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Sample records for computerized color test

  1. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  2. Student Perceptions of Computerized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    2008-01-01

    The challenge to test small groups by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design and sound test design. To comply with this demand, students' beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test were tapped. Overall, self-reported advantages outnumbered disadvantages to a significant degree. This was…

  3. Computerized Test Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vockell, Edward L.; Hall, Jane

    1989-01-01

    Examines the ways in which computers can assist teachers in developing good tests. Describes the program TESTWORKS in detail and provides charts comparing this program with 11 others in the areas of price, type of questions generated, computer functions, and the usefulness of each. Discusses the use of word processors and databases. (KO)

  4. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  5. Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Presents two studies applying computerized adaptive testing (CAT) in schools. Compared paper-administered, computer-administered, and CAT modes for administering school achievement and assessment tests. Then compared computerized adaptive aptitude test results with individually administered Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Found…

  6. Computerized Testing of Woven Composite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Amy Laurie

    1996-01-01

    The student will utilize the computerized testing center to perform tensile testing of the various woven composite fibers. They will interpret the graphs to provide more advanced testing results and data for stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity.

  7. Computerized Diagnostic Testing: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David L.

    The use of computers to build diagnostic inferences is explored in two contexts. In computerized monitoring of liquid oxygen systems for the space shuttle, diagnoses are exact because they can be derived within a world which is closed. In computerized classroom testing of reading comprehension, programs deliver a constrained form of adaptive…

  8. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

  9. A Computerized Implementation of a Flexilevel Test and Its Comparison with a Bayesian Computerized Adaptive Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAyala, R. J.; Koch, William R.

    A computerized flexilevel test was implemented and its ability estimates were compared with those of a Bayesian estimation based computerized adaptive test (CAT) as well as with known true ability estimates. Results showed that when the flexilevel test was terminated according to Lord's criterion, its ability estimates were highly and…

  10. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  11. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Computerized classification testing (CCT) is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as "pass" and "fail." Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion,…

  12. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  13. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  14. Individual Differences in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JinGyu

    Research on the major computerized adaptive testing (CAT) strategies is reviewed, and some findings are reported that examine effects of examinee demographic and psychological characteristics on CAT strategies. In fixed branching strategies, all examinees respond to a common routing test, the score of which is used to assign examinees to a…

  15. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

  16. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  17. Some Reliability Estimates for Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicewander, W. Alan; Thomasson, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Derives three reliability estimates for the Bayes modal estimate (BME) and the maximum-likelihood estimate (MLE) of theta in computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Computes the three reliability estimates and the true reliabilities of both BME and MLE for seven simulated CATs. Results show the true reliabilities for BME and MLE to be nearly identical…

  18. The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

  19. Automatic, computerized testing of bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlucci, J., Jr.; Lobb, V. B.; Stoller, F. W.

    1970-01-01

    System for testing bolts with various platings, lubricants, nuts, and tightening procedures tests 200 fasteners, and processes and summarizes the results, within one month. System measures input torque, nut rotation, bolt clamping force, bolt shank twist, and bolt elongation, data is printed in report form. Test apparatus is described.

  20. Outlier Measures and Norming Methods for Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradlow, Eric T.; Weiss, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Compares four methods that map outlier statistics to a familiarity probability scale (a "P" value). Explored these methods in the context of computerized adaptive test data from a 1995 nationally administered computerized examination for professionals in the medical industry. (SLD)

  1. MCATL: A Language for Authoring Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, C. David

    The specification of a computerized adaptive test, like the specification of computer-assisted instruction, is easier and can be done by personnel who are not proficient in computer programming if an authoring language is provided. The Minnesota Computerized Adaptive Testing Language (MCATL) is an authoring language specifically designed for…

  2. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant’s ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  3. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  4. Computerized Adaptive Testing, Anxiety Levels, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritts, Barbara E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the amount of test anxiety experienced on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to a paper-and-pencil test (P&P), as well as the state test anxiety experienced between males and females. Ninety-four middle school CAT examinees were compared to 65 middle school P&P examinees on their responses to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory…

  5. Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

    2008-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…

  6. Online Calibration via Variable Length Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan; Lu, Hung-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Item calibration is an essential issue in modern item response theory based psychological or educational testing. Due to the popularity of computerized adaptive testing, methods to efficiently calibrate new items have become more important than that in the time when paper and pencil test administration is the norm. There are many calibration…

  7. Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

  8. Using Bayesian Decision Theory to Design a Computerized Mastery Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles; Sheehan, Kathleen

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for mastery testing based on item response theory and Bayesian decision theory is described and illustrated. Implementation depends on the availability of (1) a computerized test delivery system; (2) a pool of pretested items; and (3) a model relating observed test performance to true mastery status. (SLD)

  9. When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

  10. "catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

  11. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  12. Item Clusters and Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Case for Testlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; Kiely, Gerard L.

    1987-01-01

    The testlet, a bundle of test items, alleviates some problems associated with computerized adaptive testing: context effects, lack of robustness, and item difficulty ordering. While testlets may be linear or hierarchical, the most useful ones are four-level hierarchical units, containing 15 items and partitioning examinees into 16 classes. (GDC)

  13. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT): Program Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Baldwin; And Others

    This program listing is a supplement to the Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). The driver textfile program allows access to major subprograms of the CAT project. The test administration textfile program gives examinees a prescribed set of subtests. The parameter management textfile program establishes a file containing…

  14. Multiple Maximum Exposure Rates in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon Barrada, Juan; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Olea, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing is subject to security problems, as the item bank content remains operative over long periods and administration time is flexible for examinees. Spreading the content of a part of the item bank could lead to an overestimation of the examinees' trait level. The most common way of reducing this risk is to impose a…

  15. Alpha-Stratified Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with beta Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hua-Hua; Qian, Jiahe; Yang, Zhiliang

    2001-01-01

    Proposed a refinement, based on the stratification of items developed by D. Weiss (1973), of the computerized adaptive testing item selection procedure of H. Chang and Z. Ying (1999). Simulation studies using an item bank from the Graduate Record Examination show the benefits of the new procedure. (SLD)

  16. A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

  17. Computerized Mastery Testing Using Fuzzy Set Decision Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A new computerized mastery test is described that builds on the Lewis and Sheehan procedure (sequential testlets) (1990), but uses fuzzy set decision theory to determine stopping rules and the Rasch model to calibrate items and estimate abilities. Differences between fuzzy set and Bayesian methods are illustrated through an example. (SLD)

  18. Computerized Adaptive Testing System Design: Preliminary Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul R.

    A functional design model for a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system was developed and presented through a series of hierarchy plus input-process-output (HIPO) diagrams. System functions were translated into system structure: specifically, into 34 software components. Implementation of the design in a physical system was addressed through…

  19. Auditory Performance Characteristics of the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberwein, Cynthia A.; Pratt, Sheila R.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Szuminsky, Neil J.; Doyle, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT) performance of individuals with normal hearing under several intensity conditions and under several spectral and temporal perturbation conditions. Method: Sixty normal-hearing listeners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 provided performance-intensity information about…

  20. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Grady, Matthew W.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The predicted standard error reduction (PSER) stopping rule uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was…

  1. Item Selection Criteria with Practical Constraints for Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chuan-Ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compares four item selection criteria for a two-category computerized classification testing: (1) Fisher information (FI), (2) Kullback-Leibler information (KLI), (3) weighted log-odds ratio (WLOR), and (4) mutual information (MI), with respect to the efficiency and accuracy of classification decision using the sequential probability…

  2. Application of the Bifactor Model to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi

    2011-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive tests (CAT) have been studied under the framework of unidimensional item response theory. However, many psychological variables are multidimensional and might benefit from using a multidimensional approach to CAT. In addition, a number of psychological variables (e.g., quality of life, depression) can be conceptualized…

  3. Discovering Visual Scanning Patterns in a Computerized Cancellation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ho-Chuan; Wang, Tsui-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an attention sequential mining mechanism for investigating the sequential patterns of children's visual scanning process in a computerized cancellation test. Participants had to locate and cancel the target amongst other non-targets in a structured form, and a random form with Chinese stimuli. Twenty-three…

  4. Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

  5. Computerized Classification Testing under the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chen-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) has been recently developed to describe item responses to Likert items (agree-disagree) in attitude measurement. In this study, the authors (a) developed two item selection methods in computerized classification testing under the GGUM, the current estimate/ability confidence interval method and the cut…

  6. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling the difference between red/purple and green/purple Protanopia -- difficulty telling the difference between blue/ ...

  7. Evaluation of reliability of traditional and computerized neurobehavioral tests.

    PubMed

    Sakong, Joon; Kang, Pock-Soo; Kim, Chang-Yoon; Hwang, Tae-Yoon; Jeon, Man-Joong; Park, Si-Young; Lee, Se-Jin; Won, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Sam-Beom; Chung, Jong-Hak

    2007-03-01

    Most Korean blue-collar workers are taking government-mandated medical screening periodically. The periodic neurobehavioral test provides a great chance to evaluate the functional change of the central nervous system. To utilize periodic neurobehavioral tests effectively, the reliability of currently used neurobehavioral tests needs to be evaluated. Test-retest of neurobehavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the reliability of neurobehavioral tests that are commonly used for Korean workers. The test-retest of five computerized tests, simple reaction time, additions, symbol digit, digit span, and finger tapping speed, and five traditional tests, Benton visual retention, digit symbol, digit span, pursuit aiming, and pegboard, were administered to 85 college students and 35 hospital workers over a 1 month interval. Computerized additions was found to have the highest test-retest reliability coefficient (r=0.90), followed by finger tapping speed (nondominant hand, r=0.89; dominant hand, r=0.85), symbol digit (r=0.82), and digit span (r=0.74). However, only two traditional tests, digit symbol (r=0.86) and pursuit aiming (r=0.72), showed a reliability coefficient greater than 0.70. These results suggest that the computerized additions, symbol digit, finger tapping speed, and traditional digit symbol are more satisfactory for periodical evaluation of the central nervous system of workers exposed to neurotoxic substances in Korea.

  8. Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

    A multiple choice test item is identified as flawed if it has no single best answer. In spite of extensive quality control procedures, the administration of flawed items to test-takers is inevitable. Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in the principle of fairness to test-takers, are reexamined in the…

  9. Development of a Computerized Visual Search Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Denise; Babani, Harsha; Jon, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention and visual search are the features of visual perception, essential for attending and scanning one's environment while engaging in daily occupations. This study describes the development of a novel web-based test of visual search. The development information including the format of the test will be described. The test was designed…

  10. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  11. Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

    1997-01-01

    Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in principles of fairness to examinees, are re-examined in the context of adaptive testing. The additional strategy of retesting from a pool cleansed of flawed items is found, through a Monte Carlo study, to bring about no practical improvement. (SLD)

  12. Are Our Kids Ready for Computerized Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    As standardized assessments tied to the Common Core standards approach for K-12 students, U.S. teachers correctly feel that how we test students will change. Will students be ready for tests of proficiency done on computers? Gullen debriefed with 500 students in various grades who had just taken pilot assessment items connected to the coming…

  13. The Effects of Test Difficulty Manipulation in Computerized Adaptive Testing and Self-Adapted Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponsoda, Vicente; Olea, Julio; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad; Revuelta, Javier

    1999-01-01

    Compared easy and difficult versions of self-adapted tests (SAT) and computerized adapted tests. No significant differences were found among the tests for estimated ability or posttest state anxiety in studies with 187 Spanish high school students, although other significant differences were found. Discusses implications for interpreting test…

  14. The Influence of Examinee Test-Taking Motivation in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JinGyu; McLean, James E.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of test motivation on estimated ability, test anxiety, and attitudes toward computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Korean college students (n=208) were given the Math Aptitude Test, Math Self-Concept Scale, Math Test Anxiety Scale, Computer Competence Instrument, Computer Anxiety Scale, and…

  15. A Procedure for Controlling General Test Overlap in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    To date, exposure control procedures that are designed to control test overlap in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are based on the assumption of item sharing between pairs of examinees. However, in practice, examinees may obtain test information from more than one previous test taker. This larger scope of information sharing needs to be…

  16. A Multiple Objective Test Assembly Approach for Exposure Control Problems in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Verschoor, Angela J.; Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Overexposure and underexposure of items in the bank are serious problems in operational computerized adaptive testing (CAT) systems. These exposure problems might result in item compromise, or point at a waste of investments. The exposure control problem can be viewed as a test assembly problem with multiple objectives. Information in the test has…

  17. Development and Simulation Testing of a Computerized Adaptive Version of the Philadelphia Naming Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Kellough, Stacey; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996), to reduce test length while maximizing measurement precision. This article is a direct extension of a companion article (Fergadiotis, Kellough, & Hula, 2015),…

  18. Use of computerized test batteries for quantifying neurobehavioral outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Letz, R

    1991-01-01

    Neurobehavioral testing provides for noninvasive assessment of the functional integrity of the nervous system. Neurobehavioral tests have been used as quantitative outcome measures in a number of epidemiologic investigations of the potential effects on the nervous system from exposure to organic solvents, heavy metals, and pesticides. Because of the functional complexity of the nervous system, sets of tests assessing a range of functions have been used, with inconsistency from one study to another. Although there has been recent progress in standardizing a core set of tests for use in occupational epidemiology, major consensus on testing methods has not emerged. Standardization of test methods is essential to provide a consistent database for risk analysis. Automation of data collection provides not only standardization, but also improved time efficiency, of data collection and analysis. The computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) has been developed to address the need for standardized, efficient data acquisition of a range of neurobehavioral variables. Examples of application of NES in epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to solvents are summarized. The need for use of NES as a tool for surveillance and in prospective epidemiologic investigations is emphasized. PMID:2050061

  19. a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing in the Presence of Calibration Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Patton, Jeffrey M.; Shao, Can

    2015-01-01

    a-Stratified computerized adaptive testing with b-blocking (AST), as an alternative to the widely used maximum Fisher information (MFI) item selection method, can effectively balance item pool usage while providing accurate latent trait estimates in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). However, previous comparisons of these methods have treated…

  20. Person Fit Analysis in Computerized Adaptive Testing Using Tests for a Change Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Meijer and van Krimpen-Stoop noted that the number of person-fit statistics (PFSs) that have been designed for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is relatively modest. This article partially addresses that concern by suggesting three new PFSs for CATs. The statistics are based on tests for a change point and can be used to detect an abrupt change…

  1. Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderton, David L.

    This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

  2. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Lee, Hye Sun; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Song, Dongbeom; Kim, Young Dae; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients. Methods We made the computerized table setting test (CTST) to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction) and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically. Results Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect. Conclusions The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients. PMID:26771512

  3. Application of computerized adaptive testing in medical education.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2009-06-01

    Application of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) in medical education is still spare in the high stakes examination or in the school-based examination. In the medical school in Belgium, CAT was used for an assessment tool in general practice as pilot test was reported. In Hallym University, CAT has been introduced in the evaluation of the students' performance as in-course general evaluation test and parasitology test. Another examples of application of CAT for high stakes examination are Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination - Part 1 in Canada and National Council Licensure EXamination - Registered Nurse in USA. CAT has some merits such as accurate estimation of the ability parameters of the examinees and the shorter period of examination. To apply the CAT in medical education more actively, medical teachers should have an interest in the modern measurement theories such as item response theory and technologies. It is still uncertain if CAT may be prosperous in the medical education as a tool for the measurement of the examinees' ability. However, we should prepare the era of application of CAT in high stakes examination such as medical licensing examination. PMID:25813107

  4. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices.

  5. Design and evaluation of a computerized test for hand motor skills.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chiu, Ching-Tsun

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to design and develop a computerized test to measure junior high school students' motor skills, specifically their abilities in hand-eye motor coordination and hand motor skills, using the Wii Remote. The hand motor skills computerized test, which is based on the operational examinations in the General Aptitude Test Battery, examines hand and finger dexterity (i.e., motion, rotation, fabrication, and disassembly tests). 55 students participated in the experiment to assess the reliability and validity of the computerized test, which were supported. Information literacy and experience in the use of Wii devices did not affect the reliability.

  6. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kim, Jong Bae; Kupfer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Unlike other areas of medicine, psychiatry is almost entirely dependent on patient report to assess the presence and severity of disease; therefore, it is particularly crucial that we find both more accurate and efficient means of obtaining that report. Objective To develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for depression, called the Computerized Adaptive Test–Depression Inventory (CAT-DI), that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. Design Case-control study. Setting A psychiatric clinic and community mental health center. Participants A total of 1614 individuals with and without minor and major depression were recruited for study. Main Outcome Measures The focus of this study was the development of the CAT-DI. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used to study the convergent validity of the new measure, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to obtain diagnostic classifications of minor and major depressive disorder. Results A mean of 12 items per study participant was required to achieve a 0.3 SE in the depression severity estimate and maintain a correlation of r=0.95 with the total 389-item test score. Using empirically derived thresholds based on a mixture of normal distributions, we found a sensitivity of 0.92 and a specificity of 0.88 for the classification of major depressive disorder in a sample consisting of depressed patients and healthy controls. Correlations on the order of r=0.8 were found with the other clinician and self-rating scale scores. The CAT-DI provided excellent discrimination throughout the entire depressive severity continuum (minor and major depression), whereas the traditional scales did so primarily at the extremes (eg, major depression). Conclusions Traditional measurement fixes the number of items administered and allows measurement uncertainty to vary. In

  7. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  8. A Bayesian Method for the Detection of Item Preknowledge in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Lori; Lewis, Charles; Thissen, David

    2003-01-01

    Explored procedures to detect test takers using item preknowledge in computerized adaptive testing and suggested a Bayesian posterior log odds ratio index for this purpose. Simulation results support the use of the odds ratio index. (SLD)

  9. A Computerized Test of Self-Control Predicts Classroom Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Marguerite L; Mace, F. Charles

    2006-01-01

    We assessed choices on a computerized test of self-control (CTSC) for a group of children with features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a group of controls. Thirty boys participated in the study. Fifteen of the children had been rated by their parents as hyperactive and inattentive, and 15 were age- and gender-matched controls in the same classroom. The children were observed in the classroom for three consecutive mornings, and data were collected on their activity levels and attention. The CTSC consisted of two tasks. In the delay condition, children chose to receive three rewards after a delay of 60 s or one reward immediately. In the task-difficulty condition, the children chose to complete a difficult math problem and receive three rewards or complete an easier problem for one reward. The children with ADHD features made more impulsive choices than their peers during both conditions, and these choices correlated with measures of their activity and attention in the classroom. PMID:16813037

  10. A New Online Calibration Method for Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Wang, Chun

    2016-09-01

    Multidimensional-Method A (M-Method A) has been proposed as an efficient and effective online calibration method for multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) (Chen & Xin, Paper presented at the 78th Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Arnhem, The Netherlands, 2013). However, a key assumption of M-Method A is that it treats person parameter estimates as their true values, thus this method might yield erroneous item calibration when person parameter estimates contain non-ignorable measurement errors. To improve the performance of M-Method A, this paper proposes a new MCAT online calibration method, namely, the full functional MLE-M-Method A (FFMLE-M-Method A). This new method combines the full functional MLE (Jones & Jin in Psychometrika 59:59-75, 1994; Stefanski & Carroll in Annals of Statistics 13:1335-1351, 1985) with the original M-Method A in an effort to correct for the estimation error of ability vector that might otherwise adversely affect the precision of item calibration. Two correction schemes are also proposed when implementing the new method. A simulation study was conducted to show that the new method generated more accurate item parameter estimation than the original M-Method A in almost all conditions. PMID:26608960

  11. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  12. Validation of a Computerized test of Functional Capacity.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Richard S E; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Vaughan, Adam; Patterson, Tom; Narasimhan, Meera; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory guidance for schizophrenia cognition clinical trials requires that the assessment of cognitive change is accompanied by a functionally meaningful endpoint. However, currently available measures are challenged by resistance to change, psychometric weaknesses, and for interview-based assessments, dependence upon the presence of an informant. The aims of the current study were to: 1) assess the validity, sensitivity, and reliability of the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) as a measure of functional capacity; 2) determine the association between performance on the VRFCAT and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB); and 3) compare the metrics of the VRFCAT with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA). 167 patients with schizophrenia and 166 healthy controls completed the VRFCAT, UPSA, and the MCCB at baseline. The VRFCAT and UPSA were completed again at follow-up. The VRFCAT, MCCB, and UPSA were very sensitive to impairment in schizophrenia (d=1.16 to 1.22). High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for VRFCAT total completion time and the UPSA total score in patients (ICC=0.81 and 0.78, respectively). The UPSA demonstrated significant practice effects in patients (d=0.35), while the VRFCAT did not (d=-0.04). VRFCAT total completion time was correlated with both UPSA (r=-0.56, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.58, p<0.0001 for controls) and MCCB Composite (r=-0.57, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.68, p<0.0001 for controls). The VRFCAT is a highly reliable and sensitive measure of functional capacity with associations to the UPSA and MCCB. These results provide encouraging support for a computerized functional capacity assessment for use in schizophrenia.

  13. Computerized Neurocognitive Testing for the Management of Sport-Related Concussions

    PubMed Central

    d’Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Taylor, Alex M.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of computerized neurocognitive testing for the assessment of high school athletes who sustain concussions, and to describe associations between using computerized neurocognitive tests, timing of return-to-play, and medical provider managing the athlete. Methods: Concussions recorded in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system during the 2009–2010 academic year were included. Measures of association between use of computerized neurocognitive testing and outcomes were analyzed. A questionnaire was sent to athletic trainers (ATs) querying the use of computerized neurocognitive testing. χ2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Results: High School Reporting Information Online recorded 1056 concussions. Athletes who underwent computerized neurocognitive testing were less likely to be returned to play within 10 days of injury (38.5% vs 55.7%, P < .001) and more likely to be returned to play by a physician (60.9% vs 45.6%, P < .001). We had a response rate of 97.3% for the survey. Of respondents, 39.9% used computerized neurocognitive testing; 93.0% of those used ImPACT. Tests were most often interpreted by ATs (78.9%) and/or physicians (78.8%), as opposed to neuropsychologists (16.9%). Conclusions: Approximately 40% of US high schools that employ an AT use computerized neurocognitive tests when managing sport-related concussions. Tests are most often interpreted by ATs and physicians, as opposed to neuropsychologists. Computerized neurocognitive tests are significantly associated with the timing of return-to-play. PMID:22129538

  14. Effect of Item Selection on Item Exposure Rates within a Computerized Classification Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalohn, John C.; Spray, Judith A.

    The purpose of many certification or licensure tests is to identify candidates who possess some level of minimum competence to practice their profession. In general, this type of test is referred to as classification testing. When this type of test is administered with a computer, the test is a computerized classification test (CCT). This paper…

  15. Item Pocket Method to Allow Response Review and Change in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs do not allow test takers to review and change their responses because it could seriously deteriorate the efficiency of measurement and make tests vulnerable to manipulative test-taking strategies. Several modified testing methods have been developed that provide restricted review options while…

  16. On the Issue of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing with Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. The computer-based delivery mode brings with it certain advantages. One advantage is the ability to adapt the difficulty level of the test to the ability level of the test taker in what has been termed computerized adaptive testing (CAT). A second…

  17. The Effects of Feedback in Computerized Adaptive and Self-Adapted Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Linda L.; And Others

    Computerized adaptive (CA) testing uses an algorithm to match examinee ability to item difficulty, while self-adapted (SA) testing allows the examinee to choose the difficulty of his or her items. Research comparing SA and CA testing has shown that examinees experience lower anxiety and improved performance with SA testing. All previous research…

  18. Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.

    PubMed

    Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-12-01

    Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.

  19. Design techniques for developing a computerized instrumentation test plan. [for wind tunnel test data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, S. Kay; Forsyth, Theodore J.; Maynard, Everett E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computerized instrumentation test plan (ITP) for the NASA/Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is discussed. The objective of the ITP program was to aid the instrumentation engineer in documenting the configuration and calibration of data acquisition systems for a given test at any of four low speed wind tunnel facilities (Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility, 7 x 10, 40 x 80, and 80 x 120) at the NFAC. It is noted that automation of the ITP has decreased errors, engineering hours, and setup time while adding a higher level of consistency and traceability.

  20. Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Paramei, Galina V; Nishi, Mauro; Gualtieri, Mirella; Costa, Marcelo F; Ventura, Dora F

    2010-09-01

    Color vision impairment emerges at early stages of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and may precede diabetic retinopathy or the appearance of vascular alterations in the retina. The aim of the present study was to compare the evaluation of the color vision with two different tests - the Lanthony desaturated D-15d test (a traditional color arrangement test), and the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) (a computerized color discrimination test) - in patients diagnosed with DM2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and in sex- and age-matched control groups. Both color tests revealed statistically significant differences between the controls and the worst eyes of the DM2 patients. In addition, the degree of color vision impairment diagnosed by both tests correlated with the disease duration. The D-15d outcomes indicated solely tritan losses. In comparison, CCT outcomes revealed diffuse losses in color discrimination: 13.3% for best eyes and 29% for worst eyes. In addition, elevation of tritan thresholds in the DM2 patients, as detected by the Trivector subtest of the CCT, was found to correlate with the level of glycated hemoglobin. Outcomes of both tests confirm that subclinical losses of color vision are present in DM2 patients at an early stage of the disease, prior to signs of retinopathy. Considering the advantages of the CCT test compared to the D-15d test, further studies should attempt to verify and/or improve the efficiency of the CCT test.

  1. The Effects of Computerized Tests on the Performance and Attitudes of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas J., Jr.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of computer-assisted testing focuses on a study of college students that investigated whether a computerized test which incorporated traditional test taking interfaces had any effect on students' performance, anxiety level, or attitudes toward the computer. Results indicate no difference in performance but a significant difference in…

  2. The Influence of Item Calibration Error on Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (VL-CAT) allows both items and test length to be "tailored" to examinees, thereby achieving the measurement goal (e.g., scoring precision or classification) with as few items as possible. Several popular test termination rules depend on the standard error of the ability estimate, which in turn depends…

  3. An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

  4. Revising Answers to Items in Computerized Adaptive Tests: A Comparison of Three Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.

    The interest in the application of large-scale computerized adaptive testing has served to focus attention on issues that arise when theoretical advances are made operational. Some of these issues stem less from changes in testing conditions and more from changes in testing paradigms. One such issue is that of the order in which questions are…

  5. Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shiyu; Lin, Haiyan; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST) have become two of the most popular modes in large-scale computer-based sequential testing. Though most designs of CAT and MST exhibit strength and weakness in recent large-scale implementations, there is no simple answer to the question of which design is better because different…

  6. A computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A tool for standardized and repeated neuropsychological assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is needed. The objective of this study was to develop a computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for INPH and to evaluate its reliability, validity and patient’s ability to complete the tests. Methods Based on a structured review of the literature on neuropsychological testing in INPH, the eight tests most sensitive to the INPH cognitive profile were implemented in a computerized format. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was also included. Tests were presented on a touch-screen monitor, with animated instructions and speaker sound. The battery was evaluated with the following cohorts: A. Test-retest reliability, 44 healthy elderly; B. Validity against standard pen and pencil testing, 28 patients with various cognitive impairments; C. Ability to complete test battery, defined as completion of at least seven of the eight tests, 40 investigated for INPH. Results A. All except the figure copy test showed good test-retest reliability, r = 0.67-0.90; B. A high correlation was seen between conventional and computerized tests (r = 0.66-0.85) except for delayed recognition and figure copy task; C. Seventy-eight percent completed the computerized battery; Patients diagnosed with INPH (n = 26) performed worse on all tests, including depression score, compared to healthy controls. Conclusions A new computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for patients with communicating hydrocephalus and INPH was introduced. Its reliability, validity for general cognitive impairment and completion rate for INPH was promising. After exclusion of the figure copy task, the battery is ready for clinical evaluation and as a next step we suggest validation for INPH and a comparison before and after shunt surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org NCT01265251. PMID:25279138

  7. A Review of Item Exposure Control Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Testing Developed from 1983 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiadou, Elissavet; Triantafillou, Evangelos; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2007-01-01

    Since researchers acknowledged the several advantages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) over traditional linear test administration, the issue of item exposure control has received increased attention. Due to CAT's underlying philosophy, particular items in the item pool may be presented too often and become overexposed, while other items are…

  8. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Effective and Efficient Measurement in Counseling and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is described and compared with conventional tests, and its advantages summarized. Some item response theory concepts used in CAT are summarized and illustrated. The author describes the potential usefulness of CAT in counseling and education and reviews some current issues in the implementation of CAT.

  9. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  10. Application of Computerized Adaptive Testing to Entrance Examination for Graduate Studies in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Okan; Kan, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a sophisticated and efficient way of delivering examinations. In CAT, items for each examinee are selected from an item bank based on the examinee's responses to the items. In this way, the difficulty level of the test is adjusted based on the examinee's ability level. Instead of…

  11. Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

  12. Comparing Methods of Assessing Differential Item Functioning in a Computerized Adaptive Testing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Chen, Shu-Ying; Yu, Lan

    2006-01-01

    Mantel-Haenszel and SIBTEST, which have known difficulty in detecting non-unidirectional differential item functioning (DIF), have been adapted with some success for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study adapts logistic regression (LR) and the item-response-theory-likelihood-ratio test (IRT-LRT), capable of detecting both unidirectional…

  13. Computerized Testing in the German Federal Armed Forces (FAF): Empirical Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildgrube, Wolfgang

    In April of 1982, the German Federal Armed Forces initiated the first empirical pilot project in the area of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The configuration of hardware, psychological section, and physiological section is discussed, as well as two current problems (data transfer from the TEST 2000 microcomputer to a large sized computer for…

  14. The Application of the Monte Carlo Approach to Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing With Content Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Xiuzhen; Xin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The Monte Carlo approach which has previously been implemented in traditional computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is applied here to cognitive diagnostic CAT to test the ability of this approach to address multiple content constraints. The performance of the Monte Carlo approach is compared with the performance of the modified maximum global…

  15. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  16. Audio CBTs: An Initial Framework for the Use of Sound in Computerized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parshall, Cynthia G.; Balizet, Sha

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the potential benefits of using sound in computerized assessments. Describes some current computer uses of the audio channel of communication and outlines a proposed audio computer-based testing framework. Provides some examples of operational and experimental audio tests and reviews some research cautions and recommendations. (SLD)

  17. A Comparative Study of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shun-Wen; Twu, Bor-Yaun

    This study investigated and compared the properties of five methods of item exposure control within the purview of estimating examinees' abilities in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) context. Each of the exposure control algorithms was incorporated into the item selection procedure and the adaptive testing progressed based on the CAT design…

  18. Strategies for Controlling Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin

    2004-01-01

    Choosing a strategy for controlling item exposure has become an integral part of test development for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study investigated the performance of six procedures for controlling item exposure in a series of simulated CATs under the generalized partial credit model. In addition to a no-exposure control baseline…

  19. Detection of Person Misfit in Computerized Adaptive Tests with Polytomous Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the nominal and empirical null distributions of the standardized log-likelihood statistic for polytomous items for paper-and-pencil (P&P) and computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Results show that the empirical distribution of the statistic differed from the assumed standard normal distribution for both P&P tests and CATs. Also proposed a…

  20. Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

  1. Seed viability detection using computerized false-color radiographic image enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vozzo, J. A.; Marko, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Seed radiographs are divided into density zones which are related to seed germination. The seeds which germinate have densities relating to false-color red. In turn, a seed sorter may be designed which rejects those seeds not having sufficient red to activate a gate along a moving belt containing the seed source. This results in separating only seeds with the preselected densities representing biological viability lending to germination. These selected seeds demand a higher market value. Actual false-coloring isn't required for a computer to distinguish the significant gray-zone range. This range can be predetermined and screened without the necessity of red imaging. Applying false-color enhancement is a means of emphasizing differences in densities of gray within any subject from photographic, radiographic, or video imaging. Within the 0-255 range of gray levels, colors can be assigned to any single level or group of gray levels. Densitometric values then become easily recognized colors which relate to the image density. Choosing a color to identify any given density allows separation by morphology or composition (form or function). Additionally, relative areas of each color are readily available for determining distribution of that density by comparison with other densities within the image.

  2. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test Program Used for Grade 9 Students under Different Reviewing Test Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunkrai, Naruemon; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Ketchatturat, Jatuphum

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the accurate prediction of comparing test information and evaluation result by multidimensional computerized adaptive scholastic aptitude test program used for grade 9 students under different reviewing test conditions. Grade 9 students of the Secondary Educational Service Area Office in the North-east of…

  3. Position Paper on the Potential Use of Computerized Testing Procedures for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckase, Mark D.

    The current technology of computerized testing is discussed, and a few comments are made on how such technology might be used for assessing school-related skills as part of the National Assessment of Educational progress (NAEP). The critical feature of computerized assessment procedures is that the test items are presented in interactive fashion,…

  4. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  5. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  6. A Semiparametric Model for Jointly Analyzing Response Times and Accuracy in Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Fan, Zhewen; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The item response times (RTs) collected from computerized testing represent an underutilized type of information about items and examinees. In addition to knowing the examinees' responses to each item, we can investigate the amount of time examinees spend on each item. Current models for RTs mainly focus on parametric models, which have the…

  7. Optimum Number of Strata in the a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hau, Kit-Tai; Wen, Jian-Bing; Chang, Hua-Hua

    In the a-stratified method, a popular and efficient item exposure control strategy proposed by H. Chang (H. Chang and Z. Ying, 1999; K. Hau and H. Chang, 2001) for computerized adaptive testing (CAT), the item pool and item selection process has usually been divided into four strata and the corresponding four stages. In a series of simulation…

  8. Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

  9. SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

  10. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Shu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Interest in developing computerized adaptive testing (CAT) under cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) has increased recently. CAT algorithms that use a fixed-length termination rule frequently lead to different degrees of measurement precision for different examinees. Fixed precision, in which the examinees receive the same degree of measurement…

  11. Best Design for Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Bifactor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi; Weiss, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive tests (CATs) have been studied using the framework of unidimensional item response theory. However, many psychological variables are multidimensional and might benefit from using a multidimensional approach to CATs. This study investigated the accuracy, fidelity, and efficiency of a fully multidimensional CAT algorithm…

  12. Effects of Calibration Sample Size and Item Bank Size on Ability Estimation in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alper; Weiss, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of calibration sample size and item bank size on examinee ability estimation in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). For this purpose, a 500-item bank pre-calibrated using the three-parameter logistic model with 10,000 examinees was simulated. Calibration samples of varying sizes (150, 250, 350, 500,…

  13. A Closer Look at Using Judgments of Item Difficulty to Change Answers on Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Clough, Sara J.; Bleiler, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that restricting review and answer change opportunities on computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to items within successive blocks reduces time spent in review, satisfies most examinees' desires for review, and controls against distortion in proficiency estimates resulting from intentional incorrect answering of items prior…

  14. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  15. A Comparison of Item Selection Rules at the Early Stages of Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2000-01-01

    Compared five item selection rules with respect to the efficiency and precision of trait (theta) estimation at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The Fisher interval information, Fisher information with a posterior distribution, Kullback-Leibler information, and Kullback-Leibler information with a posterior distribution…

  16. Placement Decisions for First-Time-in-College Students Using the Computerized Placement Test. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashford, Joanne

    This information capsule explores the effectiveness of score ranges on the Computerized Placement Test (CPT), used to assess the skills of entry-level students at Miami-Dade Community College and place first-time-in-college students in classes. Data are provided for students entering in Fall terms 1996 and 1997 showing the number of students…

  17. Optimal Item Pool Design for a Highly Constrained Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Item pool quality has been regarded as one important factor to help realize enhanced measurement quality for the computerized adaptive test (CAT) (e.g., Flaugher, 2000; Jensema, 1977; McBride & Wise, 1976; Reckase, 1976; 2003; van der Linden, Ariel, & Veldkamp, 2006; Veldkamp & van der Linden, 2000; Xing & Hambleton, 2004). However, studies are…

  18. A Comparison of the Partial Credit and Graded Response Models in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ayala, R. J.; And Others

    Computerized adaptive testing procedures (CATPs) based on the graded response method (GRM) of F. Samejima (1969) and the partial credit model (PCM) of G. Masters (1982) were developed and compared. Both programs used maximum likelihood estimation of ability, and item selection was conducted on the basis of information. Two simulated data sets, one…

  19. Performance of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Further Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shun-Wen; Ansley, Timothy N.; Lin, Sieh-Hwa

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Sympson and Hetter conditional procedure (SHC), a modification of the Sympson and Hetter (1985) algorithm, in controlling the exposure rates of items in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. The properties of the procedure were compared with those of the Davey and Parshall (1995) and the…

  20. A Method for the Comparison of Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrada, Juan Ramon; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    In a typical study comparing the relative efficiency of two item selection rules in computerized adaptive testing, the common result is that they simultaneously differ in accuracy and security, making it difficult to reach a conclusion on which is the more appropriate rule. This study proposes a strategy to conduct a global comparison of two or…

  1. The Adolescent Health Review: Test of a Computerized Screening Tool in School-Based Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia A.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Funk, Eunkyung; Rancome, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Implemented a computerized screening instrument, the Adolescent Health Review, in urban school-based clinics to test the viability of a stand-alone screening process and its acceptance by patients and providers, examining the relationship between health risks and the stated purpose for the clinic visit. Patients and providers readily accepted the…

  2. Computerized Adaptive Testing Using a Class of High-Order Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsi; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In the human sciences, a common assumption is that latent traits have a hierarchical structure. Higher order item response theory models have been developed to account for this hierarchy. In this study, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithms based on these kinds of models were implemented, and their performance under a variety of…

  3. Computerized-Adaptive and Self-Adapted Music-Listening Tests: Psychometric Features and Motivational Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Coffman, Don D.

    1994-01-01

    Computerized-adaptive (CAT) and self-adapted (SAT) music listening tests were compared for efficiency, reliability, validity, and motivational benefits with 53 junior high school students. Results demonstrate trade-offs, with greater potential motivational benefits for SAT and greater efficiency for CAT. SAT elicited more favorable responses from…

  4. A Feedback Control Strategy for Enhancing Item Selection Efficiency in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    A computerized adaptive test (CAT) may be modeled as a closed-loop system, where item selection is influenced by trait level ([theta]) estimation and vice versa. When discrepancies exist between an examinee's estimated and true [theta] levels, nonoptimal item selection is a likely result. Nevertheless, examinee response behavior consistent with…

  5. A Strategy for Controlling Item Exposure in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Ip, Edward H.; Fuh, Cheng-Der

    2008-01-01

    Although computerized adaptive tests have enjoyed tremendous growth, solutions for important problems remain unavailable. One problem is the control of item exposure rate. Because adaptive algorithms are designed to select optimal items, they choose items with high discriminating power. Thus, these items are selected more often than others,…

  6. Computerized Adaptive Testing of Music-Related Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Coffman, Don D.

    1992-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study of university marching band members' tonal memory skills and their preferences between adaptive and paper-and-pencil testing. Concludes that adaptive testing yielded greater reliability and validity scores. Indicates that students preferred adaptive tests over paper-and-pencil music tests. (SG)

  7. Development of the CAT-ANX: A Computerized Adaptive Test for Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kim, Jong Bae; Kupfer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors developed a computerized adaptive test for anxiety that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. Method A total of 1,614 individuals with and without generalized anxiety disorder from a psychiatric clinic and community mental health center were recruited. The focus of the present study was the development of the Computerized Adaptive Testing–Anxiety Inventory (CAT-ANX). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to obtain diagnostic classifications of generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder. Results An average of 12 items per subject was required to achieve a 0.3 standard error in the anxiety severity estimate and maintain a correlation of 0.94 with the total 431-item test score. CAT-ANX scores were strongly related to the probability of a generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis. Using both the Computerized Adaptive Testing–-Depression Inventory and the CAT-ANX, comorbid major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder can be accurately predicted. Conclusions Traditional measurement fixes the number of items but allows measurement uncertainty to vary. Computerized adaptive testing fixes measurement uncertainty and allows the number and content of items to vary, leading to a dramatic decrease in the number of items required for a fixed level of measurement uncertainty. Potential applications for inexpensive, efficient, and accurate screening of anxiety in primary care settings, clinical trials, psychiatric epidemiology, molecular genetics, children, and other cultures are discussed. PMID:23929270

  8. Using Out-of-Level Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hua; Lin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of assessing a student with a test that is intended for students at a higher or lower grade level. Although the appropriateness of out-of-level testing for accountability purposes has been questioned by educators and policymakers, incorporating out-of-level items in formative assessments for accurate…

  9. The Potential, Pitfalls and Promise of Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Bill; Griffith, Leonard; McHenry, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Imagine administering an online standardized test to an entire class of 11th-grade students when, halfway through the exam, the server holding the test hits a snag and throws everyone offline. Imagine another scenario in which an elementary school has very few computers so teachers must bus their students to the local high school for a timed test.…

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized Neurocognitive Testing in Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Womble, Melissa N; Reynolds, Erin; Schatz, Philip; Shah, Kishan M; Kontos, Anthony P

    2016-06-01

    Computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used to assess pediatric sport-related concussions; however, only 1 study has focused on the test-retest reliability of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in high school athletes and age influences have largely been ignored. Therefore, the purpose was to investigate the test-retest reliability of ImPACT and underlying age influences in a pediatric population. Two hundred (169 men and 31 women) youth ice hockey players completed ImPACT before/after a 6-month season. Reliability was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and regression-based methods (RBz). ICCs for the sample ranged from .48 to .75 (single)/.65 to .86 (average). In general, the older athletes (15-18: Single/Average ICCs = .35-.75/.52-.86) demonstrated greater reliability across composites than the younger athletes (11-14: Single/Average ICCs = .54-.63/.70-.77). Although there was variation in athletes' performance across two test administrations, RBz revealed that only a small percentage of athletes performed beyond 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical metrics demonstrated reliability coefficients for ImPACT composites in a pediatric sample similar to previous studies, and also revealed important age-related influences. PMID:27084734

  11. Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized Neurocognitive Testing in Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Womble, Melissa N; Reynolds, Erin; Schatz, Philip; Shah, Kishan M; Kontos, Anthony P

    2016-06-01

    Computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used to assess pediatric sport-related concussions; however, only 1 study has focused on the test-retest reliability of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in high school athletes and age influences have largely been ignored. Therefore, the purpose was to investigate the test-retest reliability of ImPACT and underlying age influences in a pediatric population. Two hundred (169 men and 31 women) youth ice hockey players completed ImPACT before/after a 6-month season. Reliability was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and regression-based methods (RBz). ICCs for the sample ranged from .48 to .75 (single)/.65 to .86 (average). In general, the older athletes (15-18: Single/Average ICCs = .35-.75/.52-.86) demonstrated greater reliability across composites than the younger athletes (11-14: Single/Average ICCs = .54-.63/.70-.77). Although there was variation in athletes' performance across two test administrations, RBz revealed that only a small percentage of athletes performed beyond 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical metrics demonstrated reliability coefficients for ImPACT composites in a pediatric sample similar to previous studies, and also revealed important age-related influences.

  12. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes,...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes,...

  14. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes,...

  15. Computerization of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingenohl, Ingo

    1973-01-01

    SORTSCOR performs raw scoring of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test (SORT) and REPORT subsequently writes a narrative report in easily readable, nonclinical language. Complete documentation is available, at cost, from the author at Quinnipiac College, Hamden, Conn. 06518. (Author/CB)

  16. A computerized test battery for the assessment of cardiovascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Debski, T T; Kamarck, T W; Jennings, J R; Young, L W; Eddy, M J; Zhang, Y X

    1991-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested a possible relationship between the tendency to exhibit excessive cardiovascular reactions during psychological challenge and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Valid techniques for reliably assessing such reactions are, however, minimally available. A test battery for the assessment of cardiovascular reactivity to experimental challenge is currently being developed at the University of Pittsburgh in conjunction with the University of Miami and Duke University. An IBM-AT compatible microcomputer is being used for the concurrent collection of physiological data and presentation of the laboratory stressors. Digitized cardiovascular data being collected include EKG, Impedance Cardiogram (ICG), phonocardiogram, and a peripheral pulse wave measure. Blood pressure readings are also being collected and stored on disk. The computer presents three challenging video games, each designed to elicit cardiovascular reactions. Processing programs are being used and developed for the standardized scoring of the digitized signals. To assist in epidemiological research a mobile testing unit has been assembled for the easy administration of the test battery in varying geographical locations. The test battery being developed will increase the feasibility of epidemiological and clinical assessment of stress-induced cardiovascular responses which may substantiate a link between reactivity and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  18. A Sharing Item Response Theory Model for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2004-01-01

    A new sharing item response theory (SIRT) model is presented that explicitly models the effects of sharing item content between informants and test takers. This model is used to construct adaptive item selection and scoring rules that provide increased precision and reduced score gains in instances where sharing occurs. The adaptive item selection…

  19. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  20. Development and Application of Detection Indices for Measuring Guessing Behaviors and Test-Taking Effort in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Ren; Plake, Barbara S.; Kramer, Gene A.; Lien, Shu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the amount of time that different ability-level examinees spend on questions they answer correctly or incorrectly across different pretest item blocks presented on a fixed-length, time-restricted computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Results indicate that different ability-level examinees require different amounts of time to…

  1. Individual Differences and Test Administration Procedures: A Comparison of Fixed-Item, Computerized-Adaptive, and Self-Adapted Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Vocabulary fixed-item (FIT), computerized-adaptive (CAT), and self-adapted (SAT) tests were compared with 121 college students. CAT was more precise and efficient than SAT, which was more precise and efficient than FIT. SAT also yielded higher ability estimates for individuals with lower verbal self-concepts. (SLD)

  2. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third Edition, 1972,...

  3. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third Edition, 1972,...

  4. Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) - Video-formatted tasks for comparative primate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.; Hopkins, William D.; Richardson, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Automation of a computerized test system for comparative primate research is shown to improve the results of learning in standard paradigms. A mediational paradigm is used to determine the degree to which criterion in the learning-set testing reflects stimulus-response associative or mediational learning. Rhesus monkeys are shown to exhibit positive transfer as the criterion levels are shifted upwards, and the effectiveness of the computerized testing system is confirmed.

  5. The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices.

  6. Implementation of a Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing and Modification

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A

    2016-01-01

    Background The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. Objective To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. Methods A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Results Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F 3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F 3,1276=25.44, P<.001

  7. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques. PMID:24187056

  8. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  9. Validation of Computerized Adaptive Testing in an Outpatient Non-academic Setting: the VOCATIONS Trial

    PubMed Central

    Achtyes, Eric Daniel; Halstead, Scott; Smart, LeAnn; Moore, Tara; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J.; Gibbons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Computerized adaptive tests (CAT) provide an alternative to fixed-length assessments for diagnostic screening and severity measurement of psychiatric disorders. We sought to cross-sectionally validate a suite of computerized adaptive tests for mental health (CAT-MH) in a community psychiatric sample. Methods 145 adult psychiatric outpatients and controls were prospectively evaluated with CAT for depression, mania and anxiety symptoms, compared to gold-standard psychiatric assessments including: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV-TR (SCID), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D25), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Results Sensitivity and specificity for the computerized adaptive diagnostic test for depression (CAD-MDD) were .96 and .64, respectively (.96 and 1.00 for major depression versus controls). CAT for depression severity (CAT-DI) correlated well to standard depression scales HAM-D25 (r=.79), PHQ-9 (r=.90), CES-D (r=.90) and had OR=27.88 for current SCID major depressive disorder diagnosis across its range. CAT for anxiety severity (CAT-ANX) correlated to HAM-D25 (r=.73), PHQ-9 (r=.78), CES-D (r=.81), and had OR=11.52 for current SCID generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis across its range. CAT for mania severity (CAT-MANIA) did not correlate well to HAM-D25 (r=.31), PHQ-9 (r=.37), CES-D (r=.39), but had an OR=11.56 for a current SCID bipolar diagnosis across its range. Participants found the CAT-MH suite of tests acceptable and easy to use, averaging 51.7 items and 9.4 minutes to complete the full battery. Conclusions Compared to current gold-standard diagnostic and assessment measures, CAT-MH provides an effective, rapidly-administered assessment of psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26030317

  10. Supervision and Computerized Neurocognitive Baseline Test Performance in High School Athletes: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Andrew Warren; Solomon, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Computerized neuropsychological testing batteries have provided a time-efficient and cost-efficient way to assess and manage the neurocognitive aspects of patients with sport-related concussion. These tests are straightforward and mostly self-guided, reducing the degree of clinician involvement required by traditional clinical neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tests. Objective: To determine if self-reported supervision status affected computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Settings: Supervised testing took place in high school computer libraries or sports medicine clinics. Unsupervised testing took place at the participant's home or another location with computer access. Patients or Other Participants: From 2007 to 2012, high school athletes across middle Tennessee (n = 3771) completed computerized neurocognitive baseline testing (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]). They reported taking the test either supervised by a sports medicine professional or unsupervised. These athletes (n = 2140) were subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria and then matched based on age, sex, and number of prior concussions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We extracted demographic and performance-based data from each de-identified baseline testing record. Paired t tests were performed between the self-reported supervised and unsupervised groups, comparing the following ImPACT baseline composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor (processing) speed, reaction time, impulse control, and total symptom score. For differences that reached P < .05, the Cohen d was calculated to measure the effect size. Lastly, a χ2 analysis was conducted to compare the rate of invalid baseline testing between the groups. All statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval level. Results: Self-reported supervised athletes demonstrated better visual motor

  11. Effects of a Computerized Program on Use of the Test-Taking Strategy by Secondary Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Paula E.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Lancaster, Sean J. C.; Deshler, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities must meet many testing demands, given the current emphasis on accountability and state competency testing. The purpose of this project was to develop and field test a computerized program to teach the Test-Taking Strategy (Hughes, Schumaker, Deshler, & Mercer, 1988) to secondary-level students with disabilities. The…

  12. Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Improving the a-Stratified Design with the Sympson-Hetter Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2002-01-01

    Item exposure control, test-overlap minimization, and the efficient use of item pool are some of the important issues in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) designs. The overexposure of some items and high test-overlap rate may cause both item and test security problems. Previously these problems associated with the maximum information (Max-I)…

  13. Developing and testing a computerized decision support system for nurse-to-patient assignment: a multimethod study.

    PubMed

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Braaksma, Aleida; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-06-01

    Nurse-to-patient assignment is a frequently recurring, time-consuming, and complex process owing to the many considerations involved. Creating well-balanced, high-quality assignments is crucial to ensuring patient safety, quality of care, and job satisfaction for nurses. A computerized decision support system can assist (charge) nurses in the nurse-to-patient assignment process. In this two-phase multimethod study, a computerized decision support system was developed and evaluated. Three nursing wards in a 1000-bed Dutch university hospital participated. In the first phase of this study, considerations relevant to the assignment process--and their relative importance--were investigated in a literature review, focus group sessions with nurses, and a survey among nurses. Using information from the first phase, the computerized decision support system was developed based on an integer linear program. In the second phase, a before-and-after study was conducted to test and evaluate the computerized decision support system both quantitatively (duration of the assignment process) and qualitatively (survey on workload). Thirty-six measurements were performed to test the computerized decision support system. After implementation, a 30% time reduction was achieved in the nurse-to-patient assignments, and nurses (N = 138) experienced a lower workload. Therefore, the implementation of computerized decision support system would increase both the quality and safety of care as well as the nurses' job satisfaction and should be investigated rigorously in the coming years.

  14. Developing and testing a computerized decision support system for nurse-to-patient assignment: a multimethod study.

    PubMed

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Braaksma, Aleida; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-06-01

    Nurse-to-patient assignment is a frequently recurring, time-consuming, and complex process owing to the many considerations involved. Creating well-balanced, high-quality assignments is crucial to ensuring patient safety, quality of care, and job satisfaction for nurses. A computerized decision support system can assist (charge) nurses in the nurse-to-patient assignment process. In this two-phase multimethod study, a computerized decision support system was developed and evaluated. Three nursing wards in a 1000-bed Dutch university hospital participated. In the first phase of this study, considerations relevant to the assignment process--and their relative importance--were investigated in a literature review, focus group sessions with nurses, and a survey among nurses. Using information from the first phase, the computerized decision support system was developed based on an integer linear program. In the second phase, a before-and-after study was conducted to test and evaluate the computerized decision support system both quantitatively (duration of the assignment process) and qualitatively (survey on workload). Thirty-six measurements were performed to test the computerized decision support system. After implementation, a 30% time reduction was achieved in the nurse-to-patient assignments, and nurses (N = 138) experienced a lower workload. Therefore, the implementation of computerized decision support system would increase both the quality and safety of care as well as the nurses' job satisfaction and should be investigated rigorously in the coming years. PMID:24781813

  15. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Development and Validation of the Computerized Family Relations Test for Children.

    PubMed

    Skoczń, Ilona; Cieciuch, Jan; Oud, Johan H L; Welzen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child's perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989). The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child's parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17), took part in this study. The CFRT's reliability was assessed by McDonald's omega coefficients, and ranged from 0.71 to 0.86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability 0.57 for mothers' ratings and 0.56 for fathers' ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of 0.71 compared to mother-child relationships of 0.67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children's assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child's ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child's gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior. PMID:26617538

  17. Development and Validation of the Computerized Family Relations Test for Children

    PubMed Central

    Skoczń, Ilona; Cieciuch, Jan; Oud, Johan H. L.; Welzen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child’s perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989). The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child’s parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17), took part in this study. The CFRT’s reliability was assessed by McDonald’s omega coefficients, and ranged from 0.71 to 0.86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability 0.57 for mothers’ ratings and 0.56 for fathers’ ratings. The test–retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of 0.71 compared to mother-child relationships of 0.67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children’s assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child’s ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child’s gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior. PMID:26617538

  18. Relationship between the Luscher Color Test and the MMPI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cooper B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Luscher Color Test and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to 42 counseling graduate students. Personality reports were written from test results, and the degree of agreement was rated. Results showed little agreement between the two, suggesting cautious use of the Color Test. (JAC)

  19. Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of Computerized Adaptive Testing: Application to Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test factorial…

  20. Representing Response-Time Information in Item Banks. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnipke, Deborah L.; Scrams, David J.

    The availability of item response times made possible by computerized testing represents an entirely new type of information about test items. This study explores the issue of how to represent response-time information in item banks. Empirical response-time distribution functions can be fit with statistical distribution functions with known…

  1. Proceedings of the First Conference on Computerized Adaptive Testing (Washington, D.C., June 12-13, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia L., Ed.

    The principal objectives of this conference were to exchange information, discuss theoretical and empirical developments, and to coordinate research efforts. The papers and their authors are: "The Graded Response Model of Latent Trait Theory and Tailored Testing" by Fumiko Samejima; (Incomplete Orders and Computerized Testing" by Norman Cliff;…

  2. An Empirical Evaluation of the Slip Correction in the Four Parameter Logistic Models with Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Laio, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In a selected response test, aberrant responses such as careless errors and lucky guesses might cause error in ability estimation because these responses do not actually reflect the knowledge that examinees possess. In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), these aberrant responses could further cause serious estimation error due to dynamic item…

  3. Two baselines are better than one: Improving the reliability of computerized testing in sports neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared; Echemendia, Ruben; Tangeman, Lindy; Meeuwisse, Willem; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael; Aubry, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neuropsychological tests are frequently used to assist in return-to-play decisions following sports concussion. However, due to concerns about test reliability, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends yearly baseline testing. The standard practice that has developed in baseline/postinjury comparisons is to examine the difference between the most recent baseline test and postconcussion performance. Drawing from classical test theory, the present study investigated whether temporal stability could be improved by taking an alternate approach that uses the aggregate of 2 baselines to more accurately estimate baseline cognitive ability. One hundred fifteen English-speaking professional hockey players with 3 consecutive Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Testing (ImPACT) baseline tests were extracted from a clinical program evaluation database overseen by the National Hockey League and National Hockey League Players' Association. The temporal stability of ImPACT composite scores was significantly increased by aggregating test performance during Sessions 1 and 2 to predict performance during Session 3. Using this approach, the 2-factor Memory (r = .72) and Speed (r = .79) composites of ImPACT showed acceptable long-term reliability. Using the aggregate of 2 baseline scores significantly improves temporal stability and allows for more accurate predictions of cognitive change following concussion. Clinicians are encouraged to estimate baseline abilities by taking into account all of an athlete's previous baseline scores.

  4. Agreement between Computerized and Human Assessment of Performance on the Ruff Figural Fluency Test

    PubMed Central

    Elderson, Martin F.; Pham, Sander; van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Kok, Johan; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Tucha, Oliver; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Slaets, Joris P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) is a sensitive test for nonverbal fluency suitable for all age groups. However, assessment of performance on the RFFT is time-consuming and may be affected by interrater differences. Therefore, we developed computer software specifically designed to analyze performance on the RFFT by automated pattern recognition. The aim of this study was to compare assessment by the new software with conventional assessment by human raters. The software was developed using data from the Lifelines Cohort Study and validated in an independent cohort of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. The total study population included 1,761 persons: 54% men; mean age (SD), 58 (10) years. All RFFT protocols were assessed by the new software and two independent human raters (criterion standard). The mean number of unique designs (SD) was 81 (29) and the median number of perseverative errors (interquartile range) was 9 (4 to 16). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the computerized and human assessment was 0.994 (95%CI, 0.988 to 0.996; p<0.001) and 0.991 (95%CI, 0.990 to 0.991; p<0.001) for the number of unique designs and perseverative errors, respectively. The mean difference (SD) between the computerized and human assessment was -1.42 (2.78) and +0.02 (1.94) points for the number of unique designs and perseverative errors, respectively. This was comparable to the agreement between two independent human assessments: ICC, 0.995 (0.994 to 0.995; p<0.001) and 0.985 (0.982 to 0.988; p<0.001), and mean difference (SD), -0.44 (2.98) and +0.56 (2.36) points for the number of unique designs and perseverative errors, respectively. We conclude that the agreement between the computerized and human assessment was very high and comparable to the agreement between two independent human assessments. Therefore, the software is an accurate tool for the assessment of performance on the RFFT. PMID:27661083

  5. Munsell's 100-hue test applied to color films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    1999-12-01

    The experiments described in this paper use the Munsell 100 Hue test to measure color film's ability to order chips the same as humans. The procedure is to photograph the chips in daylight and to scan the dye densities in the processed prints. If the film confuses colors, as colorblind and color anomalous humans do, then the dye density sequence will not be monotonic. Local reversals in dye density imply spectral responses different than humans. A triplet of monotonic dye curves would mimic the color response of people with much better than average color discrimination.

  6. Construct Validation of a Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Test for Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaus, Stephanie; Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Vonkeman, Harald E.; Glas, Cees A. W.; van de Laar, Mart A. F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing enables precise measurements of patient-reported outcomes at an individual level across different dimensions. This study examined the construct validity of a multidimensional computerized adaptive test (CAT) for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The ‘CAT Fatigue RA’ was constructed based on a previously calibrated item bank. It contains 196 items and three dimensions: ‘severity’, ‘impact’ and ‘variability’ of fatigue. The CAT was administered to 166 patients with RA. They also completed a traditional, multidimensional fatigue questionnaire (BRAF-MDQ) and the SF-36 in order to examine the CAT’s construct validity. A priori criterion for construct validity was that 75% of the correlations between the CAT dimensions and the subscales of the other questionnaires were as expected. Furthermore, comprehensive use of the item bank, measurement precision and score distribution were investigated. Results The a priori criterion for construct validity was supported for two of the three CAT dimensions (severity and impact but not for variability). For severity and impact, 87% of the correlations with the subscales of the well-established questionnaires were as expected but for variability, 53% of the hypothesised relations were found. Eighty-nine percent of the items were selected between one and 137 times for CAT administrations. Measurement precision was excellent for the severity and impact dimensions, with more than 90% of the CAT administrations reaching a standard error below 0.32. The variability dimension showed good measurement precision with 90% of the CAT administrations reaching a standard error below 0.44. No floor- or ceiling-effects were found for the three dimensions. Conclusion The CAT Fatigue RA showed good construct validity and excellent measurement precision on the dimensions severity and impact. The dimension variability had less ideal measurement characteristics

  7. An Investigation of the Robustness of a Partial Credit Model-Based Computerized Adaptive Test to Misfitting Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ayala, R. J.; And Others

    The robustness of a partial credit (PC) model-based computerized adaptive test's (CAT's) ability estimation to items that did not fit the PC model was investigated. A CAT program was written based on the PC model. The program used maximum likelihood estimation of ability. Item selection was on the basis of information. The simulation terminated…

  8. Effect of Person Cluster on Accuracy of Ability Estimation of Computerized Adaptive Testing in K-12 Education Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The ability estimation procedure is one of the most important components in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. Currently, all CATs that provide K-12 student scores are based on the item response theory (IRT) model(s); while such application directly violates the assumption of independent sample of a person in IRT models because ability…

  9. The Effect of Fitting a Unidimensional IRT Model to Multidimensional Data in Content-Balanced Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Tian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of fitting a unidimensional IRT model to multidimensional data in content-balanced computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Unconstrained CAT with the maximum information item selection method is chosen as the baseline, and the performances of three content balancing procedures, the constrained CAT (CCAT), the…

  10. "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Theory and Practice." Wim J. van der Linden and Cees A. W. Glas, Eds. [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reise, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    This book contains a series of research articles about computerized adaptive testing (CAT) written for advanced psychometricians. The book is divided into sections on: (1) item selection and examinee scoring in CAT; (2) examples of CAT applications; (3) item banks; (4) determining model fit; and (5) using testlets in CAT. (SLD)

  11. On the Reliability and Validity of a Numerical Reasoning Speed Dimension Derived from Response Times Collected in Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.; Semmes, Robert; Huang, Lan; Close, Catherine N.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 181 college students were used to assess whether math reasoning item response times in computerized testing can provide valid and reliable measures of a speed dimension. The alternate forms reliability of the speed dimension was .85. A two-dimensional structural equation model suggests that the speed dimension is related to the accuracy…

  12. Computerized Adaptive Testing Using the Partial Credit Model: Effects of Item Pool Characteristics and Different Stopping Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Barbara G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Effects of the following variables on performance of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) procedures for the partial credit model (PCM) were studied: (1) stopping rule for terminating CAT; (2) item pool size; and (3) distribution of item difficulties. Implications of findings for CAT systems based on the PCM are discussed. (SLD)

  13. Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

  14. Memory-color test forms in real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, Stephen

    2003-12-01

    Many images are received for distribution and reproduction without the possibility of a comparison to the source image. Image quality is difficult to measure and quantify without such a source image. However, test photographs consisting of memory colors can be compared to a remembered image. Test forms consisting of photographs of the real world are the only source of memory colors. They are used to test a graphic-arts color workflow. Such tests: (1) Display the color quality of various output devices. (2) Describe color differences by comparing the difference between reproduction of a test photograph and the remembered colors. (3) Help achieve a preferred state of color reproduction. (4) Characterize reproduction gamut problems of an output device. (5) Remotely trouble-shoot a color workflow. The human visual system cannot provide a precise measurement of quality but does provide direction and goals for a correction process. The criteria for the selection of image content and the usefulness of test photographs are described.

  15. Computerized Functional Reach Test to Measure Balance Stability in Elderly Patients With Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scena, Silvio; Steindler, Roberto; Ceci, Moira; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to maintain static and dynamic balance is a prerequisite for safe walking and for obtaining functional mobility. For this reason, a reliable and valid means of screening for risk of falls is needed. The functional reach test (FRT) is used in many countries, yet it does not provide some kinematic parameters such as shoulder or pelvic girdles translation. The purpose was to analyze video records measuring of distance, velocity, time length, arm direction and girdles translation while doing FRT. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted where the above variables were correlated to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for mental status and the Tinetti balance assessment test, which have been validated, in order to computerize the FRT (cFRT) for elderly patients with neurological disorders. Eighty patients were tested and 54 were eligible to serve as experimental group. The patients underwent the MMSE, the Tinetti test and the FRT. LAB view software was used to record the FRT performances and to process the videos. The control group consisted of 51 healthy subjects who had been previously tested. Results The experimental group was not able to perform the tests as well as the healthy control subjects. The video camera provided valuable kinematic results such as bending down while performing the forward reach test. Conclusions Instead of manual measurement, we proposed to use a cheap with fair resolution web camera to accurately estimate the FRT. The kinematic parameters were correlated with Tinetti and MMSE scores. The performance values established in this study indicate that the cFRT is a reliable and valid assessment, which provides more accurate data than “manual” test about functional reach. PMID:27635176

  16. Computerized Functional Reach Test to Measure Balance Stability in Elderly Patients With Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scena, Silvio; Steindler, Roberto; Ceci, Moira; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to maintain static and dynamic balance is a prerequisite for safe walking and for obtaining functional mobility. For this reason, a reliable and valid means of screening for risk of falls is needed. The functional reach test (FRT) is used in many countries, yet it does not provide some kinematic parameters such as shoulder or pelvic girdles translation. The purpose was to analyze video records measuring of distance, velocity, time length, arm direction and girdles translation while doing FRT. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted where the above variables were correlated to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for mental status and the Tinetti balance assessment test, which have been validated, in order to computerize the FRT (cFRT) for elderly patients with neurological disorders. Eighty patients were tested and 54 were eligible to serve as experimental group. The patients underwent the MMSE, the Tinetti test and the FRT. LAB view software was used to record the FRT performances and to process the videos. The control group consisted of 51 healthy subjects who had been previously tested. Results The experimental group was not able to perform the tests as well as the healthy control subjects. The video camera provided valuable kinematic results such as bending down while performing the forward reach test. Conclusions Instead of manual measurement, we proposed to use a cheap with fair resolution web camera to accurately estimate the FRT. The kinematic parameters were correlated with Tinetti and MMSE scores. The performance values established in this study indicate that the cFRT is a reliable and valid assessment, which provides more accurate data than “manual” test about functional reach.

  17. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26060999

  18. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26060999

  19. Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2013-01-01

    In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and na

  20. Development of an Abbreviated Form of the Penn Line Orientation Test Using Large Samples and Computerized Adaptive Test Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Tyler M.; Scott, J. Cobb; Reise, Steven P.; Port, Allison M.; Jackson, Chad T.; Ruparel, Kosha; Savitt, Adam P.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial processing is a commonly assessed neurocognitive domain, with deficits linked to dysfunction in right posterior regions of the brain. With the growth of large-scale clinical research studies there is an increased need for efficient and scalable assessments of neurocognition, including visuospatial processing. The purpose of the current study was to use a novel method that combines item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) approaches to create an abbreviated form of the computerized Penn Line Orientation Test (PLOT). The 24-item PLOT was administered to 8,498 youths (aged 8 to 21) as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort study and, by web-based data collection, in an independent sample of 4,593 adults from Great Britain as part of a television documentary. IRT-based CAT simulations were used to select the best PLOT items for an abbreviated form by performing separate simulations in each group and choosing only items that were selected as useful (i.e., high item discrimination and in the appropriate difficulty range) in at least one of the simulations. Fifteen items were chosen for the final, short form of the PLOT, indicating substantial agreement among the models in how they evaluated each item's usefulness. Moreover, this abbreviated version performed comparably to the full version in tests of sensitivity to age and sex effects. This abbreviated version of the PLOT cuts administration time by 50% without detectable loss of information, which points to its feasibility for large-scale clinical and genomic studies. PMID:25822834

  1. Development and Preliminary Testing of a Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Anatchkova, Milena D.; Saris-Baglama, Renee N.; Kosinski, Mark; Bjorner, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the development and preliminary testing of a prototype computerized adaptive test of chronic pain (CHRONIC PAIN-CAT) conducted in two stages: 1) evaluation of various item selection and stopping rules through real data simulated administrations of CHRONIC PAIN-CAT; 2) a feasibility study of the actual prototype CHRONIC PAIN-CAT assessment system conducted in a pilot sample. Item calibrations developed from a US general population sample (N=782) were used to program a pain severity and impact item bank (k=45) and real data simulations were conducted to determine a CAT stopping rule. The CHRONIC-PAIN CAT was programmed on a tablet PC using QualityMetric's Dynamic Health Assessment (DYHNA®) software and administered to a clinical sample of pain sufferers (n=100). The CAT was completed in significantly less time than the static (full item bank) assessment (p<.001). On average, 5.6 items were dynamically administered by CAT to achieve a precise score. Scores estimated from the two assessments were highly correlated (r=.89) and both assessments discriminated across pain severity levels (p<.001, RV=.95). Patients’ evaluations of the CHRONIC PAIN-CAT were favourable. Perspective This report demonstrates that the CHRONIC PAIN-CAT is feasible for administration in a clinic. The application has the potential to improve pain assessment and help clinicians manage chronic pain. PMID:19595636

  2. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Washburn, D A; Rumbaugh, D M; Richardson, W K

    1992-11-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental

  3. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental

  4. Using Computerized Adaptive Testing to Reduce the Burden of Mental Health Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Kupfer, David J.; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Grochocinski, Victoria J.; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Stover, Angela; Bock, R. Darrell; Immekus, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the combination of item response theory and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for psychiatric measurement as a means of reducing the burden of research and clinical assessments. Methods Data were from 800 participants in outpatient treatment for a mood or anxiety disorder; they completed 616 items of the 626-item Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Scales (MASS) at two times. The first administration was used to design and evaluate a CAT version of the MASS by using post hoc simulation. The second confirmed the functioning of CAT in live testing. Results Tests of competing models based on item response theory supported the scale’s bifactor structure, consisting of a primary dimension and four group factors (mood, panic-agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive, and social phobia). Both simulated and live CAT showed a 95% average reduction (585 items) in items administered (24 and 30 items, respectively) compared with administration of the full MASS. The correlation between scores on the full MASS and the CAT version was .93. For the mood disorder subscale, differences in scores between two groups of depressed patients—one with bipolar disorder and one without—on the full scale and on the CAT showed effect sizes of .63 (p<.003) and 1.19 (p<.001) standard deviation units, respectively, indicating better discriminant validity for CAT. Conclusions Instead of using small fixed-length tests, clinicians can create item banks with a large item pool, and a small set of the items most relevant for a given individual can be administered with no loss of information, yielding a dramatic reduction in administration time and patient and clinician burden. PMID:18378832

  5. Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) for in-process thickness determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, J.; Doxbeck, M.; Schroeder, S. C.; Abbate, A.

    1994-01-01

    A Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) was developed to measure, in real-time, the rate of deposition and thickness of chromium plated on the inside of thick steel tubes. The measurements are made from the outside of the tubes with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The resolution of the system is 2.5 micron. (0.0001 in.) and the accuracy is better than 10 micron (0.0004 in.). The thickness is measured using six transducers mounted at different locations on the tube. In addition, two transducers are mounted on two reference standards, thereby allowing the system to be continuously calibrated. The tube temperature varies during the process, thus the input from eight thermocouples, located at the measurement sites, is used to calculate and compensate for the change in return time of the ultrasonic echo due to the temperature dependence of the sound velocity. CUTS is applicable to any commercial process where real-time change of thickness of a sample has to be known, with the advantage of facilitating increased efficiency and of improving process control.

  6. Age related effects in children taking the computerized assessment of response bias and word memory test.

    PubMed

    Courtney, John C; Dinkins, Juliet P; Allen, Lyle M; Kuroski, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    The assessment of effort is a fundamental component of test performance analysis, since effort determines whether a psychological evaluation is valid. The assessment of effort in children has proven problematic. This may be related to the variable and inconsistent nature of children's developing self-regulatory systems, and the fact that measures commonly used to assess effort were standardized on adults. If one uses effort measures designed for adults to assess children, then one must presume that the maintenance of effort in children is comparable to the same behavior in adults. However, because children's executive functioning, including their abilities to self-regulate, attend, concentrate, and to engage in various cognitive activities improve with time (Barkley, 1997, pp. 209-234), our hypothesis is that young children's effort regulation is dissimilar to that of adults, and the presumption of similarity is implausible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age is a significant influence upon young children's performances on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) and Word Memory Test (WMT). Statistical analysis suggests that younger children (those under 10 years of age) tended to produce poorer performance on these instruments. Younger children's scores differed significantly from children ages 10 and older. Children 11 years and older produced CARB and WMT results similar to adult participants, suggesting a viability for adult normative comparisons with children in this age range. The current investigation concluded that children's maintenance of effort appears to be significantly related to age and reading ability level. Consequently, the use of current adult-based norms with the CARB and WMT, without regard for a child's developmental status and other contextual factors such as the child's ability to read, appears ill-advised especially with children under 11 years of age. PMID:12815513

  7. Usability Testing of a Computerized Communication Tool in a Diverse Urban Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Tsimicalis, Argerie; Stone, Patricia W.; Bakken, Suzanne; Yoon, Sunmoo; Sands, Stephen; Porter, Rechelle; Ruland, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background Developed in Norway, Sisom is an interactive, rigorously tested, computerized, communication tool designed to help children with cancer express their perceived symptoms/problems. Children travel virtually from island to island rating their symptoms/problems. While Sisom has been found to significantly improve communication in patient consultations in Norway, usability testing is warranted with US children prior to further use in research studies. Objective To determine the usability of Sisom in a sample of English and Spanish speaking children in an urban US community. Methods A mixed methods usability study was conducted with a purposive sample of healthy children and children with cancer. Semi-structured interviews were used to assess healthy children’s symptom recognition. Children with cancer completed 8 usability tasks captured with Morae® 3.3 software. Data were downloaded, transcribed, and analyzed descriptively. Results Four healthy children and 8 children with cancer participated. Of the 44 symptoms assessed, healthy children recognized 15 (34%) pictorial symptoms immediately or indicated 13 (30%) pictures were good representations of the symptom. Six children with cancer completed all tasks. All children navigated successfully from one island to the next, ranking their symptom/problem severity, clicking the magnifying glass for help, or asking the researcher for assistance. All children were satisfied with the aesthetics and expressed an interest in using Sisom to communicate their symptoms. Conclusions A few minor suggestions for improvement and adjustment may optimize the use of Sisom for US children. Implications for Practice Sisom may help clinicians overcome challenges assessing children’s complex symptoms/problems in a child-friendly manner. PMID:24457227

  8. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  9. Color-Shape Associations Revealed with Implicit Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky’s color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky’s theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people’s color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods. PMID:25625717

  10. CogState computerized memory tests in patients with brain metastases: secondary endpoint results of NRG Oncology RTOG 0933.

    PubMed

    Caine, Chip; Deshmukh, Snehal; Gondi, Vinai; Mehta, Minesh; Tomé, Wolfgang; Corn, Benjamin W; Kanner, Andrew; Rowley, Howard; Kundapur, Vijayananda; DeNittis, Albert; Greenspoon, Jeffrey Noah; Konski, Andre A; Bauman, Glenn S; Raben, Adam; Shi, Wenyin; Wendland, Merideth; Kachnic, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is associated with memory dysfunction. As part of NRG Oncology RTOG 0933, a phase II study of WBRT for brain metastases that conformally avoided the hippocampal stem cell compartment (HA-WBRT), memory was assessed pre- and post-HA-WBRT using both traditional and computerized memory tests. We examined whether the computerized tests yielded similar findings and might serve as possible alternatives for assessment of memory in multi-institution clinical trials. Adult patients with brain metastases received HA-WBRT to 30 Gy in ten fractions and completed Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), CogState International Shopping List Test (ISLT) and One Card Learning Test (OCLT), at baseline, 2 and 4 months. Tests' completion rates were 52-53 % at 2 months and 34-42 % at 4 months. All baseline correlations between HVLT-R and CogState tests were significant (p ≤ 0.003). At baseline, both CogState tests and one component of HVLT-R differentiated those who were alive at 6 months and those who had died (p ≤ 0.01). At 4 months, mean relative decline was 7.0 % for HVLT-R Delayed Recall and 18.0 % for ISLT Delayed Recall. OCLT showed an 8.0 % increase. A reliable change index found no significant changes from baseline to 2 and 4 months for ISLT Delayed Recall (z = -0.40, p = 0.34; z = -0.68, p = 0.25) or OCLT (z = 0.15, p = 0.56; z = 0.41, p = 0.66). Study findings support the possibility that hippocampal avoidance may be associated with preservation of memory test performance, and that these computerized tests also may be useful and valid memory assessments in multi-institution adult brain tumor trials. PMID:26511494

  11. CogState computerized memory tests in patients with brain metastases: secondary endpoint results of NRG Oncology RTOG 0933.

    PubMed

    Caine, Chip; Deshmukh, Snehal; Gondi, Vinai; Mehta, Minesh; Tomé, Wolfgang; Corn, Benjamin W; Kanner, Andrew; Rowley, Howard; Kundapur, Vijayananda; DeNittis, Albert; Greenspoon, Jeffrey Noah; Konski, Andre A; Bauman, Glenn S; Raben, Adam; Shi, Wenyin; Wendland, Merideth; Kachnic, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is associated with memory dysfunction. As part of NRG Oncology RTOG 0933, a phase II study of WBRT for brain metastases that conformally avoided the hippocampal stem cell compartment (HA-WBRT), memory was assessed pre- and post-HA-WBRT using both traditional and computerized memory tests. We examined whether the computerized tests yielded similar findings and might serve as possible alternatives for assessment of memory in multi-institution clinical trials. Adult patients with brain metastases received HA-WBRT to 30 Gy in ten fractions and completed Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), CogState International Shopping List Test (ISLT) and One Card Learning Test (OCLT), at baseline, 2 and 4 months. Tests' completion rates were 52-53 % at 2 months and 34-42 % at 4 months. All baseline correlations between HVLT-R and CogState tests were significant (p ≤ 0.003). At baseline, both CogState tests and one component of HVLT-R differentiated those who were alive at 6 months and those who had died (p ≤ 0.01). At 4 months, mean relative decline was 7.0 % for HVLT-R Delayed Recall and 18.0 % for ISLT Delayed Recall. OCLT showed an 8.0 % increase. A reliable change index found no significant changes from baseline to 2 and 4 months for ISLT Delayed Recall (z = -0.40, p = 0.34; z = -0.68, p = 0.25) or OCLT (z = 0.15, p = 0.56; z = 0.41, p = 0.66). Study findings support the possibility that hippocampal avoidance may be associated with preservation of memory test performance, and that these computerized tests also may be useful and valid memory assessments in multi-institution adult brain tumor trials.

  12. The Lagerlunda collision and the introduction of color vision testing.

    PubMed

    Mollon, J D; Cavonius, L R

    2012-01-01

    In histories of vision testing, the origins of occupational screening for color blindness are often traced to a fatal railroad accident that occurred in Sweden on the night of 14-15 November 1875. The scene of the accident was the estate of Baron Lagerfelt in Östergötland, but the critical events were played out at Linköping (the normal passing place for the northbound and southbound expresses) and at Bankeberg (a small station to which the passing place was reassigned at a few minutes' notice). First to arrive at Bankeberg, the northbound express slowed almost to a halt, but then inexplicably accelerated forwards towards the Lagerlunda estate, despite a sequence of signals from the stationmaster, Uno Björkelund, and a lineman, Oskar Johansson. Soon after the accident, the ophthalmologist Frithiof Holmgren suggested that the engineer of the northbound express, Andersson, or his oiler, Larsson, had been color blind. Neither survived to be tested. Using the records of the subsequent trial and other archival materials, we have re-examined the role of color blindness in the Lagerlunda incident and conclude that the accident cannot be attributed to color blindness alone. Yet the accident undoubtedly had a central role in the introduction of color vision testing by European and North American railroads. To persuade the railroad management to introduce universal screening of employees for color blindness, Holmgren used a dramatic coup de theatre and some unashamed subterfuge.

  13. HIV Testing Patterns among Urban YMSM of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…

  14. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Santosh; Karande, Sunil; Saxena, Akriti A.; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls) using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction) were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests. PMID:25579146

  15. A survey and evaluation of lantern tests of color vision.

    PubMed

    Cole, B L; Vingrys, A J

    1982-04-01

    This paper reports a survey of the lantern tests that have been or are used to evaluate the color vision of people who wish to enter occupations that require the ability to recognize colored signal lights reliably. The origin of each lantern is traced and the principal features of each are described. The available data concerning failure rate of normals, the failure rate of people with defective color vision, and the extent to which scores on lantern tests correlate with field trials are summarized. Despite the fact that lantern tests have been used since the turn of the century and that some lanterns have been in use for more than 30 years and some for much longer periods, the available validation data are incomplete and sometimes conflicting. However, the data do indicate that some lanterns may fail a significant proportion of normals and that there is considerable variation between lanterns in the proportion of color vision defectives that will fail. It is noted that most lanterns will pass some protanomals despite their reduced sensitivity to red light and correspondingly short visual range for red signals. The view of Cameron is supported that a more rational approach would be to made a clinical diagnosis of the type of color vision defect, to reject protanopes, deuteranopes, and protanomals and to use a lantern test only to determine which deuteranomals should be accepted.

  16. A Bayesian Method for the Detection of Item Preknowledge in CAT. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Lori D.; Lewis, Charles; Thissen, David.

    With the increased use of computerized adaptive testing, which allows for continuous testing, new concerns about test security have evolved, one being the assurance that items in an item pool are safeguarded from theft. In this paper, the risk of score inflation and procedures to detect test takers using item preknowledge are explored. When test…

  17. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  18. Building the Vocational Phase of the Computerized Motor Skills Testing System for Use in the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Group and Hospitality Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chen, Jyun-Chen; Hong, Kunde

    2016-01-01

    Technical and vocational education emphasizes the development and training of hand motor skills. However, some problems exist in the current career and aptitude tests in that they do not truly measure the hand motor skills. This study used the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller as the testing device in developing a set of computerized testing tools to…

  19. Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    The color wheel, because it is an excellent way to teach color theory has become somewhat of a traditional assignment in most basic design courses. Article described a way to change this situation by re-designing and improving upon the basic color wheel. (Author/RK)

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Computerized Revised Token Test: Comparison of Reading and Listening Versions in Persons with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Malcolm R.; Pratt, Sheila R.; Szuminsky, Neil; Sung, Jee Eun; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Lim, Kyoung Yuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the reliability and validity of intermodality associations and differences in persons with aphasia (PWA) and healthy controls (HC) on a computerized listening and 3 reading versions of the Revised Token Test (RTT; McNeil & Prescott, 1978). Method: Thirty PWA and 30 HC completed the test versions, including a…

  1. Hypnotic color blindness and performance on the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Mallard, D; Bryant, R A

    2001-10-01

    A suggestion for hypnotic color blindness was investigated by administering a reverse Stroop color-naming task. Prior to the suggestion for color blindness, participants learned associations between color names and shapes. Following the color blindness suggestion, participants were required to name the shapes when they appeared in colors that were either congruent or incongruent with the learned associations. The 18 high hypnotizable participants who passed the suggestion were slower to name (a) shapes in which the color name was incongruent with the color in which it was printed, (b) "unseen" rather than "seen" shapes, and (c) color-incongruent shapes that were printed in the color in which they were "color-blind." These patterns are discussed in terms of potential cognitive and social mechanisms that may mediate responses to hypnotic color blindness.

  2. Color-Object Interference: Further Tests of an Executive Control Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

    2011-01-01

    Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment…

  3. A computer-controlled color vision test for children based on the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo R K; Bandeira, Marcio L; Tsubota, Daniela; Oiwa, Nestor N; Costa, Marcelo F; Ventura, Dora F

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at providing conditions for the assessment of color discrimination in children using a modified version of the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT, Cambridge Research Systems Ltd., Rochester, UK). Since the task of indicating the gap of the Landolt C used in that test proved counterintuitive and/or difficult for young children to understand, we changed the target stimulus to a patch of color approximately the size of the Landolt C gap (about 7 degrees of visual angle at 50 cm from the monitor). The modifications were performed for the CCT Trivector test which measures color discrimination for the protan, deutan and tritan confusion lines. Experiment 1 sought to evaluate the correspondence between the CCT and the child-friendly adaptation with adult subjects (n = 29) with normal color vision. Results showed good agreement between the two test versions. Experiment 2 tested the child-friendly software with children 2 to 7 years old (n = 25) using operant training techniques for establishing and maintaining the subjects' performance. Color discrimination thresholds were progressively lower as age increased within the age range tested (2 to 30 years old), and the data--including those obtained for children--fell within the range of thresholds previously obtained for adults with the CCT. The protan and deutan thresholds were consistently lower than tritan thresholds, a pattern repeatedly observed in adults tested with the CCT. The results demonstrate that the test is fit for assessment of color discrimination in young children and may be a useful tool for the establishment of color vision thresholds during development.

  4. The stochastically curtailed generalized likelihood ratio: A new termination criterion for variable-length computerized classification tests.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Alan R; Fina, Anthony D

    2015-06-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) are used to classify examinees into categories in the context of professional certification testing. The term "variable-length" refers to CCTs that terminate (i.e., cease administering items to the examinee) when a classification can be made with a prespecified level of certainty. The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common criterion for terminating variable-length CCTs, but recent research has proposed more efficient methods. Specifically, the stochastically curtailed SPRT (SCSPRT) and the generalized likelihood ratio criterion (GLR) have been shown to classify examinees with accuracy similar to the SPRT while using fewer items. This article shows that the GLR criterion itself may be stochastically curtailed, resulting in a new termination criterion, the stochastically curtailed GLR (SCGLR). All four criteria-the SPRT, SCSPRT, GLR, and the new SCGLR-were compared using a simulation study. In this study, we examined the criteria in testing conditions that varied several CCT design features, including item bank characteristics, pass/fail threshold, and examinee ability distribution. In each condition, the termination criteria were evaluated according to their accuracy (proportion of examinees classified correctly), efficiency (test length), and loss (a single statistic combing both accuracy and efficiency). The simulation results showed that the SCGLR can yield increased efficiency without sacrificing accuracy, relative to the SPRT, SCSPRT, and GLR in a wide variety of CCT designs. PMID:24907003

  5. An Item Response Theory-Based, Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip S.; Havmose, Philip; Bleses, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the feasibility and potential validity of an item response theory (IRT)-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS; Fenson et al., 2007) vocabulary checklist, with the objective of reducing length while maintaining…

  6. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Testing for Diagnosing the Cognitive Process of Grade 7 Students in Learning Algebra, Using Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senarat, Somprasong; Tayraukham, Sombat; Piyapimonsit, Chatsiri; Tongkhambanjong, Sakesan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multidimensional computerized adaptive test for diagnosing the cognitive process of grade 7 students in learning algebra by applying multidimensional item response theory. The research is divided into 4 steps: 1) the development of item bank of algebra, 2) the development of the multidimensional…

  7. The Use of Statistical Process Control-Charts for Person-Fit Analysis on Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.

    In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online test…

  8. An Evaluation of Computerized Tests as Predictors of Job Performance: II. Differential Validity for Global and Job Element Criteria. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Charles H.

    This report presents data concerning the validity of a set of experimental computerized and paper-and-pencil tests for measures of on-job performance on global and job elements. It reports on the usefulness of 30 experimental and operational variables for predicting marks on 42 job elements and on a global criterion for Electrician's Mate,…

  9. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  10. Computerized reminders for five preventive screening tests: generation of patient-specific letters incorporating physician preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D. J.; Gross, R.; Buchanan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Compliance with preventive screening tests is inadequate in the United States. We describe a computer based system for generating reminder letters to patients who may have missed their indicated screening tests because they do not visit a provider regularly or missed their tests despite the fact that they do visit a provider. We started with national recommendations and generated a local consensus for test indications. We then used this set of indications and our electronic record to determine test deficiencies in our pilot pool of 3073 patients. The computer generated customized reminder letters targeting several tests. Physicians chose any patients who should not receive letters. The response rate for fecal occult blood (FOB) testing was 33% compared with an 18% historical compliance rate within the same community. FOB reminders generated improved test compliance. Test execution must be considered when commencing a program of screening test reminders. PMID:11079954

  11. Assessment of social cognition in non-human primates using a network of computerized automated learning device (ALDM) test systems.

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Marzouki, Yousri; Huguet, Pascal; Gullstrand, Julie; Claidière, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Fagot & Paleressompoulle(1) and Fagot & Bonte(2) have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of monkeys maintained in semi-free ranging conditions. Data accumulated during the last five years have consistently demonstrated the efficiency of this protocol to investigate individual/physical cognition in monkeys, and have further shown that this procedure reduces stress level during animal testing(3). This paper demonstrates that networks of ALDM can also be used to investigate different facets of social cognition and in-group expressed behaviors in monkeys, and describes three illustrative protocols developed for that purpose. The first study demonstrates how ethological assessments of social behavior and computerized assessments of cognitive performance could be integrated to investigate the effects of socially exhibited moods on the cognitive performance of individuals. The second study shows that batteries of ALDM running in parallel can provide unique information on the influence of the presence of others on task performance. Finally, the last study shows that networks of ALDM test units can also be used to study issues related to social transmission and cultural evolution. Combined together, these three studies demonstrate clearly that ALDM testing is a highly promising experimental tool for bridging the gap in the animal literature between research on individual cognition and research on social cognition. PMID:25992495

  12. Assessment of Social Cognition in Non-human Primates Using a Network of Computerized Automated Learning Device (ALDM) Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fagot, Joël; Marzouki, Yousri; Huguet, Pascal; Gullstrand, Julie; Claidière, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Fagot & Paleressompoulle1 and Fagot & Bonte2 have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of monkeys maintained in semi-free ranging conditions. Data accumulated during the last five years have consistently demonstrated the efficiency of this protocol to investigate individual/physical cognition in monkeys, and have further shown that this procedure reduces stress level during animal testing3. This paper demonstrates that networks of ALDM can also be used to investigate different facets of social cognition and in-group expressed behaviors in monkeys, and describes three illustrative protocols developed for that purpose. The first study demonstrates how ethological assessments of social behavior and computerized assessments of cognitive performance could be integrated to investigate the effects of socially exhibited moods on the cognitive performance of individuals. The second study shows that batteries of ALDM running in parallel can provide unique information on the influence of the presence of others on task performance. Finally, the last study shows that networks of ALDM test units can also be used to study issues related to social transmission and cultural evolution. Combined together, these three studies demonstrate clearly that ALDM testing is a highly promising experimental tool for bridging the gap in the animal literature between research on individual cognition and research on social cognition. PMID:25992495

  13. Assessment of social cognition in non-human primates using a network of computerized automated learning device (ALDM) test systems.

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Marzouki, Yousri; Huguet, Pascal; Gullstrand, Julie; Claidière, Nicolas

    2015-05-05

    Fagot & Paleressompoulle(1) and Fagot & Bonte(2) have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of monkeys maintained in semi-free ranging conditions. Data accumulated during the last five years have consistently demonstrated the efficiency of this protocol to investigate individual/physical cognition in monkeys, and have further shown that this procedure reduces stress level during animal testing(3). This paper demonstrates that networks of ALDM can also be used to investigate different facets of social cognition and in-group expressed behaviors in monkeys, and describes three illustrative protocols developed for that purpose. The first study demonstrates how ethological assessments of social behavior and computerized assessments of cognitive performance could be integrated to investigate the effects of socially exhibited moods on the cognitive performance of individuals. The second study shows that batteries of ALDM running in parallel can provide unique information on the influence of the presence of others on task performance. Finally, the last study shows that networks of ALDM test units can also be used to study issues related to social transmission and cultural evolution. Combined together, these three studies demonstrate clearly that ALDM testing is a highly promising experimental tool for bridging the gap in the animal literature between research on individual cognition and research on social cognition.

  14. Computerized thermal transient test console. [for nondestructive inspection of electroexplosive devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menichelli, V. J.

    1976-01-01

    A system for nondestructively testing electroexplosive devices by the thermal transient test technique is described. The signal, which is generated by pulsing the electroexplosive device bridgewire is reduced to digital form. The data is then interpreted by an appropriate program and the essential electrothermal parameters are resolved. The system is fast, eliminates arbitrary interpretation of the analog, and lends itself to production testing.

  15. Psychometric properties of a computerized adaptive test for assessing mobility in older adults using novel video-animation technology

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Marsh, Anthony P.; Barnard, Ryan; Chen, Shyh-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on the psychometric properties of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Mobility Assessment Tool (MAT) for older adults (MAT-CAT). Methods An item pool of 78 video-animation-based items for mobility was developed, and response data were collected from a sample of 234 participants aged 65–90 years. The video-animation-based instrument was designed to minimize ambiguity in the presentation of task demands. In addition to evaluating traditional psychometric properties including dimensionality, differential item functioning (DIF), and local dependence, we extensively tested the performance of several MAT-CAT measures and compared their performances with a fixed format. Results Operationally, the MAT-CAT was sufficiently unidimensional and had acceptable levels of local independence. One DIF item was removed. Most importantly, the CAT measures showed that even starting with a single fixed item at the mean ability, the adaptive version delivered better performance than the fixed format in terms of several criteria including the standard error of estimate. Conclusion The MAT-CAT demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties and superior performance to a fixed format. The video-animation-based adaptive instrument can be used for assessing mobility with specificity and precision. PMID:23334945

  16. Computerized Testing Software for Assessing Interference Suppression in Children and Adults: The Bivalent Shape Task (BST)

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Shane T.; Esposito, Alena G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Bivalent Shape Task (BST), software using the Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL), for testing of cognitive interference and the ability to suppress interference. The test is available via the GNU Public License, Version 3 (GPLv3), is freely modifiable, and has been tested on both children and adults and found to provide a simple and fast non-verbal measure of cognitive interference and suppression that requires no reading. PMID:26702358

  17. Comparability of Conventional and Computerized Tests of Reading in a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2001-01-01

    Addresses issues surrounding the effect of mode of presentation on second language (L2) reading test performance, reviewing the literature in cognitive ability testing in educational and psychological measurement and the non-assessment literature in ergonomics, education, psychology, and first language reading research. Generalization of the…

  18. A Minimax Sequential Procedure in the Context of Computerized Adaptive Mastery Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Hans J.

    The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for variable-length mastery tests in case three mastery classification decisions (nonmastery, partial mastery, and mastery) are distinguished. In a variable-length or adaptive mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master, a partial master, a nonmaster, or continuing sampling…

  19. Fairness in Computerized Testing: Detecting Item Bias Using CATSIB with Impact Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Man-Wai; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    In educational assessment, there is an increasing demand for tailoring assessments to individual examinees through computer adaptive tests (CAT). As such, it is particularly important to investigate the fairness of these adaptive testing processes, which require the investigation of differential item function (DIF) to yield information about item…

  20. Reducing the Impact of Inappropriate Items on Reviewable Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Liao, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In a test, the testing score would be closer to examinee's actual ability when careless mistakes were corrected. In CAT, however, changing the answer of one item in CAT might cause the following items no longer appropriate for estimating the examinee's ability. These inappropriate items in a reviewable CAT might in turn introduce bias in ability…

  1. Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Zinnes and Griggs Pairwise Preference Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Stephen; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.

    2011-01-01

    This article delves into a relatively unexplored area of measurement by focusing on adaptive testing with unidimensional pairwise preference items. The use of such tests is becoming more common in applied non-cognitive assessment because research suggests that this format may help to reduce certain types of rater error and response sets commonly…

  2. Revising Item Responses in Computerized Adaptive Tests: A Comparison of Three Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated three models that permit restricted examinee control over revising previous answers in the context of adaptive testing, using simulation. Two models permitting item revisions worked well in preserving test fairness and accuracy, and one model may preserve some cognitive processing styles developed by examinees for a linear testing…

  3. Differential Item Functioning of GRE Mathematics Items across Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Testing Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lixiong; Drake, Samuel; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether item features are related to observed differences in item difficulty (DIF) between computer- and paper-based test delivery media. Examinees responded to 60 quantitative items similar to those found on the GRE general test in either a computer-based or paper-based medium. Thirty-eight percent of the items were…

  4. Orbital docking system centerline color television camera system test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mongan, Philip T.

    1993-01-01

    A series of tests was run to verify that the design of the centerline color television camera (CTVC) system is adequate optically for the STS-71 Space Shuttle Orbiter docking mission with the Mir space station. In each test, a mockup of the Mir consisting of hatch, docking mechanism, and docking target was positioned above the Johnson Space Center's full fuselage trainer, which simulated the Orbiter with a mockup of the external airlock and docking adapter. Test subjects viewed the docking target through the CTVC under 30 different lighting conditions and evaluated target resolution, field of view, light levels, light placement, and methods of target alignment. Test results indicate that the proposed design will provide adequate visibility through the centerline camera for a successful docking, even with a reasonable number of light failures. It is recommended that the flight deck crew have individual switching capability for docking lights to provide maximum shadow management and that centerline lights be retained to deal with light failures and user preferences. Procedures for light management should be developed and target alignment aids should be selected during simulated docking runs.

  5. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Schwartz, D.E.; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking vertical sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars. 16 refs.

  6. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Walker, Helen J.; Volk, Kevin; Schwartz, Deborah E.

    1989-01-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking 'vertical' sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars.

  7. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  8. The Effects of Repeat Testing, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Measures of Visuospatial Memory Span.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E W

    2015-01-01

    Spatial span tests (SSTs) such as the Corsi Block Test (CBT) and the SST of the Wechsler Memory Scale are widely used to assess deficits in spatial working memory. We conducted three experiments to evaluate the test-retest reliability and clinical sensitivity of a new computerized spatial span test (C-SST) that incorporates psychophysical methods to improve the precision of spatial span measurement. In Experiment 1, we analyzed C-SST test-retest reliability in 49 participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were higher for a psychophysically derived mean span (MnS) metric (0.83) than for the maximal span and total correct metrics used in traditional spatial-span tests. Response times (ReTs) also showed high ICCs (0.93) that correlated negatively with MnS scores and correlated positively with response-time latencies from other tests of processing speed. Learning effects were insignificant. Experiment 2 examined the performance of Experiment 1 participants when instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI): 57% showed abnormal MnS z-scores. A MnS z-score cutoff of 3.0 correctly classified 36% of simulated malingerers and 91% of the subgroup of 11 control participants with abnormal spans. Malingerers also made more substitution errors than control participants with abnormal spans (sensitivity = 43%, specificity = 91%). In addition, malingerers showed no evidence of ReT slowing, in contrast to significant abnormalities seen on other malingered tests of processing speed. As a result, differences between ReT z-scores and z-scores on other processing speed tests showed very high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing malingering and control participants with either normal or abnormal spans. Experiment 3 examined C-SST performance in a group of patients with predominantly mild TBI: neither MnS nor ReT z-scores showed significant group-level abnormalities. The C-SST improves the

  9. The Effects of Repeat Testing, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Measures of Visuospatial Memory Span.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E W

    2015-01-01

    Spatial span tests (SSTs) such as the Corsi Block Test (CBT) and the SST of the Wechsler Memory Scale are widely used to assess deficits in spatial working memory. We conducted three experiments to evaluate the test-retest reliability and clinical sensitivity of a new computerized spatial span test (C-SST) that incorporates psychophysical methods to improve the precision of spatial span measurement. In Experiment 1, we analyzed C-SST test-retest reliability in 49 participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were higher for a psychophysically derived mean span (MnS) metric (0.83) than for the maximal span and total correct metrics used in traditional spatial-span tests. Response times (ReTs) also showed high ICCs (0.93) that correlated negatively with MnS scores and correlated positively with response-time latencies from other tests of processing speed. Learning effects were insignificant. Experiment 2 examined the performance of Experiment 1 participants when instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI): 57% showed abnormal MnS z-scores. A MnS z-score cutoff of 3.0 correctly classified 36% of simulated malingerers and 91% of the subgroup of 11 control participants with abnormal spans. Malingerers also made more substitution errors than control participants with abnormal spans (sensitivity = 43%, specificity = 91%). In addition, malingerers showed no evidence of ReT slowing, in contrast to significant abnormalities seen on other malingered tests of processing speed. As a result, differences between ReT z-scores and z-scores on other processing speed tests showed very high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing malingering and control participants with either normal or abnormal spans. Experiment 3 examined C-SST performance in a group of patients with predominantly mild TBI: neither MnS nor ReT z-scores showed significant group-level abnormalities. The C-SST improves the

  10. Color changes in the red-green plates of the 50-year-old AO HRR color vision test.

    PubMed

    Lee, David Y

    2006-01-01

    The original AO HRR color vision test has been considered by many as one of the best plate tests. It is still accepted by many governmental agencies for color vision certification. In their 1954 publication, Hardy, Rand, and Rittler stated that specially compounded inks were used for printing to avoid color changes with time. Fifty years later, it is both important and interesting to determine whether the wear and tear cause significant color changes. The chance finding of a never-used second edition offers an opportunity to evaluate the color changes. A GretagMacbeth Spectrolino spectrophotometer was used to measure the chromaticities of the never-used book, and an extensively used book. Four plates (#4, 7, 13, 16), selected randomly from the four red-green sections, were analyzed. The colored dots from each of the eight plates were plotted on a CIE chromaticity diagram. Isocolor lines were drawn to evaluate chromatic alignment. Chromaticities for plates #4 and 7 are significantly different between the two books. With regard to alignment with isocolor lines, the extensively used book is better than the never-used book for plate #4. There is significant misalignment on plate #7 for both books. Chromaticities for plates #13 and 16 are essentially identical between books, all with good alignment with isocolor lines. The overall comparison shows that the chromatic alignment characteristics of the extensively used book are not worse than the never-used book. Since colors in these plates have to be aligned with both the protan and deutan axes, any significant color changes would have disturbed this delicate requirement. The findings of many plates with good alignment, and the lack of differences on plates #13 and 16 between books, suggest that there are no significant color changes over time. Differences between books on plates #4 and 7 were likely the result of the original printing process. PMID:16962013

  11. Effects of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Stimulant Medication on Concussion Symptom Reporting and Computerized Neurocognitive Test Performance.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Ashley C; Schmidt, Julianne D; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Gioia, Gerard A; Waicus, Kelly M; Mihalik, Jason P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-11-01

    Effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications on concussion measures are unclear. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine consistency of performance in an unmedicated ADHD group and a control group on concussion measures, (ii) assess performance differences between the two groups, and (iii) assess the effect of stimulant medication on performance in the ADHD group. College-aged participants (22 ADHD and 22 matched controls) were administered a symptom checklist and a computerized neurocognitive test (CNS Vital Signs, CNSVS) 3 times (1 week apart): Sessions 1 and 2 were unmedicated for all participants; Session 3 was medicated for the ADHD group. The reliability of the measures (intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC2,1) was consistent for both groups. When unmedicated, the ADHD group performed worse than controls on psychomotor speed [F(1,40) = 15.19, p < 0.001], and worse than when medicated on reaction time [F(1,39) = 6.34, p = 0.02]. The ADHD group performed better and comparable with controls when medicated. Clinicians should take medication status into account when interpreting scores. PMID:26310392

  12. Randomized controlled trial to test a computerized psychosocial cancer assessment and referral program: methods and research design.

    PubMed

    O'Hea, Erin L; Cutillo, Alexandra; Dietzen, Laura; Harralson, Tina; Grissom, Grant; Person, Sharina; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2013-05-01

    The National Cancer Coalition Network, National Cancer Institute, and American College of Surgeons all emphasize the need for oncology providers to identify, address, and monitor psychosocial needs of their patients. The Mental Health Assessment and Dynamic Referral for Oncology (MHADRO) is a patient-driven, computerized, psychosocial assessment that identifies, addresses, and monitors physical, psychological, and social issues faced by oncology patients. This paper presents the methodology of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the impact of the MHADRO on patient outcomes at 2, 6, and 12 months. Patient outcomes including overall psychological distress, depression, anxiety, functional disability, and use of psychosocial resources will be presented in future publications after all follow-up data is gathered. Eight hundred and thirty six cancer patients with heterogeneous diagnoses, across three comprehensive cancer centers in different parts of the United States, were randomized to the MHADRO (intervention) or an assessment-only control group. Patients in the intervention group were provided detailed, personalized reports and, when needed, referrals to mental health services; their oncology provider received detailed reports designed to foster clinical decision making. Those patients who demonstrated high levels of psychosocial problems were given the option to authorize that a copy of their report be sent electronically to a "best match" mental health professional. Demographic and patient cancer-related data as well as comparisons between patients who were enrolled and those who declined enrollment are presented. Challenges encountered during the RCT and strategies used to address them are discussed.

  13. Effects of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Stimulant Medication on Concussion Symptom Reporting and Computerized Neurocognitive Test Performance.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Ashley C; Schmidt, Julianne D; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Gioia, Gerard A; Waicus, Kelly M; Mihalik, Jason P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-11-01

    Effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications on concussion measures are unclear. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine consistency of performance in an unmedicated ADHD group and a control group on concussion measures, (ii) assess performance differences between the two groups, and (iii) assess the effect of stimulant medication on performance in the ADHD group. College-aged participants (22 ADHD and 22 matched controls) were administered a symptom checklist and a computerized neurocognitive test (CNS Vital Signs, CNSVS) 3 times (1 week apart): Sessions 1 and 2 were unmedicated for all participants; Session 3 was medicated for the ADHD group. The reliability of the measures (intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC2,1) was consistent for both groups. When unmedicated, the ADHD group performed worse than controls on psychomotor speed [F(1,40) = 15.19, p < 0.001], and worse than when medicated on reaction time [F(1,39) = 6.34, p = 0.02]. The ADHD group performed better and comparable with controls when medicated. Clinicians should take medication status into account when interpreting scores.

  14. An Evaluative Study of Color-Vision Tests for Kindergarten and First Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, John M.

    Because of the increasing use of color in instructional materials at the level of the primary grades, the Health Service Department of the Denver Public Schools became interested in investigating the color vision of 5- and 6-year-olds. A project was established to create color-vision testing methods and to use those methods to ascertain incidence…

  15. Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

  16. The Effects of Repeat Testing, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Measures of Visuospatial Memory Span

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial span tests (SSTs) such as the Corsi Block Test (CBT) and the SST of the Wechsler Memory Scale are widely used to assess deficits in spatial working memory. We conducted three experiments to evaluate the test–retest reliability and clinical sensitivity of a new computerized spatial span test (C-SST) that incorporates psychophysical methods to improve the precision of spatial span measurement. In Experiment 1, we analyzed C-SST test–retest reliability in 49 participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were higher for a psychophysically derived mean span (MnS) metric (0.83) than for the maximal span and total correct metrics used in traditional spatial-span tests. Response times (ReTs) also showed high ICCs (0.93) that correlated negatively with MnS scores and correlated positively with response-time latencies from other tests of processing speed. Learning effects were insignificant. Experiment 2 examined the performance of Experiment 1 participants when instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI): 57% showed abnormal MnS z-scores. A MnS z-score cutoff of 3.0 correctly classified 36% of simulated malingerers and 91% of the subgroup of 11 control participants with abnormal spans. Malingerers also made more substitution errors than control participants with abnormal spans (sensitivity = 43%, specificity = 91%). In addition, malingerers showed no evidence of ReT slowing, in contrast to significant abnormalities seen on other malingered tests of processing speed. As a result, differences between ReT z-scores and z-scores on other processing speed tests showed very high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing malingering and control participants with either normal or abnormal spans. Experiment 3 examined C-SST performance in a group of patients with predominantly mild TBI: neither MnS nor ReT z-scores showed significant group-level abnormalities. The C-SST improves the

  17. Ability Level Estimation of Students on Probability Unit via Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özyurt, Hacer; Özyurt, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Learning-teaching activities bring along the need to determine whether they achieve their goals. Thus, multiple choice tests addressing the same set of questions to all are frequently used. However, this traditional assessment and evaluation form contrasts with modern education, where individual learning characteristics are…

  18. A CEFR-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing System for Chinese Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…

  19. Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

    2006-01-01

    Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

  20. Construction of a Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Marc J.; And Others

    Multilog (Thissen, 1991) was used to estimate parameters of 225 items from the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale (QABS). A database containing actual data from 2,439 subjects was used for the parameterization procedures. The two-parameter-logistic model was used in estimating item parameters and in the testing strategy. MicroCAT (Assessment Systems…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Purposeful Heading in Soccer and Computerized Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Cousino, Eric S.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between purposeful heading in soccer and neuropsychological test performance. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics throughput scores were derived on seven subset variables that measure a variety of neurocognitive abilities. Simple Spearman's rank correlations were…

  2. Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing--Gaining Information from Different Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, obtaining diagnostic information from examinees' item responses has become an increasingly important feature of educational and psychological testing. The objective can be achieved by sequentially selecting multidimensional items to fit the class of latent traits being assessed, and therefore Multidimensional…

  3. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  4. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  5. Qualitative tests for added coloring matter in meat products.

    PubMed

    McNeal, J E

    1976-05-01

    The rapid qualitative detection of coal tar dyes, chemicals added to color meat products, and some natural coloring materials was investigated through extraction and subsequent identification by spectrophotometric, paper chromatographic, and specific reaction techniques. These techniques will detect the presence of coal tar dyes, imidazole, histamine, histidine, cochineal, beet powder, annatto, alkanet, carotene, paprika, saffron, turmeric, and materials causing discoloration in meats.

  6. Test Security and Item Exposure Control for Computer-Based Examinations: Performance of a Computerized Classification Test for Professional Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalohn, John C.; Spray, Judith A.

    A client of American College Testing, Inc. (ACT) decided to implement a computer-based testing program to replace their paper-pencil format for professional certification. This paper reports on the results of the developed test after 1 year's use, especially as the results relate to test security issues. ACT research shows that a variable length…

  7. The Effect of Test and Examinee Characteristics on the Occurrence of Aberrant Response Patterns in a Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizavi, Saba; Hariharan, Swaminathan

    2001-01-01

    The advantages that computer adaptive testing offers over linear tests have been well documented. The Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) design is more efficient than the Linear test design as fewer items are needed to estimate an examinee's proficiency to a desired level of precision. In the ideal situation, a CAT will result in examinees answering…

  8. The Effect of Computerized Testing on Sun Bear Behavior and Enrichment Preferences.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M

    2016-09-22

    The field of comparative cognition investigates species' differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. They have an omnivorous diet and use their tongues to forage for insects and sap. Little is known about sun bear cognition, although much like other bear species, anecdotes suggest a high level of intelligence. The current work explored training sun bears to use a touchscreen computer. This effort allows for insight into cognitive abilities as well as providing a complex source of enrichment for the bears. The bears use their tongues to respond to a touchscreen computer, and the effects on stereotypic behaviors on exhibit and preference for this over other forms of enrichment were examined. Overall, bears performed well on the task and showed a preference for the computer.

  9. The Effect of Computerized Testing on Sun Bear Behavior and Enrichment Preferences.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M

    2016-01-01

    The field of comparative cognition investigates species' differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. They have an omnivorous diet and use their tongues to forage for insects and sap. Little is known about sun bear cognition, although much like other bear species, anecdotes suggest a high level of intelligence. The current work explored training sun bears to use a touchscreen computer. This effort allows for insight into cognitive abilities as well as providing a complex source of enrichment for the bears. The bears use their tongues to respond to a touchscreen computer, and the effects on stereotypic behaviors on exhibit and preference for this over other forms of enrichment were examined. Overall, bears performed well on the task and showed a preference for the computer. PMID:27669314

  10. The frequency of missed test results and associated treatment delays in a highly computerized health system

    PubMed Central

    Wahls, Terry L; Cram, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic errors associated with the failure to follow up on abnormal diagnostic studies ("missed results") are a potential cause of treatment delay and a threat to patient safety. Few data exist concerning the frequency of missed results and associated treatment delays within the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Objective: The primary objective of the current study was to assess the frequency of missed results and resulting treatment delays encountered by primary care providers in VA clinics. Methods: An anonymous on-line survey of primary care providers was conducted as part of the health systems ongoing quality improvement programs. We collected information from providers concerning their clinical effort (e.g., number of clinic sessions, number of patient visits per session), number of patients with missed abnormal test results, and the number and types of treatment delays providers encountered during the two week period prior to administration of our survey. Results: The survey was completed by 106 out of 198 providers (54 percent response rate). Respondents saw and average of 86 patients per 2 week period. Providers encountered 64 patients with missed results during the two week period leading up to the study and 52 patients with treatment delays. The most common missed results included imaging studies (29 percent), clinical laboratory (22 percent), anatomic pathology (9 percent), and other (40 percent). The most common diagnostic delays were cancer (34 percent), endocrine problems (26 percent), cardiac problems (16 percent), and others (24 percent). Conclusion: Missed results leading to clinically important treatment delays are an important and likely underappreciated source of diagnostic error. PMID:17519017

  11. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  12. Using color-color diagrams to test models for the 'blue bump'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, O.; Mcdowell, J. C.; Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Color-color diagrams are used to study the set of accretion disk plus power-law models and to determine whether they can adequately fit the optical/UV continua of a sample of 34 quasars, and the soft X-ray excesses measured for seven of the sample objects by Masnou et al. (1991). The loci of pure disk models for cos theta is greater than 0 are virtually superimposed on each other regardless of cos theta, demonstrating that a given observed spectrum cannot be described by a unique combination of S and cos theta. The distributions of model and data colors are found to overlap, showing that the disk plus power-law models do fit the distribution of data colors. For six of the seven objects, the soft X-ray excesses may be fit with an accretion disk plus power-law model without requiring the assumption of super-Eddington accretion; this shows the utility of employing Kerr disks.

  13. Experimental Tests for Heritable Morphological Color Plasticity in Non-Native Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Westley, Peter A. H.; Stanley, Ryan; Fleming, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta) was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature. PMID:24260385

  14. Computerized tomography calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

  15. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior

  16. Test-retest of computerized health status questionnaires frequently used in the monitoring of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To compare data based on touch screen to data based on traditional paper versions of questionnaires frequently used to examine patient reported outcomes in knee osteoarthritis patients and to examine the impact of patient characteristics on this comparison Methods Participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (http://ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00655941). 20 female participants, mean age 67 (SD 7), completed KOOS, VAS pain, function and patient global, SF-36, Physical Activity Scale, painDETECT, and the ADL Taxonomy. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two subgroups, completing either the paper or touch screen version first. Mean, mean differences (95% CI), median, median differences and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all questionnaires. Results ICCs between data based on computerized and paper versions ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. Analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between versions of the ADL Taxonomy, but not for the remaining questionnaires. Age, computer experience or education-level had no significant impact on the results. The computerized questionnaires were reported to be easier to use. Conclusion The computerized questionnaires gave comparable results to answers given on paper. Patient characteristics did not influence results and implementation was feasible. PMID:21851618

  17. Poorer color discrimination by females when tested with pseudoisochromatic plates containing vanishing designs on neutral backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Baraas, Rigmor C

    2008-01-01

    It might be expected that normal trichromatic females would perform as well as normal trichromatic males of the same age when tested with standard clinical color-vision tests that use pseudoisochromatic vanishing designs on neutral gray backgrounds such as the Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudoisochromatic plates and the Neitz Test of Color Vision (NTCV). Here 2966 children aged 6-13 years from four municipalities in Norway were tested in their school classrooms with the NTCV. Children who made errors on the test were retested. 187 males and 152 females made one or more errors on retest, and each was tested individually on the Richmond HRR Fourth Edition. 8% of the males were defined as color deficient when a double criterion for failing was applied, that is, one or more errors on the NTCV and two or more errors on the HRR. The calculated frequency of color-deficient females (homozygotes) for the same criterion is 0.42%. By contrast, 3% of females failed the criterion that gave a stable population of color-deficient males. This result is considered in relation to reports of female carriers of color-vision deficiency having problems with the Ishihara test and of females having poorer color discrimination than males. PMID:18598425

  18. Assessment of the Hemispheric Lateralization of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia with Stroop-Type Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Mathieu J.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults. PMID:25793307

  19. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mathieu J; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults.

  20. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mathieu J; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults. PMID:25793307

  1. Effectiveness of a Classroom Mindfulness Coloring Activity for Test Anxiety in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsley, Dana; Heath, Nancy L.; Fajnerova, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based structured versus unstructured coloring on test anxiety, 52 participants (53.8% female; M[subscript age] = 10.92 years, SD = 0.82) were randomly assigned to either a structured mandala (n = 26) or free coloring condition (n = 26), and completed a standardized anxiety measure to assess anxiety…

  2. color test for the convenient identification of an ingested surface activating agent.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Jamal, Mostofa; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Tobiume, Tadashi; Tsutsui, Kunihiko; Ameno, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Color tests are easy, simple and inexpensive methods for the qualitative identification of chemicals. A color test was applied to the stomach contents of a forensic autopsy case. The result of the test, using bromophenol blue reagent, indicated the ingestion of a commercial cleaning product containing a cationic surface activating agent. Our findings suggest that forensic investigators should consider the additives used in commercial chemical products, such as surface activating agents, when determining the cause of death. PMID:26419519

  3. 8. X15 ENGINE TESTING. A color print showing the engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. X-15 ENGINE TESTING. A color print showing the engine during test firing. View from the rear of the test stand looking northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Colorize magnetic nanoparticles using a search coil based testing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Wang, Yi; Feng, Yinglong; Yu, Lina; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Different magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possess unique spectral responses to AC magnetic field and we can use this specific magnetic property of MNPs as "colors" in the detection. In this paper, a detection scheme for magnetic nanoparticle size distribution is demonstrated by using an MNPs and search-coils integrated detection system. A low frequency (50 Hz) sinusoidal magnetic field is applied to drive MNPs into saturated region. Then a high frequency sinusoidal field sweeping from 5 kHz to 35 kHz is applied in order to generate mixing frequency signals, which are collected by a pair of balanced search coils. These harmonics are highly specific to the nonlinearity of magnetization curve of the MNPs. Previous work focused on using the amplitude and phase of the 3rd harmonic or the amplitude ratio of the 5th harmonic over 3rd harmonic. Here we demonstrate to use the amplitude and phase information of both 3rd and 5th harmonics as magnetic "colors" of MNPs. It is found that this method effectively reduces the magnetic colorization error.

  5. Rates and predictors of invalid baseline test performance in high school and collegiate athletes for three computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs): ANAM, Axon, and ImPACT

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsay D.; Pfaller, Adam Y.; Rein, Lisa E.; McCrea, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preseason baseline testing is increasingly performed on athletes using computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs). Adequate effort is critical to establish valid estimates of ability, yet many users do not evaluate performance validity, and the conditions that impact validity are not well understood across the available CNTs. Purpose We examined the rates and predictors of invalid baseline performance for three popular CNTs: ANAM (Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics), Axon Sports, and ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Cognitive Assessment and Testing). Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods High school and collegiate athletes (N = 2,063) completed two of three CNTs each during pre-season evaluations. All possible pairings were present across the sample, and order of administration was randomized. Examiners gave one-on-one, scripted pre-test instructions emphasizing the importance of good effort. Profile validity was determined by the manufacturers’ standard criteria. Results The overall percentage of tests flagged as of questionable validity was lowest for ImPACT (2.7%) and higher for ANAM and Axon (10.8% and 11.3%, respectively). The majority of invalid baselines were flagged as such due to failure on only one validity criterion. Several athlete and testing factors (e.g., attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder/ADHD, estimated general intellectual ability, administration order) predicted validity status for one or more CNTs. Considering only first CNT administrations and participants without ADHD and/or learning disability (n = 1,835) brought the rates of invalid baselines to 2.1%, 8.8%, and 7.0%, for ImPACT, ANAM, and Axon, respectively. Invalid profiles on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) were rare (1.8% of subjects) and demonstrated poor correspondence to CNT validity outcomes. Conclusion These CNTs’ validity criteria may not identify the same causes of invalidity or be equally sensitive to effort. The validity indicators

  6. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations.

  7. Comparative diagnostic value of a new computerized vectorcardiographic method (cardiogoniometry) and other noninvasive tests in medically treated patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, A.; Hoeflin, F.H.; Herrmann, H.J.; Wolf, C.; Gurtner, H.P.; Roesler, H.

    1987-05-01

    The diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a new computerized vectorcardiographic method, for the identification of coronary artery disease was compared with other noninvasive tests in 48 medically treated patients with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease in 18, two- or three-vessel disease in 21, and normal coronary arteries in 9 patients. Cardiogoniometry was less sensitive (63%) than thallium-/sup 201/ (201T1) scanning (82%), but slightly more sensitive than the exercise ECG (50%) or a recently proposed parameter of exercise performance (50%). On the other hand, specificity was comparable among these tests (exercise ECG 78%, thallium-201 scanning 72%, CGM 67%, new parameter of exercise performance 66%). Moreover, the false negative rate of noninvasive testing was reduced from 8 to 3% when CGM was added to thallium-201 scanning and exercise ECG. Our findings indicate that in view of the easier feasibility with computerized technology, the future role of vectorcardiographic methods such as CGM in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease should be redefined.

  8. Computerization of inspection programs in the refining, petrochemical and power industries

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, P.E.

    1998-12-31

    Most refinery, chemical and power plants have many inspection programs to maintain mechanical integrity of plant equipment, such as corrosion monitoring, re-rating of in-service pressure vessels and heat exchangers, evaluation of localized corrosion on piping, valve testing/inspection and visual inspections programs. Due to the tremendous volumes of engineering and inspection data and the significant benefits of comprehensive data analysis, most of these programs are ideal for computerization. Krautkramer`s UltraPIPE Program for Plant Inspection of Piping and Equipment is designed to computerize these inspection applications. The inspection applications are all supported by useful reporting (including color graphic reports): modules for retirement thickness calculations; data recording capabilities; interfaces to CAD equipment drawings, and computerization of inspection narratives and recommendations. Some of the many benefits to expect after implementation include: Evaluation of equipment condition; Prioritized inspections; Reduced plant risk; Improved access to data and plant drawings; Reduced costs; Improved planning; and Regulatory compliance.

  9. The stability of color discrimination threshold determined using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zutere, B.; Jurasevska Luse, K.; Livzane, A.

    2014-09-01

    Congenital red-green color vision deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders. A previously printed set of pseudoisochromatic plates (KAMS test, 2012) was created for individual discrimination threshold determination in case of mild congenital red-green color vision deficiency using neutral colors (colors confused with gray). The diagnostics of color blind subjects was performed with Richmond HRR (4th edition, 2002) test, Oculus HMC anomaloscope, and further the examination was made using the KAMS test. 4 male subjects aged 20 to 24 years old participated in the study: all of them were diagnosed with deuteranomalia. Due to the design of the plates, the threshold of every subject in each trial was defined as the plate total color difference value ΔE at which the stimulus was detected 75% of the time, so the just-noticeable difference (jnd) was calculated in CIE LAB DeltaE (ΔE) units. Authors performed repeated discrimination threshold measurements (5 times) for all four subjects under controlled illumination conditions. Psychophysical data were taken by sampling an observer's performance on a psychophysical task at a number of different stimulus saturation levels. Results show that a total color difference value ΔE threshold exists for each individual tested with the KAMS pseudoisochromatic plates, this threshold value does not change significantly in multiple measurements. Deuteranomal threshold values aquired using greenish plates of KAMS test are significantly higher than thresholds acquired using reddish plates. A strong positive correlation (R=0.94) exists between anomaloscope matching range (MR) and deuteranomal thresholds aquired by the KAMS test and (R=0.81) between error score in the Richmond HRR test and thresholds aquired by the KAMS test.

  10. A two-colored chewing gum test for assessing masticatory performance: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiya; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Kurokawa, Hiroomi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Kojima, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare subjective and objective assessment methods of a two-colored chewing gum test and to find out whether these methods are capable of discriminating masticatory performances between sexes. 31 adults, 16 males and 15 females participated in this study. Each subject chewed five samples of two-colored chewing gum sticks for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing strokes, respectively. The subjective color-mixing and shape indices for the gum bolus (SCMI-B, SSI-B) and the subjective color-mixing index and objective color-mixing ratio for the gum wafer (SCMI-W, OCMR-W) were evaluated by two independent examiners and, on a different day, re-evaluated by one of the examiners. The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments had inter- and intra-examiner reliable agreement at 20 or more chewing strokes. The OCMR-W measurement demonstrated high accuracy and low reproducibility between and within the examiners. There were significant gender differences in the distribution of SCMI-W scores (P = 0.044) and in the mean OCMI-W (P = 0.007). The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments and the OCMR-W measurement were reliable and valid at the 20 and 30 chewing strokes in this two-colored chewing gum test. The subjective color-mixing index (SCMI-W) and objective color-mixing ratio (OCMR-W) for the chewing gum wafer are capable of discriminating masticatory performance between sexes in this two-colored chewing gum test and that the OCMR-W measurement is discriminating better than the SCMI-W assessment. PMID:23076496

  11. A two-colored chewing gum test for assessing masticatory performance: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiya; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Kurokawa, Hiroomi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Kojima, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare subjective and objective assessment methods of a two-colored chewing gum test and to find out whether these methods are capable of discriminating masticatory performances between sexes. 31 adults, 16 males and 15 females participated in this study. Each subject chewed five samples of two-colored chewing gum sticks for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing strokes, respectively. The subjective color-mixing and shape indices for the gum bolus (SCMI-B, SSI-B) and the subjective color-mixing index and objective color-mixing ratio for the gum wafer (SCMI-W, OCMR-W) were evaluated by two independent examiners and, on a different day, re-evaluated by one of the examiners. The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments had inter- and intra-examiner reliable agreement at 20 or more chewing strokes. The OCMR-W measurement demonstrated high accuracy and low reproducibility between and within the examiners. There were significant gender differences in the distribution of SCMI-W scores (P = 0.044) and in the mean OCMI-W (P = 0.007). The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments and the OCMR-W measurement were reliable and valid at the 20 and 30 chewing strokes in this two-colored chewing gum test. The subjective color-mixing index (SCMI-W) and objective color-mixing ratio (OCMR-W) for the chewing gum wafer are capable of discriminating masticatory performance between sexes in this two-colored chewing gum test and that the OCMR-W measurement is discriminating better than the SCMI-W assessment.

  12. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Harold B.; McNair, Robert C.; White, Kenneth; Maugeri, Terry

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

  13. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

  14. [The color test: psychodiagnostic opportunities for the patients presenting with chronic somatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Aĭvazian, T A; Zaĭtsev, V P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic potential of the Luscher color test. A total of 1083 patients presenting with chronic somatic diseases were available for the psychodiagnostic examination. It was shown that the color test makes it possible to evaluate clinically significant psychological characteristics as well as dynamics of anxiety and stress-resistance in this group of patients. Specifically, in the cases of chronic somatic diseases, the test can be used as one of the psychodiagnostic methods especially for mass screening and in the situations when the application of the standard questionnaires encounters difficulties (for example, in the patients with disturbed cognitive functions). PMID:25536750

  15. The Measurement of Creativity by the Stroop Color and Word Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship of the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) to three independent measures of creativity: a verbal task, nonverbal task and teacher ratings were investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to test the validity of the SCWT as a measure of creativity. (Author/DEP)

  16. Carotenoid pixels characterization under color space tests and RGB formulas for mesocarp of mango's fruits cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed Yahya; Kassim, Farid Saad Eid Saad

    2010-01-01

    This study experimented the pulp (mesocarp) of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. namely Taimour [Ta], Dabsha [Da], Aromanis [Ar], Zebda [Ze], Fagri Kelan [Fa], Alphonse [Al], Bulbek heart [Bu], Hindi- Sinnara [Hi], Compania [Co], Langra [La], Mestikawi [Me], Ewais [Ew], Montakhab El Kanater [Mo] and Mabroka [Ma] . Under seven color space tests included (RGB: Red, Green and Blue), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). Addition, nine formula of color space tests included (sRGB 0÷1, CMY, CMYK, XYZ, CIE-L*ab, CIE-L*CH, CIE-L*uv, Yxy and Hunter-Lab) and (RGB 0÷FF/hex triplet) and Carotenoid Pixels Scale. Utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar then the result expounded with chemical pigment estimations. Our location study in the visual yellow to orange color degrees from the visible color of electromagnetic spectrum in wavelength between (~570 to 620) nm and frequency between (~480 to 530) THz. The results found carotene very strong influence in band Red while chlorophyll (a & b) was very lower subsequently, the values in band Green was depressed. Meanwhile, the general ratios percentage for carotenoid pixels in bands Red, Green and Blue were 50%, 39% and 11% as orderliness opposite the ratios percentage for carotene, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which were 63%, 22% and 16% approximately. According to that the pigments influence in all color space tests and RGB formulas. Band Yellow% in color test (CMYK%) as signature

  17. Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, Candice; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The genetics underlying inherited color vision deficiencies is well understood: causative mutations change the copy number or sequence of the long (L), middle (M), or short (S) wavelength sensitive cone opsin genes. This study evaluated the potential of opsin gene analyses for use in clinical diagnosis of color vision defects. Methods We tested 1872 human subjects using direct sequencing of opsin genes and a novel genetic assay that characterizes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the MassArray system. Of the subjects, 1074 also were given standard psychophysical color vision tests for a direct comparison with current clinical methods. Results Protan and deutan deficiencies were classified correctly in all subjects identified by MassArray as having red–green defects. Estimates of defect severity based on SNPs that control photopigment spectral tuning correlated with estimates derived from Nagel anomaloscopy. Conclusions The MassArray assay provides genetic information that can be useful in the diagnosis of inherited color vision deficiency including presence versus absence, type, and severity, and it provides information to patients about the underlying pathobiology of their disease. Translational Relevance The MassArray assay provides a method that directly analyzes the molecular substrates of color vision that could be used in combination with, or as an alternative to current clinical diagnosis of color defects.

  18. Genetic Testing as a New Standard for Clinical Diagnosis of Color Vision Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, Candice; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The genetics underlying inherited color vision deficiencies is well understood: causative mutations change the copy number or sequence of the long (L), middle (M), or short (S) wavelength sensitive cone opsin genes. This study evaluated the potential of opsin gene analyses for use in clinical diagnosis of color vision defects. Methods We tested 1872 human subjects using direct sequencing of opsin genes and a novel genetic assay that characterizes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the MassArray system. Of the subjects, 1074 also were given standard psychophysical color vision tests for a direct comparison with current clinical methods. Results Protan and deutan deficiencies were classified correctly in all subjects identified by MassArray as having red–green defects. Estimates of defect severity based on SNPs that control photopigment spectral tuning correlated with estimates derived from Nagel anomaloscopy. Conclusions The MassArray assay provides genetic information that can be useful in the diagnosis of inherited color vision deficiency including presence versus absence, type, and severity, and it provides information to patients about the underlying pathobiology of their disease. Translational Relevance The MassArray assay provides a method that directly analyzes the molecular substrates of color vision that could be used in combination with, or as an alternative to current clinical diagnosis of color defects. PMID:27622081

  19. Color discrimination across four life decades assessed by the Cambridge Colour Test.

    PubMed

    Paramei, Galina V

    2012-02-01

    Color discrimination was estimated using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) in 160 normal trichromats of four life decades, 20-59 years of age. For each age cohort, medians and tolerance limits of the CCT parameters are tabulated. Compared across the age cohorts (Kruskal-Wallis test), the Trivector test showed increases in the three vectors, Protan, Deutan, and Tritan, with advancing age; the Ellipses test revealed significant elongation of the major axes of all three ellipses but no changes in either the axis ratio or the angle of the ellipse major axis. Multiple comparisons (Mann-Whitney test) between the cohorts of four age decades (20+,…,50+) revealed initial benign deterioration of color discrimination in the 40+ decade, as an incremental loss of discrimination along the Deutan axis (Trivector test), and in the 50+ decade, as an elongation of the major axes of all three ellipses (Ellipses test).

  20. Aniseikonia Tests: The Role of Viewing Mode, Response Bias, and Size–Color Illusions

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Peli, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the factors responsible for the poor validity of the most common aniseikonia tests, which involve size comparisons of red–green stimuli presented haploscopically. Methods: Aniseikonia was induced by afocal size lenses placed before one eye. Observers compared the sizes of semicircles presented haploscopically via color filters. The main factor under study was viewing mode (free viewing versus short presentations under central fixation). To eliminate response bias, a three-response format allowed observers to respond if the left, the right, or neither semicircle appeared larger than the other. To control decisional (criterion) bias, measurements were taken with the lens-magnified stimulus placed on the left and on the right. To control for size–color illusions, measurements were made with color filters in both arrangements before the eyes and under binocular vision (without color filters). Results: Free viewing resulted in a systematic underestimation of lens-induced aniseikonia that was absent with short presentations. Significant size–color illusions and decisional biases were found that would be mistaken for aniseikonia unless appropriate action is taken. Conclusions: To improve their validity, aniseikonia tests should use short presentations and include control conditions to prevent contamination from decisional/response biases. If anaglyphs are used, presence of size–color illusions must be checked for. Translational relevance: We identified optimal conditions for administration of aniseikonia tests and appropriate action for differential diagnosis of aniseikonia in the presence of response biases or size–color illusions. Our study has clinical implications for aniseikonia management. PMID:26101722

  1. An updated Italian normative dataset for the Stroop color word test (SCWT).

    PubMed

    Brugnolo, A; De Carli, F; Accardo, J; Amore, M; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ferrara, M; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Girtler, N

    2016-03-01

    The Stroop color and word test (SCWT) is widely used to evaluate attention, information processing speed, selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. Normative values for the Italian population are available only for selected age groups, or for the short version of the test. The aim of this study was to provide updated normal values for the full version, balancing groups across gender, age decades, and education. Two kinds of indexes were derived from the performance of 192 normal subjects, divided by decade (from 20 to 90) and level of education (4 levels: 3-5; 6-8; 9-13; >13 years). They were (i) the correct answers achieved for each table in the first 30 s (word items, WI; color items, CI; color word items, CWI) and (ii) the total time required for reading the three tables (word time, WT; color time, CT; color word time, CWT). For each index, the regression model was evaluated using age, education, and gender as independent variables. The normative data were then computed following the equivalent scores method. In the regression model, age and education significantly influenced the performance in each of the 6 indexes, whereas gender had no significant effect. This study confirms the effect of age and education on the main indexes of the Stroop test and provides updated normative data for an Italian healthy population, well balanced across age, education, and gender. It will be useful to Italian researchers studying attentional functions in health and disease.

  2. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  3. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

  4. Correlations for the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement.

    PubMed

    Leverett, J Patrick; Lassiter, Kerry S; Buchanan, Gray M

    2002-04-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships for scores on the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement within an adult population. The Stroop Color and Word Test, Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised, and Wide Range Achievement Test-3 were administered to 99 men ranging in age from 18 to 27 years. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that the Stroop Word task was positively associated with scores on the WRAT-3 Spelling task, the Woodcock-Johnson Basic and Broad Reading tasks, and the Nelson-Denny Rcading Rate and Comprehension tasks. These and other significant relationships were discussed in terms of possible implications regarding the assessment of reading achievement.

  5. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive

  6. Decisive test of color coherence in proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Bzdak, Adam; Skokov, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Proton-nucleus collisions (p+A) at LHC energies provide a rigorous test of color glass condensate (CGC), a model proposed to describe the high energy limit of quantum chromodynamics. In the CGC the average multiplicity of charged particles at midrapidity in p+A collisions depends logarithmically on the number of participants, N(part). In contrast, the wounded nucleon model of independent nucleon-nucleon scatterings, verified at RHIC energies, predicts that multiplicity in p+A depends linearly on N(part). We argue that the dependence of mean multiplicity on N(part) in p+A collisions at LHC energies can single out a model of particle production, thus offering a stringent test of the CGC and the wounded nucleon model. Based on this observation we propose a novel experimental test of color coherence in p+A collisions.

  7. Effects of freely accessible computerized test systems on the spontaneous behaviors and stress level of Guinea baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Gullstrand, Julie; Kemp, Caralyn; Defilles, Céline; Mekaouche, Mourad

    2014-01-01

    Fagot and Paleressompoulle [Fagot and Paleressompoulle (2009) Behav Res Methods 41: 396-404] described a new automated learning device for monkeys (ALDM) to test the cognitive functions of nonhuman primates within their social groups. However, the impact of the ALDM procedure on animal well-being needs to be investigated. The present study assessed the consequences of ALDM testing on the behavioral repertoire of Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and their stress levels as inferred from measurements of saliva cortisol. Accessibility to ALDM test computers reduced the number of resting periods as well as the number of stereotypies. Lower cortisol levels were also found during ALDM testing. These findings and others demonstrate that ALDM testing has a positive impact on animal well-being and can be considered as a means for behavioral enrichment in captive primates.

  8. Computerized Fleet Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John J.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Fleet Maintenance (CFM) program of a New York school district has major component areas of garage operation, vehicle replacement, and fuel consumption. CFM detects high expenditures and provides the rationale for bus replacement. (MLF)

  9. Modernization of Physical Appearance and Solution Color Tests Using Quantitative Tristimulus Colorimetry: Advantages, Harmonization, and Validation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pack, Brian W; Montgomery, Laura L; Hetrick, Evan M

    2015-10-01

    Color measurements, including physical appearance, are important yet often misunderstood and underappreciated aspects of a control strategy for drug substances and drug products. From a patient safety perspective, color can be an important control point for detecting contamination, impurities, and degradation products, with human visual acuity often more sensitive for colored impurities than instrumental techniques such as HPLC. Physical appearance tests and solution color tests can also serve an important role in ensuring that appropriate steps are taken such that clinical trials do not become unblinded when the active material is compared with another product or a placebo. Despite the importance of color tests, compendial visual tests are not harmonized across the major pharmacopoeias, which results in ambiguous specifications of little value, difficult communication of true sample color, and significant extra work required for global registration. Some pharmacopoeias have not yet recognized or adopted technical advances in the instrumental measurement of color and appearance, whereas others begin to acknowledge the advantage of instrumental colorimetry, yet leave implementation of the technology ambiguous. This commentary will highlight the above-mentioned inconsistencies, provide an avenue toward harmonization and modernization, and outline a scientifically sound approach for implementing quantitative technologies for improved measurement, communication, and control of color and appearance for both solutions and solids. Importantly, this manuscript, for the first time, outlines a color method validation approach that is consistent with the International Conference on Harmonization's guidance on the topic of method validation.

  10. Some Features of the Sampling Distribution of the Ability Estimate in Computerized Adaptive Testing According to Two Stopping Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Jean-Guy; Raiche, Gilles

    This paper examines some characteristics of the statistics associated with the sampling distribution of the proficiency level estimate when the Rasch model is used. These characteristics allow the judgment of the meaning to be given to the proficiency level estimate obtained in adaptive testing, and as a consequence, they can illustrate the…

  11. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  12. Development, test and evaluation of a computerized procedure for using Landsat data to estimate spring small grains acreage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, R. R. J.; Palmer, W. F.; Smyrski, M. M.; Baker, T. C.; Nazare, C. V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of methods which can provide information concerning crop acreages on the basis of a utilization of multispectral scanner (MSS) data require for their implementation a comparatively large amount of labor. The present investigation is concerned with a project designed to improve the efficiency of analysis through increased automation. The Caesar technique was developed to realize this objective. The processability rates of the Caesar procedure versus the historical state-of-the-art proportion estimation procedures were determined in an experiment. Attention is given to the study site, the aggregation technology, the results of the aggregation test, and questions of error characterization. It is found that the Caesar procedure, which has been developed for the spring small grains region of North America, is highly efficient and provides accurate results.

  13. 3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X15 IN PLACE. A color ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X-15 IN PLACE. A color photograph taken from a lift boom or from atop a truck, looking northwest to NASA hangars in the far distance. Also shows the shop building at left, and two observation bunkers with hatches open; one at right (Bldg. 1933) and the other in front of Liquid Oxygen tank truck at left (Bldg. 1934). - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  15. Testing Limits on Matte Surface Color Perception in Three-Dimensional Scenes with Complex Light Fields

    PubMed Central

    Doerschner, K.; Boyaci, H.; Maloney, L. T.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated limits on the human visual system’s ability to discount directional variation in complex lights field when estimating Lambertian surface color. Directional variation in the light field was represented in the frequency domain using spherical harmonics. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of a Lambertian surface acts as a low-pass filter on directional variation in the light field. Consequently, the visual system needs to discount only the low-pass component of the incident light corresponding to the first nine terms of a spherical harmonics expansion (Basri & Jacobs, 2001; Ramamoorthi & Hanrahan, 2001) to accurately estimate surface color. We test experimentally whether the visual system discounts directional variation in the light field up to this physical limit. Our results are consistent with the claim that the visual system can compensate for all of the complexity in the light field that affects the appearance of Lambertian surfaces. PMID:18053846

  16. Human skin-color sexual dimorphism: a test of the sexual selection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Lorena; Kelly, William

    2007-03-01

    Applied to skin color, the sexual selection hypothesis proposes that male preference for light-skinned females explains the presence of light skin in areas of low solar radiation. According to this proposal, in areas of high solar radiation, natural selection for dark skin overrides the universal preference of males for light females. But in areas in which natural selection ceases to act, sexual selection becomes more important, and causes human populations to become light-skinned, and females to be lighter than males. The sexual selection hypothesis proposes that human sexual dimorphism of skin color should be positively correlated with distance from the equator. We tested the prediction that sexual dimorphism should increase with increasing latitude, using adult-only data sets derived from measurements with standard reflectance spectrophotometric devices. Our analysis failed to support the prediction of a positive correlation between increasing distance from the equator and increased sexual dimorphism. We found no evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis.

  17. Surface roughness and color characteristics of wood treated with preservatives after accelerated weathering test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temiz, Ali; Yildiz, Umit C.; Aydin, Ismail; Eikenes, Morten; Alfredsen, Gry; Çolakoglu, Gürsel

    2005-08-01

    Wood samples treated with ammonium copper quat (ACQ 1900 and ACQ 2200), chromated copper arsenate (CCA), Tanalith E 3491 and Wolmanit CX-8 have been studied in accelerated weathering experiments. The weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2 h UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18 min. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by roughness and color measurements on the samples with 0, 200, 400 and 600 h of total weathering. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes created by weathering on impregnated wood with several different wood preservatives. This study was performed on the accelerated weathering test cycle, using UV irradiation and water spray in order to simulate natural weathering. Surface roughness and color measurement was used to investigate the changes after several intervals (0-200-400-600 h) in artificial weathering of treated and untreated wood.

  18. Asymmetries in the production of self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and gorillas during a computerized cognitive test.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katherine E; Hopper, Lydia M; Ross, Stephen R

    2016-03-01

    Self-directed behaviors (SDBs) are a commonly used behavioral indicator of arousal in nonhuman primates. Experimental manipulations, designed to increase arousal and uncertainty, have been used to elicit SDB production in primates. Beyond measuring rates of SDB production, researchers have also recorded their lateralized production by primates, thought to reflect laterality of hemispheric brain control and response to emotion. Although a handful of such studies exist, all have been conducted with chimpanzees. Expanding on this line of inquiry, we tested both chimpanzees (N = 3) and gorillas (N = 3) in a serial learning task presented on a touchscreen interface that incorporated both EASY (two-item list) and HARD (four-item list) versions of the task. Although SDB production by the apes did not differ across the two levels of task complexity, both species produced higher rates of SDB when they made an error, regardless of task difficulty. Furthermore, the apes made more SDB with the left hand-directed to the right side of their body (contralateral SDB) and left side of their body (ipsilateral SDB)-when they made an incorrect response. There was no difference in the rate of SDB produced with the right hand across correct compared to incorrect trials. The apes' responses reflect previous reports that show humans are quicker at selecting negative emotional stimuli when using their left, compared to their right, hand (the reverse is true for positive stimuli). However, previous work has shown that chimpanzees are more likely to produce (contralateral) SDB with their right hand when aroused and so we discuss our results in relation to these findings and consider how they relate to the 'right hemisphere' and 'valence' models of emotional processing in apes. PMID:26577088

  19. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  20. Computerized annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.; Triggs, T.J.; Ames, K.R.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the design philosophy and associated functional criteria and design principles for developing advanced computerized annunciator systems for use in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. The scope of the work includes advanced system recommendations that could be incorporated into operating nuclear power plants. The information contained in this report was obtained from a review of the relevant computer and visual display terminal literature, from site visits to advanced control rooms in the nuclear power and related industries, and from a study of technical reports on computerized control rooms. This report should assist the staff in development of a regulatory position regarding the design of computerized control room annunciator systems. The guidance in this report is consistent with that provided in NUREG-0700.

  1. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. Objective It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). Methods In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). Results The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and

  2. Computerized documentation in home health.

    PubMed

    Noone, C; Cavanaugh, J; McKillip, C

    1995-01-01

    Computerized documentation in community health nursing is only now receiving the attention it deserves. The authors explain one agency's experience with adapting a computerized clinical documentation system to visiting nurses' needs and the nurses' responses to the process.

  3. Computerized Drug Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  4. Computerized Fleet Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John J.

    The computerization of school bus maintenance records by the Niskayuna (New York) Central School District enabled the district's transportation department to engage in management practices resulting in significant savings. The district obtains computer analyses of the work performed on all vehicles, including time spent, parts, labor, costs,…

  5. Computerized Cognition Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motes, Michael A.; Wiegmann, Douglas A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a software package entitled the "Computerized Cognition Laboratory" that helps integrate the teaching of cognitive psychology and research methods. Allows students to explore short-term memory, long-term memory, and decision making. Can also be used to teach the application of several statistical procedures. (DSK)

  6. The Computerized Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the design of a microcomputer-based system at the University of Ottawa which provides teachers with the capabilities of computerized slides and transparencies. The slides are texts created with word processors which are presented to the class via a large screen video projector, and software provides regular overhead projector functions.…

  7. The History Computerization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the History Computerization Project, which is being developed for the exchange of information between researchers, librarians, archivists, museum curators, preservation groups, and historical societies, focuses on workshops that teach the use of computer database management for historical cataloging and research. (LRW)

  8. Seismic Computerized Alert Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 the USGS devised a model for a Seismic Computerized Alert Network (SCAN) that would use continuous monitoring of seismic data from existing types of instruments to provide automatic, highly-reliable early warnings of earthquake shaking. In a large earthquake, substantial damaging ground motions may occur at great distances from the earthquake's epicenter.

  9. Psychosocial Communication and Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Gunilla; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…

  10. Adaptive Computerized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Roger D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an artificially intelligent multimedia computerized instruction system capable of developing a conceptual image of what a student is learning while the student is learning it. It focuses on principles of learning and adaptive behavioral control systems theory upon which the system is designed and demonstrates multiple user modes.…

  11. Evaluation of intolerance to analgesics, preservatives and food colorants with challenge tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenhall, L

    1982-09-01

    In 504 patients with asthma or rhinitis 1,868 oral challenge tests with analgesics, preservatives and food colorants were performed. Sodium benzoate and other benzoic compounds, as well as tartrazine and other azo dyes, were found to give similar but milder adverse reactions than acetylsalicylic acid. No patients reacted to potassium sorbate, another preservative, or to Patent Blue, which is not an azo dye. Intolerance was demonstrated most frequently in patients with a history of adverse reactions to analgesics or food, but also in 6% of patients investigated for other reasons. There are obvious risks for false positive or false negative results with a challenge test. Examples of these are given. The need for repeated tests and the clinical importance of all reproducible challenge reactions is stressed. PMID:7140873

  12. The use of the Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) in an efficacy and safety trial of BMY 21,502 in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cutler, N R; Shrotriya, R C; Sramek, J J; Veroff, A E; Seifert, R D; Reich, L A; Hironaka, D Y

    1993-09-24

    BMY 21,502 is a nootropic which protects memory and enhances long-term potentiation according to preclinical findings. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients who were diagnosed by DSM-III-R and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria were enrolled in a 12-week double-blind investigation of BMY 21,502 vs. placebo at 300 mg tid. The study design included a 1-week placebo lead-in and a 4-week placebo washout in addition to the 12-week double-blind treatment period. Efficacy was assessed with the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. Clinical Global Impression (CGI) assessments were also performed biweekly. Sixty-nine patients (28M, 41F; mean age 72 years, range 54 to 92 years) were enrolled in the study. Baseline Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scores ranged from 16 to 26 (mean 23.5) in patients on active drug (n = 34), and from 15 to 26 (mean 22.5) in placebo patients (n = 35). Baseline efficacy scores were comparable for drug and placebo patients (p > 0.05). Twelve (35%) patients who received BMY 21,502 withdrew from the study, 8 (24%) due to adverse events. Three (9%) patients who received placebo withdrew from the study, all due to adverse events. Patients on active drug who were valid for analysis of efficacy (n = 22) showed a mean decrease in ADAS of -1.5 at week 12, vs. a mean change of -0.5 in patients who received placebo (n = 32), although there was no significant difference between the two (p > 0.05). Correlations between the CNTB summary scores and ADAS cognitive subscores were, nevertheless, highly significant at baseline (r = -0.83, p = 0.0001) and week 12 (r = -0.83, p = 0.0001). Correlations between the word list learning, spatial, and naming subtests of the ADAS and CNTB were also highly significant (p = 0.0001). Although modest, the findings for active drug vs. placebo response in this study suggest that BMY 21,502 should be further investigated, with a larger study

  13. The Computerized Inventory of Developmental Writing Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Niki

    The Computerized Inventory of Developmental Writing Traits (CIDWT) is meant to provide a valid reliable measure of program improvement, particularly for teachers implementing a process writing approach in their classrooms. While standardized tests, portfolio, and holistic scoring all have something to offer, the CIDWT is an inexpensive direct…

  14. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  15. Specific Features of Executive Dysfunction in Alzheimer-Type Mild Dementia Based on Computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickienė, Jurgita; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. Material/Methods Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The CANTAB tests CRT, SOC, PAL, SWM were used for in-depth cognitive assessment. Comparisons were performed using the t test or Mann--Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson r or Spearman R. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results AD and CG groups did not differ according to age, education, gender, or depression. Few differences were found between groups in the SOC test for performance measures: Mean moves (minimum 3 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2227), CG (Rank Sum=623), p<0.001. However, all SOC test time measures differed significantly between groups: SOC Mean subsequent thinking time (4 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2406), CG (Rank Sum=444), p<0.001. Correlations were weak between executive function (SOC) and episodic/working memory (PAL, SWM) (R=0.01–0.38) or attention/psychomotor speed (CRT) (R=0.02–0.37). Conclusions Frontal-executive functions are impaired in mild AD patients. Executive dysfunction is highly prominent in time measures, but minimal in performance measures. Executive disorders do not correlate with a decline in episodic and working memory or psychomotor speed in mild AD. PMID:27717954

  16. Reduced Stroop interference for opponent colors may be due to input factors: evidence from individual differences and a neural network simulation.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Låg, Torstein; Brennen, Tim

    2005-06-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs (e.g., BLUE in red). In addition, participants' color discrimination ability was measured by standard color vision tests (i.e., Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test and Ishihara plates). Error rates in the Farnsworth-Munsell test correlated positively with the amount of Stroop interference. Neural network simulations (variants of J. D. Cohen, K. Dunbar, & J. L. McClelland's, 1990, model) showed that only a distributed trichromatic input layer was able to simulate these findings. Thus, sensory input from the color system needs to be incorporated into current accounts of the Stroop effect. PMID:15982124

  17. Red Color and Risk-Taking Behavior in Online Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus; Oeberst, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383) demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray); but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144) replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue). Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors. PMID:26207983

  18. Red Color and Risk-Taking Behavior in Online Environments.

    PubMed

    Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus; Oeberst, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383) demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray); but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144) replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue). Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors.

  19. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. PMID:25567999

  20. Computerized design of CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, B. E.; Pham, T. A.

    1982-11-01

    A computerized ballistic design technique for CAD/PAD is described by which a set of ballistic design parameters are determined, all of which satisfy a particular performance requirement. In addition, the program yields the remaining performance predictions, so that only a very few computer runs of the design program can quickly bring the ballistic design within the specification limits prescribed. An example is presented for a small propulsion device, such as a remover or actuator, for which the input specifications define a maximum allowable thrust and minimum end-of-stroke velocity. The resulting output automatically satisfies the input requirements, and will always yield an acceptable ballistic design.

  1. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  2. Fabrication and test of high-performance wide-angle lens assemblies for ocean color monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thepaut, Luc; Rodolfo, Jacques F.; Houbre, Francois; Mercier-Ythier, Renaud

    1999-09-01

    REOSC has supplied Indian Space Research Organization in 1998 and 1999 with two sets of eight lens assemblies to be used for the Ocean Color Monitor mission. First set will be launched on the Indian earth observation satellite IRS P4 during 1999. All lenses have a 20mm focal length and work with a very wide field of view angle. Each set of lenses covers the visible range using eight narrow spectral bands, one for each lens, distributed from 412nm to 865nm. The eight lenses of one set are matched for perfect registration: focal length better than +/- 0.01 percent, image format better than +/- 2 micrometers , distortion better than +/- 0.45 micrometers for each point of the field. In order to achieve these very tight requirements, REOSC has developed a specific spheroparabolic lens and particularly the process allowing to polish the parabolic surface with a very repetitive quality. A method has been settled to achieve the matching specifications of the lens assemblies by iterative correction of the optical design during the testing activities. The paper discusses the main points of these topics, reports this optical fabrication and testing challenge and presents the final obtained performances.

  3. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  4. Relationship between Shyness in Children and Constricted Cognitive Control as Measured by the Stroop Color-Word Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Robert P.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of shyness in children (N=103) to the constricted flexible dimension of cognitive control. Findings showed a significant difference in performance of the shy and nonshy group on the Stroop Color-Word Test. The shy group was less effective in maintaining performance in the presence of interfering stimuli. (JAC)

  5. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  6. Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As and Mn in groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe from As, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively. However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and red colored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that well water is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TW platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As and Mn, to make further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  7. Computerized Physician Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

  8. Computerizing natural history collections.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-09-01

    Computers are ubiquitous in the life sciences and are associated with many of the practical and conceptual changes that characterize biology's twentieth-century transformation. Yet comparatively little has been written about how scientists use computers. Despite this relative lack of scholarly attention, the claim that computers revolutionized the life sciences by making the impossible possible is widespread, and relatively unchallenged. How did the introduction of computers into research programs shape scientific practice? The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California, Berkeley provides a tractable way into this under-examined question because it is possible to follow the computerization of data in the context of long-term research programs.

  9. TESTING STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS MODELS WITH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY COLORS OF M31's GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav

    2011-08-10

    Accurate stellar population synthesis models are vital in understanding the properties and formation histories of galaxies. In order to calibrate and test the reliability of these models, they are often compared with observations of star clusters. However, relatively little work has compared these models in the ugriz filters, despite the recent widespread use of this filter set. In this paper, we compare the integrated colors of globular clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with those predicted from commonly used simple stellar population (SSP) models. The colors are based on SDSS observations of M31's clusters and provide the largest population of star clusters with accurate photometry available from the survey. As such, it is a unique sample with which to compare SSP models with SDSS observations. From this work, we identify a significant offset between the SSP models and the clusters' g - r colors, with the models predicting colors which are too red by g - r {approx} 0.1. This finding is consistent with previous observations of luminous red galaxies in the SDSS, which show a similar discrepancy. The identification of this offset in globular clusters suggests that it is very unlikely to be due to a minority population of young stars. The recently updated SSP model of Maraston and Stroembaeck better represents the observed g - r colors. This model is based on the empirical MILES stellar library, rather than theoretical libraries, suggesting an explanation for the g - r discrepancy.

  10. The achromatic 'philosophical zombie', a syndrome of cerebral achromatopsia with color anopsognosia.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the 'philosophical zombie'. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

  11. Mutagenic effects of some water-soluble metal compounds in a somatic eye-color test system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, A

    1985-01-01

    Nickel, cadmium, lead, arsenic, manganese and chromium salts as well as MeHgOH were screened for mutagenicity, using a sensitive somatic eye-color test system in Drosophila melanogaster. The test is based on the insertion of a mobile element which causes instability in the white locus that is somatically enhanced by mutagens. This white locus expression is combined with a mutation, zeste, in another gene, to produce a light yellow eye color. Larval feeding with mutagens causes somatic mutations in the eye imaginal disc cells that develop into easily detectable red spots in the yellow eyes of adult males. Survival tests showed large differences in the toxicity of different metals, but only hexavalent chromium increased the frequency of somatic mutations above the control level. When combined treatments were carried out with MMS and various metals, sodium arsenite caused a reduction of the MMS-induced mutation frequency while methylmercury increased the frequency of somatic spots.

  12. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  13. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  14. Computerized system for clinical diagnosis of melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Mario; Barbieri, Fabio

    1991-07-01

    A computerized system was developed to carry out the clinical diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. The main objective of the system is to produce a real-time first level diagnosis of skin lesion images acquired by a color TV camera. The algorithms are based on research activities started in 1985 at the National Cancer Institute of Milan. Color slides of skin lesions were used as a training field for studying and tuning the image analysis procedures. A prototype system was then developed to capture and analyze skin lesion images on a real-time basis. More than 200 images were acquired and the first level diagnosis output by the system was compared with the diagnosis of expert clinicians. The obtained results were judged very encouraging by the clinicians, and research is in progress to improve and refine the system. The diagnostic procedure is based on image processing and understanding techniques, automatic lesion contour recognition, feature extraction (feature components derived from lesion shape, color and texture) and computation of a malignancy index. The malignancy index depends on the lesion feature values and a thesaurus collecting the system knowledge; the histologic results of clinically diagnosed malignant lesions are used to upgrade the system knowledge.

  15. A versatile transition metal salt reaction for a wide range of common biochemical reagents: an instantaneous and quantifiable color test.

    PubMed

    Fleming, N; Nixon, R A

    1986-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive spot test amenable to visual or spectrophotometric quantitation has been developed for a wide variety of biochemical reagents by utilizing the transition metal salt cupric chloride and its large number of related colored compounds. This assay is potentially a widely applicable multipurpose test for rapidly detecting the presence of unknown substances. Combination of the test sample with the working reagent results in the immediate formation of a distinctive colored product that may be precipitable. Some compounds require the further addition of sodium hydroxide in order to generate the distinctively colored product. Distinctive reactions occur with the following reagents, and their limit of visual detection is indicated in parentheses: ammonium bicarbonate (12.5 mM), ammonium acetate (25 mM), ammonium hydroxide (0.1%), ammonium sulfate (2%), ammonium persulfate (0.02 mM), L-(+)-cysteine (0.07 mM), dithiothreitol (DTT) (1.25 mM), EDTA (0.6 mM), ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid (5 mM), D-glucose (6 mM), glycerol (0.3%), imidazol (12.5 mM), DL-methionine (100 mM), mercaptoethanol (0.05%), sodium azide (19 mM, 0.1%), sodium dithionite (0.25%), sodium metabisulfite (25 mM), sodium nitrite (6.2 mM), sodium periodate (3.1 mM), sodium sulfite (12.5 mM), sodium thiosulfite (12.5 mM), sucrose (6 mM), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (0.05%). A distinctive exothermic reaction occurs with hydrogen peroxide, but without color change. Compounds reacting insignificantly include 50 mM Tris buffer, urea, N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, sodium fluoride, trichloroacetic acid, phenol, mannose, K2HPO4, guanidine HCl, chloramine-T, magnesium chloride, and boric acid, where the solids were tested at approximately 10 mg/ml. Spectrophotometric standard curves were developed for DTT and sodium azide utilizing the clear supernatants resulting from these reactions. Combinations of at least

  16. "Does Hope Change? Testing a Project-Based Health Intervention among Urban Students of Color"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusevics, Kaija L.; Johnson, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    Hope is positively correlated with educational attainment and health. Interventions based on project-based learning (PBL) may increase youth hope. This study examined how a PBL intervention affected hope among urban students of color. Students in health classes were invited to participate. A PBL health class was implemented in four classrooms. The…

  17. A Quick Test for the Highly Colored Ions of the Aluminum-Nickel Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenda, Stanley C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a technique for eliminating errors in the analysis of the nickel subgroup of the aluminum-nickel group cations. Describes the process of color and chemical changes that occur in this group as a result of ligand and coordination number changes. Discusses opportunities for student observations. (TW)

  18. Block Design Test Performance as a Function of Race and Block Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Nancy B.; Pollack, Robert H.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship between color sensitivity and skin pigmentation would affect performance on the WISC block design subtest when both the standard red/white design and the blue/yellow design were used. It was hypothesized that the white children would perform better overall because black children have been…

  19. Development of paper-based color test-strip for drug detection in aquatic environment: Application to oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I A S; Sales, M Goreti F

    2015-03-15

    The wide use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of resistant microbial species. It should be avoided/minimized by controlling the amount of drug employed in fish farming. For this purpose, the present work proposes test-strip papers aiming at the detection/semi-quantitative determination of organic drugs by visual comparison of color changes, in a similar analytical procedure to that of pH monitoring by universal pH paper. This is done by establishing suitable chemical changes upon cellulose, attributing the paper the ability to react with the organic drug and to produce a color change. Quantitative data is also enabled by taking a picture and applying a suitable mathematical treatment to the color coordinates given by the HSL system used by windows. As proof of concept, this approach was applied to oxytetracycline (OXY), one of the antibiotics frequently used in aquaculture. A bottom-up modification of paper was established, starting by the reaction of the glucose moieties on the paper with 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES). The so-formed amine layer allowed binding to a metal ion by coordination chemistry, while the metal ion reacted after with the drug to produce a colored compound. The most suitable metals to carry out such modification were selected by bulk studies, and the several stages of the paper modification were optimized to produce an intense color change against the concentration of the drug. The paper strips were applied to the analysis of spiked environmental water, allowing a quantitative determination for OXY concentrations as low as 30ng/mL. In general, this work provided a simple, method to screen and discriminate tetracycline drugs, in aquaculture, being a promising tool for local, quick and cheap monitoring of drugs. PMID:25461138

  20. Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Shaikh Z; Yakubu, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2012-01-01

    Wastes from the personal care product (PCP) industry are often high in biodegradable carbon, which makes them amenable to aerobic biological treatment, although process costs are usually high due to aeration inefficiencies, high electricity demand and production of large amounts of sludge. As such, anaerobic treatment technologies are being considered to lower net energy costs by reducing air use and increasing methane production. To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products. Overall, shampoo wastes were more amenable to methanogenesis with almost double the methane yields compared with colour wastes. To assess relevant microbial guilds, qPCR was performed on reactor biomass samples. Methanosaetaceae abundances were always significantly higher than Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales abundances (P < 0.05), and did not differ significantly between waste types. Although colour wastes were less amenable to anaerobic treatment than shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels. Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present.

  1. Unidimensional Approximations for a Computerized Classification Test When the Item Pool and Latent Space Are Multidimensional. ACT Research Report Series 97-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Judith A.; Abdel-fattah, Abdel-fattah A.; Huang, Chi-Yu; Lau, C. Allen

    The primary concern or focus of a certification or licensure test is to obtain valid criterion-referenced information regarding a candidate's competence to practice. When the test is administered by computer, a valid pass/fail decision can be made with fewer items than an equivalent paper/pencil test by targeting items at the passing score and…

  2. "Focal" Color Areas and the Development of Color Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heider, Eleanor Rosch

    1971-01-01

    Three experiments using 3- and 4-year-olds as subjects tested the hypothesis that focal colors are more salient than nonfocal colors for young children and are the areas to which color names initially become attached. (NH)

  3. Effect of sediment turbidity and color on light output measurement for Microtox Basic Solid-Phase Test.

    PubMed

    Campisi, T; Abbondanzi, F; Casado-Martinez, C; DelValls, T A; Guerra, R; Iacondini, A

    2005-06-01

    In this work, sediment samples collected from several Spanish harbours were tested with two toxicity procedures, designed for solid samples: the Microtox Basic Solid-Phase Test (BSPT) and a modified procedure of the previous test protocol (mBSPT). According to the BSPT procedure, after initial light readings, pure bacteria were exposed to sediment suspension dilutions and light production was directly measured on suspended sediments without any further manipulation. As measurements are likely to be affected by sediment turbidity and color, a variation in initial light measurement has been here suggested, in order to consider the sample effect at all time readings during the test. Firstly, when sediment suspensions at different concentrations were added to bacteria suspension, immediately the initial light output drastically decayed by more than 50% in signal difference, resulting in a false inhibition, as effect of sample turbidity/color. This effect was more evident at high EC50 values, when slightly or not toxic samples were assessed. Secondly, the comparison of the EC50 obtained with both procedures, demonstrated that the mBSPT produced higher EC50 values (less toxic) than those obtained with the standard procedure. The mBSPT procedure resulted rapid and effective and it could be applied simultaneously with BSPT, in order to better evaluate the toxicity.

  4. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  5. Tests of various colorants for application of a Fourier transform infrared imaging system to deciphering obliterated writings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    Obliterated writing is writing that has been obscured by different-colored materials. There are obliterated writings that cannot be detected by conventional methods. A method for deciphering such obliterated writings was developed in this study. Mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging in the wavelength range of 2.5-14 μm was used for deciphering because the infrared spectrum differs among different brands of colorants. Obliterated writings were made by pressing information protection stamps onto characters written by 4 kinds of colorants. The samples were tested for deciphering by the Fourier-transform infrared imaging system. Two peak areas of two specific wavenumber regions of each reflectance spectrum were calculated and the ratio of the two values is displayed as a unique gray scale in the spectroscopic image. As a result, the absorption peak at various wavenumbers could be used to decipher obliterated writings that could not be detected by the conventional methods. Ten different parameters for deciphering obliterated writing were found in this study.

  6. Finite-size scaling tests for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with color sextet fermions

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrand, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The observed slow running of the gauge coupling in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of color sextet fermions naturally suggests it is a theory with one relevant coupling, the fermion mass, and that at zero mass correlation functions decay algebraically. I perform a finite-size scaling study on simulation data at two values of the bare gauge coupling with this assumption and observe a common exponent for the scaling of the correlation length with the fermion mass, y{sub m}{approx}1.5. An analysis of the scaling of valence Dirac eigenvalues at one of these bare couplings produces a similar number.

  7. Foreign Language Experience and Color Word Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Cyrus R.

    If various color names are printed in various color inks, an observer has great difficulty in rapidly naming the ink colors (Stroop Color Word Test) unless the color names and the ink colors are mutually reinforcing, or the color names are unknown to the observer. The latter suggests a partial measure of second-language fluency, the feasibility of…

  8. Multi-color space threshold segmentation and self-learning k-NN algorithm for surge test EUT status identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Liu, Gui-xiong

    2016-09-01

    The identification of targets varies in different surge tests. A multi-color space threshold segmentation and self-learning k-nearest neighbor algorithm ( k-NN) for equipment under test status identification was proposed after using feature matching to identify equipment status had to train new patterns every time before testing. First, color space (L*a*b*, hue saturation lightness (HSL), hue saturation value (HSV)) to segment was selected according to the high luminance points ratio and white luminance points ratio of the image. Second, the unknown class sample S r was classified by the k-NN algorithm with training set T z according to the feature vector, which was formed from number of pixels, eccentricity ratio, compactness ratio, and Euler's numbers. Last, while the classification confidence coefficient equaled k, made S r as one sample of pre-training set T z '. The training set T z increased to T z+1 by T z ' if T z ' was saturated. In nine series of illuminant, indicator light, screen, and disturbances samples (a total of 21600 frames), the algorithm had a 98.65%identification accuracy, also selected five groups of samples to enlarge the training set from T 0 to T 5 by itself.

  9. Computerized Assessment System for Academic Satisfaction (ASAS) for First-Year University Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medrano, Leonardo Adrian; Liporace, Mercedes Fernandez; Perez, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized tests have become one of the most widely used and efficient educational assessment methods. Increasing efforts to generate computerized assessment systems to identify students at risk for drop out have been recently noted. An important variable influencing student retention is academic satisfaction. Accordingly, the…

  10. Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

  11. Development of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 2: Test and performance data, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner protoflight tests are examined in detail while some of the test results are evaluated with respect to expected performance. Performance characteristics examined include spectral response, signal to noise ratio as a function of radiance input, radiance response, the modulation transfer function, and the field of view and coregistration. The results of orbital sequence tests are also included. The in orbit performance or return of radiometric data in the six spectral bands is evaluated along with the data processing sequence necessary to derive the final data products. Examples of the raw data are given and the housekeeping or diagnostic data which provides information on the day to day health or status of the instrument are discussed.

  12. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  13. A Computerized Phonetics Instructor: BABEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Joaquin; Pearson, Lon

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a computerized phonetics program called BABEL, which is an expert system able to animate graphically and reproduce acoustically a text in any language that uses the Latin alphabet. The program is designed to assist language learners and instructors in the nuances of phonemes. (22 references) (GLR)

  14. Computerized Systems: Centralized or Decentralized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, Linda Ludington

    1985-01-01

    Computerized management information systems have long been used in business, and data integration and sophisticated programing now enable many businesses to decentralize their information operations. This approach has advantages and disadvantages that colleges and universities must weigh and plan for carefully. (MSE)

  15. California's Computerized Pupil Transportation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, James C.

    1983-01-01

    Traces efforts to develop a statewide plan for computerized school bus fleet operation by means of questionnaires distributed to all 58 county education offices, 7 regional data processing centers, and selected private school bus contractors and school districts. Findings indicate significant potential savings for fleets of 20 or more busses. (JBM)

  16. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  17. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IV. TESTING THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY VIA HST/WFC3 u-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF M84 (NGC 4374)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Cho, Jaeil; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Blakeslee, John P.

    2013-05-10

    Color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most massive galaxies are bimodal. Assuming linear color-to-metallicity conversions, bimodality is viewed as the presence of merely two GC subsystems with distinct metallicities, which serves as a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Recent studies, however, revealed that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) often used to derive GC metallicities (e.g., CMRs of g - z, V - I, and C - T{sub 1}) are in fact inflected. Such inflection can create bimodal color distributions if the underlying GC metallicity spread is simply broad as expected from the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation. In order to test the nonlinear-CMR scenario for GC color bimodality, the u-band photometry is proposed because the u-related CMRs (e.g., CMRs of u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to be least inflected and most distinctive among commonly used optical CMRs. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 F336W (u-band) photometry of the GC system in M84, a giant elliptical in the Virgo galaxy cluster. Combining the u data with the existing HST ACS/WFC g and z data, we find that the u - z and u - g color distributions are different from the g - z distribution in a very systematic manner and remarkably consistent with our model predictions based on the nonlinear-CMR hypothesis. The results lend further confidence to the validity of the nonlinear-CMR scenario as an explanation for GC color bimodality. There are some GC systems showing bimodal spectroscopic metallicity, and in such systems the inflected CMRs often create stronger bimodality in the color domain.

  18. An Example Crossover Experiment for Testing New Vicarious Calibration Techniques for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Kenneth J.; McLean, Scott; Lewis, Marlon; Johnson, Carol; Flora, Stephanie; Feinholz, Michael; Yarbrough, Mark; Trees, Charles; Twardowski, Mike; Clark, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Vicarious calibration of ocean color satellites involves the use of accurate surface measurements of water-leaving radiance to update and improve the system calibration of ocean color satellite sensors. An experiment was performed to compare a free-fall technique with the established MOBY measurement. We found in the laboratory that the radiance and irradiance instruments compared well within their estimated uncertainties for various spectral sources. The spectrally averaged differences between the NIST values for the sources and the instruments were less than 2.5% for the radiance sensors and less than 1.5% for the irradiance sensors. In the field, the sensors measuring the above-surface downwelling irradiance performed nearly as well as they had in the laboratory, with an average difference of less than 2%. While the water-leaving radiance, L(sub w) calculated from each instrument agreed in almost all cases within the combined instrument uncertainties (approximately 7%), there was a relative bias between the two instrument classes/techniques that varied spectrally. The spectrally averaged (400 nm to 600 nm) difference between the two instrument classes/techniques was 3.1 %. However the spectral variation resulted in the free fall instruments being 0.2% lower at 450 nm and 5.9% higher at 550 nm. Based on the analysis of one matchup, the bias in the L(sub w), was similar to that observed for L(sub u)(1 m) with both systems, indicating the difference did not come from propagating L(sub u)(1 m) to L(sub w).

  19. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  20. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    Color deficiency; Blindness - color ... Color blindness occurs when there is a problem with the pigments in certain nerve cells of the eye that sense color. These cells are called cones. They are found ...

  1. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the ...

  2. Urease Color Test Medium U-9 for the Detection and Identification of “T” Mycoplasmas in Clinical Material

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Maurice C.; Lunceford, Carl D.

    1970-01-01

    A urease color test fluid medium (U-9) for the detection and identification of T (T-strain) mycoplasmas in clinical material is described which is sensitive and specific for this group of mycoplasmas. The medium was prepared from commercially available components and contained 95% half-strength, tryptic digest broth (pH 5.5), 4% unheated horse serum, 0.05% highest-purity urea, 0.001% sodium phenolsulfonphthalein, and 1,000 units of potassium penicillin G per ml. The final reaction of medium U-9 was pH 6.0. The overall agreement (positive and negative) between urease reactions in U-9 urease color test medium and culture findings in a standard agar primary culture system among 686 clinical specimens was 98.1%. The disagreement consisted of 13 false-positive urease reactions which were recognized visually as false-positive reactions due to other microorganisms. For specimens from the female genitourinary tract, the inclusion of 2.5 μg of amphotericin B (Fungizone) per ml of medium U-9 is recommended for the suppression of growth of Candida species and filamentous fungi. PMID:4925243

  3. The gap in the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2420: A test of convective overshoot and cluster age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarque, Pierre; Sarajedini, Ata; Guo, X.-J.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical isochrones have been constructed using the OPAL opacities specifically to study the color-magnitude diagram of the open star cluster NGC 2420. This cluster provides a rare test of core convection in intermediate-mass stars. At the same time, its age is of interest because of its low metallicity and relatively high Galactic latitude for an open cluster. The excellent color-magnitude diagram constructed by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1990) allows a detailed fit of the isochrones to the photometric data. We discuss the importance of convective overshoot at the convective core edge in determining the morphology of the gap located near the main-sequence turnoff. We find that given the assumptions made in the models, a modest amount of overshoot (0.23 H(sub p)) is required for the best fit. Good agreement is achieved with all features of the turnoff gap for a cluster age of 2.4 +/- 0.2 Gyr. We note that a photometrically complete luminosity function near the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch would also provide an important test of the overshoot models.

  4. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  5. The Development, Pilot Test, Assessment, and Evaluation of a Computerized Online Internet Community System at Programs for Higher Education, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Diana Sell

    This paper reports on a study to design, develop, pilot test, evaluate, and assess an online Internet community system during the months May-July, 1997 at Nova Southeastern University-Programs for Higher Education (NSU PHE). The system was used as a prototype for developing and studying techniques for building virtual communities. Project research…

  6. CUSUM Statistics for Large Item Banks: Computation of Standard Errors. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, C. A. W.

    In a previous study (1998), how to evaluate whether adaptive testing data used for online calibration sufficiently fit the item response model used by C. Glas was studied. Three approaches were suggested, based on a Lagrange multiplier (LM) statistic, a Wald statistic, and a cumulative sum (CUMSUM) statistic respectively. For all these methods,…

  7. Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

  8. Computerized Multi-Media Instructional Television. COMIT. Proceedings of a Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Gordon C., Ed.; Knapper, Christopher K., Ed.

    A joint research project in educational techniques, which was conducted by the University of Waterloo and the IBM Corporation, explored the use of color television with random-access videotape under computer control. At the end of the three-year project, papers were solicited from all COMIT (Computerized Multi-Media Instructional Television)…

  9. Evaluation of the Campbell test and the influence of age, sex, breed, and coat color on puppy behavioral responses

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; López-Rodríguez, Rocío

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Campbell test and discover if there is a link between a puppy’s scores and factors such as age, breed, sex, sex-breed interaction, size, Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) groups, and coat color. The Campbell test was performed on 342 puppies (191 males and 151 females) of different breeds. The results show that the criteria used by Campbell to classify puppies are incomplete, and that it is more appropriate to use numerical values for each type of answer. In general, the mean value obtained, regardless of sex and breed, corresponded to the Campbell’s submissive stable category. The mean value was higher in male dogs than in females. PMID:18505191

  10. Evaluation of the Campbell test and the influence of age, sex, breed, and coat color on puppy behavioral responses.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; López-Rodríguez, Rocío

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Campbell test and discover if there is a link between a puppy's scores and factors such as age, breed, sex, sex-breed interaction, size, Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) groups, and coat color. The Campbell test was performed on 342 puppies (191 males and 151 females) of different breeds. The results show that the criteria used by Campbell to classify puppies are incomplete, and that it is more appropriate to use numerical values for each type of answer. In general, the mean value obtained, regardless of sex and breed, corresponded to the Campbell's submissive stable category. The mean value was higher in male dogs than in females.

  11. An Application of Computerized Instructional Television in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Bryce

    Computerized instructional television was used to teach undergraduate students about 100,000 or more extant fungi through an interactive, self testing, teaching program. Students did not find this sophisticated hardware an adequate substitute for the lecture experience and ultimately gave their professor a strong vote of confidence. (Author/JEG)

  12. The Computerization of the National Library in Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerin, Christian; Bernard, Annick

    1986-01-01

    Describes the organization and automation plan of the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris, France) that was begun in 1981. Highlights include the method of moving toward computerization; technical choices; the choosing procedure (pre-qualification, bench-mark test); short term and pilot operations; and preparation for the implementation of the…

  13. SCAN (Systems Coding Analysis): Computerized Analysis of Reading Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan; Bednarik, John

    Analysis of behaviorally expressed instructional objectives, materials, and criterion test items in reading has generated a finite list of operations and conditions that cover almost all possible reading activities and behaviors. The list has been organized into a short, simple Code Key. A 15-cell computerized syntax has been designed to carry the…

  14. Effect of dexamethasone on mandibular bone biomechanics in rats during the growth phase as assessed by bending test and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2015-04-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid administration to growing rats induces osteopenia and alterations in the biomechanical behavior of the bone. This study was performed to estimate the effects of dexamethasone (DTX), a synthetic steroid with predominant glucocorticoid activity, on the biomechanical properties of the mandible of rats during the growth phase, as assessed by bending test and peripheral quantitative computed tomographic (pQCT) analysis. The data obtained by the two methods will provide more precise information when analyzed together than separately. Female rats aged 23 d (n=7) received 500μg.kg-1 per day of DXT for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, their body weight and body length were 51.3% and 20.6% lower, respectively, than controls. Hemimandible weight and area (an index of mandibular size) were 27.3% and 9.7% lower, respectively. The right hemimandible of each animal was subjected to a mechanical 3-point bending test. Significant weakening of the bone, as shown by a correlative impairment of strength and stiffness, was observed in experimental rats. Bone density and cross-sectional area were measured by pQCT. Cross-sectional, cortical and trabecular areas were reduced by 20% to 30% in the DTX group, as were other cortical parameters, including the bone density, mineral content and cross-sectional moment of inertia. The "bone strength index" (BSI, the product of the pQCT-assessed xCSMI and vCtBMD) was 56% lower in treated rats, which compares well with the 54% and 52% reduction observed in mandibular strength and stiffness determined through the bending test. Data suggest that the corticosteroid exerts a combined, negative action on bone geometry (mass and architecture) and volumetric bone mineral density of cortical bone, which would express independent effects on both cellular (material quality) and tissue (cross-sectional design) levels of biological organization of the skeleton in the species. PMID:25950168

  15. Effect of dexamethasone on mandibular bone biomechanics in rats during the growth phase as assessed by bending test and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2015-04-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid administration to growing rats induces osteopenia and alterations in the biomechanical behavior of the bone. This study was performed to estimate the effects of dexamethasone (DTX), a synthetic steroid with predominant glucocorticoid activity, on the biomechanical properties of the mandible of rats during the growth phase, as assessed by bending test and peripheral quantitative computed tomographic (pQCT) analysis. The data obtained by the two methods will provide more precise information when analyzed together than separately. Female rats aged 23 d (n=7) received 500μg.kg-1 per day of DXT for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, their body weight and body length were 51.3% and 20.6% lower, respectively, than controls. Hemimandible weight and area (an index of mandibular size) were 27.3% and 9.7% lower, respectively. The right hemimandible of each animal was subjected to a mechanical 3-point bending test. Significant weakening of the bone, as shown by a correlative impairment of strength and stiffness, was observed in experimental rats. Bone density and cross-sectional area were measured by pQCT. Cross-sectional, cortical and trabecular areas were reduced by 20% to 30% in the DTX group, as were other cortical parameters, including the bone density, mineral content and cross-sectional moment of inertia. The "bone strength index" (BSI, the product of the pQCT-assessed xCSMI and vCtBMD) was 56% lower in treated rats, which compares well with the 54% and 52% reduction observed in mandibular strength and stiffness determined through the bending test. Data suggest that the corticosteroid exerts a combined, negative action on bone geometry (mass and architecture) and volumetric bone mineral density of cortical bone, which would express independent effects on both cellular (material quality) and tissue (cross-sectional design) levels of biological organization of the skeleton in the species.

  16. Variations in the photoperiodic cloacal response of Japanese quail: association with testes weight and feather color

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T.; Konishi, T.

    1983-04-01

    The size of the cloacal gland was found to be a reliable indicator of testicular activity of Japanese quail. Six experiments were performed to examine the effects of alternating long and short photoperiod on the size of the cloacal gland of male Japanese quail. Three types of photoperiodic cloacal responses were distinguished. Type I birds became refractory to short photoperiods after they had experienced 5 weeks or more of short days. They maintained large cloacal glands under subsequent condition of alternating long and short photoperiod. Type II birds were intermediate types I and III birds did not become refractory to short photoperiods after experiencing 5 weeks or more of short days. The cloacal glands responded to conditions of alternating long and short photoperiods with increases or decreases in size. Feather color on the throat was found to correspond to the type of cloacal response. Type I birds had brick-red throat feathers. Type II birds had white feathers intermingled with brick-red feathers. Type III had white throat feathers. The percentages of types I, II, and III observed in the experimental population was 67, 18, and 15%, respectively. Type III birds were used to study the effects of blinding on the cloacal response to short photoperiod. Five out of eight blinded type III birds did not lose the responsiveness to short photoperiod. These results are consistent with the view that extraocular photoreceptors participate in the photoperiodic gonadal response of Japanese quail.

  17. Development and Testing of a Computerized Decision Support System to Facilitate Brief Tobacco Cessation Treatment in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Proposal and Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dexheimer, Judith W; Khoury, Jane C; Miller, Julie A; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) is unequivocally harmful to children's health, yet up to 48% of children who visit the pediatric emergency department (PED) and urgent care setting are exposed to tobacco smoke. The incorporation of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) into the electronic health records (EHR) of PED patients may improve the rates of screening and brief TSE intervention of caregivers and result in decreased TSE in children. Objective We propose a study that will be the first to develop and evaluate the integration of a CDSS for Registered Nurses (RNs) into the EHR of pediatric patients to facilitate the identification of caregivers who smoke and the delivery of TSE interventions to caregivers in the urgent care setting. Methods We will conduct a two-phase project to develop, refine, and integrate an evidence-based CDSS into the pediatric urgent care setting. RNs will provide input on program content, function, and design. In Phase I, we will develop a CDSS with prompts to: (1) ASK about child TSE and caregiver smoking, (2) use a software program, Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap), to ADVISE caregivers to reduce their child's TSE via total smoking home and car bans and quitting smoking, and (3) ASSESS their interest in quitting and ASSIST caregivers to quit by directly connecting them to their choice of free cessation resources (eg, Quitline, SmokefreeTXT, or SmokefreeGOV) during the urgent care visit. We will create reports to provide feedback to RNs on their TSE counseling behaviors. In Phase II, we will conduct a 3-month feasibility trial to test the results of implementing our CDSS on changes in RNs’ TSE-related behaviors, and child and caregiver outcomes. Results This trial is currently underway with funding support from the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute. We have completed Phase I. The CDSS has been developed with input from our advisory panel and RNs, and pilot tested. We are nearing completion of

  18. Clinical applications of computerized thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Computerized or digital, thermography is a rapidly growing diagnostic imaging modality. It has superseded contact thermography and analog imaging thermography which do not allow effective quantization. Medical applications of digital thermography can be classified in two groups: static and dynamic imaging. They can also be classified into macro thermography (resolution greater than 1 mm) and micro thermography (resolution less than 100 microns). Both modalities allow a thermal resolution of 0.1 C. The diagnostic power of images produced by any of these modalities can be augmented by the use of digital image enhancement and image recognition procedures. Computerized thermography has been applied in neurology, cardiovascular and plastic surgery, rehabilitation and sports medicine, psychiatry, dermatology and ophthalmology. Examples of these applications are shown and their scope and limitations are discussed.

  19. 241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    WERRY, S.M.

    2000-03-23

    This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

  20. Computerized Heavy-Ion Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, W. R.; Tobias, C. A.; Fabrikant, J. I.; Llacer, J.; Chu, W. T.; Benton, E. V.

    1981-07-01

    Several techniques for heavy-ion computerized tomography are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using beams of carbon and neon from the Bevalac, we have demonstrated that these methods are feasible and capable of high resolution. We describe in some detail the method of heavy-ion CT imaging using nuclear track detectors, including a discussion of procedures for optical scanning and digitization of data and computerized distortion corrections. Comparisons between a heavy-ion CT image and X-ray CT image of a simple phantom are discussed. Preliminary results from two techniques using active, online detector systems for performing heavy-ion computerized tomography are presented. One method uses a multiplane, multiwire ionization chamber for detecting the heavy ions in a mode allowing true three-dimensional reconstructions. The other technique uses a system of position-sensitive silicon solid-state detectors for spacial information and high-purity germanium detectors to measure accurately the residual energy of the ions.

  1. The Stroop task: comparison between the original paradigm and computerized versions in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Penner, Iris-Katharina; Kobel, Maja; Stöcklin, Markus; Weber, Peter; Opwis, Klaus; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    The Stroop task has a long-standing history in psychological research and diagnostics, and many variants have emerged. Computerized versions have recently gained popularity because of their applicability in brain-imaging studies. It remains unclear, however, whether computerized versions are content valid with reference to the original task. We compare the performance in the original task with two computerized versions. All three versions show high test-retest reliability and are able to elicit interference effects, but to varying degrees. However, performances in the computerized versions and in the original task do not correlate. The transition from oral to manual response and from listed to single stimulus presentation seems not only to diminish the interference effect, but also to alter its nature in such a way that it no longer looks genuinely "Stroop-like". These findings have important clinical implications on the use and interpretation of computerized Stroop tasks in children and adults.

  2. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  3. [Horse breeding: genetic tests for the coat colors chestnut, bay and black. Results from a preliminary study in the Swiss Freiberger horse breed].

    PubMed

    Henner, J; Poncet, P A; Aebi, L; Hagger, C; Stranzinger, G; Rieder, S

    2002-08-01

    Coat color played an important role during domestication and formation of breeds. Livestock breeders often had special preferences for particular color phenotypes because they believed them to be associated with performance or fitness traits. Socio-cultural reasons might have had an influence on color selection as well. Recently genetic tests on DNA level got available to genotype in any individual horse for basic horse coat colors (chestnut, bay, black). In particular, hidden carriers of the recessive chestnut and black allele are recognizable with these tests. A sample of 162 Franches-Montagnes horses from Switzerland was genotyped for the alleles for chestnut and black. The analysis of allele frequencies revealed a high prevalence of the chestnut allele and a low frequency of the black allele in this population. Rare colors are in demand on the market. The statistical analysis of 1369 offspring from five stallions indicate, that darker shades of basic color phenotypes (dark chestnut, dark bay) follow a recessive mode of inheritance in the Franches-Montagnes horse breed. PMID:12224446

  4. Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)

  5. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    PubMed

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  6. Physician attitudes toward computerized practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Alberti, E; Holt, T J

    1996-01-01

    Computerized information systems are gaining ground in quality improvement, and will become even more important as health plans implement, evaluate, and maintain clinical guidelines. PacifiCare of California explored physicians' attitudes toward applying computerized technologies to direct clinical guidelines. The results indicate not only physician acceptance factors, but illustrate the issues, such as information for medical decision making, that health plans must consider in developing computerized case management systems to manage the care of the chronically ill. PMID:10157264

  7. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  8. A computerized hospital maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Kresch, E; Katz, P; Schwartz, H; Hamarman, H

    1985-01-01

    The Biomedical Instrumentation Department at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital maintains most of the clinical equipment owned by the hospital and provides support to six other hospitals, as well. In order to document these services, a computerized support system has been developed. This system maintains the inventory of equipment, documents the occurrence of repair and preventive maintenance procedures, generates lists of items due for maintenance and inspection, and prints reports and summaries of all activities performed by department staff. The system was designed for ease of use and requires a minimum of training for personnel who use it. PMID:10271514

  9. X-ray computerized tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wellington, S.L.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1987-08-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is a new radiological imaging technique that measures density and atomic composition inside opaque objects. A revolutionary advance in medical radiology since 1972, CT has only recently been applied in petrophysics and reservoir engineering. This paper discusses several petrophysical applications, including three-dimensional (3D) measurement of density and porosity; rock mechanics studies; correlation of core logs with well logs; characterization of mud invasion, fractures, and disturbed core; and quantification of complex mineralogies and sand/shale ratios. Reservoir engineering applications presented include fundamental studies of CO/sub 2/ displacement in cores, focussing on viscous fingering, gravity segregation, miscibility, and mobility control.

  10. The genetics of skin, hair, and eye color variation and its relevance to forensic pigmentation predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses. The review also describes the biology of the SNPs with the closest associations to, and therefore the best predictors for, common variation in eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. Because pigmentation pathways are complex in their patterns, many of the better-studied human albinism traits provide insight into how pigmentation SNPs interact, control, or modify gene expression and show varying degrees of association with the key genes identified to date. These aspects of SNP action are discussed in an overview of each of the functional groups of pigmentation genes.

  11. Testing a polarimetric cloud imager aboard research vessel Polarstern: comparison of color-based and polarimetric cloud detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Horváth, Ákos; Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, Pál; Bumke, Karl; Macke, Andreas

    2015-02-10

    Cloud cover estimation is an important part of routine meteorological observations. Cloudiness measurements are used in climate model evaluation, nowcasting solar radiation, parameterizing the fluctuations of sea surface insolation, and building energy transfer models of the atmosphere. Currently, the most widespread ground-based method to measure cloudiness is based on analyzing the unpolarized intensity and color distribution of the sky obtained by digital cameras. As a new approach, we propose that cloud detection can be aided by the additional use of skylight polarization measured by 180° field-of-view imaging polarimetry. In the fall of 2010, we tested such a novel polarimetric cloud detector aboard the research vessel Polarstern during expedition ANT-XXVII/1. One of our goals was to test the durability of the measurement hardware under the extreme conditions of a trans-Atlantic cruise. Here, we describe the instrument and compare the results of several different cloud detection algorithms, some conventional and some newly developed. We also discuss the weaknesses of our design and its possible improvements. The comparison with cloud detection algorithms developed for traditional nonpolarimetric full-sky imagers allowed us to evaluate the added value of polarimetric quantities. We found that (1) neural-network-based algorithms perform the best among the investigated schemes and (2) global information (the mean and variance of intensity), nonoptical information (e.g., sun-view geometry), and polarimetric information (e.g., the degree of polarization) improve the accuracy of cloud detection, albeit slightly.

  12. The genetics of skin, hair, and eye color variation and its relevance to forensic pigmentation predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses. The review also describes the biology of the SNPs with the closest associations to, and therefore the best predictors for, common variation in eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. Because pigmentation pathways are complex in their patterns, many of the better-studied human albinism traits provide insight into how pigmentation SNPs interact, control, or modify gene expression and show varying degrees of association with the key genes identified to date. These aspects of SNP action are discussed in an overview of each of the functional groups of pigmentation genes. PMID:26227136

  13. [In vitro tests of internal tooth whitening agents on colored solutions do not replace tests on teeth].

    PubMed

    Bäumler, Marc A; Schug, Jens; Schmidlin, PatrickR; Imfeld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Two in vitro tests for the assessment of whitening agents were evaluated. A simple, reproducible and cost-effective model using coloured solutions was compared to a tooth model. The following bleaching agents were investigated: 1) Sodium perborate tetrahydrate/30% H2O2, 2) sodium perborate tetrahydrate/3% H2O2, 3) thermocatalytic procedure with 30% H2O2 and 4) Opal-escence Endo. In the model using coloured solutions, the light absorption of the solutions was assessed one and 24 hours after application of the whitening agents. In discoloured teeth, whitening agents were placed in a simulated access cavity. In groups 1, 2, and 4, the agents were left in the cavity for three days, whereas in group 3 the substance was applied three times for 30 seconds. Bleaching processes were repeated three times. All bleaching agents proved effective in the model with coloured solutions, as well as in the tooth model. The effect was most pronounced after the first bleaching step. The results showed, however, that the simplified experiment with coloured solutions cannot replace the tooth model.

  14. Evaluating aquatic toxicity by visual inspection of thallus color in the green macroalga Ulva: testing a novel bioassay.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Seok; Brown, Murray T; Park, Gyoung Soo; Han, Taejun

    2007-05-15

    A novel bioassaythat uses visual inspection of reproduction of the aquatic green macroalga Ulva has been developed for testing toxic chemicals. The method employs a technique to quantify percentage reproduction based on thallus color change during the progression of reproduction. The validity of visual inspection as a reliable method was supported by a high test score (80.4) from a test of the ability of 97 first year university students with no biology background to evaluate reproduction by visual observation after 30 min training. The sensitivity of the method was assessed using a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS; EC50 = 7.1 mg x L(-1)), heavy metals Cu (0.063 mg x L(-1)), Cd (0.217 mg x L(-1, Pb (0.840 mg x L(-1)), Zn (0.966 mg x L(-1)), formalin (1.458 mg x L(-1)), diesel fuel (3.7 mL x L(-1)), and is shown to be similar or better than more established aquatic toxicity bioassays. Toxicity data obtained by the Ulva bioassay for elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations were directly compared with the commercially available Microtox test. Ulva reproduction was significantly inhibited in all elutriates with the greatest and least toxic effects, estimated by toxicity units (TU) observed in elutriates from industrial waste (13.1 TU) and a filtration bed (4.8 TU), whereas values ranging from 1 to 4.5 TU were obtained from the Microtox test, confirming that the Ulva bioassay is more sensitive. Correlation analyses for EC50 data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge indicated a significant relationship between toxicity and four heavy meals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for the Ulva bioassay but no such correlation was detected by the Microtox test. The new bioassay method is simple to use, easy to interpret, economical, and eco-relevant so would be a valuable addition to aquatic toxicity testing protocols for a wide range of toxicants. Moreover, since Ulva has a wide geographical distribution and species have similar reproductive

  15. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  16. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  17. Cassel Psych Center Computerized Biofeedback Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Cassel Psych Center, a computerized biofeedback clinic, where the "well" patient is a major concern, and where biofeedback instruments are used with computers to form a Computerized-Biofeedback Clinical Support System. The Center's activities are designed to parallel the services of the pathologist in a medical setting. (PAS)

  18. Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report analyzes the implications of computerized medical information and the challenges it brings to individual privacy. The report examines the nature of the privacy interest in health care information and the current state of the law protecting that information; the nature of proposals to computerize health care information and the…

  19. Reliability of computerized mine-monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacmar, R. M.

    1982-05-01

    This paper describes the Bureau of Mines research program on the reliability of computerized mine-monitoring systems. The basic concepts of computerized monitoring are introduced along with its advantages and limitations. Current Bureau projects covering mine-monitoring systems are described, and some of the major areas of concern that should be addressed by future projects are outlined.

  20. A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

  1. Advanced Composition and the Computerized Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Christine

    1989-01-01

    Discusses four kinds of computerized access tools: online catalogs; computerized reference; online database searching; and compact disks and read only memory (CD-ROM). Examines how these technologies are changing research. Suggests how research instruction in advanced writing courses can be refocused to include the new technologies. (RS)

  2. The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

    A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

  3. Resources for Improving Computerized Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated review of human factors literature that discusses computerized environments. Topics discussed include the application of office automation practices to educational environments; video display terminal (VDT) workstations; health and safety hazards; planning educational facilities; ergonomics in computerized offices; and…

  4. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  5. A method of computerized assessment in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Yu V.

    2000-05-01

    A method of computerized assessment of students' ability to replicate basic physical facts and procedural sequences is presented. The method is based on the construction of physical definitions, laws, formulae, phenomena, etc, from logical (symbolic or graphical) elements. Such testing is characterized by high reliability and releases both teachers' and students' time for the creative educational process. Experimental data on the developed method based on introductory physics teaching at a technical university are presented.

  6. Modified Head-Shake Computerized Dynamic Posturography

    PubMed Central

    Honaker, Julie A.; Converse, Connie M.; Shepard, Neil T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Recent research on Head-shake Posturography has demonstrated a modest increase in sensitivity to identifying peripheral vestibular system asymmetry when horizontal head-movements were added to portions of the standard Sensory Organization (SOT) test battery. However, limitations with respect to the head-shake protocol were outlined and usable data for assessing performance could not be established. The purpose of this study was to test a change in protocol for use of head-shake SOT to address the noted limitations. Method Forty subjects ranging in age from 20-79 years with no history of dizziness completed conditions 2 and 5 of the SOT portion of Computerized Dynamic Posturography on EquiTest ™ equipment while maintaining head still, as well as four horizontal head movement velocity tasks. Results Slope of a linear regression fit to six performance points was used to characterize each subject. Spearman’s ranked correlation (r) indicated a significant relationship between the slope of the line representing a decline in performance with age (r = −0.52; p = 0.0006). Conclusions The head-shake modification shows a trend in increasing the separation of normal individuals across age and eliminated the limitations addressed in earlier research. Future research will investigate the head-shake modification for identifying vestibular peripheral system asymmetries. PMID:19949235

  7. Information through color imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1975-01-01

    The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.

  8. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as concentration and memory) assessments. Computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological tests may be included as a ... ideally a neuropsychologist should interpret the computerized or paper-pencil neuropsychological test components of a baseline exam. ...

  9. Performance of non-neurological older adults on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Color-Word Test: normal variability or cognitive impairment?

    PubMed

    Gunner, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    There is currently no standard criterion for determining abnormal test scores in neuropsychology; thus, a number of different criteria are commonly used. We investigated base rates of abnormal scores in healthy older adults using raw and T-scores from indices of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop Color-Word Test. Abnormal scores were examined cumulatively at seven cutoffs including >1.0, >1.5, >2.0, >2.5, and >3.0 standard deviations (SD) from the mean as well as those below the 10th and 5th percentiles. In addition, the number of abnormal scores at each of the seven cutoffs was also examined. Results showed when considering raw scores, ∼15% of individuals obtained scores>1.0 SD from the mean, around 10% were less than the 10th percentile, and 5% fell >1.5 SD or <5th percentile from the mean. Using T-scores, approximately 15%-20% and 5%-10% of scores were >1.0 and >1.5 SD from the mean, respectively. Roughly 15% and 5% fell at the <10th and <5th percentiles, respectively. Both raw and T-scores>2.0 SD from the mean were infrequent. Although the presence of a single abnormal score at 1.0 and 1.5 SD from the mean or at the 10th and 5th percentiles was not unusual, the presence of ≥2 abnormal scores using any criteria was uncommon. Consideration of base rate data regarding the percentage of healthy individuals scoring in the abnormal range should help avoid classifying normal variability as neuropsychological impairment.

  10. Laser color recording unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  11. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  12. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  13. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  14. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  15. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  16. Uncalibrated color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Color calibration or the use of color measurement processes to characterize the color properties of a device or workflow is often expected or assumed for many color reproduction applications. However it is interesting to consider applications or situations in which color calibration is not as critical. In the first case it is possible to imagine an implicit color calibration resulting from a standardization or convergence of the colorant and substrate spectrum. In the second case it is possible to imagine cases where the device color variability is significantly less than the user color thresholds or expectations for color consistency. There are still general requirements for this form of pragmatic color but they are generally lower than for the higher end of digital color reproduction. Finally it is possible to imagine an implicit calibration that leverages in some way the highly accurate memory color for the hue of common objects. This scenario culminates with a challenge to create a natural capture calibration standard that does not require individual calibration, is spectrally diverse, is inexpensive and is environmentally friendly.

  17. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.

  18. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

  19. Extension of Empirical Color Calibration and Test using Cool and Metal-Rich Stars in NGC 6791

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Terndrup, Donald M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Lee, Jae-woo

    2015-08-01

    We extend our effort to calibrate stellar isochrones in the Johnson-Cousins (BVIC) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (JHKs) filter systems based on observations of well-studied open clusters. Using cool main-sequence (MS) stars in Praesepe, we define empirical corrections to the Lejeune et al. color-effective temperature (Teff) relations down to Teff ~ 3600 K, complementing our previous work based on the Hyades and the Pleiades. We apply empirically corrected isochrones to existing optical and near-infrared photometry of cool (Teff ~ 5500 K) and metal-rich ([Fe/H]=+0.37) MS stars in NGC 6791, and find that color-excess and distance estimates from color-magnitude diagrams with different color indices converge on each other at the precisely known metallicity of the cluster. Along with a satisfactory agreement with eclipsing binary data in the cluster, we view the improved internal consistency as a validation of our calibrated isochrones at super-solar metallicities. For very cool stars (Teff < 4800 K), however, we find that BV colors of our models are systematically redder than the cluster photometry by ~0.02 mag. We use color-Teff transformations from the infrared flux method (IRFM) and alternative photometry to examine a potential color-scale error in the input cluster photometry. After excluding BV photometry of these cool MS stars, we derive E(B-V)=0.105±0.014, [M/H]=+0.42±0.07, (m-M)0 = 13.04±0.09, and the age of 9.5±0.3 Gyr for NGC 6791.

  20. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Computerized Labor Monitoring Systems.” See § 884.1(e) for availability of this guidance document. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800... Devices § 884.2800 Computerized Labor Monitoring System. (a) Identification. A computerized...

  1. Computerized games to study the development of attention in childhood.

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Jones, L; Rothbart, M K; Posner, M I

    2000-05-01

    Children enjoy playing games. We can take advantage of this in the designs of computerized tasks that will engage their interest. These designs also serve to advance the study of chronometric measures, such as manual and saccadic reaction times and event related potentials, with young children. The goals of our method development are (1) to allow for comparable tasks across a wide variety of ages, (2) to make possible comparisons of child performance with data gathered in adult cognitive studies, and (3) to help to support inferences about the development of underlying mechanisms. We have designed a battery of computerized tasks in order to study the development of attention functions of alertness, orienting, and executive control during childhood. Our purpose is to describe each of these tasks in detail and present the results that have been obtained so far. The battery was tested using a sample of 5-year-old children as subjects.

  2. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  3. Color-Multiplexing-Based Fluorescent Test Paper: Dosage-Sensitive Visualization of Arsenic(III) with Discernable Scale as Low as 5 ppb.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yujie; Huang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Gu, Xiaoling; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-06-21

    Fluorescent colorimetry test papers are promising for the assays of environments, medicines, and foods by the observation of the naked eye on the variations of fluorescence brightness and color. Unlike dye-absorption-based pH test paper, however, the fluorescent test papers with wide color-emissive variations with target dosages for accurate quantification remain unsuccessful even if the multicolorful fluorescent probes are used. Here, we report the dosage-sensitive fluorescent colorimetry test paper with a very wide/consecutive "from red to cyan" response to the presence and amount of arsenic ions, As(III). Red quantum dots (QDs) were modified with glutathione and dithiothreitol to obtain the supersensitivity to As(III) by the quenching of red fluorescence through the formation of dispersive QDs aggregates. A small amount of cyan carbon dots (CDs) with spectral blue-green components as the photostable internal standard were mixed into the QDs solution to produce a composited red fluorescence. Upon the addition of As(III) into the sensory solution, the fluorescence color could gradually be reversed from red to cyan with a detection limit of 1.7 ppb As(III). When the sensory solution was printed onto a piece of filter paper, surprisingly a serial of color evolution from peach to pink to orange to khaki to yellowish to yellow-green to final cyan with the addition of As(III) was displayed and clearly discerned the dosage scale as low as 5 ppb. The methodology reported here opens a novel pathway toward the real applications of fluorescent test papers. PMID:27230307

  4. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  5. Computerized Bus Routing in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Peter J.; Jungherr, J. Anton

    1979-01-01

    A computerized routing and scheduling system for the San Francisco Public Schools includes the batch processing of bus route assignments and schedules for all schools and the online terminal processing of daily changes. (Author/MLF)

  6. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  7. Computerized tomography using video recorded fluoroscopic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kak, A. C.; Jakowatz, C. V., Jr.; Baily, N. A.; Keller, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized tomographic imaging system is examined which employs video-recorded fluoroscopic images as input data. By hooking the video recorder to a digital computer through a suitable interface, such a system permits very rapid construction of tomograms.

  8. Evaluation of Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) photographic and digital data: Santa Barbara Channel test site, 29 October 1975 overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, S. P.; Estes, J. E.; Kronenberg, M. R.; Hajic, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of Ocean Color Scanner data was examined to evaluate detection and discrimination capabilities of the system for marine resources, oil pollution and man-made sea surface targets of opportunity in the Santa Barbara Channel. Assessment of the utility of OCS for the determination of sediment transport patterns along the coastal zone was a secondary goal. Data products provided 1975 overflight were in digital and analog formats. In evaluating the OCS data, automated and manual procedures were employed. A total of four channels of data in digital format were analyzed, as well as three channels of color combined imagery, and four channels of black and white imagery. In addition, 1:120,000 scale color infrared imagery acquired simultaneously with the OCS data were provided for comparative analysis purposes.

  9. Evolution of color variation in dragon lizards: quantitative tests of the role of crypsis and local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Moussalli, Adnan; Johnston, Gregory R; Owens, Ian P F

    2004-07-01

    Many animal species display striking color differences with respect to geographic location, sex, and body region. Traditional adaptive explanations for such complex patterns invoke an interaction between selection for conspicuous signals and natural selection for crypsis. Although there is now a substantial body of evidence supporting the role of sexual selection for signaling functions, quantitative studies of crypsis remain comparatively rare. Here, we combine objective measures of coloration with information on predator visual sensitivities to study the role of crypsis in the evolution of color variation in an Australian lizard species complex (Ctenophorus decresii). We apply a model that allows us to quantify crypsis in terms of the visual contrast of the lizards against their natural backgrounds, as perceived by potential avian predators. We then use these quantitative estimates of crypsis to answer the following questions. Are there significant differences in crypsis/conspicuousness among populations? Are there significant differences in crypsis conspicuousness between the sexes? Are body regions "exposed" to visual predators more cryptic than "hidden" body regions? Is there evidence for local adaptation with respect to crypsis against different substrates? In general, our results confirmed that there are real differences in crypsis/conspicuousness both between populations and between sexes; that exposed body regions were significantly more cryptic than hidden ones, particularly in females; and that females, but not males, are more cryptic against their own local background than against the background of other populations [corrected]. Body regions that varied most in contrast between the sexes and between populations were also most conspicuous and are emphasized by males during social and sexual signaling. However, results varied with respect to the aspect of coloration studied. Results based on chromatic contrast ("hue" of color) provided better support for

  10. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  11. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  12. How to Compare Apples and Oranges: Infants' Object Identification Tested With Equally Salient Shape, Luminance and Color Changes

    PubMed Central

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

    2009-01-01

    What kind of featural information do infants rely on when they are trying to recognize a previously seen object? The question of whether infants use certain features (e.g. shape or color) more than others (e. g. luminance), can only be studied legitimately if visual salience is controlled, since the magnitude of feature values – how noticeable and interesting they are – will affect results. We employed a novel methodology, ‘Interdimensional Salience Mapping’, that allowed us to quantify and calibrate salience changes along shape, luminance and color feature dimensions. We then compared 9-month-old infants' identification of objects, employing feature changes that were equally salient. These results show that infants more readily identify objects on the basis of color and shape than luminance. Additionally, we show that relative salience changes rapidly in infancy – in particular, we found significantly higher salience thresholds for color in younger (6.5-month-old) infants – but that individual differences within an age group are remarkably modest. PMID:20161281

  13. How to Compare Apples and Oranges: Infants' Object Identification Tested with Equally Salient Shape, Luminance, and Color Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

    2009-01-01

    What kind of featural information do infants rely on when they are trying to recognize a previously seen object? The question of whether infants use certain features (e.g., shape or color) more than others (e.g., luminance) can only be studied legitimately if visual salience is controlled, as the magnitude of feature values--how noticeable and…

  14. Computerized assessment of dental student writing skills.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Joseph M; Elliot, Norbert; Biber, Cheryl L; Sanders, R Michael

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using computer-based tools for the assessment of written materials produced by dental students. Written assignments produced by three consecutive incoming dental school classes (240 students) were assessed, and the performance among and between classes was analyzed. Computerized assessment of documents produced by students in the context of their regular coursework proved to be an efficient and effective mechanism for assessing performance. Student performance, assessed as a byproduct of this research, was disappointing. The performance of all classes fell below the eleventh grade level, with some students producing written material at a level of sophistication generally expected from middle school children. Existing technology shows promise as a vehicle for enhancing the assessment of dental students' written communication skills. The ease of use and minimal training necessary to apply this technology can help mitigate the time-intensive nature of writing assessment. If this assessment information is then used to enhance instruction--a process inherently available through software such as WebCT--the distance between assessment and instruction may be more readily bridged through an increase in the use of technology. PMID:15689614

  15. Computerized assessment of dental student writing skills.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Joseph M; Elliot, Norbert; Biber, Cheryl L; Sanders, R Michael

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using computer-based tools for the assessment of written materials produced by dental students. Written assignments produced by three consecutive incoming dental school classes (240 students) were assessed, and the performance among and between classes was analyzed. Computerized assessment of documents produced by students in the context of their regular coursework proved to be an efficient and effective mechanism for assessing performance. Student performance, assessed as a byproduct of this research, was disappointing. The performance of all classes fell below the eleventh grade level, with some students producing written material at a level of sophistication generally expected from middle school children. Existing technology shows promise as a vehicle for enhancing the assessment of dental students' written communication skills. The ease of use and minimal training necessary to apply this technology can help mitigate the time-intensive nature of writing assessment. If this assessment information is then used to enhance instruction--a process inherently available through software such as WebCT--the distance between assessment and instruction may be more readily bridged through an increase in the use of technology.

  16. Computerized 50 liter volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Proffitt, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A system has been designed for the Savannah River Site that will be used to calibrate product shipping containers. For accountability purposes, it is necessary that these containers be calibrated to a very high precision. The Computerized 50 Liter Volume Calibration System (CVCS), which is based on the Ideal Gas Law (IGL), will use reference volumes with precision of no less {plus minus}0.03%, and helium to calibrate the containers to have a total error of no greater than {plus minus}0.10%. A statistical interpretation of the system has given a theoretical total calculated error of {plus minus}0.08%. Tests with the system will be performed once fabrication is complete to experimentally verify the calculated error. Since the total error was calculated using the worst case scenario, the actual error should be significantly less than the calculated value. The computer controlled, totally automated system is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The design, calibration procedure, and statistical interpretation of the system will be discussed. 1 ref.

  17. Quality Control of Online Calibration in Computerized Assessment. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, C. A. W.

    In computerized adaptive testing, updating item parameter estimates using adaptive testing data is often called online calibration. This study investigated how to evaluate whether the adaptive testing data used for online calibration sufficiently fit the item response model used. Three approaches were investigated, based on a Lagrange multiplier…

  18. Quality Control of On-Line Calibration in Computerized Assessment. Research Report 98-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.

    In computerized adaptive testing, updating parameter estimates using adaptive testing data is often called online calibration. In this paper, how to evaluate whether the adaptive testing model used for online calibration fits the item response model used sufficiently is studied. Three approaches are investigated, based on a Lagrange multiplier…

  19. Validation of a Computerized Cognitive Assessment System for Persons with Stroke: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Chi Kwong; Man, David W. K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of a newly developed computerized cognitive assessment system (CCAS) that is equipped with rich multimedia to generate simulated testing situations and considers both test item difficulty and the test taker's ability. It is also hypothesized that better predictive validity of the CCAS in self-care of persons…

  20. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  1. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  2. TESTING GALAXY FORMATION MODELS WITH THE GHOSTS SURVEY: THE COLOR PROFILE OF M81's STELLAR HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Vlajic, Marija; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Holwerda, Benne W.

    2013-04-01

    We study the properties of the stellar populations in M81's outermost part, which hereafter we will call the stellar halo, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of 19 fields from the GHOSTS survey. The observed fields probe the stellar halo out to a projected distance of {approx}50 kpc from the galactic center. Each field was observed in both F606W and F814W filters. The 50% completeness levels of the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). Fields at distances closer than 15 kpc show evidence of disk-dominated populations whereas fields at larger distances are mostly populated by halo stars. The red giant branch (RGB) of the M81's halo CMDs is well matched with isochrones of {approx}10 Gyr and metallicities [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.2 dex, suggesting that the dominant stellar population of M81's halo has a similar age and metallicity. The halo of M81 is characterized by a color distribution of width {approx}0.4 mag and an approximately constant median value of (F606W - F814W) {approx}1 mag measured using stars within the magnitude range 23.7 {approx}< F814W {approx}< 25.5. When considering only fields located at galactocentric radius R > 15 kpc, we detect no color gradient in the stellar halo of M81. We place a limit of 0.03 {+-} 0.11 mag difference between the median color of RGB M81 halo stars at {approx}15 and at 50 kpc, corresponding to a metallicity difference of 0.08 {+-} 0.35 dex over that radial range for an assumed constant age of 10 Gyr. We compare these results with model predictions for the colors of stellar halos formed purely via accretion of satellite galaxies. When we analyze the cosmologically motivated models in the same way as the HST data, we find that they predict no color gradient for the stellar halos, in good agreement with the observations.

  3. How to identify up to 30 colors without training: color concept retrieval by free color naming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Swartling, Tiina

    1994-05-01

    Used as a redundant code, color is shown to be advantageous in visual search tasks. It enhances attention, detection, and recall of information. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings have shown color and spatial perception to be interrelated functions. Studies on eye movements show that colored symbols are easier to detect and that eye fixations are more correctly directed to color-coded symbols. Usually between 5 and 15 colors have been found useful in classification tasks, but this umber can be increased to between 20 to 30 by careful selection of colors, and by a subject's practice with the identification task and familiarity with the particular colors. Recent neurophysiological findings concerning the language-concept connection in color suggest that color concept retrieval would be enhanced by free color naming or by the use of natural associations between color concepts and color words. To test this hypothesis, we had subjects give their own free associations to a set of 35 colors presented on a display. They were able to identify as many as 30 colors without training.

  4. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  5. The use of the Color Trails Test in the assessment of driver competence: preliminary report of a culture-fair instrument.

    PubMed

    Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Lebowitz, Brian K; Kapust, Lissa R; Hollis, Ann M; O'Connor, Margaret G

    2007-06-01

    Studies have shown that the Trail Making Test (TMT) predicts real-world driving performance in individuals who have cognitive deficits. However, because this test requires knowledge of the Latin alphabet, the TMT may not be appropriate for individuals who are illiterate or for those whom English is not their primary language. Because the Color Trails Test (CTT) is not influenced by knowledge of the alphabet, the CTT may be a culture-fair alternative to the TMT. To date, the utility of the CTT in the evaluation of driver competence has not been established. In the current study, individuals referred for a comprehensive driving assessment underwent testing with the TMT and CTT. The results suggest that the CTT and the TMT provide similar information regarding road-test outcome. Thus, the CTT may be a culture-fair alternative to the TMT in the assessment of driver competence.

  6. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  7. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-20

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  8. High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit J.

    1999-12-01

    Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli high schools has been designed and implemented. Three tenth grade experimental classes used this discovery CMM approach, while two other classes, who studied the same topic in the customary approach, served as a control group. We investigated the effects of using molecular modeling on students' spatial ability, understanding of new concepts related to geometric and symbolic representations and students' perception of the model concept. Each variable was examined for gender differences. Students of the experimental group performed better than control group students in all three performance aspects. Experimental group students scored higher than the control group students in the achievement test on structure and bonding. Students' spatial ability improved in both groups, but students from the experimental group scored higher. For the average students in the two groups the improvement in all three spatial ability sub-tests —paper folding, card rotation, and cube comparison—was significantly higher for the experimental group. Experimental group students gained better insight into the model concept than the control group and could explain more phenomena with the aid of a variety of models. Hence, CMM helps in particular to improve the examined cognitive aspects of the average student population. In most of the achievement and spatial ability tests no significant differences between the genders were found, but in some aspects of model perception and verbal argumentation differences still exist. Experimental group females improved their model

  9. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected.

  10. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in Warblers

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Natasha I.; Morrow, James M.; Chang, Belinda S.W.; Price, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors – historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20Ma. During this process the SWS2 gene accumulated 6 substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. PMID:25496318

  11. A Method for Peat Inventory Based on LANDSAT Data and Computerized Mapping. [Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pala, S.

    1982-01-01

    Wetlands were preliminarily delineated on a geometrically-corrected color composite map printed from digital LANDSAT data using a computerized color plotting system. A digital classification was performed to identify the location and extent of wetland types (e.g., open bog, types of treed fen and black spruce-alder swamp). A map is printed from the results of this classification using the computerized color plotter. This color-coded map, produced at several different scales, provides a basis for pre-selecting field sampling sites. Helicopter-aided spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was conducted over the entire 1700 sq km area of North Ontario. Traditional transect sampling was carried out over a portion of the area, so that the two methods could be compared. Spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was found to produce results virtually identical to those produced by the transect sampling technique, in approximately one-fifteenth of the time and with a proportionate reduction in cost.

  12. Visual Color Comparisons in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Thornton, J I

    1997-06-01

    Color is used extensively in forensic science for the characterization and comparison of physical evidence, and should thus be well understood. Fundamental elements of color perception and color comparison systems are first reviewed. The second portion of this article discusses instances in which defects in color perception may occur, and the recognition of opportunities by means of which color perception and color discrimination may be expressed and enhanced. Application and limitations of color comparisons in forensic science, including soil, paint, and fibers comparisons and color tests, are reviewed.

  13. The Color Wheel: A Heuristic Aid in Classification of a Skeletal Pattern.

    PubMed

    Smołka, Piotr; Czerkawski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Reading a complete print-out of cephalometric analysis expressed numerically consumes a fair amount of our time. The present paper addresses this issue by describing the "color wheel," a computerized procedure that attributes to the patient a single color representing type and severity of a skeletalproblem. PMID:27319044

  14. Real-time test of MOCS algorithm during Superflux 1980. [ocean color algorithm for remotely detecting suspended solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grew, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A remote sensing experiment was conducted in which success depended upon the real-time use of an algorithm, generated from MOCS (multichannel ocean color sensor) data onboard the NASA P-3 aircraft, to direct the NOAA ship Kelez to oceanic stations where vitally needed sea truth could be collected. Remote data sets collected on two consecutive days of the mission were consistent with the sea truth for low concentrations of chlorophyll a. Two oceanic regions of special interest were located. The algorithm and the collected data are described.

  15. Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

  16. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Jason M.; Dighe, Anand S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption. PMID:21886891

  17. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  18. The Psychological Implications of Being Color Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author describes his experience with color-defective vision, and suggests that children be given a color-vision test at vision screening time in school to detect color-defective vision in children and thus minimize frustrating color-learning experiences. (MC)

  19. Color Blind or Color Conscious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.…

  20. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  1. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  2. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... materials used to contain, present, or make available the output of computers based upon the prevailing... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  3. Computerized Collective Training for Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Paul; Kribs, H. Dewey

    The purpose of this investigation was to empirically demonstrate and evaluate a brassboard for computerized collective training for teams (COLT2). The underlying tasks were to (1) conduct a state of the art assessment of instructional strategies appropriate for COLT2, (2) derive a conceptual framework for COLT2 instructional strategies, (3)…

  4. Computerized Financial Reporting Based on GAAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Stan; Liljeberg, Burt

    1983-01-01

    Describes the statewide computerized system developed in Minnesota following the 1976 enactment of the Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (UFARS) law. UFARS includes provisions for an advisory council responsible for recommending accounting and reporting procedures, and seven data processing centers to serve all 560 Minnesota…

  5. Issues in Computerized Communication: Components and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Gregory Reed

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the growth of computerized communications. Attributes this growth to rapid growth of the computer industry, price reductions on computer equipment, and university installation of departmental computers. Describes the Internet, USENET, and electronic mail. Concludes that individuals must be trained to use, understand, and participate in…

  6. Computerizing the Chinese International School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Marilyn

    This paper describes the computerization of the libraries in the Chinese International School in Hong Kong. The Infant, Junior and Secondary libraries, with a staff of three professional librarians, one library assistant, and one audiovisual technician, needed an automated system which could support their bilingual curriculum. Two computer systems…

  7. The Four Generations of Computerized Educational Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunderson, C. Victor; And Others

    Educational measurement is undergoing a revolution due to the rapid dissemination of information-processing technology. The recent growth in computing resources and their widespread dissemination in daily life have brought about irreversible changes in educational measurement. Recent developments in computerized measurement are summarized by…

  8. Special Education Curriculum (Computerized IEP Catalog).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland Independent School District, TX.

    This special education curriculum, developed by the Garland (Texas) Independent School District, outlines the basic tools for preparing an Individual Educational Plan (IEP) for each handicapped student. The curricular information is organized and coded to facilitate computerized printing of the IEP. The document begins with a list of 13…

  9. Implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Yong-Hong; Askari, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A primer Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) has been established for NASA Ames pressure component certification program. The CMMS takes full advantage of the latest computer technology and SQL relational database to perform periodic services for vital pressure components. The Ames certification program is briefly described and the aspects of the CMMS implementation are discussed as they are related to the certification objectives.

  10. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  11. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  12. The Computerized Educational Guidance System. EDGUYD Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    The Computerized Educational Guidance System (EDGUYD) permits one to narrow post high school educational planning where consideration is given to all 1,448 4-year colleges and universities in the United States. This, to be sure, is a feat no human counselor is capable of without a computer. The Educational Success Index (ESI) is the means used by…

  13. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  14. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  15. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  16. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  17. A Computerized Scheduling System for Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Benjamin P.; Root, Jon R.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Oregon State University Communication Media Center's experiences in designing, developing, and using a computerized scheduling system to help with the center's operation. Description includes purposes for developing the system, creation of the system using a commercial database management software package, and the five menus used in the…

  18. Computerized Observation System (COS) for Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Thomas M.; And Others

    The Computerized Observation System (COS) is a software program which an observer can use with a portable microcomputer to document preservice and inservice teacher performance. Specific observable behavior such as appropriate questions and responses shown to increase student achievement are recorded as Low Inference Observation Measures. Time on…

  19. Computerized Inspection Of Gear-Tooth Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Method of manufacturing gears with precisely shaped teeth involves computerized inspection of gear-tooth surfaces followed by adjustments of machine-tool settings to minimize deviations between real and theoretical versions of surfaces. Thus, iterated cycles of cutting gear teeth, inspection, and adjustments help increase and/or maintain precision of subsequently manufactured gears.

  20. Cost control through computerized materials management.

    PubMed

    Bockow, L D

    1986-01-01

    Material management is a chain that links every element of the supply function: requisitioning, purchasing, receiving storage and the user departments. This article presents three (3) major areas where an effective computerized materials management system can produce substantial savings. Central inventories, supply distribution, and purchases can all be positively improved. PMID:10275029

  1. Testing the color charge and mass dependence of parton energy loss with heavy-to-light ratios at BNL RHIC and CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Armesto, Nestor; Dainese, Andrea; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2005-03-01

    The ratio of nuclear modification factors of high-p{sub T} heavy-flavored mesons to light-flavored hadrons ('heavy-to-light ratio') in nucleus-nucleus collisions tests the partonic mechanism expected to underlie jet quenching. Heavy-to-light ratios are mainly sensitive to the mass and color-charge dependences of medium-induced parton energy loss. Here, we assess the potential for identifying these two effects in D and B meson production at RHIC and at the LHC. To this end, we supplement the perturbative QCD factorized formalism for leading hadron production with radiative parton energy loss. For D meson spectra at high but experimentally accessible transverse momentum (10 < or approx. p{sub T} < or approx. 20 GeV) in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC, we find that charm quarks behave essentially like light quarks. However, since light-flavored hadron yields are dominated by gluon parents, the heavy-to-light ratio of D mesons is a sensitive probe of the color-charge dependence of parton energy loss. In contrast, due to the larger b quark mass, the medium modification of B mesons in the same kinematical regime provides a sensitive test of the mass dependence of parton energy loss. At RHIC energies, the strategies for identifying and disentangling the color charge and mass dependence of parton energy loss are more involved because of the smaller kinematical range accessible. We argue that at RHIC, the kinematical regime best suited for such an analysis of D mesons is 7 < or approx. p{sub T} < or approx. 12 GeV, whereas the study of lower transverse momenta is further complicated due to the known dominant contribution of additional, particle species dependent, nonperturbative effects.

  2. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  3. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  4. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2014-02-20

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure.

  5. Color discrimination, color naming and color preferences in 80-year olds.

    PubMed

    Wijk, H; Berg, S; Sivik, L; Steen, B

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate color discrimination, color naming and color preference in a random sample of 80-year-old men and women. Knowledge of color perception in old age can be of value when using color contrast, cues and codes in the environment to promote orientation and function. The color naming test indicated that the colors white, black, yellow, red, blue and green promoted recognition to the highest degree among all subjects. A gender-related difference, in favor of women, occurred in naming five of the mixed colors. Women also used more varied color names than men. Color discrimination was easier in the red and yellow area than in the blue and green area. This result correlates positively with visual function on far sight, and negatively with diagnosis of a cataract. The preference order for seven colors put blue, green and red at the top, and brown at the bottom, hence agreeing with earlier studies, and indicating that the preference order for colors remains relatively stable also in old age. This result should be considered when designing environments for old people.

  6. Color vision.

    PubMed

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  7. Disruptive behavior disorders and indicators of disinhibition in adolescents: The BRIEF-SR, anti-saccade task, and D-KEFS color-word interference test.

    PubMed

    Long, E C; Hill, J; Luna, B; Verhulst, B; Clark, D B

    2015-10-01

    Disinhibition contributes to the development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in adolescents. Self-reports and behavioral tasks are commonly used to assess disinhibition, each with their unique strengths and limitations. Accordingly, it is important to identify which measure, or combination thereof, is the most effective in predicting DBD symptoms. This study assessed the relationship between DBD (symptoms of ADHD/ODD/CD) and two behavioral disinhibition tasks: the anti-saccade task and the D-KEFS color-word interference test, as well as a self-report measure (the BRIEF-SR). The results indicated that the BRIEF-Inhibit scale accounted for the majority of the variance in the DBD sum score. The anti-saccade task and color-word interference test were also significantly associated with an increase in the number of DBD symptoms endorsed. These behavioral tasks accounted for 9% additional variance than the self-report alone. Therefore, combining self-report measures with behavioral disinhibition tasks may provide the most thorough assessment of adolescent DBD.

  8. Cross-Media Evaluation of Color T.V., Black and White T.V. and Color Photography in the Teaching of Endoscopy. Appendix A, Sample Schedule; Appendix B, Testing; Appendix C, Scripts; Appendix D, Analyses of Covariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balin, Howard; And Others

    Based on the premise that in situations where the subject requires visual identification, where students cannot see the subject physically from the standpoint of the instructor, and where there is a high dramatic impact, color and television might be significant factors in learning, a comparative evaluation was made of: color television, black and…

  9. Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria, the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.

  10. A comparative study of the usefulness of color vision, photostress recovery time, and visual evoked potential tests in early detection of ocular toxicity from hydroxychloroquine.

    PubMed

    Heravian, Javad; Saghafi, Massoud; Shoeibi, Naser; Hassanzadeh, Samira; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Sharepoor, Maria

    2011-08-01

    Ocular toxicity from hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is rare, but its potential permanence and severity makes it imperative to employ measures and screening protocols to minimize its occurrence. This study was performed to assess the usefulness of color vision, photo stress recovery time (PSRT), and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in early detection of ocular toxicity of HCQ, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 86 patients were included in the study and divided into three groups: (1) with history of HCQ use: interventional 1 (Int.1) without fundoscopic changes and Int.2 with fundoscopic changes; and (2) without history of HCQ use, as control. Visual field, color vision, PSRT and VEP results were recorded for all patients and the effect of age, disease duration, treatment duration and cumulative dose of HCQ on each test was assessed in each group. There was a significant relationship among PSRT and age, treatment duration, cumulative dose of HCQ and disease duration (P<0.001 for all). Color vision was normal in all the cases. P100 amplitude was not different between the three groups (P=0.846), but P100 latency was significantly different (P=0.025) and for Int.2 it was greater than the others. The percentage of abnormal visual fields for Int.2 was more than Int.1 and control groups (P=0.002 and P=0.005 respectively), but Int.1 and control groups were not significantly different (P>0.50). In the early stages of maculopathy, P100 latencies of VEP and PSRT are useful predictors of HCQ ocular toxicity. In patients without ocular symptoms and fundoscopic changes, the P100 latency of VEP predicts more precisely than the others.

  11. Reliability and accuracy of three different computerized cephalometric analysis software.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Oana; Petcu, Ana Elena; Drăgan, Eliza; Haba, Danisia; Moscalu, Mihaela; Zetu, Irina Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine, compare and evaluate three different computerized tracing programs, where the lateral cephalograms were digitized on the screen. 39 randomly selected cephalometric radiographs were used in the present study. Three programs Planmeca Romexis® (Romexis 3.2.0., Helsinki, Finland), Orthalis (France) and AxCeph (A.C 2.3.0.74, Ljubljana, Slovenia) were evaluated. 12 skeletal, 9 dental and 3 soft tissue parameters were measured that consisted of 11 linear and 13 angular measurements. Statistical analysis was carried out using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), Levene test, Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The measurements obtained with the cephalometric analyses programs used in the study were reliable. PMID:25970975

  12. The color lexicon of the Somali language.

    PubMed

    Brown, Angela M; Isse, Abdirizak; Lindsey, Delwin T

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study had three goals: (a) to describe Somali color naming and its motifs, (b) to relate color naming by Somali informants to their color vision, and (c) to search for historical and demographic clues about the diversity of Somali color naming. Somali-speaking informants from Columbus, Ohio provided monolexemic color terms for 83 or 145 World Color Survey (WCS) color samples. Proximity analysis reduced the 103 color terms to the eight chromatic color meanings from the WCS plus black, white, and gray. Informants' data sets were grouped by spectral clustering analysis into four WCS color naming motifs named after the terms for the cool colors: (a) Green-Blue, (b) Grue (a single term meaning "green or blue"), (c) Gray, and (d) Dark. The results show that, first, the Somali language has about four motifs among its speakers. Second, individuals' color vision test results and their motifs were not correlated, suggesting that multiple motifs do not arise from individual variation in color vision. Last, the Somali color lexicon has changed over the past century. New color terms often came from the names of familiar colored objects, and informants' motifs were closely related to their ages and genders, suggesting that the diversity of color naming across speakers of Somali probably results from ongoing language change. PMID:26982527

  13. Further Evidence for a Multifaceted Model of Mental Speed: Factor Structure and Validity of Computerized Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilhelm, Oliver; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the structure of mental speed and relations evidenced with fluid intelligence (Gf) found in a number of recent studies. Specifically, a battery of computerized tasks examined whether results with paper-and-pencil assessments held across different test media. Participants (N = 186) completed the battery,…

  14. Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunisch, Joseph Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

  15. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

  16. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  17. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  18. The Application of a New Maximum Color Contrast Sensitivity Test to the Early Prediction of Chiasma Damage in Cases of Pituitary Adenoma: The Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Liutkeviciene, Rasa; Glebauskiene, Brigita; Zaliuniene, Dalia; Kriauciuniene, Loresa; Bernotas, Giedrimantas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to estimate the maximum color contrast sensitivity (MCCS) thresholds in individuals with chiasma opticum damage. Methods The pilot study tested 41 people with pituitary adenoma (PA) and 100 age- and gender-matched controls. Patients were divided into two groups according to PA size, PA ≤1 cm or PA >1 cm. A new MCCS test program was used for color discrimination. Results The mean total error score (TES) of MCCS was 1.8 in the PA ≤1 cm group (standard deviation [SD], 0.38), 3.5 in the PA >1 cm group (SD, 0.96), and 1.4 in the control group (SD, 0.31; p < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between tumor size and MCCS result (r = 0.648, p < 0.01). In the group that had PA-producing hormones, the TES was 2.5 (SD, 1.09), compared to 4.2 value in the non-functioning PA group of patients that did not have clinically significant hormone excess (SD, 3.16; p < 0.01). In patients with normal visual acuity (VA) or visual field MCCS, the TES was 3.3 (SD, 1.8), while that in patients with VA <0.00 was 4.6 (SD, 2.9). Conclusions Results of the MCCS test TES were 1.9 times better in patients with PA ≤1 cm compared to patients with PA >1 cm (p < 0.01). In PA patients with normal VA, the TES was 2.35 times worse than that of healthy persons (p < 0.01). PMID:27478357

  19. Technology and Language Testing. A Collection of Papers from the Annual Colloquium on Language Testing Research (7th, Princeton, New Jersey, April 6-9, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.

    This collection of essays on measurement theory and language testing includes: "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Language Test Developers" (Peter Tung); "The Promise and Threat of Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Reading Comprehension" (Michael Canale); "Computerized Rasch Analysis of Item Bias in ESL Tests" (Harold S. Madsen,…

  20. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…