Science.gov

Sample records for computerized thermodynamics databases

  1. The Use of Computerized Thermodynamics Databases for Solidification Modeling of Fusion Welds in Multi-Component Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    DUPONT,JOHN N.; KNOROVSKY,GERALD A.; NEWBURY,BRIAN D.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.

    1999-09-23

    Most engineering alloys contain numerous alloying elements and their solidification behavior can not typically be modeled with existing binary and ternary phase diagrams. There has recently been considerable progress in the development of thermodynamic software programs for calculating solidification parameters and phase diagrams of multi-component systems. These routines can potentially provide useful input data that are needed in multi-component solidification models. However, these thermodynamic routines require validation before they can be confidently applied to simulations of alloys over a wide range of composition. In this article, a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the Thermo-Calc NiFe Superalloy database is presented. The database validation is conducted by comparing calculated phase diagram quantities to experimental measurements available in the literature. Comparisons are provided in terms of calculated and measured liquidus and solidus temperatures and slopes, equilibrium distribution coefficients, and multi-component phase diagrams. Reasonable agreement is observed among the comparisons made to date. Examples are provided which illustrate how the database can be used to approximate the solidification sequence and final segregation patterns in multi-component alloys. An additional example of the coupling of calculated phase diagrams to solute redistribution computations in a commercial eight component Ni base superalloy is also presented.

  2. Instruction manual for the Wahoo computerized database

    SciTech Connect

    Lasota, D.; Watts, K.

    1995-05-01

    As part of our research on the Lisburne Group, we have developed a powerful relational computerized database to accommodate the huge amounts of data generated by our multi-disciplinary research project. The Wahoo database has data files on petrographic data, conodont analyses, locality and sample data, well logs and diagenetic (cement) studies. Chapter 5 is essentially an instruction manual that summarizes some of the unique attributes and operating procedures of the Wahoo database. The main purpose of a database is to allow users to manipulate their data and produce reports and graphs for presentation. We present a variety of data tables in appendices at the end of this report, each encapsulating a small part of the data contained in the Wahoo database. All the data are sorted and listed by map index number and stratigraphic position (depth). The Locality data table (Appendix A) lists of the stratigraphic sections examined in our study. It gives names of study areas, stratigraphic units studied, locality information, and researchers. Most localities are keyed to a geologic map that shows the distribution of the Lisburne Group and location of our sections in ANWR. Petrographic reports (Appendix B) are detailed summaries of data the composition and texture of the Lisburne Group carbonates. The relative abundance of different carbonate grains (allochems) and carbonate texture are listed using symbols that portray data in a format similar to stratigraphic columns. This enables researchers to recognize trends in the evolution of the Lisburne carbonate platform and to check their paleoenvironmental interpretations in a stratigraphic context. Some of the figures in Chapter 1 were made using the Wahoo database.

  3. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  4. Environmental databases and other computerized information tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1995-01-01

    Increasing environmental legislation has brought about the development of many new environmental databases and software application packages to aid in the quest for environmental compliance. These databases and software packages are useful tools and applicable to a wide range of environmental areas from atmospheric modeling to materials replacement technology. The great abundance of such products and services can be very overwhelming when trying to identify the tools which best meet specific needs. This paper will discuss the types of environmental databases and software packages available. This discussion will also encompass the affected environmental areas of concern, product capabilities, and hardware requirements for product utilization.

  5. Computerization of the Arkansas Fishes Database

    Treesearch

    Henry W. Robison; L. Gayle Henderson; Melvin L. Warren; Janet S. Rader

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Until recently, distributional data for the fishes of Arkansas existed in the form of museum records, field notebooks of various ichthyologists, and published fish survey data; none of which was in a digital format. In 1995, a relational database system was used to design a PC platform data entry module for the capture of information on...

  6. Anomaly and error detection in computerized materials control & accountability databases

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Hoffbauer, B.; Yarbro, T.F.

    1997-09-01

    Unites States Department of Energy sites use computerized material control and accountability (MC&A) systems to manage the large amounts of data necessary to control and account for their nuclear materials. Theft or diversion of materials from these sites would likely result in anomalies in the data, and erroneous information greatly reduces the value of the information to its users. Therefore, it is essential that MC&A data be periodically assessed for anomalies or errors. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been developing expert systems to provide efficient, cost-effective, automated error and anomaly detection. Automated anomaly detection can provide assurance of the integrity of data, reduce inventory frequency, enhance assurance of physical inventory, detect errors in databases, and gain a better perspective on overall facility operations. The Automated MC&A Database Assessment Project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in MC&A databases and increasing confidence in the data. We are working with data from the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, the Facility`s near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This paper describes progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on our results.

  7. Creating a computerized database from administrative claims data.

    PubMed

    Piecoro, L T; Wang, L S; Dixon, W S; Crovo, R J

    1999-07-01

    The creation of a computerized database from Medicaid administrative claims data for research purposes is described. Researchers should consult with computer experts at their institution before selecting software for data manipulation and conversion. It is essential to have an accurate layout of the file record before attempting to convert raw claims data into data sets or other data formats. The location of data elements within the claim will vary depending on whether the record comes from a provider, an institution, or a pharmacy. Each claim contains a common header, a variable header, and a claim detail section. The difficulty in analyzing data elements within a claim detail lies in locating the starting point of the claim detail section. So that data elements not in character or numeric formats can be converted, the file record layout must describe the exact format of each data element and its COBOL notation. A data element dictionary is necessary for translating data element coding into usable data. Data elements not necessary for any planned analysis must be eliminated. The data are then "cleaned" to remove any denied or reversed claims and claims that contain incomplete or erroneous data. Regardless of the format data are obtained in, an accurate file record layout and a data element dictionary are essential to the conversion of administrative claims data into a computerized database for data analysis and research purposes.

  8. Computerized database management system for breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kok Swee; Chong, Sze Siang; Tso, Chih Ping; Nia, Mohsen Esmaeili; Chong, Aun Kee; Abbas, Siti Fathimah

    2014-01-01

    Data analysis based on breast cancer risk factors such as age, race, breastfeeding, hormone replacement therapy, family history, and obesity was conducted on breast cancer patients using a new enhanced computerized database management system. My Structural Query Language (MySQL) is selected as the application for database management system to store the patient data collected from hospitals in Malaysia. An automatic calculation tool is embedded in this system to assist the data analysis. The results are plotted automatically and a user-friendly graphical user interface is developed that can control the MySQL database. Case studies show breast cancer incidence rate is highest among Malay women, followed by Chinese and Indian. The peak age for breast cancer incidence is from 50 to 59 years old. Results suggest that the chance of developing breast cancer is increased in older women, and reduced with breastfeeding practice. The weight status might affect the breast cancer risk differently. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Computerized comprehensive data analysis of Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jun; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xingwei; Leader, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) is the largest public CT image database of lung nodules. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive and the most updated analysis of this dynamically growing database under the help of a computerized tool, aiming to assist researchers to optimally use this database for lung cancer related investigations. Methods: The authors developed a computer scheme to automatically match the nodule outlines marked manually by radiologists on CT images. A large variety of characteristics regarding the annotated nodules in the database including volume, spiculation level, elongation, interobserver variability, as well as the intersection of delineated nodule voxels and overlapping ratio between the same nodules marked by different radiologists are automatically calculated and summarized. The scheme was applied to analyze all 157 examinations with complete annotation data currently available in LIDC dataset. Results: The scheme summarizes the statistical distributions of the abovementioned geometric and diagnosis features. Among the 391 nodules, (1) 365 (93.35%) have principal axis length ≤20 mm; (2) 120, 75, 76, and 120 were marked by one, two, three, and four radiologists, respectively; and (3) 122 (32.48%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios ≥80% for the delineations of two radiologists, while 198 (50.64%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios <60%. The results also showed that 72.89% of the nodules were assessed with malignancy score between 2 and 4, and only 7.93% of these nodules were considered as severely malignant (malignancy ≥4). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that LIDC contains examinations covering a diverse distribution of nodule characteristics and it can be a useful resource to assess the performance of the nodule detection and∕or segmentation schemes. PMID:20831088

  10. Computerized comprehensive data analysis of Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Jun; Pu Jiantao; Zheng Bin; Wang Xingwei; Leader, Joseph K.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) is the largest public CT image database of lung nodules. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive and the most updated analysis of this dynamically growing database under the help of a computerized tool, aiming to assist researchers to optimally use this database for lung cancer related investigations. Methods: The authors developed a computer scheme to automatically match the nodule outlines marked manually by radiologists on CT images. A large variety of characteristics regarding the annotated nodules in the database including volume, spiculation level, elongation, interobserver variability, as well as the intersection of delineated nodule voxels and overlapping ratio between the same nodules marked by different radiologists are automatically calculated and summarized. The scheme was applied to analyze all 157 examinations with complete annotation data currently available in LIDC dataset. Results: The scheme summarizes the statistical distributions of the abovementioned geometric and diagnosis features. Among the 391 nodules, (1) 365 (93.35%) have principal axis length {<=}20 mm; (2) 120, 75, 76, and 120 were marked by one, two, three, and four radiologists, respectively; and (3) 122 (32.48%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios {>=}80% for the delineations of two radiologists, while 198 (50.64%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios <60%. The results also showed that 72.89% of the nodules were assessed with malignancy score between 2 and 4, and only 7.93% of these nodules were considered as severely malignant (malignancy {>=}4). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that LIDC contains examinations covering a diverse distribution of nodule characteristics and it can be a useful resource to assess the performance of the nodule detection and/or segmentation schemes.

  11. A thermodynamic database for geophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Several thermodynamic databases are available for calculation of equilibrium reference state of the model earth. Prominent among these are the data bases of (a) SLB (1), (b) HP (2) and (c) FSPW (3). The two major problems, as discussed in a meeting of the database scientists (4), lie in the formulation of solid solutions and equations of state. The models adopted in databases (1) and (2) do not account for multi-components in natural solids and the sub-lattice or compound-energy models used in (3) require lot of fictive compound and mixing energy data for which there is no present ongoing attempt. The EOS formulation in (1) is based on Mie-Gruneisen equation of state and in (2) on modification of Tait EOS with limited parameters. The database (3) adopted the Birch-Murnaghan EOS and used it for high temperature by making compressibility a function of temperature. The (2) and (3) models lead to physically unacceptable values of entropy and heat capacity at extreme conditions. The problem is as much associated with the EOS formulation as with the adoption of a heat capacity change with temperature at 1 bar as discussed by Brosh (5). None of the databases (1), (2) or (3) include the database on multicomponent fluid at extreme conditions. These problems have been addressed in the new database modified after (3). It retains the solution models for solids as in (3) and adds the Brosh Model (5) for solid solutions and the Belonoshko et al (6) model for 13-component C-H-O-S fluid. The Superfluid model builds on the combination of experimental data on pure and mixed fluids at temperatures lower than 1000 K over several kilobars and molecular dynamics generated data at extreme conditions and has been found to be consistent with all the recent experimental data. New high pressure experiments on dissociation of volatile containing solids using laser- and externally-heated DAC are being conducted to obtain new pressure-volume-temperature data on fluids to extend the current kb

  12. Seven years experience with a computerized diabetes clinic database.

    PubMed

    Flack, J R

    1995-01-01

    With the emergence of information technology applications in medicine, a computerized medical record system that could be used to : (1) maintain patients' clinical records over time, (2) communicate with referring practitioners, and (3) form the basis of a potential research database of information, was sought. In 1987, we developed such a clinical database to register patients attending our busy Diabetes Clinic, now seeing in excess of 300 new referrals and, on average, 3,000 clinic visits per year. Baseline demographic data, clinical history, and examination and investigation results are recorded. We also record diabetes therapy and other medication dosage and changes, monitor follow-up, assess health outcome information (such as stroke or amputation), and generate results, summaries, and reports to referring practitioners and other health professionals. We now have almost seven years of experience using the system. Initially established on a single PC with paper-based data collection and subsequent data entry (running as a DOS application), it is now established on a PC Local Area Network [LAN] with terminals in the clinic consultation rooms enabling direct data entry and allowing patients to view their results in graphic form on screen. From its inception, the Diabetes Clinic Database System has maintained patient demographic and clinical data (which facilitates efficient clinic management) with patient clinic lists and adhesive address labels generated from appropriate menus. Batch mode processing produces daily work sheets which facilitate the running of clinics as well as ad hoc, daily, and weekly reports for all patients (as required). This expedites correspondence with referring doctors. A quality assurance report to the clinic doctor highlights missing clinical information which must be obtained in order to ensure data completeness. The initial system was relatively inefficient in that it required data entry following patient consultation and provided no

  13. SOLGAS refined: A computerized thermodynamic equilibrium calculation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1993-11-01

    SOLGAS, an early computer program for calculating equilibrium in a chemical system, has been made more user-friendly, and several{open_quote} bells and whistles{close_quotes} have been added. The necessity to include elemental species has been eliminated. The input of large numbers of starting conditions has been automated. A revised format for entering data simplifies and reduces chances for error. Calculated errors by SOLGAS are flagged, and several programming errors are corrected. Auxiliary programs are available to assemble and partially automate plotting of large amounts of data. Thermodynamic input data can be changed {open_quotes}on line.{close_quote} The program can be operated with or without a co-processor. Copies of the program, suitable for the IBM-PC or compatible with at least 384 bytes of low RAM, are available from the authors.

  14. Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 23 NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP) (PC database for purchase)   NIST 23 contains revised data in a Windows version of the database, including 105 pure fluids and allowing mixtures of up to 20 components. The fluids include the environmentally acceptable HFCs, traditional HFCs and CFCs and 'natural' refrigerants like ammonia

  15. Databases: Computerized Resource Retrieval Systems. Inservice Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mary Alice

    This document defines and describes electronic databases and provides guidance for organizing a useful database and for selecting hardware and software. Alternatives such as using larger machines are discussed, as are the computer skills necessary to use an electronic database and the use of the computer in the classroom. Files, records, and…

  16. Progress in Thermodynamic Database Development for ICME of Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

    Integrated thermodynamic software packages are a powerful tool to analyze phase formation in multicomponent Mg alloys, providing key data for focused alloy and process development. The thermodynamic database of the alloy system is the indispensable basis for this direct application, but also needed for any further step towards Integrated Computational Materials Engineering. The database quality, which may vary widely, is crucial for the reliability of such applications. Progress in development and extension of the large thermodynamic database for magnesium alloys is reported, with emphasis on consistency, coherency and quality assurance. One aspect is the coherent description of large solid solution ranges of intermetallic phases in multicomponent Mg alloys with rare earths. Further addition of Zn may produce complex icosahedral, long-period stacking order (LPSO) or other hexagonal phases. All these may form highly efficient secondary phase precipitates in the (Mg) matrix. Examples are given for Mg-Ce-La, Mg-Ce-Y, and Mg-Gd-Nd-Y-Zn-Zr alloys.

  17. Toward a National Computerized Database for Moving Image Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartenberg, Jon

    This report summarizes a project conducted by a group of catalogers from film archives devoted to nitrate preservation, which explored ways of developing a database to provide a complete film and television information service that would be available nationwide and could contain filmographic data, information on holdings in archives and…

  18. Military services fitness database: development of a computerized physical fitness and weight management database for the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Bathalon, Gaston P; Sigrist, Lori D; Allen, H Raymond; Friedl, Karl E; Young, Andrew J; Martin, Corby K; Stewart, Tiffany M; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population.

  19. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  20. Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS), A database-driven multidisciplinary design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Bolukbasi, A. O.

    1989-01-01

    The Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS) system under development at McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company (MDHC) is targeted to make revolutionary improvements in both response time and resource efficiency in the conceptual and preliminary design of rotorcraft systems. It makes the accumulated design database and supporting technology analysis results readily available to designers and analysts of technology, systems, and production, and makes powerful design synthesis software available in a user friendly format.

  1. Using Spreadsheets and Internally Consistent Databases to Explore Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, S.; Chakraborty, S.

    2003-12-01

    Much common wisdom has been handed down to generations of petrology students in words - a non-exhaustive list may include (a) do not mix data from two different thermodynamic databases, (b) use of different heat capacity functions or extrapolation beyond the P-T range of fit can have disastrous results, (c) consideration of errors in thermodynamic calculations is crucial, (d) consideration of non-ideality, interaction parameters etc. are important in some cases, but not in others. Actual calculations to demonstrate these effects were either too laborious, tedious, time consuming or involved elaborate computer programming beyond the reaches of the average undergraduate. We have produced "Live" thermodynamic tables in the form of ExcelTM spreadsheets based on standard internally consistent thermodynamic databases (e.g. Berman, Holland and Powell) that allow quick, easy and most importantly, transparent manipulation of thermodynamic data to calculate mineral stabilities and to explore the role of different parameters. We have intentionally avoided the use of advanced tools such as macros, and have set up columns of data that are easy to relate to thermodynamic relationships to enhance transparency. The approach consists of the following basic steps: (i) use a simple supporting spreadsheet to enter mineral compositions (in formula units) to obtain a balanced reaction by matrix inversion. (ii) enter the stoichiometry of this reaction in a designated space and a P and T to get the delta G of the reaction (iii) vary P and or T to locate equilibrium through a change of sign of delta G. These results can be collected to explore practically any problem of chemical equilibrium and mineral stability. Some of our favorites include (a) hierarchical addition of complexity to equilibrium calculations - start with a simple end member reaction ignoring heat capacity and volume derivatives, add the effects of these, followed by addition of compositional effects in the form of ideal

  2. M4FT-16LL080302052-Update to Thermodynamic Database Development and Sorption Database Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, Mavrik; Wolery, T. J.; Atkins-Duffin, C.

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080302052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number FT-16LL08030205. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  3. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S.H.; Kramer, M.J.; Meng, F.Q.; McCallum, R.W.; Ott, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitle Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W. PMID:26900594

  4. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S H; Kramer, M J; Meng, F Q; McCallum, R W; Ott, R T

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitle Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W.

  5. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, S. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Meng, F. Q.; McCallum, R. W.; Ott, R. T.

    2016-01-21

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitle Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W.

  6. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, S. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Meng, F. Q.; ...

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitled ''Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W.''

  7. Technical Work Plan for: Thermodynamic Database for Chemical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C.F. Jovecolon

    2006-09-07

    The objective of the work scope covered by this Technical Work Plan (TWP) is to correct and improve the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) thermodynamic databases, to update their documentation, and to ensure reasonable consistency among them. In addition, the work scope will continue to generate database revisions, which are organized and named so as to be transparent to internal and external users and reviewers. Regarding consistency among databases, it is noted that aqueous speciation and mineral solubility data for a given system may differ according to how solubility was determined, and the method used for subsequent retrieval of thermodynamic parameter values from measured data. Of particular concern are the details of the determination of ''infinite dilution'' constants, which involve the use of specific methods for activity coefficient corrections. That is, equilibrium constants developed for a given system for one set of conditions may not be consistent with constants developed for other conditions, depending on the species considered in the chemical reactions and the methods used in the reported studies. Hence, there will be some differences (for example in log K values) between the Pitzer and ''B-dot'' database parameters for the same reactions or species.

  8. Generic Natural Systems Evaluation - Thermodynamic Database Development and Data Management

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T W; Sutton, M

    2011-09-19

    they use a large body of thermodynamic data, generally from a supporting database file, to sort out the various important reactions from a wide spectrum of possibilities, given specified inputs. Usually codes of this kind are used to construct models of initial aqueous solutions that represent initial conditions for some process, although sometimes these calculations also represent a desired end point. Such a calculation might be used to determine the major chemical species of a dissolved component, the solubility of a mineral or mineral-like solid, or to quantify deviation from equilibrium in the form of saturation indices. Reactive transport codes such as TOUGHREACT and NUFT generally require the user to determine which chemical species and reactions are important, and to provide the requisite set of information including thermodynamic data in an input file. Usually this information is abstracted from the output of a geochemical modeling code and its supporting thermodynamic data file. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) developed two qualified thermodynamic databases to model geochemical processes, including ones involving repository components such as spent fuel. The first of the two (BSC, 2007a) was for systems containing dilute aqueous solutions only, the other (BSC, 2007b) for systems involving concentrated aqueous solutions and incorporating a model for such based on Pitzer's (1991) equations. A 25 C-only database with similarities to the latter was also developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP, cf. Xiong, 2005). The NAGRA/PSI database (Hummel et al., 2002) was developed to support repository studies in Europe. The YMP databases are often used in non-repository studies, including studies of geothermal systems (e.g., Wolery and Carroll, 2010) and CO2 sequestration (e.g., Aines et al., 2011).

  9. Detecting errors and anomalies in computerized materials control and accountability databases

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Hench, K.; Yarbro, T.; Baumgart, C.

    1998-12-31

    The Automated MC and A Database Assessment project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in materials control and accountability (MC and A) databases and increasing confidence in the data that they contain. Anomalous data resulting in poor categorization of nuclear material inventories greatly reduces the value of the database information to users. Therefore it is essential that MC and A data be assessed periodically for anomalies or errors. Anomaly detection can identify errors in databases and thus provide assurance of the integrity of data. An expert system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that examines these large databases for anomalous or erroneous data. For several years, MC and A subject matter experts at Los Alamos have been using this automated system to examine the large amounts of accountability data that the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility generates. These data are collected and managed by the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, a near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This year they have expanded the user base, customizing the anomaly detector for the varying requirements of different groups of users. This paper describes the progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on their results.

  10. The Bayesian approach to an internally consistent thermodynamic database: theory, database, and generation of phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Niranjan D.; Krüger, Ralf; Haller, Gerd; Olbricht, Walter

    An internally consistent thermodynamic dataset has been derived for 148 endmember phases (145 solids and 3 fluids) comprising the elements Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Si, C, H, and O. This has been achieved by simultaneous treatment of phase property (like standard enthalpy of formation, standard entropy, molar heat capacity, molar volume, thermal expansivity, bulk modulus etc.) and reaction reversal data by the Bayesian method. The theory underlying the approach, and the computational methods involved, are briefly outlined. (For the benefit of readers unfamiliar with inference statistics, the basic concepts of the Bayes method are also presented in such a way that they can be grasped intuitively.) Although not yet addressed, this method can be extended to refine the thermodynamic mixing properties of crystalline solutions. The sources of the input data, culled from the literature, are summarized in the Appendix. The resulting database is succinctly documented in this paper. It includes the enthalpies of formation and entropies, their uncertainties, and the correlation among them. The database allows calculation of P-T, T-XCO2, P-XCO2, and T-fO2 sections, with error propagation into the computed phase diagrams on a routine basis. A user-friendly computer program has been written to generate such phase diagrams. It is public domain software. The software and the thermodynamic database (which includes a complete documentation of the thermodynamic data above and beyond those listed (Table 2, here) may be downloaded from the web site http://homepage.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/niranjan.chatterjee/Index.htm. Examples of computed phase diagrams are given to illustrate the quality of the data and the capabilities of the software.

  11. Developing and using a computerized database for music therapy in palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, L M; Steele, A L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the music therapy program at the Harry R. Horvitz Center for Palliative Medicine, to present different music therapy interventions that are used with individuals who have terminal illnesses, and to introduce initial findings from a pilot study of the effects of music therapy on an inpatient palliative medicine unit. For the first time, a computerized database has been designed to evaluate clinical practice by tracking music therapy intervention effectiveness on common symptoms. Measurement techniques included visual analogue scales and behavioural observation. Music therapy was shown to have a significant effect on common symptoms in advanced cancer patients, suggesting that it should be included in palliative medicine programs as an adjunct to symptom treatment.

  12. The Moli-sani project: computerized ECG database in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, Licia; Rago, Livia; Costanzo, Simona; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Zito, Francesco; Assanelli, Deodato; Badilini, Fabio; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Computerized electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition and interpretation may be extremely useful in handling analysis of data from large cohort studies and exploit research on the use of ECG data as prognostic markers for cardiovascular disease. The Moli-sani project (http://www.moli-sani.org) is a population-based cohort study aiming at evaluating the risk factors linked to chronic-degenerative disease with particular regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer and intermediate metabolic phenotypes such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Between March 2005 and April 2010, 24 325 people aged 35 years or older, living in the Molise region (Italy), were randomly recruited. A follow-up based on linkage with hospital discharge records and mortality regional registry and reexamination of the cohort is ongoing and will be repeated at prefixed times. Each subject was administered questionnaires on personal and medical history, food consumption, quality of life (FS36), and psychometry. Plasma serum, cellular pellet, and urinary spots were stored in liquid nitrogen. Subjects were measured blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences, and underwent spirometry to evaluate pulmonary diffusion capacity, gas diffusion, and pulmonary volumes. Standard 12-lead resting ECG was performed by a Cardiette ar2100-view electrocardiograph and tracings stored in digital standard communication protocol format for subsequent analysis. The digital ECG database of the Moli-sani project is currently being used to assess the association between physiologic variables and pathophyiosiologic conditions and parameters derived from the ECG signal. This computerized ECG database represents a unique opportunity to identify and assess prognostic factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The development and implementation of a computerized database for clinical research in minimal access surgery. An international pilot study.

    PubMed

    Birch, D W; Park, A; Bailey, M; Witzke, W; Witzke, D; Hoskins, J

    2001-09-01

    The measurement of outcomes after minimal access surgery (MAS) relies on the maintenance of an accurate, prospective clinical database. The development of a system for data management often proves to be challenging, expensive, and extremely time-consuming. We developed a computerized relational database for MAS using Microsoft Access 97 to reside on a hospital server, taking advantage of existing network connections, security, and backup systems. The design of the database includes a point-and-click approach with dropdown boxes for diagnoses, procedures, and complications (limited free-text entry). A fundamental feature of this database allows surgeons and surgical trainees to record clinical information at the point and time of data acquisition. A "beta version" or fully functional draft of the database was presented to a group of surgeons from a variety of specialties (n = 8), and a structured interview based on a questionnaire was used to elicit the surgeon's evaluations of the database. Using the information from the interviews, the database was extensively revised and restructured. We have developed a relational database that reflects the needs of surgeons interested in clinical research. This database may serve as a template for other centers. It can be expanded to adopt new procedures or modified for other surgical specialties.

  14. A spreadsheet-coupled SOLGAS: A computerized thermodynamic equilibrium calculation tool. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    SOLGAS, an early computer program for calculating equilibrium in a chemical system, has been made more user-friendly, and several ``bells and whistles`` have been added. The necessity to include elemental species has been eliminated. The input of large numbers of starting conditions has been automated. A revised spreadsheet-based format for entering data, including non-ideal binary and ternary mixtures, simplifies and reduces chances for error. Calculational errors by SOLGAS are flagged, and several programming errors are corrected. Auxiliary programs are available to assemble and partially automate plotting of large amounts of data. Thermodynamic input data can be changed on line. The program can be operated with or without a co-processor. Copies of the program, suitable for the IBM-PC or compatibles with at least 384 bytes of low RAM, are available from the authors. This user manual contains appendices with examples of the use of SOLGAS. These range from elementary examples, such as, the relationships among water, ice, and water vapor, to more complex systems: phase diagram calculation of UF{sub 4} and UF{sub 6} system; burning UF{sub 4} in fluorine; thermodynamic calculation of the Cl-F-O-H system; equilibria calculations in the CCl{sub 4}--CH{sub 3}OH system; and limitations applicable to aqueous solutions. An appendix also contains the source code.

  15. THERMODYNAMIC TABLES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION, V.1: AQUEOUSSOLUTIONS DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Silvester, L.F.

    1988-05-01

    Tables of consistent thermodynamic property values for nuclear waste isolation are given. The tables include critically assessed values for Gibbs energy of formation. enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity for minerals; solids; aqueous ions; ion pairs and complex ions of selected actinide and fission decay products at 25{sup o}C and zero ionic strength. These intrinsic data are used to calculate equilibrium constants and standard potentials which are compared with typical experimental measurements and other work. Recommendations for additional research are given.

  16. A classification of diabetic foot infections using ICD-9-CM codes: application to a large computerized medical database

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot infections are common, serious, and varied. Diagnostic and treatment strategies are correspondingly diverse. It is unclear how patients are managed in actual practice and how outcomes might be improved. Clarification will require study of large numbers of patients, such as are available in medical databases. We have developed and evaluated a system for identifying and classifying diabetic foot infections that can be used for this purpose. Methods We used the (VA) Diabetes Epidemiology Cohorts (DEpiC) database to conduct a retrospective observational study of patients with diabetic foot infections. DEpiC contains computerized VA and Medicare patient-level data for patients with diabetes since 1998. We determined which ICD-9-CM codes served to identify patients with different types of diabetic foot infections and ranked them in declining order of severity: Gangrene, Osteomyelitis, Ulcer, Foot cellulitis/abscess, Toe cellulitis/abscess, Paronychia. We evaluated our classification by examining its relationship to patient characteristics, diagnostic procedures, treatments given, and medical outcomes. Results There were 61,007 patients with foot infections, of which 42,063 were classifiable into one of our predefined groups. The different types of infection were related to expected patient characteristics, diagnostic procedures, treatments, and outcomes. Our severity ranking showed a monotonic relationship to hospital length of stay, amputation rate, transition to long-term care, and mortality. Conclusions We have developed a classification system for patients with diabetic foot infections that is expressly designed for use with large, computerized, ICD-9-CM coded administrative medical databases. It provides a framework that can be used to conduct observational studies of large numbers of patients in order to examine treatment variation and patient outcomes, including the effect of new management strategies, implementation of practice guidelines

  17. A classification of diabetic foot infections using ICD-9-CM codes: application to a large computerized medical database.

    PubMed

    Fincke, Benjamin G; Miller, Donald R; Turpin, Robin

    2010-07-06

    Diabetic foot infections are common, serious, and varied. Diagnostic and treatment strategies are correspondingly diverse. It is unclear how patients are managed in actual practice and how outcomes might be improved. Clarification will require study of large numbers of patients, such as are available in medical databases. We have developed and evaluated a system for identifying and classifying diabetic foot infections that can be used for this purpose. We used the (VA) Diabetes Epidemiology Cohorts (DEpiC) database to conduct a retrospective observational study of patients with diabetic foot infections. DEpiC contains computerized VA and Medicare patient-level data for patients with diabetes since 1998. We determined which ICD-9-CM codes served to identify patients with different types of diabetic foot infections and ranked them in declining order of severity: Gangrene, Osteomyelitis, Ulcer, Foot cellulitis/abscess, Toe cellulitis/abscess, Paronychia. We evaluated our classification by examining its relationship to patient characteristics, diagnostic procedures, treatments given, and medical outcomes. There were 61,007 patients with foot infections, of which 42,063 were classifiable into one of our predefined groups. The different types of infection were related to expected patient characteristics, diagnostic procedures, treatments, and outcomes. Our severity ranking showed a monotonic relationship to hospital length of stay, amputation rate, transition to long-term care, and mortality. We have developed a classification system for patients with diabetic foot infections that is expressly designed for use with large, computerized, ICD-9-CM coded administrative medical databases. It provides a framework that can be used to conduct observational studies of large numbers of patients in order to examine treatment variation and patient outcomes, including the effect of new management strategies, implementation of practice guidelines, and quality improvement initiatives.

  18. PROXiMATE: a database of mutant protein-protein complex thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jemimah, Sherlyn; Yugandhar, K; Michael Gromiha, M

    2017-09-01

    We have developed PROXiMATE, a database of thermodynamic data for more than 6000 missense mutations in 174 heterodimeric protein-protein complexes, supplemented with interaction network data from STRING database, solvent accessibility, sequence, structural and functional information, experimental conditions and literature information. Additional features include complex structure visualization, search and display options, download options and a provision for users to upload their data. The database is freely available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/PROXiMATE/ . The website is implemented in Python, and supports recent versions of major browsers such as IE10, Firefox, Chrome and Opera. gromiha@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. The Reference Expert: A Computerized Database Utilizing INMAGIC and a WORM Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkovich, Nancy J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design and implementation of the Reference Expert, a database based on INMAGIC software which contains problem reference questions and answers for use by library reference desk staff. Topics discussed include staff response to the database and problems encountered in its development. A sidebar describes the use of WORM…

  20. Development of a critically evaluated thermodynamic database for the systems containing alkaline-earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Adarsh

    In a thermodynamic system which contains several elements, the phase relationships among the components are usually very complex. Especially, systems containing oxides are generally very difficult to investigate owing to the very high experimental temperatures and corrosive action of slags. Due to such difficulties, large inconsistencies are often observed among the available experimental data. In order to investigate and understand the complex phase relationships effectively, it is very useful to develop thermodynamic databases containing optimized model parameters giving the thermodynamic properties of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In a thermodynamic optimization, adjustable model parameters are calculated using, simultaneously, all available thermodynamic and phase-equilibrium data in order to obtain one set of model equations as functions of temperature and composition. Thermodynamic data, such as activities, can aid in the evaluation of the phase diagrams, and information on phase equilibria can be used to deduce thermodynamic properties. Thus, it is frequently possible to resolve discrepancies in the available data. From the model equations, all the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams can be back-calculated, and interpolations and extrapolations can be made in a thermodynamically correct manner. The data are thereby rendered self-consistent and consistent with thermodynamic principles, and the available data are distilled into a small set of model parameters, ideal for computer storage. As part of a broader research project at the Centre de Recherche en Calcul Thermochimique (CRCT), Ecole Polytechnique to develop a thermodynamic database for multicomponent oxide systems, this thesis deals with the addition of components SrO and BaO to the existing multicomponent database of the SiO2-B2O3-Al2O 3-CaO-MgO system. Over the years, in collaboration with many industrial companies, a thermodynamic database for the SiO2-B2O 3-Al2O3-Ca

  1. A lattice vibrational model using vibrational density of states for constructing thermodynamic databases (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, M. H.; Van Den Berg, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Thermodynamic databases are indispensable tools in materials science and mineral physics to derive thermodynamic properties in regions of pressure-temperature-composition space for which experimental data are not available or scant. Because the amount of phases and substances in a database is arbitrarily large, thermodynamic formalisms coupled to these databases are often kept as simple as possible to sustain computational efficiency. Although formalisms based on parameterizations of 1 bar thermodynamic data, commonly used in Calphad methodology, meet this requirement, physically unrealistic behavior in properties hamper the application in the pressure regime prevailing in the Earth's lower mantle. The application becomes especially cumbersome when they are applied to planetary mantles of massive super earth exoplanets or in the development of pressure scales, where Hugoniot data at extreme conditions are involved. Methods based on the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye formalism have the advantage that physically unrealistic behavior in thermodynamic properties is absent, but due to the simple construction of the vibrational density of states (VDoS), they lack engineering precision in the low-pressure regime, especially at 1 bar pressure, hampering application of databases incorporating such formalism to industrial processes. To obtain a method that is generally applicable in the complete stability range of a material, we developed a method based on an alternative use of Kieffer's lattice vibrational formalism. The method requires experimental data to constrain the model parameters and is therefore semi-empirical. It has the advantage that microscopic properties for substances, such as the VDoS, Grüneisen parameters and electronic and static lattice properties resulting from present-day ab-initio methods can be incorporated to constrain a thermodynamic analysis of experimental data. It produces results free from physically unrealistic behavior at high pressure and temperature

  2. Use of a computerized database to study the effectiveness of an attenuated varicella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Passwell, Justen H; Hemo, Beatrice; Levi, Yonit; Ramon, Reut; Friedman, Nurit; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2004-03-01

    The varicella vaccine Varilrix (GlaxoSmithKline) was introduced in Israel in June 2000 as an optional vaccination for children. We used the database of a single health maintenance organization that serves 25% of the population in Israel to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine retrospectively. Incidence and complications of varicella were derived from the database from January 1, 1998 until December 31, 2002. Since licensure >30000 individuals younger than 10 years in this health maintenance organization have been immunized with the vaccine. Annual incidence of disease per 1000 in the study population was 86.6 in 1998, 74.6 in 1999, 74.0 in 2000, 37.1 in 2001 and 44.6 in 2002. This declining trend in incidence of disease was statistically significant. Complications of varicella occurred in approximately 1% of patients throughout the 5-year study period, but there was a parallel decline in the number of patients with complications corresponding to the decline in disease incidence. Vaccine effectiveness for prevention of clinical disease in this population was 92% (95% confidence interval, 91.0 to 92.7). There were varying rates of utilization within communities of varied socioeconomic class, so that in the higher socioeconomic class there was an increased utilization and a corresponding decrease of attack rate; whereas in communities where there were lower utilization rates, corresponding increased numbers of varicella cases were seen. This database enables long term follow-up of the effectiveness of this vaccine in a large population.

  3. The use of a computerized database to monitor vaccine safety in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Canh, Gia Do; Clemens, John D.; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Minh, Tan Truong; Thiem, Dinh Vu; Tho, Huu Le; Trach, Duc Dang

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems to monitor vaccine safety are used in industrialized countries to detect adverse medical events related to vaccinations or to prove the safety of vaccines. There are no such information systems in the developing world, but they are urgently needed. A large linked database for the monitoring of vaccine-related adverse events has been established in Khanh Hoa province, Viet Nam. Data collected during the first 2 years of surveillance, a period which included a mass measles vaccination campaign, were used to evaluate the system. For this purpose the discharge diagnoses of individuals admitted to polyclinics and hospitals were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 guidelines and linked in a dynamic population database with vaccination histories. A case-series analysis was applied to the cohort of children vaccinated during the mass measles vaccination campaign. The study recorded 107,022 immunizations in a catchment area with a population of 357,458 and confirmed vaccine coverage of 87% or higher for completed routine childhood vaccinations. The measles vaccination campaign immunized at least 86% of the targeted children aged 9 months to 10 years. No medical event was detected significantly more frequently during the 14 days after measles vaccination than before it. The experience in Viet Nam confirmed the safety of a measles vaccination campaign and shows that it is feasible to establish health information systems such as a large linked database which can provide reliable data in a developing country for a modest increase in use of resources. PMID:16193545

  4. Use of a medical center's computerized health care database for notifiable disease surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, M; Lapham, S; Hoy, W

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of a medical center's inpatient and outpatient database to detect notifiable diseases was examined. Only 53 percent of inpatient and 7 percent of outpatient laboratory-confirmed cases of shigellosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, and hepatitis were identified by an automated search for matching diagnosis codes. Reasons for lack of sensitivity include nonavailability of laboratory results at the time of diagnosis assignment, use of a standardized encounter form with limited preselected diagnosis codes, and pre-emptying of the infectious disease diagnosis by other diagnoses. PMID:2014868

  5. Evaluation of the Quality of Information Retrieval of Clinical Findings from a Computerized Patient Database Using a Semantic Terminological Model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Philip J. B.; Sönksen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the strength of agreement between the concepts and records retrieved from a computerized patient database, in response to physician-derived questions, using a semantic terminological model for clinical findings with those concepts and records excerpted clinically by manual identification. The performance of the semantic terminological model is also compared with the more established retrieval methods of free-text search, ICD-10, and hierarchic retrieval. Design: A clinical database (Diabeta) of 106,000 patient problem record entries containing 2,625 unique concepts in an clinical academic department was used to compare semantic, free-text, ICD-10, and hierarchic data retrieval against a gold standard in response to a battery of 47 clinical questions. Measurements: The performance of concept and record retrieval expressed as mean detection rate, positive predictive value, Yates corrected and Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared values, and Cohen kappa value, with significance estimated using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The semantic terminological model used to retrieve clinically useful concepts from a patient database performed well and better than other methods, with a mean detection rate of 0.86, a positive predictive value of 0.96, a Yates corrected chi-squared value of 1,537, a Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared value of 19,302, and a Cohen kappa of 0.88. Results for record retrieval were even better, with a mean record detection rate of 0.94, a positive predictive value of 0.99, a Yates corrected chi-squared value of 94,774, a Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared value of 1,550,356, and a Cohen kappa value of 0.94. The mean detection rate, Yates corrected chi-squared value, and Cohen kappa value for semantic retrieval were significantly better than for the other methods. Conclusion: The use of a semantic terminological model in this test scenario provides an effective framework for representing clinical finding concepts and their relationships. Although

  6. Applications of Protein Thermodynamic Database for Understanding Protein Mutant Stability and Designing Stable Mutants.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Anoosha, P; Huang, Liang-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is the free energy difference between unfolded and folded states of a protein, which lies in the range of 5-25 kcal/mol. Experimentally, protein stability is measured with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy using thermal and denaturant denaturation methods. These experimental data have been accumulated in the form of a database, ProTherm, thermodynamic database for proteins and mutants. It also contains sequence and structure information of a protein, experimental methods and conditions, and literature information. Different features such as search, display, and sorting options and visualization tools have been incorporated in the database. ProTherm is a valuable resource for understanding/predicting the stability of proteins and it can be accessed at http://www.abren.net/protherm/ . ProTherm has been effectively used to examine the relationship among thermodynamics, structure, and function of proteins. We describe the recent progress on the development of methods for understanding/predicting protein stability, such as (1) general trends on mutational effects on stability, (2) relationship between the stability of protein mutants and amino acid properties, (3) applications of protein three-dimensional structures for predicting their stability upon point mutations, (4) prediction of protein stability upon single mutations from amino acid sequence, and (5) prediction methods for addressing double mutants. A list of online resources for predicting has also been provided.

  7. Blending Education and Polymer Science: Semi Automated Creation of a Thermodynamic Property Database

    PubMed Central

    Tchoua, Roselyne B.; Qin, Jian; Audus, Debra J.; Chard, Kyle; Foster, Ian T.; de Pablo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Structured databases of chemical and physical properties play a central role in the everyday research activities of scientists and engineers. In materials science, researchers and engineers turn to these databases to quickly query, compare, and aggregate various properties, thereby allowing for the development or application of new materials. The vast majority of these databases have been generated manually, through decades of labor-intensive harvesting of information from the literature; yet, while there are many examples of commonly used databases, a significant number of important properties remain locked within the tables, figures, and text of publications. The question addressed in our work is whether, and to what extent, the process of data collection can be automated. Students of the physical sciences and engineering are often confronted with the challenge of finding and applying property data from the literature, and a central aspect of their education is to develop the critical skills needed to identify such data and discern their meaning or validity. To address shortcomings associated with automated information extraction, while simultaneously preparing the next generation of scientists for their future endeavors, we developed a novel course-based approach in which students develop skills in polymer chemistry and physics and apply their knowledge by assisting with the semi-automated creation of a thermodynamic property database. PMID:27795574

  8. Blending Education and Polymer Science: Semi Automated Creation of a Thermodynamic Property Database.

    PubMed

    Tchoua, Roselyne B; Qin, Jian; Audus, Debra J; Chard, Kyle; Foster, Ian T; de Pablo, Juan

    2016-09-13

    Structured databases of chemical and physical properties play a central role in the everyday research activities of scientists and engineers. In materials science, researchers and engineers turn to these databases to quickly query, compare, and aggregate various properties, thereby allowing for the development or application of new materials. The vast majority of these databases have been generated manually, through decades of labor-intensive harvesting of information from the literature; yet, while there are many examples of commonly used databases, a significant number of important properties remain locked within the tables, figures, and text of publications. The question addressed in our work is whether, and to what extent, the process of data collection can be automated. Students of the physical sciences and engineering are often confronted with the challenge of finding and applying property data from the literature, and a central aspect of their education is to develop the critical skills needed to identify such data and discern their meaning or validity. To address shortcomings associated with automated information extraction, while simultaneously preparing the next generation of scientists for their future endeavors, we developed a novel course-based approach in which students develop skills in polymer chemistry and physics and apply their knowledge by assisting with the semi-automated creation of a thermodynamic property database.

  9. Blending Education and Polymer Science: Semiautomated Creation of a Thermodynamic Property Database

    SciTech Connect

    Tchoua, Roselyne B.; Qin, Jian; Audus, Debra J.; Chard, Kyle; Foster, Ian T.; de Pablo, Juan

    2016-09-13

    Structured databases of chemical and physical properties play a central role in the everyday research activities of scientists and engineers. In materials science, researchers and engineers turn to these databases to quickly query, compare, and aggregate various properties, thereby allowing for the development or application of new materials. The vast majority of these databases have been generated manually, through decades of labor-intensive harvesting of information from the literature, yet while there are many examples of commonly used databases, a significant number of important properties remain locked within the tables, figures, and text of publications. The question addressed in our work is whether and to what extent the process of data collection can be automated. Students of the physical sciences and engineering are often confronted with the challenge of finding and applying property data from the literature, and a central aspect of their education is to develop the critical skills needed to identify such data and discern their meaning or validity. To address shortcomings associated with automated information extraction while simultaneously preparing the next generation of scientists for their future endeavors, we developed a novel course-based approach in which students develop skills in polymer chemistry and physics and apply their knowledge by assisting with the semiautomated creation of a thermodynamic property database.

  10. AntiJen: a quantitative immunology database integrating functional, thermodynamic, kinetic, biophysical, and cellular data

    PubMed Central

    Toseland, Christopher P; Clayton, Debra J; McSparron, Helen; Hemsley, Shelley L; Blythe, Martin J; Paine, Kelly; Doytchinova, Irini A; Guan, Pingping; Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Flower, Darren R

    2005-01-01

    AntiJen is a database system focused on the integration of kinetic, thermodynamic, functional, and cellular data within the context of immunology and vaccinology. Compared to its progenitor JenPep, the interface has been completely rewritten and redesigned and now offers a wider variety of search methods, including a nucleotide and a peptide BLAST search. In terms of data archived, AntiJen has a richer and more complete breadth, depth, and scope, and this has seen the database increase to over 31,000 entries. AntiJen provides the most complete and up-to-date dataset of its kind. While AntiJen v2.0 retains a focus on both T cell and B cell epitopes, its greatest novelty is the archiving of continuous quantitative data on a variety of immunological molecular interactions. This includes thermodynamic and kinetic measures of peptide binding to TAP and the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), peptide-MHC complexes binding to T cell receptors, antibodies binding to protein antigens and general immunological protein-protein interactions. The database also contains quantitative specificity data from position-specific peptide libraries and biophysical data, in the form of diffusion co-efficients and cell surface copy numbers, on MHCs and other immunological molecules. The uses of AntiJen include the design of vaccines and diagnostics, such as tetramers, and other laboratory reagents, as well as helping parameterize the bioinformatic or mathematical in silico modeling of the immune system. The database is accessible from the URL: . PMID:16305757

  11. Thermodynamic optimization of individual steel database by means of systematic DSC measurements according the CALPHAD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presoly, P.; Six, J.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-03-01

    Reliable thermodynamic data are essential information required for the design of new steel types and are a prerequisite to effective process optimization and simulation. Moreover, it is important to know the exact temperatures at which the high-temperature phase transformations (TLiquid, TSolid, TPerit, Tγ→δ) occur in order to describe the solidification sequence and to describe further processing parameters. By utilizing DTA/DSC measurements, our earlier experimental studies of selected commercial DP, TRIP and high-Mn TWIP steels, have indicated that currently commercially available databases can often not be utilised to reliably describe the behaviour and microstructural development in such complex alloy systems. Because of these ostensible deficiencies, an experimental study was undertaken in an attempt to determine the pertaining thermodynamic data to analyse the behaviour of the important five- component Fe-C-Si-Mn-Al alloy system. High purity model alloys with systematic alloy variations were prepared and utilized in order to determine the influence of individual alloying elements in this complex, but industrially important alloy system. The present study provides new validated experimental thermodynamic data and analysis of the five-component Fe-C-Si- Mn-Al system, which will allow the construction of new phase diagrams, prediction of solidification sequences and the assessment of micro-segregation.

  12. Computerized Interactive Harness Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized interactive harness engineering program inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically data-base system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records.

  13. An Assessment of Thermodynamic Database Effects on Reactive Transport Models' Predictions of Permeability Fields: Insights from CO2/Brine Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutolo, B. M.; Seyfried, W. E.; Saar, M. O.

    2011-12-01

    Numerical modeling software such as TOUGHREACT, ECLIPSE, and Geochemist's Workbench provide modules that couple mineral reactive chemistry with porosity and permeability modifications to predict the behavior of energy byproducts, such as carbon dioxide, in the subsurface. Modern coders have already included increasingly complex equations that describe natural systems (i.e. mineral dissolution/precipitation kinetic parameters and porosity/permeability functions) into these and other software applications. Generally, these computer models use the bulk volumetric changes predicted by geochemical calculations to infer porosity changes, and subsequently use highly simplified porosity/permeability correlation functions, such as the Carman-Kozeny equation, to modify permeability fields. In spite of the computational complexity provided in these models, they require, as a foundation, fundamental information on the thermodynamic stability of minerals and aqueous species at a wide range of temperatures and pressures to produce accurate predictions of the geochemistry of long-term energy byproduct storage in the subsurface, even in the simplest cases. With improvements in geochemical thermodynamic databases, researchers may begin to produce more realistic simulations of the complex interactions between fluid and heat flow and geological systems. Unfortunately, the requisite thermodynamic data is often lacking, or inaccurate. In this study, therefore, we provide a discussion of geochemical thermodynamic databases, discuss the synthesis and reconciliation of the databases used in this study, and compare predictions from reactive transport software with single phase CO2/brine experiments performed at temperatures and pressures applicable to geologic storage conditions.

  14. FY11 Development of Fully Coupled Repository THCM Simulation Tools Report: Thermodynamic Database Development, with Emphasis on Complex Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, Thomas J.; Tayne, Andrew; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2011-07-29

    Thermodynamic data are essential for understanding and evaluating geochemical processes, as by speciation-solubility calculations, reaction -path modeling, or reactive transport simulation. These data are required to evaluate both equilibrium states and the kinetic approach to such states (via the affinity term in rate laws). The development of thermodynamic databases for these purposes has a long history in geochemistry (e.g., Garrels and Christ, 1965; Helgeson et al., 1969; Helgeson et al., 1978, Johnson et al., 1992; Robie and Hemingway, 1995), paralleled by related and applicable work in the larger scientific community (e.g., Wagman et al., 1982, 1989; Cox et al., 1989; Barin and Platzki, 1995; Binneweis and Milke, 1999). The Yucca Mountain Project developed two qualified thermodynamic databases for to model geochemical processes, including ones involving repository components such as spent fuel. The first of the two (BSC, 2007a) was for systems containing dilute aqueous solutions only, the other (BSC, 2007b) for systems involving concentrated aqueous solutions and incorporating a model for such based on Pitzer’s (1991) equations . A 25°C-only database with similarities to the latter was also developed for WIPP (cf. Xiong, 2005). The YMP dilute systems database is widely used in the geochemistry community for a variety of applications involving rock/water interactions. The purpose of the present task is to improve these databases for work on the Used Fuel Disposition Project and maintain some semblance of order that will support qualification in support of the development of future underground high level nuclear waste disposal.

  15. Recent initiatives in experimental thermodynamic studies on ionic liquids [IL]--the emergence of a standard thermochemical database for ILs.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Harry Donald Brooke

    2011-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals in the exciting on-going development and study of ionic liquids (ILs) must be the quest to establish "before synthesis" tools that could be used to predict and guide synthetic chemists towards ILs having "tuned" target properties. The tools needed in this exercise will come from many sources, not least from the acquisition of standard experimental thermodynamic data. The routine measurement of such data for new compounds had become very much a thing of the past in traditional chemistry. However with the surge of interest across the globe seen in these relatively new IL materials has come a recognition of the need to acquire experimental data and this review article seeks to assemble much of the emerging thermochemical data for ILs in one place. After all, there are very few data in current existing thermochemical databases that could offer much of a clue concerning the specific thermodynamic behaviour of ILs. We are charting new territory here. Development of any new large scale commercial process is preceded these days by a full study of its thermodynamic feasibility, usually at the pilot stage, and thus such data as are reported here are of the utmost value in this respect. It has a secondary role too in enabling predictions of missing data to become feasible and hence in predicting synthetic outcomes ahead of practical experiment. This commentary tracks very recent trends and developments on the more quantitative and thermodynamic aspects of this exciting chemistry.

  16. The History Computerization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the History Computerization Project, which is being developed for the exchange of information between researchers, librarians, archivists, museum curators, preservation groups, and historical societies, focuses on workshops that teach the use of computer database management for historical cataloging and research. (LRW)

  17. Numeric Databases in Chemical Thermodynamics at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

    PubMed

    Chase, Malcolm W

    1989-01-01

    During the past year the activities of the Chemical Thermodynamics Data Center and the JANAF Thermochemical Tables project have been combined to obtain an extensive collection of thermodynamic information for many chemical species, including the elements. Currently available are extensive bibliographic collections and data files of heat capacity, enthalpy, vapor pressure, phase transitions, etc. Future plans related to materials science are to improve the metallic oxide temperature dependent tabulations, upgrade the recommended values periodically, and maintain the bibliographic citations and the thermochemical data current. The recommended thermochemical information is maintained on-line, and tied to the calculational routines within the data center. Recent thermodynamic evaluations on the elements and oxides will be discussed, as well as studies in related activities at NIST.

  18. Numeric Databases in Chemical Thermodynamics at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Malcolm W.

    1989-01-01

    During the past year the activities of the Chemical Thermodynamics Data Center and the JANAF Thermochemical Tables project have been combined to obtain an extensive collection of thermodynamic information for many chemical species, including the elements. Currently available are extensive bibliographic collections and data files of heat capacity, enthalpy, vapor pressure, phase transitions, etc. Future plans related to materials science are to improve the metallic oxide temperature dependent tabulations, upgrade the recommended values periodically, and maintain the bibliographic citations and the thermochemical data current. The recommended thermochemical information is maintained on-line, and tied to the calculational routines within the data center. Recent thermodynamic evaluations on the elements and oxides will be discussed, as well as studies in related activities at NIST. PMID:28053395

  19. Blending Education and Polymer Science: Semiautomated Creation of a Thermodynamic Property Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchoua, Roselyne B.; Qin, Jian; Audus, Debra J.; Chard, Kyle; Foster, Ian T.; de Pablo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Structured databases of chemical and physical properties play a central role in the everyday research activities of scientists and engineers. In materials science, researchers and engineers turn to these databases to quickly query, compare, and aggregate various properties, thereby allowing for the development or application of new materials. The…

  20. Blending Education and Polymer Science: Semiautomated Creation of a Thermodynamic Property Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchoua, Roselyne B.; Qin, Jian; Audus, Debra J.; Chard, Kyle; Foster, Ian T.; de Pablo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Structured databases of chemical and physical properties play a central role in the everyday research activities of scientists and engineers. In materials science, researchers and engineers turn to these databases to quickly query, compare, and aggregate various properties, thereby allowing for the development or application of new materials. The…

  1. Utilization of the JANAF (Joint Army Navy Air Force) database for chemical thermodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafi, A. S.

    1987-12-01

    A computer code is presented here that calculates the standard-state free energy change and the equilibrium constant for a specified reaction aA + bB = cC + dD. In computing these values, this code utilizes the Joint Army Navy Air Force (JANAF) thermochemical data file. If desired, certain additional thermodynamic values for the individual reactants and products can also be included in the output of this code.

  2. Estimation of interaction energies Me-(C, N) in fcc iron-based alloys using Thermo-Calc thermodynamic database

    SciTech Connect

    Sozinov, A.L.; Gavriljuk, V.G.

    1999-08-20

    At present, there is a number of thermodynamic data for Fe base liquid and solid systems containing substitutional and interstitial solute elements. A variety of properties of carbon and nitrogen austenitic steels is essentially determined by the distribution of interstitials in solid solutions, which, in turn, depends on the interaction between solute atoms. The aim of this study is to estimate the values of interaction energy Me-i in f.c.c. Fe-Me-i systems, where Me represents various substitutional alloying elements and i is an interstitial (C or N), using the Fe-base database of the Thermo-Calc program created by the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology.

  3. Computerized thermal characterization tool (CT)2 for complete thermodynamic coefficients mapping at the wavelength of 10.6 microm: a PMMA case report.

    PubMed

    Canestri, Franco

    2009-08-01

    This paper details a proposed clinical identification tool, the Computerized Thermal Characterization Tool or (CT)(2), designed to precisely quantify and forecast the ablation capabilities of a CO(2) laser beam and to optimize its usage when human tissue is exposed to 10.6 microm wavelength radiation. As seen in other studies by the same author, the correct identification of the optical absorption of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) allows isolating other key time-dependent coefficients, all described qualitatively rather than quantitatively in the literature, with better accuracy. Tests on other biological media were performed and reported as potential contribution for minimally invasive surgical procedures. The laser in use was configured in different combinations amongst the following parameters: transverse electromagnetic modes (TEM(22)), output power, exposure times, and focal lengths. Several PMMA blocks (1 cm x 4 cm x 4 cm) were exposed to the continuous wave radiation of three commercially available CO(2) medical laser devices with a TEM(11) beam profile. The data were used in a computerized simulation to test a priori the thermal behavior of biological media exposed to a CO(2) laser beam. Interestingly, this behavior could be reproduced on a variety of biological and nonbiological media. Threshold injury conditions were reached for the myocardium at 786 W/cm(2) per pulse, for the aorta at 519 W/cm(2) per pulse, and for the PMMA samples at 393 W/cm(2) per pulse. These values can be used as reference for both minimally invasive surgery and for transmyocardial laser revascularization protocols, combined with the proposed (CT)(2). Further investigations are needed to completely validate the potential clinical utilization.

  4. A three-dimensional cellular automata model coupled with finite element method and thermodynamic database for alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Qin, R. S.; Chen, D. F.

    2013-08-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) cellular automata (CA) model has been developed for the simulation of microstructure evolution in alloy solidification. The governing rule for the CA model is associated with the phase transition driving force which is obtained via a thermodynamic database. This determines the migration rate of the non-equilibrium solid-liquid (SL) interface and is calculated according to the local temperature and chemical composition. The curvature of the interface and the anisotropic property of the surface energy are taken into consideration. A 3D finite element (FE) method is applied for the calculation of transient heat and mass transfer. Numerical calculations for the solidification of Fe-1.5 wt% C alloy have been performed. The morphological evolution of dendrites, carbon segregation and temperature distribution in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are studied. The parameters affecting the growth of equiaxed and columnar dendrites are discussed. The calculated results are verified using the analytical model and previous experiments. The method provides a sophisticated approach to the solidification of multi-phase and multi-component systems.

  5. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  6. Computerizing a High School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Errol A.; Chan, Jeanie

    1988-01-01

    Describes how the Swift-Current Comprehensive High School (Saskatchewan) library computerized to create an online catalog, provide access to remote databases, and acquire CD-ROM reference systems. Objectives, hardware and software selection and costs, implementation, and evaluation are discussed. Seven references are listed, and a directory of…

  7. Bridging the Gap in the Chemical Thermodynamic Database for Nuclear Waste Repository: Studies of the Effect of Temperature on Actinide Complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-12-21

    Recent results of thermodynamic studies on the complexation of actinides (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and Pu{sup 4+}) with F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}/HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} at elevated temperatures are reviewed. The data indicate that, for all systems except the 1:1 complexation of Np(V) with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, the complexation of actinides is enhanced by the increase in temperature. The enhancement is primarily due to the increase in the entropy term (T{Delta}S) that exceeds the increase in the enthalpy ({Delta}H) as the temperature is increased. These data bridge the gaps in the chemical thermodynamic database for nuclear waste repository where the temperature could remain significantly higher than 25 C for a long time after the closure of the repository.

  8. Cyanide and antimony thermodynamic database for the aqueous species and solids for the EPA-MINTEQ geochemical code

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic data for aqueous species and solids that contain cyanide and antimony were tabulated from several commonly accepted, published sources of thermodynamic data and recent journal article. The review does not include gases or organic complexes of either antimony or cyanide, nor does the review include the sulfur compounds of cyanide. The basic thermodynamic data, ..delta..G/sub f,298//sup o/, ..delta..H/sub f,298//sup o/, and S/sub f//sup o/ values, were chosen to represent each solid phase and aqueous species for which data were available in the appropriate standard state. From these data the equilibrium constants (log K/sub r,298//sup o/) and enthalpies of reaction (..delta..H/sub r,298//sup o/) at 298 K (25/degree/C) were calculated for reactions involving the formation of these aqueous species and solids from the basic components. 34 refs., 14 tabs.

  9. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Harold B.; McNair, Robert C.; White, Kenneth; Maugeri, Terry

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

  10. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

  11. Database for nuclear-waste disposal for temperatures up to 300/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Silvester, L.F.

    1982-09-01

    A computerized database is compiled of evaluated thermodynamic data for aqueous species associated with nuclear waste storage. The data are organized as hydrolysis and formation constants; solubilities of oxides and hydroxides; and, as Nernstian potentials. More emphasis is on stability constants. Coeffficients are given to calculate stability constants at various ionic strengths and to high temperatures. Results are presented as tables for selected species including uranium, amorphous silica and actinides.

  12. Establishment of computerized numerical databases on thermophysical and other properties of molten as well as solid materials and data evaluation and validation for generating recommended reliable reference data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis, (CINDAS), measures and maintains databases on thermophysical, thermoradiative, mechanical, optical, electronic, ablation, and physical properties of materials. Emphasis is on aerospace structural materials especially composites and on infrared detector/sensor materials. Within CINDAS, the Department of Defense sponsors at Purdue several centers: the High Temperature Material Information Analysis Center (HTMIAC), the Ceramics Information Analysis Center (CIAC) and the Metals Information Analysis Center (MIAC). The responsibilities of CINDAS are extremely broad encompassing basic and applied research, measurement of the properties of thin wires and thin foils as well as bulk materials, acquisition and search of world-wide literature, critical evaluation of data, generation of estimated values to fill data voids, investigation of constitutive, structural, processing, environmental, and rapid heating and loading effects, and dissemination of data. Liquids, gases, molten materials and solids are all considered. The responsibility of maintaining widely used databases includes data evaluation, analysis, correlation, and synthesis. Material property data recorded on the literature are often conflicting, diverging, and subject to large uncertainties. It is admittedly difficult to accurately measure materials properties. Systematic and random errors both enter. Some errors result from lack of characterization of the material itself (impurity effects). In some cases assumed boundary conditions corresponding to a theoretical model are not obtained in the experiments. Stray heat flows and losses must be accounted for. Some experimental methods are inappropriate and in other cases appropriate methods are carried out with poor technique. Conflicts in data may be resolved by curve fitting of the data to theoretical or empirical models or correlation in terms of various affecting parameters. Reasons (e.g. phase

  13. Identification of constitutional WT1 mutations, in patients with isolated diffuse mesangial sclerosis, and analysis of genotype/phenotype correlations by use of a computerized mutation database.

    PubMed Central

    Jeanpierre, C; Denamur, E; Henry, I; Cabanis, M O; Luce, S; Cécille, A; Elion, J; Peuchmaur, M; Loirat, C; Niaudet, P; Gubler, M C; Junien, C

    1998-01-01

    Constitutional mutations of the WT1 gene, encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor involved in renal and gonadal development, are found in most patients with Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), or diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) associated with pseudohermaphroditism and/or Wilms tumor (WT). Most mutations in DDS patients lie in exon 8 or exon 9, encoding zinc finger 2 or zinc finger 3, respectively, with a hot spot (R394W) in exon 9. We analyzed a series of 24 patients, 10 with isolated DMS (IDMS), 10 with DDS, and 4 with urogenital abnormalities and/or WT. We report WT1 heterozygous mutations in 16 patients, 4 of whom presented with IDMS. One male and two female IDMS patients with WT1 mutations underwent normal puberty. Two mutations associated with IDMS are different from those described in DDS patients. No WT1 mutations were detected in the six other IDMS patients, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of this disease. We analyzed genotype/phenotype correlations, on the basis of the constitution of a WT1 mutation database of 84 germ-line mutations, to compare the distribution and type of mutations, according to the different symptoms. This demonstrated (1) the association between mutations in exons 8 and 9 and DMS; (2) among patients with DMS, a higher frequency of exon 8 mutations among 46, XY patients with female phenotype than among 46,XY patients with sexual ambiguity or male phenotype; and (3) statistically significant evidence that mutations in exons 8 and 9 preferentially affect amino acids with different functions. PMID:9529364

  14. Computerizing Maintenance Management Improves School Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), a centralized maintenance operations database that facilitates work order procedures and staff directives, can help individual school campuses and school districts to manage maintenance. Presents the benefits of CMMS and things to consider in CMMS selection. (EV)

  15. Implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Yong-Hong; Askari, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A primer Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) has been established for NASA Ames pressure component certification program. The CMMS takes full advantage of the latest computer technology and SQL relational database to perform periodic services for vital pressure components. The Ames certification program is briefly described and the aspects of the CMMS implementation are discussed as they are related to the certification objectives.

  16. Computerizing Maintenance Management Improves School Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), a centralized maintenance operations database that facilitates work order procedures and staff directives, can help individual school campuses and school districts to manage maintenance. Presents the benefits of CMMS and things to consider in CMMS selection. (EV)

  17. Computerized technique for recording board defect data

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson; R. Edward Thomas; Charles J. Gatchell; Neal D. Bennett; Neal D. Bennett

    1993-01-01

    A computerized technique for recording board defect data has been developed that is faster and more accurate than manual techniques. The lumber database generated by this technique is a necessary input to computer simulation models that estimate potential cutting yields from various lumber breakdown sequences. The technique allows collection of detailed information...

  18. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  19. On the Future of Thermochemical Databases, the Development of Solution Models and the Practical Use of Computational Thermodynamics in Volcanology, Geochemistry and Petrology: Can Innovations of Modern Data Science Democratize an Oligarchy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Computational thermodynamics (CT) has now become an essential tool of petrologic and geochemical research. CT is the basis for the construction of phase diagrams, the application of geothermometers and geobarometers, the equilibrium speciation of solutions, the construction of pseudosections, calculations of mass transfer between minerals, melts and fluids, and, it provides a means of estimating materials properties for the evaluation of constitutive relations in fluid dynamical simulations. The practical application of CT to Earth science problems requires data. Data on the thermochemical properties and the equation of state of relevant materials, and data on the relative stability and partitioning of chemical elements between phases as a function of temperature and pressure. These data must be evaluated and synthesized into a self consistent collection of theoretical models and model parameters that is colloquially known as a thermodynamic database. Quantitative outcomes derived from CT reply on the existence, maintenance and integrity of thermodynamic databases. Unfortunately, the community is reliant on too few such databases, developed by a small number of research groups, and mostly under circumstances where refinement and updates to the database lag behind or are unresponsive to need. Given the increasing level of reliance on CT calculations, what is required is a paradigm shift in the way thermodynamic databases are developed, maintained and disseminated. They must become community resources, with flexible and assessable software interfaces that permit easy modification, while at the same time maintaining theoretical integrity and fidelity to the underlying experimental observations. Advances in computational and data science give us the tools and resources to address this problem, allowing CT results to be obtained at the speed of thought, and permitting geochemical and petrological intuition to play a key role in model development and calibration.

  20. Computerized Construction Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moucka, Jan; Piskova, Vera

    1971-01-01

    Two Czechoslovakian architects describe how they scheduled construction projects on a statewide scale by computerizing the priority for projects, the resource capacity, the time coordination, and the construction schedules. (Author)

  1. Computerized atlas for functional stereotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Tyrone L.; Brynildson, L. R. D.

    1993-09-01

    Our original brain mapping techniques have been expanded so that MR and CT images can be displayed in a three-dimensionally simulated localization environment. Various combinations of MR images as well as CT images (or combinations of both and angiography) can be selectively displayed and viewed in three-dimensional stereotactic space. Data from the Talairach anatomical library, the architectonics of the atlases of Van Buren and Borke, Schaltenbrand and Bailey, Schaltenbrand and Wahren, and Brodmann's cortico-architectonics have been used to develop a detailed anatomical atlas library and brain mapping system based on brain reference structures common to each of these databases. The data in this mapping and imaging environment can be interrogated to create computerized anatomical displays showing any given functional anatomical region in two-dimensional displays or three-dimensional relief. This composite mapping system allows the interrogation and cross referencing of data from virtually any other brain mapping or localization system.

  2. Participants' Reactions to Computerized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Kim C.; Johnson, Marilyn F.

    This study investigated participants' reactions to computerized testing and assessed the practicability of this testing method in the classroom. A sample of 315 secondary-level students took a computerized and a printed version of a standardized aptitude test battery and a survey assessing their reactions to the computerized testing. Overall…

  3. Computerized Drug Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  4. Computerized Drug Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  5. Seven Myths of Computerism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computerism (i.e., blind faith in the inherent good of computers) focuses on seven myths about computer anxiety, including the relationship between computer use and math skills; fear of breaking computers; the need for keyboarding skills; and gender differences. An annotated bibliography of 21 sources of further information is…

  6. Computerizing the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jeanie; Whelan, Errol

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of a computerized high school library which uses CD-ROM optical storage systems. Describes hardware and software, setting up the system, preparing the online catalog, teaching information retrieval skills, and project evaluation. Notes prices of CD-ROM disks and equipment purchased. 4 references. (SV)

  7. Computerized Language Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Steven

    1985-01-01

    The article describes a computerized language analysis system that produces a detailed description and summary statistics to track language growth within student populations. This microcomputer-based language assessment system simplifies identification of deficits in productive language, enabling the teacher or clinician to spend more time…

  8. Psychosocial Communication and Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Gunilla; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…

  9. Computerized Cognition Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motes, Michael A.; Wiegmann, Douglas A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a software package entitled the "Computerized Cognition Laboratory" that helps integrate the teaching of cognitive psychology and research methods. Allows students to explore short-term memory, long-term memory, and decision making. Can also be used to teach the application of several statistical procedures. (DSK)

  10. Thermodynamic Database for the Terrestrial and Planetary Mantle Studies: Where we stand, and some future directions involving experimental studies, numerical protocol for EoS and atomistic calculations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, J.; Tirone, M.; Sorcar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable thermodynamic databases for rock forming minerals are essential for petrological and geodynamic studies. While the available databases (1-3) represent laudable efforts, none seems to be completely satisfactory. We show inter-comparison of phase diagrams computed from different databases and also their comparisons with experimental phase diagrams in complex systems. The results show good agreement and also significant disagreements in some P-T-X regimes; resolution of these disagreements via new experimental and thermodynamic data is needed to sort out the problems and make further progress. Two of the main challenges in the development of databases (4) seem to be (a) appropriate formulation of an EoS for solids that is suitable for studies of Earth and planetary interiors and (b) relatively simple formulations of thermodynamic mixing properties of mantle minerals that perform well within the compositional space of interest. While work on EoS formulation continues, we present a semi-empirical numerical approach that creates a consistent set of material properties (α, K, Cp, Cv) up to very high P-T conditions by satisfying certain physical constraints. Adequate experimental data are not available to constrain the mixing properties of several minerals that would be valid over the compositional range of interest in the natural environments. We have, thus, pursued an alternative approach on the basis of physical and crystal-chemical data. It is found that combination of elastic mixing energy, incorporating the effect of multi-atom interactions (5, 6), and crystal-field (CF) energy of mixing provide enthalpy of mixing in binary solid solutions that are in good agreement with experimental and calorimetric data. The CF-splitting vs. composition in a solid solution involving transition metal ion may be approximated by a semi-empirical relation using mean metal-oxygen bond-distance when such data are not available from spectroscopic studies. We also discuss the

  11. Computerized operating procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, E.; Teigen, J.

    1994-12-31

    A number of observed and potential problems in the nuclear industry are related to the quality of operating procedures. Many of the problems identified in operating procedure preparation, implementation, and maintenance have a technical nature, which can be directly addressed by developing computerized procedure handling tools. The Halden Reactor Project (HRP) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has since 1985 performed research work within this field. A product of this effort is the development of a second version of the computerized operation manuals (COPMA) system. This paper summarizes the most important characteristics of the COPMA-II system and discusses some of the experiences in using a system like COPMA-II.

  12. Computerizing Audit Studies.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Joanna N; Beasley, Ryan A

    2009-06-01

    This paper briefly discusses the history, benefits, and shortcomings of traditional audit field experiments to study market discrimination. Specifically it identifies template bias and experimenter bias as major concerns in the traditional audit method, and demonstrates through an empirical example that computerization of a resume or correspondence audit can efficiently increase sample size and greatly mitigate these concerns. Finally, it presents a useful meta-tool that future researchers can use to create their own resume audits.

  13. Computerizing Audit Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.; Beasley, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the history, benefits, and shortcomings of traditional audit field experiments to study market discrimination. Specifically it identifies template bias and experimenter bias as major concerns in the traditional audit method, and demonstrates through an empirical example that computerization of a resume or correspondence audit can efficiently increase sample size and greatly mitigate these concerns. Finally, it presents a useful meta-tool that future researchers can use to create their own resume audits. PMID:24904189

  14. Computerized tomography calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

  15. Ch. 33 Modeling: Computational Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2012-01-01

    This chapter considers methods and techniques for computational modeling for nuclear materials with a focus on fuels. The basic concepts for chemical thermodynamics are described and various current models for complex crystalline and liquid phases are illustrated. Also included are descriptions of available databases for use in chemical thermodynamic studies and commercial codes for performing complex equilibrium calculations.

  16. A Computerized Data-Base System for Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Collected at Ground-Water Sampling Sites in the Pilot National Water Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Jonathon C.

    1989-01-01

    Data-base software has been developed for the management of land-use and land-cover data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a pilot program to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report describes the purpose, use, and design of the land-use and land-cover data-base software. The software provides capabilities for interactive storage and retrieval of land-use and land-cover data collected at ground-water sampling sites. Users of the software can add, update, and delete land-use and land-cover data. The software also provides capabilities to group, print, and summarize the data. The land-use and land-cover data-base software supports multiple data-base systems so that data can be accessed by persons in different offices. Data-base systems are organized in a tiered structure. Each data-base system contains all the data stored in the data-base systems located in the lower tiers of the structure. Data can be readily transmitted from lower tiers to high tiers of the structure. Therefore, the data-base system at the highest tier of the structure contains land-use and land-cover data for the entire pilot program.

  17. The School Building Principal and Inventory Control: A Case for Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James

    1987-01-01

    General and special purpose database programs are appropriate for inventory control at the school building level. A fixed asset equipment inventory example illustrates the feasibility of computerized inventory control. (MLF)

  18. The School Building Principal and Inventory Control: A Case for Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James

    1987-01-01

    General and special purpose database programs are appropriate for inventory control at the school building level. A fixed asset equipment inventory example illustrates the feasibility of computerized inventory control. (MLF)

  19. Computer Pix: A Computerized Summer Reading Program for YAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makowski, Silvia A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a summer reading program developed for young adults that features a computerized approach to book selection. Details of the use, rationale, database development, organization and marketing of the program, which was developed by a Michigan library federation, are provided. Sample publicity materials accompany the article. (KRN)

  20. Using Computerized Clinical Nursing Data Bases for Nursing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nail, Lillian M.; Lange, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the recognition of differences between clinical and research data in using computerized clinical nursing databases and the issues of privacy and confidentiality for patients whose records are involved. Describes procedures for assessing the quality and usability of these data for nursing research. (SK)

  1. Exploration of Career Information Delivery Systems Via Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rod; And Others

    Based on research conducted by Southwest Virginia Community College, this monograph presents information in a variety of formats on seven computerized career information systems: (1) microcomputers, which have the advantage of low cost, amenability to the production of locally generated databases, and portability; (2) the Coordinated Occupational…

  2. Designing a Computerized Instructional Training Room for the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Donna M; Vander Meer, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses issues in designing or enhancing a computerized training room for teaching end-users how to search online databases. These include environmental aesthetics and practical considerations such as lighting, sound, wiring, furniture, and equipment and software selection. How to design the room to suit multiple purposes and to accommodate…

  3. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  4. Nurses' Use of Computerized Clinical Guidelines to Improve Patient Safety in Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hovde, Birgit; Jensen, Kari H; Alexander, Gregory L; Fossum, Mariann

    2015-07-01

    Computerized clinical guidelines are frequently used to translate research into evidence-based behavioral practices and to improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize the factors influencing nurses' use of computerized clinical guidelines and the effects of nurses' use of computerized clinical guidelines on patient safety improvements in hospitals. The Embase, Medline Complete, and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant literature published from 2000 to January 2013. The matrix method was used, and a total of 16 papers were included in the final review. The studies were assessed for quality with the Critical Appraisal Skills Program. The studies focused on nurses' adherence to guidelines and on improved patient care and patient outcomes as benefits of using computerized clinical guidelines. The nurses' use of computerized clinical guidelines demonstrated improvements in care processes; however, the evidence for an effect of computerized clinical guidelines on patient safety remains limited.

  5. Computerized Numerical Control Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in a course in programming and operating a computerized numerical control system. Addressed in the course are various aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with computerized numerical control, including selecting manual or computer-assigned programs and matching them with…

  6. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  7. Thermodynamic Database for the NdO(1.5)-YO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Copland, Evan H.; Kaufman, Larry

    2001-01-01

    A database for YO(1.5)-NdO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 for ThermoCalc (ThermoCalc AB, Stockholm, Sweden) has been developed. The basis of this work is the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 assessment by Y. Du, Z. Jin, and P. Huang, 'Thermodynamic Assessment of the ZrO2-YO(1.5) System'. Experimentally only the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 system has been well-studied. All other systems are only approximately known. The major simplification in this work is the treatment of each single cation unit as a component. The pure liquid oxides are taken as reference states and two term lattice stability descriptions are used for each of the components. The limited experimental phase diagrams are reproduced.

  8. Computerized audio processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, M. R.; Aschkenasy, E.

    1983-05-01

    The Computerized Audio Processor (CAP) is a computer synthesized electronic filter that removes interference from received or recorded speech signals. The CAP automatically detects and attenuates impulse sounds and tones (e.g., ignition noise, switching transients, whistles, chirps, hum, buzzes, FSK telegraphy, etc). It also attenuates wideband random noise. All operations of the CAP are fully automatic. Input signals are processed in real time, with a maximum lag of 340 msec. The CAP implements three proven signal processing techniques. One of these (IMP) virtually eliminates most loud impulse noises. A second technique (DSS) automatically detects tones and attenuates them by up to 46 dB. The third technique (INTEL) provides up to 18 dB attenuation of wideband random noise.

  9. Computerizing natural history collections.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-09-01

    Computers are ubiquitous in the life sciences and are associated with many of the practical and conceptual changes that characterize biology's twentieth-century transformation. Yet comparatively little has been written about how scientists use computers. Despite this relative lack of scholarly attention, the claim that computers revolutionized the life sciences by making the impossible possible is widespread, and relatively unchallenged. How did the introduction of computers into research programs shape scientific practice? The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California, Berkeley provides a tractable way into this under-examined question because it is possible to follow the computerization of data in the context of long-term research programs.

  10. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  11. Thermodynamic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, Scot

    1999-02-01

    Thermodynamic data such as equilibrium constants, standard cell potentials, molar enthalpies of formation, and standard entropies of substances can be a very useful basis for an organized presentation of knowledge in diverse areas of applied chemistry. Thermodynamic data can become particularly useful when incorporated into thermodynamic diagrams that are designed to be easy to recall, to serve as a basis for reconstructing previous knowledge, and to determine whether reactions can occur exergonically or only with the help of an external energy source. Few students in our chemistry-based courses would want to acquire the depth of knowledge or rigor of professional thermodynamicists. But they should nevertheless learn how to make good use of thermodynamic data in their professional occupations that span the chemical, biological, environmental, and medical laboratory fields. This article discusses examples of three thermodynamic diagrams that have been developed for this purpose. They are the thermodynamic energy account (TEA), the total entropy scale, and the thermodynamic scale diagrams. These diagrams help in the teaching and learning of thermodynamics by bringing the imagination into the process of developing a better understanding of abstract thermodynamic functions, and by allowing the reader to keep track of specialist thermodynamic discourses in the literature.

  12. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  13. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  14. Computerized voiding diary.

    PubMed

    Rabin, J M; McNett, J; Badlani, G H

    1993-01-01

    An electronic, computerized voiding diary, "Compu-Void" (patent pending) was developed in order to simplify, augment, and automate patients' recording of bladder symptomatology. A voiding diary as a tool has the potential to provide essential information for a more complete diagnostic and therefore therapeutic picture for each patient. Two major problems with the standard written voiding diary have been a lack of patient compliance and the limited amount of information it garners. Twenty-five women with various types of voiding dysfunctions were compared to twenty-five age and parity-matched control women in order to determine patient preferences of the Compu-Void when compared to the standard written voiding diary, compliance with each method, and amount and quality of information obtained with each method. Over 90% of subjects and over 70% of control group patients preferred the Compu-Void over the written diary (P < 0.005). The amount and quality of information obtained with Compu-Void exceeded that obtained with the written method.

  15. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2014.

    PubMed

    Bouaud, J; Koutkias, V

    2015-08-13

    To summarize recent research and propose a selection of best papers published in 2014 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry systems in order to select a list of candidate best papers to be then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the editorial team was finally organized to conclude on the selection of best papers. Among the 1,254 returned papers published in 2014, the full review process selected four best papers. The first one is an experimental contribution to a better understanding of unintended uses of CDSSs. The second paper describes the effective use of previously collected data to tailor and adapt a CDSS. The third paper presents an innovative application that uses pharmacogenomic information to support personalized medicine. The fourth paper reports on the long-term effect of the routine use of a CDSS for antibiotic therapy. As health information technologies spread more and more meaningfully, CDSSs are improving to answer users' needs more accurately. The exploitation of previously collected data and the use of genomic data for decision support has started to materialize. However, more work is still needed to address issues related to the correct usage of such technologies, and to assess their effective impact in the long term.

  16. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2014

    PubMed Central

    Koutkias, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize recent research and propose a selection of best papers published in 2014 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. Method A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry systems in order to select a list of candidate best papers to be then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the editorial team was finally organized to conclude on the selection of best papers. Results Among the 1,254 returned papers published in 2014, the full review process selected four best papers. The first one is an experimental contribution to a better understanding of unintended uses of CDSSs. The second paper describes the effective use of previously collected data to tailor and adapt a CDSS. The third paper presents an innovative application that uses pharmacogenomic information to support personalized medicine. The fourth paper reports on the long-term effect of the routine use of a CDSS for antibiotic therapy. Conclusions As health information technologies spread more and more meaningfully, CDSSs are improving to answer users’ needs more accurately. The exploitation of previously collected data and the use of genomic data for decision support has started to materialize. However, more work is still needed to address issues related to the correct usage of such technologies, and to assess their effective impact in the long term. PMID:26293858

  17. Development of an Experimental Database and Theories for Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes of Geochemical Significance at Supercritical Temperatures and Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Everett L. Shock

    2007-02-02

    The reactions that cause transformations in organic compounds in the Earth’s crust remain mysterious despite decades of research into how fossil fuel resources form. A major reason for this persistent mysteriousness is the failure of many researchers to realize the intimate involvement of water in those transformations. Our goal was to overcome this staggering ignorance by developing the means to calculate the consequences of reactions involving organic compounds and water. We pursued this research from 1989 through 2006, and this report focuses on progress between 2002 and 2006. There were two major obstacles that we overcame in the course of this research. On the one hand, we developed new theoretical equations that allow researchers to make these calculations. On the other hand, we critiqued available data and provided sound means to make estimates in the absence of experimental data for hundreds of organic compounds dissolved in water. Finally, we merged these two lines of research into an interactive web site that allows users to do the calculations with the equations and data. We call the web site ORCHYD for: “ORganic Compounds HYDration properties database,” but it is far more than a database since it allows users to make extremely accurate predictions of data that may never have been measured. Our progress greatly exceeded our anticipations, and has permitted many new research investigations that were previously impossible. Despite the abrupt termination of funding for this project by the Department of Energy, we are maintaining the web site for the international scientific community. Major research results were published in eleven scientific papers, so they are all in the public domain. Benefits to the public include a new, rigorous, quantitative approach to testing ideas about the fate of organic compounds dissolved in water. These tests can be applied to geochemistry or to industrial processes. The increasing use of water as a solvent in Green

  18. Computerized protocol of orofacial myofunctional evaluation with scores: usability and validity.

    PubMed

    Felício, Cláudia Maria de; Folha, Gislaine Aparecida; Gaido, Alice Stahl; Dantas, Márcio de Mendonça Mancine; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de

    2014-01-01

    To test the usability of Computerized Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation (OMES) protocol and analyze its validity. The study was divided into three stages: the first stage, production of the computerized version of OMES. The second stage was the validation of the user's interface, in which 100 OMES protocols of a database, filled in printed version, were transferred using the computerized instrument. Necessary changes to the system have occurred at this stage. In the third stage, usability of the OMES protocol in multimedia version, three evaluators transferred data from other 25 printed protocols from database for the computerized version, and the time to transfer the data of each protocol was computed and compared between examiners by one-way ANOVA. Moreover, these evaluators analyzed the usability of computerized protocol according to the "Ten principles of Heuristics usability" as described in the literature. The computerized protocol satisfied the principles of heuristics usability, according to the evaluation of the three Speech-Language Pathology evaluators, and the average time spent by the evaluators to transpose the data of each protocol to the software ranged from 3.1 ± 0.75 to 3.83 ± 0.91 minutes. The Computerized AMIOFE protocol is valid and had its usability/functionality confirmed.

  19. A novel, objective, quantitative method of evaluation of the back pain component using comparative computerized multi-parametric tactile mapping before/after spinal cord stimulation and database analysis: the "Neuro-Pain't" software.

    PubMed

    Rigoard, P; Nivole, K; Blouin, P; Monlezun, O; Roulaud, M; Lorgeoux, B; Bataille, B; Guetarni, F

    2015-03-01

    One of the major challenges of neurostimulation is actually to address the back pain component in patients suffering from refractory chronic back and leg pain. Facing a tremendous expansion of neurostimulation techniques and available devices, implanters and patients can still remain confused as they need to select the right tool for the right indication. To be able to evaluate and compare objectively patient outcomes, depending on therapeutical strategies, it appears essential to develop a rational and quantitative approach to pain assessment for those who undergo neurostimulation implantation. We developed a touch screen interface, in Poitiers University Hospital and N(3)Lab, called the "Neuro-Pain'T", to detect, record and quantify the painful area surface and intensity changes in an implanted patient within time. The second aim of this software is to analyse the link between a paraesthesia coverage generated by a type of neurostimulation and a potential analgesic effect, measured by pain surface reduction, pain intensity reduction within the painful surface and local change in pain characteristics distribution. The third aim of Neuro-Pain'T is to correlate these clinical parameters to global patient data and functional outcome analysis, via a network database (Neuro-Database), to be able to provide a concise but objective approach of the neurostimulation efficacy, summarized by an index called "RFG Index". This software has been used in more than 190 patients since 2012, leading us to define three clinical parameters grouped as a clinical component of the RFG Index, which might be helpful to assess neurostimulation efficacy and compare implanted devices. The Neuro-Pain'T is an original software designed to objectively and quantitatively characterize reduction of a painful area in a given individual, in terms of intensity, surface and pain typology, in response to a treatment strategy or implantation of an analgesic device. Because pain is a physical sensation

  20. Thermodynamic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Jiang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-10-01

    The holographic principle states that the information about a volume of a system is encoded on the boundary surface of the volume. Holography appears in many branches of physics, such as optics, electromagnetism, many-body physics, quantum gravity, and string theory. Here we show that holography is also an underlying principle in thermodynamics, a most important foundation of physics. The thermodynamics of a system is fully determined by its partition function. We prove that the partition function of a finite but arbitrarily large system is an analytic function on the complex plane of physical parameters, and therefore the partition function in a region on the complex plane is uniquely determined by its values along the boundary. The thermodynamic holography has applications in studying thermodynamics of nano-scale systems (such as molecule engines, nano-generators and macromolecules) and provides a new approach to many-body physics.

  1. Information integrity and privacy for computerized medical patient records

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, J.; Hamilton, V.; Gaylor, T.; McCurley, K.; Meeks, T.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Oceania, Inc. entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in November 1993 to provide ``Information Integrity and Privacy for Computerized Medical Patient Records`` (CRADA No. SC93/01183). The main objective of the project was to develop information protection methods that are appropriate for databases of patient records in health information systems. This document describes the findings and alternative solutions that resulted from this CRADA.

  2. Strategies for Teaching Students to Process Information Using Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooze, Gene E.

    The database management system or computerized database is an important tool for teaching thinking in the social studies. But what the teacher does to teach the student about databases, to use prepared databases, to organize their data, to direct their research, and to draw conclusions using this teaching device is just as important. The Direct…

  3. Stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response

  4. Computerized interferometric surface measurements [Invited].

    PubMed

    Wyant, James C

    2013-01-01

    The addition of electronics, computers, and software to interferometry has enabled enormous improvements in optical metrology. This paper discusses four areas in which computerized interferometric measurement improvements have been made in the measurement of surface shape and surface roughness: (a) The use of computer-generated holograms for the testing of aspheric optics, (b) phase-shifting interferometry for getting interferometric data into a computer so the data can be analyzed, (c) computerized interference microscopes, including multiple-wavelength and coherence scanning, for the precision measurement of surface microstructure, and (d) vibration-insensitive dynamic interferometers for enabling precise measurements in noncontrolled environments.

  5. Computerized technology for restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2013-06-01

    Computers have had a meaningful impact on the dental office and dental practice leading to significant changes in communication, financial accounting, and administrative functions. Computerized systems have more recently generated increasing diversity of application for the delivery of patient treatment. Digital impression systems and chairside CAD/CAM systems offer opportunities to integrate digital impressions and full contour restorations in the dental office. Systems rely on single image and video cameras to record the digital file that is the foundation for an accurate outcome. This article presents key aspects of computerized technology using the CAD/CAM process.

  6. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  7. Computerized Diet Analysis: Friend or Foe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers some advantages of manual nutrient calculation over computerized calculations, pointing out especially some pitfalls of using computers. It also discusses proper uses of computers in nutritional calculation, such as in computerized diet analysis. (JB)

  8. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  9. Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

  10. Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

  11. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  12. DISCOVER: A Computerized Careers Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayman, Jack R.

    Liberal arts campuses are feeling a need to provide better career education services for their undergraduate students. The DISCOVER Foundation has developed a comprehensive computerized career guidance system for grades 7 through 12 which not only provides career information, but also performs such tasks as teaching students decision-making skills…

  13. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  14. Student Perceptions of Computerized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    2008-01-01

    The challenge to test small groups by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design and sound test design. To comply with this demand, students' beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test were tapped. Overall, self-reported advantages outnumbered disadvantages to a significant degree. This was…

  15. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  16. Computerized Adaptive Testing in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smittle, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of computerized placement testing at Santa Fe Community College to enable students needing only a short review of reading skills to exit early from a College Preparatory Reading Class (CPRC). Describes CPRC placement, structure, curriculum, and exit criteria; the Early Exit Reading Project; and project results. (DMM)

  17. Computerized Legal Research. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Michael

    A project was undertaken to develop a curriculum for a course in computerized legal education that could be used at Highline Community College in Midway, Washington. As part of the curriculum development effort, project staff reviewed relevant literature, visited colleagues at the University of Washington and the University of Puget Sound Law…

  18. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  19. A Computerized Phonetics Instructor: BABEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Joaquin; Pearson, Lon

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a computerized phonetics program called BABEL, which is an expert system able to animate graphically and reproduce acoustically a text in any language that uses the Latin alphabet. The program is designed to assist language learners and instructors in the nuances of phonemes. (22 references) (GLR)

  20. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2015.

    PubMed

    Koutkias, V; Bouaud, J

    2016-11-10

    To summarize recent research and select the best papers published in 2015 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems. The aim was to identify a list of candidate best papers from the retrieved papers that were then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the IMIA editorial team was finally conducted to conclude in the best paper selection. Among the 974 retrieved papers, the entire review process resulted in the selection of four best papers. One paper reports on a CDSS routinely applied in pediatrics for more than 10 years, relying on adaptations of the Arden Syntax. Another paper assessed the acceptability and feasibility of an important CPOE evaluation tool in hospitals outside the US where it was developed. The third paper is a systematic, qualitative review, concerning usability flaws of medication-related alerting functions, providing an important evidence-based, methodological contribution in the domain of CDSS design and development in general. Lastly, the fourth paper describes a study quantifying the effect of a complex, continuous-care, guideline-based CDSS on the correctness and completeness of clinicians' decisions. While there are notable examples of routinely used decision support systems, this 2015 review on CDSSs and CPOE systems still shows that, despite methodological contributions, theoretical frameworks, and prototype developments, these technologies are not yet widely spread (at least with their full functionalities) in routine clinical practice. Further research, testing, evaluation, and training are still needed for these tools to be adopted in clinical practice and, ultimately, illustrate the benefits that they promise.

  1. eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.

    PubMed

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

  2. eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator

    PubMed Central

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852

  3. Atomic Spectroscopic Databases at NIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, J.; Kramida, A. E.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We describe recent work at NIST to develop and maintain databases for spectra, transition probabilities, and energy levels of atoms that are astrophysically important. Our programs to critically compile these data as well as to develop a new database to compare plasma calculations for atoms that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium are also summarized.

  4. Dementia screening using computerized tests.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The preclinical phase of dementia usually precedes the clinical diagnosis by many years. Early detection of dementing conditions during this preclinical phase may provide opportunities for treatments that may slow or mitigate progression. Conventional assessment tools usually can only detect dementia when the symptoms are overt and the disease is well-established. Computerized neurocognitive screening tools hold promise for diagnosing dementia in its early phase. The use, performance and development of several computerized screening tools to diagnose and monitor patients with pre-dementias and dementia are reviewed. The ability to accurately assess the presence of dementia clearly has direct relevance to insurance risk assessment and risk management. As new treatments appear, their role in clinical management of dementia patients will increase as well. In a future issue, the differential diagnosis of dementias related to the findings on these screening tools will be reviewed.

  5. Clinical applications of computerized thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Computerized or digital, thermography is a rapidly growing diagnostic imaging modality. It has superseded contact thermography and analog imaging thermography which do not allow effective quantization. Medical applications of digital thermography can be classified in two groups: static and dynamic imaging. They can also be classified into macro thermography (resolution greater than 1 mm) and micro thermography (resolution less than 100 microns). Both modalities allow a thermal resolution of 0.1 C. The diagnostic power of images produced by any of these modalities can be augmented by the use of digital image enhancement and image recognition procedures. Computerized thermography has been applied in neurology, cardiovascular and plastic surgery, rehabilitation and sports medicine, psychiatry, dermatology and ophthalmology. Examples of these applications are shown and their scope and limitations are discussed.

  6. A new automatic computerized deviometer.

    PubMed

    Campos, E C; Orciuolo, M; Schiavi, C

    1989-07-01

    An automatized computerized deviometer is presented based on an infrared TV camera, an image analyzer and a computer. With this instrument it is possible to follow step-by-step the various diagnostic procedures in strabismus and to answer the following questions: is there a strabismus? is it convergent, divergent or vertical strabismus? what is the angle of deviation? which is the paralytic or paretic muscle in the case of incomitant strabismus?

  7. An automated system for terrain database construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. F.; Fretz, R. K.; Logan, T. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1987-01-01

    An automated Terrain Database Preparation System (TDPS) for the construction and editing of terrain databases used in computerized wargaming simulation exercises has been developed. The TDPS system operates under the TAE executive, and it integrates VICAR/IBIS image processing and Geographic Information System software with CAD/CAM data capture and editing capabilities. The terrain database includes such features as roads, rivers, vegetation, and terrain roughness.

  8. An automated system for terrain database construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. F.; Fretz, R. K.; Logan, T. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1987-01-01

    An automated Terrain Database Preparation System (TDPS) for the construction and editing of terrain databases used in computerized wargaming simulation exercises has been developed. The TDPS system operates under the TAE executive, and it integrates VICAR/IBIS image processing and Geographic Information System software with CAD/CAM data capture and editing capabilities. The terrain database includes such features as roads, rivers, vegetation, and terrain roughness.

  9. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  10. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  11. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-09-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  12. Nanoscopic Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weihong

    2016-09-20

    Conventional thermodynamics for bulk substances encounters challenges when one considers materials on the nanometer scale. Quantities such as entropy, enthalpy, free energy, melting temperature, ordering temperature, Debye temperature, and specific heat no longer remain constant but change with the crystal dimension, size, and morphology. Often, one phenomenon is associated with a variety of theories from different perspectives. Still, a model that can reconcile the size and shape dependence of the thermal properties of the nanoscaled substances remains one of the goals of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This Account highlights the nanoscopic thermodynamics for nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanofilms, with particular emphasis on the bond energy model. The central idea is that the atomic cohesive energy determines the thermodynamic performance of a substance and the cohesive energy varies with the atomic coordination environment. It is the cohesive energy difference between the core and the shell that dictates the nanoscopic thermodynamics. This bond energy model rationalizes the following: (i) how the surface dangling bonds depress the melting temperature, entropy, and enthalpy; (ii) how the order-disorder transition of the nanoparticles depends on particle size and how their stability may vary when they are embedded in an appropriate matrix; (iii) predictions of the existence of face-centered cubic structures of Ti, Zr, and Hf at small size; (iv) how two elements that are immiscible in the bulk can form an alloy on the nanoscale, where the critical size can be predicted. The model has enabled us to reproduce the size and shape dependence of a number of physical properties, such as melting temperature, melting entropy, melting enthalpy, ordering temperature, Gibbs free energy, and formation heat, among others, for materials such as Pd, Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Sn, Pb, In, Bi, Al, Ti, Zr, Hf, In-Al, Ag-Ni, Co-Pt, Cu-Ag, Cu-Ni, Au-Ni, Ag-Pt, and Au-Pt on the nanometer scale

  13. Development of Student Inquiry Skills: A Constructivist Approach in a Computerized Classroom Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, Dorit

    A study investigated the extent to which students' inquiry skills can be facilitated through the use of a computerized science database (Birds of the Antarctica) and specially designed curriculum materials. Much attention was given in the program to developing both students' inquiry skills and their subject-matter knowledge. Grade 11 and 12…

  14. A Computerized Risk Index Screening Program for At-Risk Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowitschek, Joseph J.; And Others

    This paper describes a data-based screening tool for identifying at-risk students. It is intended to complement referral and other qualitative means of identification. The Computerized Risk Index Screening Program (CRISP) is an application of a commonly available data management program that: (1) provides a school-based screening system; (2) can…

  15. Developing a County-Wide Computerized Information and Referral (I&R) System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Irene

    1993-01-01

    Describes a county library system's experience with a computerized information and referral system and highlights strengths and weaknesses of the systems. Strengths included the library maintaining control, with other agencies participating; using existing programs and databases where possible; and establishing copyright. Problems included not…

  16. Computerized system for corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that computerization of basic corrosion measurements to provide record-keeping and graphical output has been used by pipeline companies over the lst decade. Northwest Pipeline Corp. has embarked on an ambition project to expand well beyond the scope of standard computer record-keeping by integrating data analysis and management with computer-aided advanced corrosion engineering practices. Most maturing pipeline systems require immense capital and maintenance expenditures to maintain regulatory levels of cathodic protection consistent with traditional corrosion control methods. Major pipeline coating rehabilitation programs and the installation of numerous anode-bed systems will continue in the absence of sophisticated computer-aided corrosion control methods.

  17. A computerized hospital maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Kresch, E; Katz, P; Schwartz, H; Hamarman, H

    1985-01-01

    The Biomedical Instrumentation Department at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital maintains most of the clinical equipment owned by the hospital and provides support to six other hospitals, as well. In order to document these services, a computerized support system has been developed. This system maintains the inventory of equipment, documents the occurrence of repair and preventive maintenance procedures, generates lists of items due for maintenance and inspection, and prints reports and summaries of all activities performed by department staff. The system was designed for ease of use and requires a minimum of training for personnel who use it.

  18. X-ray computerized tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wellington, S.L.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1987-08-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is a new radiological imaging technique that measures density and atomic composition inside opaque objects. A revolutionary advance in medical radiology since 1972, CT has only recently been applied in petrophysics and reservoir engineering. This paper discusses several petrophysical applications, including three-dimensional (3D) measurement of density and porosity; rock mechanics studies; correlation of core logs with well logs; characterization of mud invasion, fractures, and disturbed core; and quantification of complex mineralogies and sand/shale ratios. Reservoir engineering applications presented include fundamental studies of CO/sub 2/ displacement in cores, focussing on viscous fingering, gravity segregation, miscibility, and mobility control.

  19. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  20. DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters. Initially this project was centered upon research activities. However, since these tools provide traffic managers and key personnel involved in preshipment planning with a unique resource for ensuring that the movement of radioactive materials can be properly accomplished, additional interest and support is coming from the operational side of DOE. The major accomplishments include the development of two routing models (one for rail shipments and the other for highway shipments), an emergency response assistance program, and two data bases containing pertinent legislative and regulatory information. This paper discusses the mose recent advances in, and additions to, these computerized techniques and provides examples of how they are used.

  1. Advances in thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sieniutycz, S. ); Salamon, P. )

    1990-01-01

    This book covers: nonequilibrium thermodynamics for solar energy applications; finite-time thermodynamics as applied to solar power conversion; thermodynamics and economics; exergy analysis; and an analysis of cumulative exergy consumption and exergy losses.

  2. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  3. Computerized Diagnostic Testing: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David L.

    The use of computers to build diagnostic inferences is explored in two contexts. In computerized monitoring of liquid oxygen systems for the space shuttle, diagnoses are exact because they can be derived within a world which is closed. In computerized classroom testing of reading comprehension, programs deliver a constrained form of adaptive…

  4. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  5. A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

  6. Resources for Improving Computerized Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated review of human factors literature that discusses computerized environments. Topics discussed include the application of office automation practices to educational environments; video display terminal (VDT) workstations; health and safety hazards; planning educational facilities; ergonomics in computerized offices; and…

  7. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  8. A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

  9. Resources for Improving Computerized Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated review of human factors literature that discusses computerized environments. Topics discussed include the application of office automation practices to educational environments; video display terminal (VDT) workstations; health and safety hazards; planning educational facilities; ergonomics in computerized offices; and…

  10. The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

    A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

  11. Cassel Psych Center Computerized Biofeedback Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Cassel Psych Center, a computerized biofeedback clinic, where the "well" patient is a major concern, and where biofeedback instruments are used with computers to form a Computerized-Biofeedback Clinical Support System. The Center's activities are designed to parallel the services of the pathologist in a medical setting. (PAS)

  12. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  13. Cassel Psych Center Computerized Biofeedback Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Cassel Psych Center, a computerized biofeedback clinic, where the "well" patient is a major concern, and where biofeedback instruments are used with computers to form a Computerized-Biofeedback Clinical Support System. The Center's activities are designed to parallel the services of the pathologist in a medical setting. (PAS)

  14. The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

    A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

  15. Natural thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-02-01

    The principle of increasing entropy is derived from statistical physics of open systems assuming that quanta of actions, as undividable basic build blocks, embody everything. According to this tenet, all systems evolve from one state to another either by acquiring quanta from their surroundings or by discarding quanta to the surroundings in order to attain energetic balance in least time. These natural processes result in ubiquitous scale-free patterns: skewed distributions that accumulate in a sigmoid manner and hence span log-log scales mostly as straight lines. Moreover, the equation for least-time motions reveals that evolution is by nature a non-deterministic process. Although the obtained insight in thermodynamics from the notion of quanta in motion yields nothing new, it accentuates that contemporary comprehension is impaired when modeling evolution as a computable process by imposing conservation of energy and thereby ignoring that quantum of actions are the carriers of energy from the system to its surroundings.

  16. Validation of a simple computerized tool for measuring spinal and pelvic parameters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Hong, Hee Suk; Kim, Eun Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Byung Joo

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have emphasized measuring the sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and pelvic parameters (pelvic incidence, sacral slope, and pelvic tilt) when evaluating spinal disorders. An accurate and reproducible measurement is important for a reliable result. Although computerized measurement is more consistent than manual measurement, computerized measurement requires an expensive software program, the need to transfer images to a workstation, and additional education for users. An inexpensive and convenient computerized measurement program is desirable and necessary. The object of this study was to propose a computerized tool for measuring spinal and pelvic parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of this new tool compared with manual measurement. The authors devised a tool that provides computerized measurements of the SVA and pelvic parameters in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) without transferring images to another program. This tool was created by merging functions in the PACS. The resulting tool is easy to implement by merging functions (indicate the center of 2 points, plot a vertical and a horizontal line from a point, and measure the angles between lines) in any image viewer. The tool was made into icons on a toolbar in the PACS. Measurements of distance and angle were computerized by identifying crucial points after selecting the icon. For SVA, 4 points were identified around each corner of the C-7 body and a fifth point at the superior/posterior corner of the S-1 body. For pelvic parameters, 4 points were identified at the centers of each femoral head and at the anterior/superior and posterior/superior corners of S-1. Thirty-three whole-spine lateral radiographs were randomly selected from the radiographic database. To evaluate inter- and intraobserver variability between observers and method, skilled (2 years of experience) and unskilled (1 week of experience) observers measured SVA and pelvic parameters 3 times with a 7-day interval

  17. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner’99 and Turner’04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  18. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  19. Computer Databases: Applications for the Social Studies. ERIC Digest No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    This ERIC Digest examines the uses of databases in the social studies, including what a database is and how to use it, types of databases available for social studies classroom use, and the role this educational tool can play in achieving the goals and objectives of the social studies. A distinction between print and computerized database files…

  20. Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.

    Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

  1. Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.

    Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

  2. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel consumption, engine design and testing, computerized simulation, and lubrication systems relative to the Stirling cycle engine. Solar energy conversion research, thermodynamic efficiency, economics, and utilization for power generation and automobile engines are included. Materials used in Stirling engines are briefly evaluated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  4. A computerized system for tracking practice and prescriptive patterns of family nurse practitioner students.

    PubMed

    Fontana, S A; Kelber, S T; Devine, E C

    2001-03-01

    Decisions about the fit between advanced practice nursing curricula and the real world of primary care practice should be based on data and not on intuition. The purpose of this article is to describe a computerized database system that can be used to: 1) track practice (including prescribing) patterns of nurse practitioner (NP) students; 2) address data issues that commonly arise; and 3) describe NP students' practice during their education to prospective employers. The database system uses both the Family Nurse Practitioners Log (FNPLOG), a faculty-developed software program, and Epi Info, a companion public domain software program. Variables are categorized as being related to sociodemographic, diagnostic, or prescriptive components of primary care. The system provides a simple, efficient, and feasible way of computerizing, analyzing, and evaluating students' clinical experience and practice patterns. The implications for advanced practice nursing education will be illustrated along with other potential uses of the database system.

  5. Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.

    1995-05-01

    This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing

  6. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  7. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  8. Thermodynamic data management system for nuclear waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Siegel, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Thermodynamic property values for use in assessing the performance of a nuclear waste repository are described. More emphasis is on a computerized data base management system which facilitates use of the thermodynamic data in sensitivity analysis and other studies which critically assess the performance of disposal sites. Examples are given of critical evaluation procedures; comparison of apparent equilibrium constants calculated from the data base, with other work; and of correlations useful in estimating missing values of both free energy and enthalpy of formation for aqueous species. 49 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Computerized feature systems for identifying suspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eric; Whalen, Thom; McCarthy, Andrew; Sakalauskas, John; Wotton, Cynthia

    1995-09-01

    In suspect identification, witnesses examine photos of known offenders in mugshot albums. The probability of correct identification deteriorates rapidly, however, as the number of mugshots examined increases. Feature approaches, where mugshots are displayed in order of similarity to witness descriptions of suspects, increase identification success by reducing this number. In our computerized feature system, both police raters and witnesses describe facial features of suspects on rating scales such as nose size: small 1 2 3 4 5 large. Feature users consistently identify more target suspects correctly than do album users. Previous experimental tests have failed, however, to examine the effects of feature system performance of the use of live targets as suspects rather than photos, the use of realistic crime scenarios, the number of police raters/mugshot, and differences among raters in their effect on system perfomance. In three experiments, we investigated those four issues. The first experiment used photos as target suspects but with multiple distractors, the second tested live suspects, while the third tested live suspects in a realistic crime scenario. The database contained the official mugshots of 1,000 offenders. Across the three experiments, a second and sometimes a third rater/mugshot significantly reduced the number of photos examined. More raters/mugshot did not affect performance further. Raters differed significantly in their effect on system perfomance. Significantly, our feature system performed well both with target suspects seen live and with live suspects in realistic crime scenarios (performance was comparable to that in previous experiments for photos of target suspects). These results strongly support our contention that feature systems are superior to album systems.

  10. The Auditing of Computerized Accounting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an investigation undertaken to indicate the curricular content (knowledge and skills) needed to prepare the accounting student to audit computerized accounting systems. Areas studied included programing languages, data processing, desired course training, and computer audit techniques. (CT)

  11. Computerized Information Storage and Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azubuike, Abraham A.; Umoh, Jackson S.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the concept of maximum indexing, a system aimed at achieving maximum recall and maximum precision in computerized information retrieval. The indexing strategies used to achieve maximum indexing and the problems that arise are discussed. (9 references) (CLB)

  12. Computerized tomography using video recorded fluoroscopic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kak, A. C.; Jakowatz, C. V., Jr.; Baily, N. A.; Keller, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized tomographic imaging system is examined which employs video-recorded fluoroscopic images as input data. By hooking the video recorder to a digital computer through a suitable interface, such a system permits very rapid construction of tomograms.

  13. Computerized Anatomy Atlas Of The Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Taylor; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Karp, Peter; Stein, Alan

    1981-10-01

    A software for developing, editing and displaying a 3-D computerized anatomic atlas of a human brain is described. The objective of this atlas is to serve as a reference in identifying various structures in CT scans.

  14. Solving Infeasibility Problems in Computerized Test Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timminga, Ellen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses problems of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear-programming models in computerized test assembly. Demonstrates that it is possible to localize the causes of infeasibility, although this is not always easy. (SLD)

  15. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

  16. Computerizing a house organ: recharting familiar territory

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Computerization can offer great advantages. But one publication ideally suited to computerization was slow to take advantage of the new technology. The main reason was reluctance to try an unfamiliar way of doing things. Having now switched to computerization, the publication has reaped many benefits. Among them: production time is faster; costs are lower; errors are fewer. Computerization has not been without minor problems. The most obvious is vulnerability to the rarity of a system failure. Others include the technology's potential reinforcement of overediting and of excessive reliance on extremely rapid response. Such problems, however, do not indicate weaknesses in the technology itself; rather, they reflect an incomplete adaption to it and the need for more realistic expectations. An unwarranted reluctance to innovate can slow advances in communication. Technical communicators must be willing to rechart their own familiar territory.

  17. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  18. The Auditing of Computerized Accounting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an investigation undertaken to indicate the curricular content (knowledge and skills) needed to prepare the accounting student to audit computerized accounting systems. Areas studied included programing languages, data processing, desired course training, and computer audit techniques. (CT)

  19. Modified Head Shake Computerized Dynamic Posturography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    form of dizziness (in- cluding complaints of lightheadedness, vertigo , or un- steadiness) lasting longer than 1 hr or recurring for greater than 1...noted limitations. Method: Forty participants ranging in age from 20 to 79 years with no history of dizziness completed Conditions 2 and 5 of the SOT...shake, Sensory Organization Test, computerized dynamic posturography, dizziness Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is anassessment of an

  20. Computerized scheduling of longwall moves

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, C.

    1996-12-31

    The disassembly, transport, and reassembly of approximately 3,000 tons of equipment in as short a time as possible is very complex. The encumbered space and geological dynamics of the underground environment further complicate the planning, scheduling, and control of the longwall equipment move or face-to-face transfer. In the US, longwall move time greatly varies from a minimum of three days to more than twenty days. While some of this variation can be attributed to differing geologic conditions, mining systems, and move techniques, the organization and management of the longwall move process is a primary factor in move duration. The application of computer-based project scheduling to maintain and control the multitude of interacting resources and activities is demonstrated. This paper details an ongoing investigation of the application of computer scheduling to US longwall moves. An overview of the scheduling and analysis of longwall moves over the last five years is provided. This includes project task definition and level of detail, establishment of task relationships and sequences, task time estimation, and resource allocation and leveling. The paper further discusses, relative to longwall moves, computer application factors, modeling considerations, and assessments of software for computerized scheduling. The accompanying presentation will provide a demonstration of current project scheduling software as applied to actual longwall move processes.

  1. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  2. A Randomized Experiment to Compare Conventional, Computerized, and Computerized Adaptive Administration of Ordinal Polytomous Attitude Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 520 high school students were randomly assigned to a paper-and-pencil test (PPT), a computerized standard test (CST), or a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Dutch School Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), consisting of ordinal polytomous items. The CST administered items in the same order as the PPT. The CAT administered all…

  3. A Randomized Experiment to Compare Conventional, Computerized, and Computerized Adaptive Administration of Ordinal Polytomous Attitude Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 520 high school students were randomly assigned to a paper-and-pencil test (PPT), a computerized standard test (CST), or a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Dutch School Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), consisting of ordinal polytomous items. The CST administered items in the same order as the PPT. The CAT administered all…

  4. Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

  5. Rapid computerized assessment of neurocognitive deficits in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Young, Allan H

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the clinical usefulness of a computerized neuropsychological battery for identifying neurocognitive deficits in adults with bipolar disorder. Participants were 47 outpatients with bipolar disorder who were individually matched on age, education, sex, and ethnicity to 47 control subjects from the Central Nervous System (CNS) Vital Signs normative database. CNS Vital Signs is comprised of seven common neuropsychological measures, and it generates 15 primary scores that are used to calculate five domain scores (Memory, Psychomotor Speed, Reaction Time, Cognitive Flexibility, and Complex Attention). There was a significant multivariate effect and statistically significantly worse scores for those in the bipolar group on all five domain scores (medium to large effect sizes). When using two or more scores below the fifth percentile as a cutoff for neurocognitive impairment, 42.6% of the bipolar sample and only 6.4% of the control sample scored in this range. A subset of outpatients with bipolar disorder has frank neurocognitive impairments identifiable with this 30-40-minute computerized assessment battery.

  6. Computerized management of diabetes: a synthesis of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Balas, E A; Boren, S A; Griffing, G

    1998-01-01

    Computerized management of diabetes is the use of information technology to improve diabetic patient outcomes. The computer can be used to provide educational information to patients and facilitate the storage and transmittal of clinical data between patients and clinicians. The objective of this paper was to evaluate computerized management of diabetes in changing the health outcomes. Clinical trial reports were identified through systematic electronic database and manual searches. Four eligibility criteria were applied: diabetes clinical area; prospective, contemporaneously controlled clinical trial with random assignment of the intervention; computer generated information for patients in the intervention group and no similar intervention in the control group; and measurement of effect on the outcome of care (health status, social functioning, patient/family satisfaction). Data were abstracted using a standardized abstraction form and the quality of methodology was scored. Of 15 eligible clinical trials, 12 (80%) reported positive outcomes or significant benefits. A total of 48 outcome measures were reported, an average of 3.2/study. Significantly improved clinical outcomes included Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood glucose, and hypoglycemic events. Patient-computer interaction appears to be a valuable supplement to interaction with clinicians. Considering the need to enhance patient participation in the care of chronic illnesses, initial evidence indicates computers can play a more significant role in the future.

  7. Chemical thermodynamics: plenary review.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegley, B., Jr.

    1990-05-01

    The invited and contributed papers dealing with the applications of chemical thermodynamics to planetary atmospheres research are briefly reviewed. The key areas for future applications of chemical thermodynamics research to planetary atmospheres are also described.

  8. Scientific Communication of Geochemical Data and the Use of Computer Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bas, M. J.; Durham, J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a scheme in the United Kingdom that coordinates geochemistry publications with a computerized geochemistry database. The database comprises not only data published in the journals but also the remainder of the pertinent data set. The discussion covers the database design; collection, storage and retrieval of data; and plans for future…

  9. Human-eye versus computerized color matching.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U; Sim, C P; Loh, W L; Teo, J H

    1999-01-01

    This project compared the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry. Fifty dental personnel were asked to color match Vita Lumin shade tabs to seven different randomly arranged test tabs from the Z100 shade guide. All evaluators were blinded to the shades of the test tabs and were asked to match only body shade of the Vita Lumin tab to the middle third or body of each test tab. The results obtained were subsequently computed into L*a*b* values and compared with results obtained by computerized colorimetry. Results indicate that the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry is shade dependent. Discrepancy was significant for b* coordinates for shades A1 and B2 and L* and b* coordinates for shade C4. For all shades evaluated, color difference between human-eye and computerized color matching is perceivable under clinical settings, as delta E values are greater than 3. There is a need for correction factors in the formal specification of the color-matching software due to the discrepancy between human-eye and computerized colorimetric color matching.

  10. Development of computerized scenarios for wildlife exposure to priority substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brownlee, L.J.; McPherson, S.M.; Norton, M.R.; Ward, D.R.; Lloyd, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    A computerized model has been developed to estimate wildlife exposure in the Canadian environment to substances through inhalation and ingestion of food, water and soil. This Windows application was developed in Visual Basic using Microsoft Access databases and designed to make the evaluation process consistent, transparent and efficient. Bird, mammal, amphibian and reptile species were selected on the basis of food guild, body size, habitat and distribution in Canada. Intake rates were estimated using allometric equations or measured intake rates when available. Ingestion rates were estimated from free-living metabolic rates and dietary composition. With the information, the authors will develop the exposure scenarios required for assessments of risk to wildlife from priority substances listed in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.

  11. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  12. FIREMON Database

    Treesearch

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON database software allows users to enter data, store, analyze, and summarize plot data, photos, and related documents. The FIREMON database software consists of a Java application and a Microsoft® Access database. The Java application provides the user interface with FIREMON data through data entry forms, data summary reports, and other data management tools...

  13. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  14. Evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (Micromedex).

    PubMed

    Lundsgaarde, H P; Moreshead, G E

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes data collected as part of a project designed to identify and assess the technical and organizational problems associated with the implementation and evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS), Micromedex, in three U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The study began in 1987 as a national effort to implement decision support technologies in the Veterans Administration Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP). The specific objectives of this project were to (1) examine one particular decision support technology, (2) identify the technical and organizational barriers to the implementation of a CCIS in the VA host environment, (3) assess the possible benefits of this system to VA clinicians in terms of therapeutic decision making, and (4) develop new methods for identifying the clinical utility of a computer program designed to provide clinicians with a new information tool. The project was conducted intermittently over a three-year period at three VA medical centers chosen as implementation and evaluation test sites for Micromedex. Findings from the Kansas City Medical Center in Missouri are presented to illustrate some of the technical problems associated with the implementation of a commercial database program in the DHCP host environment, the organizational factors influencing clinical use of the system, and the methods used to evaluate its use. Data from 4581 provider encounters with the CCIS are summarized. Usage statistics are presented to illustrate the methodological possibilities for assessing the "benefits and burdens" of a computerized information system by using an automated collection of user demographics and program audit trails that allow evaluators to monitor user interactions with different segments of the database.

  15. The effectiveness of computerized drug-lab alerts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Imaan; Al Balas, Mosab; Handler, Steven M; Dolovich, Lisa; Hutchison, Brian; Holbrook, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Inadequate lab monitoring of drugs is a potential cause of ADEs (adverse drug events) which is remediable. To determine the effectiveness of computerized drug-lab alerts to improve medication-related outcomes. Citations from the Computerized Clinical Decision Support System Systematic Review (CCDSSR) and MMIT (Medications Management through Health Information Technology) databases, which had searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 1974 to March 27, 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of clinician-targeted computerized drug lab alerts conducted in any healthcare setting. Two reviewers performed full text review to determine study eligibility. A single reviewer abstracted data and evaluated validity of included studies using Cochrane handbook domains. Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria (25 single drug studies with 22,504 participants, 14 targeting anticoagulation; 11 multi-drug studies with 56,769 participants). ADEs were reported as an outcome in only four trials, all targeting anticoagulants. Computerized drug-lab alerts did not reduce ADEs (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.79-1.00, p=0.05), length of hospital stay (SMD 0.00, 95%CI -0.93 to 0.93, p=0.055, 1 study), likelihood of hypoglycemia (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.31-5.37) or likelihood of bleeding, but were associated with increased likelihood of prescribing changes (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21-2.47) or lab monitoring (OR 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.94) in accordance with the alert. There is no evidence that computerized drug-lab alerts are associated with important clinical benefits, but there is evidence of improvement in selected clinical surrogate outcomes (time in therapeutic range for vitamin K antagonists), and changes in process outcomes (lab monitoring and prescribing decisions). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computerized adaptive personality testing: a review and illustration with the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    PubMed

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2007-03-01

    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors review the literature on each and report the results of an investigation designed to explore the utility, in terms of item and time savings, and validity, in terms of correlations with external criterion measures, of an expanded countdown method-based research version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version (MMPI-2-CA). Participants were 433 undergraduate college students (170 men and 263 women). Results indicated considerable item savings and corresponding time savings for the adaptive testing modalities compared with a conventional computerized MMPI-2 administration. Furthermore, computerized adaptive administration yielded comparable results to computerized conventional administration of the MMPI-2 in terms of both test scores and their validity. Future directions for computerized adaptive personality testing are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Thermodynamic properties for arsenic minerals and aqueous species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj; Königsberger, Erich; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative geochemical calculations are not possible without thermodynamic databases and considerable advances in the quantity and quality of these databases have been made since the early days of Lewis and Randall (1923), Latimer (1952), and Rossini et al. (1952). Oelkers et al. (2009) wrote, “The creation of thermodynamic databases may be one of the greatest advances in the field of geochemistry of the last century.” Thermodynamic data have been used for basic research needs and for a countless variety of applications in hazardous waste management and policy making (Zhu and Anderson 2002; Nordstrom and Archer 2003; Bethke 2008; Oelkers and Schott 2009). The challenge today is to evaluate thermodynamic data for internal consistency, to reach a better consensus of the most reliable properties, to determine the degree of certainty needed for geochemical modeling, and to agree on priorities for further measurements and evaluations.

  18. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  19. Implementing computerized tracking at a community health center: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Moran, W P; Wofford, J L; Hamrick, V; Myers, B T; Cooper, J; Doby, J; FitzGerald, K; Spence, C; Velez, R

    1993-01-01

    A computerized tracking system for both preventive care and chronic disease tracking was implemented at a community health center, using a PC based local area network interfaced with a mainframe scheduling and billing system. Initial database construction used downloads of historical billing data, but ongoing database maintenance is accomplished by using an optical mark-sense scanner to construct both billing and clinical tracking files from custom-designed encounter forms. In this way, expanded clinical data is collected with an actual reduction in manually keyed data, reducing the ongoing cost of the system.

  20. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  1. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  2. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  3. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  4. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  5. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at.... The computerized magnetic media shall be prepared and delivered at the committee's expense and shall... Commission's Computerized Magnetic Media Requirements for title 26 Candidates/Committees Receiving...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800... Devices § 884.2800 Computerized Labor Monitoring System. (a) Identification. A computerized labor monitoring system is a system intended to continuously measure cervical dilation and fetal head descent...

  7. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800... Devices § 884.2800 Computerized Labor Monitoring System. (a) Identification. A computerized labor monitoring system is a system intended to continuously measure cervical dilation and fetal head descent...

  8. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800... Devices § 884.2800 Computerized Labor Monitoring System. (a) Identification. A computerized labor monitoring system is a system intended to continuously measure cervical dilation and fetal head descent...

  9. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800... Devices § 884.2800 Computerized Labor Monitoring System. (a) Identification. A computerized labor monitoring system is a system intended to continuously measure cervical dilation and fetal head descent...

  10. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at.... The computerized magnetic media shall be prepared and delivered at the committee's expense and shall... Commission's Computerized Magnetic Media Requirements for title 26 Candidates/Committees Receiving Federal...

  11. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at.... The computerized magnetic media shall be prepared and delivered at the committee's expense and shall... Commission's Computerized Magnetic Media Requirements for title 26 Candidates/Committees Receiving Federal...

  12. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at.... The computerized magnetic media shall be prepared and delivered at the committee's expense and shall... Commission's Computerized Magnetic Media Requirements for title 26 Candidates/Committees Receiving Federal...

  13. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hardware, operational system software, and electronic linkages with the separate components of an... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support...

  14. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hardware, operational system software, and electronic linkages with the separate components of an... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support...

  15. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... plans to use and how they will interface with the base system; (3) Provide documentation that the... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized...

  16. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... plans to use and how they will interface with the base system; (3) Provide documentation that the... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized...

  17. Computerized Inspection Of Gear-Tooth Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Method of manufacturing gears with precisely shaped teeth involves computerized inspection of gear-tooth surfaces followed by adjustments of machine-tool settings to minimize deviations between real and theoretical versions of surfaces. Thus, iterated cycles of cutting gear teeth, inspection, and adjustments help increase and/or maintain precision of subsequently manufactured gears.

  18. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  19. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  20. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Computerized classification testing (CCT) is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as "pass" and "fail." Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the…

  1. Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Grading Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Beiling

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated three strategies for assigning examinees to grading categories in computerized adaptive testing. The expected a posteriori-based method had more correct classifications in the middle range of grade levels and more errors for the extremes than the golden section search grading test and the Z-score grading test. (SLD)

  2. Dichotomous Search Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Beiling

    Dichotomous search strategies (DSSs) for computerized adaptive testing are similar to golden section search strategies (GSSSs). Each middle point of successive search regions is a testing point. After each item is administered, the subject's obtained score is compared with the expected score at successive testing points. If the subject's obtained…

  3. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  4. Computerizing the Chinese International School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Marilyn

    This paper describes the computerization of the libraries in the Chinese International School in Hong Kong. The Infant, Junior and Secondary libraries, with a staff of three professional librarians, one library assistant, and one audiovisual technician, needed an automated system which could support their bilingual curriculum. Two computer systems…

  5. Individual Differences in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JinGyu

    Research on the major computerized adaptive testing (CAT) strategies is reviewed, and some findings are reported that examine effects of examinee demographic and psychological characteristics on CAT strategies. In fixed branching strategies, all examinees respond to a common routing test, the score of which is used to assign examinees to a…

  6. Computerized axial tomography: the normal EMI scan.

    PubMed Central

    Gawler, J; Bull, J D; Du Boulay, G H; Marshall, J

    1975-01-01

    Computerized axial tomography using the EMI scanner as a new method of using x-rays in diagnosis. The technique displays intracranial and orbital structures in the transverse plane. The appearances of normal EMI Scans are described and correlated with cerebral and orbital anatomy seen in transverse section. Images PMID:1081587

  7. Computerized Economic Modeling: From Laboratory to Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breece, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the growing popularity of computerized economic modeling as a computer-assisted instructional aid and the associated educational benefits. Provides an overview of current modeling, simulation, and econometrics programs and attempts to identify trends in computer-assisted instruction in economics. (Author/GEA)

  8. Three Ontario Boards Testing Computerized Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sch Progr, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Pilot for computerizing financial information may also be used for personnel, students, facilities, curriculum and instruction. The project uses the Generalized Education Management System software (GEMS) developed by Oregon Total Information System (OTIS) and modified by AGT Data Systems Ltd. of Toronto. (DE)

  9. Computerized Collective Training for Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Paul; Kribs, H. Dewey

    The purpose of this investigation was to empirically demonstrate and evaluate a brassboard for computerized collective training for teams (COLT2). The underlying tasks were to (1) conduct a state of the art assessment of instructional strategies appropriate for COLT2, (2) derive a conceptual framework for COLT2 instructional strategies, (3)…

  10. Special Education Curriculum (Computerized IEP Catalog).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland Independent School District, TX.

    This special education curriculum, developed by the Garland (Texas) Independent School District, outlines the basic tools for preparing an Individual Educational Plan (IEP) for each handicapped student. The curricular information is organized and coded to facilitate computerized printing of the IEP. The document begins with a list of 13…

  11. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Computerized classification testing (CCT) is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as "pass" and "fail." Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the…

  12. The Four Generations of Computerized Educational Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunderson, C. Victor; And Others

    Educational measurement is undergoing a revolution due to the rapid dissemination of information-processing technology. The recent growth in computing resources and their widespread dissemination in daily life have brought about irreversible changes in educational measurement. Recent developments in computerized measurement are summarized by…

  13. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  14. Principles for Creating a Computerized Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    The experience of developing a set of comprehensive aptitude batteries for computer administration for the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory's Learning Abilities Measurement Program resulted in the formulation of nine principles for creation of a computerized test battery. These principles are discussed in the context of research on…

  15. Computerized Enrollment Driven Financial Forecasting Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvella, John R.

    An interactive, computerized model developed for Old Dominion University utilizes university historical data, demographic characteristics, projected selected economic variables and population figures by various age groups and planning districts to forecast enrollment, financial projections, and future fiscal conditions of the institution. The…

  16. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  17. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2011-04-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the Établissement français du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  18. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately $100...

  19. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately $100...

  20. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately $100...

  1. MU's Early Space-Planning Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shader, Scott; Vaughn, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the University of Missouri-Columbia's Space Planning and Management office (SPAM) and the computerization of the school's space-planning archives. Discusses SPAM's software selection for standardization as well as its manual development, placing the school's buildings and floor plans on the Web, and its space-modeling…

  2. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  3. Computerized Adaptive Mastery Tests as Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of expert systems and computerized adaptive tests describes two versions of EXSPRT, a new approach that combines uncertain inference in expert systems with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) stopping rules. Results of two studies comparing EXSPRT to adaptive mastery testing based on item response theory and SPRT approaches are…

  4. Calibrator Blocks For Computerized Tomography (CT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, H. Peter

    1990-01-01

    Sets of calibrator blocks developed for use with industrial computerized tomography (CT) systems. Set of blocks (or number of stacked sets of blocks) placed on object table of CT system and scanned in usual way. Blocks include holes of known size, shape, and location. Appearance of holes in output image of CT system used to verify operation of system.

  5. Computerized Mastery Testing with Nonequivalent Testlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kathleen; Lewis, Charles

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is introduced for determining the effect of testlet nonequivalence on operating characteristics of a testlet-based computerized mastery test (CMT). The procedure, which involves estimating the CMT decision rule twice with testlet likelihoods treated as equivalent or nonequivalent, is demonstrated with testlet pools from the Architect…

  6. MU's Early Space-Planning Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shader, Scott; Vaughn, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the University of Missouri-Columbia's Space Planning and Management office (SPAM) and the computerization of the school's space-planning archives. Discusses SPAM's software selection for standardization as well as its manual development, placing the school's buildings and floor plans on the Web, and its space-modeling…

  7. Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Grading Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Beiling

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated three strategies for assigning examinees to grading categories in computerized adaptive testing. The expected a posteriori-based method had more correct classifications in the middle range of grade levels and more errors for the extremes than the golden section search grading test and the Z-score grading test. (SLD)

  8. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  9. Ethics and the Computerization of Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Robert L.; Perrolle, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    The current and potential impact of computerization on pharmacy practice is discussed, focusing on ethical dilemmas in the pharmacist-patient relationship, confidentiality of records, and the role of artificial intelligence in decision making about drug therapy. Case studies for use by teachers of pharmaceutical ethics are provided. (Author/MSE)

  10. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  11. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  12. Computerized Financial Reporting Based on GAAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Stan; Liljeberg, Burt

    1983-01-01

    Describes the statewide computerized system developed in Minnesota following the 1976 enactment of the Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (UFARS) law. UFARS includes provisions for an advisory council responsible for recommending accounting and reporting procedures, and seven data processing centers to serve all 560 Minnesota…

  13. Computerized Numerical Control Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 285 test items for use in teaching a course in computerized numerical control. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in such aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with…

  14. Aptamer Database

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer F.; Hesselberth, Jay R.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2004-01-01

    The aptamer database is designed to contain comprehensive sequence information on aptamers and unnatural ribozymes that have been generated by in vitro selection methods. Such data are not normally collected in ‘natural’ sequence databases, such as GenBank. Besides serving as a storehouse of sequences that may have diagnostic or therapeutic utility, the database serves as a valuable resource for theoretical biologists who describe and explore fitness landscapes. The database is updated monthly and is publicly available at http://aptamer.icmb.utexas.edu/. PMID:14681367

  15. Thermodynamics of Bioreactions.

    PubMed

    Held, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-06-07

    Thermodynamic principles have been applied to enzyme-catalyzed reactions since the beginning of the 1930s in an attempt to understand metabolic pathways. Currently, thermodynamics is also applied to the design and analysis of biotechnological processes. The key thermodynamic quantity is the Gibbs energy of reaction, which must be negative for a reaction to occur spontaneously. However, the application of thermodynamic feasibility studies sometimes yields positive Gibbs energies of reaction even for reactions that are known to occur spontaneously, such as glycolysis. This article reviews the application of thermodynamics in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. It summarizes the basic thermodynamic relationships used for describing the Gibbs energy of reaction and also refers to the nonuniform application of these relationships in the literature. The review summarizes state-of-the-art approaches that describe the influence of temperature, pH, electrolytes, solvents, and concentrations of reacting agents on the Gibbs energy of reaction and, therefore, on the feasibility and yield of biological reactions.

  16. Computerized Risk and Bioaccumulation System (Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Winsor, M.; Pelletier, J.; Randall, R.; Bertling, J.

    1991-11-01

    The Computerized Risk And Bioaccumulation System (CRABS, Version 1.0) is an expert system that predicts tissue residues of fifteen neutral organic pollutants in sediment-dwelling organisms and the human cancer risk from consumption of the contaminated shellfish. Bioaccumulation from bedded sediment can be predicted from the thermodynamic partitioning, first-order kinetic, or toxicokinetic model. All the models can predict steady-state tissue residues while the two kinetic models can predict non-steady-state uptake or elimination. CRABS then predicts the lifetime human cancer risk from consumption of clams and other non-mobile sediment-dwelling organisms containing the predicted (or measured) tissue residue. The linearized multistage model is used to predict cancer risk for a single pollutant from a single species diet. The program guides the user in estimating shellfish consumption rates if no site-specific rates are available. CRABS is designed to promote thorough documentation of the assumptions and data as well as to error check the entered values.

  17. Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldt, Sebastian; Seifert, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from those data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyze the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency η ≤1 . We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyze Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.

  18. Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Organic Compounds by I A. Hossenlopp and D. W. Scott -- Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics , 13, No. 5, 405-414 (1981). t 1 I- i !I *1 I I ~ I [LI...National Bureau of Standards CINDAS Chemical Thermodynamics Division Purdue University Research Park Attn: Dr Stan Abramowitz Attn: Dr H H Li Mr David... Chemical Thermodynamics Division AFAOL/RJT (Dr 7 D Stull) Attn: Mr Donald D Wagman Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 Washington, DC 20234 U.S. Army

  19. High-temperature thermodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margrave, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    High temperature thermodynamics requiring species and phases identification, crystal structures, molecular geometries and vibrational, rotational and electronic energy levels and equilibrium constants

  20. Maize databases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  1. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  2. Image Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    Different kinds of pictorial databases are described with respect to aims, user groups, search possibilities, storage, and distribution. Some specific examples are given for databases used for the following purposes: (1) labor markets for artists; (2) document management; (3) telling a story; (4) preservation (archives and museums); (5) research;…

  3. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  4. Computerized commodity management system in Thailand and Brazil.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Thailand's National Family Planning Program is testing a computerized contraceptive commodity reporting management in 4 provinces with 104 National Family Planning Program (NFPP) reporting entities. Staff in the Brazilian Association of Family Planning Entities (ABEPF) and CPAIMC, a major family planning service agency, have been trained in the use of a computerized commodity distribution management system and are ready to initiate test use. The systems were designed in response to specific commodity management needs of the concerned organizations. Neither distribution program functions as a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program, but each system reviewed has aspects that are relevant to CSM commodity management needs. Both the Thai and Brazilian systems were designed to be as automatic and user friendly as possible. Both have 3 main databases and perform similar management and reporting functions. Differing program configurations and basic data forms reflect the specific purposes of each system. Databases for the logistics monitoring system in Thailand arethe reporting entity (or ID) file; the current month's data file; and the master balance file. The data source is the basic reporting form that also serves as a Request and Issue Voucher for commodities. Editing functions in the program check to see that the current "beginning balance" equals the previous month's ending balance. Indexing functions in the system allow direct access to the records of any reporting entity via the ID number, as well as the sequential processing of records by ID number. 6 reports can be generated: status report by issuing entity; status report by dispensing entity; aggregate status report; out of compliance products report; out of compliance outlets report; and suggested shipment to regional warehouse report. Databases for the distribution management system in Brazil are: the name-ID (client institution) file; the product file; and the data file. The data source is an order form

  5. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  6. Thermodynamics and bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Y; Sandler, S I

    2002-06-19

    Bioenergetics is concerned with the energy conservation and conversion processes in a living cell, particularly in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. This review summarizes the role of thermodynamics in understanding the coupling between the chemical reactions and the transport of substances in bioenergetics. Thermodynamics has the advantages of identifying possible pathways, providing a measure of the efficiency of energy conversion, and of the coupling between various processes without requiring a detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. In the last five decades, various new approaches in thermodynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and network thermodynamics have been developed to understand the transport and rate processes in physical and biological systems. For systems not far from equilibrium the theory of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics is used, while extended non-equilibrium thermodynamics is used for systems far away from equilibrium. All these approaches are based on the irreversible character of flows and forces of an open system. Here, linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics is mostly discussed as it is the most advanced. We also review attempts to incorporate the mechanisms of a process into some formulations of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The formulation of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics for facilitated transport and active transport, which represent the key processes of coupled phenomena of transport and chemical reactions, is also presented. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to bioenergetics, and introduce the basic methods and equations that are used. However, the reader will have to consult the literature reference to see the details of the specific applications.

  7. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  8. The MMPI-2 computerized adaptive version (MMPI-2-CA) in a Veterans Administration medical outpatient facility.

    PubMed

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    The ability to screen quickly and thoroughly for psychological difficulties in existing and returning combat veterans who are seeking treatment for physical ailments would be of significant benefit. In the current study, item and time savings, as well as extratest correlations, associated with an audio-augmented version of the computerized adaptive Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2-CA) are examined in a group of 273 male veterans, ages 26-87 years. Results indicated an average item savings of approximately 103 items (18.6%), with a corresponding time savings of approximately 12 min (24.3%), for the MMPI-2-CA compared with conventional computerized administration of the test, as well as comparability in terms of test-retest coefficients and correlations with external measures. Future directions of adaptive personality testing are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The thermodynamic scale of inorganic crystalline metastability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenhao; Dacek, Stephen T; Ong, Shyue Ping; Hautier, Geoffroy; Jain, Anubhav; Richards, William D; Gamst, Anthony C; Persson, Kristin A; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-11-01

    The space of metastable materials offers promising new design opportunities for next-generation technological materials, such as complex oxides, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, steels, and beyond. Although metastable phases are ubiquitous in both nature and technology, only a heuristic understanding of their underlying thermodynamics exists. We report a large-scale data-mining study of the Materials Project, a high-throughput database of density functional theory-calculated energetics of Inorganic Crystal Structure Database structures, to explicitly quantify the thermodynamic scale of metastability for 29,902 observed inorganic crystalline phases. We reveal the influence of chemistry and composition on the accessible thermodynamic range of crystalline metastability for polymorphic and phase-separating compounds, yielding new physical insights that can guide the design of novel metastable materials. We further assert that not all low-energy metastable compounds can necessarily be synthesized, and propose a principle of 'remnant metastability'-that observable metastable crystalline phases are generally remnants of thermodynamic conditions where they were once the lowest free-energy phase.

  10. The thermodynamic scale of inorganic crystalline metastability

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenhao; Dacek, Stephen T.; Ong, Shyue Ping; Hautier, Geoffroy; Jain, Anubhav; Richards, William D.; Gamst, Anthony C.; Persson, Kristin A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-01-01

    The space of metastable materials offers promising new design opportunities for next-generation technological materials, such as complex oxides, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, steels, and beyond. Although metastable phases are ubiquitous in both nature and technology, only a heuristic understanding of their underlying thermodynamics exists. We report a large-scale data-mining study of the Materials Project, a high-throughput database of density functional theory–calculated energetics of Inorganic Crystal Structure Database structures, to explicitly quantify the thermodynamic scale of metastability for 29,902 observed inorganic crystalline phases. We reveal the influence of chemistry and composition on the accessible thermodynamic range of crystalline metastability for polymorphic and phase-separating compounds, yielding new physical insights that can guide the design of novel metastable materials. We further assert that not all low-energy metastable compounds can necessarily be synthesized, and propose a principle of ‘remnant metastability’—that observable metastable crystalline phases are generally remnants of thermodynamic conditions where they were once the lowest free-energy phase. PMID:28138514

  11. Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.

    PubMed

    Alberty, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The most efficient way to store thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions is to use matrices of species properties. Since equilibrium in enzyme-catalyzed reactions is reached at specified pH values, the thermodynamics of the reactions is discussed in terms of transformed thermodynamic properties. These transformed thermodynamic properties are complicated functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength that can be calculated from the matrices of species values. The most important of these transformed thermodynamic properties is the standard transformed Gibbs energy of formation of a reactant (sum of species). It is the most important because when this function of temperature, pH, and ionic strength is known, all the other standard transformed properties can be calculated by taking partial derivatives. The species database in this package contains data matrices for 199 reactants. For 94 of these reactants, standard enthalpies of formation of species are known, and so standard transformed Gibbs energies, standard transformed enthalpies, standard transformed entropies, and average numbers of hydrogen atoms can be calculated as functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. For reactions between these 94 reactants, the changes in these properties can be calculated over a range of temperatures, pHs, and ionic strengths, and so can apparent equilibrium constants. For the other 105 reactants, only standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation and average numbers of hydrogen atoms at 298.15 K can be calculated. The loading of this package provides functions of pH and ionic strength at 298.15 K for standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation and average numbers of hydrogen atoms for 199 reactants. It also provides functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength for the standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation, standard transformed enthalpies of formation, standard transformed entropies of formation, and average numbers of hydrogen atoms for 94

  12. Student Misconceptions in Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granville, Mark F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses misconceptions (in several thermodynamics statements) that seem to be particularly common among students who have finished a one-semester, junior-level course in chemical thermodynamics. When presented as true/false questions, these statements are usually judged true, although each requires at least one more condition to be satisfied.…

  13. Thermodynamics and Gravity,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    symmetry of the spacetime coordinates of the region in which the gravity field is located. The form of the laws of thermodynamics for matter located in a...gravity field is investigated by applying the broken spacetime symmetry forms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. In a gravity field the

  14. Developing an evidence base of best practices for integrating computerized systems into the exam room: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal R; Vichich, Jennifer; Lang, Ian; Lin, Jessica; Zheng, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of health information technology systems, electronic health records in particular, is changing the nature of how clinicians interact with patients. Lack of knowledge remains on how best to integrate such systems in the exam room. The purpose of this systematic review was to (1) distill "best" behavioral and communication practices recommended in the literature for clinicians when interacting with patients in the presence of computerized systems during a clinical encounter, (2) weigh the evidence of each recommendation, and (3) rank evidence-based recommendations for electronic health record communication training initiatives for clinicians. We conducted a literature search of 6 databases, resulting in 52 articles included in the analysis. We extracted information such as study setting, research design, sample, findings, and implications. Recommendations were distilled based on consistent support for behavioral and communication practices across studies. Eight behavioral and communication practices received strong support of evidence in the literature and included specific aspects of using computerized systems to facilitate conversation and transparency in the exam room, such as spatial (re)organization of the exam room, maintaining nonverbal communication, and specific techniques that integrate the computerized system into the visit and engage the patient. Four practices, although patient-centered, have received insufficient evidence to date. We developed an evidence base of best practices for clinicians to maintain patient-centered communications in the presence of computerized systems in the exam room. Further work includes development and empirical evaluation of evidence-based guidelines to better integrate computerized systems into clinical care.

  15. Metropolitan Orlando area computerized signal system

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, F.R. ); Allen, T.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Florida's Orlando metropolitan area, which has a population measuring 1 million, is among the fastest growing areas in the nation. The city's weather and popular attractions draw 9 to 10 million tourists annually, half of them arriving in their own cars. Add to this the 1.1 million automobiles already on the streets, and the traffic problems become a nightmare. The Orlando metropolitan area has approximately 550 operational traffic signals, with an increasing number of new signals added each year to control the city's expanding growth. A central, computerized signal system has been conceived as one of the solutions necessary to cope with this tremendous traffic growth. The system is flexible, expandable, and capable of meeting future technical challenges. This article describes the steps that led to the feasibility study, design, and implementation of the Orlando area computerized signal system.

  16. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  17. AB INITIO AND CALPHAD THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A

    2004-04-14

    Ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement CALPHAD in two major ways for subsequent applications to stability in complex alloys. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics {acute a} la CALPHAD. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys.

  18. The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

  19. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, D.; White, D. )

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  20. Objective assessment of clinical computerized thermal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-06-01

    The efficacy of diagnostic thermal imaging, the visualization of abnormal distribution of temperature over the human skin, can be significantly augmented by computerized image processing procedures that overcome the limitations of subjective image assessment. This paper reviews diagnostic thermal imaging and describes common image processing approaches applicable to the analysis of static thermal images and of time series of images that provide diagnostic information about the dynamics of neurological regulation of skin temperature.

  1. Changing to computerized documentation--plus!

    PubMed

    Town, J

    1993-07-01

    A recent change to a computerized documentation system has had a positive influence on productivity, reliability of documentation, quality assurance, nurse satisfaction and professional practice. This software system combines the care plan and nurses' notes and is standard-based. Each patient's care plan is compiled from Units of Care, which provide a menu covering nursing diagnosis, medical diagnosis, chief complaints and special procedures and events.

  2. Errors associated with outpatient computerized prescribing systems

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Salzberg, Claudia; Keohane, Carol A; Zigmont, Katherine; Devita, Jim; Gandhi, Tejal K; Dalal, Anuj K; Bates, David W; Poon, Eric G

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the frequency, types, and causes of errors associated with outpatient computer-generated prescriptions, and to develop a framework to classify these errors to determine which strategies have greatest potential for preventing them. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 3850 computer-generated prescriptions received by a commercial outpatient pharmacy chain across three states over 4 weeks in 2008. A clinician panel reviewed the prescriptions using a previously described method to identify and classify medication errors. Primary outcomes were the incidence of medication errors; potential adverse drug events, defined as errors with potential for harm; and rate of prescribing errors by error type and by prescribing system. Results Of 3850 prescriptions, 452 (11.7%) contained 466 total errors, of which 163 (35.0%) were considered potential adverse drug events. Error rates varied by computerized prescribing system, from 5.1% to 37.5%. The most common error was omitted information (60.7% of all errors). Discussion About one in 10 computer-generated prescriptions included at least one error, of which a third had potential for harm. This is consistent with the literature on manual handwritten prescription error rates. The number, type, and severity of errors varied by computerized prescribing system, suggesting that some systems may be better at preventing errors than others. Conclusions Implementing a computerized prescribing system without comprehensive functionality and processes in place to ensure meaningful system use does not decrease medication errors. The authors offer targeted recommendations on improving computerized prescribing systems to prevent errors. PMID:21715428

  3. The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

  4. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  5. Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, Leslie

    2013-10-15

    Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy

  6. Implementation of a computer database testing and analysis program.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Deborah P

    2007-01-01

    The author is the coordinator of a computer software database testing and analysis program implemented in an associate degree nursing program. Computer software database programs help support the testing development and analysis process. Critical thinking is measurable and promoted with their use. The reader of this article will learn what is involved in procuring and implementing a computer database testing and analysis program in an academic nursing program. The use of the computerized database for testing and analysis will be approached as a method to promote and evaluate the nursing student's critical thinking skills and to prepare the nursing student for the National Council Licensure Examination.

  7. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  8. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification

    DOE PAGES

    Armato, Samuel G.; Drukker, Karen; Li, Feng; ...

    2016-12-19

    The purpose of this work is to describe the LUNGx Challenge for the computerized classification of lung nodules on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans as benign or malignant and report the performance of participants’ computerized methods along with that of six radiologists who participated in an observer study performing the same Challenge task on the same dataset. The Challenge provided sets of calibration and testing scans, established a performance assessment process, and created an infrastructure for case dissemination and result submission. We present ten groups that applied their own methods to 73 lung nodules (37 benign and 36 malignant) thatmore » were selected to achieve approximate size matching between the two cohorts. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for these methods ranged from 0.50 to 0.68; only three methods performed statistically better than random guessing. The radiologists’ AUC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.85; three radiologists performed statistically better than the best-performing computer method. The LUNGx Challenge compared the performance of computerized methods in the task of differentiating benign from malignant lung nodules on CT scans, placed in the context of the performance of radiologists on the same task. Lastly, the continued public availability of the Challenge cases will provide a valuable resource for the medical imaging research community.« less

  9. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification

    SciTech Connect

    Armato, Samuel G.; Drukker, Karen; Li, Feng; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Engelmann, Roger M.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Redmond, George; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin S.; Clarke, Laurence P.

    2016-12-19

    The purpose of this work is to describe the LUNGx Challenge for the computerized classification of lung nodules on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans as benign or malignant and report the performance of participants’ computerized methods along with that of six radiologists who participated in an observer study performing the same Challenge task on the same dataset. The Challenge provided sets of calibration and testing scans, established a performance assessment process, and created an infrastructure for case dissemination and result submission. We present ten groups that applied their own methods to 73 lung nodules (37 benign and 36 malignant) that were selected to achieve approximate size matching between the two cohorts. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for these methods ranged from 0.50 to 0.68; only three methods performed statistically better than random guessing. The radiologists’ AUC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.85; three radiologists performed statistically better than the best-performing computer method. The LUNGx Challenge compared the performance of computerized methods in the task of differentiating benign from malignant lung nodules on CT scans, placed in the context of the performance of radiologists on the same task. Lastly, the continued public availability of the Challenge cases will provide a valuable resource for the medical imaging research community.

  10. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification.

    PubMed

    Armato, Samuel G; Drukker, Karen; Li, Feng; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Tourassi, Georgia D; Engelmann, Roger M; Giger, Maryellen L; Redmond, George; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin S; Clarke, Laurence P

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the LUNGx Challenge for the computerized classification of lung nodules on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans as benign or malignant and report the performance of participants' computerized methods along with that of six radiologists who participated in an observer study performing the same Challenge task on the same dataset. The Challenge provided sets of calibration and testing scans, established a performance assessment process, and created an infrastructure for case dissemination and result submission. Ten groups applied their own methods to 73 lung nodules (37 benign and 36 malignant) that were selected to achieve approximate size matching between the two cohorts. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for these methods ranged from 0.50 to 0.68; only three methods performed statistically better than random guessing. The radiologists' AUC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.85; three radiologists performed statistically better than the best-performing computer method. The LUNGx Challenge compared the performance of computerized methods in the task of differentiating benign from malignant lung nodules on CT scans, placed in the context of the performance of radiologists on the same task. The continued public availability of the Challenge cases will provide a valuable resource for the medical imaging research community.

  11. Wormholes and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    1996-07-01

    Hawking has recently pointed out that black holes cannot evaporate and disappear through wormholes because the entropy of a baby universe would not equal its size squared times some proportionality constant. In this report it is shown that multiply connected Euclidean wormhole spacetimes can be associated with nonlinear dynamic laws which are analogous to those of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, making plausible a full generalization of thermodynamics encompassing both nonequilibrium and gravitational effects. It is seen that both at equilibrium and out of it baby universe thermodynamics can provide the right relation between the size of the originating black hole and its entropy.

  12. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  13. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  14. Turbopump thermodynamic cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, T. C.; Mckee, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    System for cooling turbopumps used in cryogenic fluid storage facilities is described. Technique uses thermodynamic propellant vent to intercept pump heat at desired conditions. Cooling system uses hydrogen from outside source or residual hydrogen from cryogenic storage tank.

  15. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Reynier, Yvan; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  16. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  17. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  18. Thermodynamics: A Stirling effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    2012-02-01

    The realization of a single-particle Stirling engine pushes thermodynamics into stochastic territory where fluctuations dominate, and points towards a better understanding of energy transduction at the microscale.

  19. Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

  20. Thermodynamics in Fractional Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilanov, R. P.; Magomedov, R. A.

    2014-11-01

    A generalization of thermodynamics in the formalism of fractional-order derivatives is given. Results of the traditional thermodynamics of Carnot, Clausius, and Helmholtz are obtained in the particular case where the exponent of a fractional-order derivative is equal to unity. A one-parametric "fractal" equation of state is obtained with account of the second virial coefficient. The application of the resulting equation of state in the case of the gas argon is considered.

  1. Thermodynamics of fractal universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykhi, Ahmad; Teimoori, Zeinab; Wang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamical properties of the apparent horizon in a fractal universe. We find that one can always rewrite the Friedmann equation of the fractal universe in the form of the entropy balance relation δQ=ThdSh, where δQ and Th are the energy flux and Unruh temperature seen by an accelerated observer just inside the apparent horizon. We find that the entropy Sh consists two terms, the first one which obeys the usual area law and the second part which is the entropy production term due to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of fractal universe. This shows that in a fractal universe, a treatment with nonequilibrium thermodynamics of spacetime may be needed. We also study the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the framework of fractal universe. When the temperature of the apparent horizon and the matter fields inside the horizon are equal, i.e. T=Th, the generalized second law of thermodynamics can be fulfilled provided the deceleration and the equation of state parameters ranges either as -1⩽q<0, -1⩽w<-1/3 or as q<-1, w<-1 which are consistent with recent observations. We also find that for Th=bT, with b<1, the GSL of thermodynamics can be secured in a fractal universe by suitably choosing the fractal parameter β.

  2. The GraVent DDT database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, Lorenz R.; Katzy, Peter; Hasslberger, Josef; Kink, Andreas; Sattelmayer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    An open-access online platform containing data from experiments on deflagration-to-detonation transition conducted at the Institute of Thermodynamics, Technical University of Munich, has been developed and is accessible at http://www.td.mw.tum.de/ddt. The database provides researchers working on explosion dynamics with data for theoretical analyses and for the validation of numerical simulations.

  3. Glaucoma database.

    PubMed

    K, Rangachari; M, Dhivya; Pj, Eswari Pandaranayaka; N, Prasanthi; P, Sundaresan; Sr, Krishnadas; S, Krishnaswamy

    2011-02-07

    Glaucoma, a complex heterogenous disease, is the leading cause for optic nerve-related blindness worldwide. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common subset and by the year 2020 it is estimated that approximately 60 million people will be affected. MYOC, OPTN, CYP1B1 and WDR36 are the important candidate genes. Nearly 4% of the glaucoma patients have mutation in any one of these genes. Mutation in any of these genes causes disease either directly or indirectly and the severity of the disease varies according to position of the genes. We have compiled all the related mutations and SNPs in the above genes and developed a database, to help access statistical and clinical information of particular mutation. This database is available online at http:bicmku.in:8081/glaucoma The database, constructed using SQL, contains data pertaining to the SNPs and mutation information involved in the above genes and relevant study data. The database is available for free at http:bicmku.in:8081/glaucoma.

  4. Computerized certification of digital ultrasonic instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, M. W.

    1987-09-01

    A computerized inspection system is being set up at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to enable certification of the Krautkramer Branson ultrasonic instrumentation used extensively in Y-12 production operations. The system takes the data required to certify the linearity and frequency response of the receiver and to certify the correct operation of the pulsers, gates, and computer interface. A subset of the program will be able to verify correct instrumentation in the field by using the actual computer and instrumentation being used for production ultrasonic weld inspections. The system can reduce the certification time from approximately one week to less than an hour.

  5. Computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazihah, M. D.; Kadri, S.; Yaacob, M. I. H.; Rosly, J.

    2013-05-01

    The development of a computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms is described in this paper. The system employs the insertion technique and it was developed using LabView 2011 where the ultrasound signal was acquired through the interfacing scheme of an oscilloscope to a personal computer. The system performance was validated by comparing measured acoustical properties with values obtained from the previous studies. Other than faster measurement time, the developed system carried percentage difference at less than 1.00% for all of the acoustical properties measurements at 23.0°C to 25.0°C respectively.

  6. Computerized documentation systems: blessings or curse?

    PubMed

    Vlasses, F R

    1993-01-01

    This article considers the possibility that computerized documentation systems will negatively impact knowledge development in nursing. Ideas from three vantage points is presented. First, systems are being developed from theoretical frameworks that are not necessarily grounded in nursing, and these systems, in turn, influence the nurses's ability to process and conceptualize information. Second, computer systems may support the retrieval of empirical data to the elimination of other types of data necessary to the development of nursing knowledge. Third, computers may decrease opportunities for collegial dialogue. These factors together create an atmosphere of "technologic determinism" (Robinson & Robinson, 1990), which can inhibit the development of new ideas in nursing.

  7. Computerization of medical and exposure records.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D A; Cox, J D; Seger, M J

    1982-06-01

    An interdisciplinary team of occupational health professionals and computer engineers at Digital Equipment Corporation have developed a computerized system for maintaining employee medical and exposure records. The Industrial Health Monitoring System (IHMS) was designed to meet the occupational and public health needs of employees engaged in semiconductor manufacturing operations where exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals and physical agents exists. The purpose of the IHMS is to systematically retrieve and analyze data collected from industrial hygiene, health services, and clinical diagnostic testing in order to monitor the general health of the working community.

  8. Computerized literature reference system: use of an optical scanner and optical character recognition software.

    PubMed

    Lossef, S V; Schwartz, L H

    1990-09-01

    A computerized reference system for radiology journal articles was developed by using an IBM-compatible personal computer with a hand-held optical scanner and optical character recognition software. This allows direct entry of scanned text from printed material into word processing or data-base files. Additionally, line diagrams and photographs of radiographs can be incorporated into these files. A text search and retrieval software program enables rapid searching for keywords in scanned documents. The hand scanner and software programs are commercially available, relatively inexpensive, and easily used. This permits construction of a personalized radiology literature file of readily accessible text and images requiring minimal typing or keystroke entry.

  9. Consumer and provider responses to a computerized version of the Illness Management and Recovery Program.

    PubMed

    Wright-Berryman, Jennifer L; Salyers, Michelle P; O'Halloran, James P; Kemp, Aaron S; Mueser, Kim T; Diazoni, Amanda J

    2013-12-01

    To explore mental health consumer and provider responses to a computerized version of the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) program. Semistructured interviews were conducted to gather data from 6 providers and 12 consumers who participated in a computerized prototype of the IMR program. An inductive-consensus-based approach was used to analyze the interview responses. Qualitative analysis revealed consumers perceived various personal benefits and ease of use afforded by the new technology platform. Consumers also highly valued provider assistance and offered several suggestions to improve the program. The largest perceived barriers to future implementation were lack of computer skills and access to computers. Similarly, IMR providers commented on its ease and convenience, and the reduction of time intensive material preparation. Providers also expressed that the use of technology creates more options for the consumer to access treatment. The technology was acceptable, easy to use, and well-liked by consumers and providers. Clinician assistance with technology was viewed as helpful to get clients started with the program, as lack of computer skills and access to computers was a concern. Access to materials between sessions appears to be desired; however, given perceived barriers of computer skills and computer access, additional supports may be needed for consumers to achieve full benefits of a computerized version of IMR. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Development of computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li, Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Nie, Yongkang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Several clinical trials indicated clearly that pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis is effective for persons with vertebral fractures for preventing subsequent fractures. It is, therefore, important to diagnose vertebral fractures early. Although most vertebral fractures are asymptomatic, they can often be detected on lateral chest radiographs which may be obtained for other purposes. However, investigators have reported that vertebral fractures which were visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or underreported. Therefore, our purpose in this study was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs and to assist radiologists' image interpretation. Our computerized scheme is based on the detection of upper and lower edges of vertebrae on lateral chest images. A curved rectangular area which included a number of visible vertebrae was identified. This area was then straightened such that the upper and lower edges of the vertebrae were oriented horizontally. For detection of vertebral edges, line components were enhanced, and a multiple thresholding technique followed by image feature analysis was applied to the line enhanced image. Finally, vertebral heights determined from the detected vertebral edges were used for characterizing the shape of the vertebrae and for distinguishing fractured from normal vertebrae. Our preliminary results indicated that all of the severely fractured vertebrae in a small database were detected correctly by our computerized method.

  11. Computerized Scoring Algorithms for the Autobiographical Memory Test.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip

    2017-04-03

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. National Geochronological Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revised by Sloan, Jan; Henry, Christopher D.; Hopkins, Melanie; Ludington, Steve; Original database by Zartman, Robert E.; Bush, Charles A.; Abston, Carl

    2003-01-01

    The National Geochronological Data Base (NGDB) was established by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and organize published isotopic (also known as radiometric) ages of rocks in the United States. The NGDB (originally known as the Radioactive Age Data Base, RADB) was started in 1974. A committee appointed by the Director of the USGS was given the mission to investigate the feasibility of compiling the published radiometric ages for the United States into a computerized data bank for ready access by the user community. A successful pilot program, which was conducted in 1975 and 1976 for the State of Wyoming, led to a decision to proceed with the compilation of the entire United States. For each dated rock sample reported in published literature, a record containing information on sample location, rock description, analytical data, age, interpretation, and literature citation was constructed and included in the NGDB. The NGDB was originally constructed and maintained on a mainframe computer, and later converted to a Helix Express relational database maintained on an Apple Macintosh desktop computer. The NGDB and a program to search the data files were published and distributed on Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) in standard ISO 9660 format as USGS Digital Data Series DDS-14 (Zartman and others, 1995). As of May 1994, the NGDB consisted of more than 18,000 records containing over 30,000 individual ages, which is believed to represent approximately one-half the number of ages published for the United States through 1991. Because the organizational unit responsible for maintaining the database was abolished in 1996, and because we wanted to provide the data in more usable formats, we have reformatted the data, checked and edited the information in some records, and provided this online version of the NGDB. This report describes the changes made to the data and formats, and provides instructions for the use of the database in geographic

  13. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  14. Evaluation of ovarian structures using computerized microtomography.

    PubMed

    Paulini, Fernanda; Chaves, Sacha B; Rôlo, José Luiz J P; Azevedo, Ricardo B DE; Lucci, Carolina M

    2017-06-29

    Visualization and clear understanding of the ovarian structures are important in determining the stage of oestrus, helping to diagnose several pathologies and supporting advances in reproductive technologies. In this research, computerized microtomography (microCT) was used to explore and characterize the ovarian structure of seven mammalian species. Ovaries of rats, female dog, queens, cows, mares, sows and a female donkey were used. After microCT scanning, the same samples were prepared for histologic evaluation, used here as a validation criterion. It was possible to distinguish regions of the cortex and medulla, visualize the morphology and distribution of blood vessels, clearly observe corpus luteum and antral follicles, and visualize oocytes inside some antral follicles. This is the first report using microCT to explore and compare ovarian structures in several domestic mammals. MicroCT revealed great potential for the evaluation of ovarian structures. This research open prospects for the use of computerized tomography (CT) as a non-invasive approach to studying ovarian structures in live animals, which may be especially attractive for scientific study of development of ovarian structures and/or ovarian pathologies in small animals' models.

  15. Automatic computerized radiographic identification of cephalometric landmarks.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, D J; Sinclair, P M; Coggins, J M

    1998-02-01

    Computerized cephalometric analysis currently requires manual identification of landmark locations. This process is time-consuming and limited in accuracy. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel method for automatic computer identification of cephalometric landmarks. Spatial spectroscopy (SS) is a computerized method that identifies image structure on the basis of a convolution of the image with a set of filters followed by a decision method using statistical pattern recognition techniques. By this method, characteristic features are used to recognize anatomic structures. This study compared manual identification on a computer monitor and the SS automatic method for landmark identification on minimum resolution images (0.16 cm2 per pixel). Minimum resolution (defined as the lowest resolution at which a cephalometric structure could be identified) was used to reduce computational time and memory requirements during this development stage of the SS method. Fifteen landmarks were selected on a set of 14 test images. The results showed no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in mean landmark identification errors between manual identification on the computer display and automatic identification using SS. We conclude that SS shows potential for the automatic detection of landmarks, which is an important step in the development of a completely automatic cephalometric analysis.

  16. Computerized training of cryosurgery - a system approach.

    PubMed

    Keelan, R; Yamakawa, S; Shimada, K; Rabin, Y

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to provide the foundation for a computerized training platform for cryosurgery. Consistent with clinical practice, the training process targets the correlation of the frozen region contour with the target region shape, using medical imaging and accepted criteria for clinical success. The current study focuses on system design considerations, including a bioheat transfer model, simulation techniques, optimal cryoprobe layout strategy, and a simulation core framework. Two fundamentally different approaches were considered for the development of a cryosurgery simulator, based on a finite-elements (FE) commercial code (ANSYS) and a proprietary finite-difference (FD) code. Results of this study demonstrate that the FE simulator is superior in terms of geometric modeling, while the FD simulator is superior in terms of runtime. Benchmarking results further indicate that the FD simulator is superior in terms of usage of memory resources, pre-processing, parallel processing, and post-processing. It is envisioned that future integration of a human-interface module and clinical data into the proposed computer framework will make computerized training of cryosurgery a practical reality.

  17. Methods for validating chronometry of computerized tests.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Joshua P; Jones, Stephanie A H; Wright, Chris P; Butler, Beverly C; Klein, Raymond M; Eskes, Gail A

    2017-03-01

    Determining the speed at which a task is performed (i.e., reaction time) can be a valuable tool in both research and clinical assessments. However, standard computer hardware employed for measuring reaction times (e.g., computer monitor, keyboard, or mouse) can add nonrepresentative noise to the data, potentially compromising the accuracy of measurements and the conclusions drawn from the data. Therefore, an assessment of the accuracy and precision of measurement should be included along with the development of computerized tests and assessment batteries that rely on reaction times as the dependent variable. This manuscript outlines three methods for assessing the temporal accuracy of reaction time data (one employing external chronometry). Using example data collected from the Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB) we discuss the detection, measurement, and correction of nonrepresentative noise in reaction time measurement. The details presented in this manuscript should act as a cautionary tale to any researchers or clinicians gathering reaction time data, but who have not yet considered methods for verifying the internal chronometry of the software and or hardware being used.

  18. Assessment of text documentation accompanying uncoded diagnoses in computerized health insurance claims in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Uncoded diagnoses in health insurance claims (HICs) may introduce bias into Japanese health statistics dependent on computerized HICs. This study's aim was to identify the causes and characteristics of uncoded diagnoses. Uncoded diagnoses from computerized HICs (outpatient, inpatient, and the diagnosis procedure-combination per-diem payment system [DPC/PDPS]) submitted to the National Health Insurance Organization of Kumamoto Prefecture in May 2010 were analyzed. The text documentation accompanying the uncoded diagnoses was used to classify diagnoses in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10). The text documentation was also classified into four categories using the standard descriptions of diagnoses defined in the master files of the computerized HIC system: 1) standard descriptions of diagnoses, 2) standard descriptions with a modifier, 3) non-standard descriptions of diagnoses, and 4) unclassifiable text documentation. Using these classifications, the proportions of uncoded diagnoses by ICD-10 disease category were calculated. Of the uncoded diagnoses analyzed (n = 363 753), non-standard descriptions of diagnoses for outpatient, inpatient, and DPC/PDPS HICs comprised 12.1%, 14.6%, and 1.0% of uncoded diagnoses, respectively. The proportion of uncoded diagnoses with standard descriptions with a modifier for Diseases of the eye and adnexa was significantly higher than the overall proportion of uncoded diagnoses among every HIC type. The pattern of uncoded diagnoses differed by HIC type and disease category. Evaluating the proportion of uncoded diagnoses in all medical facilities and developing effective coding methods for diagnoses with modifiers, prefixes, and suffixes should reduce number of uncoded diagnoses in computerized HICs and improve the quality of HIC databases.

  19. The Reality, Direction, and Future of Computerized Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Sharing information in digital form by using a computer is a growing phenomenon. Many universities are making their applications available on computer. More than one hundred and thirty-six universities have developed computerized applications on their own or through a commercial vendor. Universities developed computerized applications in order to…

  20. Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Cognitive Abilities among Disabled Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian

    This study examined computerized adaptive testing and cognitive ability testing of adults with cognitive disabilities. Adult subjects (N=250) were given computerized tests on language usage and space relations in one of three administration conditions: paper and pencil, fixed length computer adaptive, and variable length computer adaptive.…

  1. Computerized physician order entry systems: the right prescription?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Ross

    2005-03-01

    Policymakers increasingly urge the use of information technology to improve the quality and efficiency of health care. In particular, computerized physician order entry (CPOE) is emphasized for its ability to reduce prescribing errors inherent in paper-based systems. This Issue Brief summarizes research that sounds a cautionary note about the potential for computerized systems to facilitate medication errors, as well as reduce them.

  2. Computerized Literature Searching of Education and Education Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaporozhetz, Laurene E.

    Computerized literature searching allows the educator to become familiar with resources that help develop individual teaching styles and methods, enhance awareness of pupil needs, explain educational research and evaluation, and describe curriculum materials. This document introduces the fundamentals of computerized literature searching. The…

  3. Computerized Ability Testing, 1972-1975. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    Three and one-half years of research on computerized ability testing are summarized. The original objectives of the research were: (1) to develop and implement the stratified computer-based ability test; (2) to compare, on psychometric criteria, the various approaches to computer-based ability testing, including the stratified computerized test,…

  4. Assessment Outcomes: Computerized Instruction in a Human Gross Anatomy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    The first of three successive classes of beginning physical therapy students (n=17) completed traditional cadaver anatomy lecture/lab; the next 17 a self-study computerized anatomy lab, and the next 20 both lectures and computer lab. No differences in study times and course or licensure exam performance appeared. Computerized self-study is a…

  5. Assessment Outcomes: Computerized Instruction in a Human Gross Anatomy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    The first of three successive classes of beginning physical therapy students (n=17) completed traditional cadaver anatomy lecture/lab; the next 17 a self-study computerized anatomy lab, and the next 20 both lectures and computer lab. No differences in study times and course or licensure exam performance appeared. Computerized self-study is a…

  6. [Diagnosis of toxic lesions of the brain using computerized tomography].

    PubMed

    Bushev, I I; Karpova, M N; Tskhovrebov, T M

    1990-01-01

    X-ray computerized tomography was used to examine the brain in 39 patients aged 14 to 39 years with different experience of using volatile narcotically acting substances. The discovered alterations make it possible to appraise the influence of toxic substances and the degree of brain atrophy, which attests to the diagnostic value of computerized tomography in patients with toxicomanias.

  7. Evolution in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    This review covers two aspects of "evolution" in thermodynamics. First, with the constructal law, thermodynamics is becoming the domain of physics that accounts for the phenomenon of evolution in nature, in general. Second, thermodynamics (and science generally) is the evolving add-on that empowers humans to predict the future and move more easily on earth, farther and longer in time. The part of nature that thermodynamics represents is this: nothing moves by itself unless it is driven by power, which is then destroyed (dissipated) during movement. Nothing evolves unless it flows and has the freedom to change its architecture such that it provides greater and easier access to the available space. Thermodynamics is the modern science of heat and work and their usefulness, which comes from converting the work (power) into movement (life) in flow architectures that evolve over time to facilitate movement. I also review the rich history of the science, and I clarify misconceptions regarding the second law, entropy, disorder, and the arrow of time, and the supposed analogy between heat and work.

  8. Thermodynamics and evolution.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    2000-09-07

    The science of thermodynamics is concerned with understanding the properties of inanimate matter in so far as they are determined by changes in temperature. The Second Law asserts that in irreversible processes there is a uni-directional increase in thermodynamic entropy, a measure of the degree of uncertainty in the thermal energy state of a randomly chosen particle in the aggregate. The science of evolution is concerned with understanding the properties of populations of living matter in so far as they are regulated by changes in generation time. Directionality theory, a mathematical model of the evolutionary process, establishes that in populations subject to bounded growth constraints, there is a uni-directional increase in evolutionary entropy, a measure of the degree of uncertainty in the age of the immediate ancestor of a randomly chosen newborn. This article reviews the mathematical basis of directionality theory and analyses the relation between directionality theory and statistical thermodynamics. We exploit an analytic relation between temperature, and generation time, to show that the directionality principle for evolutionary entropy is a non-equilibrium extension of the principle of a uni-directional increase of thermodynamic entropy. The analytic relation between these directionality principles is consistent with the hypothesis of the equivalence of fundamental laws as one moves up the hierarchy, from a molecular ensemble where the thermodynamic laws apply, to a population of replicating entities (molecules, cells, higher organisms), where evolutionary principles prevail.

  9. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  10. Thermodynamics of Nonadditive Systems.

    PubMed

    Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Ruffo, Stefano

    2015-06-12

    The usual formulation of thermodynamics is based on the additivity of macroscopic systems. However, there are numerous examples of macroscopic systems that are not additive, due to the long-range character of the interaction among the constituents. We present here an approach in which nonadditive systems can be described within a purely thermodynamics formalism. The basic concept is to consider a large ensemble of replicas of the system where the standard formulation of thermodynamics can be naturally applied and the properties of a single system can be consequently inferred. After presenting the approach, we show its implementation in systems where the interaction decays as 1/r(α) in the interparticle distance r, with α smaller than the embedding dimension d, and in the Thirring model for gravitational systems.

  11. Thermodynamics "beyond" local equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, Jose; Rubi, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics has shown its applicability in a wide variety of different situations pertaining to fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. As successful as it is, however, its current formulation considers only systems close to equilibrium, those satisfying the so-called local equilibrium hypothesis. Here we show that diffusion processes that occur far away from equilibrium can be viewed as at local equilibrium in a space that includes all the relevant variables in addition to the spatial coordinate. In this way, nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be used and the difficulties and ambiguities associated with the lack of a thermodynamic description disappear. We analyze explicitly the inertial effects in diffusion and outline how the main ideas can be applied to other situations. [J.M.G. Vilar and J.M. Rubi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 11081-11084 (2001)].

  12. Thermodynamics of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanov, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century has brought a lot of new results related to graphene. Apparently, graphene has been characterized from all points of view except surface science and, especially, surface thermodynamics. This report aims to close this gap. Since graphene is the first real two-dimensional solid, a general formulation of the thermodynamics of two-dimensional solid bodies is given. The two-dimensional chemical potential tensor coupled with stress tensor is introduced, and fundamental equations are derived for energy, free energy, grand thermodynamic potential (in the classical and hybrid forms), enthalpy, and Gibbs energy. The fundamentals of linear boundary phenomena are formulated with explaining the concept of a dividing line, the mechanical and thermodynamic line tensions, line energy and other linear properties with necessary thermodynamic equations. The one-dimensional analogs of the Gibbs adsorption equation and Shuttleworth-Herring relation are presented. The general thermodynamic relationships are illustrated with calculations based on molecular theory. To make the reader sensible of the harmony of chemical and van der Waals forces in graphene, the remake of the classical graphite theory is presented with additional variable combinations of graphene sheets. The calculation of the line energy of graphene is exhibited including contributions both from chemical bonds and van der Waals forces (expectedly, the latter are considerably smaller than the former). The problem of graphene holes originating from migrating vacancies is discussed on the basis of the Gibbs-Curie principle. An important aspect of line tension is the planar sheet/nanotube transition where line tension acts as a driving force. Using the bending stiffness of graphene, the possible radius range is estimated for achiral (zigzag and armchair) nanotubes.

  13. Thermodynamics and evolutionary genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ingo

    2010-03-01

    Thermodynamics and evolutionary genetics have something in common. Thus, the randomness of mutation of cells may be likened to the random thermal fluctuations in a gas. And the probabilistic nature of entropy in statistical thermodynamics can be carried over to a population of haploid and diploid cells without any conceptual change. The energetic potential wells in which the atoms of a liquid are caught correspond to selective advantages for some phenotype over others. Thus, the eventual stable state in a population comes about as a compromise in the universal competition between entropy and energy.

  14. Viscoplasticity: A thermodynamic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Chaboche, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    A thermodynamic foundation using the concept of internal state variables is given for a general theory of viscoplasticity, as it applies to initially isotropic materials. Three fundamental internal state variables are admitted. They are: a tensor valued back stress for kinematic effects, and the scalar valued drag and yield strengths for isotropic effects. All three are considered to phenomenologically evolve according to competitive processes between strain hardening, strain induced dynamic recovery, and time induced static recovery. Within this phenomenological framework, a thermodynamically admissible set of evolution equations is put forth. This theory allows each of the three fundamental internal variables to be composed as a sum of independently evolving constituents.

  15. Components in Chemical Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberty, Robert A.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical equations are actually matrix equations, and this has important implications for their thermodynamic treatment. The fundamental equation for chemical thermodynamics for a chemical reaction system can be written in terms of species, but at chemical equilibrium, it has to be written in terms of components. The number of components is equal to the number of species minus the number of independent chemical reactions. The fundamental equation for the Gibbs energy of a system containing ethylene, methane, ethane, and propane is discussed. At chemical equilibrium there are two components, which can be taken to be carbon and hydrogen or ethylene and methane. There are advantages in using matrix notation.

  16. Mechanics, Waves and Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Jain, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Figures; Preface; Acknowledgement; 1. Energy, mass, momentum; 2. Kinematics, Newton's laws of motion; 3. Circular motion; 4. The principle of least action; 5. Work and energy; 6. Mechanics of a system of particles; 7. Friction; 8. Impulse and collisions; 9. Central forces; 10. Dimensional analysis; 11. Oscillations; 12. Waves; 13. Sound of music; 14. Fluid mechanics; 15. Water waves; 16. The kinetic theory of gases; 17. Concepts and laws of thermodynamics; 18. Some applications of thermodynamics; 19. Basic ideas of statistical mechanics; Bibliography; Index.

  17. Inflight thermodynamic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.; Daniels, G. E.; Johnson, D. L.; Smith, O. E.

    1973-01-01

    The inflight thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, and density) of the atmosphere are presented. Mean and extreme values of the thermodynamic parameters given here can be used in application of many aerospace problems, such as: (1) research and planning and engineering design of remote earth sensing systems; (2) vehicle design and development; and (3) vehicle trajectory analysis, dealing with vehicle thrust, dynamic pressure, aerodynamic drag, aerodynamic heating, vibration, structural and guidance limitations, and reentry analysis. Atmospheric density plays a very important role in most of the above problems. A subsection on reentry is presented, giving atmospheric models to be used for reentry heating, trajectory, etc., analysis.

  18. Thermodynamics of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejun C; Han, Lei; Zhao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters form the largest of all transporter families, and their structural study has made tremendous progress over recent years. However, despite such advances, the precise mechanisms that determine the energy-coupling between ATP hydrolysis and the conformational changes following substrate binding remain to be elucidated. Here, we present our thermodynamic analysis for both ABC importers and exporters, and introduce the two new concepts of differential-binding energy and elastic conformational energy into the discussion. We hope that the structural analysis of ABC transporters will henceforth take thermodynamic aspects of transport mechanisms into account as well.

  19. Thermodynamics of lattice OCD

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermodynamic consequences of QCD are explored in the framework of lattice gauge theory. Attention is focused upon the nature of the chiral symmetry restoration transition at finite temperature and at finite baryon density, and possible strategies for identifying relevant thermodynamic phases are discussed. Some numerical results are presented on the chiral symmetry restoration in the SU(2) gauge theory at high baryon density. The results suggest that with T approx. = 110 MeV there is a second order restoration transition at the critical baryon density n/sub B//sup c/ approx. = 0.62 fm/sup -3/.

  20. Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics fills a niche in the market by providing a comprehensive introduction to a new, emerging topic in the field. The importance of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is addressed in order to fully understand how a system works, whether it is in a biological system like the brain or a system that develops plastic. In order to fully grasp the subject, the book clearly explains the physical concepts and mathematics involved, as well as presenting problems and solutions; over 200 exercises and answers are included. Engineers, scientists, and applied mathematicians can all use the book to address their problems in modelling, calculating, and understanding dynamic responses of materials.

  1. Computerized EEG: predictor of outcome in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Marasa, J; Saletu, B; Davis, S; Mucciardi, A N

    1975-03-01

    Based on a double blind cross-over study, it was determined that schizophrenic patient who have more high frequency fast activity and a lesser degree of alpha and slow waves in computerized EEG before the treatment have a better therapeutic outcome to the major tranquilizer (neuroleptic) treatment. The correlation between pretreatment high frequency computer EEG measurements and better therapeutic outcome reached the level of statistical significance. "Therapy resistant" schizophrenic patients were characterized by a lesser degree of very fast beta activity, more alpha waves and slow waves, higher amplitudes in computer EEG, and a lesser degree of acute (florid) psychotic symptomatology but more "negative" symptoms such as motor retardation and blunted affect. One of the most striking results of the study is the finding that schizophrenic patients with certain psychopathological profiles also have similar computer EEG profiles.

  2. The horizontal computerized rotational impulse test.

    PubMed

    Furman, Joseph M; Shirey, Ian; Roxberg, Jillyn; Kiderman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body impulsive rotations were used to overcome several limitations associated with manual head impulse testing. A computer-controlled rotational chair delivered brief, whole-body, earth-vertical axis yaw impulsive rotations while eye movements were measured using video-oculography. Results from an unselected group of 20 patients with dizziness and a group of 22 control subjects indicated that the horizontal computerized rotational head impulse test (crHIT) is well-tolerated and provides an estimate of unidirectional vestibulo-ocular reflex gain comparable to results from caloric testing. This study demonstrates that the horizontal crHIT is a new assessment tool that overcomes many of the limitations of manual head impulse testing and provides a reliable laboratory-based measure of unilateral horizontal semicircular canal function.

  3. Computerized, telephone-based stress management program.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, S. J.; Schwartz, M. D.; Fast, J.

    1993-01-01

    A stress management program that used computerized, telephone-based technology was offered to the public via a free, "800" telephone number. The program was intended to reach a very large number of persons, while requiring a minimum of staff time. The program used an interactive telephone system, employing natural sounding, digitized voice, and touch tone recognition of callers' responses. The program was available 24 hours a day. It composed each message to suit the individual needs and expectations of each caller. A controlled evaluation of the program was conducted to determine how the messages could be worded and presented most effectively. The results suggest that subjects were most likely to find the messages in the program helpful, to carry out the stress management instructions, and to continue calling when the messages were personalized and contained homework assignments. PMID:8130497

  4. A computerized data analysis system for electrogastrogram.

    PubMed

    Chen, J

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive computerized data analysis system for the electrogastrogram is presented in this paper. The electrogastrogram (EGG) is a cutaneous measurement of electrical activity of the stomach by positioning electrodes on the abdominal skin. Since the signal-to-noise ratio of the EGG is very low, visual analysis is impossible. The data analysis system presented in this paper contains a series of PC programs to perform: (a) data acquisition and real-time A/D conversion; (b) digital filter design and digital filtering; (c) adaptive cancellation of respiratory artifact; (d) smoothed power spectral analysis; (e) adaptive running spectral analysis; (f) two- or three-dimensional display of the EGG and analysis results. The basic principles of the system and sample results are presented.

  5. Computerized tomography in acute and chronic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmar, J.A.; Matthews, C.C.; Bishop, L.A.

    1984-11-01

    Modern imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatitis, primarily demonstrating its complications. Computerized tomography (CT) is a more sensitive method than ultrasonography and pancreatic ductography. A chart review revealed 214 patients at our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatitis. Sixty patients had CT for evaluation of possible complications. Only five scans were normal. Of 37 cases of acute pancreatitis, 92% demonstrated localized or diffuse enlargement, and 65% showed loss of pancreatic outline. Other frequent findings included thickening of perirenal fascia (49%), ileus (43%), edema of mesentery (35%), and inflammatory exudate (32%). Abscess and pseudocyst were each detected in 8% of cases. In chronic pancreatitis 65% of patients showed localized or diffuse pancreatic enlargement. Atrophy of the gland (30%), calcification (30%), pseudocyst (26%), and dilated pancreatic ducts (17%) were also seen. CT is effective in evaluating pancreatitis and its complications. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.

    2017-03-01

    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  7. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  8. Computerization of a nosocomial infection system.

    PubMed

    Etersque, S; Carter, M J; Gordon, K R; Sutherland, J G

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a computerized nosocomial infection control system for a 500-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital. It is implemented on a minicomputer that uses the relational data base management system INGRES, which is marketed by Relational Technology, Inc. This system, which replaces a manual one that depended on "needle sort" data cards, is designed to provide for entry of infection data that have been collected onto abstracting forms; decision support in the prospective analysis of suspicious infection rates or trends; generation of monthly, on-demand, and annual infection rate reports; retrospective interrogation and analysis of infection data for rates and trends that may explain or clearly indicate the sources of in-hospital (nosocomial) infections; updating of infection records as additional infection-related data become available and known to the hospital's infection control team; and ad hoc analysis and comparisons between data on control and infected patients, both prospectively and retrospectively.

  9. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  10. Computerized nursing staffing: a software evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Irene Mari; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Castilho, Valéria; Mira, Vera Lúcia; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2011-12-01

    The complexity involved in operationalizing the method for nursing staffing, in view of the uncountable variable related to identifying the workload, the effective working time of the staff, and the Technical Security Index (TSI) revealed the need to develop a software program named: Computerized Nursing Staffing (DIPE, in Portuguese acronyms). This exploratory, descriptive study was performed with the objective to evaluate the technical quality and functional performance of DIPE. Participants were eighteen evaluators, ten of whom where nurse faculty or nurse hospital unit managers, and eight health informatics experts. The software evaluation was performed according to norm NBR ISO/IEC 9126-1, considering the features functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, and maintainability. The software evaluation reached positive results and agreement among the evaluators for all the evaluated features. The reported suggestions are important for proposing further improving and enhancing the DIPE.

  11. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  12. Computerized techniques pave the way for drug-drug interaction prediction and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Safdari, Reza; Ferdousi, Reza; Aziziheris, Kamal; Niakan-Kalhori, Sharareh R.; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health care industry also patients penalized by medical errors that are inevitable but highly preventable. Vast majority of medical errors are related to adverse drug reactions, while drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are the main cause of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). DDIs and ADRs have mainly been reported by haphazard case studies. Experimental in vivo and in vitro researches also reveals DDI pairs. Laboratory and experimental researches are valuable but also expensive and in some cases researchers may suffer from limitations. Methods: In the current investigation, the latest published works were studied to analyze the trend and pattern of the DDI modelling and the impacts of machine learning methods. Applications of computerized techniques were also investigated for the prediction and interpretation of DDIs. Results: Computerized data-mining in pharmaceutical sciences and related databases provide new key transformative paradigms that can revolutionize the treatment of diseases and hence medical care. Given that various aspects of drug discovery and pharmacotherapy are closely related to the clinical and molecular/biological information, the scientifically sound databases (e.g., DDIs, ADRs) can be of importance for the success of pharmacotherapy modalities. Conclusion: A better understanding of DDIs not only provides a robust means for designing more effective medicines but also grantees patient safety. PMID:27525223

  13. The Computerized Laboratory Notebook concept for genetic toxicology experimentation and testing.

    PubMed

    Strauss, G H; Stanford, W L; Berkowitz, S J

    1989-03-01

    We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic effects after in vivo exposure to putative mutagens. A system was developed with the advantages of low cost, limited spatial requirements, ease of use for personnel inexperienced with computers, and applicability to specific testing yet flexibility for experimentation. This system eliminates cumbersome record keeping and repetitive analysis inherent in genetic toxicology bioassays. Statistical analysis of the vast quantity of data produced by the BLT would not be feasible without a central database. Our central database is maintained by an integrated package which we have adapted to develop the CLN. The clonal assay of lymphocyte mutagenesis (CALM) section of the CLN is demonstrated. PC-Slaves expand the microcomputer to multiple workstations so that our computerized notebook can be used next to a hood while other work is done in an office and instrument room simultaneously. Communication with peripheral instruments is an indispensable part of many laboratory operations, and we present a representative program, written to acquire and analyze CALM data, for communicating with both a liquid scintillation counter and an ELISA plate reader. In conclusion we discuss how our computer system could easily be adapted to the needs of other laboratories.

  14. Black Hole Thermodynamics in an Undergraduate Thermodynamics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Barry R.; McLeod, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy, which has been drawn between black hole physics and thermodynamics, is mathematically broadened in this article. Equations similar to the standard partial differential relations of thermodynamics are found for black holes. The results can be used to supplement an undergraduate thermodynamics course. (Author/SK)

  15. Black Hole Thermodynamics in an Undergraduate Thermodynamics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Barry R.; McLeod, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy, which has been drawn between black hole physics and thermodynamics, is mathematically broadened in this article. Equations similar to the standard partial differential relations of thermodynamics are found for black holes. The results can be used to supplement an undergraduate thermodynamics course. (Author/SK)

  16. Atomic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Claudio

    2000-10-01

    Atomic and molecular data are required in a variety of fields ranging from the traditional astronomy, atmospherics and fusion research to fast growing technologies such as lasers, lighting, low-temperature plasmas, plasma assisted etching and radiotherapy. In this context, there are some research groups, both theoretical and experimental, scattered round the world that attend to most of this data demand, but the implementation of atomic databases has grown independently out of sheer necessity. In some cases the latter has been associated with the data production process or with data centers involved in data collection and evaluation; but sometimes it has been the result of individual initiatives that have been quite successful. In any case, the development and maintenance of atomic databases call for a number of skills and an entrepreneurial spirit that are not usually associated with most physics researchers. In the present report we present some of the highlights in this area in the past five years and discuss what we think are some of the main issues that have to be addressed.

  17. Computerized Counseling for Folate Knowledge and Use

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Sobota, Mindy; Gonzales, Ralph; Gerbert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background Periconception folate supplementation significantly reduces the risk of neural-tube defects, but few U.S. women start folate supplementation before pregnancy, and the amount of clinician time available to counsel patients about folate is limited. This study evaluated whether computer-assisted counseling and the provision of free folate tablets increases women’s knowledge and use of folate supplements. Design Randomized controlled trial; follow-up began 6 months after enrollment and was completed on average 7 months after enrollment. Setting/participants A total of 446 women, aged 18-45 years, were recruited from two urgent care clinics in San Francisco from March to July 2005 (data collection was completed in 2006; data were analyzed in 2007). Intervention Participants received a 15-minute computerized educational session and 200 folate tablets. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the knowledge that folate can prevent birth defects; secondary outcomes included the self-reported use of a folate supplement at follow-up. Results At follow-up, women in the intervention group were more likely to know that folate prevents birth defects (46% vs 27%, relative risk [RR]=1.72, 95% CI=1.32, 2.23); to know that folate is most important in early pregnancy (36% vs 17%, RR=2.11, 95% CI=1.50, 2.97); and to report the recent use of a folate supplement (32% vs 21%, RR=1.54, 95% CI=1.12, 2.13). Conclusions A one-time, brief, computerized counseling session about folate with the provision of free folate tablets increased the knowledge and use of folate supplements among women ≥6 months later. PMID:19000845

  18. Evaluation of a computerized anesthesia report.

    PubMed

    Zamper, Raffael Pereira Cezar; Torres, Marcelo Luís Abramides; Ferraz, Janice Leão; Neto, Silvio Mori; Holzhacker, Rafael; Shimada, Vanessa; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, the use of information systems that allows filling out anesthesia reports automatically is still in its initial stages. The objective of this study was to validate an automated anesthesia record. This study was approved by the Ethics Commission of the institution; an industry-university partnership (Dixtal, São Paulo, Brazil and Universidade de São Paulo) was developed, and the study received a grant from FINEP (Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos do Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia). The integration of hospital information systems for recovery of data regarding identification, preoperative evaluation, and laboratorial exams was the premise of this study. The applicability of the final version of the prototype of the automated system was evaluated by applying a semi-structured tool to 33 physicians, residents, and/or anesthesiologists during surgery procedures in 66 patients. Descriptive evaluation of the data was undertaken. The computerized system was considered reliable even for large surgeries by 81% of the participants. The majority of the anesthesiologists considered the prototype of great value for future studies and capable of meeting the requirements of anesthesia reports, bringing benefits for anesthesiologists, patients, and hospitals. The full use of the system requires training and some of its aspects can be improved. Validation of this prototype of a computerized system for elaboration of anesthesia reports showed the viability of this type of solution to help anesthesiologists in their daily tasks, increasing the reliability of the data. Besides, when evaluating the applicability, anesthesiologists considered that the prototype could be useful for patients, physicians, and hospitals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Available Energy via Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollett, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    Presents basic relations involving the concept of available energy that are derived from the local equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The equations and applications of the local thermodynamic equilibrium LTD model are also presented. (HM)

  20. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Baldiotti, M.C.; Fresneda, R.; Molina, C.

    2016-10-15

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed on top of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases. - Highlights: • A strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics is proposed. • Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. • Thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. • Thermodynamic potentials are related by canonical transformations.

  1. Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Sihyun

    Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.

  2. On Teaching Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debbasch, F.

    2011-01-01

    The logical structure of classical thermodynamics is presented in a modern, geometrical manner. The first and second law receive clear, operatively oriented statements and the Gibbs free energy extremum principle is fully discussed. Applications relevant to chemistry, such as phase transitions, dilute solutions theory and, in particular, the law…

  3. Thermodynamics in dynamical spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2014-03-01

    We derive a general formulation of the laws of irreversible thermodynamics in the presence of electromagnetism and gravity. For the handling of macroscopic material media, we use as a guide the field equations and the Noether identities of fundamental matter as deduced in the framework of gauge theories of the Poincaré ⊗ U(1) group.

  4. Thermodynamics of liquid metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnirenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a liquid metal based on quantum-mechanical models of the crystal, electronic, and nuclear structures of the metal are derived in this paper. The models are based on such formulations as the Bohr radius, the Boltzmann constant, the Planck Law, the Fermi surface, and the Pauli principle.

  5. Thermodynamics of Resource Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the overall economic efficiency of a closed resource cycle. Uses elementary thermodynamic definitions of overall thermal efficiency for determining an economically quantifiable basis. Selects aluminum for investigation and includes a value-entropy diagram for a closed aluminum cycle. (MVL)

  6. Thermodynamics with Design Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilento, E. V.; Sears, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how basic thermodynamics concepts are integrated with design problems. Includes course goals, instructional strategies, and major advantages/disadvantages of the integrated design approach. Advantages include making subject more concrete, emphasizing interrelation of variables, and reinforcing concepts by use in design analysis; whereas…

  7. Program Computes Thermodynamic Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    PAC91 is latest in PAC (Properties and Coefficients) series. Two principal features are to provide means of (1) generating theoretical thermodynamic functions from molecular constants and (2) least-squares fitting of these functions to empirical equations. PAC91 written in FORTRAN 77 to be machine-independent.

  8. Thermodynamical Arguments against Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The argument that the second law of thermodynamics contradicts the theory of evolution has recently been revived by anti-evolutionists. In its basic form, the argument asserts that whereas evolution implies that there has been an increase in biological complexity over time, the second law, a fundamental principle of physics, shows this to be…

  9. Single molecules: Thermodynamic limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liphardt, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Technologies aimed at single-molecule resolution of non-equilibrium systems increasingly require sophisticated new ways of thinking about thermodynamics. An elegant extension to standard fluctuation theory grants access to the kinetic intermediate states of these systems -- as DNA-pulling experiments now demonstrate.

  10. On Teaching Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debbasch, F.

    2011-01-01

    The logical structure of classical thermodynamics is presented in a modern, geometrical manner. The first and second law receive clear, operatively oriented statements and the Gibbs free energy extremum principle is fully discussed. Applications relevant to chemistry, such as phase transitions, dilute solutions theory and, in particular, the law…

  11. Thermodynamics of Resource Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the overall economic efficiency of a closed resource cycle. Uses elementary thermodynamic definitions of overall thermal efficiency for determining an economically quantifiable basis. Selects aluminum for investigation and includes a value-entropy diagram for a closed aluminum cycle. (MVL)

  12. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  13. Thermodynamically Correct Bioavailability Estimations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-30

    6448 I 1. SWPPUMENTA* NOTIS lIa. OISTUAMJTiOAVAILAIILTY STATIMENT 121 OT REbT ostwosCo z I Approved for public release; distribution unlimited... research is to develop thermodynamically correct bioavailability estimations using chromatographic stationary phases as a model of the "interphase

  14. Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    95085 Washiagton, DC 20234 • . 4- Los Angeles, CA 90045 National Bureau of Standards CINDAS Chemical Thermodynamics Division Purdue University...Department of Energy Mackay School of Nines Bartlesville Energy Technology Attn: Prof Eugene Miller Center Reno, NV 89507 Attn: Mr William D Good

  15. Critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the Iron-Rare-Earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Bikram

    Rare-Earth elements by virtue of its typical magnetic, electronic and chemical properties are gaining importance in power, electronics, telecommunications and sustainable green technology related industries. The Magnets from RE-alloys are more powerful than conventional magnets which have more longevity and high temperature workability. The dis-equilibrium in the Rare-Earth element supply and demand has increased the importance of recycling and extraction of REE's from used permanent Magnets. However, lack of the thermodynamic data on RE alloys has made it difficult to design an effective extraction and recycling process. In this regard, Computational Thermodynamic calculations can serve as a cost effective and less time consuming tool to design a waste magnet recycling process. The most common RE permanent magnet is Nd magnet (Nd 2Fe14B). Various elements such as Dy, Tb, Pr, Cu, Co, Ni, etc. are also added to increase its magnetic and mechanical properties. In order to perform reliable thermodynamic calculations for the RE recycling process, accurate thermodynamic database for RE and related alloys are required. The thermodynamic database can be developed using the so-called CALPHAD method. The database development based on the CALPHAD method is essentially the critical evaluation and optimization of all available thermodynamic and phase diagram data. As a results, one set of self-consistent thermodynamic functions for all phases in the given system can be obtained, which can reproduce all reliable thermodynamic and phase diagram data. The database containing the optimized Gibbs energy functions can be used to calculate complex chemical reactions for any high temperature processes. Typically a Gibbs energy minimization routine, such as in FactSage software, can be used to obtain the accurate thermodynamic equilibrium in multicomponent systems. As part of a large thermodynamic database development for permanent magnet recycling and Mg alloy design, all

  16. Cyclic Thermodynamics with Open Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.S.; Ward, W.C.; Swift, G.W.

    1998-05-01

    Some general features of a new class of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process are discussed and experimentally demonstrated in the context of a thermoacoustic refrigerator. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  18. Problems and Solutions of Popularization of Accounting Computerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kan; Fu, YingLi; Gu, CaiDong; Zhang, Liang

    With the integration of China's economy and international markets, accounting computerization, which conducts accounting and accounting control by taking advantage of computer, has become a major component sector of accounting modernization and the main content of accounting reform. The popularization of accounting computerization is beyond question. Only this popularization can meet the requirement of knowledge economy for accounting information. It is the need to deepen accounting reform, to further enhance the level of accounting work and to achieve China's modernization of science and technology as well. This paper discusses problems and relevant solutions in the popularization process of accounting computerization so as to carry out this popularization better.

  19. [The results of computerization of studies of ecological consequences of the accident on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant for terrestrial ecosystems].

    PubMed

    Mamikhin, S V

    2007-01-01

    In the paper some results of application of information and calculation technologies in researches of ecological consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP are brought. The effectiveness of a computerization of investigations is scored. Technical and information component isselected. The singularities of application of the methodology of computerization in radioecological researches are considered. The special attention is given to integration of knowledge accumulated in the form of information materials, databases, mathematical models. The browse of the series of radioecological information and of informational-prognostic systems constructed from the moment of accident is made. As an example of successful usage of a computerization in radioecological researches provided by small scientific collectives experience of MSU division of radioecology and ecotoxicology are considered.

  20. Computerized characterization of lung nodule subtlety using thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Sahiner, Berkman; Gallas, Brandon D.; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this work is to design computerized image analysis techniques for automatically characterizing lung nodule subtlety in CT images. Automated subtlety estimation methods may help in computer-aided detection (CAD) assessment by quantifying dataset difficulty and facilitating comparisons among different CAD algorithms. A dataset containing 813 nodules from 499 patients was obtained from the Lung Image Database Consortium. Each nodule was evaluated by four radiologists regarding nodule subtlety using a 5-point rating scale (1: most subtle). We developed a 3D technique for segmenting lung nodules using a prespecified initial ROI. Texture and morphological features were automatically extracted from the segmented nodules and their margins. The dataset was partitioned into trainers and testers using a 1:1 ratio. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with average reader subtlety scores as the reference. Effective features for characterizing nodule subtlety were selected based on the training set using the ANN and a stepwise feature selection method. The performance of the classifier was evaluated using prediction probability (PK) as an agreement measure, which is considered a generalization of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve when the reference standard is multi-level. Using an ANN classifier trained with a set of 2 features (selected from a total of 30 features), including compactness and average gray value, the test concordance between computer scores and the average reader scores was 0.789 ± 0.014. Our results show that the proposed method had strong agreement with the average of subtlety scores provided by radiologists.

  1. Computerization of Hungarian reforestation manual with machine learning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimber, Kornél; Gálos, Borbála; Mátyás, Csaba; Bidló, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Hungarian forests are highly sensitive to the changing climate, especially to the available precipitation amount. Over the past two decades several drought damages were observed for tree species which are in the lower xeric limit of their distribution. From year to year these affected forest stands become more difficult to reforest with the same native species because these are not able to adapt to the increasing probability of droughts. The climate related parameter set of the Hungarian forest stand database needs updates. Air humidity that was formerly used to define the forest climate zones is not measured anymore and its value based on climate model outputs is highly uncertain. The aim was to develop a novel computerized and objective method to describe the species-specific climate conditions that is essential for survival, growth and optimal production of the forest ecosystems. The method is expected to project the species spatial distribution until 2100 on the basis of regional climate model simulations. Until now, Hungarian forest managers have been using a carefully edited spreadsheet for reforestation purposes. Applying binding regulations this spreadsheet prescribes the stand-forming and admixed tree species and their expected growth rate for each forest site types. We are going to present a new machine learning based method to replace the former spreadsheet. We took into great consideration of various methods, such as maximum likelihood, Bayesian networks, Fuzzy logic. The method calculates distributions, setups classification, which can be validated and modified by experts if necessary. Projected climate change conditions makes necessary to include into this system an additional climate zone that does not exist in our region now, as well as new options for potential tree species. In addition to or instead of the existing ones, the influence of further limiting parameters (climatic extremes, soil water retention) are also investigated. Results will be

  2. Critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the U-Pb and U-Sb binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Jin, Liling; Chen, Chuchu; Rao, Weifeng; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-11-01

    A complete literature review, critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of U-Pb and U-Sb binary systems are presented. The CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method was used for the thermodynamic optimization, the results of which can reproduce all available reliable experimental phase equilibria and thermodynamic data. The modified quasi-chemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) was used for modeling the liquid solution. The Gibbs energies of all terminal solid solutions and intermetallic compounds were described by the compound energy formalism (CEF) model. All reliable experimental data of the U-Pb and U-Sb systems have been reproduced. A self-consistent thermodynamic database has been constructed for these binary systems; this database can be used in liquid-metal fuel reactor (LMFR) research.

  3. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  4. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.

    2015-10-15

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.

  5. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  6. Geometric Computerized Proofs = Drawing Package + Symbolic Computation Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Witold A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of symbolic computation packages as another aid in teaching geometry. The need for such packages and their use in computerized proofs are demonstrated by a problem in high school planar geometry. (LZ)

  7. Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Falchero, F.; Valentini, M.; Ciambellotti, E.; Becchi, G.

    1985-04-01

    Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging was performed in 11 jaundiced patients before, during, and after biliary decompression. The rates of plasma clearances and radionuclide accumulation in liver cells and biliary tree were calculated, in addition to the uptake and retention index.

  8. Computerized mouse pupil size measurement for pupillary light reflex analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Tan, Jinglu; Zhang, Keqing; Lei, Bo

    2008-06-01

    Accurate measurement of pupil size is essential for pupillary light reflex (PLR) analysis in clinical diagnosis and vision research. Low pupil-iris contrast, corneal reflection, artifacts and noises in infrared eye imaging pose challenges for automated pupil detection and measurement. This paper describes a computerized method for pupil detection or identification. After segmentation by a region-growing algorithm, pupils are detected by an iterative randomized Hough transform (IRHT) with an elliptical model. The IRHT iteratively suppresses the effects of extraneous structures and noise, yielding reliable measurements. Experimental results with 72 images showed a mean absolute difference of 3.84% between computerized and manual measurements. The inter-run variation for the computerized method (1.24%) was much smaller than the inter-observer variation for the manual method (7.45%), suggesting a higher level of consistency of the former. The computerized method could facilitate PLR analysis and other non-invasive functional tests that require pupil size measurements.

  9. Computerized Point of Sale = Faster Service + Better Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Dorothy V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes selecting and installing a computerized point of sale for a district food service program; the equipment needed and preferred; and the training of trainers, managers, and cashiers. Also discusses the direct benefits and side benefits of the system. (MLF)

  10. SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography) Scan

    MedlinePlus

    SPECT scan Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scan lets your doctor analyze the function of some of your internal organs. A SPECT scan is a type of nuclear imaging test, ...

  11. Canonical fluid thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible, adiabatic flow in the sense that the pressure integral for stable flow is less than for all slightly different flows. This stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and the temperature, which are the arguments of the pressure function, to be generalized velocities, that is, the proper-time derivatives of scalar spare-time functions which are generalized coordinates in the canonical formalism. In a fluid context, proper-time differentiation must be expressed in terms of three independent quantities that specify the fluid velocity. This can be done in several ways, all of which lead to different variants (canonical transformations) of the same constraint-free action integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are just the well-known equations of motion for adiabatic compressible flow.

  12. Statistical Thermodynamics of Biomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Devireddy, Ram V.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the major issues involved in the statistical thermodynamic treatment of phospholipid membranes at the atomistic level is summarized: thermodynamic ensembles, initial configuration (or the physical system being modeled), force field representation as well as the representation of long-range interactions. This is followed by a description of the various ways that the simulated ensembles can be analyzed: area of the lipid, mass density profiles, radial distribution functions (RDFs), water orientation profile, Deuteurium order parameter, free energy profiles and void (pore) formation; with particular focus on the results obtained from our recent molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of phospholipids interacting with dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO), a commonly used cryoprotective agent (CPA). PMID:19460363

  13. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  14. New distributions in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    A model of the equation of state for classical gases consisting of nonpolar molecules is constructed under the assumption that the spinodal, critical isochore, and second virial coefficients of the gas have been set. The corresponding thermodynamic distributions are determined. It is shown that the isotherms constructed in the framework of the proposed model coincide with the isotherms of the van der Waals model obtained on a different basis.

  15. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  16. Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    General Techniques for Combustion of Liquid/Soli. Organic Compounds by Oxygen Bomb Calorimetry by Arthur J. Head, William D. Good, and Ccrnelius...Mosselman, Chap. 8; Combustion of Liquid/Solid Organic Compounds with Non-Metallic Hetero-Atoms by Arthur J. Head and William D. Good, Chap. 9; in...0 Box 95085 Washington, DC 20234 Los Angeles, CA 90045 National Bureau of Standards CINDAS Chemical Thermodynamics Division Purdue University

  17. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT): Program Listing. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    UMICROCOMPUTER NETWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING ( CAT ): PROGRAM LISTING in APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE;IDISTRIBUTION UNLIMITEDPs DTIC ’ Akf 3 0 1-d84...NETWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING ( CAT ).- PROGRAM LISTING , ,j Baldwin Quan Thomas A. Park Gary Sandahl John H. Wolfe Reviewed by James R. McBride A...Center San Diego, California 92152 V.% :-, CONTENTrS Page CATPROJECT.TEXT CAT system driver textfile I 1 ADMINDIR- Subdirectory - Test administration

  18. The discovery of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Based on the idea that a scientific journal is also an "agora" (Greek: market place) for the exchange of ideas and scientific concepts, the history of thermodynamics between 1800 and 1910 as documented in the Philosophical Magazine Archives is uncovered. Famous scientists such as Joule, Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Clausius, Maxwell or Boltzmann shared this forum. Not always in the most friendly manner. It is interesting to find out, how difficult it was to describe in a scientific (mathematical) language a phenomenon like "heat", to see, how long it took to arrive at one of the fundamental principles in physics: entropy. Scientific progress started from the simple rule of Boyle and Mariotte dating from the late eighteenth century and arrived in the twentieth century with the concept of probabilities. Thermodynamics was the driving intellectual force behind the industrial revolution, behind the enormous social changes caused by this revolution. The history of thermodynamics is a fascinating story, which also gives insights into the mechanism that seem to govern science.

  19. Thermodynamical Arguments Against Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2017-03-01

    The argument that the second law of thermodynamics contradicts the theory of evolution has recently been revived by anti-evolutionists. In its basic form, the argument asserts that whereas evolution implies that there has been an increase in biological complexity over time, the second law, a fundamental principle of physics, shows this to be impossible. Scientists have responded primarily by noting that the second law does not rule out increases in complexity in open systems, and since the Earth receives energy from the Sun, it is an open system. This reply is correct as far as it goes, and it adequately rebuts the most crude versions of the second law argument. However, it is insufficient against more sophisticated versions, and it leaves many relevant aspects of thermodynamics unexplained. We shall consider the history of the argument, explain the nuances various anti-evolution writers have brought to it, and offer thorough explanations for why the argument is fallacious. We shall emphasize in particular that the second law is best viewed as a mathematical statement. Since anti-evolutionists never make use of the mathematical structure of thermodynamics, invocations of the second law never contribute anything substantive to their discourse.

  20. Thermodynamics of barnase unfolding.

    PubMed

    Griko, Y V; Makhatadze, G I; Privalov, P L; Hartley, R W

    1994-04-01

    The thermodynamics of barnase denaturation has been studied calorimetrically over a broad range of temperature and pH. It is shown that in acidic solutions the heat denaturation of barnase is well approximated by a 2-state transition. The heat denaturation of barnase proceeds with a significant increase of heat capacity, which determines the temperature dependencies of the enthalpy and entropy of its denaturation. The partial specific heat capacity of denatured barnase is very close to that expected for the completely unfolded protein. The specific denaturation enthalpy value extrapolated to 130 degrees C is also close to the value expected for the full unfolding. Therefore, the calorimetrically determined thermodynamic characteristics of barnase denaturation can be considered as characteristics of its complete unfolding and can be correlated with structural features--the number of hydrogen bonds, extent of van der Waals contacts, and the surface areas of polar and nonpolar groups. Using this information and thermodynamic information on transfer of protein groups into water, the contribution of various factors to the stabilization of the native structure of barnase has been estimated. The main contributors to the stabilization of the native state of barnase appear to be intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The contributions of van der Waals interactions between nonpolar groups and those of hydration effects of these groups are not as large if considered separately, but the combination of these 2 factors, known as hydrophobic interactions, is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution of hydrogen bonding.

  1. Thermodynamical Arguments Against Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenhouse, Jason

    2017-02-01

    The argument that the second law of thermodynamics contradicts the theory of evolution has recently been revived by anti-evolutionists. In its basic form, the argument asserts that whereas evolution implies that there has been an increase in biological complexity over time, the second law, a fundamental principle of physics, shows this to be impossible. Scientists have responded primarily by noting that the second law does not rule out increases in complexity in open systems, and since the Earth receives energy from the Sun, it is an open system. This reply is correct as far as it goes, and it adequately rebuts the most crude versions of the second law argument. However, it is insufficient against more sophisticated versions, and it leaves many relevant aspects of thermodynamics unexplained. We shall consider the history of the argument, explain the nuances various anti-evolution writers have brought to it, and offer thorough explanations for why the argument is fallacious. We shall emphasize in particular that the second law is best viewed as a mathematical statement. Since anti-evolutionists never make use of the mathematical structure of thermodynamics, invocations of the second law never contribute anything substantive to their discourse.

  2. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L. M. C.

    2014-12-14

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects.

  3. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, M; Sagis, L M C

    2014-12-14

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects.

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L. M. C.

    2014-12-01

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects.

  5. Using bibliographic databases in technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, G. David

    1987-01-01

    When technology developed for a specific purpose is used in another application, the process is called technology transfer--the application of an existing technology to a new use or user for purposes other than those for which the technology was originally intended. Using Bibliographical Databases in Technology Transfer deals with demand-pull transfer, technology transfer that arises from need recognition, and is a guide for conducting demand-pull technology transfer studies. It can be used by a researcher as a self-teaching manual or by an instructor as a classroom text. A major problem of technology transfer is finding applicable technology to transfer. Described in detail is the solution to this problem, the use of computerized, bibliographic databases, which currently contain virtually all documented technology of the past 15 years. A general framework for locating technology is described. NASA technology organizations and private technology transfer firms are listed for consultation.

  6. Using bibliographic databases in technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, G. David

    1987-01-01

    When technology developed for a specific purpose is used in another application, the process is called technology transfer--the application of an existing technology to a new use or user for purposes other than those for which the technology was originally intended. Using Bibliographical Databases in Technology Transfer deals with demand-pull transfer, technology transfer that arises from need recognition, and is a guide for conducting demand-pull technology transfer studies. It can be used by a researcher as a self-teaching manual or by an instructor as a classroom text. A major problem of technology transfer is finding applicable technology to transfer. Described in detail is the solution to this problem, the use of computerized, bibliographic databases, which currently contain virtually all documented technology of the past 15 years. A general framework for locating technology is described. NASA technology organizations and private technology transfer firms are listed for consultation.

  7. Computerized ionospheric tomography based on geosynchronous SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Cheng; Tian, Ye; Dong, Xichao; Wang, Rui; Long, Teng

    2017-02-01

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an emerging technique to construct the three-dimensional (3-D) image of ionosphere. The current studies are all based on the Low Earth Orbit synthetic aperture radar (LEO SAR) which is limited by long repeat period and small coverage. In this paper, a novel ionospheric 3-D CIT technique based on geosynchronous SAR (GEO SAR) is put forward. First, several influences of complex atmospheric environment on GEO SAR focusing are detailedly analyzed, including background ionosphere and multiple scattering effects (induced by turbulent ionosphere), tropospheric effects, and random noises. Then the corresponding GEO SAR signal model is constructed with consideration of the temporal-variant background ionosphere within the GEO SAR long integration time (typically 100 s to 1000 s level). Concurrently, an accurate total electron content (TEC) retrieval method based on GEO SAR data is put forward through subband division in range and subaperture division in azimuth, obtaining variant TEC value with respect to the azimuth time. The processing steps of GEO SAR CIT are given and discussed. Owing to the short repeat period and large coverage area, GEO SAR CIT has potentials of covering the specific space continuously and completely and resultantly has excellent real-time performance. Finally, the TEC retrieval and GEO SAR CIT construction are performed by employing a numerical study based on the meteorological data. The feasibility and correctness of the proposed methods are verified.

  8. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul

    2010-09-10

    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory.

  10. Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.

    PubMed

    Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance.

  11. Language Networks Associated with Computerized Semantic Indices

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Jones, David T.; Knopman, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

  12. The computerized medical record in action.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C R

    1994-08-01

    Before the advent of the IPS computerized medical record at Burlington, Zallen did not own a computer. Although he learned touch-typing in high school, he emphatically states that he hated it. The average age of the physicians on staff at Burlington is about 40, but few had extensive previous experience with computers. According to Zallen, all have adapted to the CPR with few tears or tirades. The physicians continue to "tweak" the system to customize their own scrapbook and templates. Lahey physicians who work at Burlington part time are using the system, although with more staff help. The CPR is alive and well at Burlington Health Center. HCHP physicians can and do use computers in their daily work, producing quality medical records that are readable and retrievable. Nonetheless, promises that computers will make records more complete and accessible and will improve quality measurement will be mere blather if the CPR doesn't make users' lives easier. My last question to Zallen was "How has this system made your life harder?" After one pensive second, he replied, "I really can't think of anything." To me, that is potent testimony that the CPR is not a techie's fantasy, but rather, a pragmatic, workable answer to the needs of 21st century medicine.

  13. Computerized assessment of dental student writing skills.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Joseph M; Elliot, Norbert; Biber, Cheryl L; Sanders, R Michael

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using computer-based tools for the assessment of written materials produced by dental students. Written assignments produced by three consecutive incoming dental school classes (240 students) were assessed, and the performance among and between classes was analyzed. Computerized assessment of documents produced by students in the context of their regular coursework proved to be an efficient and effective mechanism for assessing performance. Student performance, assessed as a byproduct of this research, was disappointing. The performance of all classes fell below the eleventh grade level, with some students producing written material at a level of sophistication generally expected from middle school children. Existing technology shows promise as a vehicle for enhancing the assessment of dental students' written communication skills. The ease of use and minimal training necessary to apply this technology can help mitigate the time-intensive nature of writing assessment. If this assessment information is then used to enhance instruction--a process inherently available through software such as WebCT--the distance between assessment and instruction may be more readily bridged through an increase in the use of technology.

  14. Comprehensive computerized medical imaging: interim hypothetical economic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Rebecca N.; Fisher, Paul D.; Nosil, Josip

    1990-08-01

    The 422-bed Victoria General Hospital (VGH) and Siemens Electric Limited have since 1983 been piloting the implementation of comprehensive computerized medical imaging, including digital acquisition of diagnostic images, in British Columbia. Although full PACS is not yet in place at VGH, experience to date habeen used to project annual cost figures (including capital replacement) for a fully-computerized department. The resulting economic evaluation has been labelled hypothetical to emphasize that some key cost components were estimated rather than observed; this paper presents updated cost figures based on recent revisions to proposed departmental equipment configuration which raised the cost of conventional imaging equipment by 0.3 million* and lowered the cost of computerized imaging equipment by 0.8 million. Compared with conventional diagnostic imaging, computerized imaging appears to raise overall annual costs at VGH by nearly 0.7 million, or 11.6%; this is more favourable than the previous results, which indicated extra annual costs of 1 million (16.9%). Sensitivity analysis still indicates that all reasonable changes in the underlying assumptions result in higher costs for computerized imaging than for conventional imaging. Computerized imaging offers lower radiation exposure to patients, shorter waiting times, and other potential advantages, but as yet the price of obtaining these benefits remains substantial.

  15. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Filho, Jorge Massaaki Ido; Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de Macedo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke, Henrique Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method: We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases) and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases). Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results: We evaluated 245 patients aged 9–79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients) underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32) underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29) underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions: The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts. PMID:25991956

  16. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    I,-’ltlll 11𔃻,𔃻\\,,’ 1󈧏"" Il’q ""J"’J ..".1 1<ŕ’ ’II, II", \\1蔿 (\\P~’,hl’, ,HId .,"l1llll,ll~" l’l’rtll.llll·1I! 1𔃻’,ŕ.1 ~""jlI1l1O , Iud

  17. Interactive searching of facial image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Shepherd, John W.; Shepherd, Jean

    1995-09-01

    A set of psychological facial descriptors has been devised to enable computerized searching of criminal photograph albums. The descriptors have been used to encode image databased of up to twelve thousand images. Using a system called FACES, the databases are searched by translating a witness' verbal description into corresponding facial descriptors. Trials of FACES have shown that this coding scheme is more productive and efficient than searching traditional photograph albums. An alternative method of searching the encoded database using a genetic algorithm is currenly being tested. The genetic search method does not require the witness to verbalize a description of the target but merely to indicate a degree of similarity between the target and a limited selection of images from the database. The major drawback of FACES is that is requires a manual encoding of images. Research is being undertaken to automate the process, however, it will require an algorithm which can predict human descriptive values. Alternatives to human derived coding schemes exist using statistical classifications of images. Since databases encoded using statistical classifiers do not have an obvious direct mapping to human derived descriptors, a search method which does not require the entry of human descriptors is required. A genetic search algorithm is being tested for such a purpose.

  18. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R.

    2016-11-01

    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U(1)-U(0). The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as `real' thermodynamic variables. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  19. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R

    2016-11-13

    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U((1))-U((0)) The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as 'real' thermodynamic variablesThis article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Thermodynamics of Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, Jeff W.

    One challenge facing society is the responsible use of our energy resources. Increasing the efficiency of energy generation provides one path to solving this challenge. One commonality among most current energy generation methods is that waste heat is generated during the generation process. Thermoelectrics can provide a solution to increasing the efficiency of power generation and automotive systems by converting waste heat directly to electricity. The current barrier to implementation of thermoelectric systems is the low efficiencies of underlying thermoelectric materials. The efficiency of a thermoelectric material depends on the electronic and thermal transport properties of the material; a good thermoelectric material should be an electronic conductor and a thermal insulator, traits which generally oppose one another. The thermal properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by forming nanoscale precipitates with the material which scatter phonons, reducing the thermal conductivity. The electronic properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by doping the material to increase the electronic conductivity or by alloying the material to favorably alter its band structure. The ability of these chemical modifications to affect the thermoelectric efficiency of material are ultimately governed by the chemical thermodynamics of the system. PbTe is a prototypical thermoelectric material: Alloying PbTe with PbS (or other materials) creates nanostructures which scatter phonons and reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Doping PbTe with Na increases the hole concentration, increasing the electronic conductivity. In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of PbTe and similar systems using first principles to understand the underlying mechanisms controlling the formation of nanostructures and the amount of doping allowed in these systems. In this work we: 1) investigate the thermodynamics of pseudo-binary alloys of IV--VI systems to identify the

  1. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant's ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI.

  2. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant’s ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  3. Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

  4. EROS Main Image File: A Picture Perfect Database for Landsat Imagery and Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Earth Resources Observation System online database, which provides access to computerized images of Earth obtained via satellite. Highlights include retrieval system and commands, types of images, search strategies, other online functions, and interpretation of accessions. Satellite information, sources and samples of accessions, and…

  5. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  6. Rotary thermodynamic apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, F. W.

    1985-06-25

    A rotary inertial thermodynamic absorptive system which can be used as a gas-driven heat pump, a heat-flow-driven gas pump, or, in combination, a heat splitter for moving low-grade heat energy from a lower temperature source to a higher temperature heat sink. In one embodiment, an absorptive type rotary inertial thermodynamic device employs overspill/underspill barriers in its absorption and desorption chambers to achieve counterflow heat exchange therebetween and to ensure effective control of thermodynamic impedance.

  7. Normalized mean shapes and reference index values for computerized quantitative assessment indices of chest wall deformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Seong Keon; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Min Gi; Song, Jae-Jun; Choi, Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    We previously proposed a computerized index (eccentricity index [EI]) for chest-wall deformity measurements, such as pectus excavatum. We sought to define mean shapes based on normal chest walls and to propose for computerized index reference values of that are used in the quantitative analysis of the severity of chest-wall deformities. A total of 584 patients were classified into 18 groups, and a database of their chest-wall computed tomography (CT) scan images was constructed. The boundaries of the chest wall were extracted by using a segmentation algorithm, and the mean shapes were subsequently developed. The reference index values were calculated from the developed mean shapes. Reference index values for the EI were compared with a conventional index, the Haller index (HI). A close association has been shown between the two indices in multiple subjects (r = 0.974, P < 0.001). The newly developed mean shapes and reference index values supply both reliability and objectivity to the diagnosis, analysis, and treatment of chest-wall deformities. They promise to be highly useful in clinical settings.

  8. Developing a Computerized Aging Management System for Concrete Structures in Finnish Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Neshawy, F.; Piironen, J.; Sistonen, E.; Vesikari, E.; Tuomisto, M.; Hradil, P.; Ferreira, M.

    2013-07-01

    Finland has four nuclear reactors units in two power plants. The first unit started operation in 1977 and in the early 1980's all four units were in use. During the last few years the aging management of the Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP) concrete structures has grown an important issue because the existing structures are reaching the end of their licensed operating lifetime (about 40 years). Therefore the nuclear power companies are developing aging management systems to avoid premature degradation of NPP facilities and to be able to extend their operating lifetime. This paper is about the development of a computerized ageing management system for the nuclear power plants concrete structures. The computerized ageing management system is built upon central database and implementation applications. It will assist the personnel of power companies to implement the aging management activities at different phases of the lifetime of a power plant. It will provide systematic methods for planning, surveillance, inspection, monitoring, condition assessment, maintenance and repair of structures.

  9. Dynamics versus thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, V. L.

    1991-05-01

    An effort is made to characterize the ways in which the approaches of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics can be useful in the study of the dynamic behavior of structures. This meditation proceeds through consideration of such wide-ranging and deliberately provocative questions as: 'What are to be considered values in a stress-distribution function?' and 'How many degrees-of-freedom has a beam?'; it then gives attention to the hierarchy of vibrations, the interaction of the mechanism of dissipation with invisible degrees of freedom, and a plausible view of vibrations for the case of small dissipation.

  10. Autonomous quantum thermodynamic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonner, Friedemann; Mahler, Günter

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system consisting of a single spin coupled to an oscillator and sandwiched between two thermal baths at different temperatures. By means of an adequately designed Lindblad equation, it is shown that this device can function as a thermodynamic machine exhibiting Carnot-type cycles. For the present model, this means that when run as a heat engine, coherent motion of the oscillator is amplified. Contrary to the quantum computer, such a machine has a quantum as well as a classical limit. Away from the classical limit, it asymptotically approaches a stationary transport scenario.

  11. Thermodynamics of Rubber Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer, J.; Manzanares, J. A.; Zúñiga, J.; Utrillas, P.; Fernández, J.

    2001-02-01

    A thermodynamic study of an isotropic rubber band under uniaxial stress is presented on the basis of its equation of state. The behavior of the rubber band is compared with both that of an ideal elastomer and that of an ideal gas, considering the generalized Joule's law as the ideality criterion. First, the thermal expansion of rubber at constant stress and the change in the stress with temperature at constant length are described. Thermoelastic inversion is then considered, and the experimental observations are easily rationalized. Finally, the temperature changes observed in the adiabatic stretching of a rubber band are evaluated from the decrease of entropy with length.

  12. Stochastic thermodynamics of resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Jaco; Goldt, Sebastian; Seifert, Udo

    2016-03-01

    Stochastic dynamics with random resetting leads to a non-equilibrium steady state. Here, we consider the thermodynamics of resetting by deriving the first and second law for resetting processes far from equilibrium. We identify the contributions to the entropy production of the system which arise due to resetting and show that they correspond to the rate with which information is either erased or created. Using Landauer's principle, we derive a bound on the amount of work that is required to maintain a resetting process. We discuss different regimes of resetting, including a Maxwell demon scenario where heat is extracted from a bath at constant temperature.

  13. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; KubizÅák, David

    2016-09-01

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon—even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  14. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  15. The Future of Computerized Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    requires a computer” (attributed to William E. Vaughan (1969) in http://quoteinvestigator.com/2010 /12/07/ foul-computer/). With more and more data...images of people and objects (Roy, Faulkner and Finlay 2007). The second step of evaluation requires some judgment on the consequences of these...383–393. Roy, S.C., G. Faulkner and S.-J. Finlay 2007. “Hard or Soft Searching? Electronic Database Versus Hand Searching in Media Research.” Forum

  16. Ground-water-quality data in Pennsylvania: A compilation of computerized [electronic] databases, 1979-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Chichester, Douglas C.

    2006-01-01

    This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP), provides a compilation of ground-water-quality data for a 25-year period (January 1, 1979, through August 11, 2004) based on water samples from wells. The data are from eight source agencies唯orough of Carroll Valley, Chester County Health Department, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection-Ambient and Fixed Station Network, Montgomery County Health Department, Pennsylvania Drinking Water Information System, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The ground-water-quality data from the different source agencies varied in type and number of analyses; however, the analyses are represented by 12 major analyte groups:biological (bacteria and viruses), fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, major ions, minor ions (including trace elements), nutrients (dominantly nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen), pesticides, radiochemicals (dominantly radon or radium), volatile organic compounds, wastewater compounds, and water characteristics (dominantly field pH, field specific conductance, and hardness).A summary map shows the areal distribution of wells with ground-water-quality data statewide and by major watersheds and source agency. Maps of 35 watersheds within Pennsylvania are used to display the areal distribution of water-quality information. Additional maps emphasize the areal distribution with respect to 13 major geolithologic units in Pennsylvania and concentration ranges of nitrate (as nitrogen). Summary data tables by source agency provide information on the number of wells and samples collected for each of the 35 watersheds and analyte groups. The number of wells sampled for ground-water-quality data varies considerably across Pennsylvania. Of the 8,012 wells sampled, the greatest concentration of wells are in the southeast (Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Lancaster, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties), in the vicinity of Pittsburgh, and in the northwest (Erie County). The number of wells sampled is relatively sparse in south-central (Adams, Cambria, Cumberland, and Franklin Counties), central (Centre, Indiana, and Snyder Counties), and north-central (Bradford, Potter, and Tioga Counties) Pennsylvania. Little to no data are available for approximately one-third of the state. Water characteristics and nutrients were the most frequently sampled major analyte groups; approximately 21,000 samples were collected for each group. Major and minor ions were the next most-frequently sampled major analyte groups; approximately 17,000 and 12,000 samples were collected, respectively. For the remaining eight major analyte groups, the number of samples collected ranged from a low of 307 samples (wastewater compounds) to a high of approximately 3,000 samples (biological).The number of samples that exceeded a maximum contaminant level (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) by major analyte group also varied. Of the 2,988 samples in the biological analyte group, 53 percent had water that exceeded an MCL. Almost 2,500 samples were collected and analyzed for volatile organic compounds; 14 percent exceeded an MCL. Other major analyte groups that frequently exceeded MCLs or SMCLs included major ions (17,465 samples and a 33.9 percent exceedence), minor ions (11,905 samples and a 17.1 percent exceedence), and water characteristics (21,183 samples and a 20.3 percent exceedence). Samples collected and analyzed for fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and pesticides (4,062 samples), radiochemicals (1,628 samples), wastewater compounds (307 samples), and nutrients (20,822 samples) had the lowest exceedences of 0.3, 8.4, 0.0, and 8.8 percent, respectively.

  17. Database application of digital medical X-rays and labs: computerization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and distribution.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Myron; Tabriziani, Hossein; Heetebry, Irene

    2005-08-01

    Stenter lets the health care worker order an X-ray that is produced as a computer image rather than on flat film. The health care provider can be in any location with the correct equipment, and view the digital image. The dimensions of this discussion are extensive. The cost savings because of reduced media and storage cost is substantial. Health care quality can be improved because of the ability to obtain consultation via telemedicine and the enhanced ability to track medical problems over time via trends. The major downside is the limited cost imbursement system to pay for technology. Unfortunately, this may impact on the improved quality of care. In simple terms someone needs to pay for the technology and the quality of health care needs to be maintained or improved. The real cost to the health care systems needs to be correctly calculated and inappropriate charging kept to a minimum. Specific costs need to be kept in mind and the first is the cost for new staff or staff training. The number of health care providers that are able to read the X-ray can be enlarged remembering that only American Board Certified Radiologists are allowed to give the final recommendation. How do we view the cost of missing something? It could be argued that this risk will be reduced because of improved technology for obtaining the digital X-ray and improved enhancement software. One way to view this situation is to include technology, management, and organization. The cost and benefits occur through the interplay of all three dimensions. The development of digital imaging hardware and artificial intelligence software will demand change in the management and organization. The organization will require changes in its design to accommodate the technology as to support and resources. Management will evolve to include methods for control and monitoring this technology. Business processes and standard operating procedures will change to integrate the technology into the organization in the most effective and efficient manner.

  18. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  19. NASA Glenn Coefficients for Calculating Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie J.; Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the library of thermodynamic data used with the NASA Glenn computer program CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications). This library, containing data for over 2000 solid, liquid, and gaseous chemical species for temperatures ranging from 200 to 20,000 K, is available for use with other computer codes as well. The data are expressed as least-squares coefficients to a seven-term functional form for C((sup o)(sub p)) (T) / R with integration constants for H (sup o) (T) / RT and S(sup o) (T) / R. The NASA Glenn computer program PAC (Properties and Coefficients) was used to calculate thermodynamic functions and to generate the least-squares coefficients. PAC input was taken from a variety of sources. A complete listing of the database is given along with a summary of thermodynamic properties at 0 and 298.15 K.

  20. Predictions of titanium alloy properties using thermodynamic modeling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Xie, F.-Y.; Chen, S.-L.; Chang, Y. A.; Furrer, D.; Venkatesh, V.

    2005-12-01

    Thermodynamic modeling tools have become essential in understanding the effect of alloy chemistry on the final microstructure of a material. Implementation of such tools to improve titanium processing via parameter optimization has resulted in significant cost savings through the elimination of shop/laboratory trials and tests. In this study, a thermodynamic modeling tool developed at CompuTherm, LLC, is being used to predict β transus, phase proportions, phase chemistries, partitioning coefficients, and phase boundaries of multicomponent titanium alloys. This modeling tool includes Pandat, software for multicomponent phase equilibrium calculations, and PanTitanium, a thermodynamic database for titanium alloys. Model predictions are compared with experimental results for one α-β alloy (Ti-64) and two near-β alloys (Ti-17 and Ti-10-2-3). The alloying elements, especially the interstitial elements O, N, H, and C, have been shown to have a significant effect on the β transus temperature, and are discussed in more detail herein.

  1. Thermodynamics. [algebraic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental structure of thermodynamics is purely algebraic, in the sense of atopological, and it is also independent of partitions, composite systems, the zeroth law, and entropy. The algebraic structure requires the notion of heat, but not the first law. It contains a precise definition of entropy and identifies it as a purely mathematical concept. It also permits the construction of an entropy function from heat measurements alone when appropriate conditions are satisfied. Topology is required only for a discussion of the continuity of thermodynamic properties, and then the weak topology is the relevant topology. The integrability of the differential form of the first law can be examined independently of Caratheodory's theorem and his inaccessibility axiom. Criteria are established by which one can determine when an integrating factor can be made intensive and the pseudopotential extensive and also an entropy. Finally, a realization of the first law is constructed which is suitable for all systems whether they are solids or fluids, whether they do or do not exhibit chemical reactions, and whether electromagnetic fields are or are not present.

  2. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  3. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  4. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  5. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  6. JICST Factual Database JICST DNA Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokizawa, Yoshiko; Abe, Atsushi

    Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of DNA database in October 1988. This database is composed of EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Library and Genetic Sequence Data Bank. The authors outline the database system, data items and search commands. Examples of retrieval session are presented.

  7. Morphological analysis of the vestibular aqueduct by computerized tomography images.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sergio Ricardo; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; Isotani, Sadao; Alonso, Luís Garcia; Anadão, Carlos Augusto; Prates, José Carlos; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades, advances in the computerized tomography (CT) field revise the internal and medium ear evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the morphology and morphometric aspects of the vestibular aqueduct on the basis of computerized tomography images (CTI). Computerized tomography images of vestibular aqueducts were acquired from patients (n=110) with an age range of 1-92 years. Thereafter, from the vestibular aqueducts images a morphometric analysis was performed. Through a computerized image processing system, the vestibular aqueduct measurements comprised of its area, external opening, length and the distance from the vestibular aqueduct to the internal acoustic meatus. The morphology of the vestibular aqueduct may be funnel-shaped, filiform or tubular and the respective proportions were found to be at 44%, 33% and 22% in children and 21.7%, 53.3% and 25% in adults. The morphometric data showed to be of 4.86 mm(2) of area, 2.24 mm of the external opening, 4.73 mm of length and 11.88 mm of the distance from the vestibular aqueduct to the internal acoustic meatus, in children, and in adults it was of 4.93 mm(2), 2.09 mm, 4.44 mm, and 11.35 mm, respectively. Computerized tomography showed that the vestibular aqueduct presents high morphological variability. The morphometric analysis showed that the differences found between groups of children and adults or between groups of both genders were not statistically significant.

  8. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  9. High-Throughput Thermodynamic Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for ICME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Richard A.; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2017-05-01

    One foundational component of the integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) and Materials Genome Initiative is the computational thermodynamics based on the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The CALPHAD method pioneered by Kaufman has enabled the development of thermodynamic, atomic mobility, and molar volume databases of individual phases in the full space of temperature, composition, and sometimes pressure for technologically important multicomponent engineering materials, along with sophisticated computational tools for using the databases. In this article, our recent efforts will be presented in terms of developing new computational tools for high-throughput modeling and uncertainty quantification based on high-throughput, first-principles calculations and the CALPHAD method along with their potential propagations to downstream ICME modeling and simulations.

  10. An information model based weld schedule database

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Hicken, G.K.; Gershanok, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    As part of a computerized system (SmartWeld) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to facilitate agile manufacturing of welded assemblies, a weld schedule database (WSDB) was also developed. SmartWeld`s overall goals are to shorten the design-to-product time frame and to promote right-the-first-time weldment design and manufacture by providing welding process selection guidance to component designers. The associated WSDB evolved into a substantial subproject by itself. At first, it was thought that the database would store perhaps 50 parameters about a weld schedule. This was a woeful underestimate: the current WSDB has over 500 parameters defined in 73 tables. This includes data bout the weld, the piece parts involved, the piece part geometry, and great detail about the schedule and intervals involved in performing the weld. This complex database was built using information modeling techniques. Information modeling is a process that creates a model of objects and their roles for a given domain (i.e. welding). The Natural-Language Information Analysis methodology (NIAM) technique was used, which is characterized by: (1) elementary facts being stated in natural language by the welding expert, (2) determinism (the resulting model is provably repeatable, i.e. it gives the same answer every time), and (3) extensibility (the model can be added to without changing existing structure). The information model produced a highly normalized relational schema that was translated to Oracle{trademark} Relational Database Management Systems for implementation.

  11. Comments to Irreversibility in Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of irreversibility in thermodynamics was revisited and analyzed on the microscopic, stochastic, and macroscopic levels of description. It was demonstrated that Newtonian dynamics can be represented in the Reynolds form, a new phenomenological force with non-Lipschitz properties was introduced, and additional non- Lipschitz thermodynamical forces were incorporated into macroscopic models of transport phenomena.

  12. Thermodynamics--A Practical Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hugh G.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a simplified, synoptic overview of the area of thermodynamics, enumerating and explaining the four basic laws, and introducing the mathematics involved in a stepwise fashion. Discusses such basic tools of thermodynamics as enthalpy, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, and Gibbs free energy, and their uses in problem solving. (JM)

  13. Thermodynamics--A Practical Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hugh G.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a simplified, synoptic overview of the area of thermodynamics, enumerating and explaining the four basic laws, and introducing the mathematics involved in a stepwise fashion. Discusses such basic tools of thermodynamics as enthalpy, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, and Gibbs free energy, and their uses in problem solving. (JM)

  14. Thermodynamics from Car to Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The historical background to the laws of thermodynamics is explained using examples we can all observe in the world around us, focusing on motorised transport, refrigeration and solar heating. This is not to be considered as an academic article. The purpose is to improve understanding of thermodynamics rather than impart new knowledge, and for…

  15. Thermodynamics from Car to Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The historical background to the laws of thermodynamics is explained using examples we can all observe in the world around us, focusing on motorised transport, refrigeration and solar heating. This is not to be considered as an academic article. The purpose is to improve understanding of thermodynamics rather than impart new knowledge, and for…

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of conductive filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Karpov, V.; Niraula, D.; Karpov, I.

    2016-08-29

    We present a thermodynamic theory of the conductive filament growth and dissolution in random access memory describing the observed features of their current-voltage (IV) characteristics. Our theory is based on the self-consisted Fokker-Planck approach reducing the filament kinetics to its thermodynamics. Expressing the observed IV features through material parameters, our results pave a way to device improvements.

  17. Thermodynamics and Spontaneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Raymond S.

    1996-10-01

    Despite the importance of thermodynamics as the foundation of chemistry, most students emerge from introductory courses with only a dim understanding of this subject. Generally students recognize that the information is significant, yet do not assimilate it into later studies, especially in applied fields such as biology and biochemistry. A clear sense of the problem is reflected in a number of other contributions to this Journal (e.g., 1 - 6). Most (1 - 4, 6) recommend increased rigor in derivation of equations. This may appeal to students in advanced courses in chemical thermodynamics, but not to most. A few other suggestions are to introduce the subject earlier in general chemistry courses (2) or to provide innovative ways to visualize reaction changes (3). I suggest that the problem lies at another level entirely: the meanings of the terms are not clear. Recently, MacNeal (7) introduced the concept of mathsemantics, the joining of mathematics with a deep understanding of the sense (semantics) in which it operates. For example, the author argues that not only can we add apples and oranges (yielding total fruit), but that anything less than such a synthesis is trivial. Mathematics is hard, not because of the actual mathematical part of the problem but because of the semantics. As discussed thoroughly by Weinburg (8), the very names we affix to ideas dominate how we think about them. A similar reorientation would benefit chemical education. By way of example, the word "spontaneous" is widely used in thermodynamics, presumably because the word is familiar and assists understanding of this subject. In the following, I will provide evidence that this word has contributed more to the obfuscation of chemical ideas than it has helped elucidate them. Literature Cited 1. Redlich, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 374 - 376. 2. Bergquist, W.; Heikkinen, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1000 - 1003. 3. Macomber, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 311 - 312. 4. Sanchez, K. S.; Vergenz, R

  18. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Frank D.

    2010-04-01

    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 × 1012 W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>104 : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical approach to

  19. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  20. HNET - A National Computerized Health Network

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Mark; Hamilton, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The HNET system demonstrated conceptually and technically a national text (and limited bit mapped graphics) computer network for use between innovative members of the health care industry. The HNET configuration of a leased high speed national packet switching network connecting any number of mainframe, mini, and micro computers was unique in it's relatively low capital costs and freedom from obsolescence. With multiple simultaneous conferences, databases, bulletin boards, calendars, and advanced electronic mail and surveys, it is marketable to innovative hospitals, clinics, physicians, health care associations and societies, nurses, multisite research projects libraries, etc.. Electronic publishing and education capabilities along with integrated voice and video transmission are identified as future enhancements.

  1. Thermodynamic cost of acquiring information.

    PubMed

    Micadei, Kaonan; Serra, Roberto M; Céleri, Lucas C

    2013-12-01

    Connections between information theory and thermodynamics have proven to be very useful to establish bounding limits for physical processes. Ideas such as Landauer's erasure principle and information-assisted work extraction have greatly contributed not only to broadening our understanding about the fundamental limits imposed by nature, but also paving the way for practical implementations of information-processing devices. The intricate information-thermodynamics relation also entails a fundamental limit on parameter estimation, establishing a thermodynamic cost for information acquisition. We show that the amount of information that can be encoded in a physical system by means of a unitary process is limited by the dissipated work during the implementation of the process. This includes a thermodynamic tradeoff for information acquisition. Likewise, the information acquisition process is ultimately limited by the second law of thermodynamics. This tradeoff for information acquisition may find applications in several areas of knowledge.

  2. Pain Perception: Computerized versus Traditional Local Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Mittal, M; Kumar, A; Srivastava, D; Sharma, P; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthetic injection is one of the most anxiety- provoking procedure for both children and adult patients in dentistry. A computerized system for slow delivery of local anesthetic has been developed as a possible solution to reduce the pain related to the local anesthetic injection. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare pain perception rates in pediatric patients with computerized system and traditional methods, both objectively and subjectively. It was a randomized controlled study in one hundred children aged 8-12 years in healthy physical and mental state, assessed as being cooperative, requiring extraction of maxillary primary molars. Children were divided into two groups by random sampling - Group A received buccal and palatal infiltration injection using Wand, while Group B received buccal and palatal infiltration using traditional syringe. Visual Analog scale (VAS) was used for subjective evaluation of pain perception by patient. Sound, Eye, Motor (SEM) scale was used as an objective method where sound, eye and motor reactions of patient were observed and heart rate measurement using pulse oximeter was used as the physiological parameter for objective evaluation. Patients experienced significantly less pain of injection with the computerized method during palatal infiltration, while less pain was not statistically significant during buccal infiltration. Heart rate increased during both buccal and palatal infiltration in traditional and computerized local anesthesia, but difference between traditional and computerized method was not statistically significant. It was concluded that pain perception was significantly more during traditional palatal infiltration injection as compared to computerized palatal infiltration, while there was no difference in pain perception during buccal infiltration in both the groups.

  3. A computerized version of the Lancaster red-green test.

    PubMed

    Awadein, Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    To compare results from a computerized version of the Lancaster red-green test with those of the conventional test. Consecutive adult patients with noncomitant strabismus were tested with the conventional Lancaster red-green test and with a computerized version of the same. The computerized test was administered by means of a 40-inch monitor at a working distance of 50 cm or a projector and screen at a working distance of 1 meter. Agreement between the measured horizontal, vertical, and torsional deviations in the conventional test and both computerized versions was evaluated with the mountain plot, Bland-Altman plot, and Deming regression analysis models. A total of 82 patients were tested. Agreement of measured horizontal deviation in the conventional test was better with the projector version of the test (limits of agreement: right eye, -4.6(Δ) to 3.4(Δ); left eye, -4.9(Δ) to 3.5(Δ)) than the monitor version (limits of agreement: right eye, -10(Δ) to 4.2(Δ); left eye, -8.9(Δ) to 4.1(Δ)). The measured vertical and torsional deviation in the conventional test showed good agreement with both versions of the computerized test (limits of agreement <5(Δ) for vertical measurements and <3° for torsional measurements). Agreement was similar for right and left eyes. The vertical and torsional deviations measured with both computerized versions of the test were in good agreement with those obtained with the conventional test. For measured horizontal deviations, the projector version had better agreement than the monitor version. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Computerized questionnaires and the quality of survey data.

    PubMed

    Hanscom, Brett; Lurie, Jon D; Homa, Karen; Weinstein, James N

    2002-08-15

    A retrospective data quality analysis was conducted. To compare missing response rates and internal consistency between computerized and paper surveys administered to spine patients. Computerized patient surveys have been shown to offer numerous advantages over traditional paper surveys. It has been assumed that computerized surveys also improve data quality, but quantitative comparisons have not been made. Between January 1998 and December 2000, approximately 3500 computerized questionnaires and 15,000 paper questionnaires containing the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire were administered in the National Spine Network. Missing response rates and the Response Consistency Index (RCI) were compared between computerized and paper questionnaire data. Computer surveys had approximately half the missing response rate of paper surveys. For the SF-36, the computer survey had 1.7% missing, as compared with 3.3% missing on paper (P < 0.001). For the Oswestry, the computer survey had 2.9% missing, as compared with 6% missing on paper (P < 0.001). Whereas 84% of the SF-36 surveys and 85% of the Oswestry surveys collected by computer were completely filled out (no missing responses), only 68% of the SF-36 surveys (P < 0.001) and 77% of the Oswestry surveys (P < 0.001) collected on paper were completely filled out. The SF-36 data collected by computer had better internal consistency than the paper-form data, with average Response Consistency Index scores of 0.12 and 0.16, respectively (P = 0.001). Superior response rates and higher internal consistency suggest that computerized survey systems improve data quality, and may enhance instrument validity for commonly used measures of spine patient health.

  5. ThermoBuild: Online Method Made Available for Accessing NASA Glenn Thermodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie; Zehe, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The new Web site program "ThermoBuild" allows users to easily access and use the NASA Glenn Thermodynamic Database of over 2000 solid, liquid, and gaseous species. A convenient periodic table allows users to "build" the molecules of interest and designate the temperature range over which thermodynamic functions are to be displayed. ThermoBuild also allows users to build custom databases for use with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) program or other programs that require the NASA format for thermodynamic properties. The NASA Glenn Research Center has long been a leader in the compilation and dissemination of up-to-date thermodynamic data, primarily for use with the NASA CEA program, but increasingly for use with other computer programs.

  6. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  7. Geometry of thermodynamic control.

    PubMed

    Zulkowski, Patrick R; Sivak, David A; Crooks, Gavin E; DeWeese, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    A deeper understanding of nonequilibrium phenomena is needed to reveal the principles governing natural and synthetic molecular machines. Recent work has shown that when a thermodynamic system is driven from equilibrium then, in the linear response regime, the space of controllable parameters has a Riemannian geometry induced by a generalized friction tensor. We exploit this geometric insight to construct closed-form expressions for minimal-dissipation protocols for a particle diffusing in a one-dimensional harmonic potential, where the spring constant, inverse temperature, and trap location are adjusted simultaneously. These optimal protocols are geodesics on the Riemannian manifold and reveal that this simple model has a surprisingly rich geometry. We test these optimal protocols via a numerical implementation of the Fokker-Planck equation and demonstrate that the friction tensor arises naturally from a first-order expansion in temporal derivatives of the control parameters, without appealing directly to linear response theory.

  8. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  9. Thermodynamics and cement science

    SciTech Connect

    Damidot, D.; Lothenbach, B.; Herfort, D.; Glasser, F.P.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

  10. Cooling by Thermodynamic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitsas, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    A method is described for cooling conductive channels to below ambient temperature. The thermodynamic induction principle dictates that the electrically biased channel will cool if the electrical conductance decreases with temperature. The extent of this cooling is calculated in detail for both cases of ballistic and conventional transport with specific calculations for carbon nanotubes and conventional metals, followed by discussions for semiconductors, graphene, and metal-insulator transition systems. A theorem is established for ballistic transport stating that net cooling is not possible. For conventional transport, net cooling is possible over a broad temperature range, with the range being size-dependent. A temperature clamping scheme for establishing a metastable nonequilibrium stationary state is detailed and followed with discussion of possible applications to on-chip thermoelectric cooling in integrated circuitry and quantum computer systems.

  11. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  12. Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Daniel; Fernández, Daniel; Patiño, Leonardo; Trancanelli, Diego

    2016-11-01

    We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a `Minkowski embedding', in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a `black hole embedding', in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on the black hole temperature, its degree of anisotropy, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.

  13. Thermodynamic aspects of vitrification.

    PubMed

    Wowk, Brian

    2010-02-01

    Vitrification is a process in which a liquid begins to behave as a solid during cooling without any substantial change in molecular arrangement or thermodynamic state variables. The physical phenomenon of vitrification is relevant to both cryopreservation by freezing, in which cells survive in glass between ice crystals, and cryopreservation by vitrification in which a whole sample is vitrified. The change from liquid to solid behavior is called the glass transition. It is coincident with liquid viscosity reaching 10(13) Poise during cooling, which corresponds to a shear stress relaxation time of several minutes. The glass transition can be understood on a molecular level as a loss of rotational and translational degrees of freedom over a particular measurement timescale, leaving only bond vibration within a fixed molecular structure. Reduced freedom of molecular movement results in decreased heat capacity and thermal expansivity in glass relative to the liquid state. In cryoprotectant solutions, the change from liquid to solid properties happens over a approximately 10 degrees C temperature interval centered on a glass transition temperature, typically near -120 degrees C (+/-10 degrees C) for solutions used for vitrification. Loss of freedom to quickly rearrange molecular position causes liquids to depart from thermodynamic equilibrium as they turn into a glass during vitrification. Residual molecular mobility below the glass transition temperature allows glass to very slowly contract, release heat, and decrease entropy during relaxation toward equilibrium. Although diffusion is practically non-existent below the glass transition temperature, small local movements of molecules related to relaxation have consequences for cryobiology. In particular, ice nucleation in supercooled vitrification solutions occurs at remarkable speed until at least 15 degrees C below the glass transition temperature. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Neoplasms and medical thermodynamics].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Rudolf

    2003-09-01

    Oncology--just as every field of medicine that deals with etiology, diagnostics, pathomechanism and treatment of diseases--is only a part of the general human knowledge, whose all significant achievements must be used to protect human health. This pursuit has as its object not only the benefits form practical discoveries (L. Pasteur, W.C. Roentgen, P. Curie and M. Skłodowska-Curie, V. Schally etc.), but also theoretical generalizations (A. Einstein, W.K. Heisenberg and I. Prigogine). Unfortunately it is the lack and/or slow adaptation of that information, that is responsible for the still unsatisfactory progress in clinical oncology. Responsibility rests not only with oncologists, but primarily with editors of medical journals and textbooks, who have a moral duty to follow the entire general knowledge, especially in the field of the basic research. On the basis of an analysis of the contents of the Polish oncology textbooks and materials from the specialist conferences in gynaecologic oncology, they were found to: 1. Omit the current, particularly domestic literature, 2. Contain mostly works, whose conclusions are textbook information, 3. Rarely include studies in the area of medical thermodynamics, 4. Attempt to explain the effects of the modern technologies, e.g. fotodynamics or nanotechnology using theoretical generalizations which are inadequate for them, and 5. Disregard the rule primum non nocere not only in prevention but even in the treatment of neoplasms. Neoplastic disease has many conditionings and types because of the unique identity of the neoplasms which cause it and which are caused by universal and natural phenomena of the self-organizing dissipative structures. It requires not only early diagnosing but also causative treatment already in the precancerous states, which are better detected by modern methods based on the quantum thermodynamics (lasers, fotodynamics, nuclear magnetic resonance, genetic nanotechnology etc.).

  15. Thermodynamics of feldspathoid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    We have developed models for the thermody-namic properties of nephelines, kalsilites, and leucites in the simple system NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4-Ca0.5AlSiO4-SiO2-H2O that are consistent with all known constraints on subsolidus equilibria and thermodynamic properties, and have integrated them into the existing MELTS software package. The model for nepheline is formulated for the simplifying assumptions that (1) a molecular mixing-type approximation describes changes in the configurational entropy associated with the coupled exchange substitutions □Si?NaAl and □Ca? Na2 and that (2) Na+ and K+ display long-range non-convergent ordering between a large cation and the three small cation sites in the Na4Al4Si4O16 formula unit. Notable features of the model include the prediction that the mineral tetrakalsilite (``panunzite'', sensu stricto) results from anti-ordering of Na and K between the large cation and the three small cation sites in the nepheline structure at high temperatures, an average dT/dP slope of about 55°/kbar for the reaction over the temperature and pressure ranges 800-1050 °C and 500-5000 bars, roughly symmetric (i.e. quadratic) solution behavior of the K-Na substitution along joins between fully ordered components in nepheline, and large positive Gibbs energies for the nepheline reciprocal reactions and and for the leucite reciprocal reaction

  16. THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

  17. Documentation of Nursing Practice Using a Computerized Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Carol

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a definition of the content of the computerized nursing data base developed by the Nursing Department for the Clinical Center Medical Information System at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. The author describes the theoretical framework for the content and presents a model to describe the organization of the nursing data components in relation to the process of nursing care delivery. Nursing documentation requirements of Nurse Practice Acts, American Nurses Association Standards of Practice and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals are also addressed as they relate to this data base. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach to computerized documentation are discussed.

  18. Design and use of a computerized test generating program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Edward; Marschall, Laurence A.

    1980-07-01

    An easy-to-use set of programs for the computerized generation of multiple-choice and essay examinations in an introductory astronomy course is described. The programs allow the user to establish files of test questions and to rapidly assemble printed copies of examinations suitable for photocopying. Written in ALGOL for a Burroughs B6700 computer, the programs can, in principle, be implemented on large mainframe computers or on microcomputers of a size increasingly available to physics departments. The advantages and costs of computerized test generation are discussed.

  19. Industrial use of thermodynamic simulations in pyrometallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskinen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Mastering slag chemistry and fluxing is the key of an effective smelting operation. Today, the requirements of resource efficiency and in particular the recoveries of metal values at the lowest possible use of fossil fuels indicate that the problem is multidimensional. It needs flexible and the best possible tools for analyzing various possibilities and alternatives. The use of computational thermodynamics allows evaluation of fluxing practices in industrial multi-component slags, due to the availability of extensive and internally consistent databases for use with appropriate advanced thermochemical packages. This approach unlocks new options for optimising smelting and refining operations and unit processes, and the able use of increasingly complex raw materials of the future.

  20. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.