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Sample records for computer-enhanced erts imagery

  1. Pseudocolor transformation of ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. V.; Merifield, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    One of the photographic techniques which shows great promise as an aid in interpreting ERTS imagery is pseudocolor transformation. It is a process where each shade of gray in an original black-and-white image is seen as a different color in the transformation. The well known ERTS-1 MSS image of the Monterey Bay-San Francisco area was transformed using a technique which requires only two intermediate separations. Possible faults were delineated on an overlay of the transformation before referring to geologic maps. The results were quite remarkable in that all large active or recently active faults shown on the latest geologic map of California were interpreted from the image for all, or much, of their length. Perhaps the most interesting result was the Reliz fault. The fault is shown as covered; however, a lineation corresponding to the position of the fault is visible on the image. The usefulness of ERTS image in identifying recently active faults is demonstrable. Although the faults are also visible in the unenhanced image, they are clearly accentuated and more easily mapped on the pseudocolor transformation.

  2. Afar and ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The excellent ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar region of Ethiopia permits a preliminary revision to the analysis of the structures of this triple-rift junction, and also revisions to the outcrops of some lithological formations. The fault-belts of the Afar floor can now be mapped in fine detail. The Danakil horst is identified to be limited on its western side against Afar by a major fault-line, and it seems unlikely that the horst is the exposed, easterly portion of a west-dipping sialic block underlying all northern Afar. The Salt Plain appears to be a true graben. The Ethiopian plateau-Afar margin consists of a series of right-offset sectors, the offsets being marked by silicic volcanic centers. The nature of these offsets is related to the vexed question of cross-rift faulting. Such faulting is identifiable on the ERTS-1 imagery, both on the Afar floor, and in the monoclinally warped western margin. The significance of this faulting, though subordinate to the tensional faults of the fault-belts, awaits elucidation.

  3. Water turbidity detection using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 images of two federal reservoirs in Kansas exhibit good correlation with suspended load. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery may prove useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  4. Digital rectification of ERTS multispectral imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rifman, S. S.

    1973-01-01

    Rectified ERTS multispectral imagery have been produced utilizing all digital techniques, as the first step toward producing precision corrected imagery. Errors arising from attitude and ephemeris sources have been corrected, and the resultant image is represented in a meter/meter mapping utilizing an intensity resampling technique. Early results from available data indicate negligible degradation of the photometric and resolution properties of the source data as a consequence of the geometric correction process. Work utilizing ground control points to produce precision rectified imagery, and including photometric corrections resulting from available sensor calibration data, is currently in progress.

  5. Application of ERTS imagery to geological mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, A.; Aranibar, O.; Ballon, P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In comparing the interpretation of the imagery with that of photomosaics, the following results were derived. The drainage networks of the RBV images show information in greater detail than the photomosaics, and maps, yet maintain scale differences. However, for the basins the mosaics and maps provide better information. The geomorphology is best interpreted in the images of the ERTS-1, not only for the regional countryside, but also for the morphological formations. It was concluded that the satellite images offer the better possibility for identifying the alignment of joints and faults. In the images the relation is 4 to 1. The considered N-S alignments were identified in both systems with a ratio of 2 to 1. The E-W alignments for the areas considered in the ERTS-1 images show a basic Paleozoic formation not previously detected.

  6. Seasonal vegetation differences from ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, M. D.; Rea, J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the times when crop and forest vegetation experience seasonally related changes in development is important in understanding growth and yield relationships. This article describes how densitometry of earth resources technology satellite (ERTS-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to identify such phenological events. Adjustments for instrument calibration, aperture size, gray-scale differences between overpasses, and normalization of changing solar elevation are considered in detail. Seasonal vegetation differences can be identified by densitometry of band 5 (0.6-0.7 microns) and band 7 (0.8-1.1 microns) MSS imagery. Band-to-band ratios of the densities depicted the changes more graphically than the individual band readings.

  7. Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

  8. ERTS-B imagery interpretation techniques in the Tennessee Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The proposed investigation is a continuation of an ERTS-1 project. The principal missions are to serve as the principal supporter on computer and image processing problems for the multidisciplinary ERTS effort of the University of Tennessee, and to carry out research in improved methods for the computer processing, enhancement, and recognition of ERTS imagery.

  9. The use of ERTS imagery in reservoir management and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 imagery suggests that the configuration and areal coverage of surface waters, as well as other hydrologically related terrain features, may be obtained from ERTS-1 imagery to an extent that would be useful. Computer-oriented pattern recognition techniques are being developed to help automate the identification and analysis of hydrologic features. Considerable man-machine interaction is required while training the computer for these tasks.

  10. Application of ERTS-1 Imagery to Flood Inundation Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, G. R.; Hoyer, B. E.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    Ground data and a variety of low-altitude multispectral imagery were acquired for the East Nishnabotna River on September 14 and 15. This successful effort concluded that a near-visible infrared sensor could map inundated areas in late summer for at least three days after flood recession. ERTS-1 multispectral scanner subsystem (MSS) imagery of the area was obtained on September 18 and 19. Analysis of MSS imagery by IGSRSL, USGS, and NASA reinforced the conclusions of the low-altitude study while increasing the time period critical for imagery acquisition to at least 7 days following flood recession. The capability of satellite imagery to map late summer flooding at a scale of 1:250,000 is exhibited by the agreement of interpreted flood boundaries obtained from ERTS-1 imagery to boundaries mapped by low-altitude imagery and ground methods.

  11. Environmental studies of Iceland with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Saemundsson, K.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite can be used to study geological and geophysical phenomena which are important in relation to Iceland's natural resources. Multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to map areas of altered ground, intense thermal emission, fallout from volcanic eruptions, lava flows, volcanic geomorphology, erosion or build-up of land, snow cover, the areal extent of glaciers and ice caps, etc. At least five distinct vegetation types and barren areas can be mapped using MSS false-color composites. Stereoscopic coverage of iceland by side-lapping ERTS imagery permits precise analysis of various natural phenomena.

  12. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Sheffield, C.; Russell, O.; Amato, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of all available (Gemini, Apollo, Nimbus, NASA aircraft) small scale snow covered imagery has been conducted to develop and refine snow enhancement techniques. A detailed photographic interpretation of ERTS-simulation imagery covering the Feather River/Lake Tahoe area was completed and the 580-680nm. band was determined to be the optimum band for fracture detection. ERTS-1 MSS bands 5 and 7 are best suited for detailed fracture mapping. The two bands should provide more complete fracture detail when utilized in combination. Analysis of early ERTS-1 data along with U-2 ERTS simulation imagery indicates that snow enhancement is a viable technique for geological fracture mapping. A wealth of fracture detail on snow-free terrain was noted during preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 images 1077-15005-6 and 7, 1077-15011-5 and 7, and 1079-15124-5 and 7. A direct comparison of data yield on snow-free versus snow-covered terrain will be conducted within these areas following receipt of snow-covered ERTS-1 imagery.

  13. Exploitation of ERTS-1 imagery utilizing snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    Photogeological analysis of ERTS-simulation and ERTS-1 imagery of snowcovered terrain within the ERAP Feather River site and within the New England (ERTS) test area provided new fracture detail which does not appear on available geological maps. Comparative analysis of snowfree ERTS-1 images has demonstrated that MSS Bands 5 and 7 supply the greatest amount of geological fracture detail. Interpretation of the first snow-covered ERTS-1 images in correlation with ground snow depth data indicates that a heavy blanket of snow (more than 9 inches) accentuates major structural features while a light "dusting", (less than 1 inch) accentuates more subtle topographic expressions. An effective mail-based method for acquiring timely ground-truth (snowdepth) information was established and provides a ready correlation of fracture detail with snow depth so as to establish the working limits of the technique. The method is both efficient and inexpensive compared with the cost of similarly scaled direct field observations.

  14. Delineation of major soil associations using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. L.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The delineation of a major soil association in the loess region of Obion County has been accomplished using ERTS-1 imagery. Channel 7 provides the clearest differentiation. The separation of other smaller soil associations in an intensive row crop agricultural area is somewhat more difficult. Soil differentiation has been accomplished visually as well as electronically using a scanning microdensitometer. Lower altitude aircraft imagery permits a more refined soil association identification and where imagery is of sufficient scale, even individual soils may be identified.

  15. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection and analysis of fracture systems can be more effectively conducted utilizing snow cover as an enhancement tool. From analysis within the Great Barrington Test Site it appears that the use of aeromagnetic data effectively supplements lineament data acquired using ERTS imagery. Coincidence of lineaments derived from aeromagnetics with lineaments interpreted from ERTS imagery apparently indicate the presence of mineralized fracture systems and dikes. Utilizing both tools can increase the speed and efficiency of mineral exploration and geological mapping in areas where bedrock is obscured by a thick unconsolidated sediment cover.

  16. Application of NASA ERTS-1 satellite imagery in coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T.; Berg, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Hallermeier, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Review of ERTS-1 imagery indicates that it contains information of great value in coastal engineering studies. A brief introduction is given to the methods by which imagery is generated, and examples of its application to coastal engineering. Specific applications discussed include study of the movement of coastal and nearshore sediment-laden water masses and information for planning and construction in remote areas of the world.

  17. Coastal applications of the ERTS-1 satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Samples are given of the possible applications of ERTS-1 imagery to coastal and nearshore studies. Briefly discussed are: (1) obtaining regional views of extended coastal areas; (2) distribution of sediments; (3) coastal configurations and changes; (4) barrier islands; (5) underwater penetration, and (6) coastal waves.

  18. ERTS-1 imagery and native plant distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. B.; Mcginnies, W.; Haase, E.; Lepley, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    A method is developed for using ERTS spectral signature data to determine plant community distribution and phenology without resolving individual plants. An Exotech ERTS radiometer was used near ground level to obtain spectral signatures for a desert plant community, including two shrub species, ground covered with live annuals in April and dead ones in June, and bare ground. It is shown that comparisons of scene types can be made when spectral signatures are expressed as a ratio of red reflectivity to IR reflectivity or when they are plotted as red reflectivity vs. IR reflectivity, in which case the signature clusters of each component are more distinct. A method for correcting and converting the ERTS radiance values to reflectivity values for comparison with ground truth data is appended.

  19. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in forest inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, J. C.; Birth, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    The utility of ERTS-1 imagery when combined with field observations and with aircraft imagery and field observations is evaluated. Satellite imagery consisted of 9-1/2 inch black and white negatives of four multispectral scanner bands taken over Polk County, Tennessee. Aircraft imagery was obtained by a C-130 flying at 23,000 ft over the same area and provided the basis for locating ground plots for field observations. Correspondence between aircraft and satellite imagery was somewhat inaccurate due to seasonal differences in observations and lack of good photogrammetry with the data processing system used. Better correspondence was found between satellite imagery and ground observations. Ways to obtain more accurate data are discussed, and comparisons between aircraft and satellite observations are tabulated.

  20. Geological evaluation and applications of ERTS-1 imagery over Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, S. M.; Jones, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 70mm and 9 x 9 film negatives are being used by conventional and color enhancement methods as a tool for geologic investigation. Geologic mapping and mineral exploration by conventional methods is very difficult in Georgia. Thick soil cover and heavy vegetation cause outcrops of bed rock to be small, rare and obscure. ERTS imagery, and remote sensing in general have helped delineate: (1) major tectonic boundaries; (2) lithologic contacts; (3) foliation trends; (4) topographic lineaments; and (5) faults. The ERTS-1 MSS imagery yields the greatest amount of geologic information on the Piedomont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Provinces of Georgia where topography is strongly controlled by the bedrock geology. ERTS imagery, and general remote sensing techniques, have provided us with a powerful tool to assist geologic research; have significantly increased the mapping efficiency of our field geologists; have shown new lineaments associated with known shear and fault zones; have delineated new structural features; have provided a tool to re-evaluate our tectonic history; have helped to locate potential ground water sources and areas of aquifer recharge; have defined areas of geologic hazards; have shown areas of heavy siltation in major reservoirs; and by its close interval repetition, have aided in monitoring surface mine reclamation activities and the environmental protection of our intricate marshland system.

  1. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T.; Berg, D. W.; Hallermeier, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The basic ERTS output is four black-and-white photographs presenting the same scene recorded in each multispectral scanner band. Mosaics covering large regions at a 1:250,000 scale can be compiled from these photographs. Office study of the image of each band separately, in combination with other bands, and in conjunction with other available data (navigation charts, tide tables, etc.) permits extraction of data useful in coastal engineering planning and coastal processes studies. Specific examples in which significant information on regional shoreline configuration or nearshore water movements has been obtained from unenhanced ERTS imagery are: (1) tidal inlet configuration; (2) navigation information; and (3) nearshore water movements.

  2. Water depth estimation with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced 9.5 inch ERTS-1 images were produced for an investigation on ocean water color. Such images lend themselves to water depth estimation by photographic and electronic density contouring. MSS-4 and -5 images of the Great Bahama Bank were density sliced by both methods. Correlation was found between the MSS-4 image and a hydrographic chart at 1:467,000 scale, in a number of areas corresponding to water depth of less than 2 meters, 5 to 10 meters and 10 to about 20 meters. The MSS-5 image was restricted to depths of about 2 meters. Where reflective bottom and clear water are found, ERTS-1 MSS-4 images can be used with density contouring by electronic or photographic methods for estimating depths to 5 meters within about one meter.

  3. Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery: Lake Champlain and Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O.; Henson, E. B.; Pelton, J. O.

    1973-01-01

    Environmental concerns of the State of Vermont currently being stressed include water quality in Lake Champlain and a state-wide land use and capability plan. Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 relate directly to the above concerns. Industrial water pollution and turbidity in Lake Champlain have been identified and mapped and the ERTS pollution data will be used in the developing court suit which Vermont has initiated against the polluters. ERTS imagery has also provided a foundation for updating and revising land use inventories. Major classes of land use have been identified and mapped, and substantial progress has been made toward the mapping of such land use divisions as crop and forest type, and wetlands.

  4. Arctic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Mckim, H. L.; Gatto, L. W.; Haugen, R. K.; Crowder, W. K.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of distinguishing and monitoring estuarine surface water circulation patterns and changes in the relative sediment load of discharging rivers on a regional basis. Physical boundaries mapped from ERTS-1 imagery in combination with ground truth obtained from existing small scale maps and other sources resulted in improved and more detailed maps of permafrost terrain and vegetation for the same area. Snowpack cover within a research watershed has been analyzed and compared to ground data. Large river icings along the proposed Alaska pipeline route from Prudhoe Bay to the Brooks Range have been monitored. Sea ice deformation and drift northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska have been measured during a four day period in March and shore-fast ice accumulation and ablation along the west coast of Alaska have been mapped for the spring and early summer seasons.

  5. Semi-automatic crop inventory from sequential ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The detection of a newly introduced crop into the Imperial (California) Valley by sequential ERTS-1 imagery is proving that individual crop types can be identified by remote sensing techniques. Initial results have provided an extremely useful product for water agencies. A system for the identification of field conditions enables the production of a statistical summary within two to three days of receipt of the ERTS-1 imagery. The summary indicates the total acreage of producing crops and irrigated planted crops currently demanding water and further indicates freshly plowed fields that will be demanding water in the near future. Relating the field conditions to the crop calendar of the region by means of computer techniques will provide specific crop identification for the 8000 plus fields.

  6. Mapping Atlantic coastal marshlands, Maryland, Georgia, using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Eastern coastal marshes are the most extensive and productive in the United States. A relatively low cost, moderately accurate method is needed to map these areas for management and protection. Groundbased and low-altitude aircraft methods for mapping are time-consuming and quite expensive. The launch of NASA's Earth Resources Technology Satellite has provided an opportunity to test the feasibility of mapping wetlands using small scale imagery. The test sites selected were in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and Ossabaw Island, Georgia. Results of the investigation indicate that the following may be ascertained from ERTS imagery, enlarged to 1:250,000: (1) upper wetland boundary; (2) drainage pattern in the wetland; (3) plant communities; (4) ditching activities associated with agriculture; and (5) lagooning for water-side home development. Conclusions are that ERTS will be an excellent tool for many types of coastal wetland mapping.

  7. Structural lineaments of Gaspe from ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffensen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A test study was conducted to assess the value of ERTS images for mapping geologic features of the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to ascertain the best procedure to follow in order to obtain valuable geologic data as a result of interpretation; and 2) to indicate in which way these data could relate to mineral exploration. Of the four spectral bands of the Multispectral scanner, the band from 700 to 800 nanometers, which seems to possess the best informational content for geologic study, was selected for analysis. The original ERTS image at a scale of 1:3,700,000 was enlarged about 15 times and reproduced on film. Geologically meaningful lines, called structural lineaments, were outlined and classified according to five categories: morpho-lithologic boundaries, morpho-lithologic lineaments, fault traces, fracture zones and undefined lineaments. Comparison with the geologic map of Gaspe shows that morpho-lithologic boundaries correspond to contacts between regional stratigraphic units. Morpholithologic lineaments follow bedding trends, whereas fracture traces appear as sets of parallel lineaments, intersecting at high angles the previous category of lineaments. Fault traces mark more precisely the location of faults already mapped and spot the presence of presumable faults, not indicated on the geologic map.

  8. ERTS imagery applied to Alaskan coastal problems. [surface water circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F.; Sharma, G. D.; Burbank, D. C.; Burns, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Along the Alaska coast, surface water circulation is relatively easy to study with ERTS imagery. Highly turbid river water, sea ice, and fluvial ice have proven to be excellent tracers of the surface waters. Sea truth studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay, and the Bering Strait area have established the reliability of these tracers. ERTS imagery in the MSS 4 and 5 bands is particularly useful for observing lower concentrations of suspended sediment, while MSS 6 data is best for the most concentrated plumes. Ice features are most clearly seen on MSS 7 imagery; fracture patterns and the movement of specific floes can be used to map circulation in the winter when runoff is restricted, if appropriate allowance is made for wind influence. Current patterns interpreted from satellite data are only two-dimensional, but since most biological activity and pollution are concentrated near the surface, the information developed can be of direct utility. Details of Alaska inshore circulation of importance to coastal engineering, navigation, pollution studies, and fisheries development have been clarified with satellite data. ERTS has made possible the analysis of circulation in many parts of the Alaskan coast.

  9. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New fracture detail within New England test area has been interpreted from ERTS-1 images. Comparative analysis of snow-free imagery (1096-15065 and 1096-15072) has demonstrated that MSS bands 5 and 7 supply the greatest amount of geological fracture detail. Interpretation of the first snow-covered ERTS-1 images (1132-15074 and 1168-15065) in correlation with ground snow depth data indicates that a heavy blanket of snow (less than 9 inches) accentuates major structural features while a light dusting (greater than 1 inch) accentuates more subtle topographic expressions. Snow cover was found to accentuate drainage patterns which are indicative of lithological and/or structural variations. Snow cover provided added enhancement for viewing and detecting topographically expressed fractures and faults. A recent field investigation was conducted within the New England test area to field check lineaments observed from analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, collect snow depth readings, and obtain structural joint readings at key locations in the test area.

  10. Artic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. Cold regions environmental analysis based on ERTS-1 imagery (preprint)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M. (Principal Investigator); Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L.; Mckim, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An overriding problem in arctic and subarctic environmental research has been the absence of long-term observational data and the sparseness of geographical coverage of existing data. A first look report is presented on the use of ERTS-1 imagery as a major tool in two large area environmental studies: (1) investigation of sedimentation and other nearshore marine processes in Cook Inlet, Alaska; and (2) a regional study of permafrost regimes in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Alaska. These studies incorporate ground truth acquisition techniques that are probably similar to most ERTS investigations. Studies of oceanographic processes in Cook Inlet will be focused on seasonal changes in nearshore bathymetry, tidal and major current circulation patterns, and coastal sedimentation processes, applicable to navigation, construction, and maintenance of harbors. Analyses will be made of the regional permafrost distribution and regimes in the Upper Koyukuk-Kobuk River area located in NW Alaska.

  11. Natural resources inventory and monitoring in Oregon with ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, G. H.; Paine, D. P.; Poulton, C. E.; Lawrence, R. D.; Sherzog, J. H.; Murray, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Multidiscipline team interpretation of ERTS satellite and highflight imagery is providing resource and land use information needed for land use planning in Oregon. A coordinated inventory of geology, soil-landscapes, forest and range vegetation, and land use for Crook County, illustrates the value of this approach for broad area and state planning. Other applications include mapping fault zones, inventory of forest clearcut areas, location of forest insect damage, and monitoring irrigation development. Computer classification is being developed for use in conjunction with visual interpretation.

  12. Geologic hypotheses of Lake Tanganyika region, Zaire, drawn from ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolyce, U.; Ilunga, S.

    1974-01-01

    Based on initial work in the Lake Tanganyika area of eastern Zaire, it has been concluded that ERTS imagery is extremely useful for reconnaissance level geologic mapping and analysis in this region of the humid tropics. In particular, ERTS imagery has proven useful for recognizing and mapping regional structural units, for recognizing major structural features, and for arriving at some preliminary hypotheses about the mineral potential of the area. Results so far indicate that ERTS imagery can make a major contribution to the development of the mineral resources of the country. Research has concentrated on applications of ERTS imagery in the field of cartography, geology, forestry, hydrology and agriculture. For the work in geology, a test site was chosen in eastern Zaire on the shore of Lake Tanganyika in the vicinity of the Lukuga River. This area was selected because of its varied geology and the existence of two frames of cloud-free ERTS imagery.

  13. Remote sensing of ocean currents using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Major ocean currents such as the Loop Current in the eastern Gulf of Mexico have surface manifestations which can be exploited for remote sensing. Surface chlorophyll-a concentrations, which contribute to the shift in color from blue to green in the open sea, were found to have high spatial variability; significantly lower concentrations were observed in the current. The cyclonic edge of the current is an accumulation zone which causes a peak in chlorophyll concentration. The dynamics also cause surface concentrations of algae, which have a high reflectance in the near infrared. Combining these observations gives rise to an edge effect which can show up as a bright lineation on multispectral imagery delimiting the current's boundary under certain environmental conditions. When high seas introduce bubbles, white caps, and foam, the reflectance is dominated by scattering rather than absorption. This has been detected in ERTS imagery and used for current location.

  14. Geology of Utah and Nevada by ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    Repetitive ERTS-1 imagery covering Utah and Nevada is studied as an aid in structural geology, mineral exploration, and limnological and hydrological aspects. Limnological features of algal blooms and varying biological activities in Utah Lake and the Great Salt Lake are grossly evident on the imagery with more subtle details detected on the different bands. Major structural breaks, lineages, or trends are abundant throughout the area of study. The correlation of positive aeromagnetic anomalies with the trends suggests near surface intrusive bodies, not yet exposed at the surface, that can be tested for possible associated mineralization by collecting soil-gas at the surface which is analyzed for mercury that is (1) apparently associated with mineralization, (2) escapes as a vapor, and (3) can be readily measured in extremely low amounts of less than 1 ppb by absorption.

  15. Pollution monitoring in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O. (Principal Investigator); Henson, E. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Band 4 imagery of April 7 and 25 show contrasting pollution effects due to seasonal and discharge variations. The pollution plume emanating from the International Paper Co. mill just north of Fort Ticonderoga was first detected on October 10 ERTS-1 imagery and now has been documented during spring high lake level conditions. The plume was observed extending further to the north and east than under low water conditions of October 10. This northward extension reflects a stronger northward current flow expected in the turbid southern leg of Lake Champlain. The extensive plume of April 25 represents full plant operation while the April 5 scene shows some plume traces directly over the submerged diffuser, discharge pipe representing minimal discharge during weekend plant operation. The ERTS-1 documentation will be used in developing a model of plume behavior under varying environmental conditions and will hopefully serve to assist in a major resource decision pending at U.S. Supreme Court level.

  16. The use of ERTS imagery for lake classification. [turbidity due to phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Wade, R. E.; Fisher, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using photographic representations of the ERTS imagery to classify lakes in the State of Wisconsin as to their trophic level was studied. Densitometric readings in band 5 of ERTS 70 mm imagery were taken for all the lakes in Wisconsin greater than 100 acres (approximately 1000 lakes). An algorithm has been developed from ground truth measurements to predict from satellite imagery an indicator of trophic status.

  17. Forestry, geology and hydrological investigations from ERTS-1 imagery in two areas of Ecuador, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Oriente area, well-drained forests containing commercially valuable hardwoods can be recognized confidently and delineated quickly on the ERTS imagery. In the tropical rainforest, ERTS can provide an abundance of inferential information about large scale geologic structures. ERTS imagery is better than normal aerial photography for recognizing linears. The imagery is particularly useful for updating maps of the distributary system of the Guagas River Basin and of any other river with a similarly rapid changing channel pattern.

  18. Application of ERTS imagery to geologic mapping in the volcanic terrane of northwest Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 image interpretations in the Yellowstone/Absaroka volcanic province indicate that the ERTS-1 imagery can be successfully employed in mapping large-scale structures and gross lithologic differences within the volcanic rocks. The volcanic rocks are readily separable from the sedimentary and crystalline rocks but the various volcanic units are seldom distinguishable unless they exhibit a characteristic morphology. Color anomalies were detected on the ERTS-1 imagery and found to be related to zones of alteration and mineralization. High altitude aircraft imagery provided a means of checking and improving the interpretations.

  19. Pollution detection in Lake Champlain using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O. (Principal Investigator); Henson, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A major waste water discharge plume generated by a large paper mill along the New York shore of Lake Champlain was visually detected on ERTS-1 imagery. The plume is best displayed in 9.5 inch positive transparencies of MSS bands 4 and 5. Observation of the magnitude and extent of this plume is feasible, under magnification of 4 times. The chemical parameters of this plume have been documented by limnological studies. An enhancement technique useful for documenting the presence of waste water discharge plumes in Lake Champlain utilizes Polaroid MP-3 copy camera equipment and Spectral Data Corporation's multispectral viewer. The 9.5 inch, ERTS-1, positive transparency is enlarged using the Polaroid MP-3 copy camera to produce an enlarged lantern slide size positive transparency. These are projected through the multispectral viewer for enhancement and the scene is viewed directly on the screen or copied by an additional photographic step. The technique is simple and produces rapid results.

  20. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The microdensitometer will be used to analyze data acquired by ERTS-1 imagery. The classification programs and software packages have been acquired and are being prepared for use with the information as it is received. Photo and digital tapes have been acquired for coverage of virtually 100 percent of the test site areas. These areas are located in South Dakota, Idaho, Missouri, and Kansas. Hass 70mm color infrared, infrared, black and white high altitude aerial photography of the test sites is available. Collection of ground truth for updating the data base has been completed and a computer program written to count the number of fields and give total acres by size group for the segments in each test site. Results are given of data analysis performed on digitized data from densitometer measurements of fields of corn, sugar, beets, and alfalfa in Kansas.

  1. ERTS-1 MSS imagery - A tool for identifying soil associations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. From these characteristics of the soil, broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited for various agronomic and engineering uses. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. This aids in selecting typical sampling sites and provides a check on the homogeniety of the associations.

  2. A study on the erosion of Niigata Beach from ERTS-A imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T.

    1973-01-01

    Coastal erosion of Niigata Beach, Japan as a result of construction works is discussed. The application of ERTS-1 imagery for defining and monitoring the extent of the erosion is described. The contribution of ERTS-1 data to studies leading to effective erosion control methods are reported.

  3. Utilizing ERTS imagery to detect plant diseases and nutrient deficiencies, soil types and soil moisture levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. L. (Principal Investigator); Sewell, J. I.; Hilty, J. W.; Rennie, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The delineation of soil associations and detection of drainage patterns, erosion and sedimentation through the use of ERTS-1 imagery are shown. Corn blight and corn virus could not be detected from ERTS-1 and detection of forest composition was at a very low probability.

  4. Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The only area that has been analyzed to date is Area 3 where results have already been reported. However, work progressing in Area 1 and 2 seem to indicate a good correlation between lineament zones previously reported, mineralized areas and lineaments currently being picked from ERTS-1 imagery. There also appear to be many lineaments on ERTS-1 imagery in these areas which have not been reported in any other literature.

  5. Preliminary assessment of geological applications of ERTS-1 imagery from selected areas of the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    An assessment of geological applications of ERTS-1 imagery from selected areas of the Canadian Arctic is presented. The three levels of interpretation which may be recognized and employed to derive information from a single image or data format are outlined. It is stated that one immediate benefit from ERTS will be improved efficiency in planning for and operation of programs of regional geological mapping. Imagery of various areas of Canada are presented to show applications to regional mapping.

  6. Fracture trends identified by ERTS-1 imagery in Utah and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L. (Principal Investigator); Erickson, M. P.; Smith, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Utah-Nevada area, linear structural trends recorded on ERTS-1 imagery conform in part to previously recognized structures. In addition, the ERTS-1 imagery reveals cryptic structures not previously identified and not readily apparent in other imagery. These structures are illustrated by prominent east-west trending structures which appear to be concentrated in pre-volcanic rocks. This suggests that the structures are older than many of those with other trends which are equally prominent in volcanic and non-volcanic terrain. Since the older east-west structures may have controlled early Tertiary emplacement of magma or the ascent of mineralizing fluids, their recognition is important in minerial exploration. Soil-gas sampling and analysis for mercury content is being continued over structures, and projected trends of buried structures which appear, from studies of ERTS-1 imagery, to be favorable to mineralization. Comparison of ERTS-1 and Skylab imagery indicated that ERTS-1 imagery records more previously unrecognized linear structures than the Skylab imagery. In differentiating and identifying different rock types, the Skylab imagery appears to be more effective.

  7. Fracture mapping and strip mine inventory in the Midwest by using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. W.; Wobber, F. J.; Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the ERTS-1 imagery and high-altitude infrared photography indicates that useful fracture data can be obtained in Indiana and Illinois despite a glacial till cover. ERTS MSS bands 5 and 7 have proven most useful for fracture mapping in coal-bearing rocks in this region. Preliminary results suggest a reasonable correlation between image-detected fractures and mine roof-fall accidents. Information related to surface mined land, such as disturbed area, water bodies, and kind of reclamation, has been derived from the analysis of ERTS imagery.

  8. Land use mapping and change detection using ERTS imagery in Montgomery County, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1 for mapping land use and detecting land use change was investigated. Land use information was gathered from 1964 air photo mosaics and from 1972 ERTS data. The 1964 data provided the basis for comparison with ERTS-1 imagery. From this comparison, urban sprawl was quite evident for the city of Montgomery. A significant trend from forestland to agricultural was also discovered. The development of main traffic arteries between 1964 and 1972 was a vital factor in the development of some of the urban centers. Even though certain problems in interpreting and correlating land use data from ERTS imagery were encountered, it has been demonstrated that remotely sensed data from ERTS is useful for inventorying land use and detecting land use change.

  9. ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E. (Principal Investigator); Kinsman, F. E.; Beatty, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This study was performed to investigate applications of ERTS-1 imagery in commercial reconnaissance for mineral and hydrocarbon resources. ERTS-1 imagery collected over five areas in North America (Montana; Colorado; New Mexico-West Texas; Superior Province, Canada; and North Slope, Alaska) has been analyzed for data content including linears, lineaments, and curvilinear anomalies. Locations of these features were mapped and compared with known locations of mineral and hydrocarbon accumulations. Results were analyzed in the context of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. Data analyses have resulted in detection of new lineaments, some of which may be continental in extent, detection of many curvilinear patterns not generally seen on aerial photos, strong evidence of continental regmatic fracture patterns, and realization that geological features can be explained in terms of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. The conculsions are that ERTS-1 imagery is of great value in photogeologic/geomorphic interpretations of regional features, and the simple-shear, block-coupling model provides a means of relating data from ERTS imagery to structures that have controlled emplacement of ore deposits and hydrocarbon accumulations, thus providing a basis for a new approach for reconnaissance for mineral, uranium, gas, and oil deposits and structures.

  10. Geology of Utah and Nevada by ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two ancient watercourses have been observed on ERTS-1 imagery. These lie in the Waterpocket Fold area, north of the Marble Canyon section of the Colorado River, in Arizona and Utah. A third old watercourse of interest is an ancient canyon of the Colorado and is located on image no. 1156-17260. Image no. 1051-17414 contains some very useful information concerning the hydrology, sedimentology, and biology of Great Salt Lake and Bear Lake in Utah. In Great Salt Lake, there is a sharp line between the portion of the lake north of the railroad causeway and that south of the causeway. There is a marked difference in salinity across the causeway, and this is reflected in different algal species. On the same image, sediment plumes in Bear Lake clearly delineate the circulation pattern, and provide excellent indications of bottom contours over much of the area. Image no. 1051-17420 contains part of Great Salt Lake and all of Utah Lake. The latter displays a very interesting surface pattern which is probably due to an algal bloom which has been swirled into a spiral by the circulation of the lake.

  11. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An important fault zone, which is strongly suspected of being seismically active, was identified on RBV images, ERTS E-1013-17305 (101, 201, and 301), in northeastern Utah. This fault zone is not shown on the Geological Map of the United States nor on the Tectonic Map of North America. When the epicenters of historic earthquakes and their magnitudes were plotted on an overlay corresponding to the scene, a major earthquake cluster up to magnitude 4.9 was found through which the fault zone passes. This suspected active fault zone runs in a northwest-southwest direction cutting across the Patmos Mountains and the southwestern side of the East Tavaputs Plateau from near the junction of the Colorado River with the Dolores River to and beyond the town of Dragerton, Utah. The fault zone which will subsequently be referred to as the Dragerton fault zone appears to be an element of a major tectonic lineament which includes the Moab fault, Salt Valley, Spanish and Lisbon Valleys. Because of the limited imagery coverage received so far, the extent of this lineament or its tectonic significance cannot be ascertained. It is suspected, however, that it constitutes a major crustal break in the Colorado Plateau.

  12. Utilizing ERTS imagery to detect plant diseases and nutrient deficiencies, soil types and soil moisture levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. L.; Sewell, J. I.; Hilty, J. W.; Rennie, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery may be used to delineate soil associations. It does have the capacity to divide soils into groups such that their land use and management would be similar. It offers definite potential for making grass flood-plain, wetland, river shoreline, and land use change surveys. Production of volume strata and forest type from the two usable bands of ERTS-1 imagery were of questionable value. No imagery was received for evaluation during the time of year when maine dwarf mosaic virus and southern corn leaf blight were active.

  13. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to the study of caribou movements and winter dispersal in relation to prevailing snowcover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lent, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of false color composite imagery has indicated the feasibility of using ERTS-1 imagery to map botanical community types important as caribou range in northeast Alaska.

  14. Regional geology subprogram: Geological interpretation of ERTS imagery of the occidental region of Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Ayllon, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Using ERTS-1 imagery, it is possible to delimit great lithological units, folds, lineaments, faults, and in lesser degree unconformities. In the morphological aspect, the images show clearly the relief necessary for geological interpretation. The ERTS-1 images are important for the preparation of the geological and tectonic map of Bolivia, on a 1:1 million scale, if conventional methods of work are used as a base.

  15. ERTS data user no. 119: Effective use of ERTS multisensor data in the Great Plains. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: A tool for identifying soil associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. ERTS-1 MSS imagery also provides four spectral bands taken every 18 days which give data on relief, hydrology, and vegetation, all of which bear on the delineation and interpretation of soil associations. Enlarged prints derived from the individual spectral bands and shown in gray tones were useful for identifying soil associations.

  16. Correlation of coastal water turbidity and current circulation with ERTS-1 and Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Philpot, W.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R.; Shah, N.

    1974-01-01

    The article reviews investigations of current circulation patterns, suspended sediment concentration, coastal frontal systems, and waste disposal plumes based on visual interpretation and digital analysis of ERTS-1 and Skylab/EREP imagery. Data on conditions in the Delaware Bay area were obtained from 10 ERTS-1 passes and one Skylab pass, with simultaneous surface and airborne sensing. The current patterns and sediments observed by ERTS-1 correlated well with ground-based observations. Methods are suggested which would make it possible to identify certain pollutants and sediment types from multispectral scanner data.

  17. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Communities containing five different coastal vegetation species, developed marshlands, and fresh water impoundments have been identified in ERTS-1 images. Suspended sediment and circulation patterns in imagery from five ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been enhanced and correlated with predicted current patterns. Conclusions reached are: (1) ERTS-1 is suitable platform for observing suspended sediment patterns and water masses synoptically over large areas. (2) Suspended sediment acts as a natural tracer allowing photointerpreters to deduce gross current circulation patterns from ERTS-1 imagery. (3) Under atmospheric conditions encountered along the East Coast of the United States MSS band 5 seems to give the best representation of sediment load in upper one meter of water column. (4) In the ERTS-1 imagery the sediment patterns are delineated by three to four neighboring shades of grey. (5) Negative transparencies of the ERTS-1 images give better contrast whenever the suspended sediment tones fall within the first few steps of the grey scale. (6) Color density slicing helps delineate the suspended sediment patterns more clearly and differentiate turbidity levels.

  18. Stratigraphic Subdivision of the Transvaal Dolomite from ERTS imagery. [South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grootenboer, J.; Eriksson, K.; Truswell, J.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS imagery has revealed the presence of broad stratigraphic subdivisions in the previously undifferentiated Transvaal Dolomite of the western Tranvaal, Republic of South Africa. While detailed field mapping in areas of good outcrop, as well as borehole logging has recently led to the recognition of a stratigraphy in the Transvaal Dolomite of the central Transvaal, poor outcrop in the western Transvaal has to date prevented this. The ERTS-imagery, however, clearly reveals the presence of six, and in the far west seven, distinct stratigraphic zones extending along strike for a distance of at least 200 km. The investigation clearly demonstrates the potential applications of ERTS-imagery in geological studies, even in a country where the geology is supposedly well known.

  19. Comparative evaluation of ERTS imagery for resource inventory in land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, G. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous previously unmapped faults in central Oregon have been distinguished on ERTS-1 imagery. Tectonic mapping of fault-controlled linears demonstrates the utility of ERTS-1 imagery as a mean of illustrating and studying the regional tectonics of the state. Soil colors observed on ERTS-1 frame 1075-18150-5 at the eastern end of the Columbia basin correlate very well with those from descriptions of soils from that area. Digital output from frame 1021-18151 has shown the enhanced ability to interpret such features as joint patterns, shadowed landslide blocks, bottomlands, and drainage patterns. Widespread use of wheat-fallow rotation in northern Umatilla County, Oregon, insures that nearly one-half of the cultivated soil is devoid of vegetation much of the time. On ERTS-1 imagery, fallow fields are only slightly darker than fields of wheat stubble at the western end of the transect. Similar climate-related contrasts in soil color are visible on ERTS-1 Imagery from several other portions of the Columbia Basin. Absence of steep topography in the area mentioned, however, minimizes the disturbing effect caused by shadows.

  20. Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In areas 2 and 3 (Colorado and New Mexico - Texas) continuing correlations are observed between lineaments selected from the ERTS imagery and known fault and fracture zones. There continues to be a correlation between lineament intersectional areas and known mining areas. Initial contacts with mining and/or petroleum companies regarding the use of ERTS-1 imagery as an interpreted medium for guiding reconnaissance operations seems to indicate that the technology and economics will be commercially acceptable for initial investigatory investments.

  1. Overall evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for cartographic application. [Australia, Antarctica, U.S., and U.S.S.R.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covocoresses, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The conclusion reached is that an ERTS-type satellite has widespread cartographic application for scales of 1:250,000 and smaller. ERTS imagery also indicates those areas requiring revision at larger scales. For optimum cartographic application, ERTS must be flown continuously as temporal change (seasonal and long term) detection requires comparative coverage. ERTS is the first imagery system that lends itself to automated mapping wherein cartographic products may be produced in a matter of days rather than in months or years.

  2. A comparison of Gemini and ERTS imagery obtained over southern Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Anderson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    A mosaic constructed from three ERTS MSS band 5 images enlarged to 1:500,000 compares favorably with a similar scale geologic map of southern Morocco, and a near-similar scale Gemini 5 photo pair. A comparative plot of lineations and generalized geology on the three formats show that a significantly greater number of probable fractures are visible on the ERTS imagery than on the Gemini photography, and that both orbital formats show several times more lineaments than were previously mapped. A plot of mineral occurrences on the structural overlays indicates that definite structure-mineralization relationships exist; this finding is used to define underdeveloped areas which are prospective for mineralization. More detailed mapping is possible using MSS imagery than on Gemini 5 photographs, and in addition, the ERTS format is not restricted to limited coverage.

  3. Vegetation analysis in the Laramie Basin, Wyoming from ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. A.; Redfern, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The application of ERTS-1 imagery to vegetation mapping and identification was tested and confirmed by field checking. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation and density contour mapping allows definition of minute vegetation features and estimation of vegetative biomass and species composition. Large- and small-scale vegetation maps were constructed for test areas in the Laramie Basin and Laramie mountains of Wyoming. Vegetative features reflecting grazing intensity, moisture availability, changes within the growing season, cutting of hay crops, and plant community constituents in forest and grassland are discussed and illustrated. Theoretical considerations of scattering, sun angle, slope, and instrument aperture upon image and map resolution were investigated. Future suggestions for applications of ERTS-1 data to vegetative analysis are included.

  4. A study of the break-up characteristics of Chena River Basin using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Kane, D. L.; Wendler, G.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Chena River Basin was selected because of the availability of ground truth data for comparison. Very good agreement for snow distribution and rates of ablation was found between the ERTS-1 imagery, the snowmelt model, and field measurements. Monitoring snowmelt rates for relatively small basins appears to be practical. The main limitation of the ERTS-1 imagery is the interval of coverage. More frequent overflights providing coverage are needed for the study of transient hydrologic events. ERTS-1 data is most useful when used in conjunction with snowmelt prediction models and existing snow course data. These results should prove very useful in preliminary assessment of hydrologic conditions in ungaged watersheds and will provide a tool for month-to-month volume forecasting.

  5. Use of ERTS imagery in air pollution and marine biology studies, tasks 1 through 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Ludwick, J. C.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The general suitability of ERTS imagery in detecting ground originated air pollution has proved to be excellent. The quality and resolution exceeded expectations and has permitted in some instances location of point sources to within a thousand feet. Suitable techniques have not yet been developed for determining or measuring area and line sources of air pollution. A major problem has been cloud cover that has persisted over the area of primary interest, the Chesapeake Bay. Work has been completed on mounting the shipboard transmissometer which will be used for investigations to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the Lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Water sampling, plankton analysis, and preparations for sea collection of water truth along the eastern continental shelf of the U.S. have been completed for use in comparisons with ERTS-1 data.

  6. Mapping southern Atlantic coastal marshland, South Carolina-Georgia, using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Southeastern coastal marshes are among the most extensive and productive in the United States. A relatively low cost, moderately accurate method is needed to map these areas for management and protection. Ground based and low altitude aircraft methods for mapping are time consuming and quite expensive. The launch of NASA's ERTS-1 has provided an opportunity to test the feasibility of mapping wetlands using small scale imagery. The test site selected was an area from the South Carolina border to Saint Catherine's Island, Georgia. Results of the investigation indicate that the following may be ascertained from ERTS-1 imagery: (1) upper wetland boundary; (2) drainage pattern in the wetland; (3) plant communities such as Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Juncus roemerianus; (4) ditching activities associated with agriculture; (5) lagooning for water-side home development. Conclusions are that ERTS-1 will be an excellent tool for many types of coastal wetland mapping.

  7. An interregional analysis of natural vegetation analogues using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Welch, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    The identification of ecological analogs of natural vegetation and food crops using ERTS-1 imagery is discussed. Signatures of four natural vegetation analogs have been determined from color photography. Color additive techniques to improve the photointerpretation are examined. Tests were conducted at test sites in Louisiana, California, and Colorado.

  8. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the Vermont-New York dispute over pollution of Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery and a composite map derived from ERTS-1 imagery were presented as evidence in a U.S. Supreme Court case involving the pollution of an interstate water body (Lake Champlain). A pollution problem generated by a large paper mill forms the basis of the suit (Vermont vs. International Paper Co. and State of New York) and ERTS-1 imagery shows the effluent pattern on the lake surface as extending into Vermont during three different times.

  9. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A summary of the significant results of the studies completed during the July-August, 1973 period includes: (1) ERTS-1 image brightness contrasts can be related to important contrasts in rangeland and forest vegetation communities of the Laramie Basin. (2) Stereoscopic viewing is essential for correct structural interpretation in outcrop patterns in some areas. (3) Complex fracture patterns which may have exerted a controlling influence on intrusive activity in the Absaroka Mountains can be mapped from ERTS. (4) Volcanic lithologies of the Yellowstone region are often differentiated on the basis of their textures, and cannot be successfully mapped by photogeologic interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery. Ground spectral readings confirm a general lack of contrast between these lithologies in the four ERTS-1 MSS bands. (5) Major dune fields can be recognized and defined from ERTS-1 image interpretations and recognition of differences in stabilizing plant communities (some of which may be mappable from ERTS-1) yields information about migration history of the dune fields.

  10. The comparative evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for resource inventory in land use planning. [Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, G. H. (Principal Investigator); Paine, D. P.; Lawrence, R. D.; Pyott, W. T.; Herzog, J. H.; Murray, R. J.; Norgren, J. A.; Cornwell, J. A.; Rogers, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Multidiscipline team interpretation and mapping of resources for Crook County is nearly complete on 1:250,000 scale enlargements of ERTS-1 imagery. Maps of geology, landforms, soils and vegetation-land use are being interpreted to show limitations, suitabilities and geologic hazards for land use planning. Mapping of lineaments and structures from ERTS-1 imagery has shown a number of features not previously mapped in Oregon. A timber inventory of Ochoco National Forest has been made. Inventory of forest clear-cutting practices has been successfully demonstrated with ERTS-1 color composites. Soil tonal differences in fallow fields shown on ERTS-1 correspond with major soil boundaries in loess-mantled terrain. A digital classification system used for discriminating natural vegetation and geologic materials classes has been successful in separation of most major classes around Newberry Cauldera, Mt. Washington and Big Summit Prairie. Computer routines are available for correction of scanner data variations; and for matching scales and coordinates between digital and photographic imagery. Methods of Diazo film color printing of computer classifications and elevation-slope perspective plots with computer are being developed.

  11. Applicability of ERTS-1 imagery to the study of suspended sediment and aquatic fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Srna, R.; Treasure, W.; Otley, M.

    1973-01-01

    Imagery from three successful ERTS-1 passes over the Delaware Bay and Atlantic Coastal Region have been evaluated to determine visibility of aquatic features. Data gathered from ground truth teams before and during the overflights, in conjunction with aerial photographs taken at various altitudes, were used to interpret the imagery. The overpasses took place on August 16, October 10, 1972, and January 26, 1973, with cloud cover ranging from about zero to twenty percent. (I.D. Nos. 1024-15073, 1079-15133, and 1187-15140). Visual inspection, density slicing and multispectral analysis of the imagery revealed strong suspended sediment patterns and several distinct types of aquatic interfaces or frontal systems.

  12. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to land use, forest density and soil investigations in Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassoglou, N. J.; Skordalakis, E.; Koutalos, A.

    1974-01-01

    Photographic and digital imagery received from ERTS-1 was analyzed and evaluated as to its usefulness for the assessment of agricultural and forest land resources. Black and white, and color composite imagery provided spectral and spatial data, which, when matched with temporal land information, provided the basis for a semidetailed land use and forest site evaluation cartography. Color composite photographs have provided some information on the status of irrigation of agricultural lands. Computer processed digital imagery was successfully used for detailed crop classification and semidetailed soil evaluation. The results and techniques of this investigation are applicable to ecological and geological conditions similar to those prevailing in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  13. The value of ERTS-1 imagery in resource inventorization on a national scale in South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malan, O. G.; Macvicar, C. N.; Edwards, D.; Temperley, B. N.; Claassen, L.

    1974-01-01

    It has been shown that ERTS imagery, particularly in the form of 1:500,000 scale false color photolithographic prints, can contribute very significantly towards facilitating and accelerating (dramatically, in some cases) resource surveys and geologic mapping. Fire mapping on a national scale becomes a feasability; numerous new geologic features, particularly lineaments, have been discovered, land use can be mapped efficiently on a regional scale and degraded areas identified. The first detailed tectonic and geomorphological maps of the Republic of South Africa will be published mainly owing to the availability of ERTS images.

  14. Monitoring Arctic Sea ice using ERTS imagery. [Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and other minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft.

  15. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to land use, forest density and soil investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassoglou, N. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photographic and digital imagery obtained by ERTS-1 was analyzed and assigned to land features related to agricultural and forest resources. Land use and forest site evaluation maps were prepared by comparing remote sensing and ground truth data. Relationships found in this investigation between spectral signatures recorded by ERTS-1 and land features can be used for the assessment and development of agricultural and forest resources. The results are applicable to areas with ecological and geological conditions similar to those of Greece.

  16. Investigation of land use of northern megalopolis using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.; Ruml, D. J.; Goldstein, W.

    1974-01-01

    Primary objective was to produce a color-coded land use map and digital data base for the northern third of Megalopolis. Secondary objective was to investigate possible applications of ERTS products to land use planning. Many of the materials in this report already have received national, dissemination as a result of unexpected interest in land use surveys from ERTS. Of special historical interest is the first comprehensive urban-type land use map from space imagery, which covered the entire state of Rhode Island and was made from a single image taken on 28 July 1972.

  17. Application of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for land use mapping and resource inventories in the central coastal region of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Thaman, R. R.; Senger, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 satellite imagery has proved a valuable data source for land use as well as natural and cultural resource studies on a regional basis. ERTS-1 data also provide an excellent base for mapping resource related features and phenomena. These investigations are focused on a number of potential applications which are already showing promise of having operational utility.

  18. Remote sensing in Iowa agriculture: Identification and classification of Iowa crop lands using ERTS-1 and complimentary underflight imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahlstede, J. P.; Carlson, R. E.; Thomson, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of the continuing analysis of ERTS-1 imagery covering Iowa during 1972 and periods during 1973 are covered. Emphasis is placed on the identification and classification of major crop types at two test sites in Iowa. Standard photointerpretive methods were used in this analysis including the direct enlargement of black and white single-band products and additive color multi-band procedures using a miniadcol system. The use of sequential coverage during the crop growing season is emphasized as a means to improve the effectiveness of ERTS-1 photointerpretations of crop land acreage estimates in Iowa. Illustrative black and white and color prints of both ERTS-1 and underflight imagery are included. In addition, forest land inventories at one test site are reported. A new method for the inventory of forest lands using ERTS-1 imagery is reported and compared with estimates obtained using earlier underflight imagery.

  19. Combining human and computer interpretation capabilities to analyze ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The human photointerpreter and the computer have complementary capabilities that are exploited in a computer-based data analysis system developed at the Forestry Remote Sensing Laboratory, University of California. This system is designed to optimize the process of extracting resource information from ERTS images. The human has the ability to quickly delineate gross differences in land classes, such as wildland, urban, and agriculture on appropriate ERTS images, and to further break these gross classes into meaningful subclasses. The computer, however, can more efficiently analyze point-by-point spectral information and localized textural information which can result in a much more detailed agricultural or wildland classification based on species composition and/or plant association. These human and computer capabilities have been integrated through the use of an inexpensive small scale computer dedicated to the interactive preprocessing of the human inputs and the display of raw ERTS images and computer classified images. The small computer is linked to a large scale computer system wherein the bulk of the statistical work and the automatic point-by-point classification is done.

  20. ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F. (Principal Investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Kinsman, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery. Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-Texas area, and to date, results have been better than expected. Clearly discernible structural lineaments in this area are evident on the photographs. Comparison of this evidence with known major mining localities in New Mexico indicates a clear pattern of coincidence between the lineaments and mining localities. In West Texas, lineament and geomorphological evidence obtainable from the photographs define the petroleum-productive Central Basin Platform. Based on evaluation of results in the New Mexico-West Texas area and on cursory results in the other four areas of North America, it is concluded that ERTS-1 imagery will be extremely valuable in defining the regional and local structure in any commercial exploration program.

  1. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to state wide land information system in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizer, J. E.; Borchert, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. To update and refine existing state-wide land resource information systems, the Minnesota State Planning Agency is assessing the feasibility of extracting resource information from ERTS-1 imagery. Work has centered on a comparative analysis of Minnesota Land Management Information System (MLMIS) and ERTS-1 land use classes. The associated problems of determining appropriate data cell size and optimal seasonal timing have also been addressed. Using ERTS-1 images, dominant land use is classified as follows: urban, forest, agriculture, extractive, transportation, water, and wetlands. Preliminary analysis suggests that with appropriate changes in operational definitions these general classes can be further refined for the benefit of MLMIS users. Additional detail appears most feasible extractive classes.

  2. Evaluation of ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover land and on glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    The percentage of snowcover area on specific drainage basins was measured from ERTS imagery by video density slicing with a repeatability of 4 percent of the snowcovered area. Data from ERTS images of the melt season snowcover in the Thunder Creek drainage basin in the North Cascades were combined with existing hydrologic and meteorologic observations to enable calculation of the time distribution of the water stored in this mountain snowpack. Similar data could be used for frequent updating of expected inflow to reservoirs. Equivalent snowline altitudes were determined from area measurements. Snowline altitudes were also determined by combining enlarged ERTS images with maps with an accuracy of about 60 m under favorable conditions. Ability to map snowcover or to determine snowline altitude depends primarily on cloud cover and vegetation and secondarily on slope, terrain roughness, sun angle, radiometric fidelity, and amount of spectral information available.

  3. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The area of snow cover on land was determined from ERTS-1 imagery. Snow cover in specific drainage basins was measured with the Stanford Research Institute console by electronically superimposing basin outlines on imagery, with video density slicing to measure areas. Snow covered area and snowline altitudes were also determined by enlarging ERTS-1 imagery 1:250,000 and using a transparent map overlay. Under very favorable conditions, snowline altitude was determined to an accuracy of about 60 m. Ability to map snow cover or to determine snowline altitude depends primarily on cloud cover and vegetation and secondarily on slope, terrain roughness, sun angle, radiometric fidelity, and amount of spectral information available. Glacier accumulation area ratios were determined from ERTS-1 imagery. Also, subtle flow structures, undetected on aerial photographs, were visible. Surging glaciers were identified, and the changes resulting from the surge of a large glacier were measured as were changes in tidal glacier termini.

  4. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. (Principal Investigator); Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparative analysis of snow-free and snow-covered imagery of the New England Test Area has resulted in a larger number of lineaments mapped from snow-covered imagery in three out of four sets of comparative imagery. Analysts unfamiliar with the New England Test Area were utilized; the quality of imagery was independently judged to be uniform. In all image sets, a greater total length of lineaments was mapped with the snow-covered imagery. The value of this technique for fracture mapping in areas with thick soil cover is suggested. A number of potentially useful environmental applications of snow enhancement related to such areas as mining, land use, and hydrology have been identified.

  5. Vegetation mapping from ERTS imagery of the Okavango Delta. [Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willamson, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Okavango is Botswana's major water resource. The present study has been specifically directed at mapping vegetation types within the delta and generally concerned with finding what information of value to plant and animal ecologists could be extracted from the imagery. To date it has been found that. (1) It is possible to map broad vegetation types from the imagery. (2) Imagery of the delta records the state of the system in a manner which will facilitate long-term studies of plant succession. (3) Phenological events can be detected. (4) The imagery can be used to detect and map wild fires. This will be useful in determining the role of fire in the ecology of the region. Using the imagery it is thus possible to map existing vegetation and monitor both short and long-term changes.

  6. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seevers, P. M.; Lewis, D. T.; Drew, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Interpretations of imagery from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) indicate that soil associations and attendant range sites can be identified on the basis of vegetation and topography using multi-temporal imagery. Optical density measurements of imagery from the visible red band of the multispectral scanner (MSS band 5) obtained during the growing season were related to field measurements of vegetative biomass, a factor that closely parallels range condition class on specific range sites. ERTS-1 imagery also permitted inventory and assessment of center-pivot irrigation systems in the Sand Hills region in relation to soil and topographic conditions and energy requirements.

  7. Use of feature extraction techniques for the texture and context information in ERTS imagery: Spectral and textural processing of ERTS imagery. [classification of Kansas land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A procedure was developed to extract cross-band textural features from ERTS MSS imagery. Evolving from a single image texture extraction procedure which uses spatial dependence matrices to measure relative co-occurrence of nearest neighbor grey tones, the cross-band texture procedure uses the distribution of neighboring grey tone N-tuple differences to measure the spatial interrelationships, or co-occurrences, of the grey tone N-tuples present in a texture pattern. In both procedures, texture is characterized in such a way as to be invariant under linear grey tone transformations. However, the cross-band procedure complements the single image procedure by extracting texture information and spectral information contained in ERTS multi-images. Classification experiments show that when used alone, without spectral processing, the cross-band texture procedure extracts more information than the single image texture analysis. Results show an improvement in average correct classification from 86.2% to 88.8% for ERTS image no. 1021-16333 with the cross-band texture procedure. However, when used together with spectral features, the single image texture plus spectral features perform better than the cross-band texture plus spectral features, with an average correct classification of 93.8% and 91.6%, respectively.

  8. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Sheffield, C.; Russell, O.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. EarthSat has established an effective mail-based method for obtaining timely ground truth (snow depth) information over an extensive area. The method is both efficient and inexpensive compared with the cost of a similarly scaled direct field checking effort. Additional geological information has been acquired which is not shown in geological maps in the area. Excellent quality snow-free ERTS-1 transparencies of the test areas have been received and are being analyzed.

  9. Lake eutrophication as indicated by ERTS satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.; Van Domelen, J. F.; Holtje, K.; Johnson, W.

    1975-01-01

    Light reflectance from water in the laboratory always correlates to the water quality parameter of turbidity. This turbidity is caused by suspended solids in the water and for a particular type of material there is a good correlation between the weight of these suspended solids and turbidity. However, this correlation is different for different types of material. When this suspended material is living green matter as in an eutrophic lake, the changes in reflectance can be detected as changes in brightness on a particular aerial image. Two test sites have shown that there is indeed a good correlation between the brightness on an ERTS image and lake eutrophication.

  10. Inventory and monitoring of natural vegetation and related resources in an arid environment: A comparative evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.; Pyott, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparative evaluation of an ERTS-1 MSS color reconstitution and an Apollo 6 and Gemini 4 color photograph for information content was conducted. A greater variety of image detail was indicated for the Apollo 6 imagery. A study of terrain feature variable-vegetation relationships has been concluded. However, there were no substantial differences among space photo types when macrorelief classes were interpreted. Vegetation distribution is influenced in varying degrees by characteristics of the terrain, some of which are quite apparent on ERTS-1 imagery and, therefore, provide the means for inferring possible vegetation types for a specified location. Spectral signatures have been determined for some natural vegetation systems from the ERTS-1 MSS data. Those signatures have been used to classify ERTS-1 data for a portion of the study area. Work continues on multistage sampling for natural vegetation, terrain feature identification of ERTS-1 photographs, plant phenology, and spectral signature studies.

  11. Comparative evaluation of ERTS-A imagery for resource inventory in land-use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, G. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The overall objectives of this program are: (1) use of multidiscipline team approach to determine features that can be successfully monitored by ERTS-1 imagery for resource inventory, planning, land use zoning, and resource development; and (2) using carefully selected sample areas, develop a comprehensive resource inventory mapping system for use in planning, zoning, and resource development. Progress has included compilation and organization of ground truth data and observations in the primary study area of Crook County; resource inventory legend development; assembly and testing of color enhancement equipment; development and adaption of programs for digital data processing; and quick-look evaluations of initial ERTS-1 imagery for Oregon.

  12. Evaluation of ERTS imagery for spectral geological mapping in diverse terranes of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Linear anomalies dominate the new geological information derived from ERTS-1 imagery, total lengths now exceeding 6000 km. Experimentation with a variety of viewing techniques suggests that conventional photogeologic analyses of band 7 results in the location of more than 97 percent of all linears found. The maxima on rose diagrams for ERTS-1 anomalies correspond well with those for mapped faults and topographic lineaments, despite a difference in relative magnitudes of maxima thought due to solar illumination direction. A multiscale analysis of linears showed that single topographic linears at 1:2,500,000 became segmented at 1:1,000,000, aligned zones of shorter parallel, en echelon, or conjugate linears at 1:500,000, and still shorter linears lacking obvious alignment at 1:250,000. Visible glacial features include individual drumlins, best seen in winter imagery, drumlinoids, eskers, ice-marginal drainage channels, glacial lake shorelines and sand plains, and end moraines.

  13. Extraction and utilization of space acquired physiographic data for water resources development. [using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Foster, J.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    ERTS-1 satellite imagery was evaluated as a means of providing useful watershed physiography information. From these data physiographic parameters such as drainage basin area and shape, drainage density, stream length and sinuosity, and the percentage of a watershed occupied by major land use types were obtained in three study areas. The study areas were: (1) Southwestern Wisconsin; (2) Eastern Colorado, and (3) portions of the Middle Atlantic States. Using ERTS-1 imagery at 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 scales it was found that drainage basin area and shape and stream sinuosity were comparable (within 10%) in all study areas to physiographic measurements derived from conventional topographic maps at the same scales.

  14. Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Initial analytical results in Area 3 have been very encouraging. Not only have new major lineaments been detected but many of the intersections of those lineaments correlate with the general location of known mineral deposits while others appear to outline petroleum-bearing basins and uplifts. If later analyses confirm these results the economic impact of ERTS type imagery could be very significant in worldwide mineral and petroleum reconnaissance.

  15. An evaluation of the use of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for grizzly bear habitat analysis. [Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varney, J. R.; Craighead, J. J.; Sumner, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Improved classification and mapping of grizzly habitat will permit better estimates of population density and distribution, and allow accurate evaluation of the potential effects of changes in land use, hunting regulation, and management policies on existing populations. Methods of identifying favorable habitat from ERTS-1 multispectral scanner imagery were investigated and described. This technique could reduce the time and effort required to classify large wilderness areas in the Western United States.

  16. The use of ERTS imagery in reservoir management and operation. [New England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S. (Principal Investigator); Bock, P.; Horowitz, J.; Foran, D.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Real time data collection by orbiting satellite relay was found to be both reliable and feasible. ERTS imagery was assessed and it was shown that in most cases better spatial resolution and/or additional spectral bands would be required to satisfy NED's needs. A man-computer interactive system, using cathode ray tube display could solve the problem of an unwieldy mass of data for interpretation.

  17. Seismically active structural lineaments in south-central Alaska as seen on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. (Principal Investigator); Vanwormer, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A mosaic of south-central Alaska composed of 19 ERTS-1 images, when compared with the seismicity pattern of the area, reveals that the larger earthquakes tend to fall on lineaments which are easily recognizable on the imagery. In most cases, these lineaments have not been mapped as faults. One particular lineament, which was the scene of three earthquakes of magnitude 4 or greater during 1972, passes very close to Anchorage.

  18. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. V. (Principal Investigator); Seevers, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Interpretations of imagery from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) indicate that soil associations and attendant range sites can be identified on the basis of vegetation and topography using multitemporal imagery. Optical density measurements of imagery from the visible red band of the multispectral scanner(MSS band 5) obtained during the growing season were related to field measurements of vegetative biomass, a factor that closely parallels range condition class on specific range sites. ERTS-1 imagery also permitted inventory and assessment of center-pivot irrigation systems in the Sand Hills region in relation to soil and topographic conditions and energy requirements. Four resource maps of the Upper Loup Natural Resource District located entirely within the Sand Hills region were prepared from ERTS-1 imagery.

  19. Land use classification using texture information in ERTS-A MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Shanmugam, K. S.; Bosley, R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary digital analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery reveals that the textural features of the imagery are very useful for land use classification. A procedure for extracting the textural features of ERTS-1 imagery is presented and the results of a land use classification scheme based on the textural features are also presented. The land use classification algorithm using textural features was tested on a 5100 square mile area covered by part of an ERTS-1 MSS band 5 image over the California coastline. The image covering this area was blocked into 648 subimages of size 8.9 square miles each. Based on a color composite of the image set, a total of 7 land use categories were identified. These land use categories are: coastal forest, woodlands, annual grasslands, urban areas, large irrigated fields, small irrigated fields, and water. The automatic classifier was trained to identify the land use categories using only the textural characteristics of the subimages; 75 percent of the subimages were assigned correct identifications. Since texture and spectral features provide completely different kinds of information, a significant increase in identification accuracy will take place when both features are used together.

  20. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS-1 imagery utilizing snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Snow cover in combination with low angle solar illumination has been found to provide increased tonal contrast of surface feature and is useful in the detection of bedrock fractures. Identical fracture systems were not as readily detectable in the fall due to the lack of a contrasting surface medium (snow) and a relatively high sun angle. Low angle solar illumination emphasizes topographic expressions not as apparent on imagery acquired with a higher sun angle. A strong correlation exists between the major fracture-lineament directions interpreted from multi-sensor imagery (including snow-free and snow cover ERTS) and the strike of bedrock joints recorded in the field indicating the structural origin of interpreted fracture-lineaments. A fracture-annotated ERTS-1 photo base map (1:250,000 scale) is being prepared for western Massachusetts. The map will document the utilization of ERTS-1 imagery for geological analysis in comparative snow-free and snow-covered terrain.

  1. The cartographic application of ERTS/RBV imagery in polar regions. [Alaska and Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A 1.1,000,000 scale sketch map has been prepared from ERTS imagery of the Prince Olav Coast, Antarctica. This is the first such mapping of the extent of the ice tongues of the Shtrase and Fietta Bay glaciers. Shtrase is of particular interest because the ERTS imagery shows the tongue extending out into the Lutzom-Holm Bay approximately 32 miles further than ever depicted on existing maps. This sketch map and others in work covering coastal areas of the Antarctic continent show many coastal changes when compared to what is believed to be the most current published maps. These sketch maps along with the accompanying mosaics will be a bench mark for future revision to existing maps and charts and also an invaluable source for mew mapping. ERTS imagery is now available over Mt. Siple, Antarctica, and it is expected to provide a source to position Mt. Siple correctly in relation to the Executive Committee Range. A mosaic at 1:500,000 scale is also being compiled that will serve as a source for future revision of 1:250,000 scale maps of the Ellsworth Mountains, change and improve the shape and size of the islands within the Ronne Ice Shelf, and redefine the ice front of the Ronne and Filchner Shelves.

  2. Cartographic evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for part of the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, D. P. (Principal Investigator); Smith, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The area around Bristol, England contained a variety of both natural and man-made features visible on ERTS imagery, notably the Seven Estuary, the Jurassic limestones of the Cotswold scarp, and a variety of major and minor communications routes and urban developments. Visual interpretive studies were carried out on the diapositive imagery in order to ascertain the extent to which various terrain features, broadly classified into Solid and Drift Geology, Topography, and Land use, were depicted on the four independent imagery bands. Quantitative assessment of the accuracy of map content suggests that the imagery is inadequate for most mapping purposes within the area of study, at least using traditional interpretation methods.

  3. Relationship of roof falls in underground coal mines to fractures mapped on ERTS-1 imagery. [Indiana and Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS imagery is of unique value for mapping of certain fractures that are not identifiable on aircraft imagery. Because color infrared and ERTS imagery complement each other both sources of data were used to map fractures in western Indiana and eastern Illinois. In the Kings Station Mine, Gibson County, Indiana, most roof falls reported had occurred in areas where mapped fractures were closely spaced and intersecting. Using this information as a basis for extrapolation, roof fall hazard maps were prepared for other mine sites. Various coal resources programs related to energy and environment also were conducted.

  4. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the definition of the geotectonic domains of the southern African crystalline shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, M. J.; Viljoen, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Portions of two geotectonic environments in South Africa have been studied on ERTS-1 imagery. It was found that the broad synoptic view provided by this imagery is ideally suited to a study of the diagnostic macro-structures, and that the different geotectonic styles are clearly recorded. ERTS-1 imagery thus allows a more accurate definition than exists at present of the contact zones and internal structures of the two domains. The importance of this investigation as an aid to gaining on insight into the relevance of plate tectonics in Precambrian times is briefly discussed.

  5. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to the harvest model of the US Menhaden fishery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, P. M.; Marmelstein, A. D.; Temple, O. R.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results of an experiment to demonstrate the utility of ERTS-1 imagery for providing significant information to the harvest model of the menhaden industry are reported. Fisheries and related environmental data were obtained discontinuously throughout the 1973 menhaden (a surface schooling, coastal species) fishing season in Mississippi Sound. The unexpected complexity of the physical environment in Mississippi Sound precluded simplistic analysis of fish/environment relationships. Preliminary indications are that an association does exist between fish availability and differences in water transparency (turbidity) within the Sound. A clearer relationship is developing between major turbid features, imaged by ERTS-1 and location of successful fishing attempts. On all occasions where relatively cloudfree ERTS-1 overflight days coincided with fishery activity, overlays of catch location of ERTS-1 images show an association of school position with interfaces between imaged turbid features. Analysis is currently underway to determine persistence of such associations in an attempt to define minimum satellite return time necessary to maintain continuity of associations.

  6. Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery, Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-West Texas area while awaiting imagery in the other areas. To date, results have been better than expected. Clearly discernible structural lineaments in New Mexico-West Texas are evident on the photographs. Comparison of this evidence with known major mining localities in New Mexico indicates a clear pattern of coincidence between the lineaments and mining localities. In West Texas, lineament and geomorphological evidence obtainable from the photographs define the petroleum-productive Central Basin Platform. Based on evaluation results in the New Mexico-West Texas area and on cursory results in the other four areas of North America, ERTS-1 imagery will be extremely valuable in defining the regional and local structure in any commercial exploration program.

  7. Correlation and registration of ERTS multispectral imagery. [by a digital processing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrud, L. O.; Henrikson, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examples of automatic digital processing demonstrate the feasibility of registering one ERTS multispectral scanner (MSS) image with another obtained on a subsequent orbit, and automatic matching, correlation, and registration of MSS imagery with aerial photography (multisensor correlation) is demonstrated. Excellent correlation was obtained with patch sizes exceeding 16 pixels square. Qualities which lead to effective control point selection are distinctive features, good contrast, and constant feature characteristics. Results of the study indicate that more than 300 degrees of freedom are required to register two standard ERTS-1 MSS frames covering 100 by 100 nautical miles to an accuracy of 0.6 pixel mean radial displacement error. An automatic strip processing technique demonstrates 600 to 1200 degrees of freedom over a quater frame of ERTS imagery. Registration accuracies in the range of 0.3 pixel to 0.5 pixel mean radial error were confirmed by independent error analysis. Accuracies in the range of 0.5 pixel to 1.4 pixel mean radial error were demonstrated by semi-automatic registration over small geographic areas.

  8. Recognition of the geologic framework of porphyry deposits on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Camp, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of a mosaic composing 20 individual ERTS-1 frames that covers most of Nevada and western Utah reveals both new and old structural features. Three separate provinces, the Basin and Range, the southern extension of the Columbia River Plateau volcanics, and the western edge of the Colorado Plateau are easily distinguishable. A west-northwest cross or transverse structural trend, the Las Vegas Shear zone, is present in the region running from the Sierra Nevada to Lake Mead. The Sevier, Hurricane and Grand Wash faults that define the Wasateh-Jerome structural zone, can be traced further on the ERTS-1 imagery than on existing tectonic maps. By use of a stereo viewer on the side-lap coverage of ERTS-1 imagery, it is possible in some instances to determine the direction of sedimentary beds, enabling anticlines and synclines to be mapped. Other geologic features, faults, direction of throw on faults, recent basalt flow contacts with older rhyolitic tuffs, volcanic cones, and subsidences can also be mapped.

  9. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of the Bighorn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary vegetation analysis has been undertaken on MSS scene 1085-17294, Oct. 16, 1973 in the Bighorn region. Forest Service maps showing detailed distribution of dominant forest types have been compared with MSS bands 5 and 7 positive transparencies, enlarged positive prints, and color imagery produced on an Addcol viewer. Patterns on the ERTS imagery match those on the Forest Service maps quite well. A tectonic map ovearlay of MSS band 7 of the Bighorn region reveals a strong concentration of linears in the uplift as compared to basins. Folds in the Bighorn Basin are visible where not covered by post-Paleocene deposits. In regions where far less is known of the geology than in this area, it might be possible to predict the subsurface occurrence of folds and lineaments on the basis of imagery analysis and more confidently explore covered areas for concealed oil structures and mineral deposits.

  10. An evaluation of EREP (Skylab) and ERTS imagery for integrated natural resources survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An experimental procedure has been devised and is being tested for natural resource surveys to cope with the problems of interpreting and processing the large quantities of data provided by Skylab and ERTS. Some basic aspects of orbital imagery such as scale, the role of repetitive coverage, and types of sensors are being examined in relation to integrated surveys of natural resources and regional development planning. Extrapolation away from known ground conditions, a fundamental technique for mapping resources, becomes very effective when used on orbital imagery supported by field mapping. Meaningful boundary delimitations can be made on orbital images using various image enhancement techniques. To meet the needs of many developing countries, this investigation into the use of satellite imagery for integrated resource surveys involves the analysis of the images by means of standard visual photointerpretation methods.

  11. DCP-collected absolute target reflectance signatures assist accurate interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.

    1973-01-01

    Data collection platforms (DCP's) are being used at a Black Hills, South Dakota, test site (MMC 226A) to record radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect ERTS-1 multispectral scanner radiance measurements. A total of 72 channels of analog data transmitted from an unattended ground truth site via three DCP's at least six times a day. The system has operated with only minor problems since September, sending forth daily measurements of biophysical responses and atmospheric conditions. Comparisons of scene radiance data calculated from ERTS images with that measured on the ground show the image-measured values to be 35 percent higher for the green channel and 20 percent higher for the red channel for the same scene targets. Radiance values for channels 6 and 7 are nearly the same from the ground data and from the imagery.

  12. ERTS imagery as a source of environmental information for southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D. T.; Gilbertson, B.

    1974-01-01

    Southern Africa is faced with a variety of environmental problems that reflect the different states of development of countries in the region. The task of the environmental planner is in many instances complicated by a lack of basic resource information. The acquisition of the necessary data is often impeded by shortage of trained personnel and lack of funds, particularly in developing nations of the region. The range of environmental problems in Southern Africa are described and specific examples are shown of how ERTS type imagery can materially assist in solving these problems. These examples demonstrate that ERTS type data will be of substantial value to both the industrialized and the developing nations of Southern Africa, provided that problems of availability and user education are overcome.

  13. Mapping northern Atlantic coastal marshlands, Maryland-Virginia, using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator); Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data provides repetitive synoptic coverage for DC 00000 of wetland ecology, detection of change, and mapping or inventory of wetland boundaries and plant communities. ERTS-1 positive transparencies of Atlantic Coastal wetlands were enlarged to different scales and mapped using a variety of methods. Results of analysis indicate: (1) mapping of wetland boundaries and vegetative communities from imagery at a scale of 1:1,000,000 is impractical because small details are difficult to illustrate; (2) mapping to a scale of 1:250,000 is practical for defining land-water interface, upper wetland boundary, gross vegetative communities, and spoil disposal/dredge and fill operations; (3) 1:125,000 enlargements provide additional information on transition zones, smaller plant communities, and drainage or mosquito ditching. Overlays may be made directly from prints.

  14. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant events. Coastal vegetation species appearing in the ERTS-1 image taken of the Southern Coast of Delaware, during orbit 333 on August 16, 1972, have been correlated with ground truth vegetation maps, and imagery obtained from high altitude RB-57 and U-2 overflights. The vegetation maps of the entire Delaware Coast were prepared using data collected on foot, in small boats, and from low altitude aircraft. Multispectral analysis of high altitude RB-57 and U-2 photographs indicated that five vegetation species could be clearly discriminated from 60,000 feet altitude, including: (1) salt marsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora); (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass (Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata); (3) reed grass (Phragmites communis); (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle (Iva species and Baccharus halimifolia); and (5) a group of fresh water species found in impounded areas built to attract water fowl. Major Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens communities within the tidal marshes can be identified in the ERTS-1 imagery. Phragmites, and other species however, occur in smaller, more dispersed groupings and are difficult to discriminate within the resolution capability of the ERTS-1 scanner. Similarly, major impounded areas, built to attract water fowl can be detected; however, mosquito drainage ditches, covering many of Delaware's marshes, are too narrow and not long enough to be resolved by ERTS-1 sensors. High-marsh and dune communities dominated by high tide bush (Iva frutescens) and sea myrtle (Baccharus halimifolia) can be distinguished from adjacent maritime forest and beach grass communities.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the 15 October 1972 ERTS-1 imagery of east central Ohio (scene 1034-15415)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettyjohn, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of a general, physical interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery of east central Ohio are presented. Special emphasis is placed upon geologic features, such as linear features and hydrologic features. Man-made features are included as a matter of interest and image location. The interpretation is compared to available maps of the area and from this an assessment that ERTS-1 is potentially useful for updating and producing geological maps.

  16. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to the study of caribou movements and winter dispersal in relation to prevailing snowcover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lent, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Step-wise discriminate analysis has demonstrated the feasibility of feature identification using linear discriminate functions of ERTS-1 MSS band densities and their ratios. The analysis indicated that features such as small streams can be detected even when they are in dark mountain shadow. The potential utility of this and similar analytic techniques appears considerable, and the limits it can be applied to analysis of ERTS-1 imagery are not yet fully known.

  17. ERTS-1 imagery of eastern Africa: A first look at the geological structure of selected areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery of the African rift system resolves the major Cainozoic faults, zones of warping, and associated volcanism. It also clearly depicts the crystal grain of the Precambrian rocks where these are exposed. New structural features, or new properties of known features such as greater extent, continuity, and linearity are revealed by ERTS-1 imagery. This applies, for example, to the NE-SW fracture zones in Yemen, the Aswa mylonite zone at the northern end of the Western Rift, the Nandi fault of western Kenya, the linear faults of the Elgeyo escarpment in the Gregory Rift, and the hemibasins of warped Tertiary lavas on the Red Sea margin of Yemen, matching those of Ethiopian plateau-Afar margin. A tentative scheme is proposed, relating the effect on the pattern of Cainozoic faulting of the degree of obliquity to Precambrian structural trend. It is particularly noteworthy that, even where the Precambrian grain determines the rift faulting to be markedly oblique to the overall trend of the rift trough, for example, in central Lake Tanganyika, the width of the trough is not significantly increased. Some ground mapped lithological boundaries are obscure on ERTS-1 imagery.

  18. Geologic structure in California: Three studies with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of three early applications of imagery from the NASA Earth Resources Technology Satellite to geologic studies in California. In the Coast Ranges near Monterey Bay, numerous linear drainage features possibly indicating unmapped fracture zones were mapped within one week after launch of the satellite. A similar study of the Sierra Nevada near Lake Tahoe revealed many drainage features probably formed along unmapped joint or faults in granitic rocks. The third study, in the Peninsular Ranges, confirmed existence of several major faults not shown on published maps. One of these, in the Sawtooth Range, crosses in Elsinore fault without lateral offset; associated Mid-Cretaceous structures have also been traced continuously across the fault without offset. It therefore appears that displacement along the Elsinore fault has been primarily of a dip-slip nature, at least in this area, despite evidence for lateral displacement elsewhere.

  19. Lineaments in coastal plain sediments as seen in ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withington, C. F.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of satellite imagery over the Atlantic Coastal Plain near Washington, D. C. shows numerous lineaments, which cannot be accounted for by any known cultural or natural features. At least some of these lineaments represent the surface expression of faults, for one of them has been correlated with the outcrop of a fault that had been traced for several miles in southern Prince Georges County, Maryland. If a substantial number of these lineaments do indeed represent fault traces, the fact that they show on the surface suggests that the geologic history of the Coastal Plain is much more complex than has previously been recognized, and that faulting may have occurred in the Holocene, much later than has generally been recognized. The importance that such recent movements could have on future development of the Coastal Plain should be emphasized.

  20. Recognition of the geologic framework of porphyry deposits on ERTS-1 imagery. [copper/molybdenum porphyrys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three major tectonic provinces have been mapped by geologic photointerpretation of ERTS-1 imagery over the Ok Tedi test site. These areas can be characterized as follows: (1) A broad area of low relief and mature topography suggesting a history of relative tectonic stability. (2) A narrow belt of moderate to high relief, broad open folds and prominent linear features. The Mount Fubilan-type porphyry copper deposits and recent volcanic effusive centers occur in this province. (3) A heterogeneous zone of high relief and high drainage density suggestive of relative structural complexity.

  1. Geomorphology subprogram: Geomorphological map of Occidental region of Bolivia, utilizing ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Suarez, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Due to the receipt of ERTS-1 imagery, Bolivia will have for the first time a geomorphological map at a scale of 1:100,000. Now the researcher and the student will be able to compare the distribution of the existing shapes of the country, which have been modelled by diverse processes, factors, and agents. This geomorphological information will be very useful in its application to mining, especially alluvial beds, engineering work, and other geological studies. This map is divided into ten geomorphological units which coincide with the geostructural units of the western region of the country.

  2. Geology of Utah and Nevada by ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery for a portion of the study area was received, catalogued for in-house availability, and examined for relevant data. Topographic, geologic, aeromagnetic, and gravity maps were gathered to form a basis of comparison. Overlay drawings were prepared indicating significant features for further study and eventual field checking. The number of significant observations appears to be very great, and it is apparent that methods of handling the acquired information for easy access, for planning field checks, and for final presentation, must be improved. The tracing of lithologic variations and contacts is readily noted on many of the images. Some of the features vary from what is shown on geological maps but the correlation, or lack of same, is still to be studied in the field and by comparison of ground truth geological maps with the specific images. Numerous lineaments, based on tonal differences, are noted in the districts, some of which extend for tens of kilometers. Several positive and negative magnetic anomalies are noted with the suggestion that the sources of the mineralizing fluids were derived from hidden intrusives.

  3. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Bartlett, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Coastal vegetation species appearing in the ERTS-1 images taken of Delaware Bay have been correlated with ground truth vegetation maps and imagery obtained from high altitude overflights. Multispectral analysis of the high altitude photographs indicated that four major vegetation communities could be clearly discriminated from 60,000 feet altitude including: (1) salt marsh cord grass; (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass; (3) reed grass; and (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle. In addition, human impact can be detected in the form of fresh water impoundments built to attract water fowl, dredge-fill operations and other alterations of the coastal environment. Overlay maps matching the USGS topographic map size of 1:24,000 have been prepared showing the four wetland vegetation communities, fresh water impoundments, and alteration of wetlands by mosquito control ditching and dredge-fill operations. Using these maps, ERTS-1 images were examined by human interpreters and automated multispectral analyzers. Major plant communities of (1) Spartina alterniflora, (2) Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata, and (3) Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia can be distinguished from each other and from surrounding uplands in ERTS-1 scanner bands 6 and 7.

  4. A new vegetation map of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, based on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H.; Belon, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A reconstituted, simulated color-infrared ERTS-1 image covering the western Seward Peninsula was prepared and it is used for identifying and mapping vegetation types by direct visual examination. The image, NASA ERTS E-1009-22095, was obtained approximately at 1110 hours, 165 degrees WMT on August 1, 1972. Seven major colors are identified. Four of these are matched with units on existing vegetation maps: bright red - shrub thicket; light gray-red - upland tundra; medium gray-red - coastal coastal wet tundra; gray - alpine barrens. The three colors having no map equivalents are tentatively interpreted as follows: pink - grassland tundra; dark gray-red - burn scars; light orange-red - senescent vegetation. A vegetation map, drawn by tracing on an acetate overlay of the image is presented. Significantly more information is depicted than on existing maps with regards to vegetation types and their areal distribution. Furthermore the preparation of the new map from ERTS-1 imagery required little time relative to conventional methods and extent of areal coverage.

  5. An evaluation of the use of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for grizzly bear habitat analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varney, J. R.; Craighead, J. J.; Sumner, J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner images taken by the ERTS-1 satellite in August and October, 1972, were examined to determine if they would be useful in identifying and mapping favorable habitat for grizzly bears. It was possible to identify areas having a suitable mixture of alpine meadow and timber, and to eliminate those which did not meet the isolation requirements of grizzlies because of farming or grazing activity. High altitude timbered areas mapped from satellite imagery agreed reasonably well with the distribution of whitebark pine, an important food species. Analysis of satellite imagery appears to be a valuable supplement to present ground observation methods, since it allows the most important areas to be identified for intensive study and many others to be eliminated from consideration. A sampling plan can be developed from such data which will minimize field effort and overall program cost.

  6. The uses of ERTS-1 imagery in the analysis of landscape change. [agriculture, strip mining forests, urban-suburban growth, and flooding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of strip mining from ERTS-1 data has resulted in the mapping of landscape changes for the Cumberland Plateau Test Site. Several mapping experiments utilizing ERTS-1 data have been established for the mapping of state-wide land use regions. The first incorporates 12 frames of ERTS-1 imagery for the generalized thematic mapping of forest cover for the state of Tennessee. In another mapping effort, 14 ERTS-1 images have been analyzed for plowed ground signatures to produce a map of agricultural regions for Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern portions of Mississippi and Alabama. Generalized urban land use categories and transportation networks have been determined from ERTS-1 imagery for the Knoxville Test Site. Finally, through the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, short-lived phenomena such as the 1973 spring floods on the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, have been detected, monitored, and mapped.

  7. The cartographic application of ERTS/RBV imagery in polar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of revising coastlines on maps of Antarctica, detected gross changes in the northern limits of the three largest ice shelves in the world, and led to the discovery of uncharted mountain ranges. A strip photomosaic compiled at a scale of 1:1,000,000 along the Victoria Land Coast between Cape Adare and Harboard Glacier shows obvious changes in size, shape, and position of such features as glaciers, ice tongues, ice shelves, and fast ice. Similar changes to features in the Thwaites Glacier Tongue area were also discovered. Comparison of existing maps and photographs with ERTS-1 imagery over portions of the Ross and Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelves reveals that their northern limits have advanced about 6 and 15 km respectively in 7 years. Imagery also revealed new and unmapped geographical features, of which some are mountains, in the area of the recently published Australian 1:1,000,000 IMW sheet SS 40-42 and USGS IMW sheet ST 57-60 which is presently in final stages of compilation. Comparison of one ERTS-1 scene with a recently published USGS map disclosed a unique change in the Erebus Glacier Tongue. Indications are that its present position is about the same as it was in 1910.

  8. Testing the usefulness of ERTS-1 imagery for inventorying wildland resources in northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T.; Krumpe, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    The usefulness of ERTS-1 imagery for inventorying wildland resources in northern California is discussed. Studies are being conducted in two large wildland areas, namely, the Feather River Watershed and the Northern Coastal Zone. The 2.5 million-acre Feather River headwaters area in northern California is the keystone watershed for the California Water Project, one of the most extensive and ambitious water resource developments ever attempted. Consequently, accurate and timely information on the quantity, quality and distribution of timber, forage, water and recreational resources is of immediate importance to each public agency and private group managing this vast, but inaccessible, wildland area. The Northern Coastal Zone (consisting of the counties of Marin, Sonoma, Mendicino, Humbolt and Del Norte) is relatively rural, with an economy based on agriculture, timber, commercial fishing and tourism. However, it is expected that intensive resource use resulting from increasing population will soon become a serious problem unless wise land use planning is undertaken. Thus, this coastal region is particularly well suited to investigations of the ways in which ERTS-1 imagery and other supporting data may be used in conducting land use evaluations.

  9. Coastal environment of the Beaufort Sea from field data and ERTS-1 imagery, summer 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimnitz, E. (Principal Investigator); Barnes, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An extensive field program during the spring and summer in the coastal Beaufort Sea test site has been completed using a wide variety of sensing techniques. Reduction of field data and ERTS-1 image analysis have shown the coastal environment to be complexly influenced by unique processes, most of which involve or are related to sea ice. Active sedimentologic processes along the Arctic coast are set in motion by the melting, flooding, and eventual overflow of rivers onto the sea ice. It is now apparent that only minor amounts of sediment are transported offshore at this stage; however, scouring of the bottom is significant beneath the strudels (drain holes) which develop in the fast ice canopy in the region of overflow. Areal salinity and turbidity patterns together with ERTS-1 imagery confirm a consistent influx of colder, clearer, saltier water towards the coast just east of the Colville River. Strong (up to 3 knots) bidirectional but intermittent currents often manifest themselves in imagery and aerial photographs as wakes behind grounded ice. Ice movement vectors generated from repetitive images indicate that ice drift is closely associated with wind direction, especially in shallow bays, and displacements of 4-22 kilometers were noted in 24 hours.

  10. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for spectral geological mapping in diverse terranes of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator); Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Linear anomalies dominate the new geological information derived from ERTS-1 imagery, total lengths now exceeding 6000 km. Experimentation with a variety of viewing techniques suggest that conventional photogeologic analyses of band 7 results in the location of more than 97 percent of all linears found. Bedrock lithologic types are distinguishable only where they are topographically expressed or govern land use signatures. The maxima on rose diagrams for ERTS-1 anomalies correspond well with those for mapped faults and topographic lineaments. A multiscale analysis of linears showed that single topographic linears at 1:2,500,000 became dashed linears at 1:1,000,000 aligned zones of shorter parallel, en echelon, or conjugate linears at 1:500,00. Most circular features found were explained away by U-2 airphoto analysis but several remain as anomalies. Visible glacial features include individual drumlins, best seen in winter imagery, drumlinoids, eskers, ice-marginal drainage channels, glacial lake shorelines and sand plains, and end moraines.

  11. Applications of ERTS-1 imagery to terrestrial and marine environmental analyses in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Mckim, H. L.; Crowder, W. K.; Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of distinguishing and monitoring estuarine surface water circulation patterns and changes in the relative sediment load of discharging rivers on a regional basis. It also will aid local fishing industries by augmenting currently available hydrologic and navigation charts. The interpretation of geologic and vegetation features resulted in preparation of improved surficial geology, vegetation and permafrost terrain maps at a scale of 1:1 million utilizing ERTS-1 band 7 imagery. This information will be further utilized in a route and site selection study for the Nome to Kobuk Road in central Alaska. Large river icings along the proposed Alaska pipeline route have been monitored. Sea ice deformation and drift northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska has been measured and shorefast ice accumulation and ablation along the west coast of Alaska is being mapped for the spring and early summer seasons. These data will be used for route and site selection, regional environmental analysis, identification and inventory of natural resources, land use planning, and in land use regulation and management.

  12. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for geological sensing over the diverse geological terrains of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Film positives of ERTS-1 imagery, both as received from NASA and photographically reprocessed, are analyzed by conventional and color additive viewing methods. The imagery reveals bedrock and surficial geological information at various scales. Features which can be identified to varying degrees include boundaries between major tectonic provinces, lithological contacts, foliation trends within massive gneisses, faults, and topographic lineaments. In the present imagery the greatest amount of spectral geology is displayed in the Adirondack region where bedrock geology is strongly linked to topography. Within this basement complex, the most prominantly displayed features are numerous north-northeast trending faults and topographic lineaments, and arcuate east-west valleys developed in some of the weaker metasedimentary rocks. The majority of the faults and lineaments shown on the geologic Map of New York at 1:250,000 appear in the ERTS imagery.

  13. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques. [geological mapping of New England test area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. R. (Principal Investigator); Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The procedure for conducting a regional geological mapping program utilizing snow-enhanced ERTS-1 imagery has been summarized. While it is recognized that mapping procedures in geological programs will vary from area to area and from geologist to geologist, it is believed that the procedure tested in this project is applicable over a wide range of mapping programs. The procedure is designed to maximize the utility and value of ERTS-1 imagery and aerial photography within the initial phase of geological mapping programs. Sample products which represent interim steps in the mapping formula (e.g. the ERTS Fracture-Lineament Map) have been prepared. A full account of these procedures and products will be included within the Snow Enhancement Users Manual.

  14. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The utility of ERTS-1/high altitude aircraft imagery to detect underground mine hazards is strongly suggested. A 1:250,000 scale mined lands map of the Vincennes Quadrangle, Indiana has been prepared. This map is a prototype for a national mined lands inventory and will be distributed to State and Federal offices.

  15. Geographic applications of ERTS-1 imagery to landscape change. [Mississippi River and Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 has proven to be an effective earth-orbiting monitor of landscape change. Its regional coverage for large areal monitoring has been effective for the detection and mapping of agricultural plowing regions, for general forest cover mapping, for flood mapping, for strip mine mapping, and for short-lived precipitation mapping patterns. Paramount to the entire study has been the temporal coverage provided by ERTS. Without the cyclic coverage on an 18 day basis, temporal coverage would have been inadequate for the detection and mapping of strip mining landscape change, the analysis of agricultural landscape change based on plowing patterns, the analysis of urban-suburban growth changes, and the mapping of the Mississippi River floods. Cost benefits from ERTS are unquestionably superior to aircraft systems in regard to large regional coverage and cyclic temporal parameters. For the analysis of landscape change in large regions such as statewide areas or even areas of 10,000 square miles, ERTS is of cost benefit consideration. Not only does the cost of imagery favor ERTS but the reduction of man-hours using ERTS has been in the magnitude of 1:10.

  16. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Missouri, Kansa, Idaho, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigton, W. H.; Vonsteen, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.

  17. Comparative evaluation of ERTS-A imagery for resource inventory in land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonson, G. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Evaluation has begun on ERTS-1 imagery of Crook County for use in landform interpretation and geologic mapping and interpretation. Outside of Crook County the geology team has been impressed by the display of fault patterns in southeastern Oregon and has begun preliminary analyses of these. Using the color combiner a complete timber type map of (1) all the forest land within Crook County, and (2) all the Ochoco National Forest has been completed. The timber types consist of five density classes which are correlated with different species compositions as the first step in the multistage forest inventory. Using the ERTS magnetic tape data the computer center has produced a 12 by 25 mile strip printout of bands 5, 6, and 7. The computer printouts are to be analyzed for different timber types and possible insect damage. Other results are: (1) limited number of clearcuts in eastern Oregon and in Cascades evident; (2) positive transparencies of band 5 appear to be too dark for maximum information of forested areas; and (3) much more information in the computer printouts of bands 6 and 7, than 5, when analyzing forest conditions.

  18. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-A imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. When comparing the ERTS-1 imagery with the United States Air Force Operational Navigation Chart, mapping errors were found in Baja California and in the coastal islands off mainland Mexico. One dramatic error noted was the Isla Tortuga which is located 9 to 9.5 km to the west of its photo location. One ERTS-1 photo shows the size of the four islands, Isla San Juanito, Isla Maria Madre, Isla Maria Magdalena, and Isla Maria Cleofas, to be much smaller than the ONC map depicts them. A prominent zone of structural and physiographic lineaments extending approximately from San Fernando, Los Angeles County towards the Oxnard area in Ventura County in an east-north-east trend were observed. In Ventura County several previously unknown faults within this zone were identified and their traces plotted on large scale maps and 1:60,000 aerial photographs. This important fault zone is significant because it trends parallel to and partly coincides with a recent belt of seismicity related to the San Fernando 1971 earthquake.

  19. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New fracture detail of Indiana has been observed and mapped from ERTS-1 imagery. Studies so far indicate a close relationship between the directions of fracture traces mapped from the imagery, fractures measured on bedrock outcrops, and fractures measured in the underground mines. First hand observations and discussions with underground mine operators indicate good correlation of mine hazard maps prepared from ERTS-1/aircraft imagery and actual roof falls. The inventory of refuse piles/slurry ponds of the coal field of Indiana has identified over 225 such sites from past mining operations. These data will serve the State Legislature in making tax decisions on coal mining which take on increased importance because of the energy crisis.

  20. Identification of soil associations in South Dakota on ERTS 1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units developed in unique climatic, geologic, and topographic environments, and having characteristic slopes, soil depths, textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, and the like. From these characteristics of the soil, broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited for various agronomic and engineering uses. ERTS-1 imagery was found to be a useful tool in the identification of soil associations since it provides a synoptic view of an 8 million acre scene, which is large enough so that the effect can be seen on soils of climate, topography, and geology. A regional view also allows soil associations to be observed over most, if not all, of their extent. This aids in selecting typical sampling sites and provides a check on the homogeneity of the associations.

  1. Application of ERTS-1 imagery and underflight photography in the detection and monitoring of forest insect infestations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of areas in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California is discussed. The data is used to detect two types of insect infestational and to determine the extent of timber resources. Addition applications are the mapping of stream courses, mountain meadows, lakes, rock outcrops, and grazing land. The ERTS-1 data and underflight photography are used for this purpose.

  2. Evaluation of ERTS imagery for spectral geological mapping in diverse terranes of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator); Rickard, L. V.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary visual examination of film positives of thirty ERTS-1 scenes obtained over New York State and adjacent areas indicates the following: (1) sixty percent of the imagery has a cloud cover of 70-100 percent, twenty-five percent has a cloud cover of 0-30 percent, and the remainder has a cover of 40-65 percent; (2) on the useable imagery, the spectral lines which may turn out to be geologically-linked totals as follows: spectral linears, 5200 km; broadly curved lines (spectral curvilinears), 700 km; major forest boundaries, 3100 km; areas with spectral geological fabric, 3100 sgkm. In the central and northwest Adirondacks, known lineaments and faults were subtracted from the spectral linears leaving a residue which totals 160 km in the central Adirondacks and 230 km in the northwest Adirondacks. It must be emphasized that these are spectral linears which have not yet been checked out against any ground truth except geological.

  3. Cost, accuracy, and consistency comparisons of land use maps made from high-altitutde aircraft photography and ERTS imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.

    1975-01-01

    Accuracy analyses for the land use maps of the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site were performed for a 1-percent sample of the area. Researchers compared Level II land use maps produced at three scales, 1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000 from high-altitude photography, with each other and with point data obtained in the field. They employed the same procedures to determine the accuracy of the Level I land use maps produced at 1:250,000 from high-altitude photography and color composite ERTS imagery. The accuracy of the Level II maps was 84.9 percent at 1:24,000, 77.4 percent at 1:100,000, and 73.0 percent at 1:250,000. The accuracy of the Level I 1:250,000 maps produced from high-altitude aircraft photography was 76.5 percent and for those produced from ERTS imagery was 69.5 percent The cost of Level II land use mapping at 1:24,000 was found to be high ($11.93 per km2 ). The cost of mapping at 1:100,000 ($1.75) was about 2 times as expensive as mapping at 1:250,000 ($.88), and the accuracy increased by only 4.4 percent. Level I land use maps, when mapped from highaltitude photography, were about 4 times as expensive as the maps produced from ERTS imagery, although the accuracy is 7.0 percent greater. The Level I land use category that is least accurately mapped from ERTS imagery is urban and built-up land in the non-urban areas; in the urbanized areas, built-up land is more reliably mapped.

  4. Usefulness of Skylab color photography and ERTS-1 multispectral imagery for mapping range vegetation types in southwestern Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Aerial photography at scales of 1:43,400 and 1:104,500 was used to evaluate the usefulness of Skylab color photography (scales of 1:477,979 and 1:712,917) and ERTS-1 multispectral imagery (scale 1:1,000,000) for mapping range vegetation types. The project was successful in producing a range vegetation map of the 68,000 acres of salt desert shrub type in southwestern Wyoming. Techniques for estimation of above-ground green biomass have not yet been confirmed due to the mechanical failure of the photometer used in obtaining relative reflectance measurement. However, graphs of log transmittance versus above-ground green biomass indicate that production estimates may be made for some vegetation types from ERTS imagery. Other vegetation types not suitable for direct ERTS estimation of green biomass may possibly be related to those vegetation types whose production has been estimated from the multispectral imagery.

  5. Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Weecksteen, G.; Zizerman, A.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the MSS imagery of a sedimentary basin whose structure is regular is reported. Crops and natural vegetation are distributed all over the site located under temperate climate. Ground data available concern plant species geology and tectonic and are correlated with results from ERTS 1 imagery. This comparison shows a good correlation. The main geological units are detected or enhanced by way of agricultural land use and/or natural vegetation. Alluvial deposits are outlined by vegetation grass land and poplar trees. Some spatial relationship of geostructures, suspected until now, are identified or extended in associating results from different spectral bands.

  6. Forest and land inventory using ERTS imagery and aerial photography in the boreal forest region of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite imagery and small-scale (1:120,000) infrared ektachrome aerial photography for the development of improved forest and land inventory techniques in the boreal forest region are presented to demonstrate spectral signatures and their application. The forest is predominately mixed, stands of white spruce and poplar, with some pure stands of black spruce, pine and large areas of poorly drained land with peat and sedge type muskegs. This work is part of coordinated program to evaluate ERTS imagery by the Canadian Forestry Service.

  7. Application of ERTS imagery in estimating the environmental impact of a freeway through the Knysna area of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D. T.; Gilbertson, B.

    1974-01-01

    In the coastal areas north-east and south-west of Knysna, South Africa lie natural forests, lakes and lagoons highly regarded by many for their aesthetic and ecological richness. A freeway construction project has given rise to fears of the degradation or destruction of these natural features. The possibility was investigated of using ERTS imagery to estimate the environmental impact of the freeway and found that: (1) All threatened features could readily be identified on the imagery. (2) It was possible within a short time to provide an area estimate of damage to indigenous forest. (3) In several important respects the imagery has advantages over maps and aerial photos for this type of work. (4) The imagery will enable monitoring of the actual environmental impact of the freeway when completed.

  8. Mineral exploration and fracture trends in Utah and Nevada, by ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Major structural trends have been compiled on five separate maps, at a scale of 1:1,000,000, of Utah and Nevada from ERTS-1 imagery. An arbitrary length of ten kilometers has been chosen as a minimum length of the trends. The selection is based upon: (1) obvious displacement of structures; (2) continuity or persistence of trends across structures; (3) line-up of outcrop patterns, drainage, erosional features or vegetation; and (4) near-linear trends. Several recognizable trend directions have noted, viz., N 10-15 deg W, N 35 deg W, N 80 deg W, N 30 deg E, and E-W. More than 1500 structural trends have been identified, some of which are mineralized and extend into pediment or shallow alluvial cover. Those fracture trends that exhibit mineralization in exposed bedrock will be assayed for mercury content with a soil-gas analyzer and similar collection will be done over alluvial posture blankets by the same technique with the hope of discovering blind mineralized zones that are not exposed on the surface.

  9. Geographic applications of ERTS-A imagery to rural landscape change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The study area, centered on Knoxville, Tennessee, encompasses nearly 20,000 square miles. The Knoxville Test Site, an 11 x 21 mile area over the city of Knoxville and the western portion of Knox County, has been chosen for the analysis of landscape change detection associated with urban growth. The second area, the Cumberland Plateau Test Site, exhibits landscape change through forest alterations and landform disturbances associated with strip mining in the area and was so chosen for its sharp contrasts in physical and human phenomena as well as its change dynamics. Accomplishments since reception of ERTS-1 imagery include: (1) basic cataloging and classifying of the data into a filling system; (2) a densitometer analysis; (3) first look analysis; and (4) preparation of results from the project. Examples of all four bands of the MSS have been received and analyses reveal distinctive positive and negative reactions. Band 5 has been found to be best for landscape analysis of contrasts between urban and rural landscapes, and band 7 for topographic features and water surfaces. Preliminary results are summarized.

  10. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery. [geological faults in California mountain regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery shows that the southern segment of the San Gabriel fault which controls the west fork of the San Gabriel River is strikingly similar to the Mill Creek Fault in the San Bernardino Mountains. It has also been noted that there is a similarity between the Sierra Madre thrust zone of the San Gabriel Mountains to the Banning thrust of the San Bernardino Mountains. This suggests that the southern San Gabriel fault was once continuous with the Mill Creek fault. When the San Bernardino Mountain block is theoretically moved to the northwest along the San Jacinto fault so that the Mill Creek fault is aligned with the southern part of the San Gabriel fault, it was found that the four transverse fault segments become aligned with the Pinto Fault on the east and with the Raymond-Santa Monica Malibu Fault zone on the west. The reconstruction identifies a continuous zone of transverse faulting extending from the Colorado River Desert to the Pacific. It seems likely that the entire fault zone was once a continuous left-lateral shear. This Anacapa Shear has probably been subjected to a 50 km left lateral movement. This analysis strongly indicates that the tectonic history of the Transverse Range has been characterized by left lateral shear on transverse faults and right lateral shear on the San Andreas fault system.

  11. Identification of marsh vegetation and coastal land use in ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Daiber, F. C.; Bartlett, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Coastal vegetation species appearing in the ERTS-1 images taken of Delaware Bay on August 16, and October 10, 1972 have been correlated with ground truth vegetation maps and imagery obtained from high altitude RB-57 and U-2 overflights. The vegetation maps of the entire Delaware Coast were prepared during the summer of 1972 and checked out with ground truth data collected on foot, in small boats, and from low-altitude aircraft. Multispectral analysis of high altitude RB-57 and U-2 photographs indicated that five vegetation communities could be clearly discriminated from 60,000 feet altitude including: (1) salt marsh cord grass, (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass, (3) reed grass, (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle, and (5) a group of fresh water species found in impoundments built to attract water fowl. All of these species are shown in fifteen overlay maps, covering all of Delaware's wetlands prepared to match the USGS topographic map size of 1:24,000.

  12. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS-1 imagery using snow enhancement techniques. [geological fault maps of Massachusetts and Connecticut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The applications of ERTS-1 imagery for geological fracture mapping regardless of season has been repeatedly confirmed. The enhancement provided by a differential cover of snow increases the number and length of fracture-lineaments which can be detected with ERTS-1 data and accelerates the fracture mapping process for a variety of practical applications. The geological mapping benefits of the program will be realized in geographic areas where data are most needed - complex glaciated terrain and areas of deep residual soils. ERTS-1 derived fracture-lineament maps which provide detail well in excess of existing geological maps are not available in the Massachusetts-Connecticut area. The large quantity of new data provided by ERTS-1 may accelerate and improve field mapping now in progress in the area. Numerous other user groups have requested data on the techniques. This represents a major change in operating philosophy for groups who to data judged that snow obscured geological detail.

  13. Application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most important result to date is the demonstration of the special value of repetitive ERTS-1 multiband coverage for detecting previously unknown fracture lineaments despite the presence of a deep glacial overburden. The Illinois Basin is largely covered with glacial drift and few rock outcrops are present. A contribution to the geological understanding of Illinois and Indiana has been made. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery has provided useful information to the State of Indiana concerning the surface mined lands. The contrast between healthy vegetation and bare ground as imaged by Band 7 is sharp and substantial detail can be obtained concerning the extent of disturbed lands, associated water bodies, large haul roads, and extent of mined lands revegetation. Preliminary results of analysis suggest a reasonable correlation between image-detected fractures and mine roof fall accidents for a few areas investigated. ERTS-1 applications to surface mining operations appear probable, but further investigations are required. The likelihood of applying ERTS-1 derived fracture data to improve coal mine safety in the entire Illinois Basin is suggested from studies conducted in Indiana.

  14. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Russell, O. R.; Martin, K. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mined land reclamation analysis procedures developed within the Indiana portion of the Illinois Coal Basin were independently tested in Ohio utilizing 1:80,000 scale enlargements of ERTS-1 image 1029-15361-7 (dated August 21, 1972). An area in Belmont County was selected for analysis due to the extensive surface mining and the different degrees of reclamation occurring in this area. Contour mining in this area provided the opportunity to extend techniques developed for analysis of relatively flat mining areas in Indiana to areas of rolling topography in Ohio. The analysts had no previous experience in the area. Field investigations largely confirmed office analysis results although in a few areas estimates of vegetation percentages were found to be too high. In one area this error approximated 25%. These results suggest that systematic ERTS-1 analysis in combination with selective field sampling can provide reliable vegetation percentage estimates in excess of 25% accuracy with minimum equipment investment and training. The utility of ERTS-1 for practical and reasonably reliable update of mined lands information for groups with budget limitations is suggested. Many states can benefit from low cost updates using ERTS-1 imagery from public sources.

  15. Detection, mapping and estimation of rate of spread of grass fires from southern African ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Sequential band-6 imagery of the Zambesi Basin of southern Africa recorded substantial changes in burn patterns resulting from late dry season grass fires. One example from northern Botswana, indicates that a fire consumed approximately 70 square miles of grassland over a 24-hour period. Another example from western Zambia indicates increased fire activity over a 19-day period. Other examples clearly define the area of widespread grass fires in Angola, Botswana, Rhodesia and Zambia. From the fire patterns visible on the sequential portions of the imagery, and the time intervals involved, the rates of spread of the fires are estimated and compared with estimates derived from experimental burning plots in Zambia and Canada. It is concluded that sequential ERTS-1 imagery, of the quality studied, clearly provides the information needed to detect and map grass fires and to monitor their rates of spread in this region during the late dry season.

  16. Optical data processing and projected applications of the ERTS-1 imagery covering the 1973 Mississippi River Valley floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris; Ruggles, Fred

    1974-01-01

    Flooding along the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries was detected by the multispectral scanner (MSS) on the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) on at least three orbits during the spring of 1973. The ERTS data provided the first opportunity for mapping the regional extent of flooding at the time of the imagery. Special optical data processing techniques were used to produce a variety of multispectral color composites enhancing flood-plain details. One of these, a 2-color composite of near infrared bands 6 and 7, was enlarged and registered to 1:250,000-scale topographic maps and used as the basis for preparation of flood image maps. Two specially filtered 3-color composites of MSS bands 5, 6, and 7 and 4, 5, and 7 were prepared to aid in the interpretation of the data. The extent of the flooding was vividly depicted on a single image by 2-color temporal composites produced on the additive-color viewer using band 7 flood data superimposed on pre-flood band 7 images. On May 24, when the floodwaters at St. Louis receded to bankfull stage, imagery was again obtained by ERTS. Analysis of temporal data composites of the pre-flood and post-flood band 7 images indicate that changes in surface reflectance characteristics caused by the flooding can be delineated, thus making it possible to map the overall area flooded without the necessity of a real-time system to track and image the peak flood waves. Regional planning and disaster relief agencies such as the Corps of Engineers, Office of Emergency Preparedness, Soil Conservation Service, interstate river basin commissions and state agencies, as well as private lending and insurance institutions, have indicated strong potential applications for ERTS image-maps of flood-prone areas.

  17. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery: Southwestern North America and the Red Sea area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator); Tubbesing, L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS-1 imagery was utilized to study major fault and tectonic lines and their intersections in southwestern North America. A system of transverse shear faults was recognized in the California Coast Ranges, the Sierra Nevada, the Great Basin, and Mexico. They are interpreted as expressions of a major left-lateral shear which predated the San Andreas system, the opening of the Gulf of California and Basin and Range rift development. Tectonic models for Basin and Range, Coast Ranges, and Texas-Parras shears were developed. Geological structures and Precambrian metamorphic trend lines of schistosity were studied across the Red Sea rift.

  18. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills Region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seevers, P. M.; Drew, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Interpretations of high altitude photography of test sites in the Sandhills of Nebraska permitted identification of subirrigated range sites as well as complexes of choppy sands and sands range sites, units composing approximately 85% of the Sandhills rangeland. These range sites form the basic units necessary for the interpretation of range condition classes used in grazing management. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery acquired during August, September and October, 1972 indicated potential for the identification of gross differences in forage density within given range sites identified on early season aerial photography.

  19. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for land use/resource inventory information. [image enhancement of multispectral photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, E. E.; Skaley, J. E.; Phillips, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation was to develop a low cost, manual technique for enhancing ERTS-1 imagery and preparing it in suitable format for use by users with wide and varied interests related to land use and natural resources information. The goals were: to develop enhancement techniques based on concepts and practices extant in photographic sciences, to provide a means of allowing productive interpretation of the imagery by manual means, to produce a product at low cost, to provide a product that would have wide applications, and one compatible with existing information systems. Cost of preparation of the photographically enhanced, enlarged negatives and positives and the diazo materials is about 1 cent per square mile. Cost of creating and mapping a land use classification of twelve use types at a scale of 1:250,000 is only $1 per square mile. The product is understood by users, is economical, and is compatible with existing information systems.

  20. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural studies with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Boeovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Saemundsson, K.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The wide variety of geological and geophysical phenomena which can be observed in Iceland, and particularly their very direct relation to the management of the country's natural resources, has provided great impetus to the use of ERTS-1 imagery to measure and map the dynamic natural phenomena in Iceland. MSS imagery is being used to study a large variety of geological and geophysical eruptive products, geologic structure, volcanic geomorphology, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena of Iceland. Some of the preliminary results from this research projects are: (1) a large number of geological and volcanic features can be studied from ERTS-1 imagery, particularly imagery acquired at low sun angle, which had not previously been recognized; (2) under optimum conditions the ERTS-1 satellite can discern geothermal areas by their snow melt pattern or warm spring discharge into frozen lakes; (3) various maps at scales of 1:1 million and 1:500,000 can be updated and made more accurate with ERTS-1 imagery; (4) the correlation of water reserves with snowcover can improve the basis for planning electrical production in the management of water resources; (5) false-color composites (MSS) permitted the mapping of four types of vegetation: forested; grasslands, reclaimed, and cultivated areas, and the seasonal change of the vegetation, all of high value to rangeland management.

  1. The application of ERTS imagery to mapping snow cover in the western United States. [Salt Verde in Arizona and Sierra Nevada California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.; Simmes, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In much of the western United States a large part of the utilized water comes from accumulated mountain snowpacks; thus, accurate measurements of snow distributions are required for input to streamflow prediction models. The application of ERTS-1 imagery for mapping snow has been evaluated for two geographic areas, the Salt-Verde watershed in central Arizona and the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Techniques have been developed to identify snow and to differentiate between snow and cloud. The snow extent for these two drainage areas has been mapped from the MSS-5 (0.6 - 0.7 microns) imagery and compared with aerial survey snow charts, aircraft photography, and ground-based snow measurements. The results indicate that ERTS imagery has substantial practical applications for snow mapping. Snow extent can be mapped from ERTS-1 imagery in more detail than is depicted on aerial survey snow charts. Moreover, in Arizona and southern California cloud obscuration does not appear to be a serious deterrent to the use of satellite data for snow survey. The costs involved in deriving snow maps from ERTS-1 imagery appear to be very reasonable in comparison with existing data collection methods.

  2. Assessment of ERTS-1 imagery as a tool for regional geological analysis in New York State. [Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator); Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Linear anomalies dominate the new geological information derived from ERTS-1 imagery, total lengths now exceeding 26,500 km. Maxima on rose diagrams for ERTS-1 anomalies correspond well with those for mapped faults and topographic lineaments. Multi-scale analysis of linears shows that single topographic linears at 1:2,500,000 may become dashed linears at 1:1,000,000 aligned zones of shorter parallel, en echelon, or conjugate linears at 1:5000,000, and shorter linears lacking any conspicuous zonal alignment at 1:250,000. Field work in the Catskills suggests that the prominent new NNE lineaments may be surface manifestations of dip slip faulting in the basement, and that it may become possible to map major joint sets over extensive plateau regions directly on the imagery. Most circular features found were explained away by U-2 airfoto analysis but several remain as anomalies. Visible glacial features include individual drumlins, drumlinoids, eskers, ice-marginal drainage channels, glacial lake shorelines, sand plains, and end moraines.

  3. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for mapping Quaternary deposits and landforms in the Great Plains and Midwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Hallberg, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main landform associations and larger landforms are readily identifiable on the better images and commonly the gross associations of surficial Quaternary deposits also can be differentiated, primarily by information on landforms and soils. Maps showing the Quaternary geologic-terrain units that can be differentiated from the ERTS-1 images are being prepared for 20-odd potential study areas in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Among the more distinct features are the major moraines and outwash channels of the last (Wisconsin) glaciation. Analysis of dissection/drainage patterns from the synoptic imagery is proving useful for detecting anomalies that may be caused by stream diversions and moraines of pre-Wisconsin glaciations, by variable loess deposition, by tectonism, and other factors. Numerous abandoned river valleys have been mapped. Trend-lines of several known pre-Wisconsin moraine systems have been identified in Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas, and also several similar trend-lines, that may indicate previously unknown moraine systems of middle and possibly early Pleistocene age, have been found in Iowa and Missouri. The area inundated by a major flood in southwestern Iowa also has been delineated from ERTS-1 imagery.

  4. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  5. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers. [Washington, Alaska, British Columbia, and U.S.S.R.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The standard error of measurement of snow covered areas in major drainage basins in the Cascade Range, Washington, using single measurements of ERTS-1 images, was found to range from 11% to 7% during a typical melt season, but was as high as 32% in midwinter. Many dangerous glacier situations in Alaska, Yukon, and British Columbia were observed on ERTS-1 imagery. Glacier dammed lakes in Alaska are being monitored by ERTS-1. Embayments in tidal glaciers show changes detectable by ERTS-1. Surges of Russell and Tweedsmuir Glaciers, now in progress, are clearly visible. The Tweedsmuir surge is likely to dam the large Alsek River by mid-November, producing major floods down-river next summer. An ERTS-1 image of the Pamir Mountains, Tadjik S.S.R., shows the surging Medvezhii (Bear) Glacier just after its surge of early summer which dammed the Abdukagor Valley creating a huge lake and later a flood in the populous Vanch River Valley. A map was compiled from an ERTS-1 image of the Lowell Glacier after its recent surge, compared with an earlier map compiled from pain-stakingly compiled from a mosaic of many aerial photographs, in a total elapsed time of 1.5 hours. This demonstrates the value of ERTS-1 for rapid mapping of large features.

  6. The comparative evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for resource inventory in land use planning. [Oregon - Newberry Caldera, Mt. Washington, and Big Summit Prairie in Crook County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Simonson, G. H.; Paine, D. P.; Lawrence, R. D.; Pyott, W. T.; Herzog, J. H.; Murray, R. J.; Norgren, J. A.; Cornwell, J. A.; Rogers, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Multidiscipline team interpretation and mapping of resources for Crook County is complete on 1:250,000 scale enlargements of ERTS imagery and 1:120,000 hi-flight photography. Maps of geology, soils, vegetation-land use and land resources units were interpreted to show limitations, suitabilities, and geologic hazards for land use planning. Mapping of lineaments and structures from ERTS imagery has shown a number of features not previously mapped in Oregon. A multistage timber inventory of Ochoco National Forest was made, using ERTS images as the first stage. Inventory of forest clear-cutting practices was successfully demonstrated with color composites. Soil tonal differences in fallow fields correspond with major soil boundaries in loess-mantled terrain. A digital classification system used for discriminating natural vegetation and geologic material classes was successful in separating most major classes around Newberry Caldera, Mt. Washington, and Big Summit Prairie.

  7. Usefulness of ERTS-1 satellite imagery as a data-gathering tool by resource managers in the Bureau of Land Management. [Arizona, California, Oregon, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 satellite imagery can be an effective data-gathering tool for resource managers. Techniques are developed which allow managers to visually analyze simulated color infrared composite images to map perennial and ephemeral (annual) plant communities. Tentative results indicate that ephemeral plant growth and development and potential to produce forage can be monitored.

  8. Arctic and subarctic environmental analyses utilizing ERTS-1 imagery. [permafrost sediment transport, snow cover, ice conditions, and water runoff in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Mckim, H. L.; Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Slaughter, C. W.; Marlar, T. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Physiognomic landscape features were used as geologic and vegetative indicators in preparation of a surficial geology, vegetation, and permafrost map at a scale of 1:1 million using ERTS-1 band 7 imagery. The detail from this map compared favorably with USGS maps at 1:250,000 scale. Physical boundaries mapped from ERTS-1 imagery in combination with ground truth obtained from existing small maps and other sources resulted in improved and more detailed maps of permafrost terrain and vegetation for the same area. ERTS-1 imagery provides for the first time, a means of monitoring the following regional estuarine processes: daily and periodic surface water circulation patterns; changes in the relative sediment load of rivers discharging into the inlet; and, several local patterns not recognized before, such as a clockwise back eddy offshore from Clam Gulch and a counterclockwise current north of the Forelands. Comparison of ERTS-1 and Mariner imagery has revealed that the thermokarst depressions found on the Alaskan North Slope and polygonal patterns on the Yukon River Delta are possible analogs to some Martian terrain features.

  9. Vegetative and geologic mapping of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, based on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H.; Shapiro, L. H.; Belon, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 scene 1009-22095 (Western Seward Peninsula, Alaska) has been studied, partly as a training exercise, to evaluate whether direct visual examination of individual and custom color-composite prints can provide new information on the vegetation and geology of this relatively well known area of Alaska. The vegetation analysis reveals seven major vegetation types, only four of which are described on existing vegetation maps. In addition, the ERTS analysis provides greater detail than the existing maps on the areal distribution of vegetation types. The geologic analysis demonstrates that most of the major rock units and geomorphic boundaries shown on the available geologic maps could also be identified on the ERTS data. Several major high-angle faults were observed, but the zones of thrust faults which are much less obvious.

  10. Investigation of land use of northern megalopolis using ERTS-1 imagery. [Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Lindgren, D. T.; Goldstein, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was concluded that ERTS land use mapping, in spite of portraying megalopolis more accurately and dramatically than the best past efforts, is in danger of falling into the category of being too revolutionary for many planners and too conventional for many electronics engineers. Two alternative solutions are implied: one is to improve the ERTS product to the level where it will be completely accepted by planners, and the other is to increase support for the present somewhat primitive product through education, cost-sharing, and legislation.

  11. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Borgman, L. E.; Agard, S. S.; Barton, R.; Blackstone, D. L.; Breckenridge, R. M.; Decker, E. R.; Earle, J.; Evans, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite data included the following successful applications: (1) general geologic mapping, (2) structural and tectonic studies, (3) landforms and surface processes, (4) mineral exploration, (5) land use inventories, (6) hydrologic studies, (7) investigations in agriculture and forestry, and (8) environmental quality and ecology. The chief advantages of ERTS-1 data for geologic studies are synoptic view, spectral information, and seasonal coverage. The spectral data and repetitive aspect are also important for land use and vegetation studies. Low resolution and lack of steoscopic coverage were found to be the main limitations of ERTS data.

  12. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Communities containing four different coastal vegetation species, developed marshlands, and fresh water impoundments have been identified in ERTS-1 images. Ground measurements of suspended sediment load have been correlated with tonal variations in band 5.

  13. Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weecksteen, G. (Principal Investigator); Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Zizerman, A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The region covered by the MSS images has the benefit of complete geological mapping at scales of 1:80,000, 1:320,000, and 1:1,000,000. Comparison of imagery and exisiting geological maps, particularly the 1:1,000,000 scale, produces important information: (1) Good correspondence is seen between large units distinguished on the images and the concentric strata of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Paleocene on the map. (2) Comparison of MSS images with the hydrogeological map of the Parisian basin at 1:500,000 removes all ambiguity with regard to lithological variations. Among the many faults revealed, only three were considered: (1) the Metz; (2)Juranze; and (3) the double fault of the Marne. Imagery shows a conspicuous alignment of the Metz fault unknown until now and ending near Montereau against the group of north-south faults between Montargis and Bourbon l'Archambault. MSS images show that the Juranze fault divides beyond Brienne into two branches of equal importance. The northern one represents the known fault, the southern one was not known until now, but the convergence of the faults constitutes a tectonic trap. The double fault of the Marne is known for a total length of 50 km. ERTS-1 imagery suggest a prolongation toward the southeast which could bring its length to 110 km.

  14. Remote sensing in Iowa agriculture: Identification and classification of Iowa's crops, soils and forestry resources using ERTS-1 and complimentary underflight imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahlstede, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Carlson, R. E.; Fenton, T. E.; Thomson, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Springtime ERTS-1 imagery covering pre-selected test sites in Iowa showed considerable detail with respect to broad soil and land use patterns. Additional imagery has been incorporated into a state mosaic. The mosaic was used as a base for soil association lines transferred from an existing map. The regions of greatest contrast are between the Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil association area and adjacent areas. Landscape characteristics in this area result in land use patterns with a high percentage of pasture, hay, and timber. The soil association areas of the state that have patterns interpreted to be associated with intensive row crop production are: Moody, Galva-Primghar-Sac, Clarion-Nicollet-Webter, Tama-Muscatine, Dinsdale-Tama, Cresco-Lourdes, Clyde, Kenyon-Floyd-Clyde, and the Luton-Onawa-Salix area on the Missouri River floodplain. Forestland estimates have been attained for an area in central Iowa using wintertime ERTS-1 imagery. Visual analysis of multispectral, temporal imagery indicates that temporal analysis for cropland identification and acreage analyses procedures may be a very useful tool. Combinations of wintertime, springtime, and summertime ERTS-1 imagery separate most vegetation types. Timing can be critical depending upon crop development and harvesting times because of the dynamic nature of agricultural production.

  15. Volcanism subprogram: Volcanological interpretation of the northern part of the Occidental Cordillera of Bolivia, utilizing ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Kussmaul, S.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the present study, 6 ERTS-1 images have been interpreted on a 1:1 million scale (black and white) with the respective field reconnaissance. The area studied is located in the region bordering with Chile and includes the western part of the Bolivian Altiplano, the volcano Cordillera (western cordillera) and the northern part of Chile to the Pacific Coast. The greater part of this region is formed by Pliocene/Pleistocene volcani rock, which is discordant with the Tertiary sediments with intercalations of calcareous tuff. The ERTS-1 imagery permits the tracing of regional boundaries of the great volcanic formations and the alinements of the volcanic bodies along the fault zones. They also permit a clear examination of the volcanic apparatus, including their secondary forms, such as lava flows, parasitic cones, and lava domes. Because of the great scale, it is not possible to identify either the small structures or those of low relief. On the basis of the interpretation of the images, it is possible to give an idea of the relative age of the volcanoes.

  16. Optical data processing and projected applications of the ERTS-1 imagery covering the 1973 Mississippi River Valley floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M.; Ruggles, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    Flooding along the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries was imaged by the multispectral scanner (MSS) on the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) on at least three orbits during the spring of 1973. The ERTS data provided the first opportunity for mapping the regional extent of flooding at the time the imagery was acquired. Special optical data processing techniques were used to produce a variety of multispectral color composites which enhanced floodplain details. One of these, a two-color composite of near infrared bands 6 and 7, was enlarged and registered to 1:250,000-scale topographic maps and used as the basis for preparation of flood image maps. Two specially filtered three-color composites of MSS bands 5, 6, and 7 and 4, 5, and 7 were prepared to aid in the interpretation of the data. The extent of the flooding was vividly depicted on a single image by two-color temporal composites produced on the additive-color viewer using band 7 flood data superimposed on pre-flood band 7 images. Analysis of temporal data composites of the pre-flood and post-flood band 7 images indicate that changes in surface reflectance characteristics caused by the flooding can be delineated, thus making it possible to map the overall area flooded without the necessity of a real-time system to track and image the peak flood waves.

  17. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features, and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.; Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The red MSS band 5 gives the sharpest definition of modern arroyos. On the best images, modern arroy0s can be distinguished as narrow as 150 to 200 feet in reaches where their contrast with adjacent areas is only moderate, and as narrow as 60 to 75 feet where their contrast is high. Both the red and infrared bands show differences is soils and vegetation. In the late fall and winter imagery, band 7 generally is the most useful for mapping the areas of the more erodible soils. A map at 1:1,000,000 scale has been prepared that shows all the arroyos within the 17,000 square mile study area that have been identified from ERTS-1 images. Also, from U-2 color infrared airphotos, a 1:125,000 scale map has been made of a 50 mile reach along San Simon Wash, in southeastern Arizona. This map shows not only the arroyo channels and narrow flood plains that have developed since 1890, but also areas within a few miles of the wash that are severely guilled, severely sheet-eroded, and moderately sheet-eroded. Two important effects of the third largest recorded flood of the upper Gila River also have been determined from the ERTS-1 images. The inundated area is best displayed on band 7, and the areas of severe sand/gravel erosion/deposition show best on band 5.

  18. Investigation of the utility of ERTS-1 imagery for updating land use and resource data in Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An intensive analysis of the imagery received has been completed and findings are reported. Conclusions are restricted by receipt of only limited amounts of cloud-free coverage of test areas. In most cases the interpretation findings were as anticipated from previous experience with multiband images. Band 7 provides promising indication of some economically important environmental communities. It also permits viewing through thin cirrus cloud layers for features of medium to high contrast. Band 4 provides information of submerged reefs and of movement of suspended sediment bodies in water areas. ERTS-1 bulk images have positional mapping accuracy adequate for representation at 1:1,000,000 scale maps. Cloud cover is a true constraint to useable satellite coverage.

  19. Structural geology of the African rift system: Summary of new data from ERTS-1 imagery. [Precambrian influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS imagery reveals for the first time the structural pattern of the African rift system as a whole. The strong influence of Precambrian structures on this pattern is clearly evident, especially along zones of cataclastic deformation, but the rift pattern is seen to be ultimately independent in origin and nature from Precambrian tectonism. Continuity of rift structures from one swell to another is noted. The widening of the Gregory rift as its northern end reflects an underlying Precambrian structural divergence, and is not a consequence of reaching the swell margin. Although the Western Rift is now proven to terminate at the Aswa Mylonite Zone, in southern Sudan, lineaments extend northeastwards from Lake Albert to the Eastern Rift at Lake Stefanie. The importance of en-echelon structures in the African rifts is seen to have been exaggerated.

  20. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the fields of geology, agriculture, forestry, and hydrology to selected test sites in Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary study of the ERTS-1 imagery coverage of Iran, commenced on October 26, 1972. All of the images were carefully examined, and a photomosaic covering approximately ninety-five per cent of the country was prepared. A number of images of selected areas were studied in detail. In the field of geology, a number of large scale faults were identified, which do not figure on geological maps. Furthermore, a preliminary study was carried out on the recent sediments, their possible sources, and origin. A limited number of geological work maps were prepared as well. In the fields of agriculture and forestry, studies based on color composite prints of certain areas were undertaken, with a purpose of identifying potential arable areas. Investigations in the field of water resources resulted in the discovery of a number of small lakes, and streams. Furthermore, fluctuations of the water level in some lakes were observed.

  1. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes of the Cascade Range and Iceland utilizing ERTS DCP systems and imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the thermal surveillance of volcanoes experiment during 1972 included the design, construction, emplacement, and successful operation at volcanic sites in the Cascade Range, North America and on Surtsey, Iceland, of automated thermistor arrays which transmit ground and fumarole temperatures via the ERTS-1 data communication system to Goddard Space Flight Center. Temperature, radiance, and anomalous heat flow variations are being plotted by a U.S. Geological Survey IBM 360/65 computer program to show daily fluctuations at each of the sites. Results are being compiled in conjunction with NASA and USGS aircraft infrared survey data to provide thermal energy yield estimates during the current repose period of several Cascade Range volcanic systems. ERTS-1 MSS images have provided new information on the extent of structural elements controlling thermal emission at Lassen Volcanic National Park.

  2. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Davis, G. R.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from twelve successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been analyzed with special emphasis on coastal vegetation, land use, current circulation, water turbidity and pollution dispersion. Secchi depth, suspended sediment concentration and transmissivity as measured from helicopters and boats were correlated with ERTS-1 image radiance. Multispectral signatures of acid disposal plumes, sediment plumes and slick were investigated. Ten vegetative cover and water discrimination classes were selected for mapping: (1) forest-land; (2) Phragmites communis; (3) Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata; (4) Spartina alterniflora; (5) cropland; (6) plowed cropland; (7) sand and bare sandy soil; (8) bare mud; (9) deep water; and (10) sediment-laden and shallow water. Canonical analysis predicted good classification accuracies for most categories. The actual classification accuracies were very close to the predicted values with 8 of 10 categories classified with greater than 90% accuracy indicating that representative training sets had been selected.

  3. The use of ERTS-1 imagery in air pollution and mesometeorological studies around the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Northouse, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 images continue to be highly useful in studies of: (1) long range transport of air pollutants over the Great Lakes; (2) the mesoscale atmospheric dynamics associated with episodic levels of photochemical smog along the western shore of Lake Michigan; and (3) inadvertant weather modification by large industrial complexes. Also unusual wave patterns in fogs and low stratus over the Great Lakes are being detected for the first time due to the satellites high resolution.

  4. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A possibly more accurate method to determine snowcover area change has been tried; snowcover area change over periods of an ERTS-1 cycle are very useful in determining energy balances over regional areas and to determine snow depth as a function of altitude. Also since shadow and cloud cover areas are highlighted this method may be a step toward more complete machine processing.

  5. An operational application of ERTS-1 imagery to the environmental inventory process. [environmental impact statement for Atchafalaya basin of Louisiana and Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, J. D.; Bwins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how The Engineer Agency for Resources Inventories utilized ERTS remotely sensed imagery as a/supplement to airphotos and collateral data for an environmental impact study of the Atchafalaya Basin for the New Orleans engineer district. This single overall inventory permitted a systematic approach and substantial economy for a number of engineering projects for which environmental impact statements would be required. The study area covered approximately 25,000 square miles and included all or part of 36 parishes in Louisiana and 8 counties in Mississippi. It was concluded that as a supplementary source, used in conjunction with airphotos, ERTS had proven itself as a significant means of economy. As a primary source, the Engineer Agency is not yet ready to accept ERTS for their own particular applications.

  6. Inventory and monitoring of natural vegetation and related resources in an arid environment: A comprehensive evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery. [Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.; Pyott, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A vegetation classification, with 31 types and compatible with remote sensing applications, was developed for the test site. Terrain features can be used to discriminate vegetation types. Elevation and macrorelief interpretations were successful on ERTS photos, although for macrorelief, high sun angle stereoscopic interpretations were better than low sun angle monoscopic interpretations. Using spectral reflectivity, several vegetation types were characterized in terms of patterns of signature change. ERTS MSS digital data were used to discriminate vegetation classes at the association level and at the alliance level when image contrasts were high or low, respectively. An imagery comparison technique was developed to test image complexity and image groupability. In two stage sampling of vegetation types, ERTS plus high altitude photos were highly satisfactory for estimating kind and extent of types present, and for providing a mapping base.

  7. The cartographic application of ERTS/RBV imagery in polar regions. [Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of the late 1973-74 Antarctic imagery, when compared to 1972-73 imagery and existing map sources, clearly shows changes in the ice fronts, glacier movement, and the existence of possible new geographical features.

  8. Determine the utility of ERTS-1 imagery in the preparation of hydrologic atlases of arid land watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shown, L. M. (Principal Investigator); Owen, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The 9x9-inch transparencies from the ERTS-1 system seem to have better contrast in vegetation and drainage features than the 70-mm transparencies. This imagery can be magnified about eight times before it becomes excessively grainy. Imagery in band 7 appears to be the best single band product for viewing landform-water complexes. Band 5 best defines vegetation patterns. Multispectral color-additive viewing would appear to improve the separation of vegetation types where the vegetation exhibits moderate to strong infrared reflectance. Multispectral viewing did not appear to improve relief of drainage channel detail. False-color aerial infrared photographs at a scale of 1:120,000 for the Utah test site are excellent quality and can be magnified as much as 15 times without serious loss of contrast or excessive fuzziness. In desert areas with sparse to moderate shrub cover, the contrast between the soil background and the plant cover is so low that texture cannot be seen, even under high magnification. In areas of higher rainfall during the summer it is possible to discriminate coniferous and deciduous trees, grass, and shrub communities and to identify different rangeland treatment practices.

  9. A scheme for the uniform mapping and monitoring of earth resources and environmental complexes using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Welch, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Progress on plans for the development and testing of a practical procedure and system for the uniform mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems and environmental complexes from space-acquired imagery is discussed. With primary emphasis on ERTS-1 imagery, but supported by appropriate aircraft photography as necessary, the objectives are to accomplish the following: (1) Develop and test in a few selected sites and areas of the western United States a standard format for an ecological and land use legend for making natural resource inventories on a simulated global basis. (2) Based on these same limited geographic areas, identify the potentialities and limitations of the legend concept for the recognition and annotation of ecological analogs and environmental complexes. An additional objective is to determine the optimum combination of space photography, aerial photography, ground data, human data analysis, and automatic data analysis for estimating crop yield in the rice growing areas of California and Louisiana.

  10. First look analyses of five cycles of ERTS-1 imagery over County of Los Angeles: Assessment of data utility for urban development and regional planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S.; Economy, R.; Mcknight, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results have been obtained from the analyses of ERTS-1 imagery from five cycles over Test Site SR 124 by classical photointerpretation and by an interactive hybrid multispectral information extraction system (GEMS). The synopticity, periodicity and multispectrality of ERTS coverage, available for the first time to LA County planners, have opened up both a new dimensionality in data and offer new capability in preparation of planning inputs. Photointerpretation of ERTS images has produced over 25 overlays at 1:1,000,000 scale depicting regional relations and urban structure in terms of several hundred linear and areal features. To mention only one such result, a possible new fault lineament has been discovered on the northern slope of the Santa Monica mountains in the scene 1144-18015, composited of MSS bands 4, 5, 6,. GEMS analysis of the ERTS products has provided new or improved information in the following planning data categories: urban vegetation; land cover segregation; man-made and natural impact monitoring; urban design; and suitability. ERTS data analysis has allowed planners to establish trends that directly impact planning policies. This new source of information will not only assist current methods to be more efficient, but permits entirely new planning methodologies to be employed.

  11. Use of ERTS imagery for natural resources research and development in Lesotho. [Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, P. H. (Principal Investigator); Jackson, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As far as the geological aspects of the project were concerned, the project was a success. It was concluded that: (1) It is possible to trace the lithological boundaries between sedimentary rocks and basaltic rocks, both extrusive and intrusive. (2) It was possible to localize sponges in the mountain areas, some of which may conceal undiscovered diamond pipes. (3) Possible main structural axes were localized within the framework of lineaments. Due to drought which occured at the time the images were gathered by ERTS-1, the usefulness of the data was limited for agricultural purposes.

  12. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the Wyoming investigation during the first six months include: (1) successful segregation of Precambrian metasedimentary/metavolcanic rocks from igneous rocks; (2) discovery of iron formation within the metasedimentary sequence; (3) mapping of previously unreported tectonic elements of major significance; (4) successful mapping of large scale fractures of the Wind River Mountains; (5) sucessful distinction of some metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary lithologies by color-additive viewing of ERTS images; (6) mapping and interpretation of glacial features in western Wyoming; and (7) development of techniques for mapping small urban areas.

  13. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the Wyoming ERTS-1 investigation during the first six months (July-December 1972) included: (1) successful segregation of Precambrian metasedimentary/metavolcanic rocks from igneous rocks, (2) discovery of iron formation within the metasedimentary sequence, (3) mapping of previously unreported tectonic elements of major significance, (4) successful mapping of large scale fracture systems of the Wind River Mountains, (5) successful distinction of some metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary lithologies by color additive viewing, (6) mapping of large scale glacial features, and (7) development of techniques for mapping small urban areas.

  14. Earth and ocean physics. [results of ERTS-1 imagery for determining earth gravity and tectonic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for obtaining a parameterization of the marine geoid for suitable orthogonality properties in altimetry data is discussed. The application of the technique to the Puerto Rico trench is explained and a map of the data is developed. The Goddard Earth Model (GEM-6) is described to show the method for determining the earth gravity field using data obtained from satellite tracking stations. The derivation of a global ocean tide model from satellite data is explained. The influence of solid earth and ocean tides on the inclination of GEOS-1 is plotted. The delineation of the geographical fracture pattern and boundary system of the tectonic plates using ERTS satellite is shown.

  15. ERTS-1 imagery and high flight photographs as aids to fire hazard appraisal at the NASA San Pablo Reservoir test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    The identification of fire hazards at the San Pablo Reservoir Test Site in California using ERTS-1 data is discussed. It is stated that the two primary fire hazards in the area are caused by wild oat plants and eucalyptus trees. The types of imagery used in conducting the study are reported. Aerial photographs of specific areas are included to show the extent of the fire hazards.

  16. Automated thematic mapping and change detection of ERTS-A images. [digital interpretation of Arizona imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. For the recognition of terrain types, spatial signatures are developed from the diffraction patterns of small areas of ERTS-1 images. This knowledge is exploited for the measurements of a small number of meaningful spatial features from the digital Fourier transforms of ERTS-1 image cells containing 32 x 32 picture elements. Using these spatial features and a heuristic algorithm, the terrain types in the vicinity of Phoenix, Arizona were recognized by the computer with a high accuracy. Then, the spatial features were combined with spectral features and using the maximum likelihood criterion the recognition accuracy of terrain types increased substantially. It was determined that the recognition accuracy with the maximum likelihood criterion depends on the statistics of the feature vectors. Nonlinear transformations of the feature vectors are required so that the terrain class statistics become approximately Gaussian. It was also determined that for a given geographic area the statistics of the classes remain invariable for a period of a month but vary substantially between seasons.

  17. Detection of turbidity dynamics in Tampa Bay, Florida using multispectral imagery from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, A. E.; Higer, A. L.; Goodwin, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    In 1970, Congress authorized the deepening of the Tampa Bay channel (Rivers and Harbors Act of 1970) from 34 to 44 feet. In order to determine the effects of this deepening on circulation, water quality, and biota, during and after the construction, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tampa Port Authority, has collected data and developed a digital simulation model of the bay. In addition to data collected using conventional tools, use is being made of data collected from ERTS-1. Return beam vidicon (RBV) multispectral data were collected, while a shell dredging barge was operating in the bay, and used for turbidity recognition and unique spectral signatures representative of type and amount of material in suspension. A three-dimensional concept of the dynamics of the plume was achieved by superimposing the parts of the plume recognized in each RBV band. This provides a background for automatic computer processing of ERTS data and three-dimensional modeling of turbidity plumes.

  18. Fracture trends identified by ERTS-1 imagery in Utah and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, M. R.; Rogers, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Structures clearly traceable through bed rock are considered most reliable. Continuity, however, is frequently traceable through ranges and across adjoining sedimentary basins where changes in drainage, erosion pattern, soil color, or vegetation suggest that the basin sediments are extremely sensitive to underlying structures. Many large and continuous trends, too smeared by erosion to be visible on the ground or from aircraft photos, become quite evident at the scale of the ERTS-1 images. The study was made with little regard for surface geology. The trends have been retraced to separate and unidirectional sets. These are now being related to surface geology, geophysical studies, volcanic and intrusive centers, and areas of mineralization.

  19. Detection of particulate air pollution plumes from major point sources using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched by NASA in July 1972 has been providing thousands of high resolution multispectral images of interest to geographers, cartographers, hydrologists, and agroculturists. It has been found possible to detect the long-range (over 50 km) transport of suspected particulate plumes from the Chicago-Gary steel mill complex over Lake Michigan. The observed plumes are readily related to known steel mills, a cement plant, refineries, and fossil-fuel power plants. This has important ramifications when discussing the interregional transport of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis reveals that the Multispectral Scanner Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micrometer) provides the best overall contrast between the smoke and the underlying water surface.

  20. Application of ecological geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The Author has identified the following significant results. Significant results obtained by analysis of digital ERTS-1 data are: (1) Statistical outputs indicating the reliability of discriminating eight coastal vegetation and land use classes on a given group of training sets included: (a) mean and standard deviation of response in each class chosen; (b) contribution tables indicating importance of each channel in discriminating each thematic class from the background; (c) scatter diagrams showing relationships of thematic spectral signatures in spectral space; and (d) classification table showing reliability (in percent) of identification of each thematic class. (2) Thematic color maps at a scale of 1:1,000,000 showing vegetation and land use categories for Delaware's entire coastal zone. (3) Thematic computer plots at specified smaller (i.e. 1:24,000) scales for comparison with existing map data such as U.S.G.S. topographic maps.

  1. Geologic analysis and evaluation of ERTS-A imagery for the State of New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottlowski, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Many circular to elliptical features have been identified on the ERTS-1 images, only some of which can be accounted for by existing data. A small number of circular features are adjacent to existing ore deposits, but such relationships should not be emphasized unless other supporting data exists. Circular features may be tectonically or geomorphically controlled, or a combination of the two. A limited number are man-made. A preliminary listing of features which may have circular expression are listed. Photographic examples of identified and unidentified circular features will be included in the final report along with a thorough discussion and analysis. Comparisons will be made with existing gravity and magnetic data.

  2. Correlation of ERTS multispectral imagery with suspended matter and chlorophyll in lower Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Fleischer, P.; Gosink, T. A.; Hanna, W. J.; Ludwick, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using multispectral satellite imagery to monitor the characteristics of estuarine waters is being investigated. Preliminary comparisons of MSS imagery with suspended matter concentrations, particle counts, chlorophyll, transmittance and bathymetry have been made. Some visual correlation of radiance with particulates and chlorophyll has been established. Effects of bathymetry are present, and their relation to transmittance and radiance is being investigated. Greatest detail in suspended matter is revealed by MSS band 5. Near-surface suspended sediment load and chlorophyll can be observed in bands 6 and 7. Images received to date have partially defined extent and location of high suspensate concentrations. Net quantity of suspended matter in the lower Bay has been decreasing since the inception of the study, and represents the diminution of turbid flood waters carried into the Bay in late September, 1972. The results so far point to the utility of MSS imagery in monitoring estuarine water character for the assessment of siltation, productivity, and water types.

  3. Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery Lake Champlain Basin and Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has idenfified the following significant results. A first approximation land-type map using three categories of classification was generated for the Burlington area. The identification and mapping of a major turbidity front separating turbid waters of the southern arm of Lake Champlain from the clearer main water mass was reported on RBV 1 and 2 imagery and on subsequent MSS bands 4 and 5. Significant industrial pollution of Lake Champlain has degraded environmental quality in certain sections of the lake. Wetlands were detected and recognized using a combination of RBV bands 2 and 3. Using first-look RBV band 2 imagery, major ice marginal features were identified by using tonal patterns associated with vegetative cover. Major rivers were detected and recognized through the use of RBV band 3 imagery and MSS bands 6 and 7.

  4. Overall evaluation of LANDSAT (ERTS) follow on imagery for cartographic application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvocoresses, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imagery can be operationally applied to the revision of nautical charts. The imagery depicts shallow seas in a form that permits accurate planimetric image mapping of features to 20 meters of depth where the conditions of water clarity and bottom reflection are suitable. LANDSAT data also provide an excellent simulation of the earth's surface, for such applications as aeronautical charting and radar image correlation in aircraft and aircraft simulators. Radiometric enhancement, particularly edge enhancement, a technique only marginally successful with aerial photographs has proved to be high value when applied to LANDSAT data.

  5. Utilizing ERTS-1 imagery for tectonic analysis through study of the Bighorn Mountains region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparisons of imagery of three seasons, late summer-fall, winter, and spring indicate that for this region fall imagery is the best for overall geologic analysis. Winter scenes with light to moderate snow cover provide excellent topographic detail owing to snow enhancement, lower sun angle, and clarity of the atmosphere. Spring imagery has considerable reduction of tonal contrast owing to the low reflecting heavy green grass cover which subdues lithologic effects; heavy snow cover in the uplands masks topography. Mapping of geologic formations is impractical in most cases. Separation into tonal units can provide some general clues on structure. A given tonal unit can include parts of several geologic formations and different stratigraphic units can have the same tonal signature. Drainage patterns and anomalies provide the most consistent clues for detecting folds, monoclines, and homoclines. Vegetation only locally reflects lithology and structure. False color infrared 9 x 9 transparencies are the most valuable single imagery. Where these can be supplemented by U-2 color infrared for more detailed work, a tremendous amount of information is available. Adequately field checking such a large area just in one scene is the major logistic problem even in a fairly well known region.

  6. The application of ERTS imagery to the FAO/Unesco soil map of the world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudal, R. J.; Pecrot, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was concluded that direct identification and mapping of the various soil degradation forms and intensities from the color composite imager was generally difficult, if not impossible. The imagery, however, provided valuable information on some main environmental criteria which can be used in connection other available field data to assess actual soil degradation and estimate soil degradation hazards.

  7. The use of ERTS-1 multispectral imagery for crop identification in a semi-arid climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockton, J. G.; Bauer, M. E.; Blair, B. O.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1975-01-01

    Crop identification using multispectral satellite imagery and multivariate pattern recognition was used to identify wheat accurately in Greeley County, Kansas. A classification accuracy of 97 percent was found for wheat and the wheat estimate in hectares was within 5 percent of the USDA's Statistical Reporting Service estimate for 1973. The multispectral response of cotton and sorghum in Texas was not unique enough to distinguish between them nor to separate them from other cultivated crops.

  8. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery. [Idaho and Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of temporal overlays, equal and unequal prior probabilities, and independent test data are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributed are summarized: (1) Results in Missouri where temporal overlays were made, show that temporal information improved the overall classification by 10%. (2) The dates were not optimum that were overlaid. (3) Data analysis in both Missouri and Idaho indicates that the use of prior probabilities improves the overall classification rates by at least 10% overusing the assumption that the crops are all equally likely. (4) Using both procedures together indicates that overall performance can be improved by 20% over one data and equal prior probabilities. (5) Idaho data has banding problems that may have caused serious problems in the crop classification. (6) The twelve crop types in Idaho seem to be quite similar spectrally, and hence, classification is quite difficult. (7) ERTS may not contain enough information to have perfect classification, but the data may still be useful for making crop acreage estimates. (8) Remotely sensed data could be used with a regression estimator if there is a correlation between ground data and classification results. (9) Remotely sensed data could be used with a double sample model.

  9. Geological analysis and evaluation of ERTS-A imagery for the state of New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottlowski, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Coverage of approximately one-third of the test site had been received by January 31, 1973 and all of the images received were MSS products. Images recorded during the first two months of the ERTS-1 mission were of poor quality, owing largely to high ground reflectance. Later images were of better quality and MSS bands 5 and 7 have proven to be particularly useful. Features noted during visual inspection of 9 1/2 x 9 1/2 prints include major structural forms, vegetation patterns, drainage patterns, and outcrops of geologic formations having marked color contrasts. The Border Hills Structural Zone and the Y-O Structural Zone are prominently reflected in coverage of the Pecos Valley. A study of available maps and remote sensing material covering the Deming-Columbus area indicated that the limit of detection and the resolution of MSS products are not as good as those of aerial photographs, geologic maps, and manned satellite photographs. The limit of detection of high contrast features on MSS prints is approximately 1000 feet or 300 meters for linear features and about 18 acres for roughly circular areas.

  10. Investigation to develop a multistage forest sampling inventory system using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, P. G.; Vanroessel, J. W. (Principal Investigator); Wert, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The annotation system produced a RMSE of about 200 m ground distance in the MSS data system with the control data used. All the analytical MSS interpretation models tried were highly significant. However, the gains in forest sampling efficiency that can be achieved by using the models vary from zero to over 50 percent depending on the area to which they are applied and the sampling method used. Among the sampling methods tried, regression sampling yielded substantial and the most consistent gains. The single most significant variable in the interpretation model was the difference between bands 5 and 7. The contrast variable, computed by the Hadamard transform was significant but did not contribute much to the interpretation model. Forest areas containing very large timber volumes because of large tree sizes were not separable from areas of similar crown cover but containing smaller trees using ERTS image interpretation only. All correlations between space derived timber volume predictions and estimates obtained from aerial and ground sampling were relatively low but significant and stable. There was a much stronger relationship between variables derived from MSS and U2 data than between U2 and ground data.

  11. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

  12. The influence of seasonal factors on the recognition of surface lithologies from ERTS-imagery of the western Transvaal. [South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grootenboer, J.

    1974-01-01

    The value to geological studies of repetitive ERTS-imagery was investigated by comparing two images gathered during different seasons over an area in the western Transvaal Province of the Republic of South Africa. The first of the two images (1050-07355) was gathered on September 11th., 1972, co-inciding with the end of the dry winter season. The second image (1158-07363) was gathered in the middle of the summer rainfall season on December 28th., 1972. A comparison of the two images reveals striking differences in the amount of recognizable geological detail. The differences exhibited by the two images clearly demonstrate the importance of repetitive ERTS coverage in geological investigations, particularly in areas of marked seasonal variations.

  13. National project for the evaluation of ERTS imagery applications to various earth resources problems of Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpan, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It is observed that LANDSAT images can be used in preparing an accurate tectonic map of the study areas. These images are most useful in geological mapping areas where vegetation cover is sparse. LANDSAT images can be used to identify and separate evergreens and trees with leaves, and they can successfully delineate boundaries of forestry areas. Water holding capacity of the soil, internal and external drainage, vegetation pattern, irrigated and nonirrigated land, and fallow and planted fields are also detected on the LANDSAT imagery.

  14. Improving estimates of streamflow characteristics using LANDSAT-1 (ERTS-1) imagery. [Delmarva Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollyday, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Streamflow characteristics in the Delmarva Peninsula derived from the records of daily discharge of 20 gaged basins are representative of the full range in flow conditions and include all of those commonly used for design or planning purposes. They include annual flood peaks with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50 years, mean annual discharge, standard deviation of the mean annual discharge, mean monthly discharges, standard deviation of the mean monthly discharges, low-flow characteristics, flood volume characteristics, and the discharge equalled or exceeded 50 percent of the time. Streamflow and basin characteristics were related by a technique of multiple regression using a digital computer. A control group of equations was computed using basin characteristics derived from maps and climatological records. An experimental group of equations was computed using basin characteristics derived from LANDSAT imagery as well as from maps and climatological records. Based on a reduction in standard error of estimate equal to or greater than 10 percent, the equations for 12 stream flow characteristics were substantially improved by adding to the analyses basin characteristics derived from LANDSAT imagery.

  15. Structural interpretations based on ERTS-1 imagery, Bighorn Region, Wyoming-Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Structural analysis is being carried out on bands MSS 5 and 7 of scene 1085-17294. Geologic strucutre is primarily revealed in the topographic relief and drainage. Topographic linears are particularly well developed in the bighorn uplift. Many of these occur along known faults and shear zones in the Precambrian core; several have not been previously mapped. These linears, however, do not continue into the younger rocks of the flanks or do so in a much less marked manner than in the core. Linears are far less abundant in the basin or are manifested only in very subtle tonal contrasts and somewhat straight drainage segments. Some of the linears are aligned along trends previously postulated on the basis of surface mapping to be lineaments. The imagery reveals little or no evidence of strike-slip displacements along these lineaments.

  16. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Winter imagery in December 6-10, 1972 and January 11-13, 1972, provides optimum snow cover and depth such that, along with low sun angle, topography and drainage are markedly enhanced. Several features are visible that are poorly, or even not distinguishable on clear scenes without snow. Examples are Bear Butte (igneous plug) and Elkhorn Peak (dome) on scene (1136-17130), northeastern Black Hills, (1172-17130) a linear linking the Cascade anticline and Cretaceous hogbacks near Hot Springs, S. D. south to the Niobrara River, and (1140-17373) the Lake Basin fault zone north of Billings, Montana. Extremely heavy snows in April completely blot out all vegetation and topography in the Bighorn, Wind River, and Beartooth ranges.

  17. ERTS-1 imagery of the Lake Champlain region: A first look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O. (Principal Investigator); Henson, E. B.; Olson, J.; Wagner, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. First-look analysis of RBV imagery of Lake Champlain and adjacent areas provided the following information on land and water resources: (1) location and shape of islands over 200 meters at narrowest part; (2) location of manmade structures at least 10 meters across; (3) location of shoreline; (4) identification of algal blooms and major turbidity boundary; (5) identification of lake bottom features in sandy, shallow areas; (6) identification of major lake shore wetland and floodplain wetlands; (7) location of major streams; (8) identification of ice marginal deposits of major proportions and former shorelines of Champlain Sea; (9) identification of wooded areas, open land, and built-up areas.

  18. Task 1: Correlation of satellite and ground data in air pollution studies. Task 2: Investigation to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Task 3: The use of ERTS-1 to more fully utilize and apply marine station data to the study of productivity along the Eastern Shelf expanded waters of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Ludwick, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of U-2 imagery of CARETS site indicates smoke plumes can be easily detected. First look at selected ERTS-1 color composites demonstrates plumes from forest fires can be detected.

  19. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 6: Cost, accuracy and consistency comparisons of land use maps made from high-altitude aircraft photography and ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Fitzpatrick, K. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Level 2 land use maps produced at three scales (1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000) from high altitude photography were compared with each other and with point data obtained in the field. The same procedures were employed to determine the accuracy of the Level 1 land use maps produced at 1:250,000 from high altitude photography and color composite ERTS imagery. Accuracy of the Level 2 maps was 84.9 percent at 1:24,000, 77.4 percent at 1:100,000 and 73.0 percent at 1:250,000. Accuracy of the Level 1 1:250,000 maps was 76.5 percent for aerial photographs and 69.5 percent for ERTS imagery. The cost of Level 2 land use mapping at 1:24,000 was found to be high ($11.93 per sq km). The cost of mapping at 1:100,000 ($1.75) was about two times as expensive as mapping at 1:250,000 ($.88), and the accuracy increased by only 4.4 percent.

  20. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers. [Cascade Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Snowlines on a small drainage basin were accurately identified on bulk ERTS-1 images without use of digital processing, and results checked with high altitude and ground-based photography. The area and approximate shape of snow patches as small as 20,000 sq m could be correctly identified with a magnifying scanning densitometer. The resolution of ERTS is more than ample for most snow mapping needs. Mount Baker, Washington, has a large crater south of the summit and an area north of the summit which emit considerable geothermal heat in the form of fumaroles and hot ground. Temperatures are being monitored using an ERTS DCS. Debris flows are occassionally released from the crater due to water saturation at the base of a heavy snowpack lying on hydrothermally altered hot ground. These debris flows present a possible hazard to life and property, as they are discharged down the Boulder Glacier toward Baker Lake, the upper of two major hydroelectric power reservoirs which are situated above the populated Skagit River Valley. ERTS-1 images show that the most recent debris flow (20-21 August 1973) can be clearly discerned and mapped. ERTS images provide another important tool for monitoring this potential hazard.

  1. Inventory and monitoring of natural vegetation and related resources in an arid environment by the use of ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An evaluation of information content of ERTS-1 reconstituted photography in comparison with Apollo 6 and Gemini 4 photography has been accomplished for some landforms through the use of an image groupability testing procedure. Analysis of terrain feature-vegetation relationships has been completed. Ground truth data collected in the southern Arizona test site have indicated that many of the plants can be categorized as either evergreen, cool season deciduous, or warm season deciduous. Results from image groupability testing have been utilized to stratify an Apollo 6 scene and an ERTS-1 scene of the same area.

  2. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for mapping Quaternary deposits and landforms in the Great Plains and Midwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Hallberg, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main landform associations and larger landforms are readily identifiable on the better images and commonly the gross associations of surficial Quaternary deposits also can be differentiated, primarily by information on landforms and soils. Maps showing the Quaternary geologic-terrain units that can be differentiated from the ERTS-1 images are being prepared for study areas in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Preliminary maps at 1:1 million scale are given of two of the study areas, the Peoria and Decatur, Illinois, 1 deg x 2 quadrangles. These maps exemplify the first phase of investigations, which consists of identifying and mapping landform and land use characteristics and geologic-surficial materials directly from ERTS-1 images alone, without input of additional data. These maps shown that commonly the boundaries of geologic-terrain units can be identified more accurately on ERTS-1 images than on topographic maps of 1:250,000 scale. From analysis of drainage patterns, stream-divide relations, and tone and textural variations on the ERTS-1 images, the trends of numerous moraines of Wisconsinan and possibly some of Illinoian age were mapped. In the Peoria study area the trend of a buried valley of the Mississippi River is revealed.

  3. Detection and mapping of mineralized areas in the Cortez-Uinta Belt, Utah-Nevada, using computer-enhanced ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis indicates that mineralogical differences between altered rocks and most unaltered rocks in south-central Nevada cause visible and near infrared spectral reflectance differences, which can be used to discriminate these broad categories of rocks in multispectral images. The most important mineralogical differences are the increased abundance of goethite, hematite, and jarosite, and the presence of alunite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite in the altered rock. The technique to enhance subtle spectral differences combines ratioing of the MSS bands and contrast stretching. The stretched ratio values are used to produce black and white images that depict materials according to spectral reflectance; rationing minimizes the influence of topography and overall albedo on the grouping of spectrally similar materials. Field evaluation of color-ratio composite shows that, excluding alluvial areas, approximately 80 percent of the green and brown color patterns are related to hydrothermal alternation. The remaining 20 percent consists mainly of pink hematitic crystallized tuff, a result of vapor phase crystallization, and of tan and red ferruginous shale and siltstone.

  4. Detection and mapping of mineralized areas in the Cortez-Uinta Belt, Utah-Nevada using computer-enhanced ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator); Goetz, A. F. H.; Ashley, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The reflectance spectra of most hydrothermally altered rocks were characterized by broad ferric iron absorption bands short of 1.1 microns and a sharper hydroxyl band near 2.2 microns; maximum reflectance occurred near 1.6 microns. Their features became more prominent as albedo increased. The MSS color ratio composite images were the most effective and practical means for detecting and mapping limonitic rocks in areas having less than about 50 percent desert brush cover and less than 25-35 percent coniferous tree cover. Limonitic altered and unaltered rocks could not be distinguished in MSS color ratio composite images.

  5. Detection and mapping of mineralized areas in the Cortez-Uinta Belt, Utah-Nevada, using computer-enhanced ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mineralogical differences between hydrothermally altered rocks and most unaltered rocks in south central Nevada cause visible and near infrared (0.45-2.4 micron) spectral reflectance differences which can be used to discriminate broad categories of rocks in multispectral images. The most important mineralogical differences are the increased abundance of goethite, hematite, jarosite, alunite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite in the altered zones. Because of the wavelength positions and widths of the LANDSAT MSS bands, these spectral differences are not apparent in individual or color infrared composite MSS images. The technique developed to enhance these subtle spectral differences combines ratioing of the MSS bands and contrast stretching. Field evaluation of color-ratio composite shows that, after exclusion of alluvial areas, approximately 80% of the green and brown color patterns are related to hydrothermal alteration. The remaining 20% consists mainly of pink hematitic crystallized tuff and tan or red ferruginous shale and siltstone.

  6. Application of ERTS-1 imagery and underflight photography in the detection and monitoring of forest insect infections in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. C. (Principal Investigator); Wert, S. L.; Koerber, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery with underflight aerial photo support including U-2, in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, indicates promising possibilities of detecting and monitoring forest insect outbreaks visually with some mechanical support utilizing the VP-8 image analyzer. Visually, it is possible at a scale of 1:1,000,000 to discriminate between large areas of damaged and undamaged forests; timbered and non-timbered areas; pasture land and cultivated fields; desert and riparian vegetation. At a scale of 1:80,000 it is possible to distinguish among three classes of tree mortality; defoliated and undefoliated areas; non-host mixed conifers; and mountain meadows, rock domes, lakes and glaciers. Machine tests showed significant differences in image densities among various bands and mortality areas.

  7. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers. [Alaska and Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new procedure to determine snowcovered areas has been devised. Aside from problems in heavily forested areas this method shows promise in predicting snowmelt runoff from mountain areas and will also assist in energy balance modeling of large snowfields. Snowcover results compare favorably with measurements made by high altitude aircraft photography. Changes in snowcover in areas as small as 3 x 5 km can be determined from ERTS-1 images by both optical and electronic methods. Snowcover changes determined by these two methods in the experimental South Cascade Glacier Basin were verified by field mapping. Image enahancement techniques on ERTS-1 images of large Alaskan glaciers (the Hubbard, Yentna, and Kahiltna) have given new insights into the large-scale structures and flow dynamics of these potentially hazardous glaciers. The Hubbard Glacier, in particular, is one which poses a threat to man and should be monitored for future changes.

  8. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for mapping Quaternary deposits and landforms in the Great Plains and Midwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Hallberg, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main landform associations and larger landforms are readily identifiable on the better images and commonly the gross associations of surficial Quaternary deposits also can be determined primarily by information on landforms and soils (obtained by analysis of stream dissection and drainage and stream-divide patterns, land use patterns, etc.). Maps showing the Quaternary geologic-terrain units that can be distinguished on the ERTS-1 images are being prepared for study areas in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Preliminary maps of 1:1,000,000 scale are included for three of the study areas: the Grand Island and Fremont, Nebraska, and the Davenport, Iowa-Illinois, 1 deg x 2 deg quadrangles. These maps exemplify the first phase of investigations, which consists of identifying and mapping landform and land use characteristics and geologic-surficial materials directly from the ERTS-1 images alone, with no additional information. These maps show that commonly the boundaries of geologic-terrain units can be delineated more accurately on ERTS-1 images than on topographic maps at 1:250,000 scale.

  9. Design and evaluation of a computer based system to monitor and generalise, by areas, data from ERTS precision imagery tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, K. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An objective system for regionalization is described, using ERTS-1 (or LANDSAT) computer compatible tapes. A range of computer programs for analysis of these tapes was developed. Emphasis is on a level of generalization appropriate to a satellite system whith repetitive global coverage. The main variables are land/water ratios and vegetation cover. The scale or texture of the pattern of change in these variables varies a good deal across the earth's surface, and it seems best if the unit of generalization adopted varies in sympathy with the surface being analyzed.

  10. Application of ERTS-1 multispectral imagery to monitoring the present episode of accelerated erosion in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.; Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    An episode of accelerated arroyo-cutting and sheet erosion commenced about 1890 in southern Arizona, following several thousand years of generally sluggish erosion. For a 17,000-square-mile study area, ERTS-1 images, supplemented by ultrahigh-altitude (U-2 and RB-57) airphotos, are proving effective for producing the first comprehensive maps showing the distribution and seriousness of the post-1890 erosion features, for monitoring new erosion changes, and for assessing the effectiveness of ameliorative measures. Such data are essential for understanding and controlling the accelerated erosion, a key environmental problem in this region.

  11. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to the study of caribou movements and winter dispersal in relation to prevailing snowcover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lent, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A multiband classification scheme was applied to ERTS-1 MSS digital tape data in a portion of the Yukon Flats area. Primary analytic objectives of mapping the extent of recent wildfire burns and mature forest were realized illustrating application to moose and caribou biology. Additionally, the analysis indicated the presence of new lakes as well as disappearance of lakes present in 1956. Because this is an important waterfowl production area, similar analyses may have significant application potential to waterfowl biology for rapid updating of habitat information. Further field confirmation of this finding is required.

  12. Mapping quaternary landforms and deposits in the Midwest and Great Plains by means of ERTS-1 multispectral imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 multispectral images are proving effective for differentiating many kinds of Quaternary surficial deposits and landforms units in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Examples of features that have been distinguished are: (1) the more prominent end moraines of the last glaciation; (2) certain possible palimpsests of older moraines mantled by younger deposits; (3) various abandoned river valleys, including suspected ones deeply filled by deposits; (4) river terraces; and (5) some known faults and a few previously unmapped lineaments that may be faults. The ERTS images are being used for systematic mapping of Quaternary landforms and deposits in about 20 potential study areas. Some study areas, already well mapped, provide checks on the reliability of mapping from the images. For other study areas, previously mapped only partly or not at all, our maps will be the first comprehensive, synoptic ones, and should be useful for regional land-use planning and ground-water, engineering-geology, and other environmental applications.

  13. ERTS-1 applications to California resource inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. ERTS-1 information will be utilized by resource management groups working in the fields of forestry, hydrology, range management, and agriculture to develop resource inventories of the state of California. Five examples are given of the use of ERTS-1 imagery and aerial photography in identifying different crops and field conditions.

  14. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-A imagery. [correlation of tectonic and structural properties with known mineral deposits in Nevada, California, and Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A set of criteria characterizing known mineralized areas are: (1) occurrence at structural bends, discontinuities, complex deformations along fault zones and intersections; (2) complex terrain textures produced by fracture intersections; (3) color and tone anomalies produced by igneous intrusives, alteration effects, and oxidation. Significant fracture systems which appear to be most commonly related to mineralization in central and northeastern Nevada trend northeast-southwest, north-south, and north-northwest. In the area from Goldfield and Beatty, Nevada, to south of Las Vegas, ERTS-1 and Skylab imagery have been examined together to study an apparent correlation of mineralized areas with suspected hydrothermal alteration effects. It was observed that areas of mineralization are of complex structure, usually cut by many fractures, and sometimes have a similar mottled or variegated appearance. Although the Beatty-Rhyolite mining district is now largely inactive, several analogous areas not known to be mineralized have been identified. Identification of specific mineral prospects within general targets requires extensive field work and detailed geophysical exploration.

  15. Research on recognition of the geologic framework of porphyry copper deposits on ERTS-1 imagery. [New Guinea, Alaska, and Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Many new linear and circular features were found. These features prompted novel tectonic classification and analysis especially in the Ray and Ely areas. Tectonic analyses of the Ok Tedi, Tanacross, and Silvertone areas follow conventional interpretations. Circular features are mapped in many cases and are interpreted as exposed or covered intrusive centers. The small circular features reported in the Ok Tedi test area are valid and useful correlations with tertiary intrusion and volcanism in this remote part of New Guinea. Several major faults of regional dimensions, such as the Denali fault in Alaska and the Colorado mineral belt structures in Colorado are detected in the imagery. Many more faults and regional structures are found in the imagery than exist on present maps.

  16. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for mapping Quaternary deposits and landforms in the Great Plains and Midwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Hallberg, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Maps of 1:1 million scale exemplifying the first phase of investigation were prepared for ten study areas (mostly 1 deg x 2 deg in area): 2 in Kansas, 1 in Missouri-Kansas, 2 in Nebraska, 1 in South Dakota, 3 in Illinois, and 1 in Iowa-Illinois (a total of 13 such maps, covering about 97,000 sq. mi., since the start of the project). Collection of all pertinent published geologic-terrain data also has been completed for all the study areas for which these first-phase maps have been made. The ground truth data are being used in combination with additional interpretation of the repetitive ERTS-1 images of most of these study areas to prepare enhanced information maps at 1:500,000. For areas that have not been mapped at 1:500,000 or larger scales, the maps will provide the first moderately detailed information on landform features and surficial materials. Much of the information mapped is significant for exploration and development of ground water (and locally petroleum) and for applications in engineering and environmental geology, and land use patterns as indicated by tone and texture on the images. Numerous moraines have been identified; also, the trends of parts of ancient filled valleys have been identified. Valley alinement appears controlled by faults or other structural lineaments.

  17. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The chief results during the reporting period were three 1:1,000,000 scale maps made from one ERTS-1 frame (1085-17330, 16 October 1972) showing: (1) the three most important types of materials in terms of the modern erosion problem: the readily erodible soils, gravel piedmonts and basin-fill areas, and consolidated rocks; (2) alluvial fans (dissected and relatively undissected); and (3) (as an additional bonus) linear structural features. Eight key areas (small parts of the whole study area) were selected for detailed study, and mapping was started in two of them, by interpretation of ultrahigh (U-2 and RB-57) airphotos, supplemented by field studies. In these areas detailed mapping was done not only on the modern erosion phenomena (arroyos, gullies, modern flood plains and terraces, and areas of sheet erosion and deposition), but also other features pertinent to the erosion problem, such as slope-local relief, landforms rock units, soil particle size and erodibility, and classes of vegetative cover.

  18. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to detecting and mapping modern erosion features, and to monitoring erosional changes, in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Cooley, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 multispectral images have been used, without additional data, to prepare three maps at 1:1 million scale of the 18,000 sq. mi. project area: (1) modern (post-1890 A. D.) arroyos and channels; (2) types of stream channels; and (3) potential erodibility of soils; surficial deposits, and bedrock. Also completed was the collection and compilation of ground truth geologic, soil, and hydrologic data. Field studies to obtain ground control for the photointerpretive mapping include: (1) measurements, at many sites, of the depth, width, and channel characteristics of arroyos and gullies, and cross profiles of stream channels, flood plains, and Holocene terraces; and (2) stratigraphic measurements of the Holocene alluvial deposits. Significant conclusions from these extensive stratigraphic studies are: Slow deposition of sediment was the dominant process on stream lowlands throughout the project area for at least 2000 years prior to 1890 A.D. The deposition was broken by only two relatively brief and minor erosional episodes of regional importance, when channels no more than a third of the depth of modern channels were cut. The modern erosion has produced within about 80 years substantially more and larger arroyos than any erosion episode during the last 2000 years, and the end is not in sight.

  19. Inner structure of the Puy de Dôme volcano: cross-comparison of geophysical models (ERT, Gravimetry, Muonic Imagery)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portal, A.; Béné, S.; Boivin, P.; Busato, E.; Cârloganu, C.; Combaret, C.; Dupieux, P.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Labazuy, P.; Laktineh, I.; Lénat, J.-F.; Miallier, D.; Mirabito, L.; Niess, V.; Vulpescu, B.

    2012-09-01

    Muon imagery of volcanoes and geological structures are presently and actively developed by several groups in the world. It has the potential to provide a 2-D or 3-D density distribution with an accuracy of a few percent. However, at this stage of the development of the method, comparisons with the results from established geophysical methods are necessary to validate its results. An experiment is currently carried out at the Puy de Dôme volcano involving the concurrent acquisition of muon imagery, electrical resistivity (2-D tomography) and gravity survey. Here, we present the preliminary results for the last two methods. North-south and east-west resistivity sections have been obtained in June 2011 and May 2012. These electric data allow to model of the distribution of the resistivity values down to the base of the dome. The dome and its surroundings are now mapped with more than 300 gravity stations measured during a detailed gravity survey carried out in March and May 2012. The computed Bouguer anomaly can be interpreted by models of the density distribution within the dome. This will be directly comparable with the results from the muon imagery. Our ultimate goal is to derive a model of the dome using the joint interpretation of all the sets of data.

  20. The use of ERTS/LANDSAT imagery in relation to airborne remote sensing for terrain analysis in Western Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator); Owen-Jones, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery contrast the geology of the Cloncurry-Dobbyn and the Gregory River-Mt. Isa areas very clearly. Known major structural features and lithological units are clearly displayed while, hitherto unknown lineaments were revealed. Throughout this area, similar rock types produce similar spectral signatures, e.g. quartzites produce light signatures, iron rich rocks produce dark signatures. More geological data are discernible at the 1:50,000 scale than on the 1:250,000 scale. Ore horizons may be identified at the 1:50,000 scale, particularly where they are associated with iron rich rocks. On the level plains north of Cloncurry, distinctive spectral signatures produced by the combined reflectances of plant cover, soils, and geology, distinguish different types of superficial deposits. Existing and former channels of the Cloncurry and Williams Rivers are distinguished at the 1:50,000 scale on both the LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery. On the Cloncurry Plains, fence lines are discernible on the 1:50,000 LANDSAT 2 imagery.

  1. Effective use of ERTS multisensor data in the Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. One unique advantage of ERTS imagery for delineating soil associations is the large area that can be scanned with one photo. Although soil associations usually are published at scales of 1:500,000 or 1:1,000,000, the delineations are drawn on much larger scale maps covering small pieces of the scene and then pieced together. Alluvial areas are usually swollen out of proportion to other soil areas. ERTS imagery puts alluvial areas into their proper size. A second feature of ERTS imagery is that a soil association map constructed with its aid assures that the cartographic level of the associations is more nearly the same. Another advantage of ERTS imagery is that the actual shape and configuration of soil associations are apparent. Also with ERTS imagery significant new delineations may become apparent which were missed when constructing soil association maps from conventional large scale photos.

  2. The use of ERTS/LANDSAT imagery in relation to airborne remote sensing for terrain analysis in western Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator); Owen-Jones, S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Distinctive spectral signatures were found associated with areas of near surface bedrock with covered ground east of Dugald River and along the Thorntonia River valley west of Lady Annie. Linears identified in the Dugald River area on LANDSAT 2 imagery taken in March and July 1975 over the Cloncurry-Dobbyn area, displayed preferred orientation. A linear group with NE-SW orientation was identified in the Lady Annie area. In this area, the copper mineralization in the Mt. Kelly area occurs along a well marked linear with NNW/SSE direction apparent on images for March, September, and November 1975. Geobotanical anomalies provided surface expression of the copper deposits in Mt. Kelley.

  3. ERTS & EROS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Describes the proposed investigations to be conducted with ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite), the first experimental satellite for systematically surveying earth resources by remote sensing. Launching set for June, 1972. (PR)

  4. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The identification and area estimation of crops experiment tested the usefulness of ERTS data for crop survey and produced results indicating that crop statistics could be obtained from ERTS imagery. Soil association mapping results showed that strong relationships exist between ERTS data derived maps and conventional soil maps. Urban land use analysis experiment results indicate potential for accurate gross land use mapping. Water resources mapping demonstrated the feasibility of mapping water bodies using ERTS imagery.

  5. Assessment of Southern California environment from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.; Viellenave, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery is a useful source of data for evaluation of earth resources in Southern California. The improving quality of ERTS-1 imagery, and our increasing ability to enhance the imagery has resulted in studies of a variety of phenomena in several Southern California environments. These investigations have produced several significant results of varying detail. They include the detection and identification of macro-scale tectonic and vegetational patterns, as well as detailed analysis of urban and agricultural processes. The sequential nature of ERTS-1 imagery has allowed these studies to monitor significant changes in the environment. In addiation, some preliminary work has begun directed toward assessing the impact of expanding recreation, agriculture and urbanization into the fragile desert environment. Refinement of enhancement and mapping techniques and more intensive analysis of ERTS-1 imagery should lead to a greater capability to extract detailed information for more precise evaluations and more accurate monitoring of earth resources in Southern California.

  6. In situ spectroradiometric quantification of ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E.

    1973-01-01

    The task of correlating in situ spectral reflectance measurements with ERTS imagery has commenced. A method of additive color analysis of a single multispectral band taken on different dates indicates that ERTS-1 bulk images have sufficient spatial and spectral fidelity to show indications of the presence of soil moisture in desert playas and changes in soil moisture with time. The chain of causality between soil moisture, in situ spectral reflectance, and ERTS multispectral scanner image density remains to be established during the subsequent phases of this study.

  7. Monitoring coastal water properties and current circulation with ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle were analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes, and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay.

  8. Proposal to evaluate the use of ERTS-A imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills Region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. There appears to be a direct relationship between densitometry values obtained with MSS band 5 imagery and forage density for those range sites measured on the imagery, provided site category identification is indicated by other forms of imagery or ground truth. Overlap of density values for different site categories with differing forage condition classes does not allow assigning a given forage density value for a given densitometer value unless the range site category is known.

  9. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geologic interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery is dependent on recognition of the distribution, continuity, trend, and geometry of key surface features. In the examination of ERTS-1 imagery, lithology must be interpreted largely from the geomorphic expression of the terrain. ERTS-1 imagery is extremely useful in detecting local structures. Most mapped structures are topographically-expressed. Consequently, ERTS-1 imagery acquired during mid-winter, when the solar illumination angle is low, provides the largest amount of structural information. Stereoscopic analyses of ERTS-1 images significantly aid geologic interpretation. Positive transparencies of ERTS-1 images (1:1,000,000) commonly contain more geologic information than can be adequately annotated during geologic interpretation.

  10. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in North Carolina. [forested wetlands, water management, and land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J., III

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery has been used to study forested wetlands, dynamic processes off Coastal North Carolina, and land use patterns in the Wilmington, North Carolina area. The thrust of the investigation is still involvement of state and regional agencies in the use of ERTS-1 imagery in solving some of their day-to-day problems.

  11. Digital analysis of Potomac River Basin ERTS imagery: Sedimentation levels at the Potomac-Anacostia confluence and strip mining in Allegheny County, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, J. S.; Macleod, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    Two simple algorithms for classification of sedimentation levels in water and for delineation of active strip mines are in use as part of the development of a more general resource management information system. ERTS MSS CCT's are processed so that each pixel in each channel is geographically referenced and can be accessed individually during whole frame, multi-channel analysis or partial frame analysis. The sedimentation analysis clearly separates classes representing the turbid Anacostia water, the less disturbed Potomac (really), and mud flats resulting from effluent of a major sewage treatment plant. Mud flats of organic or mineral origin are easily distinguished.

  12. Glaciation of northwestern Wyoming interpreted from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of ERTS Imagery has shown a number of alpine glacial features can be recognized and mapped successfully. Although the Wyoming mountains are generally regarded as the type locality for Rocky Mountain glaciation some areas have not been studied from a glacial standpoint because of inaccessibility or lack of topographic control. ERTS imagery provides an excellent base for this type of regional geomorphic study. A map of maximum extent of Wisconsin Ice, flow directions and major glacial features was compiled from interpretation of the ERTS imagery. Features which can be mapped are large moraines, outwash fans and terraces. Present-day glaciers and snowfields are easily discriminated and mapped. Glaciers and glacial deposits which serve as aquifers play a significant role in the hydrologic cycle and are important because of the increasing demand placed on our water resources. ERTS provides a quick and effective method for change detection and inventory of these vital resources.

  13. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers. [North Cascades, Washington and Tweedsmuir Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Snowlines on a small (6 sq km) drainage basin were accurately measured without use of digital processing, and snow patches as small as 150 m (maximum dimension) were correctly identified, proving that the resolution of ERTS is ample for snow mapping needs. The area of snow cover on 10 individual drainage basins in the North Cascades, Washington, has been determined at 12 different times; these data can be used for more accurate forecasts of streamflow. Progress has been made in distinguishing snow in trees using multispectral analysis. Motion of the surging Tweedsmuir Glacier was measured. Velocities ranged from 2 to 88 m per day; a zone of intense crevassing also appeared to spread up and down the glacier (at about 200 m per day upglacier). This tentative result may be of great importance to an understanding of surging glacier dynamics. ERTS images also show that the most recent debris flow (20-21 August 1973) from Mount Baker can be clearly discerned and mapped, in order to monitor this potential hazard.

  14. Inventory and monitoring of natural vegetation and related resources in an arid environment by the use of ERTS-A imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The southern Arizona test site includes vegetation representing shrub types of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts and Arizona chaparral. Also represented are grassland types of the desert grassland, juniper, and oak woodland types, and coniferous forest types. Relationships between plant species and selected terrain features are given along with the terrain feature classes used for the analyses. The purpose for determining the degree to which such relationships exist is to develop a body of knowledge to constitute the associated evidence that a photointerpreter may consult when interpreting vegetation subjects on small scale imagery. Imagery of this scale class contains little image detail which can be interpreted directly in terms of vegetation. On the other hand, some terrain features are the most salient features of that same imagery. Exploitation of those features for vegetation identification, inventory, and analysis can be accomplished only after establishing the existence of ecological relationships.

  15. Water-management models in Florida from ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L. (Principal Investigator); Rogers, R. H.; Coker, A. E.; Cordes, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The usefullness of ERTS 1 to improving the overall effectiveness of collecting and disseminating data was evaluated. ERTS MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by DCS were used to evaluate their separate and combined capabilities. Twenty data collection platforms were established in southern Florida. Water level and rainfall measurements were collected and disseminated to users in less than 2 hours, a significant improvement over conventional techniques requiring 2 months. ERTS imagery was found to significantly enhance the utility of ground measurements. Water stage was correlated with water surface areas from imagery in order to obtain water stage-volume relations. Imagery provided an economical basis for extrapolating water parameters from the point samples to unsampled data and provided a synoptic view of water mass boundaries that no amount of ground sampling or monitoring could provide.

  16. Computer enhancement of radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekaney, A.; Keane, J.; Desautels, J.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of three relevant noise processes and the image degradation associated with Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) X-ray/scanning system was conducted for application to computer enhancement of radiographs using MSFC's digital filtering techniques. Graininess of type M, R single coat and R double coat X-ray films was quantified as a function of density level using root-mean-square (RMS) granularity. Quantum mottle (including film grain) was quantified as a function of the above film types, exposure level, specimen material and thickness, and film density using RMS granularity and power spectral density (PSD). For various neutral-density levels the scanning device used in digital conversion of radiographs was examined for noise characteristics which were quantified by RMS granularity and PSD. Image degradation of the entire pre-enhancement system (MG-150 X-ray device; film; and optronics scanner) was measured using edge targets to generate modulation transfer functions (MTF). The four parameters were examined as a function of scanning aperture sizes of approximately 12.5 25 and 50 microns.

  17. Use of ERTS data for mapping Arctic sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from ERTS passes crossing the Bering Sea in early March have been correlated with ice observations collected in the Bering Sea Experiment (BESEX). On two flights of the NASA CV-990 aircraft, the ice conditions in the vicinity of St. Lawrence Island reported by the onboard observer are in close agreement with the ice conditions mapped from the corresponding ERTS imagery. The ice features identified in ERTS imagery and substantiated by the aerial observer include the locations of boundaries between areas consisting of mostly grey ice and of mostly first and multi-year ice, the existence of shearing leads, and the occurrence of open water with the associated development of stratus cloud streaks. The BESEX correlative ice formation verifies the potential of practical applications of ERTS data.

  18. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for mapping Quaternary deposits and landforms in the Great Plains and Midwest. [Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B. (Principal Investigator); Hallberg, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Maps at 1:1 million scale exemplifying the first phase of the investigation (which consists of the identification and mapping of landform and land use characteristics and surficial geologic materials directly from the ERTS-1 images without use of additional data) were prepared. For areas that have not been mapped at 1:500,000 or larger scales, maps will provide the first moderately detailed information on landform features and surficial materials. Much of the information mapped is significant for exploration and development of ground (and, locally, petroleum) and for applications in engineering and environmental geology, including land use planning. Analysis of drainage patterns, stream-divide relations and land use patterns has revealed several possible moraine-controlled divices of middle and early Pleistocene age. One is an extension of the Cedar Bluffs moraine of southeastern Nebraska. Another of these divides may correspond to the terminus of Nebraska drift in the Kansas City study area. The trends of parts of various ancient filled valleys also have been identified by analysis of charges in width of the present stream valleys. The alinements of certain segments of stream valleys in Kansas and Missouri appear to be controlled by regional faults or other structural features.

  19. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers. [Cascade Range, Washington and Tweedsmuir Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The area of snowcover on 10 individual drainage basins in the North Cascades, Washington, has been determined by use of a semi-automatic radiance threshold technique. The result is a unique record of the changing water storage as snow in these important hydrologic units, the runoff of which is utilized for hydroelectric power, dilution of wastes and heat, support of salmon migration, and irrigation. These data allow a new type of hydrologic modelling to proceed which should permit more accurate forecasts of streamflow. A new technique has been developed for measuring snow-covered area or snowline altitude semi-automatically. This variable contour overlay method permits the snowcover to be matched efficiently to the best fit contour of altitude. The motion of the Yentna Glacier during the concluding phase of its surge was successfully measured by a flicker technique using images of two dates. It appears that displacements as small as 100 to 200 m can be measured. Motion of the Tweedsmuir Glacier in Alaska was measured using ERTS-1 images enlarged to 1:50,000. Changes detected included a shock wave moving down the glacier, the margin expanding, the moraine pattern deforming, and the marginal valley deepening.

  20. ERTS-1 applications to Minnesota land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D.; Gamble, J.; Prestin, S.; Trippler, D.; Meyer, M. P.; Ulliman, J. J.; Eller, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Land use class definitions that can be operationally employed with ERTS-1 imagery are being developed with the cooperation of personnel from several state, regional, and federal agencies with land management responsibilities within the state and the University of Minnesota. Investigations of urban, extractive, forest, and wetlands areas indicate that it is feasible to subdivide each of these classes into several sub-classes with the use of ERTS-1 images from one or more time periods.

  1. Relevance of ERTS-1 to the State of Ohio. [environmental monitoring and resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, D. C.; Pincura, P. G.; Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the first year of project effort the ability of ERTS-1 imagery to be used for mapping and inventorying strip-mined areas in southeastern Ohio, the potential of using ERTS-1 imagery in water quality and coastal zone management in the Lake Erie region, and the extent that ERTS-1 imagery could contribute to localized (metropolitan/urban), multicounty, and overall state land use needs were experimentally demonstrated and reported as significant project results.

  2. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R. A.; Johns, W. M.; Flood, R. E.; Hawley, K. T.; Wackwitz, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A detailed band 7 ERTS-1 lineament map covering western Montana and northern Idaho has been prepared and is being evaluated by direct comparison with geologic maps, by statistical plots of lineaments and known faults, and by field checking. Lineament patterns apparent in the Idaho and Boulder batholiths do not correspond to any known geologic structures. A band 5 mosaic of Montana and adjacent areas has been laid and a lineament annotation prepared for comparison with the band 7 map. All work to date indicates that ERTS-1 imagery is very useful for revealing patterns of high-angle faults, though much less useful for mapping rock units and patterns of low-angle faults. Large-scale mosaics of U-2 photographs of three test sites have been prepared for annotation and comparison with ERTS-1 maps. Mapping of Quaternary deposits in the Glacial Lake Missoula basin using U-2 color infrared transparencies has been successful resulting in the discovery of some deposits not previously mapped. Detailed work has been done for Test Site 354 D using ERTS-1 imagery; criteria for recognition of several rock types have been found. Photogeologic mapping for southeastern Montana suggest Wasatch deposits where none shown of geologic map.

  3. Sea truth and environmental characterization studies of Mobile Bay, Alabama, utilizing ERTS-1, data collection platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports on the scientific results obtained during a feasibility study that evaluated the potential of using ERTS data collection platforms (DCPs) in the coastal environment of Mobile Bay, Alabama. The utility of instrumented buoys operated in a coastal marine environment as ERTS DCPs is demonstrated. It is shown that these platforms are capable of providing both sea-truth data for ERTS imagery studies and time-series data for event monitoring and/or environmental characterization studies.

  4. Interpretation of ERTS-MSS images of a Savanna area in eastern Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elberson, G. W. W.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for extrapolating existing soil maps into unmapped areas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia, South America is discussed. Interpretations of ERTS-1 data were made according to conventional photointerpretation techniques. Most units delineated in the existing reconnaissance soil map at a scale of 1:250,000 could be recognized and delineated in the ERTS image. The methods of interpretation are described and the results obtained for specific areas are analyzed.

  5. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geologic maps of four test sites were compiled at 1/250,000. Band 7 prints enlarged to 1/500,000 scale are the best for the purpose, and negative prints provide a valuable supplement. More than 100 mapped lineaments represent most of the major faults of the area and a large number of suspected faults, including many of northeast trend. Under ideal conditions dip slopes may be recognized, laccoliths outlined, and axial traces drawn for narrow, plunging folds. Use of ERTS-1 imagery will greatly facilitate construction of a needed tectonic map of Montana. From ERTS-1 imagery alone, it was possible to identify up-turned undivided Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata and to map the boundaries of mountain glaciation, intermontane basins, a volcanic field, and an area of granitic rocks. It was also possible to outline clay pans associated with bentonite. However, widespread recognition of gross rock types will be difficult.

  6. A summary of selected early results from the ERTS-1 menhaden experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Benigno, J. A.; Reese, G. B.; Minkler, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery from ERTS-1 satellite was used in conjunction with aerial photographically-sensed menhaden distribution information, sea truth oceanographic measurements, and commercial fishing information from a 8685 square kilometer study area in the north-central portion of the Gulf of Mexico to demonstrate relationships between selected oceanographic parameters and menhaden distribution, ERTS-1 imagery and menhaden distribution, and ERTS-1 imagery and oceanographic parameters. ERTS-1, MSS band 5 imagery density levels correlated with photographically detected menhaden distribution patterns and could be explained based on sea truth Secchi disc transparency and water depth measurements. These two parameters, together with surface salinity, Forel-Ule color, and chlorophyll-a also were found to correlate significantly with menhaden distribution. Eight empirical models were developed which provided menhaden distribution predictions for the study area on combinations of Secchi disc transparency, water depth, surface salinity, and Forel-Ule color measurements.

  7. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  8. Utilization of ERTS data to detect plant diseases and nutrient deficiencies, soil types and moisture levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. L.; Sewell, J. I.; Hilty, J. W.; Rennie, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The separation of the Mississippi Delta from the Memphis Association (Loess) is clearly defined in ERTS-1 imagery covering west Tennessee and Mississippi.

  9. Water quality determinations in the Virgin Islands from ERTS-A data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The characterization of water quality in terms of absolute color values, using imagery from the ERTS-A satellite, imagery from aircraft, and ground truth measurements is discussed. The establishment of photometric standards resolvable by the ERTS-A sensors, as a means of determining atmospheric effects (which generally vary on sequential overpasses) is examined. The application of these techniques is demonstrated for the harbor of Charlotte Amalie on St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, which is characterized by the presence of many poluting factors.-

  10. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  11. ERTS-1 Role in land management and planning in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizer, J. E.; Brown, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Research on applications of ERTS-1 imagery to land use has focused on evaluating the ability of ERTS-1 imagery to update and refine the detail of land use information in the Minnesota Land Management Information System. Work has been directed toward defining the capabilities of the ERTS-1 system to provide information about surface cover by identifying forest, water, and wetland resources; urban and agricultural development: and testing and evaluating data input and output procedures. As capabilities were developed, meetings were held with administrators and resource information users from various agencies of government to identify their information needs. A full scale systems test for several selected pilot areas in the state is nearly complete. Users have been identified for each test area and they have been instrumental in identifying data requirements and analysis needs for administrative purposes. Users have both rural and urban orientations and provide a basis for evaluation of the results.

  12. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain hydrological uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R. (Principal Investigator); Mcginnis, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Melting ice has been detected in Lake Erie by comparison of visible and near infrared differential reflectance. This melting condition is confirmed by meteorological ground truth data and concurrent NOAA-2 thermal infrared data. Using near-synchronous ERTS-1 data, it was possible to determine the approximate ground resolution of NOAA-2 very high resolution radiometer by comparing the smallest identifiable ice crack in the imagery and measuring the same crack on the ERTS-1 image. It was determined that photointerpretation and analysis of a single Lake Erie image can, under certain conditions, provide meaningful data on ice dynamics. ERTS-1 imagery is effective for icepack monitoring of the Great Lakes, but the sampling interval of 18 days imposes a severe limitation. Maps of the snow cover in the American River basin for 16 March 1973 have been prepared using all four bands.

  13. ERTS Applications in earthquake research and mineral exploration in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M.; Silverstein, J.

    1973-01-01

    Examples that ERTS imagery can be effectively utilized to identify, locate, and map faults which show geomorphic evidence of geologically recent breakage are presented. Several important faults not previously known have been identified. By plotting epicenters of historic earthquakes in parts of California, Sonora, Mexico, Arizona, and Nevada, we found that areas known for historic seismicity are often characterized by abundant evidence of recent fault and crustal movements. There are many examples of seismically quiet areas where outstanding evidence of recent fault movements is observed. One application is clear: ERTS-1 imagery could be effectively utilized to delineate areas susceptible to earthquake recurrence which, on the basis of seismic data alone, may be misleadingly considered safe. ERTS data can also be utilized in planning new sites in the geophysical network of fault movement monitoring and strain and tilt measurements.

  14. Monitoring coastal water properties and current circulation with ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle have been analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay. Convergent shear boundaries between different water masses were observed from ERTS-1. In several ERTS-1 frames, waste disposal plumes have been detected 36 miles off Delaware's Atlantic coast. The ERTS-1 results are being used to extend and verify hydrodynamic models of the bay, developed for predicting oil slick movement and estimating sediment transport.

  15. Evaluation of techniques for mapping land and crops irrigated by center pivots from computer-enhanced Landsat imagery in part of the James River basin near Huron, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolm, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate remote sensing techniques for mapping irrigated crop types and acreages in part of the James River basin of South Dakota, using Landsat imagery. The results demonstrated that a subtraction (band 7 minus band 4) method was best for identifying the location of cropland irrigated by groundwater. Two separate principal-spectral-components analyses (analysis of the second principal-spectral component and the simultaneous analysis of the first three principal-spectral components) were best for identifying the crop type and estimating crop acreages. However, only 50 percent of the irrigated lands could be identified and only 79 percent of these could be classified accurately by crop type. Therefore, a 39 percent overall accuracy was achieved in irrigated crop-type identification. (USGS)

  16. Regional agriculture surveys using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Benson, A. S.; Larrabee, D. G.; Jenkus, W. M.; Hay, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing Research has conducted studies designed to evaluate the potential application of ERTS data in performing agricultural inventories, and to develop efficient methods of data handling and analysis useful in the operational context for performing large area surveys. This work has resulted in the development of an integrated system utilizing both human and computer analysis of ground, aerial, and space imagery, which has been shown to be very efficient for regional crop acreage inventories. The technique involves: (1) the delineation of ERTS images into relatively homogeneous strata by human interpreters, (2) the point-by-point classification of the area within each strata on the basis of crop type using a human/machine interactive digital image processing system; and (3) a multistage sampling procedure for the collection of supporting aerial and ground data used in the adjustment and verification of the classification results.

  17. Agricultural applications of ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of ERTS imagery for the production of land use stratifications as a preliminary step in the crop inventory process, all land within San Joaquin County was delineated into broad land use and crop category classes based on their appearance on the ERTS-1 Color composite image. The stratification of the agricultural land use categories proved to be a relatively simple task, taking each of three interpreters approximately 30 minutes to complete. The three interpretations were quite similar requiring only minor revisions to produce a consensus stratification. A total of 13 different agricultural strata were recognized, differing both in general field size and relative proportions of crop types and degree of irrigation. Upon comparing these interpretations, it was concluded that nearly all boundaries were truly representative of differing cropping practices. In a number of cases, the stratifications agreed almost exactly with soil type boundaries as drawn by earlier soils surveys.

  18. Relevance of ERTS-1 to the State of Ohio. [agriculture, forestry, land use, mining, and environmental quality management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, D. C.; Pincura, P. G.; Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the first year of project effort the ability of ERTS-1 imagery to be used for mapping and inventorying strip-mined areas in south eastern Ohio, the potential of using ERTS-1 imagery in water quality and coastal zone management in the Lake Erie region, and the extent that ERTS-1 imagery could contribute to localized (metropolitan/urban), multicounty, and overall state land use needs were experimentally demonstrated and reported as significant project results. Significant research accomplishments were achieved in the technological development of manual and computerized methods to extract multi-feature information as well as singular feature information from ERTS-1 data as is exemplified by the forestry transparency overlay. Fabrication of an image transfer device to superimpose ERTS-1 data onto existing maps and other data sources was also a significant analytical accomplishment.

  19. The use of ERTS-1 data for the inventory of critical land resources for regional land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.; Kiefer, R. W.; Mccarthy, M. M.; Niemann, B. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Computer-generated spatial and statistical comparisons of critical land resource data derived from conventional sources, RB-57 photographs, and ERTS images, for an eastern Wisconsin test site, suggest that certain critical land resource data can be mapped from ERTS images on a statewide basis. This paper presents one of the biotic resources, wetlands, as an example of the use of ERTS imagery to inventory land resources.

  20. ERTS-1 applied for structural and morphological investigtions case studies. 1: Los Angeles, California. 2: Coastal plain, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, E. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Two major earth's resources management problems, the application of ERTS-1 imagery for geomorphotectonics, and subsequently seismic-risk, earthquake, and mineral exploration applications are discussed. Case studies are presented for Los Angeles, California, and New Jersey coastal plain.

  1. Utilization of ERTS-1 data to monitor and classify eutrophication of inland lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, P. E.; Reed, L.; Smith, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    A technique is being developed for use of ERTS in estimating and monitoring trophic levels of inland lakes. Preliminary findings are that Michigan lakes and ponds of one acre or more are resolvable in bands 5, 6 and 7 of NASA MSS imagery under fair conditions (haze and 70% cloud cover). In processed imagery (CCT) smaller features, including water color patterns, are evident within some lakes of 40 acres or more. Image distortion of lake size, shape, orientation, etc. is minimal; discrimination of lakes and ponds from various wetlands is good. Subsequent ERTS and aircraft imagery will be correlated with detailed ground truth of water color and quality in eutrophic test lakes.

  2. In situ spectroradiometric quantification of ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Additive color photographic analysis of ERTS-1 multispectral imagery indicates that the presence of soil moisture in playas (desert dry lakes) can be readily detected from space. Time sequence additive color presentations in which 600-700 nm bands taken at three successive 18-day cycles show that changes in soil moisture of playas with time can be detected as unique color signatures and can probably be quantitatively measured using photographic images of multispectral scanner data.

  3. Remote detection of aerosol pollution by ERTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Brandy, A. R.; Kindle, E. C.; Blais, R. N.; Hilton, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Photogrammetric and densitometric examination of ERTS-1 MSS imagery of Eastern Virginia coupled with extensive ground truth air quality and meteorological data has shown that the identification and surveying of fixed particulate emitters (smoke plumes) is feasible. A description of the ground truth network is included. The quantitative monitoring of smoke stacks from orbital altitudes over state size regions appears possible when tied to realistic plume models and minimal ground truth. Contrast reductions over urban areas can possibly be utilized to produce isopleths of particulates when supplemented by local measurements.

  4. Remote detection of aerosol pollution by ERTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Kindle, E. C.; Blais, R. N.; Hilton, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photogrammetric and densitometric examination of ERTS-1 MSS imagery of eastern Virginia coupled with extensive ground truth air quality and meteorological data has shown that the identification and surveying of fixed particulate emitters (smoke plumes) is feasible. A description of the ground truth network is included. The quantitative monitoring of smoke stacks from orbital altitudes over state-size regions appears possible when tied to realistic plume models and minimal ground truth. Contrast reductions over urban areas can possibly be utilized to produce isopleths of particulates when supplemented by local measurements.

  5. Boundaries of ERTS and aircraft data within which useful water quality information can be obtained

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Calibration procedures have been devised and applied to ERTS-1, multispectral, true color, and false color imagery. The results indicate that the ERTS and multispectral imagery are correlated with optical in situ measurements of the harbor water. Correlation is extended to true and false color imagery through in situ optical measurements of the harbor water. The best photometric accuracy is achieved with multispectral aerial imagery and the use of bulk MSS tape. The aircraft green photographic and ERTS-1 MSS-4 bands have been found most suitable for monitoring the scattered light levels under the conditions of this investigation. The application of satellite or aircraft for optical remote sensing depends upon the physical scale and frequency of sensing since both sensor systems generally have sufficient photometric sensitivity. The chemical parameters of the harbor water were found to be correlated to the optical properties for two stations investigated in detail.

  6. ERTS and EROS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staff, EROS Program

    1972-01-01

    In June the National Aeronautics & Space Administration is to launch its first experimental satellite designed to view the Earth systematically with remote-sensing instruments that will provide new information about our resources and environment. The launching will culminate more than 8 years of planning and research by resource agencies of the Federal Government in cooperation with NASA, state and local governments, universities, and industry. The first Earth Resources Technology Satellite, ERTS-A, will be followed a year later by ERTS-B. Analyses of data from them, it is hoped, will lead to design of operational satellites for Earth resources investigations in the future. In the belief that satellite systems will be of significant assistance in meeting its responsibilities to map, monitor, and manage the vast resources and the public lands of the United States, the Department of the Interior assumed a major role in the ERTS-A Experiment.

  7. Impact of ERTS-1 images on management of New Jersey's coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, E. B.; Yunghans, R. S.; Stitt, J. A.; Mairs, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The thrust of New Jersey's ERTS investigation is development of procedures for operational use of ERTS-1 data by the Department of Environmental Protection in the management of the State's coastal zone. Four major areas of concern were investigated: detection of land use changes in the coastal zone; monitoring of offshore waste disposal; siting of ocean outfalls; and allocation of funds for shore protection. ERTS imagery was not useful for shore protection purposes; it was of limited practical value in the evaluation of offshore waste disposal and ocean outfall siting. However, ERTS imagery shows great promise for operational detection of land use changes in the coastal zone. Some constraints for practical change detection have been identified.

  8. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Vegetation map overlays at a scale of 1:24,000 compiled by multispectral analysis from NASA aircraft imagery for all of Delaware's wetlands are being used as ground truth for ERTS-1 mapping and by state agencies for wetlands management. Six major vegetation species were discriminated and mapped, including percentages of minor species. Analogue enhancements of wetlands vegetation and dredge-fill operations have been produced using General Electric's GEMS data processing and ERTS-1 false color composites. Digital, thematic land use, and vegetation mapping of entire Delaware Bay area is in progress using Bendix Corporation's Earth Resources Data System and ERTS-1 digital tapes. Statistical evaluation of target-group selection reliability has been completed. Three papers have been published on ERTS-1 coastal vegetation and land use. Local and state officials are participating in the ERTS-1 program as co-investigators.

  9. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.

  10. Precision annotation of predetermined primary sampling units on ERTS-1 MSS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanroessel, J. W.; Langley, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Resectioning programs were developed for projecting the boundary corners of sample units, management units, and counties into U2 RC-10 and ERTS-1 MSS images. The technique used includes corrections for earth curvature, terrain elevation, and MSS distortions. The minimum standard error obtained was about 0.15 mm or 150 meters on the ground. This technique now makes it possible to include land ownership as an integral part of forest resource sampling plans using ERTS imagery.

  11. Skylab and ERTS-1 investigations of coastal land-use and water properties in Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    Study of coastal land use and water properties of Delaware Bay using digital and visual analysis of enhanced imagery from NASA's Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) and from the Skylab Earth Resources Experimental Package (EREP). ERTS is shown to have the advantage of repetitive coverage of the test site which facilitates change detection experiments by gathering data under a variety of tidal, seasonal, and atmospheric conditions. Skylab-EREP data, on the other hand, are superior in both spatial and spectral resolution.

  12. A technique for correcting ERTS data for solar and atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H.; Peacock, K.; Shah, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described by which ERTS investigators can obtain and utilize solar and atmospheric parameters to transform spacecraft radiance measurements to absolute target reflectance signatures. A radiant power measuring instrument (RPMI) and its use in determining atmospheric paramaters needed for ground truth are discussed. The procedures used and results achieved in processing ERTS CCTs to correct for atmospheric parameters to obtain imagery are reviewed. Examples are given which demonstrate the nature and magnitude of atmospheric effects on computer classification programs.

  13. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Hutchinson, R. M.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Trexler, D. W.; Bruns, D. L.; Nicolais, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Topography was found to be the most important factor defining folds on ERTS-1 imagery of northwestern Colorado; tonal variations caused by rock reflectance and vegetation type and density are the next most important factors. Photo-linears mapped on ERTS-1 imagery of central Colorado correlate well with ground-measured joint and fracture trends. In addition, photo-linears have been successfully used to determine the location and distribution of metallic mineral deposits in the Colorado Mineral Belt. True color composites are best for general geologic analysis and false color composites prepared with positive/negative masks are useful for enhancing local geologic phenomena. During geologic analysis of any given area, ERTS-1 imagery from several different dates should be studied.

  14. Effective use of ERTS multisensor data in the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Westin, F. C.; Horton, M. L.; Lewis, J. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery was used as a tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas; to classify land use patterns between crop and fallow fields; to identify corn, soybeans, and oats; and to identify broad generalized range ecosystems. Various data handling techniques were developed and applied to accomplish these tasks. A map outlining soil associations and relative land values was completed on a base mosaic of ERTS imagery and is included as an appendix to the report.

  15. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J., III

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A wide range of potential uses for ERTS-1 imagery is described. Special emphasis has been placed upon studies in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Soil groups, water quality, and suspended sediment patterns in estuaries and offshore have been studied. A phytoplankton bloom has possibly been detected. The usefulness of the imagery in coastal landform surveys has been demonstrated as has its usefulness in monitoring developmental activity in the forests. Planners appear hesitant to use the imagery because of its small scale, but it is felt that as they become familiar with the imagery they will find it useful and time-saving for many purposes.

  16. Canadian ERTS program progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, L. W.; Mcquillan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Progress of the Canadian ERTS program is provided along with statistics on the production and role of ERTS images both from the CCRS in Ottawa and from the Prince Albert Saskatchewan satellite station. The types of products, difficulties of production and some of the main applications in Canada are discussed.

  17. Evaluate the application of ERTS-A data for detecting and mapping sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Generally good agreement has been observed between the location of ice edges and ice concentrations as indicated on aerial observation charts and as mapped from ERTS-1 imagery. Moreover, ice surface features reported to be ridges and thaw holes are readily detected in the ERTS-1 imagery. Reported hummocks, puddles, frozen puddles, and rafted ice are not as readily detected in the imagery, although brightness variations on some ice surfaces can be distinguished, thereby suggesting their presence. In the ERTS-1 imagery, although dark new ice and nilas are difficult to detect, other younger forms of ice can be mapped and can usually be distinguished from older ice because of their lower, more uniform reflectance. A preliminary examination of the initial sample of ERTS-1 imagery collected during the spring, during the season of maximum ice extend, indicates several ice features of interest. Compact pack ice can be distinguished from coastal fast ice, and many leads can be mapped, even in the mid-Beaufort Sea. Several leads have distinct variation in reflectance.

  18. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Nine projects are defined, five ERTS data applications experiments and four supporting technology tasks. The most significant applications results were achieved in the soil association mapping, earth surface feature identification, and urban land use mapping efforts. Four soil association boundaries were accurately delineated from ERTS-1 imagery. A data bank has been developed to test surface feature classifications obtained from ERTS-1 data. Preliminary forest cover classifications indicated that the number of acres estimated tended to be greater than actually existed by 25%. Urban land use analysis of ERTS-1 data indicated highly accurate classification could be obtained for many urban catagories. The wooded residential category tended to be misclassified as woods or agricultural land. Further statistical analysis revealed that these classes could be separated using sample variance.

  19. Applicability of ERTS to Antarctic iceberg resources. [harvesting sea ice for fresh water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hult, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Ostrander, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation explorers the applicability of ERTS to (1) determine the Antarctic sea ice and environmental behavior that may influence the harvesting of icebergs, and (2) monitor iceberg locations, characteristics, and evolution. Imagery has shown that the potential applicability of ERTS to the research, planning, and harvesting operations can contribute importantly to the glowing promise derived from broader scope studies for the use of Antarctic icebergs to relieve a growing global thirst for fresh water. Several years of comprehensive monitoring will be necessary to characterize sea ice and environmental behavior and iceberg evolution. Live ERTS services will assist harvesting control and claiming operations and offer a means of harmonizing entitlements of iceberg resources. The valuable ERTS services will be more cost effective than other means will be easily justified and borne by the iceberg harvesting operations.

  20. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain hydrological uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R.; Mcginnis, D. F. (Principal Investigator); Matson, M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of snow cover using ERTS-1 data proved to be six times faster than that done from U-2 photography. However, NOAA-2 VHRR snow cover mapping was almost as fast as ERTS-1, and it is available more frequently. Ice conditions in the Great Lakes can be readily determined by ERTS-1. Ice features characteristic of thawing conditions such as rotten ice, lack of pressure ridges, brash belts, and compacted ice edges can be identified. A great decrease in apparent reflectivity in band 7 as compared to band 4 also indicated melting conditions. Using sidelap from two successive ERTS-1 images of Lake Erie (February 17 and 18, 1973) a measure of ice movement was made, agreeing closely with the estimate from conventional methods. The same imagery permitted tentative identification of the following features: shuga, light and dark nilas, fast ice, icefoot, ice breccia, brash ice, fracturing, ridging, rafting, sastrugi, thaw holes, rotten ice, ice islands, dried ice puddles, hummocked ice, and leads.

  1. ERTS-1, earthquakes, and tectonic evolution in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L.; Vanwormer, J.

    1974-01-01

    In comparing seismicity patterns in Alaska with ERTS-1 imagery, it is striking to see the frequency with which earthquake epicenters fall on, or near, lineaments visible on the imagery. Often these lineaments prove to be tectonics faults which have been mapped in the field. But equally as often, existing geologic and tectonic maps show no evidence of these features. The remoteness and inaccessibility of most of Alaska is responsible, in large part, for the inadequacy of the mapping. ERTS-1 imagery is filling a vital need in providing much of the missing information, and is pointing out many areas of potential earthquake hazard. Earthquakes in central and south-central Alaska result when the northeastern corner of the north Pacific lithospheric plate underthrusts the continent. North of Mt. McKinley, the seismicity is continental in nature and of shallow origin, with earthquakes occurring on lineaments, and frequently at intersections of lineaments. The shallower events tend to align themselves with lineaments visible on the imagery.

  2. Application of ERTS-1 data to analysis of agricultural crops and forests in Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safir, G. R.; Myers, W. L.; Malila, W. A.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The results reported are based on analysis of ERTS Frame 1033-15580 collected over southwestern Lower Michigan on August 25, 1972. Major agricultural crops such as corn and soybeans were approaching maturity at this data and forest canopies were dense. Extensive ground truth information was gathered by detailed field study of test strips. This detailed information was supplemented over larger areas by interpretation of RB-57 and C-47 photography and MSS imagery. Recognition processing of ERTS-1 MSS data was carried out on a digital computer. Fields and forest stands were selected as training sets and test areas. Aerial imagery was essential for locating the positions of these selected areas on ERTS digital tapes. The recognition process was successful for each type of vegetation which had a dense green canopy such as forests, corn, and soybeans. Bare soil was also recognizable as a category.

  3. SO2 damage to forests recorded by ERTS-1. [Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murtha, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide fumes have been affecting the forests around Wawa, Ontario, which have been under surveillance for a number of years and were recently covered by ultra-small-scale (1:160,000) air photography for damage-assessment purposes. Image interpretation supported by electronic color enhancement was used to delineate on ERTS imagery three damage zones (total-kill, heavy-kill and medium-damage zones). The zones delineated on ERTS imagery are similar to the results of aerial sketch-mapping and air photo interpretation. Band 5 provided the greatest detail for assessing the damage to the forests, followed in successive order by bands 4, 6 and 7. Comparison with ERTS images obtained in the winter showed that even though the total-kill could be separated from heavy-kill damage zones, total-kill could not be consistently separated from clear-cut logging, burned areas, frozen lakes and bogs.

  4. Monitoring California's forage resource using ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    NASA's Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) launched July 23, 1972, offers for the first time the unique capabilities for regional monitoring of forage plant conditions. The repetitive coverage every 18 days, the synoptic view and the real-time recovery of the imagery for immediate analysis, combine to make the ERTS satellite a valuable tool for improving the evaluation of our rangeland resources. Studies presently underway at the University of California, Berkeley (sponsored jointly by NASA and the Bureau of Land Management), seek to determine if imagery obtained from high altitude aircraft and spacecraft (ERTS) can provide: (1) a means for monitoring the growth and development of annual and perennial range plants in California, and for determining the time and the rate of initial plant growth (germination) and terminal plant growth (maturation and senescence); (2) a means for determining or predicting the relative amount of forage that is produced; and (3) a means for mapping rangeland areas having different forage producing capabilities.

  5. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project was an attempt to integrate ERTS-1 data into teaching introductory, specialized, and graduate courses in the Department of Geology, University of Alaska. This data was to be utilized principally through a specially selected, high quality collection of black and white, and color 9.5 mosaics of the State of Alaska. In completing these tasks, the data accumulated has proved highly useful in a variety of ways including: (1) discussions of the uses and availability of ERTS imagery; (2) as a medium for talking about and showing various areas of Alaska; (3) in discussing geology in general; and (4) as an aid in doing research and as possible research topics themselves. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in geology proved highly successful and its use is now an integral part of many courses.

  6. ERTS-1 data applications to Minnesota forest land use classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizer, J. E. (Principal Investigator); Eller, R. G.; Meyer, M. P.; Ulliman, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Color-combined ERTS-1 MSS spectral slices were analyzed to determine the maximum (repeatable) level of meaningful forest resource classification data visually attainable by skilled forest photointerpreters for the following purposes: (1) periodic updating of the Minnesota Land Management Information System (MLMIS) statewide computerized land use data bank, and (2) to provide first-stage forest resources survey data for large area forest land management planning. Controlled tests were made of two forest classification schemes by experienced professional foresters with special photointerpretation training and experience. The test results indicate it is possible to discriminate the MLMIS forest class from the MLMIS nonforest classes, but that it is not possible, under average circumstances, to further stratify the forest classification into species components with any degree of reliability with ERTS-1 imagery. An ongoing test of the resulting classification scheme involves the interpretation, and mapping, of the south half of Itasca County, Minnesota, with ERTS-1 imagery. This map is undergoing field checking by on the ground field cooperators, whose evaluation will be completed in the fall of 1973.

  7. An evaluation of the utility of ERTS-1 data for mapping and developing natural resources of Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebtehadj, K. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are reported in the creation of an Iranian photomosaic from ERTS-1 imagery; in tectonic and structural mapping and interpretation, including discovery of significant new fault patterns in Iran; in river and lake mapping; in wetlands and fisheries nursery delineation and mapping; in range and agricultural surveys and inventories using multi-stage sample methods; and in the computer analysis of ERTS-1 digital tapes for urban land use.

  8. Identification of irrigated crop types from ERTS-1 density contour maps and color infrared aerial photography. [Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.; Evans, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The crop types of a Great Plains study area were mapped from color infrared aerial photography. Each field was positively identified from field checks in the area. Enlarged (50x) density contour maps were constructed from three ERTS-1 images taken in the summer of 1973. The map interpreted from the aerial photography was compared to the density contour maps and the accuracy of the ERTS-1 density contour map interpretations were determined. Changes in the vegetation during the growing season and harvest periods were detectable on the ERTS-1 imagery. Density contouring aids in the detection of such charges.

  9. An evaluation of the suitability of ERTS data for the purposes of petroleum exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R. J., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Mccown, F. P.; Stonis, L. P.; Petzel, G.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery seems to be good to excellent for reconnaissance level investigations of large sedimentary basins such as the Anadarko Basin. Many lithologic boundaries, and geomorphic features, and linear features inferred to be indicative of geologic structure are visible in the imagery. This imagery in conjunction with high altitude photography seems to be useful as a tool for intermediate level geologic exploration. Several types of crudely circular anomalous features, such as geomorphic/structural anomalies, hazy areas and tonal anomalies, are identifiable in the imagery. There seems to be a strong correlation between the geomorphic/structural and hazy anomalies and known structurally controlled oil and gas fields. The features recognizable on ERTS-1 imagery and their ease of recognition vary from area to area even in imagery acquired at the same time under essentially uniform atmospheric conditions. Repeated coverage is exceedingly valuable in geologic applications. One time complete coverage even for the various seasons does not reveal all the features that ERTS-1 can reveal.

  10. Mapping of soil banks using ERTS-1 pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, M. U.; Kantner, D. A.; Antalovich, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) pictures of different wavelengths (MSS 4,5,6,7) were used in the study of two strip mine areas in southeastern Ohio. The first area was near Piedmont Lake and the second area was near New Lexington. Prints were examined under a binocular microscope and the gray tone was correlated with the actual ground conditions at several sites. For the New Lexington area, color infrared pictures taken at an elevation of 18,000 feet were also used for correlation with the ERTS-1 imagery. The results indicate that MSS 5 and 7 are most useful in defining the stripped land and show that the hydrological and soil characteristics are remarkably different than the surrounding lands.

  11. Preliminary geologic investigations in the Colorado Plateau using enhanced ERTS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Billingsley, F. C.; Elston, D. P.; Lucchitta, I.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Bulk and computer enhanced frames of the Verde Valley region of Central Arizona, have been analyzed for structural information and rock unit identification. Most major rock units in areas of sparse ground cover are identifiable on enhanced false-color composites. Regional structural patterns are strikingly visible on the ERTS images. New features have been identified which will aid in the search for ground water near Flagstaff, Sedona and Stewart Ranch.

  12. An interdisciplinary analysis of ERTS data for Colorado mountain environments using ADP techniques. An early analysis of ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator); Goodrick, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The principal problem encountered has been the lack of good quality, small scale baseline photography for the test areas. Analysis of the ERTS-1 data for the San Juan Site will emphasize development of a preliminary spectral classification defining grass cover categories, and then selection of subframes for intensive investigation of the forestry, geologic, and hydrologic properties of the area. Primary work has been devoted to the selection and digitization of areas for topographic modeling, and compilation of ground based data maps necessary for computer analysis. Study effort has emphasized: geomorphic features; macro-vegetation; micro-vegetation; snow-hydrology; insect/disease damage; and blow-down. Analysis of a frame of the Lake Texoma area indicates a great deal of potential in the analysis and interpretation of ERTS imagery. Preliminary results of investigations of geologic, forest, range, cropland, and water resources of the area are summarized.

  13. Application of ERTS-1 data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunghans, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Feinberg, E. B.; Stitt, J. A.; Mairs, R. L.; Wobber, F. J.; Macomber, R. T.; Stanczuk, D. T.; Thibult, D.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Quasi-operational information products for coastal zone management have been prepared using ERTS-1 imagery and collateral aerial photography. These products were applied to the practical regulation, protection, and management of New Jersey's coastal environment. Procedures were developed for the operational use of ERTS-1 data products within New Jersey's Department of Environmental Protection. Successful analysis and product preparation for operational needs centered on four major coastal resource problem areas: (1) detection of environmental changes in coastal areas, (2) siting of ocean outfalls, (3) monitoring of offshore waste disposal, and (4) calculation of recession rates along the Atlantic Shore. The utility and monetary benefits derived from ERTS and aircraft imagery for each problem area have been determined. The NJDEP estimates the possibility of $620,000 yearly savings through the use of an operational ERTS system and a one-time savings of $2.8 million on current or planned projects if a truly operational ERTS type satellite were available.

  14. Relevance of ERTS to the State of Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, D. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A significant result was the fabrication of an image transfer and comparison device. To avoid problems and high costs encountered in manual drafting methods, Battelle staff members have fabricated an inexpensive, yet effective, technique for transferring ERTS-1 analysis displays from the Spatial Data 32-Color Viewer to maps and/or aircraft imagery. In brief, the image transfer-comparison device consists of a 2-way mirror which functions similar to a zoom transfer scope. However, the device permits multiuser viewing and real time photographic recording (35-mm and Polaroid) of enhanced ERTS-1 imagery superimposed over maps and aircraft photography. Thirty-five mm, 70 mm, and 4 in. x 5 in. photographs are taken of 80% of the TV screen of the Spatial Data Density Slicing Viewer. The resulting black and white and color imagery is then used in transparent overlays, viewgraphs, 35-mm and 70-mm transparencies, and paper prints for reports and publications. Annotations can be added on the TV screen or on the finished product.

  15. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in geological evaluation, regional planning, forest management, and water management in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J., III

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery has been evaluated for use in resource planning and management in North Carolina, and found to be useful for general reconnaissance purposes in forestry, geology, and water resources work. It has also been used for studying large-scale transient phenomena such as river plumes and movement of sediment in the sounds. ERTS-1 imagery has been an aid to geologic and land-use mapping. Stereoscopes, projectors of various kinds, and microscopes have proved useful instruments for the kinds of data acquisition needed by resource planners and managers.

  16. Application of ERTS-1 data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mairs, R. L.; Wobber, F. J.; Garofalo, D.; Yunghans, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery is being used by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) to develop information products that will assist the state in optimally managing its coastal resources and in allocating funds. Interviews with NJDEP personnel have identified significant problem areas in the coastal zone, and the types of remote sensor derived information products that can be used in real-time decision making. Initial analyses of imagery from several successive ERTS-1 orbits have shown the extent, predominant drift, and dispersion characteristics of waste disposal in coastal New Jersey waters. Imagery (MSS Bands 4 and 5) for several orbits, shows that New-York Harbor tidal discharge extending as far south as Long Branch, New Jersey.

  17. Quantitative water quality with ERTS-1. [Kansas water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of ERTS-1 MSS computer compatible tapes of reservoir scenes in Kansas along with ground truth show that MSS bands and band ratios can be used for reliable prediction of suspended loads up to at least 900 ppm. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery is proving useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  18. Oceanic turbidity and chlorophyll as inferred from ERTS-1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral signatures of phytoplankton and other obscuring effects are considered in order to determine how to best use satellite data. The results of this study were then used to analyze the spectral data obtained from the ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS). The analyzed satellite data were finally compared with surface ship measurements of chlorophyll concentration. It was found that the effects of water turbidity on the multispectral imagery can be discriminated by rationing the two shortest wavelength channels so that the effect of phytoplankton is enhanced.

  19. Observations from ERTS of overgrazing and cultivation impact on the earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Walter, L. S.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery was surveyed for cases of anthropogenic impact, similar to that in the Sinai, evidenced by the Sinai/Negev demarcation line. Reflectivities in several such cases were analyzed using ERTS computer compatible tapes. Sharp increases of surface reflectivity show the severe impact of overgrazing found in several places around the world. Agricultural cultivation can also result in pronounced change of reflectivities, as evidenced by the Montana, USA/Canada demarcation line. Such processes have probably been going on since prehistoric times, increasing with the human population and with the population of the grazing herds.

  20. ERTS program of the US Army Corps of Engineers. [water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarman, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers research and development efforts associated with the ERTS Program are confined to applications of investigation, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of water resource projects. Problems investigated covered: (1) resource inventory; (2) environmental impact; (3) pollution monitoring; (4) water circulation; (5) sediment transport; (6) data collection systems; (7) engineering; and (8) model verification. These problem areas were investigated in relation to bays, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, coasts, and regions. ERTS-1 imagery has been extremely valuable in developing techniques and is now being used in everyday applications.

  1. Water-management models in Florida from ERTS-1 data. [Everglades National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Coker, A. E.; Cordes, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    A prototype multiparameter data acquisition network, installed and operated by the U.S. Geological Survey is a viable approach for obtaining near real-time data needed to solve hydrologic problems confronting nearly 2.5 million residents of south Florida. Selected water quantity and quality data obtained from ground stations are transmitted for relay via ERTS-1 to NASA receiving stations in virtual real time. This data relay system has been very reliable and, by coupling the ground information with ERTS imagery, a modeling technique is available for water resource management in south Florida. An ecological model has been designed for the Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park.

  2. Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) mock-up in a space chamber test at General Electric's Space Division. The ERTS program represented a concentrated effort to observe and monitor the limited resources of the Earth, in order to best conserve and utilize the resources in support of a burgeoning world population. The first ERTS was launched in 1972 and was later named Land Remote-Sensing Satellite (Landsat), to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Multiple sensors survey and relay back masses of data in various ways from the Landsat. NASA has built 7 Land Remote Sensing Satellites, which have helped agricultural experts pick up underutilized land areas and new prospects for land use through irrigation. It has also assisted in pinpointing the spread of crop disease and in charting new uses of the sea for oceanographers.

  3. Correlation of ERTS-1 and aircraft optical data with water quality parameters of Charlotte Amalie Harbor, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbourn, W. C.; Egan, W. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Attempts to correlate optical aircraft remote sensing of water quality with the optical data from the ERTS-1 satellite using calibrated imagery of Charlotte Amalie harbor, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands are reported. The harbor at Charlotte Amalie has a concentration of a number of factors affecting water quality: untreated sewage, land runoff, and sediment from navigation and dredging operations. Calibration procedures have been originated and applied to ERTS-1 and I2S camera imagery. The results indicate that the ERTS-1 and I2S imagery are correlated with optical in situ measurements of the harbor water. The aircraft green photographic and ERTS-1 MSS-4 bands have been found most suitable for monitoring the scattered light levels under the conditions of the investigation. The chemical parameters of the harbor water were found to be correlated to the optical properties for two stations investigated in detail. The biological properties of the harbor water (chlorophyll and carotenoids), correlate inversely with the optical data near the pollution sources compared to further away. Calibration procedures developed in this investigation were essential to the interpretation of the photographic and ERTS-1 photometric responses.

  4. Interdisciplinary applications and interpretations of ERTS data within the Susquehanna River Basin; resources inventory, land use and pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Identification and mapping of three major kinds of coal refuse targets based on spectral signatures in channels four through seven of the ERTS-1 MSS were conducted. Correlation of the placement of the coal refuse targets with an existing map of their location was accomplished. Digital processing of ERTS-1 data permitted identification of stripped areas including ones that are not discernible by visual analysis of ERTS imagery. Combined visual and digital techniques of analyzing ERTS-1 data for geologic formations have been tried on selected areas of Pennsylvania. Mapping of two major agriculture counties to show land forms, drainage patterns, water, and urban areas were made using positive transparencies of MSS data. Two frames of the same central Pennsylvania area were brought into registration by translation and then merged even though the frames were obtained 71 days apart.

  5. The use of ERTS-1 MSS data for mapping strip mines and acid mine drainage in Pennsyvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Dein, J. L.; Gold, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Digital processing of ERTS-I MSS data for areas around the west branch of the Susquehanna River permits identification of stripped areas including ones that are not discernible from visual analysis of ERTS imagery. Underflight data and ground-based observations are used for ground-truth and as a basis for designing more refined operators to make sub-classifications of stripped areas, particularly with regard to manifestations of acid mine drainage; because of associated diagnostic effects on vegetation, seasonal changes in classifiction criteria are being documented as repeated, cloud-free ERTS-I coverage of the same area becomes available. Preliminary results indicate that ERTS data can be used to moniter not only the total extent of stripping in given areas but also the effectiveness of reclamation and pollution abatement procedures.

  6. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  7. Engineering analysis of ERTS data for rice in the Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnair, A. J. (Principal Investigator); Heydt, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Rice is an important food worldwide. Worthwhile goals, particularly for developing nations, are the capability to recognize from satellite imagery: (1) areas where rice is grown, and (2) growth status (irrigation, vigor, yield). A two-step procedure to achieve this is being investigated. Ground truth, and ERTS-1 imagery (four passes) covering 80% of a rice growth cycle for some Philippine sites, have been analyzed. One-D and three-D signature extraction, and synthesis of an initial site recognition/status algorithm have been performed. Results are encouraging. but additional passes and sites must be analyzed. Good position information for extracted data is a must.

  8. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Initial study and interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery indicates its usefulness for regional land use planning purposes in North Carolina. Quarries, many secondary roads, and the existence of urbanization as well as changes in urban areas may be mapped. Differences in spectral response for various parts of the major cities suggests that the type of activity in urbanized areas may be monitored. Geological mapping at a scale of 1:250,000 may be possible. The major unfavorable comment from various organizations and agencies who are potential users has been to the relatively small scale. The imagery is a powerful illustrative tool for the several state agencies cooperating in the investigation.

  9. Application of ERTS-1 data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunghans, R. S.; Feinberg, E. B.; Wobber, F. J.; Mairs, R. L. (Principal Investigator); Garofalo, D.; Thibault, D. A.; Amato, R. V.; Pettinger, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This catalogue was prepared as a part of the joint ERTS-1 New Jersey coastal mapping experiment. First look analysis of ERTS-1 images indicates that numerous coastal oceanographic patterns can be mapped on a sequential basis using ERTS-1 images. Analysis of imagery indicates a predominant southwesterly drift of dumped wasted in the surface waters. Initial analysis of imagery indicates that the effects of tidal flushing of New York harbor extend as far south as Long Branch, New Jersey. Analysis of imagery from 3 September, 1972, indicates a wide band of turbid water extending several miles offshore around Barnegat Inlet. First look analysis of imagery from 10 October, 1972, illustrates the increased reflectance of turbid waters within the bays, sounds, and thoroughfares behind the barrier islands in the southern New Jersey shore area. The estuarine waters emanating from both Brigantine and Absecon Inlets are very turbid relative to the waters further offshore and to the north and south. The tidal prism appears to be quite large but the movement of water once outside the inlets is not very rapid. The waters are not moving away from the coastline but rather along the coast.

  10. Analysis of ERTS-1 linear features in New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator); Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. All ERTS-1 linears confirmed to date have topographic expression although they may appear as featureless tonal linears on the imagery. A bias is unavoidably introduced against any linears which may parallel raster lines, lithological trends, or the azimuth of solar illumination. Ground study of ERTS-1 topographic lineaments in the Adirondacks indicates: outcrops along linears are even more rare than expected, fault breccias are found along some NNE lineaments, chloritization and slickensiding without brecciation characterize one EW lineament whereas closely-spaced jointing plus a zone of plastic shear define another. Field work in the Catskills suggests that the prominent new NNE lineaments may be surface manifestations of normal faulting in the basement, and that it may become possible to map major joint sets over extensive plateau regions directly on the imagery. Fall and winter images each display some unique linears, and long linears on the fall image commonly appear as aligned segments on the winter scene. A computer-processed color composite image permitted the extraction or additional information on the shaded side of mountains.

  11. Coastal and submarine features on MSS imagery of Southeastern Massachusetts: Comparison with conventional maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Three ERTS-1, MSS images of southeastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod Bay, Cape Cod, and Nantucket Sound, show a variety of dynamic geologic and hydrologic phenomena. Coastal features imaged include the coastline at different time in the tidal cycle, harbors, lakes and ponds, marshes (wetlands), and beach and dune areas; submarine features include tidal flats, shoals, dredged and natural channels, and bars. Comparison with conventional maps at 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000 scales show many inaccuracies between the ERTS imagery and the two map scales. The ERTS-1 imagery can be used to increase the accuracy of these maps, portray additional environmental information, and provide the capability for frequent updating of maps at such scales. ERTS-1 imagery provides a very cost effective method for provision of certain types of environmental data for Cape Cod and environs.

  12. Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) data and anthropology: Use of these data in carrying capacity estimates for sites in Upper Volta and Niger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reining, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Repetitively derived multispectral band imagery from ERTS-1 is now available for many parts of the earth's land surface and represents major new data sources for anthropological work in habitat, land use, and settlement patterns. A completed first step test of ERTS-1 data is available in carrying capacity estimates for Mossi, Hausa, and Sonrai sites derived from: (1) field work; (2) aerial photography; and (3) ERTS-1. Data can test more than one carrying capacity formula.

  13. Application of ERTS-1 data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunghans, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Feinberg, E. B.; Stitt, J. A.; Mairs, R. L.; Macomber, R. T.; Stanczuk, D.; Wobber, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The principal thrust of this ERTS-1 experiment is to develop quasi-operational information products from analysis of ERTS-1 imagery and collateral aerial photography and to apply these products to the practical regulation, protection, and management of New Jersey's coastal environment. Incorporated into this goal is the development of procedures for the operational use of ERTS-1 data products within New Jersey's Department of Environmental Protection. Analysis and product preparation for operational needs has centered on four major coastal resource problem areas: detection of land use changes in the coastal zone; siting of ocean outfalls; monitoring of offshore waste disposal; and calculation of recession rates along the Atlantic Shore. The relative utility and estimated monetary benefits derived from ERTS and aircraft imagery for each problem area have been determined. Of equal importance is the development to a capability within the State to use and understand remote sensor-derived information, and the application of this information to meet the requirements of current and anticipated coastal zone legislation.

  14. Evaluate the application of ERTS-A data for detecting and mapping snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of ERTS-1 data covering the test sites in the western United States indicate that the MSS-4 and 5 spectral bands are the most useful for detecting and mapping snow cover. Of these two bands, the MSS-5 is the most consistently useful, as snow-covered areas in some MSS-4 images are nearly saturated causing some loss of detail. Snow can be readily detected and can be distinguished from clouds through a number of interpretive keys. At the ERTS-1 resolution, numerous terrestrial features not visible in lower resolution meteorological satellite data can be detected. In addition to various natural features, man-made features such as roads, electric power lines, cultivated fields, and timber cuts are visible. In two cases analyzed for the Salt-Verde Watershed in Arizona, good agreement is observed between the location of the snowline as mapped from the ERTS-1 data and as depicted on aerial snow survey charts compiled within a few days of the ERTS-1 passage. Results indicate that the snowline can be mapped in more detail from ERTS-1 imagery than can be achieved by current aerial survey methods.

  15. Monitoring coastal water properties and circulation from ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle have been analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes, and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. MSS band 5 seemed to give the best representation of sediment load in the upper one meter of the water column. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay. During flood tide the suspended sediment as visible from ERTS-1 also correlated well with the depth profile. Convergent shear boundaries between different water masses were observed from ERTS-1, with foam lines containing high concentrations of lead, mercury, and other toxic substances. Several fronts have been seen. Those near the mouth of the bay are associated with the tidal intrusion of shelf water. Fronts in the interior of the bay on the Delaware side appear to be associated with velocity shears induced by differences in bottom topography. Waste disposal plumes have benn detected 36 miles offshore.

  16. ERTS-1 flood hazard studies in the Mississippi River Basin. [Missouri, Mississippi, and Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Anderson, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Spring 1973 Mississippi River flood was investigated using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1. Both manual and automatic analyses of the data indicate that ERTS-1 is extremely useful as a regional tool for flood and floodplain management. The maximum error of such flood area measurements is conservatively estimated to be less than five percent. Change detection analysis indicates that the flood had major impacts on soil moisture, land pattern stability, and vegetation stress. Flood hazard identification was conducted using photointerpretation techniques in three study areas along the Mississippi River using pre-flood ERTS-1 imagery down to 1:100,000 scale. Flood prone area boundaries obtained from ERTS-1 were generally in agreement with flood hazard maps produced by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Geological Survey although the latter are somewhat more detailed because of their larger scale. Initial results indicate that ERTS-1 digital mapping of the flood-prone areas can be performed at least 1:62,500 which is comparable to conventional flood hazard map scales.

  17. An evaluation of the suitability of ERTS data for the purposes of petroleum exploration. [lithology and geological structure of Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R. J. (Principal Investigator); Mccown, F. P.; Stonis, L. P.; Petzel, G. J.; Everett, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data give exploration geologists a new perspective for looking at the earth. The data are excellent for interpreting regional lithologic and structural relationships and quickly directing attention to areas of greatest exploration interest. Information derived from ERTS data useful for petroleum exploration include: linear features, general lithologic distribution, identification of various anomalous features, some details of structures controlling hydrocarbon accumulation, overall structural relationships, and the regional context of the exploration province. Many anomalies (particularly geomorphic anomalies) correlate with known features of petroleum exploration interest. Linears interpreted from the imagery that were checked in the field correlate with fractures. Bands 5 and 7 and color composite imagery acquired during the periods of maximum and minimum vegetation vigor are best for geologic interpretation. Preliminary analysis indicates that use of ERTS imagery can substantially reduce the cost of petroleum exploration in relatively unexplored areas.

  18. Interdisciplinary research on the application of ERTS-1 data to the regional land use planning process.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.; Kiefer, R. W.; Mccarthy, M. M.; Niemann, B. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Although the degree to which ERTS-1 imagery can satisfy regional land use planning data needs is not yet known, it appears to offer means by which the data acquisition process can be immeasurably improved. This paper documents the initial experiences of an interdisciplinary group attempting to formulate ways of analyzing the effectiveness of ERTS-1 imagery as a base for environmental monitoring and the resolution of regional land allocation problems. Because of the need to describe and depict regional resource complexity in an interrelatable state, certain resources within the geographical regions have been inventoried and stored in a two-dimensional computer-based map form. Computer oriented processes were developed to provide for the economical storage, analysis and spatial display of natural and cultural data for regional land use planning purposes. Statistical programs have been developed that correlate interpreted data with stored data, both spatially and numerically.

  19. The application of ERTS-1 data to the land use planning process. [Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.; Kiefer, R. W.; Kuhlmey, E. L.; Niemann, B. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Land resource data has been extracted on a percent of cell basis from ERTS imagery, RB-57 color infrared imagery and best available conventional sources for a 10,000 square kilometer test area in eastern Wisconsin. First, the data from the three sources is compared on a spatial basis for a 300 square kilometer portion of the test area. For those land resource variables associated with cover, ERTS derived resource data compared favorably with both the RB-57 and conventional data. Second, the effect of the data source on land use decisions is examined. Three interstate highway corridors are located through the same region based upon data extracted from each of the three sources. A policy of preserving natural environmental systems was used as a basis for the corridors selection in each case. The resulting three corridors compare favorably.

  20. Evaluation of land use mapping from ERTS in the shore zone of CARETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, R.; Vincent, L.

    1973-01-01

    Imagery of the Atlantic shoreline zone of the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS) was evaluated for classifying land use and land cover, employing the USGS Geographic Application Program's land use classification system. ERTS data can provide a basis for land cover and land use mapping within the shoreline zone, however because of the dynamic nature of this environment, two additional terms are considered: vulnerability of classes to storms and progressive erosion, and sensitivity of the classes to man's activities.

  1. Applications of remote sensing (ERTS) to resource management and development in Sahelien Africa (Republic of Mali)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    The primary resource management problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (the Sahel) is increasing aridity or desertification. Space observations of sand streams, dune orientations, moisture and vegetation changes and other factors associated with desertification have been made. A second major interest is grazing of cattle, sheep and goats which is associated with major movements of people and animals twice yearly to obtain forage. The changes in available forage are being observed. The location of the cultivators is also being mapped from ERTS imagery. Hydrological analysis is being carried on in the Niger and Bani river watersheds. So far, good imagery of the maximum flood stage has been obtained and assessed.

  2. Mineral exploration potential of ERTS-1 data. [porphyry copper deposits in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Erskine, M. C., Jr.; Prindle, R. O.; Haenggi, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery of an area approximately 15,000 square miles in Arizona was interpreted for regional structure and tectonic units. Eight fault systems were identified by trend, of which two, northeast and northwest, are considered to be related to porphyry copper mineralization. Nine tectonic units can be identified on the imagery as distinct geological identities. The boundaries between these units can be correlated with theoretical shear directions related to the San Andreas stress system. Fourier analysis of the N 50 W fault trend indicates a fundamental spacing between Fourier energy maxima that can be related to distances between copper deposits.

  3. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system

    SciTech Connect

    Tourtellott, J.A.; Wagner, J.F.

    1995-10-01

    Remediation activities such as decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) typically involve materials and activities hazardous to humans. Robots are an attractive way to conduct such remediation, but for efficiency they need a good three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the task space where they are to function. This model can be created from engineering plans and architectural drawings and from empirical data gathered by various sensors at the site. The model is used to plan robotic tasks and verify that selected paths are clear of obstacles. This report describes the development of an Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS), a software system to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space, and enable robotic remediation to be conducted more effectively and more economically.

  4. Critical land resources inventory using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, R. W.; Niemann, B. J., Jr.; Keyes, D. L.; Kuhlmey , E. L.; Miller, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The State of Wisconsin has embarked on a Critical Resources Information Program aimed at defining, establishing the units of measurement, inventorying, and monitoring natural and cultural spatial resource elements which are of statewide or regional significance. This paper presents the results of using ERTS data to inventory certain significant natural resources, such as agricultural land, forests, surface water and wetlands. Computer-generated spatial and statistical comparisons of resource data derived from conventional sources, RB-57 photographs, and ERTS images of Wisconsin suggest that certain resources can be inventoried and monitored on a statewide basis using ERTS images. Preliminary results of data extraction using ERTS digital tapes are also presented. The interpretation of certain natural and cultural resource information from ERTS images is anticipated to be an operational part of Wisconsin's Critical Resources Information Program.

  5. Identification of winter wheat from ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Morain, S. A.; Barker, B.; Coiner, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Continuing interpretation of the test area in Finney County, Kansas, has revealed that winter wheat can be successfully identified. This successful identification is based on human recognition of tonal signatures on MSS images. Several different but highly successful interpretation strategies have been employed. These strategies involve the use of both spectral and temporal inputs. Good results have been obtained from a single MSS-5 image acquired at a critical time in the crop cycle (planting). On a test sample of 54,612 acres, 89 percent of the acreage was correctly classified as wheat or non-wheat and the estimated wheat acreage (19,516 acres) was 99 percent of the actual acreage of wheat in the sample area.

  6. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The spatial relation of mercury deposits and faults in California coast ranges suggests regional structural control whereby the transverse faults and associated zones of weakness provided easy conduits for the ascent of hydrothermal solutions and emplacement of mercury ore. If proved valid, this relation identifies transverse fault zones as favorable structural guides for mercury exploration.

  7. Overall evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for cartographic application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvocoresses, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant scientific conclusions are: (1) Bulk RBV's have internal positional accuracy in the order of 70 meters at ground scale while MSS internal accuracy is in the order of 200 to 300 meters. Both have precision processed images with accuracy within 70 meters. (2) Image quality exhibited by detectability and acutance is better than expected and perhaps twice as good as would be achieved by photographic film of the same resolution. (3) Photometric anomalies (shading) have limited RBV multispectral application, but it is believed that these anomalies can be further reduced. (4) The MSS has exceptionally high photometric fidelity but the matching of scenes taken under different conditions of illumination has not been resolved. (5) MSS bands 6 and 7 have enormous potential for surface water mapping including the correlation of shorelines at various water stages. (6) MSS band 7 demonstrates an actual cloud penetration capability beyond what was expected. It also has delineated cultural features better than the other MSS bands under certain conditions.

  8. Estimate of winter wheat yield from ERTS-1. [southwest Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A.; Williams, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    A model for estimating wheat yield per acre has been applied to acreage estimates derived from ERTS-1 imagery to project the 1973 wheat yields for a ten county area in southwest Kansas. The results (41.04 million bushels) are within 3 per cent of the preharvest estimates for the same area prepared by the USDA Statistical Reporting Service (39.91 million bushels). The projection from ERTS data is based on a visual enumeration of all detectable wheat fields in the study area and was completed while the harvest was in progress. Visual identification of winter wheat is readily achieved by using a temporal sequence of images (band 5 for Sept.-Oct.; band 5 for Dec.-Jan.; and band 5 and 7 for March-April). Identification can be improved by stratifying the project area into subregions having more or less homogeneous agricultural practices and crop mixes. By doing this, small changes in the spectral appearance of wheat related to soil type, irrigation, etc. can be accounted for. The interpretation rules developed by visual analysis can be automated for rapid computer surveys.

  9. Detecting disturbances in a forest environment. [ERTS land use surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The interchange between forest and nonforest land and most man-made and natural forest disturbances can be detected on 1:120,000-scale color-infrared film. Bulk multispectral scanner imagery from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite combined and enhanced at a scale of 1:1,000,000 shows major changes in forest and nonforest land-use categories, many timber harvested areas, and some natural disturbances. Late fall to late spring is the best period of the year for detecting forest disturbances. In a study in Georgia, 79 percent of the disturbances in one county were detected on an ERTS color composite for April 1973 with only 12 percent commission error.

  10. ERTS-1 data user investigation of wetlands ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery (enlarged to 1:250,000) is an excellent tool by which large area coastal marshland mapping may be undertaken. If states can sacrifice some accuracy (amount unknown at this time) in placing of boundary lines, the technique may be used to do the following: (1) estimate extent of man's impact on marshes by ditching and lagooning and accelerated successional trends; (2) place boundaries between wetland and upland and hence estimate amount of coastal marshland remaining in the state; (3) distinguish among relatively large zones of various plant species including high and low growth S. alterniflora, J. roemerianus, and S. cynosuroides; and (4) estimate marsh plant species productivity when ground based information is available.

  11. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system

    SciTech Connect

    Tourtellott, J.A.; Wagner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Remediation activities such as decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) typically involve materials and activities hazardous to humans. Robots are an attractive way to conduct such remediation, but for efficiency they need a good three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the task space where they are to function. This model can be created from engineering plans and architectural drawings and from empirical data gathered by various sensors at the site. The model is used to plan robotic tasks and verify that selected paths am clear of obstacles. This need for a task space model is most pronounced in the remediation of obsolete production facilities and underground storage tanks. Production facilities at many sites contain compact process machinery and systems that were used to produce weapons grade material. For many such systems, a complex maze of pipes (with potentially dangerous contents) must be removed, and this represents a significant D&D challenge. In an analogous way, the underground storage tanks at sites such as Hanford represent a challenge because of their limited entry and the tumbled profusion of in-tank hardware. In response to this need, the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is being designed as a software system to: (1) Provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space, and (2) Enable robotic remediation to be conducted more effectively and more economically than with available techniques. A system such as ICERVS is needed because of the problems discussed below.

  12. Application of ERTS-1-data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunghans, R. S.; Feinberg, E. B.; Mairs, R. L. (Principal Investigator); Woodward, D.; Thibault, D. A.; Macomber, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New Jersey's planned, regionalized network of sewage disposal facilities has been plotted on an ERTS-1 mosaic and circulation parameters for each of the planned outfall locations have been analyzed using the ERTS-1 imagery and comparative aircraft photography. Work is continuing on the circulation and dispersion of barge-dumped wastes in the New York Bight area. One of the largest remote sensing experiments ever attempted in this country was completed on April 7, 1973 during the ERTS-1 overpass. The test area included the northern portion of New Jersey and the Raritan Bay - New York Harbor area. Three NASA aircraft, two helicopters, nine surface vessels, 40 ground team personnel, and numerous oceanographic, radiometric, and meteorological equipment were deployed in an effort to characterize the surface and near-surface circulation dynamics in this 600 square mile area, during an entire tidal cycle. The analyses of these data in concert with all previous ERTS-1 overpasses will provide information that can lead to a better and more rational use of the nearshore marine environment. The data will be utilized to plan future outfall locations, regulating offshore disposal of wastes, etc.

  13. Monitoring the dispersion of ocean waste disposal plumes from ERTS-1 and Skylab. [Delaware coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Myers, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. About forty miles off the Delaware coast is located the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant processing titanium dioxide. The discharge is a greenish-brown; 15-20% acid liquid which consists primarily of iron chlorides and sulfates. The barge which transports this waste has a 1,000,000 gallon capacity and makes approximately three trips to the disposal site per week. ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes are being used to study the dispersion patterns and drift velocities of the iron-acid plume. Careful examination of ERTS-1 imagery disclosed a fishhook-shaped plume about 40 miles east of Cape Henlopen caused by a barge disposing acid wastes. The plume shows up more strongly in the green band than in the red band. Since some acids have a strong green component during dumping and turn slowly more brownish-reddish with age, the ratio of radiance signatures between the green and red bands may give an indication of how long before the satellite overpass the acid was dumped. Enlarged enhancements of the acid waste plumes, prepared from the ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes aided considerably in studies of the dispersion of the waste plume. Currently acid dumps are being coordinated with ERTS-1 overpasses.

  14. A comparison of land-use determinations using data from ERTS-1 and high altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundelius, M. A.; Chestnutwood, C. M.; Garcia, J. G.; Erb, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A manual interpretation of ERTS-1 MSS system corrected imagery has been performed on a study area within the Houston Area Test Site to classify land use using the Level 1 categories proposed by the Department of the Interior. The two types of imagery used included: (1) black and white transparencies of each band enlarged to a scale of approximately 1:250,000 and (2) color transparencies composited from the computer compatible tapes using the film recorder on a multispectral data analysis station. The results of this interpretation have been compared with the 1970 land use inventory of HATS which was compiled using color ektachrome imagery from high altitude aircraft (scale 1:120,000). Urban data from the same scene was also analyzed using a computer-aided (clustering) technique. The resulting clusters, representing areas of similar content, were compared with existing land use patterns in Houston. A technique was developed to correlate the spectral clusters to specific urban features on aircraft imagery by the location of specific, high contrast objects in particular resolution elements. It was concluded that ERTS-1 data could be used to develop Level 1 and many Level 2 land use categories for regional inventories and perhaps to some degree on a local level.

  15. Interdisciplinary research on the application of ERTS-1 data to the regional land use planning process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Kiefer, R. W.; Mccarthy, M. M.; Niemann, B. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Although the degree to which ERTS-1 imagery can satisfy regional land use planning data needs is not yet known, it appears to offer means by which the data acquisition process can be immeasurably improved. The initial experiences of an interdisciplinary group attempting to formulate ways of analyzing the effectiveness of ERTS-1 imagery as a base for environmental monitoring and the resolution of regional land allocation problems are documented. Application of imagery to the regional planning process consists of utilizing representative geographical regions within the state of Wisconsin. Because of the need to describe and depict regional resource complexity in an interrelatable state, certain resources within the geographical regions have been inventoried and stored in a two-dimensional computer-based map form. Computer oriented processes were developed to provide for the economical storage, analysis, and spatial display of natural and cultural data for regional land use planning purposes. The authors are optimistic that the imagery will provide revelant data for land use decision making at regional levels.

  16. Techniques for computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 data, useful in geologic, forest and water resource surveys. [Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Forestry, geology, and water resource applications were the focus of this study, which involved the use of computer-implemented pattern-recognition techniques to analyze ERTS-1 data. The results have proven the value of computer-aided analysis techniques, even in areas of mountainous terrain. Several analysis capabilities have been developed during these ERTS-1 investigations. A procedure to rotate, deskew, and geometrically scale the MSS data results in 1:24,000 scale printouts that can be directly overlayed on 7 1/2 minutes U.S.G.S. topographic maps. Several scales of computer-enhanced "false color-infrared" composites of MSS data can be obtained from a digital display unit, and emphasize the tremendous detail present in the ERTS-1 data. A grid can also be superimposed on the displayed data to aid in specifying areas of interest.

  17. Repetitive ERTS-1 observations of surface water variability along rivers and low-lying areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite, ERTS-1, provides an 18 day repetitive coverage capability and observations in the 0.8-1.1 micron spectral region where the contrast between water and adjacent surfaces is relatively large. Using these capabilities, observations in Virginia, Iowa, Missouri, and California have been acquired showing distinct patterns of flooding. Repetitive views of these areas before and after flooding have been examined, and flood mapping was performed. Sloughs in California can be seen to expand in terms of the area covered by standing water as time extends from summer to autumn. The results indicate that ERTS-1 imagery can be a valuable adjunct to conventional and aircraft survey methods for ascertaining the amount of area covered by water or affected by flooding.

  18. Wheat - Its growth and disease severity as deduced from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Niblett, C. L.; Manges, H.; Lenhert, D.; Newman, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of a cropped surface changes as the plant develops. An indicator of crop growth is leaf area index (ratio of green leaf area to soil area). The leaf area index, disease severity, and yield were determined for several winter wheat fields in Kansas during the 1973 growing season. Multispectral scanner (MSS) data from Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) showed a high correlation (r greater than or equal to 0.90) between crop growth and MSS4/MSS5, and crop growth and MSS5/MSS6. Wheat disease severity and yields were significantly correlated at the 5% level with MSS4/MSS6 and with MSS4/MSS7. Further investigation is required before ERTS imagery can be routinely used detecting and estimating disease severity and yield reduction.

  19. Application of ERTS-1 Data to Aid in Solving Water Resources Management Problems in the State of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgy, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations within the State of California have emphasized the direct utilization of the supplemental data source afforded by the Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) imagery. A user-oriented study has been underway for several years to identify and develop application methodology for remotely sensed information available from several platform levels, including low and high flights by NASA's U2 aircraft, and other manned and unmanned devices. The University of California has pursued both basic and applied research in remote sensing, through ongoing studies supported by NASA, and in cooperation with state agencies responsible for water resources and related fields. This report reviews the applications of ERTS-1 and supplementary imagery sources applicable to water resources planning, operations, and management.

  20. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. To assess the value of satellite imagery in resource evaluation on a national scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malan, O. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery of South Africa, mainly in the form of 1:1,000,000 scale black and white prints of MSS bands, was evaluated for its information content with respect to: (1) soil and terrain mapping; (2) plant ecological mapping; (3) geological mapping; and (4) urban and regional land use mapping at scales below 1:250,000. It was concluded that ERTS-1 imagery can make a significant contribution to accelerate and lower the cost of such surveys. Production of 1:500,000 color composites will remove some of the limitations encountered.

  2. To assess the value of satellite imagery in resource evaluation on a national scale. [South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malan, O. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It has been shown that ERTS imagery, particularly in the form of 1:500,000 scale false color photolithographic prints, can contribute very significantly towards facilitating and accelerating (dramatically, in the case of vegetation) resource surveys and geologic mapping. Fire mapping on a national scale becomes a feasibility, numerous new geologic features, particularly lineaments, have been discovered, land use can be mapped efficiently on a regional scale and degraded areas identified. The first detailed tectonic and geomorphological maps of the Republic of South Africa will be published in the near future mainly owing to the availability of ERTS-1 imagery.

  3. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results from analysis of MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boedvarsson, A.; Fridriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. A preliminary evaluation of available MSS imagery of Iceland has yielded several significant results - some of which may have direct importance to the Icelandic economy. Initial findings can be summarized as follows: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older flows at Askja and Hekla; (2) MSS imagery from ERTS-1 and VHRR visible and infrared imagery from NOAA-2 recorded the vocanic eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes, particularly changes in the position of bars and beaches along the south coast are mappable; and (4) areas covered with new and residual snow can be mapped, and the appearance of newly fallen snow on ERTS-1, MSS band 7 appears dark where it is melting. ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of special maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  4. Photographic copy of computer enhanced color photographic image. Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of computer enhanced color photographic image. Photographer and computer draftsman unknown. Original photographic image located in the office of Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers at 1055 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70130. COMPUTER ENHANCED COLOR PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING THE PROPOSED HUEY P. LONG BRIDGE WIDENING LOOKING FROM THE WEST BANK TOWARD THE EAST BANK. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  5. Hydrogeology of closed basins and deserts of South America, ERTS-1 interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoertz, G. E.; Carter, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Images from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) contain data useful in studies of hydrogeology, geomorphology, and paleoclimatology. Sixteen Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) images and 15 Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) images were studied. These covered deserts and semidesert areas in southwestern Bolivia, northwestern Argentina, northern Chile, and southeastern Peru from July 30 to November 17, 1972. During the first 3 months after launching, high-quality cloud-free imagery was obtained over approximately 90 percent of the region of interior drainage, or an area of 170,000 square miles.

  6. The trophic classification of lakes using ERTS multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, R. J.; Boland, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Lake classification methods based on the use of ERTS data are described. Preliminary classification results obtained by multispectral and digital image processing techniques indicate satisfactory correlation between ERTS data and EPA-supplied water analysis. Techniques for determining lake trophic levels using ERTS data are examined, and data obtained for 20 lakes are discussed.

  7. Cartographic quality of ERTS-1 images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of simulated and operational ERTS images have provided initial estimates of resolution, ground resolution, detectability thresholds and other measures of image quality of interest to earth scientists and cartographers. Based on these values, including an approximate ground resolution of 250 meters for both RBV and MSS systems, the ERTS-1 images appear suited to the production and/or revision of planimetric and photo maps of 1:500,000 scale and smaller for which map accuracy standards are compatible with the imaged detail. Thematic mapping, although less constrained by map accuracy standards, will be influenced by measurement thresholds and errors which have yet to be accurately determined for ERTS images. This study also indicates the desirability of establishing a quantitative relationship between image quality values and map products which will permit both engineers and cartographers/earth scientists to contribute to the design requirements of future satellite imaging systems.

  8. Land classification of south-central Iowa from computer enhanced images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. R.; Taranik, J. V.; Billingsley, F. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Enhanced LANDSAT imagery was most useful for land classification purposes, because these images could be photographically printed at large scales such as 1:63,360. The ability to see individual picture elements was no hindrance as long as general image patterns could be discerned. Low cost photographic processing systems for color printings have proved to be effective in the utilization of computer enhanced LANDSAT products for land classification purposes. The initial investment for this type of system was very low, ranging from $100 to $200 beyond a black and white photo lab. The technical expertise can be acquired from reading a color printing and processing manual.

  9. Diazo Printing of ERTS Color Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 color composites were made with the help of a Diazo developer and printer. Five single channel, density standards were established, using typical ERTS images, in order to determine exposure time. These standards were used to develop a graph from which the exposure time for any transparency can be estimated. Exposure times varied from 3 to 30 minutes, and clear colored polyester sheets from two manufactures were used with slightly different, but equally successful, results.

  10. Skylab and ERTS-1 investigations of coastal land use and water properties. [Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Bartlett, D.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 multispectral scanner and Skylab's S190A, S190B, and S192 data products were evaluated for their utility in studying current circulation, suspended sediment concentrations and pollution dispersal in Delaware Bay and in mapping coastal vegetation and land use. Imagery from the ERTS-1 MSS, S190A and S190B cameras shows considerable detail in water structure, circulation, suspended sediment distribution and within waste disposal plumes in shelf waters. These data products were also used in differentiating and mapping twelve coastal vegetation and land use classes. The spatial resolution of the S190A multispectral facility appears to be about 30 to 70 meters while that of the S190B earth terrain camera is about 10 to 30 meters. Such resolution, along with good cartographic quality, indicates a considerable potential for mapping coastal land use and monitoring water properties in estuaries and on the continental shelf. The ERTS-1 MSS has a resolution of about 70-100 meters. Moreover, its regular 18-day cycle permits observation of important changes, including the environmental impact of coastal zone development on coastal vegetation and ecology.

  11. Utilization of Meteorological Satellite Imagery for World-Wide Environmental Monitoring the Lower Mississippi River Flood of 1979 - Case 1. [St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, M. R.; Mccrary, D. G.; Gray, T. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The 1979 Lower Mississippi River flood was selected as a test case of environmental disaster monitoring utilizing NOAA-n imagery. A small scale study of the St. Louis Missouri area comparing ERTS-1 (LANDSAT) and NOAA-2 imagery and flood studies using only LANDSAT imagery for mapping the Rad River of the North, and Nimbus-5 imagery for East Australia show the nonmeteorological applications of NOAA satellites. While the level of NOAA-n imagery detail is not that of a LANDSAT image, for operational environmental monitoring users the NOAA-n imagery may provide acceptable linear resolution and spectral isolation.

  12. ERTS-1 Virgin Islands experiment 589: Determine boundaries of ERTS and aircraft data within which useful water quality information can be obtained. [water pollution in St. Thomas harbor, Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbourn, W. C.; Egan, W. G.; Olsen, D. A. (Principal Investigator); Heaslip, G. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The boundaries of application of ERTS-1 and aircraft data are established for St. Thomas harbor within which useful water quality information can be obtained. In situ physical, chemical, and biological water quality and benthic data were collected. Moored current meters were employed. Optical measurements of solar irradiance, color test panel radiance and water absorption were taken. Procedures for correlating in situ optical, biological, and chemical data with underflight aircraft I2S data and ERTS-1 MSS scanner data are presented. Comparison of bulk and precision CCT computer printout data for this application is made, and a simple method for geometrically locating bulk data individual pixels based on land-water interface is described. ERTS spacecraft data and I2S aircraft imagery are correlated with optical in situ measurements of the harbor water, with the aircraft green photographic and ERTS-1 MSS-4 bands being the most useful. The biological pigments correlate inversely with the optical data for inshore areas and directly further seaward. Automated computer data processing facilitated analysis.

  13. Geologic uses and non-uses of ERTS-1 - Northern Rocky Mountains and similar areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M.; Alt, D. D.

    1974-01-01

    Using prints of ERTS-1 multispectral scanner imagery a large area of varied geology and vegetative cover was studied, utilizing the classic methods of photogeology generally applied to conventional aerial photographs. The study area was mainly the western half of Montana, but extension of tectonic annotations to the west resulted in coverage of most of the northern Rocky Mountains, as well as the plains to the east. The northern Rocky Mountains are exceptionally suitable for a feasibility study because they contain a wide range of geologic styles exposed under varying conditions of plant and soil cover. The basic approach was to study the satellite imagery visually, applying background knowledge of regional geology and experience with conventional aerial photographs.

  14. Forest and range mapping in the Houston area with ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, G. R.; Parker, H. D.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 data acquired over the Houston area has been analyzed for applications to forest and range mapping. In the field of forestry the Sam Houston National Forest (Texas) was chosen as a test site, (Scene ID 1037-16244). Conventional imagery interpretation as well as computer processing methods were used to make classification maps of timber species, condition and land-use. The results were compared with timber stand maps which were obtained from aircraft imagery and checked in the field. The preliminary investigations show that conventional interpretation techniques indicated an accuracy in classification of 63 percent. The computer-aided interpretations made by a clustering technique gave 70 percent accuracy. Computer-aided and conventional multispectral analysis techniques were applied to range vegetation type mapping in the gulf coast marsh. Two species of salt marsh grasses were mapped.

  15. Utilization of ERTS data to detect plant diseases and nutrient deficiencies, soil types and moisture levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. L. (Principal Investigator); Sewell, J. I.; Hilty, J. W.; Rennie, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A significant finding to date is the delineation of the Memphis soil association in Obion County, Dyer County, and in portions of Kentucky. This soil association was delineated mechanically through the use of imagery in the digital tape format, appropriate computer software, and an IBM/360/05 computer. The Waverly-Swamp association as well as the Obion River have been identified on the ERTS-1 imagery as well as on the computer printout. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of delineating major soil associations through vegetative cover common to the association. Channel 7 provides the most information for studies of this type. Computer density printouts assist markedly in making density separations and delineating major soil moisture differences; however, signatures for soil moisture classification for this area of mixed land uses in relatively small tracts have not yet been developed.

  16. Thermal surveillance of Cascade Range volcanoes using ERTS-1 multispectral scanner, aircraft imaging systems, and ground-based data communication platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D.; Frank, D. G.; Preble, D.; Painter, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of infrared images depicting areas of thermal emission and ground calibration points have proved to be particularly useful in plotting time-dependent changes in surface temperatures and radiance and in delimiting areas of predominantly convective heat flow to the earth's surface in the Cascade Range and on Surtsey Volcano, Iceland. In an integrated experiment group using ERTS-1 multispectral scanner (MSS) and aircraft infrared imaging systems in conjunction with multiple thermistor arrays, volcano surface temperatures are relayed daily to Washington via data communication platform (DCP) transmitters and ERTS-1. ERTS-1 MSS imagery has revealed curvilinear structures at Lassen, the full extent of which have not been previously mapped. Interestingly, the major surface thermal manifestations at Lassen are aligned along these structures, particularly in the Warner Valley.

  17. ERTS-1 evaluation of natural resources management applications in the Great Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, P. T.; Lorain, G.

    1973-01-01

    The relatively cloud free weather in the Great Basin has allowed the accumulation of several dates of excellent ERTS-1 imagery. Mountains, valleys, playas, stream courses, canyons, alluvial fans, and other landforms are readily delineated on ERTS-1 imagery, particularly with MSS-5. Each band is useful for identifying and studying one or more natural resource features. For example, crested wheatgrass seedings were most easily identified and measured on MSS-7. Color enhancements simulating CIR were useful for depicting meadow and phreatophytic vegetation along water bodies and stream courses. Work is underway to inventory and monitor wildfire areas by age and successional status. Inventories have been completed on crested wheatgrass seedings over the entire State of Nevada, and inventories of playa surfaces, water surfaces, phreatophytic vegetation, snow cover, meadows, and other features is continuing. Vegetation ecotones are being delineated for vegetation mapping. The pinyon/juniper-northern desert shrub ecotone has been identified with considerable success. Phenology changes can be used to describe vegetation changes for management.

  18. Publishing an "imej" Journal for Computer-Enhanced Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, Jennifer; Wong, Yue-Ling; Pfeifer, Dan; Boyle, Anne; Yip, Ching-Wan

    Interactive multimedia electronic journals, or IMEJ journals, are a publication medium particularly suited for research in computer-enhanced learning. This paper describes the challenges and potential rewards in publishing such a journal; presents ideas for design and layout; and discusses issues of collaboration, copyrighting, and archiving that…

  19. ERT monitoring of environmental remediation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Brecque, D. J.; Ramirez, A. L.; Daily, W. D.; Binley, A. M.; Schima, S. A.

    1996-03-01

    The use of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to monitor new environmental remediation processes is addressed. An overview of the ERT method, including design of surveys and interpretation, is given. Proper design and lay-out of boreholes and electrodes are important for successful results. Data are collected using an automated collection system and interpreted using a nonlinear least squares inversion algorithm. Case histories are given for three remediation technologies: Joule (ohmic) heating, in which clay layers are heated electrically; air sparging, the injection of air below the water table; and electrokinetic treatment, which moves ions by applying an electric current. For Joule heating, a case history is given for an experiment near Savannah River, Georgia, USA. The target for Joule heating was a clay layer of variable thickness. During the early stages of heating, ERT images show increases in conductivity due to the increased temperatures. Later, the conductivities decreased as the system became dehydrated. For air sparging, a case history from Florence, Oregon, USA is described. Air was injected into a sandy aquifer at the site of a former service station. Successive images clearly show the changes in shape of the region of air saturation with time. The monitoring of an electrokinetic laboratory test on core samples is shown. The electrokinetic treatment creates a large change in the core resistivity, decreasing near the anode and increasing near the cathode. Although remediation efforts were successful both at Savannah River and at Florence, in neither case did experiments progress entirely as predicted. At Savannah River, the effects of heating and venting were not uniform and at Florence the radius of air flow was smaller than expected. Most sites are not as well characterized as these two sites. Improving remediation methods requires an understanding of the movements of heat, air, fluids and ions in the sub-surface which ERT can provide. The

  20. Applications of ERTS data to coastal wetland ecology with special reference to plant community mapping and typing and impact of man. [Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Carter, V. P.; Mcginness, J.

    1974-01-01

    Complete seasonal ERTS-1 coverage of Atlantic coastal wetlands from Delaware Bay to Georgia provides a basis for assessment of temporal data for wetland mapping, evaluation, and monitoring. Both MSS imagery and digital data have proved useful for gross wetland species delineation and determination of the upper wetland boundary. Tidal effects and (band to band or seasonal) spectral reflectance differences make it possible to type vegetatively coastal wetlands in salinity related categories. Management areas, spoil disposal sites, drainage ditches, lagoon-type developments and highway construction can be detected indicating a monitoring potential for the future. A northern test site (Maryland-Virginia) and a southern test site (Georgia-South Carolina), representing a range of coastal marshes from saline to fresh, were chosen for intensive study. Wetland maps were produced at various scales using both ERTS imagery (bands 5 and 7) and digital data (bands 4, 5 and 7).

  1. Evaluation of ERTS-1 image sensor spatial resolution in photographic form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N. (Principal Investigator); Schowengerdt, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A coherent optical system was used to display the spatial frequency content of the amplitude image of one area of the ground as obtained in the four wavelength bands of the multispectral scanner. This enabled a rapid comparison to be made between the four bands, from which it was clear that bands 5 and 7 were preferred to the others in terms of image definition, and thus mapping and acreage estimation, for the particular agricultural area imaged. With suitable scaling it was also possible to compare the modulation, as a function of spatial frequency, of MSS bands 4 and 5 with the green (BB) and red (DD) bands of the same area from the Apollo 9, SO65 experiment. A significant result is that the modulation in the MSS amplitude imagery is 65%-90% of that in the Apollo 9 amplitude imagery. In addition, the ratio of spatial frequencies for the ERTS-1 and Apollo imagery, at which the same modulation occurs, lies between 0.55 and 0.75 for the red band. This ratio is closely related to the ratio of resolutions for the two sensors. These values corroborate statements that the resolution of the MSS imagery is better than anticipated by pre-flight predictions.

  2. Automated thematic mapping and change detection of ERTS-1 images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N. (Principal Investigator); Alpaugh, H.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ERTS-1 image was compared to aircraft photography and maps of an area near Brownsville, Texas. In the coastal region of Cameron County, natural and cultural detail were identified in the ERTS-1 image. In Hidalgo County, ground truth was located on the ERTS-1 image. Haze and 50% cloud cover over Hidalgo County reduced the usefulness of multispectral techniques for recognizing crops.

  3. ERTS: Surveying Earth's Resources from Space.

    PubMed

    Maugh, T H

    1973-06-01

    Several errors occurred in the Research News story "ERTS: Surveying earth's resources from space" (6 Apr. 1973) by Thomas H. Maugh II. In column 3, page 50, the statement, "It thus maps an area of about 6.5 km(2) every day," should read "6.5 x 10(6) km(2)." In Fig. 3, the land masses are identified as Manhattan and Staten Island; actually, the spit at the left of the figure is Sandy Hook, New Jersey, and the barrier beaches further north are Rockaway, Long Beach, and Jones Beach, from left to right. The negative for Fig. 4 was inadvertently flipped over so that the illustration is a mirror image of the actual picture. It has also since been brought to the author's attention that " the previously unsuspected difference in salinity" in the Great Salt Lake described in the caption of Fig. 2 was, in fact, well known before the ERTS picture was taken. PMID:17806578

  4. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 10: Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The economic benefits of an ERS system in the area of industrial resources are discussed. Contributions of ERTS imagery to the improvement of shipping routes, detection of previously unknown and potentially active faults in construction areas, and monitoring industrial pollution are described. Due to lack of economic research concerning the subject of ERS applications in this resource area the benefit estimations reported are regarded as tentative and preliminary.

  5. Studies of images of short lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The program to study short-lived events with the ERTS-1 satellite has evaluated 97 events reported by the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. Forty-eight of these events were listed as candidates for ERTS-1 coverage and 8 of these were considered significant enough to immediately alert the ERTS operation staff by telephone. Studies of the images received from six events indicate that useful data on short-lived events can be obtained from ERTS-1 that would be difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods.

  6. Machine processing of ERTS and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Peacock, K.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results achieved by ERTS-Atmospheric Experiment PR303, whose objective is to establish a radiometric calibration technique, are reported. This technique, which determines and removes solar and atmospheric parameters that degrade the radiometric fidelity of ERTS-1 data, transforms the ERTS-1 sensor radiance measurements to absolute target reflectance signatures. A radiant power measuring instrument and its use in determining atmospheric parameters needed for ground truth are discussed. The procedures used and results achieved in machine processing ERTS-1 computer -compatible tapes and atmospheric parameters to obtain target reflectance are reviewed.

  7. Investigation of relationships between linears, total and hazy areas, and petroleum production in the Williston Basin: An ERTS approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. M.; Street, J. S. (Principal Investigator); Munsell, C. J.; Obrien, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery in a variety of formats was used to locate linear, tonal, and hazy features and to relate them to areas of hydrocarbon production in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. Derivative maps of rectilinear, curvilinear, tonal, and hazy features were made using standard laboratory techniques. Mapping of rectilinears on both bands 5 and 7 over the entire region indicated the presence of a northeast-southwest and a northwest-southeast regional trend which is indicative of the bedrock fracture pattern in the basin. Curved lines generally bound areas of unique tone, maps of tonal patterns repeat many of the boundaries seen on curvilinear maps. Tones were best analyzed on spring and fall imagery in the Williston Basin. It is postulated that hazy areas are caused by atmospheric phenomena. The ability to use ERTS imagery as an exploration tool was examined where petroleum and gas are presently produced (Bottineau Field, Nesson and Antelope anticlines, Redwing Creek, and Cedar Creek anticline). It is determined that some tonal and linear features coincide with location of present production in Redwing and Cedar Creeks. In the remaining cases, targets could not be sufficiently well defined to justify this method.

  8. Quantifying Permafrost Characteristics with DCR-ERT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, W.; Trochim, E.; Munk, J.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.; Fortier, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical methods are an efficient method for quantifying permafrost characteristics for Arctic road design and engineering. In the Alaskan Arctic construction and maintenance of roads requires integration of permafrost; ground that is below 0 degrees C for two or more years. Features such as ice content and temperature are critical for understanding current and future ground conditions for planning, design and evaluation of engineering applications. This study focused on the proposed Foothills West Transportation Access project corridor where the purpose is to construct a new all-season road connecting the Dalton Highway to Umiat. Four major areas were chosen that represented a range of conditions including gravel bars, alluvial plains, tussock tundra (both unburned and burned conditions), high and low centered ice-wedge polygons and an active thermokarst feature. Direct-current resistivity using galvanic contact (DCR-ERT) was applied over transects. In conjunction complimentary site data including boreholes, active layer depths, vegetation descriptions and site photographs was obtained. The boreholes provided information on soil morphology, ice texture and gravimetric moisture content. Horizontal and vertical resolutions in the DCR-ERT were varied to determine the presence or absence of ground ice; subsurface heterogeneity; and the depth to groundwater (if present). The four main DCR-ERT methods used were: 84 electrodes with 2 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 0.5 m spacing; 42 electrodes with 2 m spacing; and 84 electrodes with 1 m spacing. In terms of identifying the ground ice characteristics the higher horizontal resolution DCR-ERT transects with either 42 or 84 electrodes and 0.5 or 1 m spacing were best able to differentiate wedge-ice. This evaluation is based on a combination of both borehole stratigraphy and surface characteristics. Simulated apparent resistivity values for permafrost areas varied from a low of 4582 Ω m to a high of 10034 Ω m. Previous

  9. Range vegetation type mapping and above-ground green biomass estimations using multispectral imagery. [Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Range vegetation types have been successfully mapped on a portion of the 68,000 acre study site located west of Baggs, Wyoming, using ERTS-1 imagery. These types have been ascertained from field transects over a five year period. Comparable studies will be made with EREP imagery. Above-ground biomass estimation studies are being conducted utilizing double sampling techniques on two similar study sites. Information obtained will be correlated with percent relative reflectance measurements obtained on the ground which will be related to image brightness levels. This will provide an estimate of above-ground green biomass with multispectral imagery.

  10. Preliminary study of Lake Pontchartrain and vicinity using remotely sensed data from the ERTS-A satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hidalgo, J. U. (Principal Investigator); Smalley, A. E.; Faller, K. H.; Irvin, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the summer of 1972, huge mats of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) appeared on Lake Pontchartrain, a shallow estuary in southeastern Louisiana. In color infrared photography, duckweeds show a characteristic light lavender color, unlike algal mats or water hyacinth, as observed in low level aerial photography. Although at least five species are present in the area, most water coverage is by Lemna minor and Spirodela oligorrhiza. ERTS-1 imagery shows many areas of bayous, swamps, and marginal waters of Lake Pontchartrain covered with duckweeds. Subsequent passes show a seasonal decreases in duckweeds.

  11. Preliminary report on the use of LANDSAT-1 (ERTS-1) reflectance data in locating alteration zones associated with uranium mineralization near Cameron, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spirakis, Charles S.; Condit, Christopher D.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT-I (ERTS-I) multispectral reflectance data were used to enhance the detection of alteration around uranium deposits near Cameron, Ariz. The technique involved stretching and ratioing computer-enhanced data from which electronic noise and atmospheric haze had been removed. Using present techniques, the work proves that LANDSAT-I data are useful in detecting alteration around uranium deposits, but the method may still be improved. Bluish-gray mudstone in the target area could not be differentiated from the altered zones on the ratioed images. Further experiments involving combinations of ratioed and nonratioed data will be required to uniquely define the altered zones.

  12. Geological and environmental applications of the ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    The significant results from geological investigations made with the aid of the ERTS spacecraft can be grouped into four broad categories: mapping, land form analysis, structural studies, and the search for mineral deposits. Illustrations of how ERTS has been used in such studies are given, including photomosaics of Nevada and of southern Morocco, and a photogeological interpretation of the Rhodesian craton. Environmental applications of ERTS are illustrated by an ERTS update of an Indiana strip mine map, an ERTS image of Lake Michigan showing particulate plumes and their effect on the weather, and an image of the New York Bight area showing the location and extent of an acid-iron wastes dump and a sewage sludge dump.

  13. Station Readiness Test for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this SRT is to establish testing procedures which will verify that ERTS supporting stations can effectively support the ERTS mission. This SRT is applicable to all supporting stations for the ERTS-A and ERTS-B mission.

  14. Author index to published ERTS-1 reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidwell, Timothy C.; Mitchell, Cheryl A.

    1975-01-01

    This index has been compiled to assist the reader in locating and obtaining reports on the 334 scientific experiments conducted under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 (ERTS-1) (renamed Landsat) program.  Each NASA-designated experimenter was required to submit written reports on his investigation: these were designated type 1, type 2, and type 3 reports.  Type 1 reports were periodic (monthly or bimonthly) progress summaries; type 2 were comprehensive scientific and technical reports; and type 3 were final report.  Investigators were also encourage to present their more significant findings in professional or technical journals and proceedings of symposia.

  15. Robotic surgery: the computer-enhanced control of surgical instruments.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Steven W

    2002-12-01

    Robotic procedures are still in a developmental stage. Studies have shown that many operations can be performed safely with computer-enhanced telemanipulators, but distinct advantages of robotic procedures have not been established. Before third-party payors begin paying a premium for the use of a robot, costs will need to decrease or outcomes will need to be sufficiently better. Manufacturers of robotic surgery systems are marketing directly to consumers and promoting their systems to hospitals based on the number of patients that can be attracted by such programs. Only the acceptance of robotics into mainstream surgical practice, however, will prove it to be more than just a niche technology.

  16. Interactive analysis and evaluation of ERTS data for regional planning and urban development: A Los Angeles Basin case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S.; Economy, R.; Willoughby, G.; Mcknight, J.

    1974-01-01

    The progression endemic to the ERTS Data Use Experiment SR 124 in data quality, analysis sophistication and applications responsiveness is reviewed. The roles of the variety of ERTS products, including the supporting underflight aircraft imagery at various scales, are discussed in the context of this investigation. The versatility of interpretation techniques and outputs developed and implemented via the General Electric Multispectral Information Extraction Systems is described and exemplified by both system-expository and applications-explanatory products. The wide-ranging and in-depth applications studied in the course of this experiment can be characterized as community-oriented and agency-directed. In the former, generic category, which is primarily data-contextual, problems analyzed dealt with agricultural systems, surface water bodies, snow cover, brush fire burns, forestry, grass growth, parks - golf courses - cemeteries, dust storms, grading sites, geological features and coastal water structure. The ERTS MSS band selectivity and measurements thresholds were of primary interest here. The agency-directed application areas have been user-evaluational in nature. Beginning with overall urbanized regional analysis of land cover density-development intensity, residential areas were analyzed for ascertaining if housing types could be aggregated with any degree of reliability.

  17. Applicability of ERTS-1 to lineament and photogeologic mapping in Montana: Preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M.; Alt, D. D.; Flood, R. E.; Hawley, K. T.; Wackwitz, L. K.; Berg, R. B.; Johns, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    A lineament map prepared from a mosaic of western Montana shows about 85 lines not represented on the state geologic map, including elements of a northeast-trending set through central western Montana which merit ground truth checking and consideration in regional structural analysis. Experimental fold annotation resulted in a significant local correction to the state geologic map. Photogeologic mapping studies produced only limited success in identification of rock types, but they did result in the precise delineation of a late Cretaceous or early Tertiary volcanic field (Adel Mountain field) and the mapping of a connection between two granitic bodies shown on the state map. Imagery was used successfully to map clay pans associated with bentonite beds in gently dipping Bearpaw Shale. It is already apparent that ERTS imagery should be used to facilitate preparation of a much needed statewide tectonic map and that satellite imagery mapping, aided by ground calibration, provides and economical means to discover and correct errors in the state geologic map.

  18. Studies of the inner shelf and coastal sedimentation environment of the Beaufort Sea from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimnitz, E. (Principal Investigator); Barnes, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Northward flowing rivers of Alaska inundate extensive areas of sea ice during spring breakup. This process has been studied under the ERTS-1 program. Drainage of large volumes of fresh water through the ice at holes and cracks (strudel) causes scour depressions, over 4 m deep, and up to 20 m across in the sea floor below. Strudel scours occur within 30 km of river mouths, generally in areas where ERTS-1 imagery shows less potential for drifting ice to scour the bottom than elsewhere. The shapes and distribution patterns of strudel scours correspond with those of strudel seen in the ice canopy. Densities of scours are highest in the inner areas of overlfow. But strudel scours also occur outside of overflow areas mapped during the last several years. These must be very old. One strudel scour investigated by diving is surrounded by a rim, has vertical walls exposing a tundra horizon, and terminates at a gravel layer 4 m below the lagoon floor. Another terminates at a semi-consolidated layer of silty clay. The gravel and silty clay are pre-Holocene deposits. Mixing of Holocene marine with older sediments by vertical strudel flow causes great variability in sediment types over small areas. These observations complicate interpretation of shallow water deposits of cold climates.

  19. Geological photointerpretation of the Paraguana Peninsula using ERTS-A multispectral photography. [Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrizzio, C.

    1974-01-01

    A methodology was developed to evaluate multispectral analysis of orbital imagery on the interpretation of geology, coastal geomorphology and sedimentary processes. The images analyzed were obtained during the pass of ERTS satellite over the center region of Venezuela on October 19, 1972. ERTS-1 multispectral images in black and white paper copies and transparencies of the 4 bands and false color composites at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:500,000 were interpreted. Lithology and outcrop patterns of the following geological formations have been interpreted: igneous and metamorphic basement of Cocodite and Santa Ana, Jurassic-Cretaceous metamorphics of Pueblo Nuevo, Cantaure Miocene-Pliocene sediments, and Quaternary alluvium, dunes, beach ridges, bars and reefs. A prominent and extensive Paraguana tonal anomaly shaped as an 8 has been discovered at the NW of the Peninsula. Its erosional origin has exposed light toned lower beds at the center, with additional evidence of topographic depression and development of underground drainage of karst origin. Coastal geomorphology, its processes and energy has been interpreted with the help of wind direction analysis (ENE-WSW) at sea level through the orientation of transported materials (water vapor, water and sediments) by clouds, waves, sea current, plumes of suspended sediments associated to river outlets, dunes, sediment sources and shore-line orientation.

  20. Studies of the inner shelf and coastal sedimentation environment of the Beaufort Sea from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimnitz, E. (Principal Investigator); Barnes, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The particulate transport processes involved in the movement of surficial waters were examined using secchi disc readings, light attenuation coefficients, and particulate weights from filtration. Observations gathered during the summers of 1971 and 1972 indicate a remarkable difference in particulate matter and turbidity between the two years. ERTS-1 imagery during August 1972 showed turbid water along the northern Alaska coast. The uniformity of distribution of the turbid water and the fact that the river discharge is low at this period suggest that the turbidity is related to causes other than river effluent. Studies indicate that wave action is a more significant factor influencing particulate transport than believed heretofore. The boundary between the essentially immobile shorefast ice and the moving pack ice has been plotted from several ERTS-1 images and found to occur fairly consistently along the 20 meter contour. Considering the vast difference in the amount of ice movement shoreward and seaward of this boundary, ice-bottom action should also be different on either side of this boundary and for that matter at the shear zone that develops along the boundary.

  1. A qualitative evaluation of Landsat imagery of Australian rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graetz, R.D.; Carneggie, David M.; Hacker, R.; Lendon, C.; Wilcox, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The capability of multidate, multispectral ERTS-1 imagery of three different rangeland areas within Australia was evaluated for its usefulness in preparing inventories of rangeland types, assessing on a broad scale range condition within these rangeland types, and assessing the response of rangelands to rainfall events over large areas. For the three divergent rangeland test areas, centered on Broken W, Alice Springs and Kalgoorlie, detailed interpretation of the imagery only partially satisfied the information requirements set. It was most useful in the Broken Hill area where fenceline contrasts in range condition were readily visible. At this and the other sites an overstorey of trees made interpretation difficult. Whilst the low resolution characteristics and the lack of stereoscopic coverage hindered interpretation it was felt that this type of imagery with its vast coverage, present low cost and potential for repeated sampling is a useful addition to conventional aerial photography for all rangeland types.

  2. Geological applications of LANDSAT-1 imagery to the Great Salt Lake area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Smith, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    The ERTS program has been designed as a research and development tool to demonstrate that remote sensing from orbital altitudes is a feasible and practical approach to efficient management of earth resources. From this synoptic view and repetitive coverage provided by ERTS imagery of the Great Salt Lake area, large geological and structural features, trends, and patterns have been identified and mapped. A comparative analysis of lineaments observed in September and December data was conducted, existing mineral locations were plotted, and areas considered prospective for mineralization based on apparent structure-mineralization relationships were defined. The additional information obtained using ERTS data provides an added source of information to aid in the development of more effective mineral exploration programs.

  3. Application of ERTS-1 data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunghans, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Feinberg, E. B.; Mairs, R. L.; Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. R.; Pettinger, L. R.; Macomber, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery and complementary aircraft overflights has led to the development of seventeen information products that are being utilized within the Department of Environmental Protection as new sources of information for coastal zone management. Problem areas of significance to the State, and in which product development has contributed to date, have been identified as: the environmental effects of offshore waste disposal, the placement of ocean outfalls, the better understanding of littoral processes for shore protection, the delineation of the coastal ecozones, and determination of the flushing characteristics of the State's estuaries. Of equal importance has been the development of a capability within the State to use and understand remote sensor-derived information.

  4. Utilization of ERTS-1 data to monitor and classify eutrophication of inland lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, P. E.; Smith, V. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant findings are: (1) one acre lakes and one acre islands are detectable; (2) circular lakes of 7.5 acres and greater reach full density; (3) long channels 100 ft wide are detectable; (4) orientation of lakes is independent of scan direction; (5) lake features are observable in enlargements of CCT imagery produced in the Bendix Earth Resources Data Center; and (6) a decision surface water outline map is presented that was produced from ERTS-1 CCT. A water color literature review, baseline water quality data of the test lakes, and a discussion of geometric corrections of the CCT decision water surface outline map are also presented.

  5. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  6. All-digital precision processing of ERTS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Digital techniques have been developed and used to apply precision-grade radiometric and geometric corrections to ERTS MSS and RBV scenes. Geometric accuracies sufficient for mapping at 1:250,000 scale have been demonstrated. Radiometric quality has been superior to ERTS NDPF precision products. A configuration analysis has shown that feasible, cost-effective all-digital systems for correcting ERTS data are easily obtainable. This report contains a summary of all results obtained during this study and includes: (1) radiometric and geometric correction techniques, (2) reseau detection, (3) GCP location, (4) resampling, (5) alternative configuration evaluations, and (6) error analysis.

  7. Ground control requirements for precision processing of ERTS images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, Thomas C.

    1972-01-01

    When the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-A) flies in 1972, NASA expects to receive and bulk-process 9,000 images a week. From this deluge of images, a few will be selected for precision processing; that is, about 5 percent will be further treated to improve the geometry of the scene, both in the relative and absolute sense. Control points are required for this processing. This paper describes the control requirements for relating ERTS images to a reference surface of the earth. Enough background on the ERTS-A satellite is included to make the requirements meaningful to the user.

  8. Discrimination of rock classes and alteration products in southwestern Saudi Arabia with computer-enhanced LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Gunther, F. J.; Podwysocki, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Digital LANDSAT MSS data for an area in the southwestern Arabian Shield were computer-enhanced to improve discrimination of rock classes, and recognition of gossans associated with massive sulphide deposits. The test area is underlain by metamorphic rocks that are locally intruded by granites; these are partly overlain by sandstones. The test area further includes the Wadi Wassat and Wadi Qatan massive sulphide deposits, which are commonly capped by gossans of ferric oxides, silica, and carbonates. Color patterns and boundaries on contrast-stretched ratio color composite imagery, and on complementary images constructed using principal component and canonical analyses transformations, correspond exceptionally well to 1:100,000 scale field maps. A qualitative visual comparison of information content showed that the ratio enhancement provided the best overall image for identification of rock type and alteration products.

  9. To evaluate ERTS-1 data for usefulness as a geological sensor in the diverse geological terraines of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Linear anomalies dominate the new geological information derived from ERTS-1 imagery, total lengths now exceeding 6000 kms. Experimentation with a variety of viewing techniques suggests that conventional photogeologic analyses of band 7 results in the location of more than 97 percent of all linears found. Bedrock lithologic types are distinguishable only where they are topographically expressed or govern land use signatures. The maxima on rose diagrams for ERTS-1 anomalies correspond well with those for mapped faults and topographic lineaments, despite a difference in relative magnitudes of maxima thought due to solar illumination direction. A multiscale analysis of linears showed that single topographic linears at 1:2,500,000 became dashed jugate linears at 1:500,000, and shorter linears lacking any conspicuous zonal alignment at 1:250,000. Most circular features found were explained away by U-2 airphoto analysis but several remain as anomalies. Visible glacial features include individual drumlins, best seen in winter imagery, drumlinoids, eskers, ice-marginal drainage channels, glacial lake shorelines and sand plains, and end moraines.

  10. Coordination and establishment of centralized facilities and services for the University of Alaska ERTS survey of the Alaskan environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E. (Principal Investigator); Miller, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Scene 1072-21173 of the Anaktuvuk Pass region of the Brooks Range, Alaska, was studied from the point of view of a resource survey for purposes of land use planning as part of the effort to develop ERTS data processing and interpretation techniques. Other data sources and surface observations were utilized to produce a resource survey of a remote and undeveloped region of Alaska. Three vegetative types are apparent: moist tundra, low brush, and high brush. Watersheds are easily defined on the multispectral imagery. Features related indirectly to economic minerals are discernible from ERTS-1 imagery supported by ground truth data. These include mountains, outwash plains and alluvial deposits, drainage patterns, lineaments and probable bedding planes. This region falls within present land class categories which are not inconsistent with the imperatives of the resources. These land class categories include native village withdrawals, regional deficiency area, national interest study area for possible inclusion in a national system, public interest areas, utility corridor, and state land selection.

  11. Use of satellite imagery for wildland resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, P. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accurate identification and delineation of crested wheatgrass seedlings has enabled a broad inventory of this resource. The entire state of Nevada is being inventoried for crested wheatgrass seedlings. Irrigated fields and pastures are easily visible from ERTS-1 imagery and were quantified in total acres on 12,500 square miles of the state. Recent fire scars may be monitored and inventoried from satellite-borne imagery. Inventory and quantification of large native meadows of Nevada have been accomplished on one frame of ERTS-1 data. This inventory would not have been economically feasible with any known ground inventory method. The U-2 sequential data taken in the spring revealed several resource management oriented phenological changes in the vegetation. The green-up of grasses and shrubs was detected on the imagery and supplied a good indicator for livestock turn-out dates. Water level manipulations in the Ruby Marsh were readily detected by noting changes in vegetation growth and reflectance.

  12. Gypsy moth defoliation assessment: Forest defoliation in detectable from satellite imagery. [New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J. (Principal Investigator); Rohde, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery obtained over eastern Pennsylvania during July 1973, indicates that forest defoliation is detectable from satellite imagery and correlates well with aerial visual survey data. It now appears that two damage classes (heavy and moderate-light) and areas of no visible defoliation can be detected and mapped from properly prepared false composite imagery. In areas where maple is the dominant species or in areas of small woodlots interspersed with agricultural areas, detection and subsequent mapping is more difficult.

  13. Application of advanced signal processing techniques to the rectification and registration of spaceborne imagery. [technology transfer, data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caron, R. H.; Rifman, S. S.; Simon, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of an ERTS/MSS image processing system responsive to the needs of the user community is discussed. An overview of the TRW ERTS/MSS processor is presented, followed by a more detailed discussion of image processing functions satisfied by the system. The particular functions chosen for discussion are evolved from advanced signal processing techniques rooted in the areas of communication and control. These examples show how classical aerospace technology can be transferred to solve the more contemporary problems confronting the users of spaceborne imagery.

  14. The use of LANDSAT-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seevers, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Drew, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for the Sand Hills region of Nebraska has shown that the data can be used to effectively measure several parameters of inventory needs. (1) Vegetative biomass can be estimated with a high degree of confidence using computer compatable tape data. (2) Soils can be mapped to the subgroup level with high altitude aircraft color infrared photography and to the association level with multitemporal ERTS-1 imagery. (3) Water quality in Sand Hills lakes can be estimated utilizing computer compatable tape data. (4) Center pivot irrigation can be inventoried from satellite data and can be monitored regarding site selection and relative success of establishment from high altitude aircraft color infrared photography. (5) ERTS-1 data is of exceptional value in wide-area inventory of natural resource data in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska.

  15. Applicability of ERTS for surveying Antarctic iceberg resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hult, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Ostrander, N. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation explores the applicability of ERTS to (1) determine the Antarctic sea ice and environmental behavior that may influence the harvesting of icebergs, and (2) monitor iceberg locations, characteristics, and evolution. From image sampling, it is found that the potential applicability of ERTS to the research, planning, and harvesting operations can contribute importantly to the promise derived from broader scope studies for the use of Antarctic iceberg to relieve fresh Thermal sensor bands will provide coverage in daylight and darkness. Several years of comprehensive monitoring will be necessary to characterize sea ice and environmental behavior and iceberg evolution. Live ERTS services will assist harvesting control and claming operations and offer a means for harmonizing entitlements to iceberg resources. The valuable ERTS services will be more cost effective than other means and will be easily justified and borne by the iceberg harvesting operation.

  16. An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An experimental plan for enhancing spectral features related to the chemical composition of geological targets in ERTS multispectral scanner data is described. The experiment is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS-1 data. Iron compounds are promising remote sensing targets because they display prominent spectral features in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region and are geologically significant. The region selected for this ERTS experiment is the southern end of the Wind River Range in Wyoming. If this method proves successful it should prove useful for regional geologic mapping, mineralogical exploration, and soil mapping. It may also be helpful to ERTS users in scientific disciplines other than geology, especially to those concerned with targets composed of mixtures of live vegetation and soil or rock.

  17. ERTS-1 views the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The meteorological content of ERTS images, particularly mesoscale effects of the Great Lakes and air pollution dispersion is summarized. Summertime lake breeze frontal clouds and various winter lake-effect convection patterns and snow squalls are revealed in great detail. A clear-cut spiral vortex over southern Lake Michigan is related to a record early snow storm in the Chicago area. Marked cloud changes induced by orographic and frictional effects on Lake Michigan's lee shore snow squalls are seen. The most important finding, however, is a clear-cut example of alterations in cumulus convection by anthropogenic condensation and/or ice nuclei from northern Indiana steel mills during a snow squall situation. Jet aircraft condensation trails are also found with surprising frequency.

  18. Use of ERTS data for mapping Arctic sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Bowley, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation is to evaluate the application of ERTS data for detecting and mapping Arctic sea ice. The specific objectives are to determine the spectral bands most suitable for detecting ice, to measure the scale and types of ice features that can be detected, and to develop interpretive techniques for differentiating ice from clouds and for mapping ice concentrations. The ERTS data are being analyzed primarily for three Arctic areas, the eastern Beaufort Sea, Baffin Bay, and the Greenland Sea.

  19. Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with ERTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Haas, R. H.; Schell, J. A.; Deering, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Great Plains Corridor rangeland project utilizes natural vegetation systems as phenological indicators of seasonal development and climatic effects upon regional growth conditions. A method has been developed for quantitative measurement of vegetation conditions over broad regions using ERTS-1 MSS data. Radiance values recorded in ERTS-1 spectral bands 5 and 7, corrected for sun angle, are used to compute a band ratio parameter which is shown to be correlated with aboveground green biomass on rangelands.

  20. Task 10: an ERTS Experiment for Mapping Iron Compounds, 1383

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary results of a spectral ratioing technique are shown for a region at the southern end of the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Digital ratio graymaps and analog ratio images have been produced for the test site, but ground truth is not yet available for thorough interpretation of these products. ERTS-1 analog ratio images were found generally better than either ERTS-1 single channel images or high altitude aerial photos for the discrimination of vegetation from non-vegetation in the test site region. Some linear geological features smaller than the ERTS-1 spatial resolution are seen as well in ERTS-1 ratio and single channel images as in high altitude aerial photography. Geochemical information appears to be extractable from ERTS-1 data. Good preliminary quantitative agreement between ERTS-1 derived ratios and laboratory derived reflectance ratios of rocks and minerals encourage plans to use lab data as training sets for a simple ratio gating logic approach to automatic recognition maps. Empirical atmospheric corrections indicate that atmospheric corrections are needed to make the ratio method, and possibly other types of data processing, consistent over large geographical and temporal displacements.

  1. Remote sensing of soils, land forms, and land use in the northern Great Plains in preparation for ERTS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazee, C. J.; Westin, F. C.; Gropper, J.; Myers, V. I.

    1972-01-01

    Research to determine the optimum time or season for obtaining imagery to identify and map soil limitations was conducted in the proposed Oahe irrigation project area in South Dakota. The optimum time for securing photographs or imagery is when the soil surface patterns are most apparent. For cultivated areas similar to the study area, May is the optimum time. The density slicing analysis of the May image provided additional and more accurate information than did the existing soil map. The soil boundaries were more accurately located. The use of a density analysis system for an operational soil survey has not been tested, but is obviously dependent upon securing excellent photographs for interpretation. The colors or densities of photographs will have to be corrected for sun angle effects, vignetting effects, and processing to have maximum effectiveness for mapping soil limitations. Rangeland sites were established in Bennett County, South Dakota to determine the usefulness of ERTS imagery. Imagery from these areas was interpreted for land use and drainage patterns.

  2. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  3. Perceptual factors that influence use of computer enhanced visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, David; Boehm-Davis, Debbie

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA/Langley contract entitled 'Perceptual Factors that Influence Use of Computer Enhanced Visual Displays.' The document consists of two parts. The first part contains a discussion of the problem to which the grant was addressed, a brief discussion of work performed under the grant, and several issues suggested for follow-on work. The second part, presented as Appendix I, contains the annual report produced by Dr. Ann Fulop, the Postdoctoral Research Associate who worked on-site in this project. The main focus of this project was to investigate perceptual factors that might affect a pilot's ability to use computer generated information that is projected into the same visual space that contains information about real world objects. For example, computer generated visual information can identify the type of an attacking aircraft, or its likely trajectory. Such computer generated information must not be so bright that it adversely affects a pilot's ability to perceive other potential threats in the same volume of space. Or, perceptual attributes of computer generated and real display components should not contradict each other in ways that lead to problems of accommodation and, thus, distance judgments. The purpose of the research carried out under this contract was to begin to explore the perceptual factors that contribute to effective use of these displays.

  4. Use of satellite imagery for wildland resource evaluation in the Great Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, P. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Color composites and diazachrome transparencies of ERTS-1 imagery have greatly increased interpretation capabilities. Vegetation green-up and flooding due to late summer precipitation has been identified on such imagery. MSS imagery in all bands has not proven as valuable for similar determinations. Snow cover has been found to be valuable in the identification of fire scars, pinyon/juniper chainings, and subtle ecotones not previously identified with any other type of imagery. It is felt that a greater understanding of the effects of snow cover on vegetation remote sensing will enable investigators to extend capabilities relating to the mapping and identification of these resources. Highly reflective phreatophytic vegetation has been mapped and quantified using the MSS 5 and 7 bands and diazachrome color composites. Approximately 10 man-hours were required to complete the entire state. Native meadow and hay meadow vegetation has been mapped in Elko County, Nevada, using ERTS-1 imagery. Future plans include a statewide inventory of this resource.

  5. The ERTS-1 investigation (ER-600). Volume 5: ERTS-1 urban land use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Urban Land Use Team conducted a year's investigation of ERTS-1 MSS data to determine the number of Land Use categories in the Houston, Texas, area. They discovered unusually low classification accuracies occurred when a spectrally complex urban scene was classified with extensive rural areas containing spectrally homogeneous features. Separate computer processing of only data in the urbanized area increased classification accuracies of certain urban land use categories. Even so, accuracies of urban landscape were in the 40-70 percent range compared to 70-90 percent for the land use categories containing more homogeneous features (agriculture, forest, water, etc.) in the nonurban areas.

  6. ERTS evaluation for land use inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of accomplishing a general inventory of any given region based on spectral categories from satellite data has been demonstrated in a pilot study for an area of 6300 square kilometers in central New York State. This was accomplished by developing special processing techniques to improve and balance contrast and density for each spectral band of an image scene to compare with a standard range of density and contrast found to be acceptable for interpretation of the scene. Diazo film transparencies were made from enlarged black and white transparencies of each spectral band. Color composites were constructed from these diazo films in combinations of hue and spectral bands to enhance different spectral features in the scene. Interpretation and data takeoff was accomplished manually by translating interpreted areas onto an overlay to construct a spectral map. The minimum area interpreted was 25 hectares. The minimum area geographically referenced was one square kilometer. The interpretation and referencing of data from ERTS-1 was found to be about 88% accurate for eight primary spectral categories.

  7. Mineral exploration potential of ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Erskine, M. C., Jr.; Prindle, R. O.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of a mosaic composing eight individual ERTS frames (1:1,000,000) extending well beyond the test site has revealed a number of tectonic structural trends that are controlled by regional lineations. So far most of the regional lineations fall into three general directions: east by northeast, northwest, and north-south. From preliminary examination, it appears that the older Precambrian basement predominates in the NE-bearing structural trends, whereas the predominate NW trend is most likely associated with the Texas Structural Zone, and the north-south trend being the Utah-Arizona belt and/or part of the southern Basin and Range Province. One major lineation, made up of many parallel lineations, is noticeable just north of Lake Pleasant which extends for approximately 100 miles in a northern direction out of the target area. This feature corresponds to a Precambrian schist formation shown on the USGS geologic map of Arizona.

  8. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  9. ERTS-1 data collection system: Status and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The Data Collection System flown on the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) relays earth resources data from remotely located in-situ sensors to Goddard Space Flight Center. Data is received at Goddard at least twice each day from every sensor installation and is distributed to users (who operate the sensors and transmitters) by mail and teletype. The system consists of a data formatting and transmitting unit, called the Data Collection Platform (DCP), a receiver and a retransmitter aboard ERTS-1; and receiving, demodulating and decoding equipment located at the Goldstone, California and Goddard data acquisition stations. Data is transmitted from the data acquisition stations to the ERTS Control Center at Goddard, then to the NASA (ERTS) Data Processing Facility (NDPF) where it is processed and distributed to users. Experience to date indicates that the design of the ERTS-1 Data Collection System is adequate for operational use for 50% of the users and, with minor modifications, could meet the requirements of 75%. Some users will have to augment the system by other data collection techniques to meet their operational requirements.

  10. TOMOGRAPHIC SITE CHARACTERIZATION USING CPT, ERT, AND GPR

    SciTech Connect

    Rexford M. Morey; Susanne M. Conklin; Stephen P. Farrington, P.E.; James D. Shinn II, P.E.

    1999-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of inactive DOE sites and for bringing DOE sites and facilities into compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) needs advanced technologies that can make environmental restoration and waste management operations more efficient and less costly. These techniques are required to better characterize the physical, hydrogeological, and chemical properties of the subsurface while minimizing and optimizing the use of boreholes and monitoring wells. Today the cone penetrometer technique (CPT) is demonstrating the value of a minimally invasive deployment system for site characterization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. is developing two new sensor packages for site characterization and monitoring. The two new methods are: (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); and (2) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Tomography. These sensor systems are now integrated with the CPT. The results of this program now make it possible to install ERT and GPR units by CPT methods and thereby reduce installation costs and total costs for ERT and GPR surveys. These two techniques can complement each other in regions of low resistivity where ERT is more effective and regions of high resistivity where GPR is more effective. The results show that CPT-installed GeoWells can be used for both ERT and GPR borehole tomographic subsurface imaging. These two imaging techniques can be used for environmental site characterization and monitoring have numerous and diverse applications within site cleanup and waste management operations.

  11. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in high-risk cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson-Williams, K. A.; Gutmann, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    Menopausal estrogens are now being prescribed not only for symptom relief, but also to prevent the long-term sequelae of estrogen deficiency, namely osteoporosis and atherosclerotic disease. The well-established association between endometrial cancer and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) has become less of a clinical concern due to the recognition of the protective effect of progestogens in this setting. A small literature has emerged suggesting that extending ERT to the woman with a history of endometrial carcinoma imposes no increased risk of recurrence and may improve survival. Candidates for ERT should be women with a better prognostic profile with reference to their cancer. The relationship between ERT and breast cancer remains a topic of intense debate and investigation. Overall, the current literature finds no significant increase in risk among healthy women without a family history of breast cancer. There are no guidelines with reference to the woman with a history of breast cancer and the use of ERT. The most prudent approach with this population is to consider alternative treatments until more is known. PMID:1810102

  12. ERTS-B (Earth Resources Technology Satellite). [spacecraft design remote sensor description, and technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mission plans and objectives of the ERTS 2 Satellite are presented. ERTS 2 follow-on investigations in various scientific disciplines including agriculture, meteorology, land-use, geology, water resources, oceanography, and environment are discussed. Spacecraft design and its sensors are described along with the Delta launch vehicle and launch operations. Applications identified from ERTS 1 investigations are summarized.

  13. Vegetation density as deduced from ERTS-1 MSS response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Richardson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Reflectance from vegetation increases with increasing vegetation density in the 0.75- to 1.35 micron wavelength interval. Therefore, ERTS-1 bands 6 (0.7 to 0.8 micron) and 7 (0.8 to 1.1 micron) contain information that should relate to the probable yield of crops and the animal carrying capacity of rangeland. The results of an experiment designed specifically to test the relations among leaf area index (LAI), plant population, plant cover and plant height, and the ERTS-1 MSS responses for 3 corn, 10 sorghum, and 10 cotton fields are given. Plant population was as useful as LAI for characterizing the sorghum and corn fields, and plant height was as good as LAI for characterizing cotton fields. These findings generally support the utility of ERTS-1 data for explaining variability in green biomass, harvestable forage and other indicators of productivity.

  14. Mapping a recent forest fire with ERTS-1 MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchcock, H. C.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate fire boundary delineation provides essential information to forest managers in allocating suppression costs and planning regeneration efforts. The objective of this study was to test the capability of computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 MSS data to accurately define the boundary of a recent forest fire and to discriminate spectral classes within the perimeter. Two frames of ERTS-1 MSS data were selected for analysis of the Moccasin Mesa Fire in Mesa Verde National Park. Data sets were collected one-half growing season and one full growing season after the fire. Results indicate that computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 MSS data has the capability for accurately delineating fire boundaries and determining acreage of the burned area. Distinct spectral classes may also be defined within the fire perimeter.

  15. Calculations of water depth from ERTS-MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 MSS data taken on October 10, 1972 of the Little Bahama Bank are being used to demonstrate the use of ERTS-1 data for mapping of shallow water features for the purpose of upgrading world navigation charts. Marked reflectance differences occur for the shallow water areas in Bands 4, 5, and 6. Digital processing of two adjacent data tapes within the ERTS frame covering an area of about 40 by 40 miles has been completed. Correlation of depth measurements to 5 meters has been successful. A mathematical model for depth measurements using ratio of voltages in Band 4 and 5 has been successfully developed and is being tested for accuracy. Additional studies for areas near Puerto Rico and in Northern Lake Michigan will be undertaken. Satellite data will also provide geographical evidence for verifying existence or nonexistence of doubtful shoal waters now appearing on world charts and considered to be hazardous to shipping.

  16. The first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1973-01-01

    The first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) makes images of the earth's surface in four portions of the electromagnetic spectrum with sufficient spatial resolution and with a minimum of geometric distortions, so that these images may be applied experimentally to the study of geophysical processes relating to earth resources, to the exploration and conservation of these resources, and to the assessments of environmental stresses. During the first six months of operation, ERTS-1 has imaged 6.5 million square kilometers of the earth's surface every day, covering most major land masses and coastal zones as well as both polar regions of this planet. These images as well as the results of their analyses are available to all people throughout the world. Scientific investigators of all countries have been invited to participate in the utilization of ERTS-1 observations. Many of them have already demonstrated the great efficiency, economy, and reliability of making earth surveys from space.

  17. Information through color imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1975-01-01

    The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.

  18. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data for certain hydrological uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R. (Principal Investigator); Mcginnis, D. F.; Mcmillan, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS data have been used in a variety of hydrologic research including snow-extent mapping; studies of snowmelt, snowmelt runoff, spectral reflectance of snow for assessing snowpack conditions, and snow albedo; lake ice formation, breakup, and migration; lake current measurements; multispectral studies of lake ice; and flood studies. MSS sensing of soil moisture over a well-vegetated test site was unsuccessfully attempted. Although a powerful research tool, ERTS-1 has very limited use as an operational system for hydrologic communities because of its 18-day revisit cycle and its lack of a quick look capability.

  19. ERTS-1 applications in hydrology and water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    After having been in orbit for less than one year, the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) has shown that it provides very applicable data for more effective monitoring and management of surface water features over the globe. Mapping flooded areas, snowcover, and wetlands and surveying the size, type, and response of glaciers to climate are among the specific areas where ERTS-1 data were applied. In addition the data collection system has proven to be a reliable tool for gathering hydrologic data from remote regions. Turbidity variations in lakes and rivers were also observed and related to shoreline erosion, industrial plant effluent, and overall water quality.

  20. Tracking air-dropped drogues and dyes from aircraft in support of ERTS-1 circulation studies. [Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Wang, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. For two years ERTS-1 has been employed to investigate current circulation patterns in Delaware Bay under different tidal, flow, and wind conditions. Since sufficient numbers of current meters and boats are not available, air-droppable drogues and dye packs have been developed and tested. The drogues consist of a styrofoam float and a line to which is attached a stainless steel biplane. The length of the line determines at what depth currents will be monitored. The floats are color coded to distinguish their movement and mark the depth of the biplanes. Simultaneously floating and anchored dye packs of fluorescein dye have been deployed from aircraft. The movement of the dye and drogues is tracked by sequential aerial photography, using fixed markers on shore or on buoys as reference points to calibrate the scale and direction of drogue movement. The current data obtained by this technique is then used to annotate current circulation maps derived from ERTS-1 imagery.

  1. An evaluation of the suitability of ERTS data for the purposes of petroleum exploration. [Anadarko Basin of Texas and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, R. J.; Mccown, F. P.; Stonis, L. P.; Petzel, G.; Everett, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the types and amounts of information valuable to petroleum exploration extractable from ERTS data and the cost of obtaining the information using traditional or conventional means. It was desired that an evaluation of this new petroleum exploration tool be made in a geologically well known area in order to assess its usefulness in an unknown area. The Anadarko Basin lies in western Oklahoma and the panhandle of Texas. It was chosen as a test site because there is a great deal of published information available on the surface and subsurface geology of the area, and there are many known structures that act as traps for hydrocarbons. This basin is similar to several other large epicontinental sedimentary basins. It was found that ERTS imagery is an excellent tool for reconnaissance exploration of large sedimentary basins or new exploration provinces. For the first time, small and medium size oil companies can rapidly and effectively analyze exploration provinces as a whole.

  2. An investigation to improve the Menhaden fishery prediction and detection model through the application of ERTS-A data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughan, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Linear regression of secchi disc visibility against number of sets yielded significant results in a number of instances. The variability seen in the slope of the regression lines is due to the nonuniformity of sample size. The longer the period sampled, the larger the total number of attempts. Further, there is no reason to expect either the influence of transparency or of other variables to remain constant throughout the season. However, the fact that the data for the entire season, variable as it is, was significant at the 5% level, suggests its potential utility for predictive modeling. Thus, this regression equation will be considered representative and will be utilized for the first numerical model. Secchi disc visibility was also regressed against number of sets for the three day period September 27-September 29, 1972 to determine if surface truth data supported the intense relationship between ERTS-1 identified turbidity and fishing effort previously discussed. A very negative correlation was found. These relationship lend additional credence to the hypothesis that ERTS imagery, when utilized as a source of visibility (turbidity) data, may be useful as a predictive tool.

  3. The ERTS-1 investigation (ER-600). Volume 1: ERTS-1 agricultural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Agriculture Analysis Team of the Johnson Space Center conducted a 1-year-long investigation of ERTS-1 multispectral data to evaluate how well features of agricultural importance could be detected, identified, and located; and their areal extent measured. Six study areas were selected in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Two basic analytical approaches were used to meet the objectives. The conventional image interpretation technique revealed that a particular color was an indication of the density of vegetative cover, not an indication of crop classification. Computer-aided techniques were used to classify crop types (i.e., small grains, truck farm crops, grasses, summer fallow) to accuracies as high as 95 percent on large (12 hectares or more) well-defined fields. A further breakdown into crop species (wheat, barley, soybeans, oats, corn) reduced the accuracy to 70 to 80 percent for single-date observations.

  4. An interpretation of a geologic map of Fannin County, Texas, prepared by ADP techniques from ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, J. A., Jr.; Gardner, J. J.; Cipra, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data, collected by ERTS-1 from an area in northeast Texas underlain by structurally simple cretaceous sedimentary rocks, were analyzed using several automatic data processing techniques. Training areas for the computer analysis were selected in three ways using: (1) an unsupervised classifier, (2) the unsupervised classifier to further refine training areas, and (3) available ground information. The first two methods utilize the capability of the unsupervised classifier to the unsupervised classifier to group resolution elements with similar spectral properties. With the imagery produced by these procedures, several geologic features can be identified. The most easily recognizable features are streams and other water bodies. The approximate location of contacts between several rock units can be mapped.

  5. Application of the ERTS system to the study of Wyoming resources with emphasis on the use of basic data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S.; Marrs, R. W.; Breckenridge, R. M.; Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Many potential users of ERTS data products and other aircraft and satellite imagery are limited to visual methods of analyses of these products. Illustrations are presented from Wyoming studies that have employed these standard data products for a variety of geologic and related studies. Possible economic applications of these studies are summarized. Studies include regional geologic mapping for updating and correcting existing maps and to supplement incomplete regional mapping; illustrations of the value of seasonal images in geologic mapping; specialized mapping of such features as sand dunes, playa lakes, lineaments, glacial features, regional facies changes, and their possible economic value; and multilevel sensing as an aid in mineral exploration. Examples of cooperative studies involving botanists, plant scientists, and geologists for the preparation of maps of surface resources that can be used by planners and for environmental impact studies are given.

  6. Environmental surveys in Alaska based upon ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Alaskan applications of ERTS data are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use; (2) archaeology; (3) vegetation mapping; (4) ice reporting and mapping; (5) permafrost; (6) mineral and oil exploration; (7) geological surveys; (8) seismology; (9) geological faults and structures; (10) hydrology and water resources; (11) glaciology; (12) water circulation in Cook Inlet; and (13) fish and mammal populations.

  7. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in the Houston area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Using clustering techniques, several large lakes in Texas have been accurately delineated in computer printout graymaps. It was also found that small bodies of water (one to two acres in size) could be detected by searching for small reflectance values in the infrared data. A graymap printout of a lake described a shore outline that was not consistent with available maps. Field examination revealed that the actual level of the lake was below that for which the map was drawn. The current lake configuration agrees in shape and relative size with the ERTS-1 data printout. Water turbidity causes reflectance changes which are detectable in ERTS-1 band 7 data. A comparison has been made of the Monterey Bay, California area using 1971 aerial color infrared photography and a 1972 ERTS-1 band 7 infrared image. This comparison revealed that some event has occurred to impound a significant amount of water in the area since the infrared photography was taken. Data values in the ERTS-1 infrared image exhibit detectable changes in brightness at inflow points, where high turbidity would be present. Researchers had not expected to detect water turbidity patterns in band 7 (800 to 1100 nanometers).

  8. ERTS-1, a new window on our planet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Carter, William Douglas

    1976-01-01

    The launch, on July 23, 1972, of the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was a major step forward in extending man 's ability to inventory the Earth 's resources and to evaluate objectively his impact upon the environment. ERTS spacecraft represent the first step in merging space and remote-sensing technologies into a system for inventorying and managing the Earth 's resources. Examples presented in this book demonstrate ERTS ' vast potential for inventorying resources, monitoring environmental conditions, and measuring changes. Such information is essential for the full evaluation of the Federal lands and determining their future use, as well as for improved planning of overall land use throughout the United States and the world. Ten bureaus of the U.S. Department of Interior have roles in the ERTS project. Nearly all of these participating bureaus are represented in almost 100 papers included in this book. Chapter 3 is entitled ' Applications to Water Resources ' and contains 23 separate sections. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Agricultural utilization of ERTS-1 data in Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheosakul, P.; Indrambarya, B.; Morgan, J. O.; Vibulsresth, S.

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances made in three disciplinary areas that are of major importance to Thailand are briefly discussed. These areas are; (1) agriculture, (2) forestry, and (3) land use. Preliminary investigations of the ERTS-1 data have been so successful that the Thai Government has decided to develop a remote sensing data handling and research center.

  10. Tomographic Site Characterization Using CPT, ERT, and GPR

    SciTech Connect

    Rexford M. Morey

    1997-05-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of inactive DOE sites and for bringing DOE sites and facilities into compliance with federal, state and local laws and regulations. The DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) needs advanced technologies that can make environmental restoration and waste management operations more efficient and less costly. These techniques are required to better characterize the physical, hydrogeological, and chemical properties of the subsurface while minimizing and optimizing the use of boreholes and monitoring wells. Today the cone penetrometer technique (CPT) is demonstrating the value of a minimally invasive deployment system fix site characterization. Applied Research Associates is developing two new sensor packages for site characterization and monitoring. The two new methods are: . Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and . Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Tomography. These sensor systems are now integrated with the Cone Penetrometer Technique (CPT). The results of this program now make it possible to install ERT and GPR units by CPT methods and thereby reduce installation costs and total costs for ERT and GPR surveys. These two techniques can complement each other in regions of low resistivity where ERT is more effective and regions of high resistivity where GPR is more effective. The results show that CPT-installed GeoWells can be used in both ERT and GPR borehole tomographic subsurface imaging. These two imaging techniques can be used for environmental site characterization and environmental remediation monitoring. Technologies used for site characterization and monitoring have numerous and diverse applications within site clean-up and waste management operations.

  11. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  12. A Proposal for Precambrian Mineral Resource Evaluation in Minnesota Utilizing ERTS Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of Minnesota. These rock units hold promise for potential mineral resources as do important ore deposits found in similar rocks to the north in Canada. The research planned involves the discrimination of rock types to show their aerial extent and an interpretation of the structural relationships between and within the various rock units.

  13. Tectonic structure of Alaska as evidenced by ERTS imagery and ongoing seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, L. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. At least three seismically active faults were identified which had not been previously mapped. One of these passes near the proposed site of a hydroelectric project on the Susitna River. Evidence of the state's past deformational history was obtained, indicating that right lateral offset has occurred sequentially from the northern part of the state to the southern. An apparent fault passes near Fairbanks, and is presumably the source of much seismic activity in the area.

  14. Overall evaluation of LANDSAT (ERTS) follow-on imagery for cartographic application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvocoresses, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The NASA/Cousteau experiment showed that under suitable conditions and with calibration data, the bottom of clear tropical seas can be mapped with LANDSAT to a depth of 22 meters with a root-mean-square error of about 10 percent. This application required the high gain setting of band 4 of the MSS. The experiment also confirmed that a somewhat lower waveband than band 4 would increase the water penetration capability of future LANDSATS. Other experiments illustrated by the reprinting of upper Chesapeake Bay indicate that the original LANDSAT signals must be modulated and optimized for the photographic and lithographic processes. Work by the Canadian mapping agency indicates significant improvements in the control identification and geometric accuracy of LANDSAT cartographic applications.

  15. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery. [Coastal Ranges of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The transverse faults observed in the central Coast Ranges of California are believed to represent the remnants of a major system of shear faults older than the San Andreas system. The transverse shear system is believed to have developed in the Mesozoic when the Pacific Plate was advancing under the North American Plate. Shear faults thus developed due to unequal rates of underthrusting. This tectonic model indicates that the intrusive belt of the proto-Sierra Nevada and the belt of eugeosynclinal sedimentary belt (Franciscan group) which lay to the west were both subjected to regional left-handed shear. Later development of the San Andreas system as transform faults of the East Pacific Rise changes the tectonic style to right-lateral tangential. The model explains the peculiar distribution of the Franciscan rocks in the Diablo Range east of the San Andreas fault and in Santa Lucia Range west of Nacimiento fault and the presence of Sierra Nevada type granitic blocks in between the two faults in the Salinia block. This model is also consistent with an analysis of the Texas and Parras shears which indicates that the southwestern part of North America has been subjected to a major left-lateral regional shear before the development of the San Andreas fault system.

  16. Identification of soil associations in western South Dakota on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Myers, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Soil association maps show the spatial relationships of land units having characteristic soil depths and textures, available water capacities, permeabilities, pH characteristics, plasticity indices, liquid limits, and the like, from which broad interpretations can be made such as how the soil is suited as a source for top soil, and as a source for sand and gravel, and how corrosive the soil is for steel and concrete, and what crop and grass yields can be expected. Film color composites of bands 4, 5 and 7 viewed over a light table with magnification show the soil associations of western South Dakota that are now recognized, and, in addition, several new soil association areas have been brought to light.

  17. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. NASA-provided color composite (1048-17234) which includes the southeastern portion of the Bighorn Mountains and the western Powder River basin is of excellent quality. The considerable variations in the red hues indicate that vegetational mapping will be enhanced over the black and white. Some additional delineation of rock units can be made, particularly the Chugwater formation. Preliminary look at just received winter scenes indicates that topographic features are enhanced both due to the snow cover and to the lower sun angle.

  18. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes of the Cascade Range utilizing ERTS DCP systems and imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Successful installation of DCP sets at Mt. Baker volcano and at Mt. St. Helens volcano, Washington, completed the installation phase of experiment SR 251. Aerial IR scanner missions over the Cascade volcanoes were completed with a mission April 29th which provided thermographic IR images of Glacier Peak, Mt. Baker, Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Rainier, and Mt. Adams. Earlier repetitive coverage had obtained IR images depicting thermal anomalies of Lassen Volcanic National Park, Shasta, Crater Lake, and the northern Cascades. The April 29th mission and subsequent ground reconnaissance yielded new information on 48 heretofore unreported pinpoint radiation anomalies, of possible fumarolic origin, on the flanks of Mt. Rainier and several new thermal points on Mt. Baker. Cartographic plots of these anomalies, in conjunction with surface temperature and other data obtained as a result of experiment SR 251 will permit estimation of radiation heat loss during the repose periods of the host volcanoes.

  19. The interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery for soil survey of the Merida region, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilwig, F. W.; Goosen, D. (Principal Investigator); Katsieris, D.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Major landforms and some subdivisions could be easily recognized. Water bodies, river courses, extensive areas of miocene clays, and more recent coarse textured deposits could be delineated and existing soil maps at scales up to 1:100,000 could be updated.

  20. Acquisition and analysis of coastal ground truth data for correlation with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anikouchine, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data obtained from cruises in Santa Monica Bay and Santa Barbara Channel appear to be consistent with conditions observed at each sample site. Further attempts to correlate ground truth data with MSS data will be deferred until CCT enchancement techniques are perfected.

  1. Initial evaluation of the geologic applications of ERTS-1 imagery for New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderlinden, K.; Kottlowski, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    Coverage of approximately one-third of the test site, the state of New Mexico, had been received by January 31, 1973 and all of the images received were MSS products. Features noted during visual inspection of 91/2 x 91/2 prints include major structural forms, vegetation patterns, drainage patterns and outcrops of geologic formations having marked color contrasts. The Border Hills Structural Zone and the Y-O Structural Zone are prominently reflected in coverage of the Pecos Valley. A study of available maps and remote sensing material covering the Deming-Columbus area indicated that the limit of detection and the resolution of MSS products are not as good as those of aerial photographs, geologic maps, and manned-satellite photographs. The limit of detection of high contrast features on MSS prints in approximately 1000 feet or 300 meters for linear features and about 18 acres for roughly circular areas.

  2. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation techniques in the Tennessee Valley. [land use and soil mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of delineating major soil associations and land uses through computerized analyses is discussed. Useful and potential applications in detecting landscape change and land use mapping are described. Recommendations for improving the data processing effort in a multidisciplinary program are presented.

  3. Mapping of the major structures of the African rift system using ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The structural margin of western Afar with the Ethiopian plateau is marked by a rather wide zone of crustal deformation. ERTS-1 imagery has now permitted a more precise mapping of the structures of this marginal zone, and in particular of the discontinuous marginal graben. The tectonic style of the graben is different in the north from the south, and in the latter region the graben is discordant with the regional tectonic trend. The structural margin of the southern Afar with the Somalian plateau is formed, in the western sector, by a remarkable series of fault-zone splays. Afar-plateau boundary fault-zones successively curve northeast and then NNE to become Afar floor fault-zones, with a distance of about 25 km separating successive turnoffs. The transition from Ethiopian rift to Gulf of Aden tread faulting along this margin is fascinatingly complex. A simplistic crustal thinning model is not adequate to explain all observed structural features of the Afar margins.

  4. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Digital analysis of ERTS-1 imagery was used in an attempt to map and inventory the significant ecological communities of Delaware's coastal zone. Eight vegetation and land use discrimination classes were selected: (1) Phragmites communis (giant reed grass); (2) Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cord grass); (3) Spartina patens (salt marsh hay); (4) shallow water and exposed mud; (5) deep water (greater than 2 m); (6) forest; (7) agriculture; and (8) exposed sand and concrete. Canonical analysis showed the following classification accuracies: Spartina alterniflora, exposed sand, concrete, and forested land - 94% to 100%; shallow water - mud and deep water - 88% and 93% respectively; Phragmites communis 83%; Spartina patens - 52%. Classification accuracy for agriculture was very poor (51%). Limitations of time and available class-memory space resulted in limiting the analysis of agriculture to very gross identification of a class which actually consists of many varied signature classes. Abundant ground truth was available in the form of vegetation maps compiled from color and color infrared photographs. It is believed that with further refinement of training set selection, sufficiently accurate results can be obtained for all categories.

  5. Investigation of lineaments on Skylab and ERTS images of Peninsular Ranges, Southwestern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Lamar, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Northwest trending faults such as the Elsinore and San Jacinto are prominently displayed on Skylab and ERTS images of the Peninsular Ranges, southern California. Northeast, north-south, and west-north-west trending lineaments and faults are also apparent on satellite imagery. Several of the lineaments represent previously unmapped faults. Other lineaments are due to erosion along foliation directions and sharp bends in basement rock contacts rather than faulting. The northeast trending Thing Valley fault appears to be offset by the south branch of the Elsinore fault near Agua Caliente Hot Springs. Larger horizontal displacement along the Elsinore fault further northwest may be distributed along several faults which branch from the Elsinore fault in the Peninsular Ranges. The northeast and west-northwest trending faults are truncated by the major northwest trending faults and appear to be restricted to basement terrane. Limited data on displacement direction suggests that the northeast and west-northwest trending faults formed in response to an earlier period of east-northeast, west-southwest crustal shortening. Such a stress system is consistent with the plate tectonic model of a subduction zone parallel to the continental margin suggested in the late Mesozoic and early Tertiary.

  6. To evaluate ERTS-1 data for the usefulness as a geological sensor in the diverse geological terranes of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The straight NNE-trending escarpment that marks the easternmost extent of the Catskill Mountains appears, from ERTS-1 imagery (1079-15124) to be related to a set of parallel topographic lineaments which occur over a distance of 40 km to the west. The October 11 imagery of the Adirondacks (1080-15174) displays the pre-Paleozoic erosion surface along the western and northern margin of the Adirondack Mountains dome. The northern portion of this paleoplain is terminated to the southeast by an escarpment following an ENE topographic linear to produce a pseudo-cuesta. The snow covered terrain in the Mohawk Valley between Albany and Rome (1170-15182 and 1169-15123) displays with sculptural clarity a drumlin field having a cloud-free area of about 2600 sq km; glacial flow directions can be plotted readily because the stoss and lee sides of the drumlins can be distinguished. In the imagery of summer and fall, agricultural patterns obscured the detail which is visible in the winter imagery.

  7. Exploration for fossil and nuclear fuels from orbital altitudes. [results of ERTS program for oil exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results from the ERTS program pertinent to exploration for oil, gas, and uranium are discussed. A review of achievements in relevant geological studies from ERTS, and a survey of accomplishments oriented towards exploration for energy sources are presented along with an evaluation of the prospects and limitations of the space platform approach to fuel exploration, and an examination of continuing programs designed to prove out the use of ERTS and other space system in exploring for fuel resources.

  8. Interpretation of Pennsylvania agricultural land use from ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. To study the complex agricultural patterns in Pennsylvania, a portion of an ERTS scene was selected for detailed analysis. Various photographic products were made and were found to be only of limited value. This necessitated the digital processing of the ERTS data. Using an unsupervised classification procedure, it was possible to delineate the following categories: (1) forest land with a northern aspect, (2) forest land with a southern aspect, (3) valley trees, (4) wheat, (5) corn, (6) alfalfa, grass, pasture, (7) disturbed land, (8) builtup land, (9) strip mines, and (10) water. These land use categories were delineated at a scale of approximately 1:20,000 on the line printer output. Land use delineations were also made using the General Electric IMAGE 100 interactive analysis system.

  9. ERTS-1 - Teaching us a new way to see.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, E. P.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS-1 payload is discussed, giving attention to three television cameras, which view the same area in three different spectral bands. The payload includes also a multispectral scanner subsystem and a data collection system which collects information from some 150 remote, unattended, instrumented ground platforms. Many government agencies use ERTS-1 data as integral parts of their ongoing programs. Through its EROS program, the Interior Department represents the largest single recipient and user agency of data obtained from NASA aircraft and spacecraft designed to gather repetitive information related to a wide variety of earth-science and natural-resources disciplines. Questions of environmental impact are considered together with applications in agriculture, forestry, marine resources, geography, and the survey of water resources.

  10. ERTS-1: Automated land-use mapping in lake watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, P. E. (Principal Investigator); Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.; Smith, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 computer compatible tapes were used as a basis to generate land use maps in lake watersheds in southeastern Michigan. These maps, generated on a repetitive basis, provide information essential to governmental agencies concerned with planning and control of lake eutrophication. The ERTS mapping products included geometrically current land use map overlays at 1:250,000 and 1:48,000 scale and area measurement printouts. The printouts provide, within the watershed boundaries and by land use category, a quantitative measure of the amount of land, in square kilometers and acres. This quantitative measure of land use in watersheds is essential to the development and application of deterministic models, which compute nutrient flows into lakes and establish lake eutrophication rates.

  11. Applications of ERTS data to resource surveys of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Miller, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS data affords a unique opportunity to perform urgently needed resource surveys and land use planning at a critical juncture in the history of Alaska's social and economic development. The available facilities for photographic, optical and digital processing of ERTS data are described, along with the interpretive techniques which have been developed. Examples of the applications of these facilities and techniques are given for three environmental disciplines: vegetation mapping for potential archeological sites; marine and sea ice surveys on the Alaskan continental shelf for the determination of surface circulation and sedimentation patterns and their effects on navigation, pollution assessment, fisheries, location of habors and construction of off-shore structures; snow surveys for inventories of water resources and flood potential in Alaska watersheds.

  12. Cartographic evaluation of ERTS orbit and attitude data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Return beam vidicon corrected (bulk) images have been precisely enlarged and rectified to control at a scale of 1:500,000. The results closely approach National Map Accuracy Standards. A MSS scene corrected (precision) image has been prepared and printed by color lithography. This Lake Tahoe area scene is the first cartographic product from ERTS that was available for economical distribution to the public in large numbers.

  13. Environmental monitoring via the ERTS-1 Data Collection System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, J. E.; Seitner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Data Collection System (DCS) provides users with near real-time environmental data from earth-based sensors relayed via the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) to Goddard Space Flight Center. Data is received at Goddard at least twice per day from each sensor and distributed to users (who operate the sensors and transmitters) by mail and teletype. Data collection platforms are discussed together with DCS equipment and the ground receiving and processing equipment.

  14. Quantifying potential recharge in mantled sinkholes using ERT.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Benjamin F; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    Potential recharge through thick soils in mantled sinkholes was quantified using differential electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Conversion of time series two-dimensional (2D) ERT profiles into 2D volumetric water content profiles using a numerically optimized form of Archie's law allowed us to monitor temporal changes in water content in soil profiles up to 9 m in depth. Combining Penman-Monteith daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) and daily precipitation data with potential recharge calculations for three sinkhole transects indicates that potential recharge occurred only during brief intervals over the study period and ranged from 19% to 31% of cumulative precipitation. Spatial analysis of ERT-derived water content showed that infiltration occurred both on sinkhole flanks and in sinkhole bottoms. Results also demonstrate that mantled sinkholes can act as regions of both rapid and slow recharge. Rapid recharge is likely the result of flow through macropores (such as root casts and thin gravel layers), while slow recharge is the result of unsaturated flow through fine-grained sediments. In addition to developing a new method for quantifying potential recharge at the field scale in unsaturated conditions, we show that mantled sinkholes are an important component of storage in a karst system.

  15. Vegetational analysis with Skylab-3 imagery. [Perquimans County, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Holman, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Color infrared photography from Skylab 3 appeared to be superior to ERTS imagery in a vegetational study of northeastern North Carolina. An accuracy of 87% was achieved in delimiting species composition and zonation patterns of three coastal, vegetation classes. A vegetation map of Perquimans County, North Carolina, seemed to have a high degree of correlation with information provided by high altitude U-2 photography. Random verification sites revealed an overall interpretation accuracy above 84%. Comparison of maps drawn utilizing Skylab photography with North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture estimates of crop acreage revealed some marked discrepancies. The chief difference lies in the nonagricultural category in which there is a 30% discrepancy. This fact raised some questions as to the definition of nonagricultural land uses and methods used by the State Dept. of Agriculture to determine actual percentages of crops grown.

  16. Determination of points of entry for potential contaminants into limestone aquifers using thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, F. L.

    1974-01-01

    Lineations were identified involving the application of ERTS imagery to geologic and hydrologic problems. Interpretation of the southwest Madison County area is discussed. The tracing of the Beech Grove lineament to the northern boundary of Madison County, Alabama raises the question of its relationship to the trend of lineations in southwestern Madison County. The use of thermography as an indication of soil moisture is reviewed. The effect of soil moisture on surface temperature and the relationship between soil moisture and ground water are examined.

  17. Imagery Integration Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  18. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  19. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  20. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  1. MISR Imagery and Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-27

    ... of select parameters available in the MISR Level 3 global data products Field Campaigns :  Imagery supporting field ... explore the links between atmospheric aerosols, climate change, and ultraviolet rays. Following the World Trade Center plume ...

  2. Evaluating time-lapse ERT for monitoring DNAPL remediation via numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, C.; Karaoulis, M.; Gerhard, J.; Tsourlos, P.; Giannopoulos, A.

    2012-12-01

    Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) remain a challenging geoenvironmental problem in the near subsurface. Numerous thermal, chemical, and biological treatment methods are being applied at sites but without a non-destructive, rapid technique to map the evolution of DNAPL mass in space and time, the degree of remedial success is difficult to quantify. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has long been presented as highly promising in this context but has not yet become a practitioner's tool due to challenges in interpreting the survey results at real sites where the initial condition (DNAPL mass, DNAPL distribution, subsurface heterogeneity) is typically unknown. Recently, a new numerical model was presented that couples DNAPL and ERT simulation at the field scale, providing a tool for optimizing ERT application and interpretation at DNAPL sites (Power et al., 2011, Fall AGU, H31D-1191). The objective of this study is to employ this tool to evaluate the effectiveness of time-lapse ERT to monitor DNAPL source zone remediation, taking advantage of new inversion methodologies that exploit the differences in the target over time. Several three-dimensional releases of chlorinated solvent DNAPLs into heterogeneous clayey sand at the field scale were generated, varying in the depth and complexity of the source zone (target). Over time, dissolution of the DNAPL in groundwater was simulated with simultaneous mapping via periodic ERT surveys. Both surface and borehole ERT surveys were conducted for comparison purposes. The latest four-dimensional ERT inversion algorithms were employed to generate time-lapse isosurfaces of the DNAPL source zone for all cases. This methodology provided a qualitative assessment of the ability of ERT to track DNAPL mass removal for complex source zones in realistically heterogeneous environments. In addition, it provided a quantitative comparison between the actual DNAPL mass removed and that interpreted by ERT as a function of depth below

  3. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  4. Skylab S192 data evaluation: Comparisons with ERTS-1 results. [classification results using ERTS-1 and Skylab MSS data over Holt County, Nebraska agricultural area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Skylab S192 data was evaluated by: (1) comparing the classification results using S192 and ERTS-1 data over the Holt County, Nebraska agricultural study area, and (2) investigating the impact of signal-to-noise ratio on classification accuracies using registered S192 and ERTS-1 data. Results indicate: (1) The classification accuracy obtained on S192 data using its best subset of four bands can be expected to be as high as that on ERTS-1 data. (2) When a subset of four S192 bands that are spectrally similar to the ERTS-1 bands was used for classification, an obvious deterioration in the classification accuracy was observed with respect to the ERTS-1 results. (3) The thermal bands 13 and 14 as well as the near IR bands were found to be relatively important in the classification of agricultural data. Although bands 11 and 12 were highly correlated, both were invariably included in the best subsets of the band sizes, four and beyond, according to the divergence criterion. (4) The differentiation of corn from popcorn was difficult on both S192 and ERTS-1 data acquired at an early summer date. (5) The results on both sets of data indicate that it was relatively easy to differentiate grass from any other class.

  5. Multidisciplinary applications of ERTS and Skylab data in Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, D. C.; Pincura, P. G.; Meier, C. J.; Garrett, G. B.; Herd, L. O.; Dowdy, J. M.; Anderson, D. M.; Wukelic, G. E.; Stephan, J. G.; Smail, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental studies of ERTS-1 and Skylab earth resources data, in combination with correlative aircraft and on-site data, for environmental quality, land use, and resource management applications in Ohio show several areas of operational promise. Prime data use candidates demonstrated to date include definition and enforcement of surface mining (all minerals) legislation; Lake Erie modeling/management; land use classification and mapping studies at state, regional, and localized levels; and resources' inventories particularly of forested areas on both regional (multicounty) and localized scales.

  6. ERTS-C (Landsat 3) cryogenic heat pipe experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A flight experiment designed to demonstrate current cryogenic heat pipe technology was defined and evaluated. The experiment package developed is specifically configured for flight aboard an ERTS type spacecraft. Two types of heat pipes were included as part of the experiment package: a transporter heat pipe and a thermal diode heat pipe. Each was tested in various operating modes. Performance data obtained from the experiment are applicable to the design of cryogenic systems for detector cooling, including applications where periodic high cooler temperatures are experienced as a result of cyclic energy inputs.

  7. An ERTS-1 investigation for Lake Ontario and its basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Falconer, A. (Principal Investigator); Wagner, T. W.; Rebel, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Methods of manual, semi-automatic, and automatic (computer) data processing were evaluated, as were the requirements for spatial physiographic and limnological information. The coupling of specially processed ERTS data with simulation models of the watershed precipitation/runoff process provides potential for water resources management. Optimal and full use of the data requires a mix of data processing and analysis techniques, including single band editing, two band ratios, and multiband combinations. A combination of maximum likelihood ratio and near-IR/red band ratio processing was found to be particularly useful.

  8. Geology and forestry classification from ERTS-1 digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, R. D.; Herzog, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Computer classifications into seven and ten classes of two areas in central Oregon of interest to geology and forestry demonstrate the extraction of information from ERTS-1 data. The area around Newberry Caldera was classified into basalt, rhyolite obsidian, pumice flats, Newberry pumice, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, and water classes. The area around Mt. Washington was classified into two basalts, three forest, two clearcut, burn, snow, and water classes. Both also include an unclassified category. Significant details that cannot be extracted from photographic reconstitutions of the data emerge from these classifications, such as moraine locations and paleowind directions. Spectral signatures for the various rocks are comparable to those published elsewhere.

  9. Automated strip mine and reclamation mapping from ERTS. [Ohio coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettyjohn, W. A.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    In response to the urgent need for a faster and more economical means of generating strip mine and reclamation maps, a study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using ERTS computer compatible tape for automatic mapping. The procedure uses computer target spectral recognition techniques as a basis for classification. The area encompassed by this investigation includes five counties in eastern Ohio that comprise nearly 7,500 square kilometers (3,000 square miles). The counties have been disrupted by coal mining since the early 1800's, and strip mining has been practiced in all of them. The environmental effects of strip mining are also discussed.

  10. Automatic interpretation of ERTS data for forest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirvida, L.; Johnson, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Automatic stratification of forested land from ERTS-1 data provides a valuable tool for resource management. The results are useful for wood product yield estimates, recreation and wild life management, forest inventory and forest condition monitoring. Automatic procedures based on both multi-spectral and spatial features are evaluated. With five classes, training and testing on the same samples, classification accuracy of 74% was achieved using the MSS multispectral features. When adding texture computed from 8 x 8 arrays, classification accuracy of 99% was obtained.

  11. Application of ERTS and EREP images to geologic investigations of the basin and range: Colorado plateau boundary in northwestern and north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H. (Principal Investigator); Billingsley, F. C.; Elston, D. P.; Lucchita, I.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the course of the ERTS investigation in the Cataract Creek Basin of the Coconino Plateau it was recognized that shallow perched ground water associated with the Kaibab Limestone could be discovered by means of drilling guided by geologic mapping aided by the use of ERTS imagery. At the Globe Ranch, the perched water table is only 5 meters beneath the surface at the site of the original, hand dug well. Recharge occurs from local runoff and from direct precipitation on the outcrop belt of the sandstone. This well provides water for the ranch at the rate of about 1,000 gallons a week. In order to explore the possibility of further developing this aquifer, unit 5 was mapped over an area of about 50 square miles in the vicinity of the hand-dug well, with negative results. A new location was then picked for drilling based on the occurrence of unit 5 in a favorable structural setting. This location was along a normal fault, and it was anticipated that water might be structurally trapped within the down-dropped block of the fault. Four shallow testholes were drilled and all encountered water. These four water-bearing holes are currently being monitored and will be tested to determine potential production of water from the local sandstone aquifer.

  12. ERTS computer compatible tape data processing and analysis. Appendix 1: The utility of imaging radars for the study of lake ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Thomson, F. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Sattinger, I. J.; Malila, W. A.; Wezernak, C. T.; Horvath, R.; Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Bryan, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Remotely sensed multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon imagery from ERTS-1 is being used for: (1) water depth measurements in the Virgin Islands and Upper Lake Michigan areas; (2) mapping of the Yellowstone National Park; (3) assessment of atmospheric effects in Colorado; (4) lake ice surveillance in Canada and Great Lakes areas; (5) recreational land use in Southeast Michigan; (6) International Field Year on the Great Lakes investigations of Lake Ontario; (7) image enhancement of multispectral scanner data using existing techniques; (8) water quality monitoring of the New York Bight, Tampa Bay, Lake Michigan, Santa Barbara Channel, and Lake Erie; (9) oil pollution detection in the Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico southwest of New Orleans, and Santa Barbara Channel; and (10) mapping iron compounds in the Wind River Mountains.

  13. Investigation using data from ERTS-1 to develop and implement utilization of living marine resources. [availability and distribution of menhaden fish in Mississippi Sound and Gulf waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This 15-month ERTS-1 investigation produced correlations between satellite, aircraft, menhaden fisheries, and environmental sea truth data from the Mississippi Sound. Selected oceanographic, meteorological, and biological parameters were used as indirect indicators of the menhaden resource. Synoptic and near real time sea truth, fishery, satellite imagery, aircraft acquired multispectral, photo and thermal IR information were acquired as data inputs. Computer programs were developed to manipulate these data according to user requirements. Preliminary results indicate a correlation between backscattered light with chlorophyll concentration and water transparency in turbid waters. Eight empirical menhaden distribution models were constructed from combinations of four fisheries-significant oceanographic parameters: water depth, transparency, color, and surface salinity. The models demonstrated their potential for management utilization in areas of resource assessment, prediction, and monitoring.

  14. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  15. Seasonal ERT monitoring of subsurface processes connected to freezing, thawing, snow accumulation and melt cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzeminska, Dominika; Starkloff, Torsten; Bloem, Esther; Stolte, Jannes

    2016-04-01

    For a better understanding of processes that influence snowmelt infiltration and runoff, and their consequences on soil erosion during spring periods, we established a long-term winter-spring ERT transect in the Gryteland catchment (Norway). The ERT transect is 71 m long, with 1 m spacing between the electrodes. It covers a depression with a north and south facing slope. The readings are collected once a week and, if needed, after a sudden change in weather conditions. Additionally, the soil transect is equipped with six TDR profiles, which register soil moisture and soil temperature every thirty minutes, at five depths (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 cm), for quantifying the ERT readings. The measurements performed during winter 2014/2015 gave promising results and showed the potential of ERT monitoring for understanding the soil thermal and hydraulic processes occurring during a winter and early spring. Moreover, there are visible differences in temporal trends and spatial variations in observed ERT patterns on the opposite facing slopes, which are of special interest. With the on-going experiment, we are aiming to understand the reoccurrence of the observed processes as well as to quantify soil moisture patterns. Herein, we would like to present the preliminary result of two ERT experiments (2014/2015 and 2015/2016) and discuss the advantages and limitations of our experiments. Moreover, we would like to stimulate the discussion about the potential of ERT for spatial and temporal monitoring of soil hydraulic and thermal processes and indirect measurements of soil water content.

  16. Use of satellite imagery for wildland resource evaluation in the Great Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, P. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Upon receipt of ERTS-1 imagery, scale and resolution determinations were made. It was found that the scale was quite close to the anticipated 1:1 million, and that each ERTS-1 frame had a coverage of approximately 12,500 square miles. A water body 275 feet across was identified on the MSS 7 band as a determination of maximum resolution. Large cities were easily distinguished on all bands. Paved highways and railroads were able to be identified when there was extreme contrast between these structures and surrounding areas. Landforms were identified on all bands, but band 5 proved superior. Vegetation of varying types was identified using band 7. Fields and agricultural areas were identified as was phreatophytic vegetation. Timber, pinyon-juniper, sagebrush, mountain brush, and annual grassland communities were identified on selected frames. Phenology comparisons of selected test sites were made using sequential U-2 imagery. It was found that gray scale and color IR changes relating to the phenology of certain annual grassland, mountain brush, and marsh communities could be identified. Water bodies were identified and delineated using band 7.

  17. Computer-enhanced thallium scintigrams in asymptomatic men with abnormal exercise tests

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, G.S.; Kay, T.N.; Hickman, J.R., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    The usefulness of computer-enhanced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in excluding the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients showing abnormal exercise electrocardiograms is evaluated. Multigated thallium scans were obtained immediately following and 3 or 4 hours after maximal exercise testing in 191 consecutive asymptomatic Air Force aircrew members who had shown abnormal exercise electrocardiograms and who were due to undergo coronary angiography. Computer enhancement of the raw images is found to lead to four false positive and two false negative scintigrams as revealed by angiographic results, while the group of 15 with subcritical coronary disease exhibited equivocal results. Results reveal that enhanced thallium scintigrams are an accurate diagnostics tool in detecting myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients and may be used in counseling asymptomatic patients on their likelihood of having coronary artery disease.

  18. Integrated computer-enhanced remote viewing system. Quarterly report No. 2, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-03

    The Interactive, Computer-Enhanced, Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is a system designed to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space in a fashion that enables robotic remediation to be carried out more efficiently and economically than with present systems. The key elements are a faithful way to store empirical data and a friendly user interface that provides an operator with timely access to all that is known about a scene.

  19. Determine utility of ERTS-1 to detect and monitor area strip mining and reclamation. [southeastern Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Pettyjohn, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Computer techniques were applied to process ERTS tapes acquired over coal mining operations in southeastern Ohio on 21 August 1972 and 3 September 1973. ERTS products obtained included geometrically correct map overlays showing stripped earth, partially reclaimed earth, water, and natural vegetation. Computer-generated tables listing the area covered by each land-water category in square kilometers and acres were produced. By comparing these mapping products, the study demonstrates the capability of ERTS to monitor changes in the extent of stripping, success of reclamation, and the secondary effects of mining on the environment.

  20. Preliminary analysis of ERTS-relayed water resources data in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of ERTS-DCS data from water-resources stations in the Delaware River Basin indicates that the Data-Collection System is performing well. Data-Collections Platforms have been successfully interfaced with five stream-gaging station and three ground-water observation wells and are being interfaced with 12 water-quality monitors in the basin. Data are being relayed during four or five ERTS orbital passes per day, which is within the design specifications of the ERTS-DCS.