekom, Coen A. M.; Rasquin, Sascha M. C.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Murre, Jaap M. J.
Background Brain training is currently widely used in an attempt to improve cognitive functioning. Computer-based training can be performed at home and could therefore be an effective add-on to available rehabilitation programs aimed at improving cognitive functioning. Several studies have reported cognitive improvements after computer training, but most lacked proper active and passive control conditions. Objective Our aim was to investigate whether computer-based cognitive flexibility training improves executive functioning after stroke. We also conducted within-group analyses similar to those used in previous studies, to assess inferences about transfer effects when comparisons to proper control groups are missing. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled, double blind trial. Adults (30–80 years old) who had suffered a stroke within the last 5 years were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 38), active control group (i.e., mock training; n = 35), or waiting list control group (n = 24). The intervention and mock training consisted of 58 half-hour sessions within a 12-week period. Cognitive functioning was assessed using several paper-and-pencil and computerized neuropsychological tasks before the training, immediately after training, and 4 weeks after training completion. Results and conclusions Both training groups improved on training tasks, and all groups improved on several transfer tasks (three executive functioning tasks, attention, reasoning, and psychomotor speed). Improvements remained 4 weeks after training completion. However, the amount of improvement in executive and general cognitive functioning in the intervention group was similar to that of both control groups (active control and waiting list). Therefore, this improvement was likely due to training-unspecific effects. Our results stress the importance to include both active and passive control conditions in the study design and analyses. Results from studies without proper control
Langdon, Danny G.
Describes a systematic approach to selecting instructional designs, discussing performance analysis, gaps, elements (inputs, conditions, process, outputs, consequences, feedback), matrices, changes in performance state (establishing, improving, maintaining, and extinguishing performance), intervention interference, and involving others in…
Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar
Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery.
Brooks, D. R.; Cunningham, L. E.
The current state of minor planet ephemerides was assessed, and the means for providing and updating these emphemerides for use by both the mission planner and the astronomer were developed. A system of obtaining data for all the numbered minor planets was planned, and computer programs for its initial mechanization were developed. The computer based system furnishes the osculating elements for all of the numbered minor planets at an adopted date of October 10, 1972, and at every 400 day interval over the years of interest. It also furnishes the perturbations in the rectangular coordinates relative to the osculating elements at every 4 day interval. Another computer program was designed and developed to integrate the perturbed motion of a group of 50 minor planets simultaneously. Sampled data resulting from the operation of the computer based systems are presented.
This report presents a high-level overview of a general strategy to mitigate the risks from threats to safety-critical computer-based systems. In this context, a safety threat is a process or phenomenon that can cause operational safety hazards in the form of computational system failures. This report is intended to provide insight into the safety-risk mitigation problem and the characteristics of potential solutions. The limitations of the general risk mitigation strategy are discussed and some options to overcome these limitations are provided. This work is part of an ongoing effort to enable well-founded assurance of safety-related properties of complex safety-critical computer-based aircraft systems by developing an effective capability to model and reason about the safety implications of system requirements and design.
Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn
Background Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. Objective The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Methods Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Results Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however
Kampfner, Roberto R
The structure of a system influences its adaptability. An important result of adaptability theory is that subsystem independence increases adaptability [Conrad, M., 1983. Adaptability. Plenum Press, New York]. Adaptability is essential in systems that face an uncertain environment such as biological systems and organizations. Modern organizations are the product of human design. And so it is their structure and the effect that it has on their adaptability. In this paper we explore the potential effects of computer-based information processing on the adaptability of organizations. The integration of computer-based processes into the dynamics of the functions they support and the effect it has on subsystem independence are especially relevant to our analysis.
Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M.; Grotzer, Tina A.
Objective Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction. PMID:25518871
Game Testing Softwiare Tools 1S *AhCZ XPP .. w o Awex &w awe *a% -This report documents a computer-based gaming sytem for uassesing recog- nition...then, pro- vides a set of software tools which can be used by others who want to assess recognition performance. The software for the complete gaming...this set of software tools for either research, development, or operational implementation will have an easier time comprehending the modularity of
Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L
Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme.
to growing operational constraints accelerated by the Global War on Terror, the United States Navy is looking for alternative methods of training to...accomplished efficiently and effectively, saving the U.S. Navy time and resources while maintaining a high state of readiness. The goal of this thesis is...COMPUTER-BASED INSTRUCTION AND X3D SIMULATION Wilfredo Cruzbaez Lieutenant, United States Navy B.A., Norfolk State University, 2001 Submitted in
NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION U.S. Army Research Institute, PERI-MB ^ c ADDRESS (Ofy, State, and ZIP Code) San Diego, CA 92152-6800 7b...COMPARING ALTERNATIVE COMPUTER-BASED METHODS FOR PRESENTING 30B TASK INSTRUCTIONS William A. Nugent Approved by Richard C . Sorenson Released by B. E...RELATED SUPPORT EQUIPMENT B-0 APPENDIX C -EXAMPLE OF A PERFORMANCE OBSERVATION FORM C -0 APPENDIX D-EXAMINEE WORKSHEET FORM D-0 APPENDIX E
This paper presents the results of a content and concurrent criterion-related validity study conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for clerical, secretarial and administrative classifications using computer-based testing. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of testing software incorporated in the study are explored. Job analysis methodology, adverse impact analysis, procedure for establishing cut-off score and problems associated with criterion development and restriction of range are discussed. 6 tabs.
Okopi, Fidel Onjefu; Odeyemi, Olajumoke Janet; Adesina, Adewale
The study has identified the areas of strengths and weaknesses in the current use of Computer Based Learning (CBL) tools in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions in Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, the following research questions were proposed: (i) What are the computer-based learning tools (soft and hard ware) that are actually in…
Foxcroft, Cheryl D.; Davies, Caroline
The increased use of computer-based and Internet-delivered testing has raised a number of ethical and legal issues. The International Test Commission's (this issue) Guidelines for Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing represent the most recent attempt to provide test users, publishers, and developers with guidance regarding the appropriate…
Stricker, L. J.
The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…
Yu, Lei; Livingston, Samuel A.; Larkin, Kevin C.; Bonett, John
This study compared essay scores from paper-based and computer-based versions of a writing test for prospective teachers. Scores for essays in the paper-based version averaged nearly half a standard deviation higher than those in the computer-based version, after applying a statistical control for demographic differences between the groups of…