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Sample records for comunidad manzanillo 2006-2007

  1. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 108 ARL libraries purchased 25,006,758 electronic books. In 2006-2007, there was an ARL median of 243,725 acquisitions of electronic books (this includes one institution that purchased…

  2. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  3. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2006-2007 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 74 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections (2-parts), including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased,…

  4. Dilemmas of Dissent: International Students' Protest, Melbourne 2006/2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodan, Paul

    2008-01-01

    International students in Australia are not usually identified with protest. However, a cohort of such students at one university campus was prepared to undertake robust public protest over alleged academic mistreatment in 2006/2007, eschewing conventional internal mechanisms for the resolution of such problems. Subsequent developments revealed…

  5. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This document presents data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 65 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2006-2007, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 244,188 volumes, spent a total of $244,188,020, and employed 2,395 FTE…

  6. Initial Results from the ANITA 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /UC, Irvine

    2011-11-16

    We report initial results of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos. ANITA flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses that might be due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. In our initial high-threshold robust analysis, no neutrino candidates are seen, with no physics background. In a non-signal horizontal-polarization channel, we do detect 6 events consistent with radio impulses from extensive air showers, which helps to validate the effectiveness of our method. Upper limits derived from our analysis now begin to eliminate the highest cosmogenic neutrino models.

  7. The 2006-2007 Observing Campaign On VX Hydrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Samolyk, G.; Dvorak, S.; Poklar, R.; Butterworth, N.; Gerner, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present the results of the 2006-2007 observing campaign on the double-mode delta Scuti star VX Hydrae. Nearly 8800 V-band CCD observations were obtained during the two observing seasons. Although the data were taken with small telescopes (0.3-m or less, using consumer-grade CCD cameras), the data quality is very high, enabling the detection of variability at the millimagnitude level at some frequencies. Analysis of the data yields only two primary pulsation frequencies: f(0) = 4.4765 c/d, and f(1) = 5.7899 c/d. The two modes have comparable amplitude, although the amplitude of f(1) appears to have increased slightly from 2006 to 2007 by 0.01 mag. Only two pulsation modes are detected, but at least 18 additional linear combination frequencies are also clearly detected, some having amplitudes as low as 1 mmag, resulting in an incredibly rich Fourier spectrum. We discuss the evidence for amplitude variation in VX Hydrae, along with prospects for future study of this and other similar delta Scuti stars by AAVSO observers.

  8. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  9. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  10. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  11. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  12. 7 CFR 982.254 - Free and restricted percentages-2006-2007 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.254 Free and... hazelnuts for the 2006-2007 marketing year shall be 8.2840 percent and 91.7160 percent, respectively....

  13. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2006/2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Now in its 2006-2007 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions…

  14. Achieving Transparency in the Public Reporting of 2006-2007 Assessment Results. Technical Report 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Debra; Thurlow, Martha; Bremer, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The 2006-2007 school year was the eighth annual reporting period since disaggregating the performance of students with disabilities on state and district-wide assessments was required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It is the fifth reporting period since the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and the…

  15. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2006-2007, with selected comparisons…

  16. Beating the Odds: Assessment Results from the 2006-2007 School Year. Individual District Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report includes quantitative information by individual urban school district for the 2006-2007 school year. Data includes: (1) Total Students; (2) Free/Reduced Price Lunch Eligible Students; (3) Students with Individual Educational Plans; (4) English Language Learners; (5) American Indian/Alaskan Native Students; (6) Asian/Pacific Islander…

  17. International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Service, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This publication presents changes and modifications for 2006-2007 to the "International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs." It is written to guide fair directors, teachers, scientists, parents, and adult volunteers as they pursue their work of encouraging students to explore and investigate their…

  18. Measuring What Students Entering School Know and Can Do: PIPS Australia 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildy, Helen; Styles, Irene

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports analysis of 2006-2007 on-entry assessment data from the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA) of random samples of students in England, Scotland, New Zealand and Australia. The analysis aimed, first, to investigate the validity and reliability of that instrument across countries and sexes, and,…

  19. 77 FR 42764 - Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology Royalty Funds...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology... the digital audio recording technology royalty fees in the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Musical Works... royalties on digital audio recording devices and media that are distributed in the United States. 17...

  20. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in Georgia, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.; Leeth, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. Water levels were monitored continuously, in Georgia, in a network of 184 wells during 2006 and 182 wells during 2007. Because of missing data or the short period of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 166 wells from the network are discussed in this report. These wells include 18 in the surficial aquifer system, 21 in the Brunswick aquifer system and equivalent sediments, 67 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 15 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 12 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 9 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the network indicate that water levels generally declined from 2005 levels, with water levels in 99 wells below normal, 52 wells in the normal range, 12 wells above normal, and 3 wells with insufficient data for comparison of 5-year trends and period of record statistics. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic synoptic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during September 2006 and 2007, in the Brunswick area during July 2006 and August 2007, and in the City of Albany-Dougherty County area during October 2006 and October 2007. In general, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces showed little change during 2006-2007 in each of the areas. Ground-water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer is monitored in the Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick areas and in Camden County; and water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer is monitored in the Savannah and Brunswick areas and in Camden County. In

  1. 38th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2006-2007 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 38th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2006-07. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2006-2007 academic year, the states…

  2. Florida Community College System Long-Range Program Plan (LRPP) for Fiscal Years 2002-2003 through 2006-2007.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This document discusses the Florida Community College System's Long Range Program Plan (LRPP) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 through 2006-2007. The document begins by addressing the mission statement of the college, which strives for "high student achievement, seamless articulation and increased access, workforce skills and economic…

  3. Isolation and characterization of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil of iran (2006 - 2007).

    PubMed

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are a large group of soil-inhabiting bacteria that occur worldwide. Some of them are the main cause of two important diseases, nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. To identify the prevalence and geographic distribution of aerobic actinomycetes in soil of Qazvin province, a study was carried out during 2006-2007. In this study, the incidence and diversity of medically important aerobic actinomycetes was determined in 300 soil samples of different parts of Qazvin. The suspensions of superficial soil samples were prepared by adding of normal saline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and the supernatants were cultured on brain-heart infusion agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar contain cycloheximide. The isolated microorganisms were examined by Gram and acid-fast stains and were identified biochemically and morphologically. Of 96 aerobic actinomycetes isolates identified, Actinomadura madurae and Streptomyces somaliensis were the most frequently isolated species each representing 19.8% of isolates, followed by Nocardia asteroides (15.6%), N. otitidiscaviarum (9.4%), N. brasiliensis (7.3%), A. peletieri, S. griseus, and Nocardia spp. (each 5.2%), and N. transvalensis, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura spp. and Streptomyces spp. (each 3.1%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epidemiological investigation of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil samples from Iran. In recent years, mycetoma and nocardiosis have been increasingly reported in Iran. The results showed that medically important actinomycetes occur in the environment of Iran and soil could be potential source of actinomycotic infections.

  4. Unintentional injuries among youth with developmental disabilities in the United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Schroeder, Thomas J; Trumble, Ann C; Moyer, Patricia M; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2013-01-01

    We examined unintentional injury among youth with and without developmental disabilities. Our nationally representative sample included 6369 injured youth, aged 0-17 years, who were seen in one of the 63 US hospital emergency rooms that participated in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System - All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) in 2006-2007. Parents or guardians of injured youth were interviewed by telephone after the hospital visit to ascertain disability status. Denominator data were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey. Leading causes of injury were comparable for youth with and without disability. Injury rates (per 100 youth per year) were also comparable [10.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8, 13.0 and 10.5; 95% CI 8.2, 12.9, for youth with and without disability, respectively]. When examined by specific disability, the rate ratio for youth with learning disabilities versus youth without learning disability was 1.57 (95% CI 1.04, 2.10), which may represent a subgroup for targeted interventions.

  5. Effects of new penicillin susceptibility breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae--United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    2008-12-19

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in the United States. Antimicrobial resistance, which can result in pneumococcal infection treatment failure, is identified by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial that will inhibit pneumococcal growth. Breakpoints are MICs that define infections as susceptible (treatable), intermediate (possibly treatable with higher doses), and resistant (not treatable) to certain antimicrobials. In January 2008, after a reevaluation that included more recent clinical studies, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) published new S. pneumoniae breakpoints for penicillin (the preferred antimicrobial for susceptible S. pneumoniae infections). To assess the potential effects of the new breakpoints on susceptibility categorization, CDC applied them to MICs of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system at sites in 10 states during 2006-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that the percentage of IPD nonmeningitis S. pneumoniae isolates categorized as susceptible, intermediate, and resistant to penicillin changed from 74.7%, 15.0%, and 10.3% under the former breakpoints to 93.2%, 5.6%, and 1.2%, respectively, under the new breakpoints. Microbiology laboratories should be aware of the new breakpoints to interpret pneumococcal susceptibility accurately, and clinicians should be aware of the breakpoints to prescribe antimicrobials appropriately for pneumococcal infections. State and local health departments also should be aware of the new breakpoints because they might result in a decrease in the number of reported cases of penicillin-resistant pneumococcus.

  6. [Recommendations of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: influenza vaccination campaign 2006-2007].

    PubMed

    Pineda Solas, A; Bernaola Iturbe, E; Martinón-Torres, F; Baca Cots, M; de Juan Martín, F; Gómez Campderá, J A; Díaz Domingo, J; Garcés Sánchez, M; Giménez Sánchez, F; Picazo, J

    2006-09-01

    The recommendations of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics on influenza vaccination in the pediatric age group for the 2006-2007 season are presented. Influenza has special characteristics in children due to the high morbidity it carries. Moreover, children constitute the most frequent source of transmission. The risk factors supporting influenza vaccination in children and the need for immunization in persons living with high-risk children are discussed. The advisability of extending vaccination in health workers, and specifically to pediatricians and medical personnel in contact with sick children is stressed. The composition of the vaccine for the 2006-2007 seasons, the schedules and dosages in children depending on age, and the contraindications to vaccination are specified. Finally, the premises required to recommend universal vaccination in young children in Spain as a strategy to reduce morbidity due to this epidemic in children and adults are discussed.

  7. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-08-02

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence.

  8. Violence-related firearm deaths among residents of metropolitan areas and cities---United States, 2006--2007.

    PubMed

    2011-05-13

    Violence-related firearm deaths remain an important public health concern in the United States. During 2006--2007, a total of 25,423 firearm homicides and 34,235 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. These national totals include 4,166 firearm homicides and 1,446 firearm suicides among youths aged 10--19 years; the rate of firearm homicides among youths slightly exceeded the rate among persons of all ages. This report presents statistics on firearm homicides and firearm suicides for major metropolitan areas and cities, with an emphasis on youths aged 10--19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. It integrates analyses conducted by CDC in response to requests for detailed information, arising from a heightened focus on urban violence by the media, the public, and policymakers over the past year. Firearm homicides and suicides and annual rates were tabulated for the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and their central cities for 2006--2007, using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the U.S. Census Bureau. Firearm homicide rates in approximately two thirds of the MSAs exceeded the national rate, and 86% of cities had rates higher than those of their MSAs. The youth firearm homicide rate exceeded the all-ages rate in 80% of the MSAs and in 88% of the cities. Firearm suicide rates in just over half of the MSAs were below the national rate, and 55% of cities had rates below those of their MSAs. Youth firearm suicide rates in the MSAs and cities were collectively low compared with all-ages rates. Such variations in firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates, with respect to both urbanization and age, should be considered in the continuing development of prevention programs directed at reducing firearm violence.

  9. Florida's Enhancing Education through Technology (Florida EETT). Leveraging Laptops: Effective Models for Enhancing Student Achievement. 2006-2007 Evaluation Report: Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Strahl, J. Daniel; Ross, Steven M.; Huang, Ying

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2006-2007 evaluation that was focused toward investigating one primary question: What changes in tool-based, student-centered teaching happen as a result of the infusion of technology and professional development? The research methodology involved the use of trained external researchers from Florida EETT schools…

  10. Population structure of the dengue viruses, Aragua, Venezuela, 2006-2007. Insights into dengue evolution under hyperendemic transmission.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Villegas, Elci; Cook, Shelley; Poh Kim, Pauline A W; Hinojosa, Yoandri; Rosario, Delfina; Villalobos, Iris; Bendezu, Herminia; Hibberd, Martin L; Guzman, Maria G

    2012-03-01

    During the past three decades there has been a notable increase in dengue disease severity in Venezuela. Nevertheless, the population structure of the viruses being transmitted in this country is not well understood. Here, we present a molecular epidemiological study on dengue viruses (DENV) circulating in Aragua State, Venezuela during 2006-2007. Twenty-one DENV full-length genomes representing all of the four serotypes were amplified and sequenced directly from the serum samples. Notably, only DENV-2 was associated with severe disease. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Bayesian methods indicated that only one genotype was circulating for each serotype. However, extensive viral genetic diversity was found in DENV isolated from the same area during the same period, indicating significant in situ evolution since the introduction of these genotypes. Collectively, the results suggest that the non-structural (NS) proteins may play an important role in DENV evolution, particularly NS1, NS2A and NS4B proteins. The phylogenetic data provide evidence to suggest that multiple introductions of DENV have occurred from the Latin American region into Venezuela and vice versa. The implications of the significant viral genetic diversity generated during hyperendemic transmission, particularly in NS protein are discussed and considered in the context of future development and use of human monoclonal antibodies as antivirals and tetravalent vaccines.

  11. Marital and job satisfaction among non-resident physicians at a Hispanic academic medical center, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Acevedo, Luis F; Céspedes-Gómez, Wayca R

    2009-01-01

    Marital satisfaction has been previously associated with job satisfaction although few studies have addressed this issue among Hispanic physicians. Marital and job satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 92 legally married non-residents physicians working at a Hispanic Academic Medical Center during the 2006-2007 academic year. Marital satisfaction was assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and job satisfaction was measured using a 18-item scale. Response rate was 34.8%. Most (70.7%) of the subjects were males. Forty- five percent (45.0%) belonged to the surgical specialties group. The mean scale value for marital satisfaction was found to be in the average range. Almost all (88.7%) the participants reported being "satisfied "to "very satisfied" with their job. Ninety percent (90.0%) of the surgical specialists and 86.9% of the non-surgical specialists reported being satisfied with their job. The percentage of participants that reported to be "very satisfied" with their job, was higher among the group of surgical specialists (23.3%) than among the non-surgical specialists (13.0%) There was no significant relationship between marital satisfaction and job satisfaction. Also, no statistically significant difference was observed in the level of marital satisfaction and job satisfaction when surgical and non-surgical physicians were compared. The findings on marital satisfaction obtained in this sample were similar to those observed in a previous study of resident physicians at the same academic medical center.

  12. The performance of different cumulus parameterization schemes in simulating the 2006/2007 southern peninsular Malaysia heavy rainfall episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardie, Wan Ahmad; Sow, Khai Shen; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Hussin, Abdul Ghapor; Mahmud, Mastura; Juneng, Liew

    2012-04-01

    The performance of four different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for simulating three heavy rainfall episodes over the southern peninsular Malaysia during the winter monsoon of 2006/2007 were examined. The modelled rainfall was compared with the 3-hourly satellite observation and objectively scored using a verification technique called the acuity-fidelity. The technique is based on minimization of a cost function that is calculated from four parameters taking into account errors in distance, time, intensity, and missed events. All simulations were made for 72 hours for the three episodes starting at 1200 UTC 17 December 2006, 1200 UTC 24 December 2006 and 1200 UTC 11 January 2007, respectively. The four different CPSs used are the new Kain-Fritsch scheme (KF2), the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme (BMJ), the Grell-Devenyi ensemble scheme (GD) and the older Kain-Fritsch scheme (KF1). While the BMJ scheme shows some success in the second and third episodes, it shows high location errors in the first episode, leading to high acuity errors. The GD, KF2 and KF1 schemes performed poorly, although both the BMJ and GD schemes simulated the observed drastic increase of rainfall at 2100 UTC 18 December 2006 during the first episode. Overall, the KF1 and KF2 schemes produced positive biases in terms of coverage, while the GD scheme showed persistent location bias, producing a scattered line of precipitation over the eastern coastline of peninsular Malaysia. Although the BMJ scheme has better results, its poor performance for the first episode suggests that suitability of CPS may be case dependent.

  13. Four different sublineages of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 introduced in Hungary in 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Szeleczky, Zsófia; Dán, Adám; Ursu, Krisztina; Ivanics, Eva; Kiss, István; Erdélyi, Károly; Belák, Sándor; Muller, Claude P; Brown, Ian H; Bálint, Adám

    2009-10-20

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses were introduced to Hungary during 2006-2007 in three separate waves. This study aimed at determining the full-length genomic coding regions of the index strains from these epizootics in order to: (i) understand the phylogenetic relationship to other European H5N1 isolates, (ii) elucidate the possible connection between the different outbreaks and (iii) determine the putative origin and way of introduction of the different virus variants. Molecular analysis of the HA gene of Hungarian HPAI isolates obtained from wild birds during the first introduction revealed two groups designated Hungarian1 (HUN1) and Hungarian2 (HUN2) within sublineage 2.2B and clade 2.2.1, respectively. Sequencing the whole coding region of the two index viruses A/mute swan/Hungary/3472/2006 and A/mute swan/4571/Hungary/2006 suggests the role of wild birds in the introduction of HUN1 and HUN2 viruses: the most similar isolates to HUN1 and HUN2 group were found in wild avian species in Croatia and Slovakia, respectively. The second introduction of HPAI H5N1 led to the largest epizootic in domestic waterfowl in Europe. The index strain of the epizootic A/goose/Hungary/14756/2006 clustered to sublineage 2.2.A1 forming the Hungarian3 (HUN3) group. A common ancestry of HUN3 isolates with Bavarian strains is suggested as the most likely scenario of origin. Hungarian4 (HUN4) viruses isolated from the third introduction clustered with isolate A/turkey/United Kingdom/750/2007 forming a sublineage 2.2.A2. The origin and way of introduction of HUN4 viruses is still obscure, thus further genetic, phylogenetic, ecological and epidemiological data are required in order to elucidate it.

  14. Microbial and Nutrient Concentration and Load Data During Stormwater Runoff at a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes water-quality and hydrologic data collected during 2006-2007 to characterize bacteria and nutrient loads associated with overland runoff and subsurface tile drainage in spray fields at a swine concentrated animal feeding operation. Four monitoring locations were established at the Lizzie Research Site in the North Carolina Coastal Plain Physiographic Province for collecting discharge and water-quality data during stormwater-runoff events. Water stage was measured continuously at each monitoring location. A stage-discharge relation was developed for each site and was used to compute instantaneous discharge values for collected samples. Water-quality samples were collected for five storm events during 2006-2007 for analysis of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. Instantaneous loads of nitrite plus nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci were computed for selected times during the five storm events.

  15. Molecular epidemiology and genetic characterization of equine arteritis virus isolates associated with the 2006-2007 multi-state disease occurrence in the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Timoney, Peter J; Shuck, Kathleen M; Seoul, Gong; Go, Yun Young; Lu, Zhengchun; Powell, David G; Meade, Barry J; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2010-09-01

    In 2006-2007, equine viral arteritis (EVA) was confirmed for the first time in Quarter Horses in multiple states in the USA. The entire genome of an equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolate from the index premises in New Mexico was 12 731 nt in length and possessed a previously unrecorded unique 15 nt insertion in the nsp2-coding region in ORF1a and a 12 nt insertion in ORF3. Sequence analysis of additional isolates made during this disease occurrence revealed that all isolates from New Mexico, Utah, Kansas, Oklahoma and Idaho had 98.6-100.0 % (nsp2) and 97.8-100 % (ORF3) nucleotide identity and contained the unique insertions in nsp2 and ORF3, indicating that the EVA outbreaks in these states probably originated from the same strain of EAV. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of several EAV isolates made following an EVA outbreak on another Quarter Horse farm in New Mexico in 2005 provided evidence that this outbreak may well have been the source of virus for the 2006-2007 occurrence of the disease. A virus isolate from an aborted fetus in Utah was shown to have a distinct neutralization phenotype compared with other isolates associated with the 2006-2007 EVA occurrence. Full-length genomic sequence analysis of 18 sequential isolates of EAV made from eight carrier stallions established that the virus evolved genetically during persistent infection, and the rate of genetic change varied between individual animals and the period of virus shedding.

  16. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (<24 months between births); unwanted pregnancy (any ever); pregnancy termination (any stillbirth, miscarriage or abortion ever)] by early (<18) versus adult (≥18) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with low social equity indicators (poverty, rural residence, and no formal education). Adjusted logistic regression models showed that girl child marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of

  17. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  18. Final report : results of the 2006-2007 investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA facility in Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-28

    The 2006-2007 investigation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination at Barnes, Kansas, was conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory implemented the investigation on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The overall goal of the investigation was to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The investigation objectives were to (1) determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, (2) delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and (3) design and implement an expanded monitoring network at Barnes (Argonne 2006a).

  19. Pathologic studies on suspect animal and human cases of Rift Valley fever from an outbreak in Eastern Africa, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Chris D; Lederman, Edith; Rao, Carol Y; Gould, L Hannah; Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Bloland, Peter; Njenga, M Kariuki; Mutonga, David; Samuel, Amwayi A; Guarner, Jeannette; Breiman, Robert F; Zaki, Sherif R

    2010-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Africa with periodic outbreaks associated with severe disease, death, and economic hardship. During the 2006-2007 outbreaks in Eastern Africa, postmortem and necropsy tissue samples from 14 animals and 20 humans clinically suspected of RVF were studied with histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Six animal and 11 human samples had IHC evidence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigens. We found that extensive hepatocellular necrosis without prominent inflammatory cell infiltrates is the most distinctive histopathologic change in liver tissues infected with RVFV. Pathologic studies on postmortem tissue samples can help establish the diagnosis of RVF, differentiating from endemic diseases with clinical manifestations similar to RVF, such as malaria, leptospirosis, or yellow fever.

  20. Relationship of climate, geography, and geology to the incidence of Rift Valley fever in Kenya during the 2006-2007 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hightower, Allen; Kinkade, Carl; Nguku, Patrick M; Anyangu, Amwayi; Mutonga, David; Omolo, Jared; Njenga, M Kariuki; Feikin, Daniel R; Schnabel, David; Ombok, Maurice; Breiman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    We estimated Rift Valley fever (RVF) incidence as a function of geological, geographical, and climatological factors during the 2006-2007 RVF epidemic in Kenya. Location information was obtained for 214 of 340 (63%) confirmed and probable RVF cases that occurred during an outbreak from November 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007. Locations with subtypes of solonetz, calcisols, solonchaks, and planosols soil types were highly associated with RVF occurrence during the outbreak period. Increased rainfall and higher greenness measures before the outbreak were associated with increased risk. RVF was more likely to occur on plains, in densely bushed areas, at lower elevations, and in the Somalia acacia ecological zone. Cases occurred in three spatial temporal clusters that differed by the date of associated rainfall, soil type, and land usage.

  1. A survey of gundog lameness and injuries in Great Britain in the shooting seasons 2005/2006 and 2006/2007.

    PubMed

    Houlton, J E F

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to record the types of injuries and causes of lameness exhibited by dogs involved in game shooting. The study investigated gundogs that worked in the seasons 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Information was acquired by owner questionnaires. The dogs were classified as working in the beating line, as peg dogs or as picking up dogs. A further group comprised Setters and Pointers that worked the grouse moors. A secondary objective was to assess the incidence of injuries that were treated by owners without seeking the assistance of their veterinarian, and to identify those that may have been underestimated. Depending on whether a dog was injured or went lame, and, if so, the nature of the injury, was correlated with the number of days worked, where it worked, its breed and the type of work it did. A mildly positive association between the Spaniel breed group and injuries was seen in 2005/2006 but not in 2006/2007. However, the relationship between the type of work and injuries was very significant for both seasons with dogs working in the beating line being at greatest risk and Setters and Pointers having the least number of injuries. The dogs in the beating line were also at a significantly greater risk of injury in both years when the type of injury was investigated. Fifty-three percent of all injuries were deemed to be sufficiently minor, that veterinary attention was not sought. However, those dogs with proximal thoracic limb lameness may have been under-investigated. There was a highly significant association between tail injuries and undocked Springer and Cocker Spaniels.

  2. Antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation reduces risk of low birthweight in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Bin Nisar, Yasir; Dibley, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on perceived birth size and birthweight in Pakistan over a 5-year period from 2002 to 2006. The data source was the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2006-2007. Information from 5692 most recent live-born infants within 5 years prior to the survey was examined. The primary outcomes were maternal perception of birth size and birthweight, and the main exposure was any use of antenatal IFA supplements. Birthweight was reported for only 10% of the live births in the PDHS 2006-2007. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was adjusted for the cluster sampling design and for 13 potential confounders. The risk of having smaller than average birth size newborn was significantly reduced by 18% (adjusted odds ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.71, 0.96) for mothers who used any IFA supplements compared with those who did not. A similar (18%), but non-significant reduction in the risk of low birthweight, was found with the maternal use of IFA supplements. The risk of having smaller than average birth size babies was significantly reduced by 19% in those women who started IFA in the first trimester of pregnancy. About 11% of babies with smaller than average birth size were attributed to non-use of antenatal IFA supplements. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduces the risk of a newborn of smaller than average birth size in Pakistan. Universal coverage of supplementation would improve birth size.

  3. Subsidence and strike-slip tectonism of the upper continental slope off Manzanillo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandy, William L.; Michaud, François; Bourgois, Jacques; Calmus, Thierry; Dyment, Jérôme; Mortera-Gutiérrez, Carlos A.; Ortega-Ramírez, Jose; Pontoise, Bernard; Royer, Jean-Yves; Sichler, Bertrand; Sosson, Marc; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Díaz-Molina, Oscar; Hurtado-Artunduaga, Angel D.; Pardo-Castro, Guillermo; Trouillard-Perrot, Corrine

    2005-04-01

    The direction of convergence between the Rivera and North American plates becomes progressively more oblique (in a counter-clockwise sense as measured relative to the trench-normal direction) northwestward along the Jalisco subduction zone. By analogy to other subduction zones, the forces resulting from this distribution of convergence directions are expected to produce a NW moving, fore-arc sliver and a NW-SE stretching of the fore-arc area. Also, a series of roughly arc parallel strike-slip faults may form in the fore-arc area, both onshore and offshore, as is observed in the Aleutian arc. In the Jalisco subduction zone, the Jalisco block has been proposed to represent such a fore-arc sliver. However, this proposal has encountered one major problem. Namely, right-lateral strike-slip faulting within the fore-arc sliver, and between the fore-arc sliver and the North American plate, should be observed. However, evidence for the expected right-lateral strike-slip faulting is sparse. Some evidence for right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Jalisco block-North American plate boundary (the Tepic-Zacoalco rift system) has been reported, although some disagreement exists. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting has also been reported within the interior of the Jalisco block and in the southern Colima rift, which forms the SE boundary of the Jalisco block. Threefold, multi-channel seismic reflection data were collected in the offshore area of the Jalisco subduction zone off Manzanillo in April 2002 during the FAMEX campaign of the N/O L'Atalante. These data provide additional evidence for recent strike-slip motion within the fore-arc region of the Jalisco subduction zone. This faulting offsets right-laterally a prominent horst block within the southern Colima rift, from which we conclude that the sense of motion along the faulting is dextral. These data also provide additional evidence for recent subsidence within the area offshore of Manzanillo, as has been proposed.

  4. Subsidence and Strike-slip Tectonism of the Upper Continental Slope off Manzanillo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandy, W. L.; Michaud, F.; Bourgois, J.; Calmus, T.; Dyment, J.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Ortega-Ramirez, J.; Pontoise, B.; Royer, J.; Sichler, B.; Sosson, M.

    2004-12-01

    The direction of convergence between the Rivera and North American plates becomes progressively more oblique (in a counter-clockwise sense as measured relative to the trench-normal direction) northwestward along the Jalisco subduction zone. By analogy to other subduction zones, the forces resulting from this distribution of convergence directions are expected to produce a NW moving, fore-arc sliver and a NW-SE stretching of the fore-arc area. Also, a series of roughly arc parallel strike slip faults may form in the fore-arc area, both onshore and offshore, as is observed in the Aleutian arc. In the Jalisco subduction zone, the Jalisco block has been proposed to represent such a fore-arc sliver. However, this proposal has encountered one major problem. Namely, right-lateral strike slip faulting within the fore-arc sliver, and between the fore-arc sliver and the North American plate, should be observed. However, evidence for the expected right-lateral strike slip faulting is sparse. Some evidence for right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Jalisco block-North American plate boundary (the Tepic-Zacoalco rift system) has been reported, although some disagreement exists. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting has also been reported within the interior of the Jalisco block and in the southern Colima rift, which forms the SE boundary of the Jalisco block. Three-fold, multi-channel seismic reflection data were collected in the offshore area of the Jalisco subduction zone off Manzanillo in April 2002 during the FAMEX campaign of the N/O L'Atalante. These data provide additional evidence for recent strike-slip motion within the fore-arc region of the Jalisco subduction zone. This faulting offsets right-laterally a prominent horst block within the southern Colima rift, from which we conclude that the sense of motion along the faulting is dextral. These data also provide additional evidence for recent subsidence within the area offshore of Manzanillo, as has been proposed.

  5. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  6. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  7. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007). Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the launch of the national plan for measles elimination, in Italy, immunization coverage remains suboptimal and outbreaks continue to occur. Two measles outbreaks, occurred in Lazio region during 2006-2007, were investigated to identify sources of infection, transmission routes, and assess operational implications for elimination of the disease. Methods Data were obtained from several sources, the routine infectious diseases surveillance system, field epidemiological investigations, and molecular genotyping of virus by the national reference laboratory. Results Overall 449 cases were reported, sustained by two different stereotypes overlapping for few months. Serotype D4 was likely imported from Romania by a Roma/Sinti family and subsequently spread to the rest of the population. Serotype B3 was responsible for the second outbreak which started in a secondary school. Pockets of low vaccine coverage individuals (Roma/Sinti communities, high school students) facilitated the reintroduction of serotypes not endemic in Italy and facilitated the measles infection to spread. Conclusions Communities with low vaccine coverage represent a more serious public health threat than do sporadic susceptible individuals. The successful elimination of measles will require additional efforts to immunize low vaccine coverage population groups, including hard-to-reach individuals, adolescents, and young adults. An enhanced surveillance systems, which includes viral genotyping to document chains of transmission, is an essential tool for evaluating strategy to control and eliminate measles PMID:20219143

  8. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  9. Recruiting Trends, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    College students who plan on entering the labor market can expect to see more job opportunities in the spring of 2007, according to information supplied by 864 companies and organizations to this year's Recruiting Trends Report. After two years of double digit growth, the expansion will slow to a modest 4% to 6%. Two opposing factors appear to be…

  10. Seamount subduction and related deformation and seismicity of the continental slope off Manzanillo, Mexico, as evidenced by multibeam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandy, W. L.; Castillo Maldonado, M.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The west coast of Mexico presents a complex pattern of deformation related to the convergence and subduction of the Rivera plate beneath the Jalisco Block/North American plate. Previous single beam bathymetric data have evidenced a large bathymetric high at 104.6218oW, 18.7123oN, in the continental slope region off Manzanillo, Mexico. One school of thought held that this high was the offshore extension of the onshore Manzanillo horst, although the two features are offset in a right-lateral sense. Alternatively, given the presence of a large positive magnetic anomaly near the bathymetric high, the high could also be caused by the collision and subsequent subduction of a large seamount. Given that the offset between the two structures was the main evidence for proposing the existence of a forearc sliver in the offshore area of the Jalisco margin, resolving the nature of this bathymetric high is quite important in our attempts to understand the plate kinematics and tectonics of this region. Thus, to better define the deformation pattern associated with the bathymetric high, multibeam bathymetric data (obtained using the Kongsberg EM300 multibeam system), subbottom profiles (obtained using the Kongsberg TOPAS18 system), and total field magnetic data (obtained using the Geometrics G877 marine proton precession magnetometer) were collected in the continental slope region between Manzanillo, Colima, and Chamela, Jalisco, during several cruises of UNAM´s research vessel the B.O. EL PUMA. The morphology and structural deformation patterns obtained in this study indicate very clearly that a large seamount is in the process of subducting beneath the continental slope off Manzanillo. The results also indicate that not only has the seamount uplifted the slope but has resulted in slumping of the area of the slope landward of the seamount. Given these results the proposal of the existence of an independent forearc sliver in the offshore area of the southern Jalisco block needs

  11. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial.

  12. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Norovirus GII.4 Variant Strains Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis in Yokohama, Japan, from the 2006-2007 to the 2013-2014 Seasons.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Makoto; Usuku, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, both in sporadic cases and outbreaks. Since the 1990s, the emergence of several GII.4 variants has been reported worldwide. To investigate the epidemic status of NoV, 6,724 stool samples collected from outbreaks in Yokohama, Japan, from the 2006-2007 to 2013-2014 seasons were assessed for NoVs. We genotyped one specimen from each GII outbreak and conducted a sequence analysis of the VP1 gene for several GII.4 strains. Of the 947 NoV outbreaks during our study, GII was detected in 835, and GII.4 was the predominant genotype of GII. Five different GII.4 variants, Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b (2006b), Apeldoorn 2007, New Orleans 2009, and Sydney 2012, were detected. During this study period, the most prevalent variant of GII.4 was 2006b, and in each individual season, either 2006b or Sydney 2012 was the predominant variant. Out of the 16 detected 2006b strains, 12 had some amino acid substitutions in their blockade epitope, and these substitutions were concentrated in three residues. Two of the 2006b strains detected in the 2012-2013 season had a S368E substitution, which is consistent with the amino acid residues at same site of NSW0514 (Sydney 2012 prototype). Among the 16 detected strains of Sydney 2012, a phylogenetic analysis showed that all five strains detected in Yokohama during the 2011-2012 season clustered away from the other Sydney 2012 strains that were detected in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons. These five strains and other Sydney 2012 strains in Yokohama had a few amino acid differences in the blockade epitopes compared with NSW0514. The amino acid substitutions observed in this study provide informative data about the evolution of a novel GII.4 variant.

  14. Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

  15. Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serotype Tennessee Strain CDC07-0191, Implicated in the 2006-2007 Multistate Food-Borne Outbreak Linked to Peanut Butter in the United States.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiangyu; Salazar, Joelle K; Frezet, Stephanie; Maccannell, Duncan; Ribot, Efrain M; Fields, Patricia I; Fricke, W Florian; Zhang, Wei

    2013-05-23

    Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee strain CDC07-0191 was isolated from the 2006-2007 multistate food-borne outbreak linked to peanut butter in the United States. Here we report a high-quality draft assembly of the genome sequence of this strain, derived from a patient. This is the first reported high-quality draft genome sequence for S. enterica serotype Tennessee, which will enable in-depth studies of its transmission and virulence.

  16. Dengue virus 2 American-Asian genotype identified during the 2006/2007 outbreak in Piauí, Brazil reveals a Caribbean route of introduction and dissemination of dengue virus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Sakamoto, Tetsu; Leomil Coelho, Luiz Felipe; de Oliveira Rocha, Eliseu Soares; Gomes Cota, Marcela Menezes; Ferreira, Gustavo Portela; de Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most widespread arthropod-borne virus, and the number and severity of outbreaks has increased worldwide in recent decades. Dengue is caused by DENV-1, DENV- 2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 which are genetically distant. The species has been subdivided into genotypes based on phylogenetic studies. DENV-2, which was isolated from dengue fever patients during an outbreak in Piaui, Brazil in 2006/2007 was analyzed by sequencing the envelope (E) gene. The results indicated a high similarity among the isolated viruses, as well as to other DENV-2 from Brazil, Central America and South America. A phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis based on DENV-2E gene sequences revealed that these viruses are grouped together with viruses of the American-Asian genotype in two distinct lineages. Our results demonstrate the co-circulation of two American-Asian genotype lineages in northeast Brazil. Moreover, we reveal that DENV-2 lineage 2 was detected in Piauí before it disseminated to other Brazilian states and South American countries, indicating the existence of a new dissemination route that has not been previously described.

  17. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  18. Learning Clicks, 2006-2007. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Now progressing into its fourth year, Learning Clicks is an interactive, dynamic, and informative program to help students in Grades 9-12 learn about the importance, long-term benefits, and opportunities of post-secondary education. This program also serves as a portal to provide students with the necessary information to assist in planning and…

  19. Annual Change Report 2006/2007

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-11-16

    As part of continuing compliance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide information on any change in conditions or activities pertaining to the disposal system since the most recent compliance application. This requirement is identified in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Section 194.4(b)(4), which states: "No later than six months after the administrator issues a certification, and at least annually thereafter, the Department shall report to the Administrator, in writing, any changes in conditions or activities pertaining to the disposal system that were not required to be reported by paragraph (b)(3) of this section and that differ from information contained in the most recent compliance application." In meeting the requirement, the DOE provides an annual report each November of all applicable changes under the above requirement. This annual report informs the EPA of changes to information in the most recent compliance recertification (the 2004 Compliance Recertification). Significant planned changes must be reported to the EPA prior to implementation by the DOE. In addition, Title 40 CFR, Section 194.4(b)(3) requires that significant unplanned changes be reported to the EPA within 24 hours or ten days, depending on the severity of the activity or condition. To date, there have been no significant unplanned changes to the certification basis. Planned changes have been submitted on an individual basis. All other changes are reported annually. Changes in activities or conditions are reviewed to determine if 40 CFR Section 194.4(b)(3) reporting is necessary. As indicated above, no significant unplanned changes were identified for the time period covered by this report. The enclosed tables list those items identified for reporting under 40 CFR Section 194.4(b)(4). The majority of the items described in this report are inspections, reports, and modifications to written plans and procedures for WIPP operations.

  20. ESO Fellowship Programme 2006/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO awards several postdoctoral fellow-ships each year. The goal of these fel-lowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  1. Morphology and shallow geological structure of the continental slope located between Manzanillo, Colima and Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico, using multibeam bathymetry and high resolution seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, M.; Bandy, W. L.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    The west coast of Mexico presents a complex array of tectonic processes related with the subduction of the Rivera plate beneath the Jalisco Block/North American plate including seamount subduction and forearc slivering. To better understand these processes and related deformation, an analysis and integration of marine geophysical data was undertaken to map the morphology and shallow geologic structure of the continental slope located between Manzanillo, Colima and Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico (Longitude: 104 ° 20 'to 106 ° 0 Latitude: 18 ° 24 'to 19 ° 48'). These data include multibeam bathymetry and seafloor backscatter data (Kongsberg EM300 system) and high-resolution seismic reflection data (Kongsberg TOPAS system) collected during the MORTIC07 campaign aboard the oceanographic vessel "El Puma". 3D models of the bathymetry and acoustic backscatter strength were constructed along with maps of the major geological and structural features, such as landslides and active faults and folds. The analysis indicates that the continental slope in this area has undergone significant vertical and horizontal movements producing several large slump blocks, a prominent sedimentary filled basin, and a series of transpressional ridges suggestive of a recent collision and subduction of a seamount, or similar bathymetric features.

  2. The 2006-2007 Kuril Islands great earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lay, T.; Kanamori, H.; Ammon, C.J.; Hutko, Alexander R.; Furlong, K.; Rivera, L.

    2009-01-01

    The southwestern half of a ???500 km long seismic gap in the central Kuril Island arc subduction zone experienced two great earthquakes with extensive preshock and aftershock sequences in late 2006 to early 2007. The nature of seismic coupling in the gap had been uncertain due to the limited historical record of prior large events and the presence of distinctive upper plate, trench and outer rise structures relative to adjacent regions along the arc that have experienced repeated great interplate earthquakes in the last few centuries. The intraplate region seaward of the seismic gap had several shallow compressional events during the preceding decades (notably an MS 7.2 event on 16 March 1963), leading to speculation that the interplate fault was seismically coupled. This issue was partly resolved by failure of the shallow portion of the interplate megathrust in an MW = 8.3 thrust event on 15 November 2006. This event ruptured ???250 km along the seismic gap, just northeast of the great 1963 Kuril Island (Mw = 8.5) earthquake rupture zone. Within minutes of the thrust event, intense earthquake activity commenced beneath the outer wall of the trench seaward of the interplate rupture, with the larger events having normal-faulting mechanisms. An unusual double band of interplate and intraplate aftershocks developed. On 13 January 2007, an MW = 8.1 extensional earthquake ruptured within the Pacific plate beneath the seaward edge of the Kuril trench. This event is the third largest normal-faulting earthquake seaward of a subduction zone on record, and its rupture zone extended to at least 33 km depth and paralleled most of the length of the 2006 rupture. The 13 January 2007 event produced stronger shaking in Japan than the larger thrust event, as a consequence of higher short-period energy radiation from the source. The great event aftershock sequences were dominated by the expected faulting geometries; thrust faulting for the 2006 rupture zone, and normal faulting for the 2007 rupture zone. A large intraplate compressional event occurred on 15 January 2009 (Mw = 7.4) near 45 km depth, below the rupture zone of the 2007 event and in the vicinity of the 16 March 1963 compressional event. The fault geometry, rupture process and slip distributions of the two great events are estimated using very broadband teleseismic body and surface wave observations. The occurrence of the thrust event in the shallowest portion of the interplate fault in a region with a paucity of large thrust events at greater depths suggests that the event removed most of the slip deficit on this portion of the interplate fault. This great earthquake doublet demonstrates the heightened seismic hazard posed by induced intraplate faulting following large interplate thrust events. Future seismic failure of the remainder of the seismic gap appears viable, with the northeastern region that has also experienced compressional activity seaward of the megathrust warranting particular attention. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.; Munz, Carrie S.

    2008-11-04

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2006 through March 2007 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 26922. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). Funding from USFWS was for work to contribute to a study of potential interactions between introduced Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and wild steelhead O. mykiss. Funding from LCFEG was for work to evaluate the effects of nutrient enrichment in small streams. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2006 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  4. MCPS Special Education at a Glance 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) "Special Education at a Glance," which includes a copy of the "Guide to Planning and Assessing School-Based Special Education Programs," provides in a single document, information about the special education population at each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school, including…

  5. Americans’ Awareness, Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Fats: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fat. To help raise awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the “Face ...

  6. Americans’ Awareness, Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Fats: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help raise awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the “Face...

  7. Americans' awareness, knowledge, and behaviors regarding fats: 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Robert H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Groom, Allison; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help increase awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the "Face the Fats" national consumer education campaign in April 2007. The AHA commissioned a quantitative tracking survey between 2006 and 2007 to measure changes in consumer awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related fats and oils and their perceived impact on heart disease. The survey was conducted by Cogent Research. Data were collected during March 2006 and May 2007. At both time points, the survey included a representative sample of the American population age 18 to 65 years (n=1,000). The sampling plan for the survey was designed based on the 2000 and 2003 US Census. The margin of error was +/-3.10 percentage points. Awareness of trans fats increased during the 1-year study period. In 2007, 92% of respondents were aware of trans fats, an increase from 84% in 2006 (P<0.05). The 2007 level was similar to the awareness of saturated fats (93%). Perceptions that certain fats and oils heighten the risk of heart disease increased for trans fats (73% in 2007 vs 63% in 2006; P<0.05), saturated fats (77% in 2007 vs 73% in 2006; P<0.05), and partially hydrogenated oils (56% in 2007 vs 49% in 2006; P<0.05). Knowledge about food sources of different fats remained low. On an unaided basis, 21% could name three food sources of trans fats in 2007, up from 17% in 2006 (P<0.05). Knowledge of food sources of saturated fat remained unchanged at 30% in 2007. Significantly more respondents in 2007 reported behavioral changes related to trans fat information, such as buying food products because they show "zero trans fat" on labels or packages (37% in 2007 vs. 32% in 2006; P<0.05). Between 2006 and 2007, consumer awareness about trans fats increased and attained awareness levels similar to saturated fats. The increased awareness is associated with improved self-reported behaviors in grocery shopping. Nonetheless, overall knowledge, especially regarding food sources of saturated and trans fats, remains relatively low, underscoring the need for heightened consumer education activities. The positive change in consumer awareness about trans fats is likely attributable to the wide range of messages available to them, including the AHA "Face the Fats" national consumer education campaign.

  8. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 07 contract period October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was significant positive changes in the vegetative community in several wetland basins throughout the wildlife area. This major goal is being achieved in part by new equipment and operation capability funded under the BPA contract, state capital and migratory bird stamp funds, and the past or ongoing investment of other partners including Ducks Unlimited, The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Clark Public Utilities and others. We continue to be challenged by requirements under the archaeological and historic preservation act necessary to protect many sensitive sites known to occur within the wildlife area. The problems encountered to date have been largely administrative in nature and those experienced this year were unforeseen and probably unavoidable. Early in the contract period, WDFW and BPA had agreed to have a BPA staff archaeologist perform the survey and reporting work. Unexpectedly, just prior to the expected start date for the surveys, the employee resigned leaving BPA's staff short handed and necessitated contracting the work with an archaeological consultant. This delay caused us to forego work on several projects that are now deferred until the next contract period. The most notable projects impacted by this unfortunate circumstance are those involving the construction or repair of fences.

  9. Thomas B. Fordham Foundation Sponsorship Accountability Report, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation believes that all children deserve a high-quality K-12 education at the school of their choice. Nationally and in its home state of Ohio, the Foundation strives to close America's vexing achievement gaps by raising standards, strengthening accountability, and expanding education options for students and families.…

  10. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Donald; DePaolo, Donald

    2008-07-21

    Research in earth and atmospheric sciences has become increasingly important in light of the energy, climate change, and other environmental issues facing the United States and the world. The development of new energy resources other than fossil hydrocarbons, the safe disposal of nuclear waste and greenhouse gases, and a detailed understanding of the climatic consequences of our energy choices are all critical to meeting energy needs while ensuring environmental safety. The cleanup of underground contamination and the preservation and management of water supplies continue to provide challenges, as they will for generations into the future. To address the critical energy and environmental issues requires continuing advances in our knowledge of Earth systems and our ability to translate that knowledge into new technologies. The fundamental Earth science research common to energy and environmental issues largely involves the physics, chemistry, and biology of fluids in and on the Earth. To manage Earth fluids requires the ability to understand their properties and behavior at the most fundamental molecular level, as well as prediction, characterization, imaging, and manipulation of those fluids and their behavior in real Earth reservoirs. The broad range of disciplinary expertise, the huge range of spatial and time scales, and the need to integrate theoretical, computational, laboratory and field research, represent both the challenge and the excitement of Earth science research. The Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is committed to addressing the key scientific and technical challenges that are needed to secure our energy future in an environmentally responsibly way. Our staff of over 200 scientists, UC Berkeley faculty, support staff and guests perform world-acclaimed fundamental research in hydrogeology and reservoir engineering, geophysics and geomechanics, geochemistry, microbial ecology, climate systems, and environmental engineering. Building on this scientific foundation, we also perform applied earth science research and technology development to support DOE in a number of its program areas. We currently organize our efforts in the following Division Programs: Fundamental and Exploratory Research--fundamental research in geochemistry, geophysics, and hydrology to provide a basis for new and improved energy and environmental technologies; Climate and Carbon Sciences--carbon cycling in the terrestrial biosphere and oceans, and global and regional climate modeling, are the cornerstones of a major developing divisional research thrust related to understanding and mitigating the effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; Energy Resources--collaborative projects with industry to develop or improve technologies for the exploration and production of oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs, and for the development of bioenergy; Environmental Remediation and Water Resources--innovative technologies for locating, containing, and remediating metals, radionuclides, chlorinated solvents, and energy-related contaminants in soils and groundwaters; Geologic Carbon Sequestration--development and testing of methods for introducing carbon dioxide to subsurface geologic reservoirs, and predicting and monitoring its subsequent migration; and Nuclear Waste and Energy--theoretical, experimental, and simulation studies of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These programs draw from each of ESD's disciplinary departments: Climate Science, Ecology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Hydrogeology. Short descriptions of these departments are provided as introductory material. In this document, we present summaries of selected current research projects. While it is not a complete accounting, the projects described here are representative of the nature and breadth of the ESD research effort. We are proud of our scientific accomplishments and we hope that you will find this material useful and exciting. A list of publications for the period from January 2006 to June 2007, along with a listing of our personnel, are also appended. Any comments on our research are appreciated and can be sent to me personally.

  11. The Independent Technical Analysis Process Final Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey; Ham, Kenneth; Dauble, Dennis; Johnson, Gary

    2007-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities. The Independent Technical Analysis Process (ITAP) was created to provide non-routine analysis for fish and wildlife agencies and tribes in particular and the public in general on matters related to juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage through the mainstem hydrosystem. The process was designed to maintain the independence of analysts and reviewers from parties requesting analyses, to avoid potential bias in technical products. The objectives identified for this project were to administer a rigorous, transparent process to deliver unbiased technical assistance necessary to coordinate recommendations for storage reservoir and river operations that avoid potential conflicts between anadromous and resident fish. Seven work elements, designated by numbered categories in the Pisces project tracking system, were created to define and accomplish project goals as follows: (1) 118 Coordination - Coordinate technical analysis and review process: (a) Retain expertise for analyst/reviewer roles. (b) Draft research directives. (c) Send directive to the analyst. (d) Coordinate two independent reviews of the draft report. (e) Ensure reviewer comments are addressed within the final report. (2) 162 Analyze/Interpret Data - Implement the independent aspects of the project. (3) 122 Provide Technical Review - Implement the review process for the analysts. (4) 132 Produce Annual Report - FY06 annual progress report with Pisces Disseminate (5) 161 Disseminate Raw/Summary Data and Results - Post technical products on the ITAP web site. (6) 185-Produce Pisces Status Report - Provide periodic status reports to BPA. (7) 119 Manage and Administer Projects - project/contract administration.

  12. An Exploration of Pennsylvania Corrective Action Plans, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Davis, Carrie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    With the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB"), signed into law on January 8, 2002, schools nationwide have been challenged to improve student achievement. Several middle and junior high schools in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania were identified as being in need of Corrective Action in 2006 based upon data from the…

  13. Arkansas Department of Education Home School Report, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report presents data on home schooling in the state of Arkansas that covers: students withdrawn from home school; home school student count by county, district, and grade level; and home school enrollments by grade and gender. The report contains the texts of the Arkansas Code Annotated Section 6-15-501 through Section 6-15-508 Home School…

  14. Learning Styles of Sophomore Students of PUP Laboratory High School (SY 2006-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castolo, Carmencita L.; Rebusquillo, Lizyl R.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles have a big contribution to the academic performance of a student. Awareness of one's learning styles will help a person maximize his potential in accumulating learning to the best of his ability with the use of his preferred learning styles. The teacher's awareness of the student's learning styles will help him/her select teaching…

  15. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet) from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012. PMID:20500809

  16. Forecast and Validation of the Rift Valley fever outbreak in East Africa: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The instantaneous occurrence of El Nino / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events and anomalous warming of the equatorial western Indian Ocean (WIO) are associated with elevated and widespread rainfall over East Africa. Such, sustained, heavy rainfall in East is associated with the emerg...

  17. Handbook 2006-2007: Federal Student Aid. Volume 3--Calculating Awards & Packaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Every eligible program, including graduate programs, must have a defined academic year. Award limits are generally connected to a period of time. For instance, all of the programs except Federal Work-Study have a maximum amount that can be awarded for an academic year or award year. This handbook is a resource for learning about Federal Student…

  18. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  19. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY: OBSERVATIONS OBTAINED IN 2006-2007 AND 35 NEW ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartkopf, William I.; Mason, Brian D. E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mil

    2009-09-15

    Results are presented for 607 speckle interferometric observations of double stars, as well as 222 measures of single stars or unresolved pairs. All data were obtained in 2006 and 2007 at the Mount Wilson Observatory, using the 2.5 m Hooker telescope. Separations range from 0.''06 to 6.''31, with a median of 0.''34. These three observing runs concentrated on binaries in need of confirmation (mainly Hipparcos and Tycho pairs), as well as systems in need of improved orbital elements. New orbital solutions have been determined for 35 systems as a result.

  20. Federal Student Aid Handbook, 2006-2007. Volume 2: School Eligibility and Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to describe how a school becomes eligible to participate in the Federal Student Aid (FSA) programs and to explain the administrative and fiscal requirements of FSA program participation. In addition, this publication discusses other issues relevant to the general administration of the FSA programs. A summary of…

  1. The In-flight Spectroscopic Performance of the Swift XRT CCD Camera During 2006-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godet, O.; Beardmore, A.P.; Abbey, A.F.; Osborne, J.P.; Page, K.L.; Evans, P.; Starling, R.; Wells, A.A.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D.N.; Kennea, J.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.; Giommi, P.; Perri, M.; Capalbi, M.; Tamburelli, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 135 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV as measured before launch. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Comparison of observed spectra with models folded through the instrument response produces negative residuals around and below the Oxygen edge. We discuss several possible causes for such residuals. Traps created by proton damage on the CCD increase the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) over time. We describe the evolution of the CTI since the launch and its effect on the CCD spectral resolution and the gain.

  2. Handbook 2006-2007: Federal Student Aid. Volume 5--Overawards, Overpayments, & Withdrawal Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The table of contents divides this handbook into two chapters. The first chapter, Overawards, defines the term, and then discusses a student's and a school's responsibility for resolving overpayments and overawards. Following the award of an aid package, student circumstances may change and result in an overaward. For instance, the student may…

  3. Federal Student Aid Handbook, 2006-2007. Volume 1: Student Eligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There are many factors to be considered when reviewing a student's application for aid from the FSA programs, such as whether the student is a U.S. citizen or permanent resident, whether the student is making satisfactory academic progress, and whether the student has a defaulted FSA loan. This volume of the Federal Student Aid Handbook discusses…

  4. Yakima and Touchet River Basins Phase II Fish Screen Evaluation, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn

    2007-03-01

    In 2006, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated 27 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima and Touchet river basins. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performs these evaluations for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to determine whether the fish screening devices meet those National Marine Fisheries (NMFS) criteria for juvenile fish screen design, that promote safe and timely passage of juvenile salmonids. The NMFS criteria against which the sites were evaluated are as follows: (1) a uniform flow distribution over the screen surface to minimize approach velocity; (2) approach velocities less than or equal to 0.4 ft/s protects the smallest salmonids from impingement; (3) sweep velocities that are greater than approach velocities to minimize delay of out-migrating juveniles and minimize sediment deposition near the screens; (4) a bypass flow greater than or equal to the maximum flow velocity vector resultant upstream of the screens to also minimize delay of out-migrating salmonids; (5) a gradual and efficient acceleration of flow from the upstream end of the site into the bypass entrance to minimize delay of out-migrating salmonids; and (6) screen submergence between 65% and 85% for drum screen sites. In addition, the silt and debris accumulation next to the screens should be kept to a minimum to prevent excessive wear on screens, seals and cleaning mechanisms. Evaluations consist of measuring velocities in front of the screens, using an underwater camera to assess the condition and environment in front of the screens, and noting the general condition and operation of the sites. Results of the evaluations in 2006 include the following: (1) Most approach velocities met the NMFS criterion of less than or equal to 0.4 ft/s. Of the sites evaluated, 31% exceeded the criterion at least once. Thirty-three percent of flat-plate screens had problems compared to 25% of drum screens. (2) Woody debris and gravel deposited during high river levels were a problem at several sites. In some cases, it was difficult to determine the bypass pipe was plugged until several weeks had passed. Slow bypass flow caused by both the obstructions and high river levels may have discouraged fish from entering the bypass, but once they were in the bypass, they may have had no safe exit. Perhaps some tool or technique can be devised that would help identify whether slow bypass flow is caused by pipe blockage or by high river levels. (3) Bypass velocities generally were greater than sweep velocities, but sweep velocities often did not increase toward the bypass. The latter condition could slow migration of fish through the facility. (4) Screen and seal materials generally were in good condition. (5) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (6) Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) generally operated and maintained fish screen facilities in a way that provided safe passage for juvenile fish. (7) Efforts with WDFW to find optimal louver settings at Naches-Selah were partly successful. The number of spots with excessive approach velocities was decreased, but we were unable to adjust the site to bring all approach values below 0.4 ft/s. (8) In some instances, irrigators responsible for specific maintenance at their sites (e.g., debris removal) did not perform their tasks in a way that provided optimum operation of the fish screen facility. Enforcement personnel proved effective at reminding irrigation districts of their responsibilities to maintain the sites for fish protection as well as irrigation. (9) We recommend placing datasheets providing up-to-date operating criteria and design flows in each site's logbox. The datasheet should include bypass design flows and a table showing depths of water over the weir and corresponding bypass flow. A similar datasheet relating canal gage readings and canal discharge in cubic feet per second would help identify times when the canal is taking more water than it should. This information is available at some of the sites and assists operators in determining if the site is running within the site specific design criteria. (10) Data were collected at Gleed when the protective metal plates were set down to the forebay floor and when they were raised to expose most of the screens. These data were sent to USBR personnel for use in looking for ways to reduce high approach velocities and erratic flow pattern at Gleed. (11) Alternatives to a screen site at Taylor are apparently being considered. A lot of effort was spent in 2005 and 2006 trying to increase water to the site, but it still was unable to operate within NMFS criteria for much of the year and may be a hazard to juvenile salmonids at times.

  5. A National Children's Resiliency Response Initiative: 2006-2007 Plan to Help Katrina's Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Alice Mae

    2006-01-01

    The 2006 National Resiliency Response Initiative for Katrina's Kids is a systematic approach to providing resiliency support to the over 200,000 children victimized by one of the worst natural disasters in American history. From the Gulf States region, children suffered trauma during and after Hurricane Katrina as they became displaced young…

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2006 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2006 and February 2007. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  7. Application of anaerobically digested biosolids to dryland winter wheat: 2006-2007 results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of biosolids to lands in EPA Region 8 is the major method of biosolids disposal, with 85% of the material being reused. This disposal method can greatly benefit municipalities and farmers by recycling plant nutrients in an environmentally sound manner. Our long-term biosolids proje...

  8. 78 FR 50113 - Distribution of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... September 16, 2013. ADDRESSES: Participants must submit an original, five paper copies, and an electronic..., music, etc.). For broadcast years 2006 through 2009, the parties settled their controversies. The...

  9. Hydrologic conditions in the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Much of the surface water that flows into the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge (FPNWR) probably exits southward through Fakahatchee Strand as it did prior to development, because culverts and bridges constructed along I-75 allow overland flow to continue southward within the strand. During the dry season and periods of low water levels, however, much of the flow is diverted westward by the I-75 Canal into Merritt Canal at the southwestern corner of the FPNWR. Substantial drainage of groundwater from the FPNWR into the I-75 Canal is indicated by (1) greater surface-water outflows than inflows in the FPNWR, (2) flows that increase to the west along the I-75 Canal, and (3) correlation of rapid groundwater-level declines at sites close to the I-75 Canal with rapid declines in canal surface-water levels due to operation of a control structure in the Merritt Canal. This drainage of groundwater probably occurs through permeable limestone exposed in the I-75 Canal bank below a cap rock layer. Compared to predevelopment conditions, the time currently required to drain ponded water in some areas of the refuge should be less because of accelerated groundwater discharge into the I-75 Canal caused by the lowering of water levels in the canal during the peak of the wet season extending into the early dry season. This drainage probably reduces the duration of the hydroperiod in these wetlands from the wet season into the dry season, possibly reducing or limiting the extent or vitality of wildlife and plant community habitats.

  10. Wyoming Community Colleges. Annual Performance Report: Core Indicators of Effectiveness 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Core Indicators of Effectiveness Report" delineates the performance of Wyoming's community colleges as measured by the 14 indicators set forth by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) and adopted by the seven Wyoming community colleges and the Wyoming Community College Commission. These indicators, while providing…

  11. Selected Water-Quality Data for the Standard Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Todorov, Todor; Adams, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Mine drainage and underground water samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes as part of a 1-year, hydrogeologic investigation of the Standard Mine and vicinity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has listed the Standard Mine in the Elk Creek drainage near Crested Butte, Colorado, as a Superfund Site because discharge from the Standard Mine enters Elk Creek, contributing dissolved and suspended loads of zinc, cadmium, copper, and other metals to Coal Creek, which is the primary drinking-water supply for the town of Crested Butte. Water analyses are reported for mine-effluent samples from Levels 1 and 5 of the Standard Mine, underground samples from Levels 3 and 5 of the Standard Mine, mine effluent from an adit located on the Elk Lode, and two spring samples that emerged from waste-rock material below Level 5 of the Standard Mine and the adit located on the Elk Lode. Reported analyses include field parameters (pH, specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential) and major constituents and trace elements.

  12. Abattoir based survey of Salmonella in finishing pigs in the United Kingdom 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Marier, E A; Snow, L C; Floyd, T; McLaren, I M; Bianchini, J; Cook, A J C; Davies, R H

    2014-12-01

    All European Union (EU) Member States (MSs) were required to conduct a baseline survey from October 2006 to September 2007 to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella infection in finisher pigs at slaughter. In the United Kingdom (UK), samples for microbiological culture were collected from the ileo-caecal lymph nodes, from carcass swabs and from caecal contents. Meat juice samples were also collected for testing in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MJE) to detect a serological response. Salmonella was isolated from 22% (CI95% 19-25%) of ileo-caecal lymph nodes, 15% (CI95% 12-18%) of carcass swabs and 22% (CI95% 19-26%) of caecal contents. A quarter (25%, CI95% 22-29%) of MJE samples were positive for Salmonella antibodies (cut-off, S/P≥0.25). The most frequently identified serovars were Salmonella typhimurium (57%) and Salmonella derby (26%). The results were used to investigate some factors associated with Salmonella infection in slaughter pigs. The weight of the carcass was significant, with a lower probability of obtaining a positive meat juice result from pigs with a weight greater than 75 kg (p=0.03). The weight of the lymph node sample was significantly associated with Salmonella status, with a heavier sample of lymph nodes being more likely to be positive (OR=2.16 CI95% 1.07-4.39). 'Carcass weight' in two of the classes - 75-79 kg and 80-84 kg - (OR=0.44 CI95% 0.28-0.70; OR=0.64 CI95% 0.49-0.85) and 'fewer-than-1500-pigs' scheduled for slaughter on the day of sampling' (OR=0.41 CI95% 0.24-0.71) were also associated with a reduced risk of isolating Salmonella from lymph node. The model for carcass swabs showed a positive association with 'time-elapsed-since-the-start-of-the-line' indicating a higher risk of contamination as the day progressed (p<0.01). This model also showed positive association between isolation of Salmonella from a carcass swab and the occurrence of Salmonella in caecal contents from the same pig (OR=2.22 CI95% 1.38-3.59) and a negative association with time in singeing units (OR=0.88 CI95% 0.79-0.98).

  13. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Organizations: Ninth Annual Report, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David R.; Miron, Gary; Berry, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    The for-profit education management industry has, based on the available data, entered a period of relative stability. The industry's actual condition, however, is more difficult to determine than ever. This is because companies that dominate the industry are privately held and do not have to provide information to the public that they choose not…

  14. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) contains an overview of activities of the Council between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007. These include programs, awards, publications, advisory groups, grants and contracts, and financial statements. It also includes a list of staff, a letter from the chairperson Paula…

  15. Speckle Interferometry at Mount Wilson Observatory: Observations Obtained in 2006-2007 and 35 New Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartkopf, William I.; Mason, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented for 607 speckle interferometric observations of double stars, as well as 222 measures of single stars or unresolved pairs. All data were obtained in 2006 and 2007 at the Mount Wilson Observatory, using the 2.5 m Hooker telescope. Separations range from 0.06 to 6.31, with a median of 0.34. These three observing runs concentrated on binaries in need of confirmation (mainly Hipparcos and Tycho pairs), as well as systems in need of improved orbital elements. New orbital solutions have been determined for 35 systems as a result.

  16. Monitor and Evaluate the Genetic Characteristics of Supplemented Salmon and Steelhead, 2006-2007 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berntson, Ewann; Waples, Robin S.; Moran, Paul

    2008-11-20

    This progress report offers a summary of genetic monitoring and evaluation research related to artificial propagation of Chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River basin. Our principal goal has been to characterize the relative (and net) reproductive success of hatchery fish spawning in the wild in multiple sub-basins. We address a critical uncertainty identified in essentially all tribal, state, and federal recovery planning efforts. Beyond simple description of those patterns of differential reproductive success, we seek to understand the biotic and abiotic factors that contribute to our observations, including genetic and environmental elements, and the real time effects of hatchery reform. We adopt two fundamentally different approaches that capture processes operating at different geographic scales. Our tier 2 design monitors changes in gene frequency through time in hatchery and wild populations. These studies monitor spatial and temporal genetic change over broad river basins and sub-basins. Tier 3 studies, by contrast, are able to construct pedigrees in naturally spawning populations that include hatchery and wild fish. We can then use actual matings to infer the fitness of hatchery versus wild individuals, based on the numbers of offspring we observe in our progeny samples. We get extraordinary detail from the tier 3 studies but only for a single river system. Thus, tier 2 studies provide breadth of information, whereas tier 3 studies offer unparalleled depth of insight for single discrete systems. We exceeded our goals in almost all areas for both tier 2 and tier 3 studies, and, where we did not, we offer an explanation of why, and what future action will be taken (Lessons Learned). All subcontracts were let as expected, providing smolt trapping, tissue sampling, genotyping, and analysis. Our inter-laboratory standardization efforts with tribal, state, and federal agencies were highly successful in this period. These standardization activities have been an on-going element of this study, beginning with WDFW's forays into DNA markers in the late 1990s and continuing and becoming more formalized with the initiation of the newer genetics laboratories (CRITFC, USFWS, and IDFG). This report is intended to document success in achieving collection and genotyping goals. Data analyses, presentation, and publication are keeping pace with data collection; however, detailed results are not presented at this time. A complete and comprehensive analysis and description of results will be provided in published manuscripts and in the 2009 annual report (the culmination of the current 3-year rolling review cycle). In the first section of this report, we present accomplishments related to individual projects within this genetic monitoring program. Subsequent to the standard reporting categories, we provide a Specific Obligations section that lists accomplishments exactly as the deliverables are presented in the Pisces Statement of Work. This approach results in a small amount of redundancy, but we try to minimize obvious cases. The goal is to provide our accomplishments in a format that is easily compared to the Work-Element-driven format of Pisces, yet also provide a narrative that shows continuity with the individual studies that make up this research program.

  17. Classroom Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Teaching Ideas, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the four issues in the 24th volume of "Classroom Notes Plus." issue of "Classroom Notes Plus" contains descriptions of original, unpublished teaching practices, and of adapted ideas. The August 2006 issue (v24 n1) includes: More Choice Leads to More Reading (Amy Ishee); Book-of-the Month Reports (Patricia Crist);…

  18. Documentation of Data Collection in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and Virginia, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, scientists from Elizabeth City State University, North Carolina Estuarine Research Reserve, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water-quality data at nine sites in and around Currituck Sound. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at five tributary sites--the Northwest River near Moyock, Tull Creek near Currituck, and Intracoastal Waterway near Coinjock in North Carolina, and the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal near Princess Anne, and the North Landing River near Creeds in Virginia. In addition, data were collected at one site at the mouth of Currituck Sound (Currituck Sound at Point Harbor, North Carolina). Only water-quality data were collected at three sites in Currituck Sound and Back Bay-Currituck Sound near Jarvisburg, and Upper Currituck Sound near Corolla in North Carolina, and Back Bay near Back Bay in Virginia. The hydrologic data included water elevation and velocity, and discharge. The water-quality data included discrete samples and continuous measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and chlorophyll a. The hydrologic and water-quality data collected for this study were quality assured by the U.S. Geological Survey and stored in the National Water Information System database. The data collected for this project are being used to develop an unsteady multidimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model of Currituck Sound by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The purpose of this model is to provide the basis for planning and the development of best-management practices and restoration projects for Currituck Sound and its tributaries.

  19. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2006-2007 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide resident fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program is also designed to maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was very unproductive this year as a fishery. Fish morphometric and water quality data indicate that the turbidity is severely impacting trout survival. Lake Billy Shaw was very productive as a fishery and received good ratings from anglers. Mountain View was also productive and anglers reported a high number of quality sized fish. Water quality (specifically dissolved oxygen and temperature) is the main limiting factor in our fisheries.

  20. John F. Kennedy Space Center's Technology Development and Application 2006-2007 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Topics covered include: Reversible Chemochromic Hydrogen Detectors; Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling; Using Indium Tin Oxide To Mitigate Dust on Viewing Ports; High-Performance Polyimide Powder Coatings; Controlled-Release Microcapsules for Smart Coatings for Corrosion Applications; Aerocoat 7 Replacement Coatings; Photocatalytic Coatings for Exploration and Spaceport Design; New Materials for the Repair of Polyimide Electrical Wire Insulation; Commodity-Free Calibration; Novel Ice Mitigation Methods; Crack Offset Measurement With the Projected Laser Target Device; New Materials for Structural Composites and Protective Coatings; Fire Chemistry Testing of Spray-On Foam Insulation (SOFI); Using Aerogel-Based Insulation Material To Prevent Foam Loss on the Liquid-Hydrogen Intertank; Particle Ejection and Levitation Technology (PELT); Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust; Numerical Analysis of Rocket Exhaust Cratering; RESOLVE Projects: Lunar Water Resource Demonstration and Regolith Volatile Characterization; Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation; Numerically Modeling the Erosion of Lunar Soil by Rocket Exhaust Plumes; Trajectory Model of Lunar Dust Particles; Using Lunar Module Shadows To Scale the Effects of Rocket Exhaust Plumes; Predicting the Acoustic Environment Induced by the Launch of the Ares I Vehicle; Measuring Ultrasonic Acoustic Velocity in a Thin Sheet of Graphite Epoxy Composite; Hail Size Distribution Mapping; Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor Array System; Autonomous Flight Safety System - Phase III; The Photogrammetry Cube; Bird Vision System; Automating Range Surveillance Through Radio Interferometry and Field Strength Mapping Techniques; Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation; GPS Metric Tracking Unit; and Space-Based Range.

  1. Surveillance for West Nile virus in American white pelicans, Montana, USA, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Gregory; Nemeth, Nicole; Hale, Kristina; Lindsey, Nicole; Panella, Nicholas; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks have been recognized at various nesting colonies in the United States since 2002. We evaluated American white pelican nesting colonies in Sheridan County, Montana, USA, for an association between WNV-positive pelican carcasses and human West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Persons in counties hosting affected colonies had a 5x higher risk for disease than those in counties with unaffected colonies. We also investigated WNV infection and blood meal source among mosquitoes and pelican tissue type for greatest WNV detection efficacy in carcasses. WNV-infected Culex tarsalis mosquitoes were detected and blood-engorged Cx. tarsalis contained pelican DNA. Viral loads and detection consistency among pelican tissues were greatest in feather pulp, brain, heart, and skin. Given the risks posed to wildlife and human health, coordinated efforts among wildlife and public health authorities to monitor these pelican colonies for WNV activity are potentially useful.

  2. Federal Student Aid Handbook, 2006-2007. Volume 4: Processing Aid & Managing FSA Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide participating schools with guidance on how to request, disburse, manage, and report on the use of Federal Student Aid funds. A summary of the changes and clarifications is presented in greater detail in the chapters that are contained in this volume: Chapter 1, The MPN (Master Promissory Note) and the…

  3. Reasons for delay in seeking care for tuberculosis, republic of armenia, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Dana; McNabb, Scott J N; Safaryan, Marina; Davidyants, Vladimir; Niazyan, Ludmila; Orbelyan, Sona

    2010-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Armenia, case reports of active TB increased from 590 to 1538 between 1990 and 2003. However, the TB case detection rate in Armenia in 2007 was only 51%, indicating that many cases go undetected or that suspected cases are not referred for confirmatory diagnosis. Understanding why Armenians do not seek or delay TB medical care is important to increase detection rates, improve treatment outcomes, and reduce ongoing transmission. Methods. Two hundred-forty patients hospitalized between August 2006 and September 2007 at two Armenian TB reference hospitals were interviewed about symptoms, when they sought medical attention after symptom onset, outcomes of their first medical visit, and when they began treatment after diagnosis. We used logistic regression modeling to identify reasons for delay in diagnosis. Results. Fatigue and weight loss were significantly associated with delay in seeking medical attention [aOR = 2.47 (95%CI = 1.15, 5.29); aOR = 2.99 (95%CI = 1.46, 6.14), resp.], while having night sweats protected against delay [aOR = 0.48 (95%CI = 0.24, 0.96)]. Believing the illness to be something other than TB was also significantly associated with delay [aOR = 2.63 (95%CI = 1.13, 6.12)]. Almost 20% of the 240 TB patients were neither diagnosed at their first medical visit nor referred for further evaluation. Conclusions. This study showed that raising awareness of the signs and symptoms of TB among both the public and clinical communities is urgently needed.

  4. Topographic Change Detection at Select Archeological Sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Topographic change of archeological sites within the Colorado River corridor of Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is a subject of interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is typical in the Grand Canyon region, a continuing debate exists on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of GCNP, are impacting rates of site erosion, artifact transport, and the preservation of archeological resources. Continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Understanding the causes and effects of archaeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors including the location and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rate of the changes, and the relative contribution of several potential causes, including sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar data collection techniques and novel TIN- and GRID-based change-detection post-processing methods, we analyzed topographic data for nine archeological sites. The data were collected using three separate data collection efforts spanning 16 months (May 2006 to September 2007). Our results documented positive evidence of erosion, deposition, or both at six of the nine sites investigated during this time interval. In addition, we observed possible signs of change at two of the other sites. Erosion was concentrated in established gully drainages and averaged 12 cm to 17 cm in depth with maximum depths of 50 cm. Deposition was concentrated at specific locations outside of drainages but generally was spread over larger areas (tens to hundreds of square meters). Maximum depths of deposition averaged 12 cm to 15 cm and reached as much as 35 cm. Overall, we found that the spatial distribution and magnitudes of surface change are specific to each site and that a thorough understanding of the geomorphology, weather, and sand supply is requisite for a complete understanding of the data. Additional work in combining these results with site-specific weather, hydrology, and geomorphology data will assist in the development of working models for determining the causes of the documented topographic changes.

  5. Promotores As Advocates for Community Improvement: Experiences of the Western States REACH Su Comunidad Consortium.

    PubMed

    Kutcher, Rachel; Moore-Monroy, Martha; Bello, Elizur; Doyle, Seth; Ibarra, Jorge; Kunz, Susan; Munoz, Rocio; Patton-Lopez, Megan; Sharkey, Joseph R; Wilger, Susan; Alfero, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    The REACH Su Comunidad Consortium worked with 10 communities to address disparities in access to healthy food and physical activity opportunities among Hispanic populations through policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) strategies. Community health workers took leadership roles in the implementation of PSE strategies in partnership with local multisector coalitions. This article describes the role of community health workers in PSE change, the technical and professional development support provided to the REACH Su Comunidad Communities, and highlights professional development needs of community health workers engaging in PSE strategies.

  6. Familia and Comunidad-Based Saberes: Learning in an Indigenous Heritage Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how children and youth learned indigenous heritage "saberes" (knowings) through intent community participation in Nocutzepo, Mexico. The "familia" (family) and "comunidad" (community)-based saberes were valuable for skills acquisition, but most important for learning indigenous forms of…

  7. Evaluation of the Training Component of the Servicio National de Desarrollo de la Comunidad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschman, Mel; Thullen, Manfred

    Since 1970, the Servicio National de Desarrollo de la Comunidad (SNDC) has been in existence as an autonomous decentralized government agency. Its main effort has been to integrate Bolivia's 3.4 million rural inhabitants, the "campesinos," into the mainstream of national socioeconomic programs through self-help development projects at…

  8. Comparison of 2006-2007 Water Years and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solberg, P.A.; Moore, Bryan; Smits, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2006 and 2007. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2006 and 2007 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were collected following USGS protocols (U.S. Geological Survey, variously dated).

  9. Runoff simulations from the Greenland ice sheet at Kangerlussuaq from 2006-2007 to 2007/08. West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Hasholt, Bent; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on runoff from a large sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) - the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland - for the runoff observation period 2006/07 to 2007/08. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff. Independent in situ end-of-winter snow depth and high-resolution runoff observations were used for validation of simulated accumulation and ablation processes. Runoff was modeled on both daily and hourly time steps, filling a data gap of runoff exiting part of the GrIS. Using hourly meteorological driving data instead of smoothed daily-averaged data produced more realistic meteorological conditions in relation to snow and melt threshold surface processes, and produced 6-17% higher annual cumulative runoff. The simulated runoff series yielded useful insights into the present conditions of inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Kangerlussuaq runoff, and provided an acceptable degree of agreement between simulated and observed runoff. The simulated spatial runoff distributions, in some areas of the GrIS terminus, were as high as 2,750 mm w.eq. of runoff for 2006/07, while only 900 mm w.eq was simulated for 2007/08. The simulated total runoff from Kangerlussuaq was 1.9 km{sup 3} for 2006/07 and 1.2 km{sup 3} for 2007/08, indicating a reduction of 35-40% caused by the climate conditions and changes in the GrIS freshwater storage. The reduction in runoff from 2006/07 to 2007/08 occurred simultaneously with the reduction in the overall pattern of satellite-derived GrIS surface melt from 2007 to 2008.

  10. Dengue virus type 3 adaptive changes during epidemics in São Jose de Rio Preto, Brazil, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julian; Mondini, Adriano; Bosch, Irene; Schimdt, Diane J; Schimitt, Diane; Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Nogueira, Maurício L

    2013-01-01

    Global dengue virus spread in tropical and sub-tropical regions has become a major international public health concern. It is evident that DENV genetic diversity plays a significant role in the immunopathology of the disease and that the identification of polymorphisms associated with adaptive responses is important for vaccine development. The investigation of naturally occurring genomic variants may play an important role in the comprehension of different adaptive strategies used by these mutants to evade the human immune system. In order to elucidate this role we sequenced the complete polyprotein-coding region of thirty-three DENV-3 isolates to characterize variants circulating under high endemicity in the city of São José de Rio Preto, Brazil, during the onset of the 2006-07 epidemic. By inferring the evolutionary history on a local-scale and estimating rates of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonimous (dN) substitutions, we have documented at least two different introductions of DENV-3 into the city and detected 10 polymorphic codon sites under significant positive selection (dN/dS > 1) and 8 under significant purifying selection (dN/dS < 1). We found several polymorphic amino acid coding sites in the envelope (15), NS1 (17), NS2A (11), and NS5 (24) genes, which suggests that these genes may be experiencing relatively recent adaptive changes. Furthermore, some polymorphisms correlated with changes in the immunogenicity of several epitopes. Our study highlights the existence of significant and informative DENV variability at the spatio-temporal scale of an urban outbreak.

  11. An overview of gas hydrate and cold seep research along the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand (2006 & 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, J.; Faure, K.; Naudts, L.; de Batist, M.; Bialas, J.; Linke, P.; Pecher, I.; Rowden, R.

    2009-04-01

    Prior to 2006, the knowledge about cold seeps around New Zealand was based mainly on accidental recovery of seep fauna or methane-derived carbonates by fishermen and the detection of flares in fish-finding sonars. Lewis and Marshall (1996; NZJGG) compiled these findings, providing the first details on 13 seep sites. Four of those are located at the Hikurangi Margin along the east coast of New Zealand's North Island. Since then, three international cruises in 2006 and 2007 enhanced our knowledge considerably about methane seepage along the Hikurangi Margin, an area which has widely distributed and in places very strong BSR. Two cruises on the RV TANGAROA (led by GNS Science and NIWA, NZ) in 2006 focused on extensive reconnaissance work (multibeam mapping, seismic surveys, flare imaging, visual observations) as well as fauna sampling, geochemical pore water analyses and CTD casts including water sampling for methane analyses. Several new seep sites were discovered during these cruises. Using these data, very detailed investigations in four main working areas could be performed during a 10-week expedition with RV SONNE (SO191, led by IFM-GEOMAR, Germany). All research topics currently discussed in the scientific community were addressed using state-of-the-art equipment (e.g. deep-tow side-scan, TV-guided sampling, lander and ROV-deployments). Fourteen institutes from seven countries were involved (Australia, Belgium, Germany, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States, Switzerland). Echosounder and sidescan surveys unmistakably revealed active seep sites by detecting bubbles in the water column and carbonate precipitation at the seafloor forming massive chemoherm complexes. These complexes are associated with typical seep fauna like tube worms, bivalve mollusk species (Calyptogena, Bathymodiolus),and bacterial mats. At the fringe of these chemoherms dark sediment patches were observed which exihibit a novel seep habitat dominated by dense beds of two new species of heterotrophic ampharetid polychaetes. Bubble release was visually observed at several sites and recorded in the backscatter of various acoustic devices. At one site (680m water depth) very strong, pulsing outbursts could be observed repeatedly with methane fluxes of 20 to 25 l/min (60 to 74 mol/min). Intense CTD sampling and onboard methane analyses revealed that at least three of the areas are actively venting methane with an upper boundary at about 500 m, due to a density barrier. ADCP data indicate tide-dependent changes in current speed and direction. Delta 13C values of dissolved methane range from -71 to -19 permil, reflecting bacterial oxidation of methane in the water column, with a removal rate of 38 nM/day (or 11 to 19%/day). Equilibrator surveys, analyzing the sea surface and atmospheric methane concentrations show no significant oversaturation and fluxes for the entire studied area of the Hikurangi Margin. Extensive pore-water measurements, including in situ measurements during lander deployments, were aimed at evaluating flux rates of dissolved geochemical species and free gas. These measurements revealed that the dark sediment patches represent a remarkable seep habitat because of its very high methane fluxes and total oxygen consumption rates. Detailed seismic and controlled-source electromagnetic surveys allowed quantification of gas hydrates and regional estimates of fluid-flow focusing and the impact on the gas hydrate stability and BSR occurrence. Furthermore, the geophysical data imaged fluid pathways under seeps and indicated that more seep sites could be found at the seafloor. In 2006 and 2007, 23 new seep sites have been identified and visually observed, which resulted in a total of 31 seeps sites for the Hikurangi Margin. With more cruises proposed, this number is likely to increase.

  12. The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: The 2006-2007 update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update of the human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness phenotypes covers the research advances reported in 2006 and 2007. The genes and markers with evidence of association or linkage with a performance or a fitness phenotype in sedentary or active people, in responses...

  13. Characterization of clinical Clostridium difficile isolates by PCR ribotyping and detection of toxin genes in Austria, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Indra, A; Schmid, D; Huhulescu, S; Hell, M; Gattringer, R; Hasenberger, P; Fiedler, A; Wewalka, G; Allerberger, F

    2008-06-01

    In order to assess the lethality of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and the PCR ribotypes prevalent in Austria, the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety requested isolates of C. difficile from patients in a structured but arbitrary sampling scheme. In the allocated period from February 2006 to January 2007, local hospital laboratories within each of the nine provinces were asked to submit C. difficile isolates from at least ten cases of CDAD. Confirmation of species identification, toxin detection, susceptibility testing against four antimicrobial agents and typing using a PCR ribotyping method were performed at the reference laboratory. In total, 149 isolates of putative C. difficile were submitted, from which 142 were included for study. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns revealed resistance to clindamycin in 57% and high-level resistance to moxifloxacin in 38% of isolates tested. CDAD manifested as diarrhoea (including eight cases of bloody diarrhoea) in 126 cases (88.7%), as pseudomembranous colitis in 15 cases (10.6%) and as toxic megacolon in one case. Twelve of the 142 patients died within 30 days of specimen collection (8.45% lethality). A lethal outcome occurred in 2/15 cases (13.3%) when pseudomembranous colitis was present and in 10/126 cases (7.9%) in the absence of pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Among the 142 isolates from 25 health-care facilities, 41 PCR ribotype patterns were found. The most frequent ribotypes were AI-5 (including six lethal cases out of 26 patients), 014 (two out of 24) and 053 (one out of 24). The typing patterns demonstrated the occurrence of clusters in hospitals.

  14. Review of Doctoral Research in Second-Language Teaching and Learning in the United States (2006-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motha, Suhanthie

    2009-01-01

    This review highlights recent doctoral research in the United States completed between the spring of 2006 and the fall of 2007 in the areas of language teaching and language learning. Topics of particular interest included language policy, second/foreign language pragmatics, computer-mediated communication, non-native-speaking teachers, academic…

  15. Characterization of Fouling at Field Test Sites of the ONR Biofouling Program: Background Information and Results for 2006-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Anticorrosive 1 INTERGARD FPL274/FPA3 27 epoxy polyamide 5 INTERGARD FPL274/FPA32 7 epoxy polyamide 5 INTERGARD FPL274/FPA327 epoxy polyamide 5...Anticorrosive 2 INTERGARD FPJ034/FPA3 27 epoxy polyamide 5 INTERGARD FPJ034/FPA327 epoxy polyamide 5 INTERGARD FPJ034/FPA327 epoxy polyamide 5...1996. The surface properties of silicone elastomers exposed to seawater. Biofouling 10:199-212. Roberts D, Rittschof D, Holm E, Schmidt AR. 1991

  16. Sea surface carbon dioxide at the Georgia time series site (2006-2007): Air-sea flux and controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Sabine, Christopher; Jones, Stacy; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Jiang, Li-Qing; Reimer, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in surface seawater was continuously recorded every three hours from 18 July 2006 through 31 October 2007 using a moored autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) system deployed on the Gray's Reef buoy off the coast of Georgia, USA. Surface water pCO2 (average 373 ± 52 μatm) showed a clear seasonal pattern, undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in cold months and generally oversaturated in warm months. High temporal resolution observations revealed important events not captured in previous ship-based observations, such as sporadically occurring biological CO2 uptake during April-June 2007. In addition to a qualitative analysis of the primary drivers of pCO2 variability based on property regressions, we quantified contributions of temperature, air-sea exchange, mixing, and biological processes to monthly pCO2 variations using a 1-D mass budget model. Although temperature played a dominant role in the annual cycle of pCO2, river inputs especially in the wet season, biological respiration in peak summer, and biological production during April-June 2007 also substantially influenced seawater pCO2. Furthermore, sea surface pCO2 was higher in September-October 2007 than in September-October 2006, associated with increased river inputs in fall 2007. On an annual basis this site was a moderate atmospheric CO2 sink, and was autotrophic as revealed by monthly mean net community production (NCP) in the mixed layer. If the sporadic short productive events during April-May 2007 were missed by the sampling schedule, one would conclude erroneously that the site is heterotrophic. While previous ship-based pCO2 data collected around this buoy site agreed with the buoy CO2 data on seasonal scales, high resolution buoy observations revealed that the cruise-based surveys undersampled temporal variability in coastal waters, which could greatly bias the estimates of air-sea CO2 fluxes or annual NCP, and even produce contradictory results.

  17. Multistate outbreak of human Salmonella infections caused by contaminated dry dog food--United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    2008-05-16

    During January 1, 2006-December 31, 2007, CDC collaborated with public health officials in Pennsylvania, other states, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate a prolonged multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund infections in humans. A total of 70 cases of S. Schwarzengrund infection with the outbreak strain (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] pattern JM6X01.0015) were identified in 19 states, mostly in the northeastern United States. This report describes the outbreak investigation, which identified the source of infection as dry dog food produced at a manufacturing plant in Pennsylvania. This investigation is the first to identify contaminated dry dog food as a source of human Salmonella infections. After handling pet foods, pet owners should wash their hands immediately, and infants should be kept away from pet feeding areas.

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: February 2006 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Reysa, Richard P.; Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) continues to mature and operate its life support equipment. Major events occurring between February 2006 and February 2007 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing hardware anomalies. This paper addresses the major ISS operation events over the last year. Impact to overall ISS operations is also discussed.

  19. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... electronic copy in Portable Document Format (PDF) on a Compact Disc, along with the $150 filing fee, to the... categories of copyrightable content (e.g., movies, music, and sports programming). At Phase II, the royalties... Claimants Group (BCG), and the ``Music Claimants'' consisting of Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI),...

  20. Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Association with Gastrointestinal Illness: A case crossover analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources potentially causing contamination. SSOs are primarily caused by heavy rainfall, which is expected to become heavier and more episodic due to climate change. We conducted a case-crossover ...

  1. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in adults: the French nutrition and health survey (ENNS, 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-01

    The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases.

  2. American Council of Learned Societies Annual Report for the Years 2006-2007 and 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Learned Societies, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) provides the humanities and related social sciences with leadership, opportunities for innovation, and national and international representation. The American Council of Learned Societies was created in 1919 to represent the United States in the Union Academique Internationale. Its mission is…

  3. Techniques for Monitoring Razorback Sucker in the Lower Colorado River, Hoover to Parker Dams, 2006-2007, Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Wydoski, Richard; Best, Eric; Hiebert, Steve; Lantow, Jeff; Santee, Mark; Goettlicher, Bill; Millosovich, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Trammel netting is generally the accepted method of monitoring razorback sucker in reservoirs, but this method is ineffective for monitoring this fish in rivers. Trammel nets set in the current become fouled with debris, and nets set in backwaters capture high numbers of nontarget species. Nontargeted fish composed 97 percent of fish captured in previous studies (1999-2005). In 2005, discovery of a large spawning aggregation of razorback sucker in midchannel near Needles, Calif., prompted the development of more effective methods to monitor this and possibly other riverine fish populations. This study examined the effectiveness of four methods of monitoring razorback sucker in a riverine environment. Hoop netting, electrofishing, boat surveys, and aerial photography were evaluated in terms of data accuracy, costs, stress on targeted fish, and effect on nontargeted fish as compared with trammel netting. Trammel netting in the riverine portion of the Colorado River downstream of Davis Dam, Arizona-Nevada yielded an average of 43 razorback suckers a year (1999 to 2005). Capture rates averaged 0.5 razorback suckers per staff day effort, at a cost exceeding $1,100 per fish. Population estimates calculated for 2003-2005 were 3,570 (95 percent confidence limits [CL] = 1,306i??i??i??-8,925), 1,768 (CL = 878-3,867) and 1,652 (CL = 706-5,164); wide confidence ranges reflect the small sample size. By-catch associated with trammel netting included common carp, game fish and, occasionally, shorebirds, waterfowl, and muskrats. Hoop nets were prone to downstream drift owing to design and anchoring problems aggravated by hydropower ramping. Tests were dropped after the 2006 field season and replaced with electrofishing. Electrofishing at night during low flow and when spawning razorback suckers moved to the shoreline proved extremely effective. In 2006 and 2007, 263 and 299 (respectively) razorback suckers were taken. Capture rates averaged 8.3 razorback suckers per staff day at a cost of $62 per fish. The adult population was estimated at 1,196 (925-1,546) fish. Compared with trammel netting, confidence limits narrowed substantially, from +or- 500 percent to +or- 30 percent, reflecting more precise estimates. By-catch was limited to two common carp. No recreational game fish, waterfowl, or mammals were captured or handled during use of electrofishing. Aerial photography (2006 and 2007) suggested an annual average of 580 fish detected on imagery. Identification of species was not possible; carp commonly have been mistaken for razorback sucker. Field verification determined that the proportion of razorback suckers to other fish was 3:1. On that basis, we estimated 435 razorback suckers were photographed, which equals 8.4 razorback suckers per staff day at a cost of $78 per fish. The data did not lend itself to population estimates. Fish were more easily identified from boats, where their lateral rather than their dorsal aspect is visible. On average, 888 razorback suckers were positively identified each year. Observation rates averaged 29.6 razorback suckers per staff day at a cost less than $18 per fish observed. Sucker densities averaged 20.5 and 9.6 fish/hectare which equated to an average spawning population at Needles, Calif., of 2,520 in 2006 and 1152 in 2007. The lower 2007 estimate reflected a refinement in sampling approach which removed a sampling bias. Electrofishing and boat surveys were more cost effective than other methods tested, and they provided more accurate information without the by-catch associated with trammel netting. However, they provided different types of data. Handling fish may be necessary for research purposes but unnecessary for general trend analysis. Electrofishing was extremely effective but can harm fish if not used with caution. Unnecessary electrofishing increases the likelihood of spinal damage and possible damage to eggs and potential young, and it may alter spawning behavior or duration. B

  4. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D.

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there were 120,415 HOR supplementation smolts released into Johnson Creek during the week of March 12, 2007. Life stage-specific juvenile survival from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was calculated for brood year 2005 NOR and HOR supplementation juvenile Chinook salmon. Survival of NOR parr Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 28.2% and 16.2%. Survival of NOR presmolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 28.2% and 22.3%. Survival of NOR smolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 44.7% and 32.9%. Survival of HOR smolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 31.9% and 26.2%. Multi-year analysis on smolt to adult return rate's (SAR's) and progeny to parent ratio's (P:P's) were calculated for NOR and HOR supplementation Brood Year 2002 Chinook salmon. SAR's were calculated from Johnson Creek to Johnson Creek (JC to JC), Lower Granite Dam to Lower Granite (LGD to LGD), and Lower Granite Dam to Johnson Creek (LGD to JC); for NOR fish SAR's were 0.16%, 1.16% and 1.12%, while HOR supplementation SAR's from JC to JC, LGD to LGD and LGD to JC were 0.04%, 0.19% and 0.13%. P:P's for all returning NOR and HOR supplemented adults were under replacement levels at 0.13 and 0.65, respectively. Recruit per spawner estimates (R/S) for Brood Year 2005 adult Chinook salmon were also calculated for NOR and HOR supplemented Chinook salmon at JC and LGD. R/S estimates for NOR and HOR supplemented fish at JC were 231 and 1,745, while R/S estimates at LGD were 67 and 557. Management recommendations address (1) effectiveness of data collection methods, (2) sufficiency of data quality (statistical power) to enable management recommendations, (3) removal of uncertainty and subsequent cessation of M&E activities, and (4) sufficiency of findings for program modifications prior to five-year review.

  5. Approved Programme and Budget, 2006-2007. General Conference, Thirty-Third Session, Paris, 2005 (33 C/5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document provides direction and focus for the third and last phase of the period covered by the Medium-Term Strategy for 2002-2007 (31 C/4 Approved). Hence it has been designed to cast UNESCO's action in response to the strategic objectives, cross-cutting themes and expected outcomes of document 31 C/4, building upon the achievements,…

  6. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Tennessee infections associated with peanut butter--United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    In November 2006, public health officials at CDC and state health departments detected a substantial increase in the reported incidence of isolates of Salmonella serotype Tennessee. In a multistate case-control study conducted during February 5-13, 2007, illness was strongly associated with consumption of either of two brands (Peter Pan or Great Value) of peanut butter produced at the same plant. Based on these findings, the plant ceased production and recalled both products on February 14, 2007. The outbreak strain of Salmonella Tennessee subsequently was isolated from several opened and unopened jars of Peter Pan and Great Value peanut butter and from two environmental samples obtained from the plant. New case reports decreased substantially after the product recall. As of May 22, 2007, a total of 628 persons infected with an outbreak strain of Salmonella serotype Tennessee had been reported from 47 states since August 1, 2006. Local and state public health officials in multiple states, with assistance from CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are continuing to investigate this outbreak caused by peanut butter, a new food source for salmonellosis in the United States. All remaining jars of Peter Pan or Great Value peanut butter with a product code beginning with 2111 should be discarded.

  7. Evolution of Information Management at the GSFC Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC): 2006-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Alcott, Gary; Berrick, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth science missions have driven their associated data and data management systems from providing simple point-to-point archiving and retrieval to performing user-responsive distributed multisensor information extraction. To fully maximize the use of remote-sensor-generated Earth science data, NASA recognized the need for data systems that provide data access and manipulation capabilities responsive to research brought forth by advancing scientific analysis and the need to maximize the use and usability of the data. The decision by NASA to purposely evolve the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) and other information management facilities was timely and appropriate. The GES DISC evolution was focused on replacing the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) by reusing the In-house developed disk-based Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Product Archive (S4PA) data management system and migrating data to the disk archives. Transition was completed in December 2007

  8. Time for a New Day: Broadening Opportunities for Massachusetts Schoolchildren. Expanded Learning Time Initiative 2006-2007 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts 2020, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Our children deserve an education that fully prepares them for the future--success in college, the workforce and a healthy, fulfilled life. The Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Initiative in Massachusetts is redesigning schools to offer children new learning and enrichment opportunities made possible because of an expanded school schedule. With state…

  9. Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites of Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) at Four Sites in Saskatchewan, Canada, 2006-2007.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of adult double-crested cormorants from breeding colonies on four very different lakes spanning a major ecotone from prairie to boreal forest in Saskatchewan, Canada. Our objectives were to document regional parasite fauna, and identify potential diff...

  10. State Reports on the Participation and Performance of English Language Learners with Disabilities in 2006-2007. Technical Report 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Debra; Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation focuses attention on high expectations for all students in learning grade level academic content, and requires that disaggregated participation and performance data be reported for students with disabilities and English language learners (ELLs). Although not required by law, some states have reported data…

  11. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  12. Ecological Assessment of Wadeable Streams on O`ahu, Hawai'i, 2006-2007: A Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.; Koch, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006-07, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Islands Water Science Center (PIWSC), in cooperation with the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH), conducted a pilot study as a participant in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) program. Forty randomly selected sites on perennial streams on O'ahu, Hawai'i, were surveyed for habitat characteristics, water chemistry, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Of the original sampling frame of approximately 505.2 miles of perennial stream, roughly 96.7 +or- 30.7 miles were found to be nonperennial or estuarine and another 200.5 +or- 64.7 miles were judged to be inaccessible. The scope of this report presents an assessment of the remaining 208 +or- 57.6 miles of accessible, wadeable, perennial stream length on O'ahu. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were used to determine the ecological condition at each site. Components of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed using the multimetric Preliminary-Hawaiian Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (P-HBIBI) developed by Wolff (2005). Based on the P-HBIBI scores, an estimated 5.8 +or- 5.8 percent of the island's total stream length is in most disturbed condition, 56 +or- 13.5 percent is in intermediately disturbed condition, and 38.2 +or- 13.2 percent is in least disturbed condition. Windward O'ahu had the highest percentage of stream length in least disturbed biological condition at 56.7 +or- 20.8 percent. Using the relative abundance of insects, one of the core metrics that make up the P-HBIBI, 43.4 +or- 14.2 percent of the islandwide stream length was classified in the most disturbed condition - 52 +or- 31.2 percent of the Honolulu region stream length and 51.4 +or- 23.3 percent of the windward O'ahu stream length. An analysis of total nitrogen (N) estimated approximately 41.1 +or- 13.7 percent of the stream length on O'ahu was in most disturbed condition. Regionally, the Honolulu region had the largest proportion, 61.3 +or- 28.6 percent, of most disturbed stream length in terms of total N. An analysis of total phosphorus (P) classified approximately 43.2 +or- 14 percent of the stream length on O'ahu as most disturbed. Regionally, windward O'ahu had the largest proportion, 78.4 +or- 19.5 percent, of stream length classified as most disturbed. An analysis of embeddedness classified 30.3 +or- 14.7 percent of O'ahu's stream length as most. Regionally, windward O'ahu had the largest proportion, 43.3 +or- 17.1 percent, of stream length classified as most disturbed as compared to the reference condition. An analysis of riparian disturbance, an index of the in-channel, riparian, and near-stream human activities, classified 43 +or- 13 percent of stream length on O'ahu as most disturbed. The Honolulu region had the largest proportion of stream length, 86.3 +or- 13.7 percent, classified as most disturbed. The information in this report is the first attempt in Hawai'i to assess the islandwide ecological condition of wadeable, perennial streams on O'ahu using the USEPA WSA probabilistic design. This study has demonstrated that such an assessment is practical and that it can provide information that may help the USEPA and HDOH in determining the status of aquatic ecosystems on O'ahu, Hawai'i. This study provides a baseline assessment of the current islandwide ecological condition and identifies potential environmental stressors. It can be used, with future WSA studies in Hawai'i, to measure the changes in those conditions and the effectiveness of management efforts to protect, restore, and maintain Hawai'i's aquatic environment.

  13. AstroMadrid: Astrophysics and technological developments in Comunidad de Madrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas-Hesse, J. M.

    2011-11-01

    AstroMadrid is a network constituted by different research groups in the Comunidad de Madrid area, with the objective of coordinating the activities related to the development of astronomical instrumentation in the various centres. AstroMadrid is a multidisciplinar team which benefits from the synergies provided by the different participating groups, optimizing our capabilities to develop instrumentation, and minimizing the problems related to the geographical dispersion within our region. AstroMadrid is also participated by several aerospace industries, which complement the capabilities and facilities available in the research centres. In addition to optimizing the development of instrumentation, AstroMadrid plays an essential role in the formation of new engineers and scientists, by actively contributing to some Master degree courses organized by different Universities in Madrid.

  14. An overview of measurements of radionuclides in foods of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, L.; Ortiz, J.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental radioactivity monitoring includes the determination of radionuclides in foods since they are an important way of intake of radionuclides to the human organism. Moreover, knowledge of the levels of radionuclides in foodstuffs will inform about the environmental radioactivity background permitting to control possible contamination due to human activity, such as agriculture activity, nuclear power plants or other radioactive facilities. The Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (LRA) at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) performs measurements on representative foods from all over the Comunidad Valenciana (CV). Those measurements are part of several monitoring programs promoted by the Generalitat Valenciana. A total of 2200 samples of fruits, cereals, vegetables, milk, meat, eggs and fish coming from markets, agricultural cooperatives or small producers have been analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometry analysis has been performed in all samples. It has been detected 40K in all samples, 7Be in some of them. Radiochemical separation of 90Sr has been carried out in some of the samples collected, mainly orange and lettuce. Samples of lettuce and chard collected following Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident present activity concentration of 131I (0.10-1.51 Bq kg-1). In this paper, a review of the data obtained at the 1991-2013 period in the framework of the development of the Environmental monitoring program is presented.

  15. Sunphotometry of the 2006-2007 aerosol optical/radiative properties at the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (5079 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Verza, G. P.; Marinoni, A.; Barnaba, F.

    2010-01-01

    In spite of being located at the heart of the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory (5079 m a.s.l.) at the Ev-K2-CNR Pyramid is shown to be affected by the advection of pollution aerosols from the populated regions of southern Nepal and the Indo-Gangetic plains. Such an impact is observed along most of the period April 2006-March 2007 addressed here, with a minimum in the monsoon season. Backtrajectory-analysis indicates long-range transport episodes occurring in this period to originate mainly in the West Asian deserts. At this high altitude site, the measured aerosol optical depth is observed to be: 1) about one order of magnitude lower than the one measured at Gandhi College (60 m a.s.l.), in the Indo-Gangetic basin, and 2) maximum during the monsoon period, due to the presence of elevated (cirrus-like) particle layers. Assessment of the aerosol radiative forcing results to be hampered by the persistent presence of these high altitude particle layers, which impede a continuous measurement of both the aerosol optical depth and its radiative properties from sky radiance inversions. Even though the retrieved absorption coefficients of pollution aerosols was rather large (single scattering albedo of the order of 0.6-0.9 were observed in the month of April 2006), the corresponding low optical depths (~0.03 at 500 nm) are expected to limit the relevant radiative forcings. Still, the high specific forcing of this aerosol and its capability of altering snow surface albedo provide good reason for continuous monitoring.

  16. Sequential Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania in 2006-2007 Associated with Multiple Lineages of the Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine testing for Campylobacter spp. in the food chain is primarily directed toward detection of C. jejuni and C. coli, thus the presence of novel Campylobacter spp., and their relative contribution to human illness, is not well understood. A survey to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp....

  17. State Performance Plan: IDEA Part B. FFY 2006--FFY 2010 (2006--2011). Reflects Changes Made for FFY 2006 (2006-2007), Dated 2.1.2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Iowa's educational system is defined by the strong working relationship between the local school districts and area education agencies. Local districts provide the instructional program and area education agencies provide support services. Districts define how services will be organized and provided as they ensure a free appropriate public…

  18. Antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in Spain: latest data and changes over 11 years (1996-1997 to 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Martín-Herrero, Jose E; Mazón, Ana; García-Delafuente, Celia; Robles, Purificación; Iriarte, Victor; Dal-Ré, Rafael; García-de-Lomas, Juan

    2010-07-01

    A nationwide multicenter susceptibility surveillance study (Susceptibility to the Antimicrobials Used in the Community in España [SAUCE] project), SAUCE-4, including 2,559 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2,287 Streptococcus pyogenes, and 2,736 Haemophilus influenzae isolates was carried out from May 2006 to June 2007 in 34 Spanish hospitals. Then, the results from SAUCE-4 were compared to those from all three previous SAUCE studies carried out in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 to assess the temporal trends in resistance and the phenotypes of resistance over the 11-year period. In SAUCE-4, on the basis of the CLSI breakpoints, penicillin (parenteral, nonmeningitis breakpoint) and cefotaxime were the antimicrobials that were the most active against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6%, respectively). Only 0.9% of isolates had a penicillin MIC of > or = 2 microg/ml. In S. pyogenes, nonsusceptibility to erythromycin was observed in 19.4% of isolates. Among the H. influenzae isolates, a beta-lactamase-positive prevalence of 15.7% was found. A statistically significant temporal decreasing trend over the 11-year period was observed for nonsusceptibility (from 60.0% to 22.9%) and resistance (from 36.5% to 0.9%) to penicillin and for the proportion of erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) phenotype (from 98.4% to 81.3%). A similar trend was observed for the prevalence of ampicillin resistance (from 37.6% to 16.1%), beta-lactamase production (from 25.7% to 15.7%), and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) in H. influenzae (from 13.5% to 0.7%). Among erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, a significant increasing trend in the prevalence of MLS(B) was observed (from 7.0% to 35.5%). SAUCE-4 confirms a generalized decline in the resistance of the main respiratory pathogens to the antimicrobials as well as a shift in their resistance phenotypes.

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal or California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative-concentration (RC) greater than (>) 1.0 indicates a concentration above a benchmark. RCs for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds and pesticides) and special-interest constituents were classified as "high" (RC > 1.0), "moderate" (1.0 ≥ RC > 0.1), or "low" (RC ≤ 0.1). For inorganic constituents (major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and radioactive constituents), the boundary between low and moderate RCs was set at 0.5. A new metric, aquifer-scale proportion, was used in the status assessment as the primary metric for evaluating regional-scale groundwater quality. High aquifer-scale proportion is defined as the percentage of the area of the primary aquifers with RC > 1.0 for a particular constituent or class of constituents; moderate and low aquifer-scale proportions are defined as the percentages of the area of the primary aquifer with moderate and low RCs, respectively. Percentages are based on an areal rather than a volumetric basis. Two statistical approaches—grid-based, which used one value per grid cell, and spatially weighted, which used multiple values per grid cell—were used to calculate aquifer-scale proportions for individual constituents and classes of constituents. The spatially weighted estimates of high aquifer-scale proportions were within the 90-percent (%) confidence intervals of the grid-based estimates in all cases. The status assessment showed that inorganic constituents had greater high and moderate aquifer-scale proportions than did organic constituents in all three study units. In the Tahoe-Martis study unit, RCs for inorganic constituents with health-based benchmarks (primarily arsenic) were high in 20% of the primary aquifer, moderate in 13%, and low in 67%. In the Central Sierra study unit, aquifer-scale proportions for inorganic constituents with health-based benchmarks (primarily arsenic, uranium, fluoride, and molybdenum) were 41% high, 36% moderate, and 23% low. In the Southern Sierra study unit, 32, 34, and 34% of the primary aquifer had high, moderate, and low RCs of inorganic constituents with health-based benchmarks (primarily arsenic, uranium, fluoride, boron, and nitrate). The high aquifer-scale proportions for inorganic constituents with non-health-based benchmarks were 14, 34, and 24% for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, respectively, and the primary constituent was manganese for all three study units. Organic constituents with health-based benchmarks were not present at high RCs in the primary aquifers of the Central Sierra and Southern Sierra study units, and were present at high RCs in only 1% of the Tahoe-Martis study unit. Moderate aquifer-scale proportions for organic constituents were 10%: the trihalomethane chloroform in the Tahoe-Martis study unit; chloroform and the herbicide simazine in the Central Sierra study unit; and chloroform, simazine, the herbicide atrazine, and the solvent perchloroethene in the Southern Sierra study unit. The second component of this study, the understanding assessment, identified the natural and human factors that may have affected groundwater quality in the three study units by evaluating statistical correlations between water-quality constituents and potential explanatory factors. The potential explanatory factors evaluated were land use, septic tank density, climate, relative position in the regional flow system, aquifer lithology, geographic location, well depth and depth to the top of the screened or open interval in the well, groundwater age distribution, pH, and dissolved oxygen concentration. Results of the statistical evaluations were used to explain the occurrence and distribution of constituents in the study units. Aquifer lithology (granitic, metamorphic, sedimentary, or volcanic rocks), groundwater age distribution [modern (recharged since 1952), pre-modern (recharged before 1952), or mixed (containing both modern and pre-modern recharge)], geographic location, pH, and dissolved oxygen were the most significant factors explaining the occurrence patterns of most inorganic constituents. High and moderate RCs of arsenic were associated with pre-modern and mixed-age groundwater and two distinct sets of geochemical conditions: (1) oxic, high-pH conditions, particularly in volcanic rocks, and (2) low-oxygen to anoxic conditions and low- to neutral-pH conditions, particularly in granitic rocks. In granitic and metamorphic rocks, high and moderate RCs of uranium were associated with pre-modern and mixed-age groundwater, low-oxygen to anoxic conditions, and location within parts of the Central Sierra and Southern Sierra study units known to have rocks with anomalously high uranium content compared to other parts of the Sierra Nevada. High and moderate RCs of uranium in sedimentary rocks were associated with pre-modern-age groundwater, oxic and high-pH conditions, and location in the Tahoe Valley South subbasin within the Tahoe-Martis study unit. Land use within 500 meters of the well and groundwater age were the most significant factors explaining occurrence patterns of organic constituents. Herbicide detections were most strongly associated with modern- and mixed-age groundwater from wells with agricultural land use. Trihalomethane detections were most strongly associated with modern- and mixed-age groundwater from wells with > 10% urban land use and (or) septic tank density > 7 tanks per square kilometer. Solvent detections were not significantly related to groundwater age. Eighty-three percent of the wells with modern- or mixed-age groundwater, and 86% of wells with detections of herbicides and (or) THMs had depths to the top of the screened or open interval of 5% agricultural land use and detection of a herbicide or solvent had the highest nitrate concentrations. Comparison between observed and predicted detection frequencies of perchlorate suggests that the perchlorate detected at concentrations < 1 microgram per liter likely reflects the distribution of perchlorate under natural conditions, and that the perchlorate detected at higher concentrations may reflect redistribution of originally natural perchlorate salts by irrigation in the agricultural areas of the Southern Sierra study unit.

  20. Genome Sequences of Human Adenovirus 14 Isolates from Mild Respiratory Cases and a Fatal Pneumonia, Isolated during 2006-2007 Epidemics in North America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    serotypes of HAdV associated with FRI and pneumonia are grouped into 3 species, B (including sub- species B1 and B2), C and E, on the basis of...were many pneumonia hospitaliza- tions, several requiring ventilation assistance [22]. Whole-genome restriction enzyme analysis (genome typing [33...Base (303600 and 1986T, associated with mild FRI and fatal pneumonia , respectively, both from a severe outbreak) and one from Marine Corps Recruit Depot

  1. Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Water and suspended-sediment samples were collected at eight sites on the Alamo and New Rivers in the Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin of California and analyzed for both current-use and organochlorine pesticides by the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were collected in the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, corresponding to the seasons of greatest pesticide use in the basin. Large-volume water samples (up to 650 liters) were collected at each site and processed using a flow-through centrifuge to isolate suspended sediments. One-liter water samples were collected from the effluent of the centrifuge for the analysis of dissolved pesticides. Additional samples were collected for analysis of dissolved organic carbon and for suspended-sediment concentrations. Water samples were analyzed for a suite of 61 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 25 pesticides were detected in the water samples, with seven pesticides detected in more than half of the samples. Dissolved concentrations of pesticides observed in this study ranged from below their respective method detection limits to 8,940 nanograms per liter (EPTC). The most frequently detected compounds in the water samples were chlorpyrifos, DCPA, EPTC, and trifluralin, which were observed in more than 75 percent of the samples. The maximum concentrations of most pesticides were detected in samples from the Alamo River. Maximum dissolved concentrations of carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion exceeded aquatic life benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for these pesticides. Suspended sediments were analyzed for 87 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using microwave-assisted extraction, gel permeation chromatography for sulfur removal, and either carbon/alumina stacked solid-phase extraction cartridges or deactivated Florisil for removal of matrix interferences. Twenty current-use pesticides were detected in the suspended-sediment samples, including pyrethroid insecticides and fungicides. Fourteen legacy organochlorine pesticides also were detected in the suspended-sediment samples. Greater numbers of current-use and organochlorine pesticides were observed in the Alamo River samples in comparison with the New River samples. Maximum concentrations of current-use pesticides in suspended-sediment samples ranged from below their method detection limits to 174 micrograms per kilogram (pendimethalin). Most organochlorine pesticides were detected at or below their method detection limits, with the exception of p,p'-DDE, which had a maximum concentration of 54.2 micrograms per kilogram. The most frequently detected current-use pesticides in the suspended-sediment samples were chlorpyrifos, permethrin, tetraconazole, and trifluralin, which were observed in more than 83 percent of the samples. The organochlorine degradates p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE were detected in all suspended-sediment samples.

  2. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P. W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Learned, J. G.

    2009-05-23

    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  3. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region.

  4. "The Success of Captive Broodstock Programs Depends on High In-Culture Survival, ..." [from the Abstract], 2006-2007 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2009-04-08

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: This study documented that captively reared Chinook exhibited spawn timing similar to their founder anadromous population. An analysis of spawn timing data of captively reared Chinook salmon that had received different levels of antibiotic treatment did not suggest that antibiotic treatments during the freshwater or seawater phase of the life cycle affects final maturation timing. No effect of rearing density was found with respect to spawn timing or other reproductive behaviors. Objective 2: This study investigated the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon by exposing juvenile salmon to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression differs between coho and sockeye salmon. While temporal patterns differ between these species, exposure to arginine elicited increases in odorant receptor mRNA expression in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: This study: (i) identified the critical period when maturation is initiated in male spring Chinook salmon and when body growth affects onset of puberty, (ii) described changes in the reproductive endocrine system during onset of puberty and throughout spermatogenesis in male spring Chinook salmon, (iii) found that the rate of oocyte development prior to vitellogenesis is related to body growth in female spring Chinook, and (iv) demonstrated that growth regimes which reduce early (age 2) male maturation slow the rate of primary and early secondary oocyte growth, but do not alter number of oocytes at these stages of development. Objective 4 : This study, (1) determined that infected fish treated with oxytetracycline-medicated feed (as fry or as presmolts) had improved survival compared to nonmedicated fish, (2) determined that a single 14-day course of oral azithromycin at first feeding or at the start of smoltification is sufficient for significant azithromycin retention in internal tissues for at least a year, and (3) established that Renibacterium salmoninarum with an azithromycin-resistant phenotype can be isolated from Chinook salmon receiving macrolide antibiotic treatment. Objective 5: This study determined that for Chinook salmon rearing in similar, 'common environment' regimes in seawater, control fish have survived at a higher rate since seawater transfer than have experimentally inbred fish. However, in all groups, the variation among families in survival has been substantial, ranging from 0% to 100% over the entire year and from 0% to 40% since seawater transfer. The highly significant effect of variation among families within both stocks indicates that substantial genetic variation for size remains in these populations.

  5. Postseismic gravity change after the 2006-2007 great earthquake doublet and constraints on the asthenosphere structure in the central Kuril Islands.

    PubMed

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-04-16

    Large earthquakes often trigger viscoelastic adjustment for years to decades depending on the rheological properties and the nature and spatial extent of coseismic stress. The 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands resulted in significant postseismic gravity change in GRACE but without a discernible coseismic gravity change. The gravity increase of ~4 µGal, observed consistently from various GRACE solutions around the epicentral area during 2007-2015, is interpreted as resulting from gradual seafloor uplift by ~6 cm produced by postseismic relaxation. The GRACE data are best fit with a model of 25-35 km for the elastic thickness and ~10(18) Pa s for the Maxwell viscosity of the asthenosphere. The large measurable postseismic gravity change (greater than coseismic change) emphasizes the importance of viscoelastic relaxation in understanding tectonic deformation and fault-locking scenarios in the Kuril subduction zone.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance among Respiratory Pathogens in Spain: Latest Data and Changes over 11 Years (1996-1997 to 2006-2007)▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Martín-Herrero, Jose E.; Mazón, Ana; García-Delafuente, Celia; Robles, Purificación; Iriarte, Victor; Dal-Ré, Rafael; García-de-Lomas, Juan

    2010-01-01

    A nationwide multicenter susceptibility surveillance study (Susceptibility to the Antimicrobials Used in the Community in España [SAUCE] project), SAUCE-4, including 2,559 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2,287 Streptococcus pyogenes, and 2,736 Haemophilus influenzae isolates was carried out from May 2006 to June 2007 in 34 Spanish hospitals. Then, the results from SAUCE-4 were compared to those from all three previous SAUCE studies carried out in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 to assess the temporal trends in resistance and the phenotypes of resistance over the 11-year period. In SAUCE-4, on the basis of the CLSI breakpoints, penicillin (parenteral, nonmeningitis breakpoint) and cefotaxime were the antimicrobials that were the most active against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6%, respectively). Only 0.9% of isolates had a penicillin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml. In S. pyogenes, nonsusceptibility to erythromycin was observed in 19.4% of isolates. Among the H. influenzae isolates, a β-lactamase-positive prevalence of 15.7% was found. A statistically significant temporal decreasing trend over the 11-year period was observed for nonsusceptibility (from 60.0% to 22.9%) and resistance (from 36.5% to 0.9%) to penicillin and for the proportion of erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae of the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype (from 98.4% to 81.3%). A similar trend was observed for the prevalence of ampicillin resistance (from 37.6% to 16.1%), β-lactamase production (from 25.7% to 15.7%), and β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance (BLNAR) in H. influenzae (from 13.5% to 0.7%). Among erythromycin-resistant isolates of S. pyogenes, a significant increasing trend in the prevalence of MLSB was observed (from 7.0% to 35.5%). SAUCE-4 confirms a generalized decline in the resistance of the main respiratory pathogens to the antimicrobials as well as a shift in their resistance phenotypes. PMID:20439616

  7. Expanding Access and Increasing Success in Postsecondary Education for Arizonans. The Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education (ACPE) 2006-2007 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The work of the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education (ACPE) is guided by a 5 year strategic plan. The purpose of the plan is to provide focus for the activity of this small agency and its eight staff members in order to increase productivity and impact in the areas of its statutory authority. The mission and goals were accepted by…

  8. Postseismic Gravity Change After the 2006-2007 Great Earthquake Doublet and Constraints on the Asthenosphere Structure in the Central Kuril Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin-Chan, Han; Sauber, Jeanne; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Large earthquakes often trigger viscoelastic adjustment for years to decades depending on the rheological properties and the nature and spatial extent of coseismic stress. The 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands resulted in significant postseismic gravity change in GRACE but without a discernible coseismic gravity change. The gravity increase of approximately 4 micro-Gal, observed consistently from various GRACE solutions around the epicentral area during 2007-2015, is interpreted as resulting from gradual seafloor uplift by (is) approximately 6 cm produced by postseismic relaxation. The GRACE data are best fit with a model of 25-35 km for the elastic thickness and approximately 10(exp 18) Pa s for the Maxwell viscosity of the asthenosphere. The large measurable postseismic gravity change (greater than coseismic change) emphasizes the importance of viscoelastic relaxation in understanding tectonic deformation and fault-locking scenarios in the Kuril subduction zone.

  9. Summary Public School Indicators for the Provinces and Territories, 2000/2001 to 2006/2007. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockington, Riley

    2009-01-01

    This report provides trends on public school enrolments, educators and expenditures. It uses figures provided by provincial and territorial departments of education on public elementary and secondary schools. Tables and definitions are appended. A cumulative index is included. (Contains 80 charts, 35 tables and 5 endnotes.)

  10. The 2006-2007 Active Phase of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts,and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in > 11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 0.4 - 1.8 x 10(exp 3) s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx 2 - 9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4) x 10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate. slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

  11. The 2006-2007 Active Phase Of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts, and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavril, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in >11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 8-3x10(exp 3)s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx. 2 - 6 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus three emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4)x10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. We discuss these events in the context of the magnetar model.

  12. Description and Analytical Results for Deposited Dust Samples from a Two-Year Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Honke, Jeff; Lamothe, Paul; Fisher, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Biosolids reclaimed from municipal wastewater have been applied since 1993 on nonirrigated farmland and rangeland east of Deer Trail, Colo., by Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver. The U.S. Geological Survey has monitored ground water at this site since 1993, and began monitoring the biosolids, soils, and stream sediments in 1999. To investigate the possible effects of airborne dust blowing from the application fields, passive dust samplers were deployed in 2006 and 2007. These samplers measured the quantity and composition of dust being deposited downwind of a farmed field where biosolids had been applied, compared to a farmed field upwind of the application area. The dust-deposition rates and dust compositions measured at the two study sites are consistent with rates and compositions measured elsewhere in Utah, Nevada, and California using the same methods and equipment. Higher deposition rates were measured at the biosolids site compared to the control site during 2006. Higher deposition rates at both sites appear to be associated with episodes of cultivation and harvest during dry periods. No consistent differences in elements likely to be associated with biosolids disposal were detected between the sites. However, the contents of copper, lead, and zinc in the dust samples are generally much higher than average values of these elements in crustal rocks and sediments. Such values for dust samples are consistent with measurements on modern dust samples from southern Nevada and California and probably reflect inputs from regional urban and manufacturing activities.

  13. Investigation of Contaminated Ground Water at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells 12MW-10S and 12MW-03S, upgradient from the PRB, showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest showed a sharp increase, followed by a decrease. In 2007, the VOC concentrations began to increase in well 12MW-12S, downgradient from the PRB and thought to be unaffected by the PRB. The VOC-concentration changes in the forest, such as at well 12MW-12S, may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in ground-water-flow direction or may represent movement of a contamination pulse through the forest.

  14. Surveillance for high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Bortner, J.B.; DeLiberto, T.J.; Hoskins, J.; Franson, J. Christian; Bales, B.D.; Yparraguirre, D.; Swafford, S.R.; Ip, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Interior, and cooperating state fish and wildlife agencies began surveillance for high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States. This surveillance effort was highly integrated in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and western Montana, with collection of samples coordinated with state agencies. Sampling focused on live wild birds, hunterkilled waterfowl during state hunting seasons, and wild bird mortality events. Of 20,888 samples collected, 18,139 were from order Anseriformes (waterfowl) and 2010 were from order Charadriiformes (shorebirds), representing the two groups of birds regarded to be the primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. Although 83 birds were positive by H5 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), no HPAI H5N1 virus was found. Thirty-two virus isolates were obtained from the H5- positive samples, including low-pathogenicity H5 viruses identified as H5N2, H5N3, and H5N9.

  15. Evidence of magma intrusion at Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska in 2006-2007 from a rapid-response seismic network and volcanic gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardine, M.; West, M.; Werner, C.; Doukas, M.

    2011-01-01

    On September 17th, 2006, Fourpeaked volcano had a widely-observed phreatic eruption. At the time, Fourpeaked was an unmonitored volcano with no known Holocene activity, based on limited field work. Airborne gas sampling began within days of the eruption and a modest seismic network was installed in stages. Vigorous steaming continued for months; however, there were no further eruptions similar in scale to the September 17 event. This eruption was followed by several months of sustained seismicity punctuated by vigorous swarms, and SO2 emissions exceeding a thousand tons/day. Based on observations during and after the phreatic eruption, and assuming no recent pre-historical eruptive activity at Fourpeaked, we propose that the activity was caused by a minor injection of new magma at or near 5km depth beneath Fourpeaked, which remained active over several months as this magma equilibrated into the crust. By early 2007 declining seismicity and SO2 emission signaled the end of unrest. Because the Fourpeaked seismic network was installed in stages and the seismicity was punctuated by discrete swarms, we use Fourpeaked to illustrate quantitatively the efficacy and shortcomings of rapid response seismic networks for tracking volcanic earthquakes.

  16. Surveillance for high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Robert J; Bortner, J Bradley; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Hoskins, Jenny; Franson, J Christian; Bales, Bradley D; Yparraguirre, Dan; Swafford, Seth R; Ip, Hon S

    2009-06-01

    In 2006 the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Interior, and cooperating state fish and wildlife agencies began surveillance for high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States. This surveillance effort was highly integrated in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and western Montana, with collection of samples coordinated with state agencies. Sampling focused on live wild birds, hunter-killed waterfowl during state hunting seasons, and wild bird mortality events. Of 20,888 samples collected, 18,139 were from order Anseriformes (waterfowl) and 2010 were from order Charadriiformes (shorebirds), representing the two groups of birds regarded to be the primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. Although 83 birds were positive by H5 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), no HPAI H5N1 virus was found. Thirty-two virus isolates were obtained from the H5-positive samples, including low-pathogenicity H5 viruses identified as H5N2, H5N3, and H5N9.

  17. Turning scientific approaches into practical conservation actions: the case of Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, A; Bocco, G; Torres, A

    2001-05-01

    Optimum natural resource management and biodiversity conservation are desirable goals. These, however, often exclude each other, since maximum economic benefits have promoted drastic reductions in biodiversity throughout the world. This dilemma confronts local stakeholders, who usually go for maximizing economic inputs, whereas other social (e.g., academic) sectors are favor conservation practices. In this paper we describe the way two scientific approaches--landscape and participatory research--were used to develop sound and durable land use scenarios. These two approaches included expert knowledge of both social and environmental conditions in indigenous communities. Our major emphasis was given to detect spatially explicit land use scenarios and capacity building in order to construct a decision support system operated by stakeholders of the Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro in Mexico. The system for decision-making was fed with data from inventories of both abiotic and biotic biodiversity components. All research, implementation, and monitoring activities were conducted in close collaboration with members of the indigenous community. As a major result we obtained a number of forest alternative uses that favor emerging markets and make this indigenous community less dependent on a single market. Furthermore, skilled members of the community are now running the automated system for decision-making. In conclusion, our results were better expressed as products with direct benefits in local livelihoods rather than pure academic outputs.

  18. The 'tsunami earthquake' of 1932 June 22 in Manzanillo, Mexico: seismological study and tsunami simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Borrero, José C.

    2011-12-01

    We conduct a detailed seismological study of the large Colima, Mexico earthquake of 1932 June 3 and of its aftershocks of June 18 and 22. The latter (Event III) generated a tsunami more devastating than that of the main shock despite much smaller seismic magnitudes, thus qualifying as a so-called 'tsunami earthquake'. Relocation based on published arrival times shows that Event III took place up-dip of the main shock. The analysis of the spectral amplitude of mantle surface waves yields low-frequency moments of 24, 5.2 and 4 times 1027 dyn cm, respectively, with Event III featuring a moment growing with period, which expresses the source slowness characteristic of 'tsunami earthquakes'. This is confirmed by a deficient energy-to-moment ratio, as derived from high-frequency P waves recorded at Pasadena. Near-field hydrodynamic simulations show that the effects of the main shock's tsunami are well modelled by a standard seismic source, whereas the stronger tsunami from Event III can be modelled by rupture along a splay fault in a mechanically deficient material. All our results then fit the model for 'tsunami earthquake' aftershocks proposed for the Kuril Islands by Fukao in 1979.

  19. Capacitación-acción participativa: una experiencia de 24 años en las comunidades rurales de Oaxaca, México.

    PubMed

    Ysunza, Alberto M; Diez-Urdanivia, Silvia; Pérez-Gil, Sara E

    2016-06-08

    Resumen:En este artículo presentamos el proyecto de capacitación llevado a cabo en comunidades de la sierra y costa de Oaxaca, México, desde 1991, por el Centro de Capacitación Integral para Promotores Comunitarios (CECIPROC). La decisión de hacer este trabajo en Oaxaca responde a que ese estado ocupa uno de los primeros lugares de marginación y de desnutrición en menores de 5 años. El objetivo es describir un modelo de capacitación y compartir parte de las experiencias derivadas, tanto del modelo como del trabajo realizado en las distintas áreas (nutrición y alimentación, salud comunitaria, ecología y etnobotánica, y educación y organización), por promotores mujeres y hombres en sus comunidades.La experiencia obtenida en 24 años muestra la factibilidad técnica y social del proyecto en el ámbito de la salud, el reconocimiento social del proyecto del CECIPROC como un organismo civil que ha aportado alternativas como solución a la problemática de salud, el hacer suyo el proyecto por algunos promotores y los diferentes obstáculos a los que se ha enfrentado. Enfatizamos el hecho de que la situación socioeconómica y política prevaleciente en el estado de Oaxaca es una limitante para el buen desarrollo de los programas colectivos de salud, e insistimos en la necesidad de compartir nuestras experiencias para que puedan ser utilizadas en la planificación y ejecución de otros proyectos.

  20. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  1. Incidence of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in subjects 0-14 years of age in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Serrano Ríos, M; Moy, C S; Martín Serrano, R; Minuesa Asensio, A; de Tomás Labat, M E; Zarandieta Romero, G; Herrera, J

    1990-07-01

    A retrospective, population-based registry was established in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain (total population: 4,780,572; under age 15: 1,105,243) to investigate the epidemiology of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Included were all cases diagnosed with diabetes between 1985 and 1988, with age onset less than 15 years, and using insulin at discharge from hospital. Using the capture-recapture method employing hospital records as the primary source and membership files of the Spanish Diabetic Association as the secondary source, the ascertainment was 90%. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 11.3/100,000 (Poison 95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4). There was no temporal increase in incidence, nor was there a significant sex difference in incidence rates, either overall or by year. The seasonal onset pattern showed the highest incidence in winter (December-February) and lowest in summer (June-August) (r = 7.36, p less than 0.05). The age-adjusted (world standard) incidence of 10.9/100,000 was inconsistent with the hypothesis of a north-south gradient in diabetes risk.

  2. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 (Rotarix™) oral suspension (liquid formulation) when co-administered with expanded program on immunization (EPI) vaccines in Vietnam and the Philippines in 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Anh, D D; Carlos, C C; Thiem, D V; Hutagalung, Y; Gatchalian, S; Bock, H L; Smolenov, I; Suryakiran, P V; Han, H H

    2011-03-03

    Evaluation of immunogenicity and safety of a 2-dose liquid formulation of human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 following WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule (0, 1, and 2 months; Month 0 indicates day of enrollment) in Vietnam and the Philippines. Infants aged 6-10 (mean=8.7 ± 1.07 weeks Vietnam) and 5-10 weeks (mean=6.6 ± 1.03 weeks Philippines) received two doses of RIX4414 vaccine (V) and one dose of placebo (PL) or three placebo doses concomitantly with commercially available diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B and oral poliovirus vaccines. The vaccination schedules were: V-V-PL, V-PL-V and PL-PL-PL (Vietnam); PL-V-V, V-PL-V and PL-PL-PL (Philippines). Anti-rotavirus seroconversion rate was assessed pre-vaccination and post-vaccination (ELISA cut-off=20 U/ml). 375 infants were enrolled in each country. Seroconversion rates at one month post-Dose 2 of RIX4414 were Vietnam 63.3% (95% CI: 54.3-71.6) in V-V-PL group and 81.5% (95% CI: 73.4-88) in V-PL-V group; Philippines 70% (95% CI: 61-78) in PL-V-V group and 59.2% (95% CI: 49.8-68) in V-PL-V group. Frequencies of solicited (8-day post-each dose) and unsolicited symptoms (31-day post-each dose) were similar. Two-doses of rotavirus vaccine administered within the WHO EPI offer flexibility in existing schedule, though both schedules provides good immune responses.

  3. Development, and Ground-Truthing, of Analytical Tools for Measuring Select Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in a Sub-Set of Biosolids Collected During OW's 2006-2007 National Biosolids Survey Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged by Congress to protect the nation’s natural resources. Under the mandate of national environmental laws, the EPA strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the a...

  4. Update on the Standoff Detection of Radiological Materials by Passive FTIR Radiometry. 2006-2007 Summary Report for the Canadian Safeguards Support Program of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    FTIR radiometry for detecting and identifying UO2 and U3O8 radioactive materials at standoff distances of 30 and 100 m. This would be the first time...collaboration with Cameco Corp., several uranium oxide materials (including processed and non-processed uranium ores) and waste materials from the

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from symbovine flies, cattle and sympatric insectivorous house martins from a farm in the Czech Republic (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Rybaríková, Jana; Dolejská, Monika; Materna, David; Literák, Ivan; Cízek, Alois

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli was tested in symbovine flies and sympatric house martins (Delichon urbica) at a dairy farm. Antimicrobial resistant E. coli was detected in 89% (n=147) of isolates from flies within a calf barn. Isolates with the same antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, genes, and pulsotypes were found between both fly and calf E. coli isolates, suggesting that the calves were the initial source of the antimicrobial resistant strains in fly isolates. Symbovine flies were considered as important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains at a dairy farm, due to their intensive contact with cattle feces and manure. House martin fecal samples from the same farm contained 4.5% (n=393) of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. House martin isolates displayed different macrorestriction profiles than fly isolates and the significance of house martins as a reservoir and vector of antimicrobial resistant E. coli appears low.

  6. Sentido de coherencia y mapa de activos para la salud en jóvenes presos de la Comunidad Valenciana en España.

    PubMed

    Vera-Remartínez, Enrique J; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Aviñó Juan-Ulpiano, Dory; Jiménez-Pérez, Mercedes; Araujo Pérez, Rosa; Agulló-Cantos, José M; Mora Notario, Almudena

    2016-04-07

    Estudio realizado desde el enfoque de la salutogénesis que pretende determinar el sentido de coherencia (SOC) en jóvenes presos de la Comunidad Valenciana en España y elaborar un mapa de activos para la salud dirigido a promover la salud en esta población. Se utilizó el test "SOC-13" y un cuestionario de preguntas abiertas elaboradoad hoc, el cual autocompletaron los internos de 18 a 22 años de edad, de los tres centros penitenciarios de la región. Participaron 124 jóvenes varones (ya que no había ninguna mujer) y se recogieron variables sociodemográficas y penitenciarias. En el análisis cuantitativo, las variables categóricas se expresaron como frecuencias absolutas y relativas; y las cuantitativas, mediante medias con intervalos de confianza (IC) al 95%. Se realizó un estudio comparativo bivariante, utilizando las siguientes pruebas: Studentt-test, análisis de variación (ANOVA), Wilcoxon y Ji-cuadrado. Del cuestionario de preguntas abiertas, se realizó un análisis cualitativo descriptivo temático de los activos identificados, clasificándolos en: internos (recursos personales, en relación con los demás y capacidad para realizar comportamientos saludables) y externos (personas, grupos, instituciones y espacios físicos, situados tanto dentro como fuera de prisión). La edad media fue de 21,1 años (IC 95%: 20,8-21,3); y el SOC de 52,4 (IC 95%: 50,5-54,3), de entre un valor mínimo de 13 y máximo de 91 para la prueba. Los internos del centro penitenciario que ofrecía más actividades escolares y deportivas obtuvieron una puntuación mayor en la dimensión de significatividad del SOC (p= 0,024), y los internos inmigrantes presentaron un SOC superior (p= 0,037) a los españoles, en los tres centros. Los jóvenes identificaron los activos internos que cualitativamente se vinculan con las dimensiones de comprensibilidad, manejabilidad y significatividad del SOC; y los activos externos, sobre todo los amigos, familiares y espacios relacionados con

  7. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 15, Number 1, January 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    New York, Pennsylvania) and East South Central (Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, Tennessee ) states had pneumonia hospitalization rates 14% and 15...153 67.5 195.8 0.78 -18.88 Mississippi 81 62.3 112.4 0.72 -24.13 Kentucky 105 81.8 110.9 0.95 -4.59 Tennessee 148 81.5 156.9 0.94 -4.90 487...events† Food-borne Vaccine preventable Campylo- bacter Giardia Salmonella 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006

  8. Land cover classification of VHR airborne images for citrus grove identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorós López, J.; Izquierdo Verdiguier, E.; Gómez Chova, L.; Muñoz Marí, J.; Rodríguez Barreiro, J. Z.; Camps Valls, G.; Calpe Maravilla, J.

    Managing land resources using remote sensing techniques is becoming a common practice. However, data analysis procedures should satisfy the high accuracy levels demanded by users (public or private companies and governments) in order to be extensively used. This paper presents a multi-stage classification scheme to update the citrus Geographical Information System (GIS) of the Comunidad Valenciana region (Spain). Spain is the first citrus fruit producer in Europe and the fourth in the world. In particular, citrus fruits represent 67% of the agricultural production in this region, with a total production of 4.24 million tons (campaign 2006-2007). The citrus GIS inventory, created in 2001, needs to be regularly updated in order to monitor changes quickly enough, and allow appropriate policy making and citrus production forecasting. Automatic methods are proposed in this work to facilitate this update, whose processing scheme is summarized as follows. First, an object-oriented feature extraction process is carried out for each cadastral parcel from very high spatial resolution aerial images (0.5 m). Next, several automatic classifiers (decision trees, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines) are trained and combined to improve the final classification accuracy. Finally, the citrus GIS is automatically updated if a high enough level of confidence, based on the agreement between classifiers, is achieved. This is the case for 85% of the parcels and accuracy results exceed 94%. The remaining parcels are classified by expert photo-interpreters in order to guarantee the high accuracy demanded by policy makers.

  9. Memoria de la XXII Reunion Ordinaria de la Asamblea General de la ANUIES (Report of the 22nd Meeting of the General Assembly of the National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher Education) (22nd, Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de la Educacion Superior, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This serial issue is entirely devoted to the proceedings of the 1986 meeting of the "Asociacion Nacional de Universidades e Institutos de Ensenanza Superior (ANUIES)." Major attention is given to the "Programa Integral Para el Desarrollo de la Educacion Superior (PROIDES)," i.e. a comprehensive program for the development of…

  10. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO), Central American Coastal Marine Areas, West Coast. Volume 2. Area 6 - Manzanillo SE, Area 7 - Acapulco South, Area 8 - Gulf of Tehuantepec, Area 9 - Guatemala SW Coast, Area 10 - Nicaragua SW Coast, Area 11 - Punta Burica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    AREA COD ACAPULCC $ CLIP PEC1411TGE FR[CU~kCY,*OF ¥I:0 SF1EO BY HOUR IG Tl HOUR CALM 1 -3 4-10 11-21 22-33 34൷ 44- MEAN FRED oeS * S$ a . D* 2z, 6 o...590( r45 .47 :38(0 t0 vOCo SO sIo 33 8. . ! t (3:2 C5 .9 0 :0 .0 3.4:0 .3. 8 0 . 3 .0 .5 3. 3- .3 C 7 . 0 . .0 2.2 . 23 . 0 .0 .0 2. 171 0 c C . .3 .8

  11. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  12. [Satisfaction with body image in a universitary population of the Comunidad de Madrid].

    PubMed

    Téllez Suárez, Elena; Castillo Biscari, Ninfa; García Quesada, Sara; Yagüe Lobo, Isabel; Requena Angulo, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Andía Melero, Víctor Manuel

    2014-12-17

    Objetivo: Valorar las características antropométricas y la satisfacción con la propia imagen corporal en un grupo de estudiantes universitarios. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron 64 universitarios entre 21 y 25 años, 36 mujeres y 28 hombres. Se valoró la composición corporal mediante datos antropométricos y bioimpedanciometría. La satisfacción con la propia imagen corporal se valoró con una puntuación de 0 a 10. Resultados: El IMC medio fue de 21,95 y la masa grasa 12,15 ± 5,27 Kg, siendo esta mayor en mujeres. El grado de satisfacción con la imagen corporal fue alto, con una puntuación de 7,15 + 1,15 sobre 10 y solo 3 participantes se valoraron con menos de 5 puntos. No hubo diferencias entre ambos sexos ni se observó una correlación entre la autovaloración y los resultados antropométricos en el grupo total, aunque sí se ha observado una relación inversa entre el grado de satisfacción y el IMC (r = - 0,52), y no tan marcada con el porcentaje de grasa corporal (r = - 0,3) en el grupo de mujeres. Conclusiones: Las características antropométricas de la población estudiada son adecuadas, lo que se refleja en un alto grado de satisfacción con la propia imagen corporal. Sin embargo, en las mujeres hay una cierta tendencia a infravalorarse a medida que aumenta el valor del IMC, que no es tan marcada respecto al aumento de porcentaje de masa grasa, a pesar de que este último valor debería a priori reflejar más fielmente la imagen corporal real.

  13. Community Resources Guide for Central Florida = Una Guia de Recursos en la Comunidad de Florida Central.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Linda, Comp.

    Designed to orient Hispanic refugees to the services that are available in Central Florida, this bilingual guide consists of a section of general information on living and working in the United States and a section devoted to various public and private agencies. Provided first are addresses and phone numbers of various government agencies:…

  14. 77 FR 46213 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Verification (STRIVE) project to update the case-mix classification system for FY 2011. The resulting RUG-IV case-mix classification system reflected the data collected in 2006-2007 during the STRIVE project,...

  15. 76 FR 71455 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... concentrations ( g/m\\3\\) County Site name Monitor ID 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Davidson Lexington 37-057-0002 15... listed on the http://www.regulations.gov Web site. Although listed in the index, some information is...

  16. 76 FR 71452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Area ( g/m \\3\\) Annual average PM2.5 concentrations ( g/m \\3\\) County Site name Monitor ID 2006 2007... site. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, i.e.,...

  17. Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues, 2008 Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    This biennial review covers developments in Environmental Mass Spectrometry for Emerging Environmental Contaminants over the period of 2006-2007. A few significant references that appeared between January and February 2008 are also included. Analytical Chemistry’s current polic...

  18. 75 FR 23773 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Escherichia coli 0157 Infections Associated With Fresh Spinach--United States, August-September 2006,'' 2007.... coli O157: H7 infections (Ref. 3), 18 percent of consumers said they stopped buying other bagged,...

  19. Isolation of a Bacterial Inhibitor from Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, H. P.; Walter, W. M.; Etchells, J. L.

    1969-01-01

    A compound inhibitory to lactic acid bacteria was isolated from green Manzanillo olives. The inhibitor is a phenolic compound, is devoid of acid-hydrolyzable reducing sugar, and has a bitter taste. Freezing the olives prior to extraction caused chemical changes which greatly increased the level of the inhibitor, whereas heating prior to freezing prevented its formation. Images PMID:16349868

  20. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  1. Enlargement of cultivated olive fruit reduces the efficiency of the larval olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated olive fruit are greatly enlarged as a result of domestication. In this study, we examined the effects of fruit size within a cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different-sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission) grown in California on th...

  2. Nuestra Comunidad: Primaria para Adultos. Segunda Parte. Edicion Experimental (Our Community: Primer for Adults. Part Two. Experimental Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This textbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. It is designed to teach people with developing literacy skills to participate in a meaningful way in the life of their community. Topics…

  3. Secular trends in health-related physical fitness in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA and HELENA studies.

    PubMed

    Moliner-Urdiales, D; Ruiz, J R; Ortega, F B; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Rey-López, J P; Martínez-Gómez, D; Casajús, J A; Mesana, M I; Marcos, A; Noriega-Borge, M J; Sjöström, M; Castillo, M J; Moreno, L A

    2010-11-01

    We analysed the secular trends in health-related physical fitness in Spanish adolescents between 2001-2002 and 2006-2007. Two representative population studies were conducted 5 years apart in adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from Zaragoza (Spain) that participated in the AVENA study in 2001-2002 and in the HELENA-CSS study in 2006-2007. Both studies used the same tests to assess physical fitness: the handgrip strength, bent arm hang, standing broad jump, 4×10m shuttle run and 20m shuttle run tests. Performance in 4×10m shuttle run and 20m shuttle run tests was higher in 2006-2007 (Cohen's d ranging from 0.2 to 0.4, p<0.05), whereas performance in handgrip strength and standing broad jump tests was lower in 2006-2007 (Cohen's d ranging from 0.3 to 1.1, p<0.001). Adjustment for age, pubertal status, fat mass, fat free mass and parental education did not alter the results. The odds ratio (OR) of meeting the FITNESSGRAM Standards for healthy cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in 2006-2007 in both boys (OR, 95% CI: 2.123, 1.157-3.908) and girls (OR, 95% CI: 2.420, 1.377-4.255). The results indicate that levels of both speed/agility and cardiorespiratory fitness were higher in 2006-2007 than in 2001-2002, whereas muscular strength components were lower in 2006-2007.

  4. Penetration of Recommended Procedures for Lung Cancer Staging and Management in the United States Over 10 Years: A Quality Research in Radiation Oncology Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Khalid, Najma; Langer, Corey J.; Kong, Feng-Ming; Owen, Jean B.; Crozier, Cheryl L.; Wilson, J. Frank; Wei, Xiong; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To document the penetration of clinical trial results, practice guidelines, and appropriateness criteria into national practice, we compared the use of components of staging and treatment for lung cancer among patients treated in 2006-2007 with those used in patients treated in 1998-1999. Methods and Materials: Patient, staging work-up, and treatment characteristics were extracted from the process survey database of the Quality Research in Radiation Oncology (QRRO), consisting of records of 340 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) at 44 institutions and of 144 patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) at 39 institutions. Data were compared for patients treated in 2006-2007 versus those for patients treated in 1998-1999. Results: Use of all recommended procedures for staging and treatment was more common in 2006-2007. Specifically, disease was staged with brain imaging (magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography) and whole-body imaging (positron emission tomography or bone scanning) in 66% of patients with LA-NSCLC in 2006-2007 (vs 42% in 1998-1999, P=.0001) and in 84% of patients with LS-SCLC in 2006-2007 (vs 58.3% in 1998-1999, P=.0011). Concurrent chemoradiation was used for 77% of LA-NSCLC patients (vs 45% in 1998-1999, P<.0001) and for 90% of LS-SCLC patients (vs 62.5% in 1998-1999, P<.0001). Use of the recommended radiation dose (59-74 Gy for NSCLC and 60-70 Gy as once-daily therapy for SCLC) did not change appreciably, being 88% for NSCLC in both periods and 51% (2006-2007) versus 43% (1998-1999) for SCLC. Twice-daily radiation for SCLC was used for 21% of patients in 2006-2007 versus 8% in 1998-1999. Finally, 49% of patients with LS-SCLC received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in 2006-2007 (vs 21% in 1998-1999). Conclusions: Although adherence to all quality indicators improved over time, brain imaging and recommended radiation doses for stage III NSCLC were used in <90% of cases. Use

  5. Assessing the effect of physical activity classes in public spaces on leisure-time physical activity: "Al Ritmo de las Comunidades" A natural experiment in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Hayat, Matthew J; Lyn, Rodney; Pratt, Michael; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2016-11-12

    The Recreovia program provides free physical activity (PA) classes in public spaces in Bogota, Colombia. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Recreovia program in increasing PA among users of nine parks in Bogota. This study was a natural experiment conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Bogota. Community members and park users living nearby three groups of parks were compared: Group 1 were parks implementing new Recreovias (n=3), Group 2 were control parks (n=3) without Recreovias, and Group 3 were parks with existing Recreovías. Individuals in the "intervention" group were exposed to newly implemented Recreovia programs in parks near their homes. Measurements were collected at baseline and 6-8months after the intervention started. A total of 1533 participants were enrolled in the study: 501 for the existing Recreovias (included in a cross-sectional assessment) and 1032 participants (from the new Recreovias and control parks) included in the cross-sectional and pre-post study. Most participants were low income females. Twenty-three percent of the intervention group started participating in the program. Users of existing Recreovias were significantly more active and less likely to be overweight/obese compared to new Recreovia users at baseline. No changes on PA were found when comparing the intervention and control groups. Recreovias may have potential for increasing PA at the population level in urban areas given their rapid scalability, the higher levels of PA observed among program users, and its potential to reach women, low-income, less educated populations, and the overweight and obese.

  6. Family and Community Involvement: Reaching Out to Diverse Populations = La participacion de la familia y la comunidad: El acercamiento a las diversas poblaciones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This handbook, in English and Spanish, is designed for educators who want to develop meaningful parent and community involvement in public education in culturally and linguistically diverse communities. The advice of leaders of Hispanic, African American, Native American, and Asian communities is incorporated into five strategies to help develop…

  7. Mapa Sociolinguistico. Analisis demolinguistico de la Comunidad Autonoma Vasca derivado del padron de 1986 (Sociolinguistic Map. Demolinguistic analysis of the Autonomous Basque Community derived from the 1986 Census).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque Autonomous Community, Vitoria (Spain). General Secretariat of Linguistic Policy.

    Sociolinguistic data are presented in the form of sophisticated maps and tables in this pioneering study on the status of the Basque language. Based on information collected from the 1986 census, the major demographic characteristics of Basque are examined in order to ascertain the factors and processes that have contributed to its current status.…

  8. Revisión de tecnología y riesgos: refinerías de petróleo - Hoja informativa para las comunidades

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Agencia de Protección Ambiental (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés) emitió un reglamento final que mejorará significativamente la calidad del aire en los vecindarios cercanos a las refinerías de petróleo mediante un control más exhaustivo de las emisiones a

  9. "La Comunidad Habla": Using Internet Community-Based Information Interventions to Increase Empowerment and Access to Health Care of Low Income Latino/a Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginossar, Tamar; Nelson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The innovative educational communication interventions described in this paper include the use of bi-lingual, low literacy level websites and training created by low income Latina women to increase access to health care, health information, and the internet. We focus on one grassroots intervention, aimed at increasing access to health care for…

  10. El Impacto de Textos en Contextos Familiares en Comunidades de Practica para la Adquisicion de Vocabulario y Estructuras Gramaticales de Español Inicial Acelerado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgos, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This study, which involved classroom-based experimental research conducted during the Fall semester of 2013 in a Spanish class at Oakwood University, aimed at extending the findings of previous studies on the use of familiar texts in reading and writing (Brown 2007, Vygotsky 1978, Kern 2000, Rollins & Villamil 2001, McCourt 2006, Morris, Beck…

  11. La Igualdad de Genero para Educadores, Padres, y la Comunidad (Gender Equity for Educators, Parents, and the Community). Equity in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. WEEA Dissemination Center.

    Classification of people according to gender begins in infancy. This booklet aims to remove some old ways of thinking that limit expectations for girls and boys. It also clarifies for educators, parents, and the community specific elements of the federal legislation called Title IX. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was the first…

  12. Effects of Wrapping Method and Soil Contact on Hay Stored in Large Round Bales in Central Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr study was conducted during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the effects of outdoor weathering on the nutritive value, ruminal disappearance kinetics of dry matter (DM), and recoveries of DM from 1.4 x 1.2-m large-round bales. The study consisted of (n = 90) bales that were allocated within...

  13. A Ten-Year Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  14. Adjusting the Passing Scores for Gearing up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth Curriculum Test Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, William Brian; French, Brian F.; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Minimum passing scores for the Gearing Up for Safety: Production Agriculture Safety Training for Youth curriculum (Gearing Up for Safety) were set in 2006 with widely used and established procedures by efforts of subject matter experts (French, Breidenbach et al., 2007; French, Field, and Tormoehlen, 2006, 2007). While providing a research-based…

  15. Effectiveness of an Individualized Computer-Driven Online Math K-5 Course in Eight California Title I Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Holland, Paul W.; Hu, Yuanan; Vu, Minh-thien

    2013-01-01

    Stanford University's Education Program for Gifted Youth (EPGY) conducted a randomized-treatment experiment during the 2006-2007 school year to test the efficacy, for Title I students, of the technological and individualized EPGY Kindergarten through Grade 5 Mathematics Course Sequence, modified for the Title I schools. Restricting attention to…

  16. EPA Treatability Database Digs Deep for Data on Drinking Water Contaminants and Treatment Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The TDB is an interactive database that was initially developed in 2006-2007. The TDB currently contains more than 60 regulated and unregulated contaminants and 28 treatment processes that are known to be effective and are commonly employed at drinking water utilities. TDB lite...

  17. The Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence in Spanish Women: The Index of Spouse Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…

  18. The Style Troika Model: A Structural Model of the Thinking and Creating Styles Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibérico Nogueira, Sara; Almeida, Leonor; Garcês, Soraia; Pocinho, Margarida; Wechsler, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Individuals express their creativity through a variety of thinking and creating styles (Wechsler, 2006, 2007). These constructs underlie the Thinking and Creating Styles Scale (TCSS), which is used to identify individuals' creating styles. The aim of this research is to assess the factorial structure of the Portuguese version of the TCSS. Two…

  19. The Association of Athletic Expenditures with Student Academic Achievement in Arkansas Secondary Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Data on public secondary schools in Arkansas were gathered for two separate school years, 2005-2006 (N = 278) and 2006-2007 (N = 279), to determine if there was an association between athletic expenditures and student academic achievement. Prior to this research, there was little empirical evidence demonstrating any effect that athletic spending…

  20. Economic Hardship and Depression across the Life Course: The Impact of Welfare State Regimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006-2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the…

  1. 77 FR 66945 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Reasonably...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...; Reasonably Available Control Technology Update To Address Control Techniques Guidelines Issued in 2006, 2007... revision establishes Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for several categories of volatile organic compound (VOC) sources. The intended effect of this action is to approve these requirements...

  2. Commercial Reading Programmes as the Solution for Children Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Deborah Duncan

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2007 a non-profit reading institute initiated a reading reform programme in the United States in which demonstration classrooms were established in 13 of the lowest performing schools in Mississippi, a state recognised for its high rate of poverty and low academic achievement. This qualitative study describes the experiences of 12 highly…

  3. A Comparative Study of Turkish Elementary and Science Education Major Students' Knowledge Levels at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Lutfullah; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of popular biotechnological issues of Turkish science and elementary teacher candidates. A questionnaire was administered during 2006-2007 school term to 336 students pursuing their education in the departments of science and elementary education in two Turkish universities. The…

  4. Sensory and quality evaluation of selected citrus hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly consumers are becoming more sophisticated in their demand for diversity of products, greater health potential and good eating quality. The evaluation of a population of mandarin citrus (Citrus reticulata) and mandarin hybrids, was initiated in 2006-2007 with the goal of establishing bas...

  5. Finding the Way for Getting to Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Faced with child obesity rates that have reached record highs, schools across America will soon go on a fitness plan prescribed by Congress. The wellness mandate requires districts that participate in the federal school lunch program to have a policy in place by the start of the 2006-2007 school year. The law is not nearly as far-reaching as the…

  6. In the Spotlight: Professional Education Program Showcases Everyone's Practice in a Sharing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Jane B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Fox Chapel Area High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania implemented its Professional Education Program. The school's Professional Education Program, which ended its sixth year in 2006-2007, involves scrupulous research, planning, and shared goals. Diverse and small groups of staff meet during protected…

  7. Blood Meal Analysis of and Virus Detection in Mosquitoes Collected during a Rift Valley fever Epizootic/Epidemic: Implications for epidemic disease transmission dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for v...

  8. Blood Meal Analysis of Mosquitoes Involved in a Rift Valley fever Outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were sc...

  9. Schools Struggling to Meet Key Goal on Accountability: Number Failing to Make AYP Rises 28 Percent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Almost 30,000 schools in the United States failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act in the 2007-2008 school year. For states with comparable data for the 2006-2007 school year, the number of such schools increased by 28%. Half those schools missed their achievement goals for two or more years, putting…

  10. Obesity among Middle School Children: More Cause for School Leaders' Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David; Viglietti, Gina C.; Slate, John R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationship of 1,128 sixth and seventh grade students' grades in four subject areas (i.e., math, reading, science, and social studies) and their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge & Skills (TAKS) Reading, Math, and Writing measures for the 2006-2007 school year as a function of their weight…

  11. The Relationship of College Credit Earned while in High School to First-Semester College GPA and Persistence to the Second College Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fara, Kimberly J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how a student's college academic success at Iowa State University (ISU) is related to college credit earning while in high school. The unit of analysis for this research was first time full time first year students who entered ISU in the fall semester of 2006, 2007, and 2008. This study examined the…

  12. A Cross-Case Study of the Impact of Organizational Change through the Diffusion of the Classrooms for the Future Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slamecka, Brian Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, Governor Edward Rendell announced a three-year, $200 million Classrooms for the Future program to provide technology and technology support to schools across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, beginning in the 2006-2007 school year. The purpose of this research study is to examine the change process of the diffusion of technology within…

  13. Strengthening the Special Educational Needs Element of Initial Teacher Training and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golder, Gill; Jones, Nicky; Quinn, Erica Eaton

    2009-01-01

    In the academic year 2006-2007, the Training and Development Agency (TDA) set up a development programme to enable Initial Teacher Training and Education (ITTE) placements in specialist special education provision. The goal of the programme was to enhance the knowledge, skills and understanding of inclusive practice for special educational needs…

  14. Characterization of indoor home vacuum dust allergens and serum based allergen specific IgE levels in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study was conducted in the Detroit, Michigan area during fall to early winter 2006-2007. Children from 9-13 years of age were recruited into a cross-sectional study to examine biological markers of exposure, effects, and susce...

  15. Hydrogen sulfide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from broiler houses in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from two mechanically ventilated commercial broiler houses located in the Southeastern United States were continuously monitored over 12 flocks during the one-year period of 2006-2007 as a joint effort between Iowa State University a...

  16. Transmission of potato purple top phytoplasma to potato tubers and daughter plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, 2007, and 2008, Alturas, Russet Burbank, FL1867, FL1879, Russet Norkotah, Ranger Russet, Shepody, and Umatilla Russet potatoes were planted at a research farm near Moxee, WA. Plants were allowed to become infested with native populations of the beet leafhopper which are known vectors of t...

  17. "Growing" Education in Difficult Environments Promoting Problem Solving: A Case from Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabr, Dua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a collaborative educational experiment "The Death of the Dead Sea: A Problem Based Learning" that was applied in two governmental high schools in Ramallah, Palestine in the school year 2006-2007. The students' role was to raise awareness to the phenomenon of the saltiest lake that shrinks towards extinction. In spite…

  18. Education for Adult English Language Learners in the United States: Trends, Research, and Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Young, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Adult English language learners comprise a substantial proportion of the adult education population in the United States. In program year 2006-2007, 46% of participants enrolled in state-administered adult education programs were in English as a second language (ESL) classes. This percentage does not include English language learners enrolled in…

  19. Message in a Bottle: University Advertising during Bowl Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Through this descriptive qualitative study of institutional advertisements aired on television during the 2006-2007 college football bowl season, I sought to understand the messages communicated by colleges and universities to external audiences. The findings demonstrate the focus on selling the private benefits of higher education and call into…

  20. The Succeed Project: Challenging Early School Failure in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Frances E.; Hossain, Kamal; O'Gara, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    This evaluation research compares the first-grade competencies of two cohorts of Bangladesh children who attended "Succeed" preschools, with a control group who did not attend preschool. Testing of these groups occurred in 2006, 2007, and 2005, respectively. The Succeed program aims to improve children's learning and children's school…

  1. A Comparative Analysis between Direct and Indirect Measurement of Year I Integrated Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Anuar, Nurina; Markom, Masturah; Ismail, Manal; Rosli, Masli Irwan; Hasan, Hassimi Abu

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Project (IP) has been practised in the Department of Chemical and Process Engineering (JKKP) since the 2006/2007 session. Initially, the IP is only implemented for the Year II students for both Chemical (KK) and Biochemical Engineering (KB) programmes. Previously, the Year 1 curriculum was only based on the common faculty courses.…

  2. Connecting Classroom and Cafeteria in a School Wellness Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenci, Alexandra; Hughes, Luanne J.; Savoca, LeeAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required all school districts participating in federally funded child nutrition programs to adopt and implement a school wellness policy by the beginning of the 2006-2007 school year. One drawback of this federal mandate was that it did not provide funding to assist with…

  3. A New Vision for Chemistry Education Students: Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine level of pre-service chemistry teachers' environmental literacy and their perceptions on environmental education. This study was realized during the fall semester of 2006-2007 academic year with the participation of 60 students enrolled in five-year chemistry teacher education program. The data collected by…

  4. Retention, Persistence, and Enrollment Management: An Exploration of Organizational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Stacy A.

    2013-01-01

    Low student retention and persistence continues to be a major problem within American higher education (Elkins, Braxton, & James, 2000; Kalsbeek & Hossler, 2010; Kezar, 2004; Tinto, 2006-2007). Less is known about the institutional organizational behavior influence on student persistence (Berger, 2001-2002); and while enrollment management…

  5. Association of Canadian Community Colleges Annual Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Report for the 2007-2008 academic year presents an overview and highlights of the work of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) in various areas of service to members, including advocacy, partnership, forum and marketing. The auditors' report is also included. [This report was translated by Yvon Lepage. For the 2006-2007

  6. Tillman Creek Mitigation Site As-Build Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, Doug

    2009-05-29

    This as-built report describes site conditions at the Tillman Creek mitigation site in South Cle Elum, Washington. This mitigation site was constructed in 2006-2007 to compensate for wetland impacts from the Yakama Nation hatchery. This as-built report provides information on the construction sequence, as-built survey, and establishment of baseline monitoring stations.

  7. School Leadership Readiness: Traditional vs. Online Administrative Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfin, Jose

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Center of Educational Statistics (2006-2007) report, 92% of two and four-year Title IV degree-granting postsecondary institutions offered distance education courses due to students' demand for flexible scheduling. That same report cited that 82% of those institutions were seeking to increase student enrollment via…

  8. Supreme Court Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at various cases of the Supreme Court's most recent term. In contrast to the 2006-2007 term when the Supreme Court was regularly split 5-4, during this last term, the justices have formed surprising coalitions in cases considered highly controversial. For example, it was the so-called liberal bloc's Justice Stevens who wrote the…

  9. Research on Children's Concepts of God and Spirituality and Its Implications on Educational Inequality in Early Childhood Educational Reform in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Grace

    2010-01-01

    In his 2006-2007 policy address, the chief executive of Hong Kong committed HK$2 billion to enhancing holistic early childhood education through the instigation of a school voucher scheme. The new paradigm of a child-centered curriculum is considered necessary to keep pace with international quality educational developments. The paradigm of…

  10. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  11. Teachers as Readers: Building Communities of Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Safford, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Given the narrow scope of primary teachers' knowledge and use of children's literature identified in Phase I of "Teachers as Readers" (2006-2007), the core goal of the Phase II project was to improve teachers' knowledge and experience of such literature in order to help them increase children's motivation and enthusiasm for reading,…

  12. "Stroppy" or "Confident"? Do Carers and Professionals View the Impact of Transition Support on Young People Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaehne, Axel; Beyer, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the effects of transition employment support to two cohorts of young people who were in their last year in school or college in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. This paper reports the views of carers, teachers and support workers of the impact this additional support made to the young people. Analysis of the data reveals a difference…

  13. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health and Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus that was linked with honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), the sudden and massive die-off of honey bee colonies in the U.S. in 2006-2007. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence and genetic diversity of IAPV, host transcripti...

  14. Oral Reading Fluency: Predicting Outcomes for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Hector Geovanni

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated Oral Reading Fluency and its ability to predict academic achievement in language arts and mathematics on 6,484 first through fourth grade students. Student, teacher, and school information from the 2006-2007 academic school year was collected from databases maintained by Salt Lake City School District. The…

  15. FEMA’s Preparedness for the Next Catastrophic Disaster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Figure 1: Scorecard for...Billions 2004 2005 2006 2007 Fiscal Year Source: DHS Annual Financial Report Data. Budgetary resources include unobligated balances carried forward...to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from all hazards in a way that balances risk with resources and need.” FEMA’s Preparedness for

  16. Warfighter Auditory Situation Awareness: Locating the Shooter with and without Hearing Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    NIHL is the most common military disability (Saunders & Griest, 2009). Over $1.2 billion spent on hearing injuries in 2006. 2007: VA dispensed...350,000 hearing aids at ~ $141 million. • ~ 1/3 of soldiers from Iraq and Afghan theaters have NIHL (Ahroon, 2007). • The hearing-impaired warfighter

  17. Are Physical Education-Related State Policies and Schools' Physical Education Requirement Related to Children's Physical Activity and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether the extent of states' physical education (PE) requirement policies and the prevalence of schools requiring PE are associated with children's physical activity (PA) and obesity. Methods: Two cycles (2002-2003 and 2006-2007) of cross-sectional data with individual- and state-level information were…

  18. Relation between Justice Perception and Perception of Trust in School of Secondary School Vice-Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Soner; Celep, Cevat

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the perception levels of secondary school vice directors towards organizational justice and organizational trust and establish their inter-relations. This research of descriptional nature covers vice directors working in educational institutions in the school year of 2006-2007; work area of the study covers…

  19. The High School Experience: What Students with and without Disabilities Report as They Leave School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Jeanne B.; McGorray, Susan P.; Wang, Hua; Podmostko, Mary; Andrews, W. Drew; Lubbers, Joyce; Gritz, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Results of the Florida High School Exit Survey collected in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 are presented. Participants include 2,520 students with and without disabilities across 40 school districts. Survey items cover questions relating to employment, postsecondary education and training, daily living, quality of life, agency connections, in-school…

  20. More than a Least Restrictive Environment: Living up to the Civil Covenant in Building Inclusive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilton-Sylvester, Ellen; Slesaransky-Poe, Graciela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes data from the first annual Inclusion Institute (AAII) held during the 2006-2007 academic year at Arcadia University, and raises questions about the essential processes needed to create inclusive schools. In particular, our analysis focuses on the need to redirect our attention from the individual needs of…

  1. Mastery Learning and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Kent

    2010-01-01

    During the 2006-2007 school year, 14% of the eighth-grade mathematics students at the study campus failed to meet advancement criteria on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The purpose of this quantitative pretest-posttest and control-group design study was to first investigate the effects of a mastery goal approach to…

  2. Standardized Tests as Measurements of Achievement: Does the High School Assessment Program (HSAP) Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Susan Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between HSAP scores and various measures of classroom achievement such as overall GPA, End Of Course Scores and SAT/ACT scores of Berea High School [BHS] students in the classes of 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Methodology: The researcher collected the following data for random samples…

  3. The Production, Communication, and Contestation of Physical Education Policy: The Cases of Mississippi and Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Wright, Paul M.; Amis, John; Ferry, Hugh; Vardaman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the production, communication, interpretation and contestation of new physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA) policy initiatives introduced in Mississippi and Tennessee for the academic year 2006-2007. These states provide a relevant context to study such issues, since Mississippi has the highest…

  4. Science and Technology for a Safer Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    attracting new researchers to prevent, manage and respond to food - contamination events. Efforts include development of a prototype food-event...impact of food contamination events. In response to several contamination events in 2006-2007, NCFPD researchers analyzed food ingredients and

  5. Relationships among and between ELL Status, Demographic Characteristics, Enrollment History, and School Persistence. CRESST Report 810

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinok

    2011-01-01

    This report examines enrollment history, achievement gaps, and persistence in school for ELL students and reclassified ELL students as compared to non-ELL students. The study uses statewide individual-level data sets merged from students' entry to exit in the state's public school system for graduate cohorts of 2006, 2007, and 2008. Analytic…

  6. Perceptions of Slimming and Healthiness among Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelkrem, Kristiane; Lien, Nanna; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore what adolescent girls mean when they talk about healthiness and slimming, as well as the distinction between the 2 concepts. Design: Data was collected by the use of 8 focus groups, each with 5-9 adolescent girls. Setting: Four different schools in Oslo and 2 other municipalities in Norway in 2006-2007. Participants:…

  7. Media Literacy Education in Turkey: An Evaluation of Media Processes and Ethical Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elma, Cevat; Kesten, Alper; Dicle, Abdullah N.; Uzun, Elif Mercan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate school principals', teachers', parents', and students' opinions, arising from participation in a pilot program which used a media literacy curriculum in Turkey. The research population covers all seventh grade students who attended the media literacy course during the 2006-2007 academic year, in five pilot…

  8. Graduate Research Capabilities: A New Agenda for Research Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Geof W.; Walsh, Shari P.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a conversation about university graduate employability within the Higher Education literature for some time (Cryer, 1997; Barrie, 2004, 2006, 2007; Murray, 2000; McAlpine, 2006). Within this, and often under the banner of questioning the relevance of the PhD (Murray, 2000), there have been discussions about the employability of…

  9. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in a College Population: General Trends and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Janis; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer; Purington, Amanda; Eckenrode, John; Barreira, Paul; Abrams, Gina Baral; Marchell, Tim; Kress, Victoria; Girard, Kristine; Chin, Calvin; Knox, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe basic nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) characteristics and to explore sex differences. Methods: A random sample from 8 universities were invited to participate in a Web-based survey in 2006-2007; 38.9% (n = 14,372) participated. Analysis assessed sex differences in NSSI prevalence, practices, severity, perceived dependency,…

  10. First Report of "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous" (synonym "Ca. L. solanacearum") Associated with 'Tomato Vein-Greening' and 'Tomato psyllid yellows' Diseases in Commercial Greenhouses in Arizona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2006-2007, tomato plants in two independent, commercial greenhouses in Arizona were infested with potato psyllid Paratrioza cockerelli. Over 60% and ~20% of plants in GH-1 and GH-2, respectively, exhibited leaf curling, stunting, and shortened internodes, and GH-1 plants also showed vein-gree...

  11. 76 FR 75467 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Louisiana; Revisions To Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Coatings (72 FR 57215, October 9, 2007); Consumer and Commercial Products, Group IV: Control Techniques... CTGs issued in 2006, 2007 and 2008: Consumer and Commercial Products Group II: Control Techniques... 57215, October 9, 2007); Consumer and Commercial Products, Group IV: Control Techniques Guidelines...

  12. Art Student Perceptions of the Role of Community Service in Israeli Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachar, Pnina; Ofri, Vinnie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand how student art teachers perceive the contribution to their training of community service in various frameworks, such as a prison and a drug rehabilitation center. The research was conducted in 2006-2007 in the School of Art at Beit Berl College, Israel, in two stages. In the first stage, six…

  13. A resolution recognizing the life and work of war correspondent Marie Colvin and other courageous journalists in war zones.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Whitehouse, Sheldon [D-RI

    2012-03-22

    03/22/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2006-2007; text as passed Senate: CR S2007; text of measure as introduced: CR S2004) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Trash + Creativity = Problem Solved: Award Winners Give Plastic Bottles Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Judge Harry T. Roman, an electrical engineer and inventor, has selected the best of the crop in the 2006/2007 Tech Directions Inventors Award Competition. The challenge this year called on students to slow the filling of landfills by devising uses for discarded plastic water, juice, soda, and sports-drink bottles. Judge Roman noted "many common…

  15. The Profiles, Patterns, and Practices of Women Superintendents in Alabama's Public School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouillette, Janine E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a profile that describes the patterns and practices of the 27 women who served as public school superintendents in Alabama during the 2006-2007 school year. This study explored the relationship between the profiles, patterns, and practices found in research and the manifestations in the lives and careers of…

  16. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  17. A Content Analysis of Cognitive Health Promotion in Popular Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Price, Anna E.

    2011-01-01

    Health behaviors, particularly physical activity, may promote cognitive health. The public agenda for health behaviors is influenced by popular media. We analyzed the cognitive health content of 20 United States magazines, examining every page of every 2006-2007 issue of the highest circulating magazines for general audiences, women, men, African…

  18. Rethinking Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Frank H.; Collins, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    The overrepresentation of the Black and Hispanic subgroups in suspension data is a national problem and a troubling issue for schools and school systems across the United States. In Maryland, an analysis of student suspensions by school districts for the 2006-2007 school year revealed disproportionality issues. In 23 of the 24 jurisdictions,…

  19. Comparability of Health Care Responsiveness in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirven, Nicolas; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte; Spagnoli, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure and to correct for the potential incomparability of responses to the SHARE survey on health care responsiveness. A parametric approach based on the use of anchoring vignettes is applied to cross-sectional data (2006-2007) in eleven European countries. More than 7,000 respondents aged 50 years old and over were…

  20. Smooth Move: A Psychoeducational Program for High School Seniors to Ease the Emotional Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to college is considered to be a stressful time. Nearly all first year students experience loneliness, but many also experience stress, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, and suicidal thoughts (Compas, Wagner, Slavia, & Vannatta, 1986; Nicpon, Huser, Blanks, Sollenberger, Befort, & Robinson Kurpius, 2006-2007;…

  1. Predictors of Online Learning Success in a Rural Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhaul-Moore, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The number of courses offered online and the level of students enrolled in online courses has dramatically increased over the last several years. The National Education Center for Education Statistics reports that during the 2006-2007 school term, 97% of public two-year institutions across the nation offered college-level distance learning…

  2. Effect of 5E Instructional Model in Student Success in Primary School 6th Year Circulatory System Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa; Saritas, Ozge

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental…

  3. Science Initial Teacher Education and Superdiversity: Educating Science Teachers for a Multi-Religious and Globalised Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Carvalho, Roussel

    2016-01-01

    Steven Vertovec (2006, 2007) has recently offered a re-interpretation of population diversity in large urban centres due to a considerable increase in immigration patterns in the UK. This complex scenario called superdiversity has been conceptualised to help illuminate significant interactions of variables such as religion, language, gender, age,…

  4. Space Vehicle Material and Plume Interactions With the Low Earth Orbital Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Summer 2004 (T. K. Minton) Amelia Earhart Fellowship, 2005-2006; renewed 2006-2007 (Amy L. Brunsvold...c) Hari Upadhyaya, post-doc (17%) d) Evgueni Kadossov, post-doc (8%) e) Amy Brunsvold, graduate student (33%) f) Amelia Valasek, graduate student (25

  5. The Status of Technology Education in the United States: A Triennial Report of the Findings from the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The International Technology Education Association (ITEA) conducted research on the status of technology education in the United States in 2006-2007. This was the third study conducted by ITEA on the condition of the study of technology in all 50 states. The previous studies were completed by ITEA's Technology for All Americans Project in…

  6. Projecting Officer Strength of the United States Army Reserve from 2008-2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Officer Accesions by Fiscal Year (Exponential Smoothing) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2LT 1LT...Accessions Forecasts (Holt Smoothing) Projected RC Officer Accesions by Fiscal Year (Holt Smoothing) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 2003

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 593 - List of Vehicles Determined To Be Eligible for Importation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 1994 156 Alfa Romeo Spider 1987 70 Alfa Romeo Spyder 1992 503 Alpina B12 5.0 Sedan 1988-1994 41 Alpina B12 2-door Coupe 1989-1996 43 Aston Martin Vanquish 2002-2004 430 Aston Martin Vantage 2006-2007...

  8. RDI Advising Model for Improving the Teaching-Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Fuente, Jesus; Lopez-Medialdea, Ana Maria

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Advising in Educational Psychology from the perspective of RDI takes on a stronger investigative, innovative nature. The model proposed by De la Fuente et al (2006, 2007) and Education & Psychology (2007) was applied to the field of improving teaching-learning processes at a school. Hypotheses were as follows: (1) interdependence…

  9. Community College Students with Disabilities and Transfer to a Four-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponticelli, Jan E.; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 12 predictors for transfer from the community college to a four-year institution for students with disabilities. Pre-existing data from the California Community College Chancellor's Office (CCCCO) matched with data from the National Student Clearinghouse, running from the academic year 1995-1996 until 2006-2007, were used. This…

  10. Post-Secondary Education and Rural Women Enrolled in Liberal Arts Undergraduate Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Monique; Kirby, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The significance of post-secondary education is investigated for rural Newfoundland women enrolled in undergraduate liberal arts degree programs. Data collection for this research involved comprehensive, detailed semi-structured biographical interviews with rural women studying liberal arts disciplines during the 2006-2007 academic year at…

  11. Superintendent's 18th Annual Report, State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This annual report provides a retrospective glimpse of Hawaii public schools for school year 2006-2007. Each year, it provides highlights for partners and stakeholders, new comparisons, presentations, and displays of current Department of Education information while maintaining the reporting of core data, such as student achievement, in a user…

  12. The Can-Do Central Office: With an Eye on Student Achievement, Illinois District Redefines Its Roles and Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Deanne; Kachur, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    Facing a superintendent change in 2006-2007, Decatur Public School District 61 in Illinois was already confronting the major challenges of a widening student achievement gap, increasing dropout rate, and schools not meeting Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). From the beginning, Superintendent Gloria J. Davis professed several simple beliefs that…

  13. Early Childhood Education in Turkey: Pre-School Teachers' Attitudes towards Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divrengi, Mihrap; Aktan, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study examines preschool teacher attitude to respect for diversity. Findings are based on analysis of questionnaire responses gathered from a sample group of 685 teachers administered in five Istanbul districts between 2006-2007, and analysed by frequency, percentage and Chi-square. Recommendations are proposed with reference to the analysed…

  14. Trends in matrix metalloproteinase research from 1986-2007: a bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Wilson, Concepción S; Gaudy, Jean-François; Hornebeck, William; Arreto, Charles-Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Using the SCI-expanded database, this study provides a quantitative description of the development of the research involving matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) over a period of 20 years. From 1986 to 2007 the scientific literature related to MMP increased sevenfold (397 papers in 1986-1987 and 2834 in 2006-2007). The number of countries participating in MMP-related research doubled during this period (33 in 1986-1987 to 67 in 2006-2007), and the USA continually remained the leader. Several industrialized nations (Japan, Germany, UK, Canada, and France) also continuously played important roles, with some emerging Asian countries joining the top 10 most productive countries in 2006-2007: China (ranked 5th), South Korea (6th), and Taiwan (10th). The MMP-related literature was distributed among a continuously growing number of journals (188 in 1986-1987, 527 in 1996-1997, and 913 in 2006-2007) and The Journal of Biological Chemistry remained the most prolific throughout the entire period. The development of the research involving MMPs during the past two decades was also characterized by a progressive transfer of interest from basic research to clinical medicine; cell biology and pharmacology were important routes of investigation generally pursued by researchers. Journals dedicated to oncology have progressively risen to the top 8 most prolific journals during the 20 year period analyzed.

  15. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  16. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  17. All but Her Life: Holocaust Survivor Gerda Klein Shares with Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    During the 2006-2007 school year, students from Battle Creek, Michigan, high school joined numerous others from across the state in reading holocaust survivor Gerda Klein's memoir, "All But My Life." Published in 57 editions and still in print after 50 years, the book is the inspiring account of a remarkable individual who endured unspeakable…

  18. A Comparison of the American Common Core State Standards with the Finnish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    With the failure of the No Child Left Behind policies of the 1990's, educational reformers wished to establish a "new and improved" set of standards for the United States to follow. However, since their inception in 2006-2007, the new Common Core State Standards have become increasingly unpopular due to the fact that they remain largely…

  19. Demographics, Employment Motivations, and Roles of Part-Time Faculty at Virtual Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Lauryl A.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the demographic profile, employment motivations, and changing roles of virtual faculty who hold part-time appointments. These insights are drawn from a 2006-2007 survey of forty-two part-time faculty working for virtual universities under the purview of the Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities for the…

  20. A Suggested CALL Program to Develop EFL College Learners' Mechanics of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Marwa Ahmed Refat

    2007-01-01

    The current study aims at investigating the effect of a suggested CALL program on developing EFL learners' mechanics of writing in English. An unbiased simple random sample of eighty fourth-year students (2006/2007) of the English Department at the Faculty of Education in Kafr El-Sheikh has been chosen to carry out the experiment. Forty students…

  1. The Muzzled Dog That Didn't Bark: Charters and the Behavioral Response of D.C. Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret D.; Campbell, Dean B.; Kisida, Brian

    2008-01-01

    As of the 2006-2007 school year, 19,733 students attended charter schools in the District of Columbia, representing over a quarter of the District's total public school student population and one of the largest charter school markets in the country. It is under such circumstances, some suggest, that choice will spur competition, ultimately…

  2. Predicting Chemical Toxicity from Proteomics and Computational Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-30

    SCHUR, RC King, Ed., Nicolaus Copernicus University Press, Torun, 27-32 (2006). 2007 Graphical representation and numerical characterization of H5N1...Miszta (N. Copernicus University, Poland) and Jerome Klun (USDA Agricultural Research Service). xiv. A novel approach for the numerical

  3. Stability and Change in the Development of College Students' Civic Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moely, Barbara E.; Ilustre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Students entering Tulane University in 2006, 2007, and 2008, the years following Hurricane Katrina, were surveyed soon after arriving on campus and again after they had been at the university for two years. Attitudes toward a new public service graduation requirement, established after the storm, remained positive after students had completed two…

  4. Uses of Technology in the Instruction of Adult English Language Learners. CAELA Network Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sarah Catherine K.

    2009-01-01

    In program year 2006-2007, 46 percent of the adults enrolled in federally funded, state-administered adult education programs in the United States were enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. These adult English language learners represent a wide range of ages, nationalities, native languages, and English proficiency levels. In…

  5. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  6. Population parameters and dynamic pool models of commercial fishes in the Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Du, Feiyan; Lin, Zhaojin; Sun, Dianrong; Huang, Shuolin

    2012-01-01

    Length-frequency data of eight commercial fish species in the Beibu Gulf (Golf of Tonkin), northern South China Sea, were collected during 2006-2007. Length-weight relationships and growth and mortality parameters were analyzed using FiSAT II software. Five species had isometric growth, two species had negative allometric growth, and one species had positive allometric growth. Overall, the exploitation rates of the eight species were lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999: for four species ( Saurida tumbil, Saurida undosquamis, Argyrosomus macrocephalus, and Nemipterus virgatus) it was lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999, for two species ( Parargyrops edita and Trichiurus haumela) it remained the same, and for the other two species ( Trachurus japonicus and Decapterus maruadsi) it was higher in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999. The exploitation rates might have declined because of the decline in fishing intensity caused by high crude oil prices. The optimum exploitation rate, estimated using Beverton-Holt dynamic pool models, indicated that although fishes in the Beibu Gulf could sustain high exploitation rates, the under-size fishes at first capture resulted in low yields. To increase the yield per recruitment, it is more effective to increase the size at first capture than to control fishing effort.

  7. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  8. Competences in Demand within the Spanish Agricultural Engineering Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers…

  9. Top 100 Undergraduate Degree Producers--Interpreting the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents "Diverse Online's" annual analysis of the Top 100 degrees conferred to African-American students. The tables in this edition of the Top 100 analysis reflect degrees conferred during the 2006-2007 academic year as of mid March 2008 by the vast majority of U.S. postsecondary institutions to the Department of Education's…

  10. 78 FR 31459 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Reasonably Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...-1-FRL-9817-2] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Connecticut; Reasonably Available Control Technology Update To Address Control Techniques Guidelines Issued in 2006, 2007, and 2008... establishes and requires Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for several categories of...

  11. Partners in Pittsburgh Public Schools' Excellence for All Initiative: Findings from the First Year of Implementation. Documented Briefing. DB-544-FFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Nelson, Catherine Awsumb; Dembosky, Jacob W.; Gill, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Public School District asked the RAND Corporation to monitor the first year's implementation (2006-2007) of Excellence for All (EFA) and provide feedback to district staff, the board, and other stakeholders. The Pittsburgh Public School District leadership developed EFA with the aim of increasing student achievement by improving…

  12. Career and Technical Education Administrators' Perceptions of Secondary Teachers' Attire as Indicated by Selected Professional Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of career and technical education (CTE) administrators toward secondary teachers' attire as indicated by 10 occupational attributes. The population consisted of CTE administrators employed by West Virginia Department of Education during 2006-2007 academic school year. The top three attributes…

  13. The Effects of Sources of Motivation on Teachers' Motivation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocabas, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    This study, in which a descriptive scanning model is used, aims to determine the effects of motivational sources on teachers' motivation levels. The population sample for this study consists of teachers working in the Elazig city center in 2006-2007 academic year. A sample of 225 teachers was randomly selected from this population. Data obtained…

  14. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  15. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction Designed According to 7E Model of Constructivist Learning on Physics Student Teachers' Achievement, Concept Learning, Self-Efficacy Perceptions and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocakaya, Serhat; Gonen, Selahattin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction designed according to 7E model of constructivist learning(CAI7E) related to "electrostatic'' topic on physics student teachers' cognitive development, misconceptions, self-efficacy perceptions and attitudes. The study was conducted in 2006-2007

  16. Historical presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in the United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the winter of 2006-2007, a rare and extreme syndrome of honey bee losses was observed. This syndrome, labeled Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), was defined by a rapid depopulation of adult bees in colonies, often leaving substantial amounts of standing brood. In an extensive metagenomic survey...

  17. Waterbird numbers and double-crested cormorants movement patterns within aquaculture production areas of the lower Mississippi River, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past seven consecutive years (1999-2007), aerial surveys by fixed-wing aircraft were conducted to monitor and quantify the wintering cormorant numbers. In addition, during the past two winters 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, 20 double-crested cormorants were captured, leg banded, and fitted wit...

  18. Prevalence and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven blue crab processing plants were sampled to determine the prevalence and sources of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes for two years (2006-2007). A total of 488 raw crab, 624 crab meat, and 624 environmental samples were tested by molecular and culture-based standard methods. Presumptive Liste...

  19. Factors Affecting Student Loan Default Rate at Johnson County Community College: A Multivariate Analysis of Student Loan Default and Repayment between Years 2006 and 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized a quantitative design using archival data from Johnson County Community College (JCCC), located in Johnson County, Kansas, and the Office of Financial Aid for students who graduated, withdrew or dropped out of the college in academic years 2006, 2007 and 2008. Because this study used archival data, we can only show…

  20. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to reduce collisions at highway-rail grade crossings in the ten States that have had the most highway-rail grade crossing collisions... highway-rail grade crossing collisions, on average, during the calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008....

  1. Implementing Digital Individual Development Planning in Teacher Education: The Challenges of Communication in Relation to the Development of ICT-Supported Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Carina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the experiences of a group of teacher educators during the 2006-2007 academic year, when they participated in a project to try out and implement digital individual development planning (which in Swedish is digital "Individuella Utvecklings-Planer" or IUP) in a teacher education faculty at a Swedish…

  2. Using the Theory of Successful Intelligence as a Framework for Developing Assessments in AP Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemler, Steven E.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Sharpes, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    A new test of Advanced Placement Physics, explicitly designed to balance both content and cognitive-processing skills, was developed using Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence. The test was administered to 281 AP Physics students from 10 schools during the 2006-2007 school year. Six empirically distinguishable profiles of strengths and…

  3. The Effects of College Counseling on High-Achieving, Low-Income Students. NBER Working Paper No. 16359

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study, using a randomized controlled trial to provide college counseling to high-achieving students from relatively poor families. We followed 107 high school seniors through the college admissions process in 2006-2007; we selected 52 of these students at random, offering them ten hours of individualized…

  4. Comparing Child Protective Investigation Performance between Law Enforcement Agencies and Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and…

  5. The Economic Impact of Pre-Owned Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Park

    2010-01-01

    The costs associated with education outpace inflation every year, more than doubling it over the past 20 years. The latest data from the National Center for Education Statistics calculate that school expenditures from all funding sources topped $400 billion for the 2006-2007 school year. Only 3% of these expenditures are earmarked for…

  6. No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions Could Improve the Targeting of School Improvement Funds to Schools Most in Need of Assistance. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-380

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2008-01-01

    Under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA), the federal government provides millions of dollars annually to assist schools that have not met state academic goals. In the 2006-2007 school year, over 10,000 such schools were identified for improvement. NCLBA requires states to set aside 4 percent of their Title I funds to pay for school improvement…

  7. An Examination of the Humane Values Education Program on a Group of Science High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bulent; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan; Eksi, Halil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether the humane values education program has produced any changes on the students' level of humane values. The research was conducted with the first- and second-grade students in Konya Meram Science High School in the 2006-2007 academic year. Thirty students participated in the study. Half of the…

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor "Bridge to Algebra" Curriculum: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in the Maui School District. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    Under the "Math Science Partnership Grant," the Maui Hawaii Educational Consortium sought scientifically based evidence for the effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor[R]" (CT) program as part of the adoption process for pre-Algebra program. During the 2006-2007 school year, the researchers conducted a follow-on…

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor Bridge to Algebra" Curriculum: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in the Maui School District. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabalo, Jessica Villaruz; Ma, Boya; Jaciw, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Under the "Math Science Partnership Grant," the Maui Hawaii Educational Consortium sought scientifically based evidence for the effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor[R]" (CT) program as part of the adoption process for pre-Algebra program. During the 2006-2007 school year, the researchers conducted a follow-on…

  10. Teacher Hiring, Transfer and Assignment in Chicago Public Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Teacher Project, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the winter of 2006-2007, The New Teacher Project (TNTP) engaged in an extensive review of teacher staffing policies and practices in Chicago Public Schools (CPS). TNTP investigated the impact of CPS staffing rules through several avenues: (1) Review of CPS Teachers contract; (2) Analysis of Human Resources transaction data; (3) Surveys of…

  11. Tectonic Fabric of the Cocos Plate and Conjugate Pacific Plate Crust Near Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Existing satellite gravity data, along with publicly available single beam bathymetry, multibeam bathymetry, and shipboard and satellite magnetic anomalies were compiled to make an updated map of tectonic features of the Cocos Plate offshore Mexico and the conjugate crust on the Pacific Plate. The area includes the northern Cocos plate as far south as the Tehuantepec Ridge, and Pacific plate crust on both sides of the Mathematician Rise. This thus includes the modern East Pacific Rise (EPR), the submarine rift margins that bound it - Moctezuma and Manzanillo Troughs - and features previously identified such as the Orozco and O'Gorman Fracture Zones near the Middle America Trench (MAT). The goal was to use existing data to evaluate the likely features that may have existed on the now subducted Cocos Plate crust north of the Clarion Fracture Zone-Tehuantepec Ridge. This can then be compared to seismic imaging of the downgoing slab and geochemical variations along the Mexican Volcanic Arc. Bathymetric slopes were computed automatically from multibeam data gridded at 200 m, 300 m, and 400 m pixel size, and processed to remove signals of circular features such as seamounts, and regions of low slope, while emphasizing higher slopes controlled by linear abyssal hill fabric and fracture zones. Tectonic fabrics at all 3 scales are generally similar. In the resulting tectonic fabric map, the domain of modern East Pacific Rise spreading is clearly visible, truncating older fabrics at the Manzanillo Trough on the east and the Moctezuma Trough on the west. The Orozco Fracture Zone lies entirely within the young part of this crustal province and does not reach the Manzanillo Trough or the MAT. Hence, it is not a feature of the downgoing Cocos Plate and should not be used to explain variations in geochemistry of the arc or geometric variations in the subducted plate. A zone of E-W to ENE-WSW oriented abyssal hills and lineated magnetic anomalies in a bathymetric low between the

  12. Changes in pharmaceutical treatment of diabetes and family financial burdens.

    PubMed

    Sarpong, Eric M; Bernard, Didem M; Miller, G Edward

    2012-08-01

    Recent changes in diabetes treatment guidelines and the introduction of new, more expensive pharmaceuticals appear to increase the financial challenges for nonelderly adults with diabetes. The authors used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data to examine changes in the prevalence of diabetes and comorbidities, diabetes treatment, financial burdens, and the relationship between high financial burdens and patient characteristics. From 1997-1998 to 2006-2007, the total number of nonelderly adults treated for diabetes nearly doubled, from 5.4 to 10.7 million, and the proportion of diabetes patients using multiple drugs to treat their condition increased significantly. About a fifth of diabetes patients spent 10% or more of their family income on health care, and about one in nine spent 20% or more of their family income on health care. In 2006-2007, diabetes patients who were older, female, in poor health, or lacked insurance were more likely than others to have high burdens.

  13. Defense Industrial Base Assessment: U.S. Space Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-31

    Space Administration ( NASA )), industry associations (the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) and Satellite Industry Association (SIA)), and The...by DOD, NASA , NOAA, and other agencies have impacted their company in products and services, personnel/staffing, and operations.9...2002 2003 2004 2005 2006* 2007* 2008* 2009* 2010* 2011* Sp ac e Sp en di ng (i n $ B ill io ns ) NASA DOD Forecasted DOD **Other Civil Total In

  14. [Estimation of the functional parameters of the organ of vision in Military Training Institute entrants].

    PubMed

    Makogon, S I; Kuziakin, G V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the functional parameters of the organ of vision in Military Training Institute entrants. Eight hundred and twenty school-leavers--Military Training Institute entrants (2006-2007) aged 17 to 19 years were examined. The integral procedure of their examination could characterize the state of refraction and accommodation: decreased visual acuity, refraction shift towards myopia, worse accommodation function. Prerequisites for the development and progression of myopia were found in higher law educational establishment entrants.

  15. Morphodynamic Feedbacks During Vegetation Colonization of Tideflats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    APPROACH The project approach includes GIS change analysis, RTK - GPS topographic surveys, a space-for-time substitution sampling design...2006, 2007, and 2009 with pixel resolution ranging from 15cm to 45cm. RTK - GPS topographic surveys identified the topographic circumstances that...region where the course of the distributary outlet has recently been very dynamic. RTK - GPS surveys have been made of 8 incipient marsh islands

  16. Micropackaging for the Next Generation of Optical and Electrical Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    video on demand (VOD), mobile internet/video streaming (VCast), and internet TV ( IPTV ). Future consumers will likely require on-demand mobile access...80% 90% 100% 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 VoD Traffic (%) Data Traffic (%) P2P Video Traffic (%) Voice Traffic (%) Source: Bell Labs IPTV /VoD...gain share by providing more services to the consumer. The tele- communications carriers are developing IPTV services and are moving into the tradi

  17. November 2007 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-02-28

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility (during most of the interval 1949-1974) at Barnes, Kansas. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to investigate this contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2007). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells at 19 distinct locations, 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination at levels slightly exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound, in a plume that appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2007). The present report presents the results of the November 2007 sampling event that followed the targeted investigation.

  18. Research and Development in Hokuto Mega-solar Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Hiroo

    The first stage 600kW Photovoltaic (PV) system of Hokuto Mega-solar project was installed in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, in 2006-2007. And the second stage 1,200kW was finished construction considering the result of 1st stage evaluation, and started measuring/evaluating the data The outline and the developing target of the project are introduced and some results provided so far are discussed in this paper.

  19. Near-Zero-Energy Homes Help Electric Utilities Meet Record System Peaks

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jeffrey E

    2007-01-01

    Five near zero energy houses (ZEH) are under test at an energy research park near Oak Ridge, TN. Data from 2006-2007 show that these homes have {approx}7 kW lower summer peak electric demand than typical conventional homes in the same region. Combining 17,000 such homes in a 'zero energy neighbourhood' could provide a utility with peak demand management capability equivalent to a 120 MW power plant.

  20. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-19

    resulted in the abduction of over 20,000 children . In 2006-2007, the government of Uganda and the LRA were engaged in an effort to resolve the...government included opposition figures who had served in previous governments and arch critics of the NRM. Despite efforts aimed at achieving national... homosexuality . President Museveni reportedly has expressed his opposition to the bill. Members of Congress, the Obama Administration, and others in the

  1. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-29

    parent or guardian, the victim is disabled, and the accused is a serial offender. • Any individual who promotes homosexuality will face five years...and resulted in the abduction of over 20,000 children . In 2006-2007, the government of Uganda and the LRA have been actively engaged in an effort...of the NRM. Despite efforts aimed at achieving national reconciliation, armed opposition to his government continued for much of the 1980s and 1990s

  2. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  3. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    destroying captured weapon and explosive caches , and investigating blast scenes so as to obtain evidence for later prosecution. • riverine warfare operations...Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC), headquartered at Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, was established informally in October 2005 and formally on...three squadrons) at the Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek , VA, in May 2006. The three current riverine squadrons were established in 2006-2007. As

  4. Upper-Ocean Processed Under the Stratus Cloud Deck in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-19

    reliably from the available HYCOM output. This is because HYCOM’s natural coordinate system uses time-dependent hybrid layers rather than fixed z levels...reinforce the unstable coastal jet (Pizarro et al. 2002; Zamudio et al. 2006, 2007). Also the strong upwelling fronts observed in spring and summer...and related surface meteorological variables. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution OAFlux Project Tech. Rep. OA-2008-01, 64 pp. Zamudio , L., H. E

  5. [Contribution of abdominal sonography in acute appendicitis diagnostics--our experience].

    PubMed

    Smíd, D; Skalický, T; Treska, V

    2009-08-01

    Acute apendicitis is the most frequent case of acute abdomen. During a two year period (2006-2007) it was performed in Department of Surgery of Faculty Hospital in Pilsen 678 appendectomies, 30 days post-operative mortality rate was 0%. Abdomen ultrasonography like helping method to clinic examination was performed in 313 patients, suspect of acute appendicitis was in 191 patients (61%), in remaining patients was normal ultrasound picture.

  6. 78 FR 54182 - List of Nonconforming Vehicles Decided To Be Eligible for Importation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... passion, pulse, & pure) manufactured before 9/1/ 06. Subaru Forester 2006-2007 510 Suzuki (MC) GSF 750 1996-1998 287 Suzuki (MC) GSX1300R a.k.a. ``Hayabusa''... 1999-2006 484 Suzuki (MC) GSX1300R a.k.a. ``Hayabusa''... 2007-2011 533 Suzuki (MC) GSX-R 1100 1989-1997 227 Suzuki (MC) GSX-R 750 1989-1998 275...

  7. Changes in school environment, awareness and actions regarding overweight prevention among Dutch secondary schools between 2006–2007 and 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schools can be an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This nation-wide survey investigated changes in the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, school health policy, and actions taken by schools to prevent overweight. Methods In 2006/2007 and 2010/2011, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools, (n = 1250 and n = 1145, response rate 44% and 33% respectively, repeated data for 187 schools). Results The percentage of schools with vending machines for soft drinks (~90%) and sweets (~80%) remained fairly stable, whereas slightly more schools indicated to have a canteen (87%-91%). The food supply was reported to be healthier in 2010/2011 compared to 2006/2007. Canteens and/or vending machines offered more often fresh fruits (+8%), sandwiches (+11%), water (+11%) and salad (+7%) and less often sugar sweetened soft drinks (−10%). However, unfavorable changes such as an increase in the supply of pizza slices (+13%) and milk and yoghurt drinks with added sugar (+12%) were also reported. Between 2006/2007 and 2010/2011, the presence of water coolers increased (12% versus 33%) as well as facilities for physical activity (67% versus 77%). However, more schools had vending places of unhealthy foods in the vicinity (73% versus 85%). Compared to 2006/2007, a higher percentage of schools indicated that they have taken actions to stimulate healthy eating behavior (72% versus 80%) or to prevent overweight (34% versus 52%) in 2010/2011. Less schools indicated that they expect to pay more attention to overweight prevention in the near future (56% versus 43%), but none of them expected to pay less attention. Conclusions Several aspects of the school environment changed in a positive way. However, schools should be encouraged to contribute to the prevention of overweight, or to continue to do so. PMID:23870483

  8. Achieving Reusability and Composability with a Simulation Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    powerful computer capabilities (Robinson, 2004, 2006, 2007; DMSO, 2006; Robinson et al, 2006, 2010; Arthur and Nance, 2007; Balci and Ormsby, 2007). The...and executing under the Solaris Unix operating system on a Sun Sparc workstation cannot be easily reused in an M&S application being developed in Cþ þ... power plant, depot) destruction, chemical, fires, and nuclear disasters, created accidentally or intentionally (terrorist activities). Natural

  9. Business Case for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-24

    60,000 65,000 70,000 75,000 80,000 85,000 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Th ou sa nd o f O pe ra tio ns...remaining states and more than 40 active volcanoes and volcanic fields. Alaska has 17 of the 20 highest peaks in the U.S. and 50 mountain ranges

  10. 2006 Revision to the Utah Plan to Ensure High Quality Teachers for All Utah Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In a letter dated June 1, 2006, Utah informed the U.S. Department of Education (ED) of its intention to carefully and thoughtfully revise its Highly Qualified Teacher (HQT) plan with the aim of achieving the goal set in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of having all teachers meet highly qualified (HQ) requirements by the end of the 2006-2007

  11. Inferring Action Structure and Causal Relationships in Continuous Sequences of Human Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    1997; Gopnik et al., 2004; Griffiths, Sobel , Tenenbaum, & Gopnik, 2011). In fact, though a variety of sources of information inform people’s causal...inference over causal graphical models has successfully been used to capture causal learning in both children (e.g., Gopnik et al., 2004; Sobel , Tenenbaum...emerging along roughly the same timeline as other statistical learning abilities ( Sobel & Kirkham, 2006, 2007). Therefore, both our modeling and

  12. Maryland Defense Force 10th Medical Regiment: Past, Present and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Colonel (MD) Martin Hershkowitz Colonel (MD) H. Wayne Nelson, Ph.D. INTRODUCTION - THE PAST The Maryland Defense Force (MDDF) has almost always had some...2007; Nelson, et al., 2006, 2007). Through support from the Baltimore County Health Department (BCHD) and the Towson University Department of Health...multi-agency planning process that began in November 2005. MDDF Personnel set up and operated two surge capacity sites ( Towson University and Essex

  13. Robert Vivian Pound and the Discovery of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlish, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    This paper is based upon five interviews I conducted with Robert Vivian Pound in 2006-2007 and covers his childhood interest in radios, his time at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory during the Second World War, his work on the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in condensed matter, his travels as a professor at Harvard University, and his social interactions with other physicists.

  14. Late Holocene marine terraces of the Cartagena region, southern Caribbean: The product of neotectonism or a former high stand in sea-level?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignacio Martínez, J.; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Gomez, Andres; Delgado, Adriana; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rendon, Esteban

    2010-03-01

    The detailed stratigraphic survey and paleontological study (mollusks, corals, foraminifera and ostracods) of four low-level, ˜3 m, marine terrace sections: Punta Canoas, Manzanillo del Mar, Playa de Oro, and Tierra Bomba Island, from the Cartagena region, southern Caribbean, supplemented with 22 radiocarbon dates, reveals that the northern terraces were deposited as parasequences in a clastic depositional system compared to the Tierra Bomba Island succession that was deposited in a carbonate depositional system between ˜3600 and ˜1700 cal yrs BP. Drier conditions and the southern location of the ITCZ at about 3 ka triggered stronger easterly Trades and more dynamic southwestward sediment drift fed by the Magdalena River mouth, thus promoting the formation of sand spits that ultimately isolated the Cienaga de Tesca coastal lagoon from the Caribbean Sea. Our estimates support the hypothesis that the present position of the terraces is the product of neotectonism rather than a higher 3 ka, sea-level. Upheaval of the terraces varies between ˜3.8 mmyr -1 at Punta Canoas and ˜2.2 mmyr -1 at Tierra Bomba to ˜1.5 mmyr -1 at Manzanillo del Mar and Playa de Oro terraces. Our study corroborates previous contentions on the role of mud diapirism and the dynamics of the Dique Fault as late Holocene upheaval mechanisms.

  15. Revisiting the cost of medical student education: a measure of the experience of UT Medical School-Houston.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Elizabeth; Franzini, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a cost construction model to estimate the cost of a four-year undergraduate medical education at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School (UT-Houston) in 2006-2007 compared to 1994-1995. The model computes the cost by measuring increasingly inclusive definitions of the educational mission: instructional (direct-contact teaching), educational (instructional plus general supervision), and milieu (educational plus research costs). Using the model and adjusting for inflation, annual cost per student enrolled decreased by 16 percent in 2006-2007 compared to 1994-1995 and total cost decreased by 9 percent. Additionally, the model predicted 190 full-time equivalent (FTE) faculty and 187 FTE residents for 2006-2007 compared to 201 FTE faculty and 258 FTE residents for 1994-1995. Decreases in the cost of educating medical students were driven by (1) the reduction in the number of educator contact hours required for curriculum delivery; (2) change in the mix of educators; and (3) an increase in medical school class size.

  16. Population-based estimates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Areus (MRSA) infections among high school athletes--Nebraska, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Buss, Bryan F; Mueller, Shawn W; Theis, Max; Keyser, Alison; Safranek, Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging cause of skin and soft-tissue infections among athletes. To determine statewide incidence among high school athletes, we surveyed all 312 Nebraska high schools regarding sport programs offered, program-specific participation numbers, number of athletes with physician-diagnosed MRSA infections, and athlete's sport at infection onset. Among 271 (86.9%) schools responding, MRSA infections were reported among one or more athletes by 4.4% (12/270) and 14.4% (39/271) during school years 2006-2007 and 2007-2008, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2007-2008, MRSA incidence per 10,000 wrestlers increased from 19.6 to 60.1, and incidence per 10,000 football players increased from 5.0 to 25.1. We did not identify differences in distribution of MRSA infections on the basis of grade, school enrollment, location, or number of participants per team. Incidence of reported MRSA infections among football players and wrestlers was substantially higher during 2007-2008, compared with 2006-2007.

  17. Turning Awareness into Action: What Your Community Can Do about Drug Use in America = De La Toma de Conciencia a la Accion: Que Puede Hacer la Comunidad Respecto al Consumo de Drogas en America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This booklet gives examples of successful community drug abuse prevention programs, as well as guidelines for finding out more about a community's prevention needs and taking action. The first section discusses taking action against drug abuse. It presents examples which illustrate the different approaches communities have taken. Ten steps to help…

  18. Comunidad, Escuela y Curriculo 4: Materiales de Apoyo a La Formacion Docente en Educacion Bilingue Intercultural. (Community, School and Curriculum 4: Support Materials for Training Professionals in Bilingual Intercultural Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montaluisa Chasiquiza, Luis

    The Major Project for Education for Latin America and the Caribbean has given indigenous populations priority attention and has sponsored workshops and seminars to address the educational needs of these peoples. Traditionally, the language and culture of indigenous peoples have been viewed as obstacles rather than valuable resources for education.…

  19. Radio Nutricion: A Program for Nutrition Education with the Hispanic Community. Service Provider's Guide = Radio Nutricion: Un Programa de Educacion para la Nutricion para la Comunidad Hispana. Guia del Proveeidor de Servicios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Farmworker Opportunity Program, Arlington, VA.

    The set of materials was designed to provide nutrition instruction to Spanish-speaking farm workers using radio broadcasts. It includes audiocassette tapes of four novellas (mini-dramas) on nutrition-related topics (diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure, pregnancy, smart shopping), talk shows on the same topics, a public service…

  20. Cuadernos de Autoformacion en Participacion Social: Educacion con la comunidad. Volumen 6. Primera Edicion (Self-Instructional Notebooks on Social Participation: Education with the Community. Volume 6. First Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    The series "Self-instructional Notes on Social Participation" is a six volume series intended as teaching aids for adult educators. The theoretical, methodological, informative and practical elements of this series will assist professionals in their work and help them achieve greater success. The specific purpose of each notebook is…

  1. Building Support for Better Schools: Seven Steps to Engaging Hard-to-Reach Communities = La creacion de apoyo para mejores escuelas: Siete pasos para lograr la participacion de todas las comunidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    In 1999, the Southern Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) interviewed leaders from Hispanic, African American, Native American, and Asian communities in Arkansas and Oklahoma to understand what keeps parents and others from participating in community forums. After conducting more than fifty interviews, SEDL developed seven steps to help…

  2. EFL Teenagers' Social Identity Representation in a Virtual Learning Community on Facebook (Representación de la identidad social de los estudiantes adolescentes de inglés como lengua extranjera en una comunidad de aprendizaje virtual en Facebook)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez Guamán, Laura Verónica

    2012-01-01

    In this article I report the findings of a descriptive and interpretative qualitative study carried out in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. The study aimed at analyzing, describing and exploring teenage students' social identity representation as observed in their participation in a learning community on Facebook. Data were collected from…

  3. America vuelve a la escuela: Participe y colabore! Informacion para familias y miembros de la comunidad (America Goes Back to School: Get Involved! Stay Involved! Information for Families and Community Members).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language brochure provides several tips for families and for community members to help them encourage student achievement and success. The tips are grouped into three categories: (1) "Help our children read well and independently by the end of third grade"; (2) "Help our children learn to meet high math and science standards and take…

  4. Towards Contextual Experimentation: Creating a Faculty Learning Community to Cultivate Writing-to-Learn Practices (Hacia una experimentación contextual: Creando comunidades de aprendizaje docente para el cultivo de prácticas de escritura para el aprendizaje)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mary K.; Rao, Kavita; Stewart, Maria L.; Farley, Cynthia A.; Li, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore ways to integrate new pedagogical practices, five faculty members created an informal faculty learning community focused on writing-to-learn practices, an inquiry and process-based writing pedagogy. The faculty members learned the writing-to-learn practices together, periodically met to discuss how they implemented the…

  5. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  6. Silenced Fighters: Identity, Language and Thought of the Nasa People in Bilingual Contexts of Colombia (Voces silenciadas: identidad, lengua y pensamiento de la comunidad nasa en contextos bilingües colombianos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid; Gómez Lobatón, July Carolina

    2010-01-01

    This article is the result of a theoretical investigation and a reflection guided by a revision of literature and a set of interviews conducted of two members of the Nasa community: Adonias and Sindy Perdomo, father and daughter who belong to a Nasa sub-community located in Tierradentro, Cauca, southwestern Colombia. The article addresses three…

  7. Researchers study tsunami generated by Mexican earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonov, Anatoliy E.

    Barra de Navidad is a small Mexican tourist town on the coast of a lagoon that is buffered from the Pacific Ocean by a narrow strip of sand. The town is a favorite rest spot of American and Canadian tourists. On October 9, 1995, at 9:36 local time (1536 GMT), a strong earthquake that measured Mx = 8.0 disrupted the lives of the townspeople. The epicenter of the earthquake was located in the ocean at 18°51.5‧N and 104°8.4‧W [Ortiz and Synolakis, 1996], but it destroyed many hotels and homes, and the shifting of the land tore up the highway that connects Barra de Navidad and Manzanillo. Crevices of up to 3 m wide opened across the road, and bridges over small rivers were knocked down. In an instant, the town was disconnected from the outside world. Frightened townspeople roamed the streets, assessing the destruction.

  8. Field survey of Mexican tsunami produces new data, unusual photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borerro, Jose; Ortiz, Modesto; Titov, Vasily; Synolakis, Costas

    On October 9, 1995, an earthquake of Mw = 8.0 shook the Pacific coast of central Mexico. Centered offshore of the states of Jalisco and Colima, the earthquake caused extensive damage near Manzanillo and was felt strongly in Mexico City. Approximately 40 people were killed and about 100 injured, and many hotels and tall buildings were destroyed or severely damaged. The earthquake also set off a moderate tsunami that affected approximately 200 km of coastline and sent tsunami run-up ranging from 1 to 5 m from north of Playa de Cuyatlan to south of Tenacatita Bay. In regions with steep onshore topography, the damage was minor, but along the shallowest beaches, the damage was severe.

  9. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic history of the Mexican Pacific margin (18 to 25°N): new insight from apatite and zircon fission-track analysis of coastal and offshore plutonic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmus, Thierry; Poupeau, Gérard; Bourgois, Jacques; Michaud, François; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Labrin, Erika; Azdimousa, Ali

    1999-06-01

    Apatite and zircon fission-track dating was used to constrain cooling histories on granitic samples taken from the offshore Acapulco trench batholith and onshore Manzanillo and Puerto Vallarta batholiths located along the southwestern active margin of Mexico, and from the La Paz batholith of southern Baja California. The apatite data indicate that many of the samples in the Manzanillo, Acapulco trench batholiths cooled rapidly below 60°C shortly after emplacement between 70 and 55 Ma. The La Paz batholith and the sample NM-20-08 of the Acapulco trench batholith experienced an older and slower cooling across the apatite partial annealing zone. The zircon fission-track ages obtained from two samples of the Puerto Vallarta batholith indicate a rapid cooling from 250 to 110°C between 54 and 50 Ma. This non-coeval cooling of batholiths at two different depths is probably due to uplift and erosion associated with the Laramide event in southwestern Mexico. The three samples from the Puerto Vallarta batholith suggest a younger evolution across low temperatures with two flat stages located near the base of the apatite partial annealing zone and above it. The first flat stage suggests that the denudation or rock uplift rate was reduced at a depth corresponding to the base of the apatite partial annealing zone. The younger single apatite ages of the Puerto Vallarta batholith, and the last common cooling of the other batholiths indicate the mild thermal influences of both the Plio-Pleistocene Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the opening of the Gulf of California.

  10. Temperature and zooplankton size structure: climate control and basin-scale comparison in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Sanae; Batten, Sonia D; Yoshiki, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yuka; Sasaoka, Kosei; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Ichikawa, Tadafumi

    2015-02-01

    The global distribution of zooplankton community structure is known to follow latitudinal temperature gradients: larger species in cooler, higher latitudinal regions. However, interspecific relationships between temperature and size in zooplankton communities have not been fully examined in terms of temporal variation. To re-examine the relationship on a temporal scale and the effects of climate control thereon, we investigated the variation in copepod size structure in the eastern and western subarctic North Pacific in 2000-2011. This report presents the first basin-scale comparison of zooplankton community changes in the North Pacific based on a fully standardized data set obtained from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey. We found an increase in copepod community size (CCS) after 2006-2007 in the both regions because of the increased dominance of large cold-water species. Sea surface temperature varied in an east-west dipole manner, showing the typical Pacific Decadal Oscillation pattern: cooling in the east and warming in the west after 2006-2007. The observed positive correlation between CCS and sea surface temperature in the western North Pacific was inconsistent with the conventional interspecific temperature-size relationship. We explained this discrepancy by the geographical shift of the upper boundary of the thermal niche, the 9°C isotherm, of large cold-water species. In the eastern North Pacific, the boundary stretched northeast, to cover a large part of the sampling area after 2006-2007. In contrast, in the western North Pacific, the isotherm location hardly changed and the sampling area remained within its thermal niche throughout the study period, despite the warming that occurred. Our study suggests that while a climate-induced basin-scale cool-warm cycle can alter copepod community size and might subsequently impact the functions of the marine ecosystem in the North Pacific, the interspecific temperature-size relationship is not

  11. Prevalences of asthma and rhinitis among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil: temporal changes *

    PubMed Central

    de Luna, Maria de Fátima Gomes; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; de Luna, João Rafael Gomes; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; de Almeida, Paulo César; Chiesa, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions. RESULTS: Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 2006-2007 period (p < 0.01 for all). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed rhinitis was significantly lower in 2010 (p = 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences between the two periods regarding cumulative rhinitis, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. In both periods, dry cough at night, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (p < 0.01 for all). Also in both periods, active asthma, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were more prevalent in private school students than in public school students (p < 0.01 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis symptoms remain high among 13- and 14-year-olds in Fortaleza, predominantly among females and private school students. PMID:23670497

  12. Development and Pilot Test of the RAND Suicide Prevention Program Evaluation Toolkit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Prevention Program Evaluation Toolkit Joie D . Acosta, Rajeev Ramchand, Amariah Becker, Alexandria Felton Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of...testing of the toolkit: Thomas Burke, Christopher Dorr, Colonel John Forbes, Robert Gardiner, Jackie Garrick , Malcolm Hawkins, Joan Hunter, Jan Kemp...2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 A ci tv e d u ty s u ic id e ra te p er 1 00 ,0 00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 DoD Army Air Force Marine Corps Navy 2

  13. March 2008 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-28

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2007). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2007). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2007) and the initial monitoring in November 2007 (Argonne 2008) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels slightly exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2007). In particular, the local school district (USD 223) handled, stored, and disposed of chemicals including carbon tetrachloride. This current report presents the results of the second quarterly monitoring event, conducted in March 2008. During this second

  14. On Tenth Order Central Spatial Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sjogreen, B; Yee, H C

    2007-05-14

    This paper explores the performance of the tenth-order central spatial scheme and derives the accompanying energy-norm stable summation-by-parts (SBP) boundary operators. The objective is to employ the resulting tenth-order spatial differencing with the stable SBP boundary operators as a base scheme in the framework of adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order multistep filter schemes of Yee et al. (1999), Yee and Sj{umlt o}green (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), and Sj{umlt o}green and Yee (2004). These schemes were designed for multiscale turbulence flows including strong shock waves and combustion.

  15. Environmental and climatic factors associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in fish from the Zambezi floodplains, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Choongo, K; Hang'ombe, B; Samui, K L; Syachaba, M; Phiri, H; Maguswi, C; Muyangaali, K; Bwalya, G; Mataa, L

    2009-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in fish in the Zambezi floodplains. EUS is a fish disease that causes economic loses to the fishing industry. Streambed colour in affected water was rusty-, reddish- or yellowish- brown and pH 4.5-6.0 while pH of non affected water was 7.2. The rusty-brown precipitate on fish gills was positive for Prussian blue iron stain. Therefore, predisposing factors for EUS in the Zambezi floodplains were the acidification of ground water during drought years and eventual contamination of surface water during the floods of 2006/2007.

  16. October 2008 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-26

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events in November 2007 (Argonne 2008b), March 2008 (Argonne 2008c), and July 2008 (Argonne 2008d) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigations indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the fourth

  17. Semi-annual monitoring report for Barnes, Kansas, for July-December 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-27

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the seventh quarterly monitoring event, conducted in September-October, and

  18. March-June 2009 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-09-08

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the fifth and sixth quarterly monitoring events, conducted in March and June

  19. July 2008 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-20

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events in November 2007 (Argonne 2008b) and March 2008 (Argonne 2008c) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels slightly exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigations indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). This current report presents the results of the third monitoring event, conducted in July 2008. During this third monitoring event, low-flow sampling methods were used to purge and sample all wells. This was the second event at

  20. The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-07

    Paper 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Oct 2007 – 10 Nov 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited...magnitude [B] had a floor of ≈ 4.6 nT in yearly averages, a value which the interplanetary magnetic - field [IMF] strength returned to, or approached, at...is implicit in the work of Owens and Crooker (2006, 2007) who simulated the interplanetary magnetic - field strength in terms of a constant open-flux

  1. The Water Vapor Variability - Satellite/Sondes (WAVES) Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Adam, M.; Barnet, C.; Bojkov, B.; Delgado, R.; Demoz, B.; Fitzgibbon, J.; Forno, R.; Herman, R.; Hoff, E.; Joseph, E.; Landulfo, E.; McCann, K.; McGee, T.; Miloshevich, L.; Restrepo, I.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Taubman, B.; Thompson, A.; Twigg, L.; Venable, D.; Vomel, H.; Walthall, C.

    2008-01-01

    Three NASA-funded field campaigns have been hosted at the Howard University Research Campus in Beltsville, MD. In each of the years 2006, 2007 and 2008, WAVES field campaigns have coordinated ozonesonde launches, lidar operations and other measurements with A-train satellite overpasses for the purposes of satellite validation. The unique mix of measurement systems, physical location and the interagency, international group of researchers and students has permitted other objectives, such as mesoscale meteorological studies, to be addressed as well. We review the goals and accomplishments of the three WAVES missions with the emphasis on the nonsatellite validation component of WAVES, as the satellite validation activities have been reported elsewhere.

  2. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2010 to 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    20 0 12 6 2 10 8 4 0 2005 2005 2009 2009 2016 2016 2013 2013 2020 2020 2007 2007 2011 2011 2018 2018 2006 2006 2010 2010 2017 2017 2014 2014 2008...2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2015 2020 Total Revenues 2,105 2,175 2,670 2,964 3,218 3,465 3,625 3,814 3,996 4,170 4,352 4,563 15,941 36,836...Percentage of gross domestic product) Source: Congressional Budget Office. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

  3. The New Geography: The Map, The Satellite, and The Computer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    is due to present its findings shortly. The Arctic is a central theme in this policy. The effect of climate change on the northern sea routes is...dollars, monthly average 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 WTI crude oil Brent crude oil Dubai crude oil Refiner acquisition...ground. It allows us a better view of the world than any mountain top. Assets parked on this high ground are difficult to attack. This new common has

  4. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System . A cross-country field study in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-11-01

    LITERACY AND ACCESS TO THE WRITTEN CULTURE BY YOUTH AND ADULTS EXCLUDED FROM THE SCHOOL SYSTEM - The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself was carried out in a particular region, the findings have implications for a wider international audience.

  5. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 17, Number 08, August 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    STI considered in this report. In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the fi rst preventive HPV vaccine ; the second was... HPV among females is due to vaccination ; assessments are needed to refi ne policies and practices regarding HPV vaccination in military populations...1,750 2,000 2,250 2,500 2,750 3,000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 In ci de nc e ra te s pe r 1 00 ,0 00 p er so n- ye ar s Year HPV Chlamydia HSV

  6. Results of ionospheric measurements, got on micro satellite "Compass-2"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Garipov, G. K.; Kapustina, O.; Mikhailov, Yu. M.; Mikhailova, G. A.; Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.; Sinelnikov, V. M.; Shirokov, A. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Danilkin, V. A.; Degtyar, V. G.

    Results of measurements, executed by complex of scientific instruments of micro satellite Compass-2 in the period of 2006-2007, are presented. The project was aimed on registration and study of ionospheric effects, related to the natural and anthropogenic anomalous phenomena. The effects of interaction of solar wind with magnetosphere in the period of flare activity of the Sun and anomalous low frequency radiations, happened one day before the earthquake with magnitude 4.2, are registered. The data was got on measurements of corpuscular radiation, wide band radiations and low frequency waves along the orbit of satellite.

  7. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  8. Upper-Ocean Processes under the Stratus Cloud Deck in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    coordinate system uses time-dependent hybrid layers rather than fixed z levels, and interpolated verti- cal velocities in z coordinates derived from the...disturbances of equa- torial origin that may reinforce the unstable coastal jet (Pizarro et al. 2002; Zamudio et al. 2006, 2007). Also the strong upwelling...OAFlux Project Tech. Rep. OA-2008-01, 64 pp. Zamudio , L., H. E. Hurlburt, E. J. Metzger, S. L. Morey, J. J. O’Brien, C. Tilburg, and J. Zavala-Hidalgo

  9. The Ebstorf Map: tradition and contents of a medieval picture of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischke, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Ebstorf Map (Wilke, 2001; Kugler, 2007; Wolf, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009a, b), the largest medieval map of the world whose original has been lost, is not only a geographical map. In the Middle Ages, a map contained mystic, historical and religious motifs. Of central importance is Jesus Christ, who, in the Ebstorf Map, is part of the earth. The Ebstorf Map contains the knowledge of the time of its creation; it can be used for example as an atlas, as a chronicle of the world, or as an illustrated Bible.

  10. The spin physics results from COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Kouznetsov, O.

    2015-04-10

    COMPASS (COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) is a fixed target experiment at CERN dedicated to studies of the spin structure of the nucleon and of the spectroscopy of hadrons. During the years 2002-2004, 2006-2007 and 2010-2011 the COMPASS collaboration has collected a large amount of data by scattering polarized 160(200) GeV/c muons on polarized {sup 6}LiD and NH{sub 3} targets. The COMPASS results on quark and gluon helicities are discussed, as well as results on transverse spin and transverse momentum effects in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  11. The Future of Al Qa’ida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-24

    commissions and panels; and private review and oversight bodies. C O R P O R A T I O N For More Information Visit RAND at www.rand.org Explore RAND...affiliated groups and its leadership. A range of senior officials, including Saif al-Adel and Abu Miqad al-Masri, continue to play key roles. Finally, there...20 30 40 50 60 70 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Turkey Egypt Jordan Lebanon Indonesia Pakistan Pe rc te nt ag e  of   R es po nd en ts  w it h  Co

  12. Summary of Survival Data from Juvenile Coho Salmon in the Klamath River, Northern California, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Juhnke, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the effects of the discharge from Iron Gate Dam on the Klamath River on juvenile coho salmon during their seaward migration began in 2005. Estimates of fish survival through various reaches of the river downstream of the dam were completed in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009. This report describes the estimates of survival during 2009, and is a complement to similar reports for 2006, 2007, and 2008. For each year, a series of numerical models were evaluated to determine apparent survival and recapture probabilities of radio-tagged fish in several river reaches between Iron Gate Hatchery at river kilometer 309 and a site at river kilometer 33. The evaluations indicate that the primary differences among years are in the survivals through reaches upstream of the confluence of the Scott River with the Klamath River. Data from 2009, one of two years when fish from both hatchery and wild origins were available for analysis, indicate that survival of wild and hatchery fish are similar.

  13. Effects of transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein on ground-dwelling collembolan community in postharvest seasons.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y Y; Yan, R H; Ye, G Y; Huang, F N; Cheng, J A

    2010-02-01

    During 2005-2008, field studies were conducted at two locations in Chongqing, China, to assess the potential effects of transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab protein on the nontarget ground-dwelling collembolan community in three postharvest seasons. Collembolans in non-Bt and Bt rice fields were sampled with pitfall traps during each of two postharvest seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 and litterbag traps during each of three postharvest seasons of 2005/2006, 2006/2007, and 2007/2008. Ground-dwelling collembolans in rice fields during the postharvest seasons were abundant, whereas community densities varied considerably between the two locations and among the three seasons. A total of 67,310 collembolans, representing three species, Entomobrya griseoolivata, Hypogastrura matura, and Bourletiella christianseni, were captured during the three postharvest seasons. E. griseoolivata was the predominant species, accounting for 87.7% of the total captures, followed by H. matura (10.7%) and B. christianseni (1.6%). In general, there were no significant differences in species compositions and abundances of each species between Bt and non-Bt paddy fields, suggesting no significantly impact of plant residues of Cry1Ab rice on collembolan communities during postharvest seasons.

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident. PMID:23012183

  15. Larval dispersal underlies demographically important inter-system connectivity in a Great Lakes yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodnik, Reed M.; Fraker, Michael E.; Anderson, Eric J.; Carreon-Martinez, Lucia; DeVanna, Kristen M.; Heath, Dan D.; Reichert, Julie M.; Roseman, Edward F.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Ability to quantify connectivity among spawning subpopulations and their relative contribution of recruits to the broader population is a critical fisheries management need. By combining microsatellite and age information from larval yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected in the Lake St. Clair – Detroit River system (SC-DRS) and western Lake Erie with a hydrodynamic backtracking approach, we quantified subpopulation structure, connectivity, and contributions of recruits to the juvenile stage in western Lake Erie during 2006-2007. After finding weak (yet stable) genetic structure between the SC-DRS and two western Lake Erie subpopulations, microsatellites also revealed measurable recruitment of SC-DRS larvae to the juvenile stage in western Lake Erie (17-21% during 2006-2007). Consideration of pre-collection larval dispersal trajectories, using hydrodynamic backtracking, increased estimated contributions to 65% in 2006 and 57% in 2007. Our findings highlight the value of complementing subpopulation discrimination methods with hydrodynamic predictions of larval dispersal by revealing the SC-DRS as a source of recruits to western Lake Erie and also showing that connectivity through larval dispersal can affect the structure and dynamics of large-lake fish populations.

  16. Elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide in homes with 'Chinese Drywall'.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L; Saltzman, Lori E; Baker, Brian J; Matheson, Joanna M; Recht, Joel R; Minegishi, Taeko; Fragala, Matt A; Myatt, Theodore A; Spengler, John D; Stewart, James H; McCarthy, John F

    2012-06-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) began receiving reports about odors, corrosion, and health concerns related to drywall originating from China. In response, a detailed environmental health and engineering evaluation was conducted of 41 complaint and 10 non-complaint homes in the Southeast U.S. Each home investigation included characterization of: 1) drywall composition; 2) indoor and outdoor air quality; 3) temperature, moisture, and building ventilation; and 4) copper and silver corrosion rates. Complaint homes had significantly higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations (mean 0.82 vs. 2006-2007, reports of malodor and accelerated corrosion). This research provides empirical evidence of the direct association between homes constructed with 'Chinese Drywall' in 2006-2007 and elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in indoor air.

  17. The timing and reproductive output of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria scabra on the Kenyan coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthiga, N. A.; Kawaka, J. A.; Ndirangu, S.

    2009-09-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is a widely distributed and economically important species that has been harvested in Kenya for decades. No previous studies have been carried out on the reproduction of this species in Kenya. Standard gonad index methods were used to analyze reproductive patterns of individuals collected monthly in 1998-1999, 2000-2001 and 2006-2007. Morphological characteristics, gonad tubule lengths and fecundity were also measured. Mean monthly gonad indices were significantly correlated between males and females indicating synchronous gonad development between the sexes. Gonad indices showed a biannual pattern that was consistent in all three years with a minor spawning event occurring between August and September and a major spawning event between November and December. The pattern of gonad growth showed significant variability between years and between months. Temporal changes in gonad growth correlated significantly with gonad tubule length and absolute fecundity. Monthly gonad indices also correlated significantly with monthly measurements of air temperature and light suggesting a possible role for both factors in timing gametogenesis and spawning. There was a shift in sex ratio from unity in the 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 samples to significantly more males in the 2006-2007 samples, as well as a significant reduction in mean sizes (body wall weight) and reproductive output (gonad index) which suggests that the reproductive success of this species is potentially negatively affected by fishing.

  18. Do temporal and geographical patterns of HBCD and PBDE flame retardants in U.S. fish reflect evolving industrial usage?

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; La Guardia, Mark J; Luellen, Drew R; Harvey, Ellen; Mainor, T Matteson; Hale, Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) are common flame retardants in polymers and textiles. Recognition of the persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties of PBDEs has prompted reductions in their use. In contrast, HBCD has received less scrutiny. The U.S has historically been a dominant BFR consumer. However, the few publications on HBCD in wildlife here suggest modest levels compared to Asian and European studies. In contrast, the HBCD concentrations we detected in U.S. fish are among the highest reported in the world. The temporal trends observed suggest that HBCD use may have risen, and that of Penta-BDE declined, following the 2004 termination of its U.S. manufacture. For example, Hyco River carp collected in 1999-2002 exhibited a mean ∑HBCD (sum of α-, β- and γ-HBCD) concentration of only 13 ng/g (lipid weight basis), but was 4640 ng/g in fish collected in 2006-2007. In contrast, the mean ∑PBDE level in these same fish decreased from 40,700 ng/g in 1999-2002 to 9140 ng/g in 2006-2007. Concentrations of HBCD and PBDEs in several Hyco River fish species exceeded those from rivers less influenced by manufacturing outfalls. Results support the contention that textile-related production, relative to its BFR market share, may release disproportionately large amounts of HBCD to the environment.

  19. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives

  20. Tsujal Marine Survey: Crustal Characterization of the Rivera Plate-Jalisco Block Boundary and its Implications for Seismic and Tsunami Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolome, R.; Danobeitia, J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Cameselle, A. L.; Estrada, F.; Prada, M.; Bandy, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    During the spring of 2014, a team of Spanish and Mexican scientists explored the western margin of Mexico in the frame of the TSUJAL project. The two main objectives were to characterize the nature and structure of the lithosphere and to identify potential sources triggering earthquakes and tsunamis at the contact between Rivera plate-Jalisco block with the North American Plate. With these purposes a set of marine geophysical data were acquired aboard the RRS James Cook. This work is focus in the southern part of the TSUJAL survey, where we obtain seismic images from the oceanic domain up to the continental shelf. Thus, more than 800 km of MCS data, divided in 7 profiles, have been acquired with a 6km long streamer and using an air-gun sources ranging from 5800 c.i. to 3540 c.i. Furthermore, a wide-angle seismic profile of 190 km length was recorded in 16 OBS deployed perpendicular to the coast of Manzanillo. Gravity and magnetic, multibeam bathymetry and sub-bottom profiler data were recorded simultaneously with seismic data in the offshore area. Preliminary stacked MCS seismic sections reveal the crustal structure in the different domains of the Mexican margin. The contact between the Rivera and NA Plates is observed as a strong reflection at 6 s two way travel time (TWTT), in a parallel offshore profile (TS01), south of Manzanillo. This contact is also identified in a perpendicular profile, TS02, along a section of more than 100 km in length crossing the Rivera transform zone, and the plate boundary between Cocos and Rivera Plates. Northwards, offshore Pto. Vallarta, the MCS data reveals high amplitude reflections at around 7-8.5 s TWTT, roughly 2.5-3.5 s TWTT below the seafloor, that conspicuously define the subduction plane (TS06b). These strong reflections which we interpret as the Moho discontinuity define the starting bending of subduction of Rivera Plate. Another clear pattern observed within the first second of the MCS data shows evidences of a bottom

  1. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    PubMed

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management

  2. Incidences and risk factors of first-line HAART discontinuation: a limitation to the success of the "seek, test, treat, and retain" strategy?

    PubMed

    Keita, Momory; Perbost, Isabelle; Pugliese-Wehrlen, Sylvia; Abel, Sylvie; Pugliese, Pascal; Enel, Patricia; Cuzin, Lise; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of first-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) modifications/interruptions and their causes in a cohort of newly-treated patients by using a competing risk model. In nine centers of the French cohort Dat'AIDS, in 1 year and 2 years of censorship, a competing risk analysis was implemented in HIV1 patients aged 18 years or older first-treated between September 2002 and March 2012. In 4669 patients, 3628 modifications (77.7%) were observed (median: 13.5 months). Cumulative incidence in 1 year: 46.8% [45.4-48.3]; in 2 years: 65.3% [63.8-66.8]. Intolerance (n = 1167; 32.3%): in 1 year, except first-treated from 2002 to 2005, modifications were not different: 2002-2003 (24.6%) 2004-2005 (26.1%), 2006-2007 (19.4%), 2008-2009 (18.8%) and 2010-2011 (15.7%). Women, AIDS patients, and those aged 50 years and older had an excess risk. Therapeutic simplification (n = 1037; 28.6%): in 1 year, except first-treated from 2002 to 2003, modifications were not different: 2002-2003 (9.0%), 2004-2005 (16.0%), 2006-2007 (11.0%), 2008-2009 (15.7%) and 2010-2011 (10.0%). Conversely to injecting-drug-users and AIDS patients, women and first-treated with non-nucleosides had an excess risk. Therapeutic failure (n = 189; 5.2%): contrary to first-treated between 2002 and 2003 or 2008 and 2009, in 1 year as in 2 years, modifications were not different. In 1 year, 1.9% for 2004-2005, 1.6% for 2006-2007 and 1.2% for 2010-2011. Maximum viral load ≥5.0 log10 copies/ml and CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) had a high probability. The study of first-HAART modifications suggests that in 1-year follow-up, intolerance incidence in the recent calendar year is still as frequent as the previous period which may constitute a limitation to the success of the seek, test, treat, and retain.

  3. Modeling GPP in Semi-arid Inner Mongolia using MODIS Imagery and Tower-based Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, R.; Chen, J.; Noormets, A.; Xu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Semi-arid Inner Mongolia is experiencing climate change with associated land cover/use change that includes an increase in irrigated agriculture and population growth. We evaluate temporal scaling up of carbon fluxes from eddy covariance (EC) tower observations in different water-limited land cover/use and biome types. The Vegetation Photosynthesis model (VPM) and modified VPM (MVPM), driven by Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) for 2006-2007 that were derived from MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09A1) was used to scale up and validate temporal changes in GPP from the EC towers during 2006 & 2007 growing seasons. The VPM model predicted the annual GPP (GPPvpm) reasonably well at the Duolun cropland (R2 = 0.67 & 0.71) and Xilinhaote typical steppe (R2 = 0.80 & 0.73). The predictive power of VPM varied in the desert steppe, at an irrigated poplar stand (R2 = 0.74 & 0.68) and nearby shrubland in Kubuqi (R2 = 0.31 & 0.49). The comparison between GPPtower and GPPmvpm predicted GPP showed good agreement for the Xilinhaote typical steppe (R2 = 0.84 & 0.70) in 2006-2007, Duolun typical steppe (R2 = 0.63), and cropland (R2 = 0.63) in 2007. The predictive power of MVPM decreased slightly in the desert steppe, at the irrigated poplar stand (R2 = 0.55 & .47) and the shrubland (R2 = 0.20 & 0.41). The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of scaling up GPP from EC towers to the regional scale. The inter & intra-annual changes in dynamics of GPP in Inner Mongolia are especially relevant given the extreme climate events on the Mongolian Plateau. We seek to study the effects of drought in the Mongolian plateau through the mapping of anomalies in different vegetation indices (EVI, NDVI, SAVI) as well as functional variables (GPP, ET) during the MODIS decade (2001-2010). Our research question is: What is the biome response to the severe dzuds (extreme winters) and summer droughts? We then compared the MODIS data to spatially

  4. The variable stellar wind of Rigel probed at high spatial and spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, O.; Kaufer, A.; Stahl, O.; Colvinter, C.; Spang, A.; Dessart, L.; Prinja, R.; Chini, R.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Luminous BA-type supergiants are the brightest stars in the visible that can be observed in distant galaxies and are potentially accurate distance indicators. The impact of the variability of the stellar winds on the distance determination remains poorly understood. Aims: Our aim is to probe the inhomogeneous structures in the stellar wind using spectro-interferometric monitoring. Methods: We present a spatially resolved, high-spectral resolution (R = 12 000) K-band temporal monitoring of the bright supergiant β Orionis (Rigel, B8 Iab) using AMBER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Rigel was observed in the Brγ line and its nearby continuum once per month over 3 months in 2006-2007, and 5 months in 2009-2010. These unprecedented observations were complemented by contemporaneous optical high-resolution spectroscopy. We analyse the near-IR spectra and visibilities with the 1D non-LTE radiative-transfer code CMFGEN. The differential and closure phase signals are evidence of asymmetries that are interpreted as perturbations of the wind. Results: A systematic visibility decrease is observed across the Brγ line indicating that at a radius of about 1.25 R∗ the photospheric absorption is filled by emission from the wind. During the 2006-2007 period the Brγ and likely the continuum forming regions were larger than in the 2009-2010 epoch. Using CMFGEN we infer a mass-loss rate change of about 20% between the two epochs. We also find time variations in the differential visibilities and phases. The 2006-2007 period is characterised by noticeable variations in the differential visibilities in Doppler position and width and by weak variations in differential and closure phase. The 2009-2010 period is much quieter with virtually no detectable variations in the dispersed visibilities but a strong S-shaped signal is observed in differential phase coinciding with a strong ejection event discernible in the optical spectra. The differential phase signal

  5. Evaluating the ability of regional models to predict local avian abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Miller, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial modeling over broad scales can potentially direct conservation efforts to areas with high species-specific abundances. We examined the performance of regional models for predicting bird abundance at spatial scales typically addressed in conservation planning. Specifically, we used point count data on wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) from 2 time periods (1995-1998 and 2006-2007) to evaluate the ability of regional models derived via Bayesian hierarchical techniques to predict bird abundance. We developed models for each species within Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 23 in the upper midwestern United States at 800-ha, 8,000-ha, and approximately 80,000-ha scales. We obtained count data from the Breeding Bird Survey and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset (1992). We evaluated predictions from the best models, as defined by an information-theoretic criterion, using point count data collected within an ecological subregion of BCR 23 at 131 count stations in the 1990s and again in 2006-2007. Competing (Deviance Information Criteria rs = 0.57; P = 0.14), the survey period that most closely aligned with the time period of data used for regional model construction. Wood thrush models exhibited positive correlations with point count data for all survey areas and years combined (rs = 0.58, P ≤ 0.001). In comparison, blue-winged warbler models performed worse as time increased between the point count surveys and vintage of the model building data (rs = 0.03, P = 0.92 for Iowa and rs = 0.13, P = 0.51 for all areas, 2006-2007), likely related to the ephemeral nature of their preferred early successional habitat. Species abundance and sensitivity to changing habitat conditions seems to be an important factor in determining the predictive ability of regional models. Hierarchical models can be a useful tool for concentrating efforts at the scale of management units and should be one of many tools used by

  6. Radar Observations of Snowpack Changes from the Second Cold Land Processes Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, D.; Yueh, S.; Elder, K.

    2007-12-01

    To support the NASA Snow and Cold Land Processes (SCLP) and the ESA Cold Regions High-Resolution Hydrologic Observatory (CoRe-H2O) missions and advance observation of the global water cycle, NASA is supporting the second Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX-II). The experiment is being conducted in two parts over two winter seasons (Colorado 2006-2007, and Alaska 2007-2008). The focus of CLPX-II is on testing and development of advanced snow measurement using high-frequency radar through repeat observations of changing snow conditions using airborne and spaceborne radars and intensive in situ measurements. During 2006-2007 three field campaigns were conducted in a 90-km x 9-km study area in north-central Colorado. The campaigns were carried out in December, January and February to observe significant changes in snowpack characteristics. In each campaign, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's conically scanning Ku- band polarimetric scatterometer (POLSCAT) was flown on a Twin Otter aircraft to collect radar data over the study area. Multiple complete images of the entire study area were acquired during each campaign, enabling examination of short-term changes in radar response as well as long-term changes between campaigns. In each campaign, intensive in situ observations of snow depth, water equivalent, stratigraphy, and grain size were made in each of 16 target sites. All of the target sites shared similar backgrounds (flat terrain with a ground cover of grasses and sedges) but exhibited a wide range of snowpack characteristics. Preliminary analyses of the POLSCAT data acquired from the CLPX-II in winter 2006-2007 are described. The data showed response of the Ku-band radar echoes to snowpack changes for various types of background vegetation. There was about 0.4 dB increase in backscatter for every 1 cm SWE accumulation for sage brush and pasture fields. The data also showed the impact of freeze/thaw cycles, which appeared to create depth hoar and ice lenses with large

  7. Concentrations and source contributions of particulate organic matter before and after implementation of a low emission zone in Munich, Germany.

    PubMed

    Qadir, R M; Abbaszade, G; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Chow, J C; Zimmermann, R

    2013-04-01

    Within the Munich low emission zone (LEZ), samples of PM(2.5) were collected before (2006/2007) and after (2009/2010) the implementation of the LEZ. The samples were analyzed for carbon fraction (EC/OC) and particulate organic compounds (POC). Significant lower concentrations were noticed for elemental carbon (EC) and some of the POC like vanillic acid, acetosyringone, syringylacetone and syringic acid after the implementation of the LEZ. Higher concentrations of levoglucosan, retene and O-PAH were detected in the second sampling period. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify the main sources of POC. Emissions from traffic, solid fuels combustion, cooking and mixed source were separated. The contribution of traffic source factor was decreased about 60% after the implementation of the LEZ. Thus the average concentration of EC from traffic factor decreased from 1.1 to 0.5 μg/m(3) after the implementation of the LEZ.

  8. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies in The Netherlands after 32 years of high vaccination coverage.

    PubMed

    Smits, Gaby; Mollema, Liesbeth; Hahné, Susan; de Melker, Hester; Tcherniaeva, Irina; van der Klis, Fiona; Berbers, Guy

    2014-04-01

    Here we present rubella virus specific antibody levels in a large cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance study performed in The Netherlands in 2006/2007. In the nationwide sample, seroprevalence was high (95%). Higher levels of rubella specific antibodies were observed in the naturally infected cohorts compared with the vaccinated cohorts. After both vaccinations, the geometric mean concentration of rubella specific antibodies remained well above the protective level. However, antibody concentrations decreased faster after one than after two vaccinations. Infants too young to be vaccinated were a risk group in the nationwide sample. In the orthodox protestant group, individuals younger than 6 years of age were at risk for an infection with rubella, consistent with a small local outbreak that recently occurred at an orthodox protestant primary school. The general Dutch population is well protected against an infection with rubella virus. However, monitoring the rubella specific seroprevalence remains an important surveillance tool to assess possible groups at risk.

  9. Seroprevalence of Mumps in The Netherlands: Dynamics over a Decade with High Vaccination Coverage and Recent Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Gaby; Mollema, Liesbeth; Hahné, Susan; de Melker, Hester; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Waaijenborg, Sandra; van Binnendijk, Rob; van der Klis, Fiona; Berbers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Here we present mumps virus specific antibody levels in a large cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance study performed in the Netherlands in 2006/2007 (n = 7900). Results were compared with a similar study (1995/1996) and discussed in the light of recent outbreaks. Mumps antibodies were tested using a fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Overall seroprevalence was 90.9% with higher levels in the naturally infected cohorts compared with vaccinated cohorts. Mumps virus vaccinations at 14 months and 9 years resulted in an increased seroprevalence and antibody concentration. The second vaccination seemed to be important in acquiring stable mumps antibody levels in the long term. In conclusion, the Dutch population is well protected against mumps virus infection. However, we identified specific age- and population groups at increased risk of mumps infection. Indeed, in 2007/2008 an outbreak has occurred in the low vaccination coverage groups emphasizing the predictive value of serosurveillance studies. PMID:23520497

  10. Seroprevalence of mumps in The Netherlands: dynamics over a decade with high vaccination coverage and recent outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Smits, Gaby; Mollema, Liesbeth; Hahné, Susan; de Melker, Hester; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Waaijenborg, Sandra; van Binnendijk, Rob; van der Klis, Fiona; Berbers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Here we present mumps virus specific antibody levels in a large cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance study performed in the Netherlands in 2006/2007 (n = 7900). Results were compared with a similar study (1995/1996) and discussed in the light of recent outbreaks. Mumps antibodies were tested using a fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Overall seroprevalence was 90.9% with higher levels in the naturally infected cohorts compared with vaccinated cohorts. Mumps virus vaccinations at 14 months and 9 years resulted in an increased seroprevalence and antibody concentration. The second vaccination seemed to be important in acquiring stable mumps antibody levels in the long term. In conclusion, the Dutch population is well protected against mumps virus infection. However, we identified specific age- and population groups at increased risk of mumps infection. Indeed, in 2007/2008 an outbreak has occurred in the low vaccination coverage groups emphasizing the predictive value of serosurveillance studies.

  11. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the North and South Forks of the Shenandoah River, VA in 2002-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    Data collected with the GeoXT Trimble GPS unit using ArcPad 6.1. (summer 2006-2007). Files were created within a geodatabase to create a data dictionary for use in ArcPad during data collection. Drop down lists for habitat type, substrate, depth, width, length, and descriptions were included. Data files produced on the GeoXT were point shapefiles that could be checked back into the geodatabase and viewable as a layer. Points were gathered while canoeing along the South Fork Shenandoah River. Each location marked a change in meso-scale habitat type. GPS points were supplemented with GIS-derived points in areas where manual measurements were made. The points were used to generate a line coverage. This coverage represents physical habitat at a meso-scale (width of stream).

  12. [Analysis of the phenomenon of smoking cigarettes and reasons this phenomenon among the students in the Institute of Cosmetology and Health Care in Bialystok].

    PubMed

    Kleszczewska, Ewa; Jaszczuk, Agata

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to learn the attitude towards tobacco smoking of students from medical and cosmetic sector. The study was one of the results of the Preventive Medicine Program "Prevention 2006-2009 " implemented at the University of Cosmetology and Health Care in Bialystok. Data was collected through questionnaire which was filled individually and independently by each respondent and additionally anonymity was guaranteed. Research covered group of 501 students in academic year of 2006/2007 and 362 students beginning their studies in 2007/2008 at the University of Cosmetology and Health Care from faculties as: cosmetology, medical rescue, physiotherapy and nursing. The questionnaire covered such topics as: beginning and reasons for cigarettes smoking, the environment of surveyed and attitude of future health service employees towards cigarettes smoking.

  13. Why are low-income teens more likely to lack health insurance than their younger peers?

    PubMed

    Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne; Burns, Marguerite E

    2011-01-01

    Low-income teenagers are more likely to lack health insurance than younger children. Using data from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 rounds of the National Health Interview Survey, we examine whether differences between teens and younger children in socioeconomic factors, public health insurance eligibility, and observable family characteristics explain this apparent age-related coverage gap. Somewhat surprisingly, they do not. We find a highly robust age-coverage gradient among poor and near-poor children. Our results suggest the need to examine teen-specific insurance enrollment dynamics, particularly in families with no younger siblings, to optimize the effect of the newly enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on teens' insurance coverage.

  14. On the Influence of a Simple Microphysics Parametrization on Radiation Fog Modelling: A Case Study During ParisFog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Musson-Genon, Luc; Dupont, Eric; Milliez, Maya; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of a radiation fog event with a single column model is presented, which takes into account recent developments in microphysical parametrizations. One-dimensional simulations are performed using the computational fluid dynamics model Code_Saturne and the results are compared to a very detailed in situ dataset collected during the ParisFog campaign, which took place near Paris, France, during the winter 2006-2007. Special attention is given to the detailed and complete diurnal simulations and to the role of microphysics in the fog life cycle. The comparison between the simulated and the observed visibility, in the single-column model case study, shows that the evolution of radiation fog is correctly simulated. Sensitivity simulations show that fog development and dissipation are sensitive to the droplet-size distribution through sedimentation/deposition processes but the aerosol number concentration in the coarse mode has a low impact on the time of fog formation.

  15. The physician assistant profession and military veterans.

    PubMed

    Brock, Douglas M; Wick, Keren H; Evans, Timothy C; Gianola, F J

    2011-02-01

    The physician assistant (PA) profession originated to train former medics and corpsmen for a new civilian health care career. However, baccalaureate degree prerequisites to training present barriers to discharged personnel seeking to enter this profession. A survey was administered (2006-2007) to all MEDEX Northwest PA program graduates who had entered with military experience. The survey addressed attitudes toward the profession, PA education, and practice and how military experience influenced their education and careers. The response rate was 46.4%, spanning all branches of the military. Respondents reported military experience positively impacting ability to handle stress and work in health care teams and that patients and colleagues viewed their military background positively. Most (75.5%) respondents did not hold a bachelor's degree at matriculation. Veterans bring substantial health care training to the PA profession. However, program prerequisites increasingly present barriers to entry. Veterans' contributions to health care and the consequences of losing this resource are discussed.

  16. Public health workforce enumeration.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Kristine M; Raziano, Amanda; Elliott, Sterling

    2009-05-01

    Comprehensive data on the public health workforce are fundamental to workforce development throughout the public health system. Such information is also a critical data element in public health systems research, a growing area of study that can inform the practice of public health at all levels. However, methodologic and institutional issues challenge the development of comparable indicators for the federal, state, and local public health workforce. A 2006-2007 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials workforce enumeration pilot project demonstrated the issues involved in collecting workforce data. This project illustrated key elements of an institutionalized national system of workforce enumeration, which would be needed for a robust, recurring count that provides a national picture of the public health workforce.

  17. Abiotic nitrous oxide emission from the hypersaline Don Juan Pond in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarkin, Vladimir A.; Madigan, Michael T.; Bowles, Marshall W.; Casciotti, Karen L.; Priscu, John C.; McKay, Christopher P.; Joye, Samantha B.

    2010-05-01

    Nitrous oxide is a potent atmospheric greenhouse gas that contributes to ozone destruction. Biological processes such as nitrification and denitrification are thought to drive nitrous oxide production in soils, which comprise the largest source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Here we present measurements of the concentration and isotopic composition of nitrous oxide in soil pore spaces in samples taken near Don Juan Pond, a metabolically dormant hypersaline pond in Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica in 2006, 2007 and 2008, together with in situ fluxes of nitrous oxide from the soil to the atmosphere. We find fluxes of nitrous oxide that rival those measured in fertilized tropical soils. Laboratory experiments-in which nitrite-rich brine was reacted with a variety of minerals containing Fe(II)-reveal a new mechanism of abiotic water-rock reaction that could support nitrous oxide fluxes at Don Juan Pond. Our findings illustrate a dynamic and unexpected link between the geosphere and atmosphere.

  18. New Limits on the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Neutrino Flux from the ANITA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P.W.; Allison, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Beatty, J.J.; Besson, D.Z.; Binns, W.R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J.M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P.F.; DuVernois, M.A.; Field, R.C.; Goldstein, D.; Goodhue, A.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C.L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M.H.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J.G.; /Hawaii U. /Caltech, JPL /Hawaii U. /Minnesota U. /Hawaii U. /Ohio State U. /Hawaii U. /UC, Irvine /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Caltech, JPL /SLAC /University Coll. London /Ohio State U. /SLAC /Hawaii U. /UCLA /Delaware U. /Hawaii U. /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2011-12-01

    We report initial results of the first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA-1) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos above energies of E{sub v} = 3 x 10{sup 18} eV. ANITA-1 flew for 35 days looking for radio impulses due to the Askaryan effect in neutrino-induced electromagnetic showers within the Antarctic ice sheets. We report here on our initial analysis, which was performed as a blind search of the data. No neutrino candidates are seen, with no detected physics background. We set model-independent limits based on this result. Upper limits derived from our analysis rule out the highest cosmogenic neutrino models. In a background horizontal-polarization channel, we also detect six events consistent with radio impulses from ultrahigh energy extensive air showers.

  19. The Chimera Detector at LNS in Catania:. Recent Achievements and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, A.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Auditore, L.; Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Blicharska, J.; Campagna, V.; Cardella, G.; Calí, C.; Cavallaro, S.; D'Andrea, M.; de Filippo, E.; Fichera, F.; Geraci, E.; Giudice, N.; Giustolisi, F.; Guardone, N.; Grimaldi, A.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guazzoni, P.; Iacono-Manno, M.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzanó, G.; Lanzalone, G.; Maiolino, C.; Marchetta, C.; Nicotra, D.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rapicavoli, C.; Rizza, G.; Rizzo, F.; Russo, S.; Russotto, P.; Saccá, G.; Sassi, M.; Sperduto, M. L.; Trifiró, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Urso, S.; Zetta, L.; Zipper, W.

    2005-12-01

    Since January 2003, the new 4π detector CHIMERA is operational at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania. The device was designed to study multifragmentation at Fermi energy (10 MeV/nucleon < E/A < 100 MeV/nucleon). Good identification of light charged particles and fragments allow to perform careful investigations of the reaction mechanism. During 2003 and 2004 different experiments were accomplished in the framework of an international collaboration. Triggered by recent increasing interest for isospin physics and future facilities with radioactive beams, in 2006-2007 CHIMERA will be upgraded by a suitable pulse shape analysis in silicon detectors, so that the present identification performance of the apparatus will be extended. CHIMERA fostered the interest of researchers for new developments in the field of particle identification and innovative signal processing methods. In this paper, a report of this activity is given and the experimental capability of the apparatus is illustrated.

  20. An evaluation of school involvement and satisfaction of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Boswell, Katelyn; Smith, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Parental school involvement and satisfaction are unstudied in families raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To fill this gap, the current study utilized a national sample of families (N  =  8,978) from the 2007 Parent and Family Involvement in Education survey ( U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2006-2007 ). Parents of children with ASDs were found to be more likely than parents of children without the disorder to attend parent-teacher conferences, meet with school guidance counselors, and help with homework. Parents of children with ASD were also more dissatisfied with the level of communication provided by the school. There was a significant positive correlation between parental school involvement and parental school satisfaction. These findings have important implications for how schools interact with families with children with ASD.

  1. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host).

  2. Preliminary solution for the shape and rotational state of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P.; Jorda, L.; Kaasalainen, M.; Hviid, S.; Faury, G.; Toth, I.; Groussin, O.

    2014-07-01

    In preparation of ESA's ROSETTA mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, solutions for the shape and rotational state of its nucleus have been published based on observation with the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes as well as ground-based observations (Lamy et al. 2006, 2007, 2008; Lowry et al. 2012). Following the wake-up of the Rosetta spacecraft in January 2014 and the successful commissioning of the OSIRIS camera system in March, a first lightcurve of the inactive nucleus has been obtained on 23 March 2014 with the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). Further lightcurves will be acquired in the forthcoming months. We will present an updated solution for the shape and rotational state based on these data sets as of end of June 2014 combined with past Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes as well as ground-based observations using the technique of lightcurve inversion.

  3. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  4. Virtual planets atlas 1.0 freeware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, C.; Chevalley, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since 2002, we develop the "Virtual Moon Atlas -http://www.ap-i.net/avl/en/start" a freeware to help Moon observing and to improve interest for Moon in general public. VMA freeware has been downloaded near 900000 times all over the world and is or has been used by several professional organizations such as Kitt Peak Observatory, National Japan Observatory, Birkbeck College / University College London (K. Joy), BBC Sky at night, several French astronomy magazines and astronomy writers (P. Harrington, S. French...) . Recommended by ESA, registered as educational software by French ministry for education, it has also yet been presented at 2006 & 2007 LPSC and PCC2 in 2011 We have declined this freeware in a new tool with the same goals, but for the telluric planets and satellites, the "Virtual Planets Atlas (VPA / http://www.ap-i.net/avp/en/start") now in version 1.0.

  5. Reply to Comment on “Garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks from the Dominican Republic: Fossil mantle plume fragments in an ultra high pressure oceanic complex?” by Jan C.M. De Hoog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, Esteban; Abbott, Richard N.; Draper, Grenville

    2012-03-01

    Two competing hypotheses have been proposed for garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks in the Dominican Republic: (1) The ultrahigh pressure (UHP) - ultrahigh temperature (UHT) hypothesis involves a magmatic protolith of mantle origin, which was then delivered to, and incorporated into deep-subducted oceanic crust (eclogite) at UHP conditions (Abbott et al., 2005, 2006, 2007; Abbott and Draper, 2010; Gazel et al., 2011). (2) The low-pressure (LP) hypothesis involves a plagioclase-bearing, arc-related protolith of crustal origin, which was then subducted to UHP conditions (De Hoog, 2011; Hattori et al., 2010a,b). In both hypotheses, the rocks were uplifted to the surface by an as yet poorly understood mechanism. Here we respond to concerns regarding the integrity of REE analyses, Cpx-Grt REE partitioning, other matters related to the interpretation of the trace element data, and Grt-Spl major-element thermometry. We show that none of the concerns precludes a UHP magmatic origin.

  6. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: a three year study in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Jaime, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. In the state of Sonora, Mexico, maize is cultivated from 0 to 2100 masl with diverse cultivation practices. This is typical of the nation. In order to design better sampling strategies across Mexico, aflatoxin-producing fungal communities associated with maize production during 2006, 2007, and 2008 in Sonora were investigated in four agro-ecological zones (AEZ) at varying elevation. Fungal communities were dominated by the Aspergillus flavus L strain morphotype (46%), but variation occurred between years and among AEZ. Several atoxigenic isolates with potential to be used as biocontrol agents for aflatoxin mitigation were detected in all AEZ. The characteristics of each AEZ had minimal influences on fungal community structure and should not be a major consideration for future sampling designs for Mexico. Insights into the dynamics and stability of aflatoxin-producing fungal communities across AEZ are discussed.

  7. Detection of okadaic acid and related esters in mussels during diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episodes in Greece using the mouse bioassay, the PP2A inhibition assay and HPLC with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Prassopoulou, Eleanna; Katikou, Panagiota; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kyritsakis, Apostolos

    2009-02-01

    An approach involving chemical, functional and biological techniques was taken for the detection and quantification of the marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) in mussels from Thermaikos and Saronikos Gulfs, Greece, during DSP episodes that occurred in 2006-2007. Samples were analyzed using the mouse bioassay, high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD), using l-bromoacetylpyrene (BAP), as a precolumn derivatisation reagent, and the protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2AIA) using a commercially available kit. Okadaic acid (OA) and its polar and non-polar esters were detected and quantified by HPLC-FLD, after hydrolysis of the samples during preparation. The detection limit of the HPLC method for OA was 5.86 microg OA/kg, which permits this method to be used for the regulatory control of these toxins in shellfish. Comparison of the results by all three methods revealed excellent consistency.

  8. An outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Korea, 2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jean, Young-Hwa; Bae, Yu-Chan; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Roh, In-Soon; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kim, Ha-Young; Choi, Jeong-Soo; Byun, Jae-Won; Song, Yun-Kyung; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2010-03-24

    In spite of intensive surveillance programs for the control of HPAI, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Korea in April 2008 caused serious damage to poultry farms, as did previous outbreaks in 2003/2004 and 2006/2007. Six viruses were selected from the Korean 2008 isolates for genetic analysis, and all eight gene segments from each of the influenza viruses were sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the viruses were of the same virus type and that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene was clustered with that of clade 2.3.2 viruses. However, the internal and neuraminidase (NA) genes were closely related to those of the clade 2.3.4 viruses (recent human and bird isolates from Southeast Asia).

  9. A content analysis of cognitive health promotion in popular magazines.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Price, Anna E

    2011-01-01

    Health behaviors, particularly physical activity, may promote cognitive health. The public agenda for health behaviors is influenced by popular media. We analyzed the cognitive health content of 20 United States magazines, examining every page of every 2006-2007 issue of the highest circulating magazines for general audiences, women, men, African Americans, and the health conscious (n = 178). Diet was the greatest focus. Physical activity coverage was limited. Important behavior-related cognitive health risks, including hypertension and diabetes, were not mentioned. Publications for African Americans had little cognitive health content. Coverage of cognitive health was not commensurate with growing evidence that health behaviors may help to maintain it. Findings may be useful to public health officials, health care providers, non-profit organizations that promote cognitive health, individuals evaluating cognitive health information in popular media, and those responsible for magazines or other media.

  10. Discharge and sediment concentration in the Bill Williams River and turbidity in Lake Havasu during and following high releases from Alamo Dam, Arizona, in March and April 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Macy, Jamie P.; Darling, Hugh L.; Hart, Robert J.; Hautzinger, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Discharges higher than are typically released from Alamo Dam in west-central Arizona were planned and released in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2010 to study the effects of these releases on the Bill Williams River. The Bill Williams River Wildlife Refuge is located above the mouth of the Bill Williams River on Lake Havasu, and the river is the subject of ongoing ecological studies. Sediment concentrations and water discharges were measured in the Bill Williams River and turbidity, water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and Secchi depth were measured in Lake Havasu during and after experimental releases in 2005 and 2006 from Alamo Dam. Additional measurements of the same parameters in the Bill Williams River and Lake Havasu were made during releases in 2010, and these are the subject of this report.

  11. The empathy enigma: an empirical study of decline in empathy among undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julia; Cody, Julianne; Schaal, Mary; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    An empathic relationship between caregiver and patient not only defines the quality of the patient's experience as a recipient of care, it also contributes to patient outcomes. This longitudinal study was designed to examine changes in empathy during an academic year among undergraduate nursing students. Participants were 214 undergraduate nursing students who completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy at the beginning and at the end of 2006-2007 academic year. Statistical analyses showed a statistically significant decline of empathy for nursing students who were exposed more than others to patient encounters during study period (F(2, 211)= 4.2, p < 0.01). Findings are consistent with those found among medical students in that nursing students' encounters with patients which ironically are supposed to strengthen empathic engagement have shown a decline in student empathy. Suggestions for improving empathic behaviors in nursing students are discussed.

  12. Unusual cluster of HIV type 1 dual infections in Groningen, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Kuyl, Antoinette C; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Back, Nicole K T; Sprenger, Herman G; van der Werf, Tjip S; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Berkhout, Ben; Cornelissen, Marion

    2011-04-01

    In 2007, 14 Dutch men having sex with men (MSM) filed a criminal case against three other men, accusing them of administering sedative drugs, sexual abuse, and deliberate subcutaneous injections with HIV-1-infected blood. Medical files showed that 9 of 17 men presented with an acute HIV-1 infection syndrome during 2006-2007. Two men were not infected with HIV. Analysis of viral strains in the 12 MSM and the three alleged donors showed that one donor and six recipients were double infected with two distinct HIV-1 subtype B strains, while another five recipients and one donor were single infected with either strain. Two men were infected with unrelated strains. The finding of multiple double infections with very similar HIV-1 strains is without precedent.

  13. Hanford Tank 241-S-112 Residual Waste Composition and Leach Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2008-08-29

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization and testing of two samples (designated 20406 and 20407) of residual waste collected from tank S-112 after final waste retrieval. These studies were completed to characterize the residual waste and assess the leachability of contami¬nants from the solids. This is the first report from this PNNL project to describe the composition and leach test data for residual waste from a salt cake tank. All previous PNNL reports (Cantrell et al. 2008; Deutsch et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) describing contaminant release models, and characterization and testing results for residual waste in single-shell tanks were based on samples from sludge tanks.

  14. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from Monterrey, Nuevo León].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Mathiew-Quirós, Álvaro; Díaz-Sánchez, Oscar; Reyes-Treviño, Norma Orelia; Álvarez-Álvarez, Criselda; Villanueva-Montemayor, Daniel; de la Garza-Salinas, Laura Hermila; González-Guajardo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública mundial y se ha incrementado en forma alarmante en las últimas décadas hasta en 30 % en el 2010. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños de cero a 14 años de tres unidades de medicina familiar (UMF). MÉTODOS: estudio prospectivo, de prevalencia, que incluyó a niños de ambos sexos que acudieron a tres UMF y una escuela primaria. Se evaluó la somatometría y se comparó de acuerdo con estándares y referencias de crecimiento de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) 2006-2007.

  15. Obligatory course unit! Trainee astronomers learn to communicate their future scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2008-06-01

    A scientist must not only do science, but must also know how to communicate it. It is possible that he or she even ends up becoming devoted professionally either to outreach or to teaching. Therefore, the Master's Degree Course in Astrophysics, created by the University of La Laguna (ULL) with the collaboration of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), includes in its programme the four-month core course unit Communicating Astronomy: Professional Results and Educational Practice (in Spanish, Comunicación de Resultados Cientificos y Didactica de la Astronomia), that is worth three ECTs. In this poster, I present the results of our experience from the academic year 2006-2007, in which seventeen Master's students, in addition to learning the skills necessary to communicating their results within the scientific community, have also studied the language of popularisation in a practical and fun way through role-playing as science writers and schoolteachers in the classroom.

  16. From Special Geometry to Black Hole Partition Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas

    These notes are based on lectures given at the Erwin-Schrödinger Institute in Vienna in 2006/2007 and at the 2007 School on Attractor Mechanism in Frascati. Lecture I reviews special geometry from the superconformal point of view. Lecture II discusses the black hole attractor mechanism, the underlying variational principle and black hole partition functions. Lecture III applies the formalism introduced in the previous lectures to large and small BPS black holes in N = 4 supergravity. Lecture IV is devoted to the microscopic description of these black holes in N = 4 string compactifications. The lecture notes include problems which allow the readers to develop some of the key ideas by themselves. Appendix A reviews special geometry from the mathematical point of view. Appendix B provides the necessary background in modular forms needed for understanding S-duality and string state counting.

  17. [Analysis of type 2 diabetes-induced late effects based on administrative data of social insurance in Austria and implications for the evaluation of the DMP diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J; Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Rásky, Éva

    2014-08-01

    The present study analyses administrative data of medical services related to the distribution of diabetes mellitus type 2-induced late effects. Pseudonymous statutory health insurance data of all Austrian social security institutions for the years 2006/2007 in outpatient and inpatient (performance and diagnostic data) setting were used. Type 2 diabetics have been identified by prescribed medication. The specific late effects were defined as endpoints and the respective diagnoses and health performances were extracted. The study population included 7,945,774 insured. The percentage of the defined late effects was significantly higher in diabetics than in persons from the general population, with exception for kidney transplantation. The risk of a late effect was greatest among diabetics for an amputation. The results of this study can be used as a baseline for the evaluation of DMP diabetes. The administrative data used are limited for answering the defined research questions. Anyway, the data quality must be improved and unified in Austria.

  18. Macro-level gender equality and depression in men and women in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Sarah; Huijts, Tim; Bracke, Piet; Bambra, Clare

    2013-06-01

    A recurrent finding in international literature is a greater prevalence of depression in women than in men. While explanations for this gender gap have been studied extensively at the individual level, few researchers have studied macro-level determinants of depression in men and women. In the current study we aim to examine the micro-macro linkage of the relationship between gender equality and depression by gender in Europe, using data from the European Social Survey, 2006-2007 (N=39,891). Using a multilevel framework we find that a high degree of macro-level gender equality is related to lower levels of depression in both women and men. It is also related to a smaller gender difference in depression, but only for certain social subgroups and only for specific dimensions of gender equality.

  19. Time Series of Aerosol Column Optical Depth at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Fourth Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect

    C Flynn; AS Koontz; JH Mather

    2009-09-01

    The uncertainties in current estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are dominated by the effects of aerosols, both in relation to the direct absorption and scattering of radiation by aerosols and also with respect to aerosol-related changes in cloud formation, longevity, and microphysics (See Figure 1; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Assessment Report 4, 2008). Moreover, the Arctic region in particular is especially sensitive to changes in climate with the magnitude of temperature changes (both observed and predicted) being several times larger than global averages (Kaufman et al. 2009). Recent studies confirm that aerosol-cloud interactions in the arctic generate climatologically significant radiative effects equivalent in magnitude to that of green house gases (Lubin and Vogelmann 2006, 2007). The aerosol optical depth is the most immediate representation of the aerosol direct effect and is also important for consideration of aerosol-cloud interactions, and thus this quantity is essential for studies of aerosol radiative forcing.

  20. Predicting NCLEX-PN success with the HESI Exit Exam.

    PubMed

    Young, Anne; Willson, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Surveys were mailed to directors of 72 randomly selected practical nursing (PN) schools that administered Elsevier's HESI Exit Exam for Practical Nurses (E2-PN) during the 2006-2007 academic year. Data were collected regarding students' NCLEX-PN outcomes and the schools' benchmarking and remediation policies. The first version of the E2-PN was 99.48% accurate in predicting NCLEX-PN success. Versions two and three of the E2-PN, which were administered to students who were remediated because they did not achieve the faculty-designated benchmark, were also highly accurate in predicting NCLEX-PN success. Most faculties set 850 as their school's E2-PN benchmark, and 73% of the respondents required remediation for students who did not achieve the benchmark score. The most frequently cited remediation strategy was tutoring.

  1. Economic hardship and depression across the life course: the impact of welfare state regimes.

    PubMed

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-06-01

    Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006--2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the socio-political context. While the hardship--depression link is not significantly different across the life course in Nordic and Bismarckian regimes, the hardship--depression link increases with age in Southern and Eastern European countries and decreases with age in strength in Anglo-Saxon welfare states. Our findings suggest that welfare state regimes play a significant role in attenuating, boosting, or even reversing the health effects of social experiences such as economic hardship on aging. Health knowledge gained through research that ignores the socio-political context may be limited in terms of generalization.

  2. Whole-rock and sulfide-mineral geochemical data for samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield district, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Koenig, Alan E.; Foley, Nora K.; Oscarson, Robert L.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report presents geochemical data for outcrop and drill-core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and associated metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The data consist of major- and trace-element whole-rock geochemical analyses, and major- and trace-element analyses of sulfide minerals determined by electron microprobe and laser ablation—inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. The PDF consists of text, appendix explaining the analytical methods used for the analyses presented in the data tables, a sample location map, and seven data tables. The seven tables are also available as spreadsheets in several file formats. Descriptions and discussions of the Bonnifield deposits are given in Dusel-Bacon and others (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010).

  3. Airborne Ku-Band Polarimetric Radar Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Snow Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon; Cline, Donald; Elder, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of the POLSCAT data acquired from the CLPX-II in winter 2006-2007 are described in this paper. The data showed the response of the Ku-band radarechoes to snowpack changes for various types of background vegetation. We observed about 0.2 to 0.4 dB increases in backscatter for every 1 cm SWE accumulation for sage brush and agricultural fields. The co-polarized VV and HH radar resposnes are similar, while the corss-polarized (VH or HV) echoes showedgreater resposne to the change of SWE. The data also showed the impact of surface hoar growth and freeze/thaw cycles, whichcreated large snow grain sizes and ice lenses, respectively, and consequently increased the radar signals by a few dBs.

  4. What predicts support for antler point restrictions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Cornicelli, Louis; Fulton, David C.; Grund, Marrett D.

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable research has focused on satisfaction with recreation experiences, limited work has examined factors related to regulatory support. In 2005, an antler point restriction (APR) regulation was introduced for hunting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota’s Itasca State Park. Hunter surveys were conducted following the 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2009 seasons. We modeled how (a) satisfaction with the deer seen, (b) type of deer pursued, (c) agency trust, and (d) years of deer-hunting experience, influenced support for the APR, and compared the model over the four survey years. Type of deer pursued and agency trust were the strongest predictors of APR support, followed by satisfaction with deer seen, and years of hunting experience. Hunters who targeted big bucks, had more trust in the agency, and expressed more satisfaction with deer seen in the field, were more supportive of the APR. Hunters who had more deer-hunting experience were less supportive.

  5. Drought Monitoring for 3 North American Case Studies Based on the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay; Ek, Michael; Xia, Youlong; Dong, Jiarui

    2012-01-01

    Both NLDAS Phase 1 (1996-2007) and Phase 2 (1979-present) datasets have been evaluated against in situ observational datasets, and NLDAS forcings and outputs are used by a wide variety of users. Drought indices and drought monitoring from NLDAS were recently examined by Mo et al. (2010) and Sheffield et al. (2010). In this poster, we will present results analyzing NLDAS Phase 2 forcings and outputs for 3 North American Case studies being analyzed as part of the NOAA MAPP Drought Task Force: (1) Western US drought (1998- 2004); (2) plains/southeast US drought (2006-2007); and (3) Current Texas-Mexico drought (2011-). We will examine percentiles of soil moisture consistent with the NLDAS drought monitor.

  6. Do open clusters have distinguishable chemical signatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Heiter, U.

    2014-07-01

    Past studies have already shown that stars in open clusters are chemically homogeneous (e.g. De Silva et al. 2006, 2007 and 2009). These results support the idea that stars born from the same giant molecular cloud should have the same chemical composition. In this context, the chemical tagging technique was proposed by Freeman et al. (2002). The principle is to recover disrupted stellar clusters by looking only to the stellar chemical composition. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, it is necessary to test if we can distinguish between stars born from different molecular clouds. For this purpose, we studied the chemical composition of stars in 32 old and intermediate-age open clusters, and we applied machine learning algorithms to recover the original cluster by only considering the chemical signatures.

  7. Fieldpath Lunar Meteorite Graves Nunataks 06157, a Magnesian Piece of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 49 feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) have been recovered, likely representing a minimum of 35 different sample locations in the lunar highlands. The compositional variability among FLMs far exceeds the variability observed among highland samples in the Apollo and Luna sample suites. Here we will discuss in detail one of the compositional end members of the FLM suite, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06157, which was collected by the 2006-2007 ANSMET field team. At 0.79 g, GRA 06157 is the smallest lunar meteorite so far recovered. Despite its small size, its highly feldspathic and highly magnesian composition are intriguing. Although preliminary bulk compositions have been reported, thus far no petrographic descriptions are in the literature. Here we expand upon the bulk compositional data, including major-element compositions, and provide a detailed petrographic description of GRA 06157.

  8. Monovalent rotavirus vaccine provides protection against an emerging fully heterotypic G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yen, Catherine; Figueroa, Jesùs Reyna; Uribe, Edgar Sánchez; Carmen-Hernández, Luz Del; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Richardson López-Collado, Vesta

    2011-09-01

    After the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Mexico in 2006-2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among Mexican children under 5 years of age. In January 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel G9P[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. We conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of RV1 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by this unusual strain and to determine whether the G9P[4] emergence was related to vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate. RV1 was 94% effective (95% confidence interval, 16%-100%) against G9P[4] rotavirus-related hospitalization, indicating that its emergence was likely unrelated to vaccine pressure.

  9. Rift Valley fever during rainy seasons, Madagascar, 2008 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Armand Eugène; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth M; Ravololomanana, Lisette; Razafimanantsoa, Lanto Tiana; Rakotojoelinandrasana, Tsanta; Razainirina, Josette; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Rafisandratantsoa, Jean-Théophile; Rollin, Pierre E; Reynes, Jean-Marc

    2010-06-01

    During 2 successive rainy seasons, January 2008 through May 2008 and November 2008 through March 2009, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) caused outbreaks in Madagascar. Human and animal infections were confirmed on the northern and southern coasts and in the central highlands. Analysis of partial sequences from RVFV strains showed that all were similar to the strains circulating in Kenya during 2006-2007. A national cross-sectional serologic survey among slaughterhouse workers at high risk showed that RVFV circulation during the 2008 outbreaks included all of the Malagasy regions and that the virus has circulated in at least 92 of Madagascar's 111 districts. To better predict and respond to RVF outbreaks in Madagascar, further epidemiologic studies are needed, such as RVFV complete genome analysis, ruminant movement mapping, and surveillance implementation.

  10. Competences in demand within the Spanish agricultural engineering sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-09-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers (50 farming sector employers); (3) competences required by farming sector professionals and former students (70 professionals). The surveys show significant differences between what competences agricultural employers require of graduates and the competences they acquire during their agricultural engineering degree courses. Recruiters are looking for generic competences such as the ability to coordinate groups and place less importance on knowledge of engineering, biology, applied economics and legislation. Of the computer-related competences, those most in demand by sector professionals were related to the use of Microsoft Office/Excel (used by 79% of professionals). Surveys were used to redesign some subjects of the degrees.

  11. Final Report: 06-LW-013, Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way

    SciTech Connect

    Ormand, W E

    2009-03-01

    This is document reports the progress and accomplishments achieved in 2006-2007 with LDRD funding under the proposal 06-LW-013, 'Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way'. The project was a theoretical study to explore a novel approach to dealing with a persistent problem in Monte Carlo approaches to quantum many-body systems. The goal was to implement a solution to the notorious 'sign-problem', which if successful, would permit, for the first time, exact solutions to quantum many-body systems that cannot be addressed with other methods. In this document, we outline the progress and accomplishments achieved during FY2006-2007 with LDRD funding in the proposal 06-LW-013, 'Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way'. This project was funded under the Lab Wide LDRD competition at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary objective of this project was to test the feasibility of implementing a novel approach to solving the generic quantum many-body problem, which is one of the most important problems being addressed in theoretical physics today. Instead of traditional methods based matrix diagonalization, this proposal focused a Monte Carlo method. The principal difficulty with Monte Carlo methods, is the so-called 'sign problem'. The sign problem, which will discussed in some detail later, is endemic to Monte Carlo approaches to the quantum many-body problem, and is the principal reason that they have not been completely successful in the past. Here, we outline our research in the 'shifted-contour method' applied the Auxiliary Field Monte Carlo (AFMC) method.

  12. Constructing Rigorous and Broad Biosurveillance Networks for Detecting Emerging Zoonotic Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; Powell, Dennis; LaBute, Montiago; Hyman, James M.; Rivas, Ariel; Jankowski, Mark; Berendzen, Joel; Loeppky, Jason; Manore, Carrie; Fair, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities of potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic. PMID:25946164

  13. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; Powell, Dennis; LaBute, Montiago; Hyman, James M; Rivas, Ariel; Jankowski, Mark; Berendzen, Joel; Loeppky, Jason; Manore, Carrie; Fair, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities of potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.

  14. Trends in primary care antidepressant prescribing 1995-2007: a longitudinal population database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Pauline; Guthrie, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background Antidepressant prescribing is increasing worldwide, prompting policy interventions and targets to halt the rise. Aim To examine time trends in GP antidepressant prescribing using patient-level data. Design and setting Longitudinal population database of all community pharmacy dispensed prescriptions for all 325 000 residents of theTayside region of Scotland. Method In each of 3 study years (1995/1996, 2000/2001 and 2006/2007), the volume of antidepressants prescribed was calculated, and numbers of patients prescribed antidepressants in each year, mean treatment duration, and mean dose per patient in that year examined using descriptive statistics. Results Total drug volume increased threefold between 1995/1996 and 2006/2007, largely driven by increases in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescribing, and laterally also in ‘other’ antidepressant prescribing. Tricyclic prescribing is static, but low-dose amitriptyline increasingly dominates this drug class. Increased drug volume was initially driven by increasing patient numbers (from 8.0% of the population prescribed at least once in 1995/1996 to 11.9% in 2000/2001) and increased treatment duration (from 170 days in the measurement year to 200). Latterly, drug volume increases are increasingly attributable to longer duration of treatment and higher mean daily dose. Conclusion The large rise in antidepressant volumes is caused by a complex mixture of more patients being prescribed SSRI and ‘other’ antidepressants, the use of higher doses, and longer durations of treatment, with the balance changing overtime. Tricyclic prescribing is now largely low dose, and probably for conditions otherthan depression. Interventions to improve the quality of antidepressant prescribing need to be more subtle than blanket targets to reduce the total volume of antidepressants prescribed. PMID:22152736

  15. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; ...

    2015-05-06

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities ofmore » potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.« less

  16. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; Powell, Dennis; LaBute, Montiago; Hyman, James M.; Rivas, Ariel; Jankowski, Mark; Berendzen, Joel; Loeppky, Jason; Manore, Carrie; Fair, Jeanne; Viboud, Cecile

    2015-05-06

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities of potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.

  17. Ethnic groups’ knowledge, attitude and practices and Rift Valley fever exposure in Isiolo County of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Affognon, Hippolyte; Mburu, Peter; Hassan, Osama Ahmed; Kingori, Sarah; Ahlm, Clas; Sang, Rosemary; Evander, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting humans and livestock. For spread of infectious diseases, including RVF, knowledge, attitude and practices play an important role, and the understanding of the influence of behavior is crucial to improve prevention and control efforts. The objective of the study was to assess RVF exposure, in a multiethnic region in Kenya known to experience RVF outbreaks, from the behavior perspective. We investigated how communities in Isiolo County, Kenya were affected, in relation to their knowledge, attitude and practices, by the RVF outbreak of 2006/2007. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 698 households selected randomly from three different ethnic communities. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices that could affect the spread of RVF. In addition, information was collected from the communities regarding the number of humans and livestock affected during the RVF outbreak. This study found that better knowledge about a specific disease does not always translate to better practices to avoid exposure to the disease. However, the high knowledge, attitude and practice score measured as a single index of the Maasai community may explain why they were less affected, compared to other investigated communities (Borana and Turkana), by RVF during the 2006/2007 outbreak. We conclude that RVF exposure in Isiolo County, Kenya during the outbreak was likely determined by the behavioral differences of different resident community groups. We then recommend that strategies to combat RVF should take into consideration behavioral differences among communities. PMID:28273071

  18. Molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus in serum samples from selected areas of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chengula, Augustino Alfred; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Sallu, Raphael; Yongolo, Mmeta

    2014-04-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease affecting domestic animals and humans caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). The virus belongs to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. The main aim of this study was to detect the presence of antibodies to RVFV as well as the virus in the serum samples that were collected from livestock during the 2006/2007 RVF outbreaks in different locations in Tanzania. Analysis of selected samples was done using a RVF-specific inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genomic viral RNA was extracted directly from serum samples using a QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN), and a one-step RT-PCR protocol was used to amplify the S segment of RVFV. Positive results were obtained in 39.5% (n = 200) samples using the RVF I-ELISA, and 17.6% (n = 108) of samples were positive by RT-PCR. I-ELISA detected 41 (38.7%), 32 (39.0%), and 6 (50.0%) positive results in cattle, goats, and sheep sera, respectively, whereas the RT-PCR detected 11 (0.2%), 7 (0.2%), and 1 (0.1%) positive results in cattle, goats, and sheep sera, respectively. These findings have demonstrated the presence of RVFV in Tanzania during the 2006/2007 RVF outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first report to detect RVFV in serum samples from domestic animals in Tanzania using PCR technique. Therefore, a detailed molecular study to characterize the virus from different geographical locations in order to establish the profile of strains circulating in the country and develop more effective and efficient control strategies should be done.

  19. The Impact of Education Reform: An Asian Medical School's Experience.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gerald Ch; Lee, Jeremy Ne; Agrawal, Neelima; Tam, John Kc; Samarasekera, Dujeepa; Koh, Dow Rhoon; Wong, John El; Tan, Chay Hoon

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of education reforms on student-reported learning outcomes at the end of the 5-year medical school (M5) and 1-year internship (HO) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. A self-administered anonymous survey with 17 learning outcomes assessed, derived from Harden's Three-Circle Outcomes Model for outcomes-based education, was administered to 683 students at the end of medical school (M5) and internship (HO) from 2006, 2007 and 2008. We identified learning outcomes which changed significantly for internship (Cohorts A, B and C) and medical school (Cohorts B, C and D) between cohorts from 2006 to 2008, and compared learning outcomes between medical school and internship within cohorts (i.e. Cohort B which was M5 in 2006 and HO in 2007; Cohort C which was M5 in 2007 and HO in 2008). The proportion of students who agreed that medical school helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 15 out of 17 learning outcomes assessed. The proportion of students who agreed that internship helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 6 learning outcomes assessed. For Cohorts B and C, internship was more effective than medical school in achieving 8 learning outcomes. Cohort C reported that internship was more effective than medical school in 3 additional learning outcomes than Cohort B: patient management, humility and dedication. We conclude that a successful journey of education reform is an ongoing process that needs to comprehensively address multifaceted components such as faculty, administration and curriculum.

  20. School and district wellness councils and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2011-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required school districts participating in the federal school meals program to establish by the start of the 2006-2007 school year policies that included nutrition guidelines for all foods sold on school campus during the school day and policy development involving key stakeholders. For many schools, policy development was done by wellness councils. This study examined the association between having a wellness council and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages in school vending machines following enactment of the federal legislation. In 2006-2007, Minnesota middle (n=35) and high (n=54) school principals reported whether their school and district had a wellness council. Trained research staff observed foods/beverages in vending machines accessible to students. Low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages (snacks >3 g fat or >200 calories/serving, and soda, fruit/sport drinks and reduced-fat/whole milk) were grouped into seven categories (eg, high-fat baked goods) and a food score was calculated. Higher scores indicated more low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare. Multivariate linear regression, adjusted for school characteristics, was used to examine associations between scores and a three-category council variable (district-only; district and school; no council). Among schools, 53% had district-only councils, 38% district and school councils, and 9% had no council. Schools with both a district and school council had a significantly lower mean food score than schools without councils (P=0.03). The potential of wellness councils to impact availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare is promising. There may be an added benefit to having both a school and district council.

  1. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Relationship between Salt Preference and Gastric Cancer Screening: An Analysis of a Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeongseon; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population. Materials and Methods The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend=0.048). Conclusion Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice. PMID:26693914

  3. Rift Valley Fever Risk Map Model and Seroprevalence in Selected Wild Ungulates and Camels from Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britch, Seth C.; Binepal, Yatinder S.; Ruder, Mark G.; Kariithi, Henry M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Tucker, Compton J.; Ateya, Leonard O.; Oriko, Abuu A.; Gacheru, Stephen; Wilson, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the first isolation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the 1930s, there have been multiple epizootics and epidemics in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective climate-based models have recently been developed that flag areas at risk of RVFV transmission in endemic regions based on key environmental indicators that precede Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootics and epidemics. Although the timing and locations of human case data from the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya have been compared to risk zones flagged by the model, seroprevalence of RVF antibodies in wildlife has not yet been analyzed in light of temporal and spatial predictions of RVF activity. Primarily wild ungulate serum samples from periods before, during, and after the 2006-2007 RVF epizootic were analyzed for the presence of RVFV IgM and/or IgG antibody. Results show an increase in RVF seropositivity from samples collected in 2007 (31.8%), compared to antibody prevalence observed from 2000-2006 (3.3%). After the epizootic, average RVF seropositivity diminished to 5% in samples collected from 2008-2009. Overlaying maps of modeled RVF risk assessments with sampling locations indicated positive RVF serology in several species of wild ungulate in or near areas flagged as being at risk for RVF. Our results establish the need to continue and expand sero-surveillance of wildlife species Kenya and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa to further calibrate and improve the RVF risk model, and better understand the dynamics of RVFV transmission.

  4. Determinants of influenza vaccination among young children in an inner-city community.

    PubMed

    Uwemedimo, Omolara T; Findley, Sally E; Andres, Raquel; Irigoyen, Matilde; Stockwell, Melissa S

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have examined potential factors that contribute to low influenza vaccination rates among minority children. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of early childhood influenza vaccination among young black and Latino children, living in inner-city neighborhoods, and examine the effects of child, caregiver and health system factors. Secondary data analysis was performed using a survey about medical home experiences conducted from May 2007-June 2008. The study sample was limited to children ≥6 months in any influenza season prior to the 2006-2007 influenza season. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression tested associations between influenza vaccination receipt and socio-demographic and health system characteristics. One-third of children received an influenza vaccination by the end of 2006-2007 season, while only 11% received a vaccination within their first season of eligibility. Black children were more likely than Latino children to have been vaccinated (50% vs. 31%, P<0.01) during their first few eligible seasons. Children whose mothers were older, proficient in English, and frequent users of healthcare were more likely to obtain vaccination. Child attendance at healthcare settings with immunization reminder systems was also positively correlated with influenza vaccination. Our findings suggest that initial vaccination receipt among minority children from inner-city communities might be improved by expanded influenza promotion activities targeting younger mothers or those with limited English proficiency. Strategies to increase the frequency of child's actual contact with the medical home, such as reminder systems, may be useful in improving uptake of influenza vaccination among inner-city, minority children.

  5. A Multi-Year Longitudinal Study of Water Quality Parameters in Four Salmon-Bearing and Recreational Streams on Mount Hood, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Wasowski, Ronald; Alexander, David; Kolmes, Steven; Banet, Nathan; Card, Amy; Haines, Morgan; Kolmes, Elijah; Northcutt, Kelly; Roemer, Derek; Webber, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Four streams–Clear Fork, Lost Creek, Camp Creek and Still Creek–in northwestern Oregon’s Sandy River Basin were monitored for temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, and fecal bacterial concentrations in a multi-year analysis examining stream health for recreational users and anchor habitat for Pacific Salmon. Temperatures were recorded using micro –T temperature loggers at 15 locations, during 22 July - 5 September 2006, 2 July - 4 September 2007, 20 June - 7 September 2008, 23 June - 9 September 2009, and 2 July –9 September 2010. The Seven-Day Average Maximum water temperature (7-DAM) of 13°C was used as a reference value for the biological limit governing suitable salmonid spawning and egg incubation conditions. The maximum 7-DAM temperatures occurred on different dates and all streams neared or exceeded the 13°C standard at least once each summer. Dissolved oxygen levels were measured at weekly or longer intervals in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009. Dissolved oxygen levels fell below the 9.0 ppm standard for Clear Fork on almost half the sampling dates in 2006, 2007, and 2009. Concentrations of the bacterial genus Enterococcus were measured as an indicator of fecal contamination. Samples were collected at 15 sites along the four streams. Weekly samples were collected during a 9 week period from July - September 2007, an 11 week period from June - September 2008, and an 11 week period from June - September 2009. Enterococcus counts exceeded the federal recommended national criterion value of 61 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL every year in Camp Creek and occasionally elsewhere, with exceedances trending towards late summer. PMID:23940578

  6. EXPLORATION OF A RELIC CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE IN THE ''WATER FOUNTAIN'' SOURCE IRAS 18286-0959

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Kwok, Sun; Deguchi, Shuji; Diamond, Philip J. E-mail: junichi@hku.hk E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk E-mail: diamond@skatelescope.org

    2013-07-01

    The water fountain source IRAS 18286-0959 (I18286) was reported as an object exhibiting highly collimated, double-helix stellar jets traced by the H{sub 2}O maser emission. Using the European VLBI Network, we measured the absolute coordinates of the 1612 MHz OH maser emission in I18286, which is very likely associated with a relic of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) developed in the asymptotic giant branch stage of the central star. The location of the OH maser is near the center of the H{sub 2}O maser feature cluster, where one of the originating points of the two jets is located. We also mapped 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission in this object using the Very Long Baseline Array in the seasons of 2006-2007 as well as 2008-2009. In the first three epochs in 2006-2007, we detected at least 90 maser features per epoch. In six epochs in 2008-2009, when the observation data had already been published and analyzed to identify the double-helix jets, we newly identified 14 proper motions of H{sub 2}O maser features which could not be measured in the previous analysis due to their short lifetimes. In this paper, together with the OH maser emission, we focus on ''outlier'' H{sub 2}O maser features, which exhibit slow expansion velocities (V{sub exp} {approx}< 30 km s{sup -1}) and are likely associated with either the relic CSE or an equatorial flow of I18286. They were marginally distinguishable from the maser features associated with the jets in I18286.

  7. Genetic evidence for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Madagascar resulting from virus introductions from the East African mainland rather than enzootic maintenance.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Serena A; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Khristova, Marina L; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2011-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne phlebovirus, has been detected in Madagascar since 1979, with occasional outbreaks. In 2008 to 2009, a large RVFV outbreak was detected in Malagasy livestock and humans during two successive rainy seasons. To determine whether cases were due to enzootic maintenance of the virus within Madagascar or to importation from the East African mainland, nine RVFV whole genomic sequences were generated for viruses from the 1991 and 2008 Malagasy outbreaks. Bayesian coalescent analyses of available whole S, M, and L segment sequences were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for the RVFVs. The 1979 Madagascar isolate shared a common ancestor with strains on the mainland around 1972. The 1991 Madagascar isolates were in a clade distinct from that of the 1979 isolate and shared a common ancestor around 1987. Finally, the 2008 Madagascar viruses were embedded within a large clade of RVFVs from the 2006-2007 outbreak in East Africa and shared a common ancestor around 2003 to 2004. These results suggest that the most recent Madagascar outbreak was caused by a virus likely arriving in the country some time between 2003 and 2008 and that this outbreak may be an extension of the 2006-2007 East African outbreak. Clustering of the Malagasy sequences into subclades indicates that the viruses have continued to evolve during their short-term circulation within the country. These data are consistent with the notion that RVFV outbreaks in Madagascar result not from emergence from enzootic cycles within the country but from recurrent virus introductions from the East African mainland.

  8. Epidemiology of West Nile virus: a silent epiornitic in Northern Delaware in 2007 without associated human cases.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Jack B; O'Connor, Linda-Lou; Meredith, William H; Pesek, John D; Shriver, W Gregory

    2010-09-01

    ABSTRACT. We performed a 2-year longitudinal study (2006-2007) of West Nile virus (WNV) infections in wild birds, mosquitoes, and sentinel chickens at 6 WNV-endemic sites in northern Delaware. We determined virus infection rates of Culex pipiens and other mosquito vectors as well as seroprevalence and antibody titers of amplifying hosts. Endemicity status varied widely among the 6 sites based on 3 criteria-mosquito infections, sentinel chicken seropositivity, and wild bird seropositivity. A highly endemic site would display at least 2 of the 3 criteria during each year of the study, while a site with just 1 positive criterion was considered to have low endemicity. Culex pipiens was the principal vector detected at 2 highly endemic sites in 2006 vs. 1 site in 2007. However, in 2006, we also found 2 other WNV-positive vector species as well as an unidentifiable Culex species at 1 highly endemic site, suggesting increased activity at the end of the 1st year of the study. Wild birds were early indicators of WNV at highly endemic sites in mid-July to early August of both 2006-2007. Mosquitoes were positive in mid- to late August, appearing concurrently with seroconverted sentinel chickens, with wild resident birds appearing approximately 4 wk prior to those indicators. Of birds tested with n > or = 9, Northern cardinals had the highest seropositivity rates (47%) followed by Carolina wrens (19%), house sparrows (13%), American robins (13%), tufted titmice (11%), and gray catbirds (9%). The overall seropositive rates in trapped birds increased from 5.0% in 2006 to 20.0% in 2007, while the geometric mean titers of all positive birds increased from 1:34 to 1:47 during the comparable periods. Based on these results, we suggest that an epiornitic in birds occurred in 2007, but that greatly reduced abundance of mosquito vectors caused by an extreme drought largely precluded human infection.

  9. A multi-year longitudinal study of water quality parameters in four salmon-bearing and recreational streams on mount hood, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Wasowski, Ronald; Alexander, David; Kolmes, Steven; Banet, Nathan; Card, Amy; Haines, Morgan; Kolmes, Elijah; Northcutt, Kelly; Roemer, Derek; Webber, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Four streams-Clear Fork, Lost Creek, Camp Creek and Still Creek-in northwestern Oregon's Sandy River Basin were monitored for temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, and fecal bacterial concentrations in a multi-year analysis examining stream health for recreational users and anchor habitat for Pacific Salmon. Temperatures were recorded using micro -T temperature loggers at 15 locations, during 22 July - 5 September 2006, 2 July - 4 September 2007, 20 June - 7 September 2008, 23 June - 9 September 2009, and 2 July -9 September 2010. The Seven-Day Average Maximum water temperature (7-DAM) of 13°C was used as a reference value for the biological limit governing suitable salmonid spawning and egg incubation conditions. The maximum 7-DAM temperatures occurred on different dates and all streams neared or exceeded the 13°C standard at least once each summer. Dissolved oxygen levels were measured at weekly or longer intervals in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009. Dissolved oxygen levels fell below the 9.0 ppm standard for Clear Fork on almost half the sampling dates in 2006, 2007, and 2009. Concentrations of the bacterial genus Enterococcus were measured as an indicator of fecal contamination. Samples were collected at 15 sites along the four streams. Weekly samples were collected during a 9 week period from July - September 2007, an 11 week period from June - September 2008, and an 11 week period from June - September 2009. Enterococcus counts exceeded the federal recommended national criterion value of 61 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL every year in Camp Creek and occasionally elsewhere, with exceedances trending towards late summer.

  10. Astronomical Activities for students-Motivating students interest in Physical Science through Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthaiou, Alexis

    2010-05-01

    Astronomical Activities for students Motivating students interest in Physical Science through Astronomy Alexis Matthaiou Philekpaideftiki Etaireia, Arsakeio Lyceum Patron, Patras, Greece,(alexiosmat@yahoo.gr) School education aims not only to providing the necessary knowledge to the students but also to inspire and motivate them to realize their special abilities and inclinations and use their potential for making a joyful future for their lives. In this direction we present some activities held in the Arsakeio School of Patras during the years 2005-2008 in the field of Astronomy and Astrophysics, in order to share our experience with the teachers' community. Students from all grades of primary and secondary education participated with enthusiasm. In particular, they observed the Partial Solar Eclipse of October 3rd, 2005,and the Total Solar Eclipse of March 29th, 2006. They took part in observing and registering Solar Spots, using Astronomical equipments like different types of telescopes with filters and solar scopes. Students studied further the nature of Solar Phenomena and their effects on life, participating in the Environmental Program "Sun and Life"(2006-2007). Moreover, students took part in the International Program for measuring the Light Pollution "Globe at Night" (2006-2007) with observing and registering the luminosity of the Orion constellation in the night sky above their residence. Finally, the students participated in the European program "Hands on Universe" (HOU) (2005-2008) working on a project, which was the Greek contribution to HOU, developed from "Philekpaideftiki Etaireia". In particular, they studied the stars' spectrum and acquired information about the stars' life and age of stellar systems, using interactive multimedia technology.

  11. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close.

  12. Oceanic stratified euphotic zone as elucidated by /sup 234/Th:/sup 238/U disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, K.H.; Bruland, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Profiles of dissolved and particulate /sup 234/Th were determined at the VERTEX 2 and 3 stations off Manzanillo, Mexico, and at the VERTEX 4 station about 900 km north of Hawaii. By modeling the disequilibria between /sup 234/Th and /sup 238/U in the dissolved and particulate form, estimates of scavenging rates for Th from the dissolved to particulate phases, particle residence times, and the flux of Th via particle removal can be obtained. /sup 234/Th:/sup 238/U activity ratio profiles indicate that the euphotic zone can be separated into two layers: an upper oligotrophic layer characterized by low new production values, low net scavenging, and long dissolved /sup 234/Th residence times; and a subsurface eutrophic layer with higher new production values, more intense scavenging, and shorter dissolved /sup 234/Th residence times. New production, rather than total primary production may determine net scavenging rates of reactive elements from oceanic surface waters. These results contribute to the emerging descriptions of the layered structure of oligotrophic euphotic zones and support the notion that this may be a general and ubiquitous feature of global stratified oligotrophic regimes.

  13. Association of Vibrio cholerae with plankton in coastal areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lizárraga-Partida, M L; Mendez-Gómez, E; Rivas-Montaño, A M; Vargas-Hernández, E; Portillo-López, A; González-Ramírez, A R; Huq, A; Colwell, R R

    2009-01-01

    The El Niño event of 1997/1998 provided an opportunity to carry out a field experiment in which the relationship of sea surface temperature and the association of Vibrio cholerae with marine plankton could be assessed in Mexican coastal and estuarine areas. Plankton samples were collected from May 1997 through June 1999. Sites included the Mexican ports of Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos and Frontera in the Gulf of Mexico and Ensenada, Guaymas, Mazatlán, Manzanillo, Acapulco and Oaxaca in the Pacific Ocean. Sampling was also accomplished during two oceanographic cruises in the Yucatan channel of the Caribbean Sea. Bacteriological analyses for V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 were carried out. Also, the taxonomic structure of the plankton populations was determined. Vibrio cholerae O1 was detected only in Veracruz samples collected during April, May and June 1999, when La Niña climatic conditions prevailed. It is concluded that V. cholerae O1 in Mexico derives from its marine and estuarine origin and not from sewage contamination. The significant number of Acartia tonsa copepodites and V. cholerae copepodite-positive samples suggests a significant role of this copepod in the occurrence and distribution of V. cholerae in coastal areas of Mexico.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Coastal and Open-Ocean Records of the Great Chilean Tsunamis of 2010, 2014 and 2015 off the Coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Oleg; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.

    2016-12-01

    The three great earthquakes off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 (Maule, M w 8.8), 1 April 2014 (Iquique, M w 8.2) and 16 September 2015 (Illapel, M w 8.3) generated major transoceanic tsunamis that spread throughout the Pacific Ocean and were measured by numerous coastal tide gauges and open-ocean DART stations. Statistical and spectral analyses of the tsunami waves from the events recorded on the Pacific coast of Mexico enabled us to estimate parameters of the waves along the coast and to compare statistical features of the events. We also identified three coastal "hot spots" (sites having maximum tsunami risk): Puerto Angel, Puerto Madero and Manzanillo. Based on the joint spectral analyses of the tsunamis and background noise, we have developed a method for using coastal observations to determine the underlying spectrum of tsunami waves in the deep ocean. The "reconstructed" open-ocean tsunami spectra are in close agreement with the actual tsunami spectra evaluated from direct analysis of the DART records offshore of Mexico. We have further used the spectral estimates to parameterize the energy of the three Chilean tsunamis based on the total open-ocean tsunami energy and frequency content of the individual events.

  15. Ocean Observations with EOS/MODIS: Algorithm Development and Post Launch Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard R.

    1997-01-01

    Significant accomplishments made during the present reporting period are as follows: (1) We developed a new method for identifying the presence of absorbing aerosols and, simultaneously, performing atmospheric correction. The algorithm consists of optimizing the match between the top-of-atmosphere radiance spectrum and the result of models of both the ocean and aerosol optical properties; (2) We developed an algorithm for providing an accurate computation of the diffuse transmittance of the atmosphere given an aerosol model. A module for inclusion into the MODIS atmospheric-correction algorithm was completed; (3) We acquired reflectance data for oceanic whitecaps during a cruise on the RV Ka'imimoana in the Tropical Pacific (Manzanillo, Mexico to Honolulu, Hawaii). The reflectance spectrum of whitecaps was found to be similar to that for breaking waves in the surf zone measured by Frouin, Schwindling and Deschamps, however, the drop in augmented reflectance from 670 to 860 nm was not as great, and the magnitude of the augmented reflectance was significantly less than expected; and (4) We developed a method for the approximate correction for the effects of the MODIS polarization sensitivity. The correction, however, requires adequate characterization of the polarization sensitivity of MODIS prior to launch.

  16. Endogenous Gibberellins and Inhibitors in Relation to Flower Induction and Inflorescence Development in the Olive

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Sayed A.; Hartmann, Hudson T.; Martin, George C.

    1970-01-01

    Comparative analyses of reproductive and vegetative tissues of the olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Manzanillo) for endogenous hormones, particularly inhibitors and gibberellin like substances, were made to study the relation between such hormones and thermoinduction of flowering. Qualitative and quantitative changes in gibberellin-like subtance(s) were observed in lateral buds (potential flower buds) but not in leaves or terminal buds (potential vegetative buds) sampled from orchard trees at intervals during the winter and spring. At least two types of gibberellin-like substances were found in extracts of lateral buds; their levels increased progressively during the low temperature induction period, reaching a maximum shortly before floral initiation. Two types of inhibitors were extracted from buds and leaves. A nonacidic type did not change during the induction stage but decreased considerably during the initiation period. An acidic inhibitor, which was identified as an abscisic acid-like substance, was present at a relatively lower level in lateral (flower) buds than in terminal (vegetative) buds during the induction period. It was concluded that winter chilling induces flowering in the olive possibly by altering a balance between endogenous gibberellins and inhibitors, including abscisic acid. Inflorescence development following the winter chilling period was associated with an increase in the level of endogenous inhibitors and gibberellins. Shoot growth, however, was correlated with a decrease in the inhibitor(s) level. A rise in gibberellin-like activity is believed to be a result, not a cause, of shoot growth. Images PMID:16657528

  17. The Role of the Mexican Urban Household in Decisions about Migration to the United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Instituto Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Comunidad y de la Vivienda Popular (INDECO), in Mexico. The larger study is a diagnostic study of the...Institutu Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Comunidad y de la Vivienda Popular (INDECO-MEXICO), Mexico’s national community development agency. INDECO, an...agency within the Secretarfa de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras P6blicas (which corresponds roughly to H. U. D. in the United States), is currently

  18. [Surnames and isonymy in the Garifuna communities of the Atlantic Coast of Honduras].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Paz, Edwin Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la estimación de la isonimia es una herramienta importante en la determinación de la estructura genética de las comunidades puesto que su magnitud es aproximadamente igual a cuatro veces el coeficiente de endogamia FST. Métodos: se analizaron los apellidos registrados en la base de datos de 26 comunidades del Tribunal Supremo Electoral de Honduras. Se calculó la isonimia aleatoria dentro de cada comunidad y en el total, así como diversos parámetros comunes asociados. Se determinaron las distancias genéticas de Lasker a partir de la isonimia calculada entre pares de comunidades. Resultados: se encontraron valores relativamente altos de isonimia aleatoria en comparación con otras comunidades rurales. Adicionalmente, se observaron distancias genéticas relativamente cortas y se encontró una correlación positiva con las distancias geográficas. Conclusiones: los resultados son congruentes con el aislamiento histórico de las comunidades y reciente tendencia a la homogenización por las altas tasas de migración masculina intercomunitaria. Las características de la población garífuna la hacen propicia para la realización de estudios destinados a la búsqueda de genes de susceptibilidad relacionados con enfermedades de herencia compleja.

  19. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-05-25

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, in 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). The results of that investigation indicated that carbon tetrachloride contamination is present in groundwater at low to moderate levels in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation also indicated that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began periodic groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the direction of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. Through 2010, sampling was conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Long

  20. Elements for an historical review of the 3 June, 1932 tsunami on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, L.; Castillo-Aja, M. R.; Estrada-Trejo, M.

    2011-12-01

    On the morning of June 22, 1932 a series of waves between 8 and 10 meters penetrated a mile inland, destroying the town of Cuyutlán in the state of Colima (Mexico), until today it is regarded as one of the strongest tsunamis that have struck the coast of western Mexico in the last 150 years. However, two weeks earlier, on June 3, occurred the largest magnitude earthquake recorded in Mexico (8.2 ms) that cause damages in much of Jalisco, Colima and Nayarit states. The earthquake also produced a tsunami, so far underestimated, and described only as "a wave" that reached the top of the dune in Barra de Navidad (Cumming, 1932), was "observed in the coasts" of Cuyutlán and Manzanillo (Colima), and that caused some damage to Barra de Navidad (Jalisco) and San Blas (Nayarit) (Farreras et al., 1993). The seashore between these two points covers a coastline of over 300 km in length that did not receive any mention . This area, sparsely populated and inaccessible, was hit by a tsunami and its calls for help took so long to be heard that the damage was confused later with those of the Cuyutlan tsunami in June 22. Analysis of notes in the newspapers of the time allow to identify the existence of reports in local media describing that the coast of Jalisco were strongly affected by a tsunami on June 3, 1932. From these data it was possible to trace the exchange of telegrams between municipal authorities and the state government of the time. The information available nowadays let us to document the tsunami penetration up to 8 km, 300 families displaced and 4 people dead, besides the presence of sulfur water. This new evidence helps to historically rethink the tsunami magnitude, and in this way, be able to start a reconsideration of its intensity, geographical distribution and damages.

  1. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jorge; Fonseca, Ana C; Nivia-Ruiz, Jaime; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Salas, Eva; Martínez, Solciré; Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla

    2010-10-01

    The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10 m depth) at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park), increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7 +/- 1.15 g/m2/d) and biomass (822.8 +/- 391.84 g/m2) compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge), surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9.0 +/- 0.58 trees/100 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/d) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems.

  2. [Genetic isolates and inbreeding customs in three rural municipalities from Honduras].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Paz, Edwin Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el método de isonimia ha sido utilizado ampliamente para la determinación de la estructura genética aproximada de las poblaciones humanas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la magnitud del aislamiento genético y las costumbres endogámicas en 57 comunidades de tres municipios rurales de Honduras utilizando las técnicas de isonimia. Métodos: se utilizó el listado de 408 apellidos diferentes utilizados por 20 712 votantes registrados en el Tribunal Supremo Electoral, que residen en las 57 comunidades estudiadas. Para cada comunidad se calcularon los valores de la isonimia aleatoria (IR), no aleatoria (IN) y total (IT) con el fin de evaluar los coeficientes de consanguinidad FST, FIS y FIT. Resultados: se encontró alta consanguinidad debido a aislamiento y a costumbres endogámicas en muchas comunidades. En los tres municipios se observó desviación significativa del comportamiento exógamo típico de otras poblaciones de Honduras. Conclusiones: muchas de las comunidades estudiadas presentan una elevada consanguinidad debido al aislamiento, la segregación étnica y/o costumbres endogámicas.

  3. Emerging and Reemeriging Human Bunyavirus Infections and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Laura J.; Anyamba, Assaf; LaBeaud, A. Desiree

    2013-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae family includes a growing number of viruses that have contributed to the burden of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases around the globe. Many of these viruses cause severe clinical outcomes in human and animal populations, the results of which can be detrimental to public health and the economies of affected communities. The threat to endemic and non-native regions is particularly high, and national and international public health agencies are often on alert. Many of the bunyaviruses cause severe clinical disease including hemorrhage, organ failure, and death leading to their high-risk classification. Hantaviruses and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus) are National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogens in the United States. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, a classification that includes many bunyaviruses, are immediately notifiable in the European Union. The emergence of new and reemerging bunyaviruses has resulted in numerous human and animal fatalities. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa (1997/1998, 2006/2007), Sudan (2007), Southern Africa (2008-2010), Kenya (1997/1998, 2006/2007) (Anyamba et al., 2009, 2010; Breiman et al., 2010; Grobbelaar et al., 2011; Woods et al., 2002) and Saudi Arabia & Yemen (2000, 2010) (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2000; Hjelle and Glass, 2000; Madani et al., 2003) and the emergence of Sin Nombre virus (1993) (Hjelle and Glass, 2000) and most recently Schmallenberg virus (2011) (DEFRA, 2012) are prime examples of the devastating and worldwide toll bunyaviruses have on health and economies. Climate variability (precipitation and temperature in particular) greatly influence the ecological conditions that drive arboviral disease outbreaks across the globe. Several human and animal disease outbreaks have been influenced by changes in climate associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon including the bunyaviruses RVFV and Sin

  4. Epidemiology of two large measles virus outbreaks in Catalonia: what a difference the month of administration of the first dose of vaccine makes.

    PubMed

    Torner, Núria; Anton, Andres; Barrabeig, Irene; Lafuente, Sara; Parron, Ignasi; Arias, César; Camps, Neus; Costa, Josep; Martínez, Ana; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Minguell, Sofia; Ferrús, Glòria; Cabezas, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela; Spain

    2013-03-01

    Measles cases in the European Region have been increasing in the last decade; this illustrates the challenge of what we are now encountering in the form of pediatric preventable diseases. In Catalonia, autochthonous measles was declared eliminated in the year 2000 as the result of high measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) coverage for first and second dose (15 mo and 4 y) since the mid-1990s. From then on, sporadic imported cases and small outbreaks appeared, until in 2006-2007 a large measles outbreak affecting mostly unvaccinated toddlers hit the Barcelona Health Region. Consequently, in January 2008, first dose administration of MMR was lowered from 15 to 12 mo of age. A new honeymoon period went by until the end of 2010, when several importations of cases triggered new sustained transmission of different wild measles virus genotypes, but this time striking young adults. The aim of this study is to show the effect of a change in MMR vaccination schedule policy, and the difference in age incidence and hospitalization rates of affected individuals between both outbreaks.   Epidemiologic data were obtained by case interviews and review of medical records. Samples for virological confirmation and genotyping of cases were collected as established in the Measles Elimination plan guidelines. Incidence rate (IR), rate ratio (RR) and their 95% CI and hospitalization rate (HR) by age group were determined. Statistic z was used for comparing proportions. Total number of confirmed cases was 305 in the 2010 outbreak and 381 in the 2006-2007 outbreak; mean age 20 y (SD 14.8 y; 3 mo to 51 y) vs. 15 mo (SD 13.1 y; 1 mo to 50 y). Highest proportion of cases was set in ≥ 25 y (47%) vs. 24.2% in 2006 (p < 0.001). Differences in IR for ≤ 15 mo (49/100,000 vs. 278.2/100,000; RR: 3,9; 95%CI 2,9-5.4) and in overall HR 29.8% vs. 15.7% were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The change of the month of age for the administration of the first MMR dose proved successful to

  5. Longitudinal changes in response to a cycle-run field test of young male national "talent identification" and senior elite triathlon squads.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor; Peinado, Ana B; Vleck, Veronica E; Alvarez-Sánchez, María; Benito, Pedro J; Alves, Francisco B; Calderón, Francisco J; Zapico, Augusto G

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the changes in cardiorespiratory response and running performance of 9 male "Talent Identification" (TID) and 6 male Senior Elite (SE) Spanish National Squad triathletes during a specific cycle-run (C-R) test. The TID and SE triathletes (initial age 15.2 ± 0.7 vs. 23.8 ± 5.6 years, p = 0.03; V(O2)max 77.0 ± 5.6 vs. 77.8 ± 3.6 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1), nonsignificant) underwent 3 tests through the competitive period and the preparatory period, respectively, of 2 consecutive seasons: test 1 was an incremental cycle test to determine the ventilatory threshold (Th(vent)); test 2 (C-R) was 30-minute constant load cycling at the Th(vent) power output followed by a 3-km time-trial run; and test 3 (isolated control run [R]) was an isolated 3-km time-trial control run, in randomized counterbalanced order. In both seasons, the time required to complete the C-R 3-km run was greater than for R in TID (11:09 ± 00:24 vs. 10:45 ± 00:16 min:ss, p < 0.01 and 10:24 ± 00:22 vs. 10:04 ± 00:14, p = 0.006, for season 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, respectively) and SE (10:15 ± 00:19 vs. 09:45 ± 00:30, p < 0.001 and 09:51 ± 00:26 vs. 09:46 ± 00:06, p = 0.02 for season 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, respectively). Compared with the first season, the completion of the time-trial run was faster in the second season (6.6%, p < 0.01 and 6.4%, p < 0.01, for C-R and R tests, respectively) only in TID. Changes in post cycling run performance were accompanied by changes in pacing strategy, but there were only slight or nonsignificant changes in the cardiorespiratory response. Thus, the negative effect of cycling on performance may persist, independently of the period, over 2 consecutive seasons in TID and SE triathletes; however, improvements over time suggests that monitoring running pacing strategy after cycling may be a useful tool to control performance and training adaptations in TID.

  6. Spatial variation in genetic diversity and natural selection on the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein locus of Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP).

    PubMed

    Kosuwin, Rattiporn; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2014-01-01

    Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) of malaria parasites is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquito's salivary gland and vertebrate's hepatocyte; thereby, it is a promising target for pre-erythrocytic vaccine. TRAP of Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP) exhibits sequence heterogeneity among isolates, an issue relevant to vaccine development. To gain insights into variation in the complete PvTRAP sequences of parasites in Thailand, 114 vivax malaria patients were recruited in 2006-2007 from 4 major endemic provinces bordering Myanmar (Tak in the northwest, n = 30 and Prachuap Khirikhan in the southwest, n = 25), Cambodia (Chanthaburi in the east, n = 29) and Malaysia (Yala and Narathiwat in the south, n = 30). In total, 26 amino acid substitutions were detected and 9 of which were novel, resulting in 44 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were lowest in southern P. vivax population while higher levels of diversities were observed in other populations. Evidences of positive selection on PvTRAP were demonstrated in domains II and IV and purifying selection in domains I, II and VI. Genetic differentiation was significant between each population except that between populations bordering Myanmar where transmigration was common. Regression analysis of pairwise linearized Fst and geographic distance suggests that P. vivax populations in Thailand have been isolated by distance. Sequence diversity of PvTRAP seems to be temporally stable over one decade in Tak province based on comparison of isolates collected in 1996 (n = 36) and 2006-2007. Besides natural selection, evidences of intragenic recombination have been supported in this study that could maintain and further generate diversity in this locus. It remains to be investigated whether amino acid substitutions in PvTRAP could influence host immune responses although several predicted variant T cell epitopes drastically altered the epitope scores. Knowledge

  7. An ecological model of the artificial ecosystem (northern Hangzhou Bay, China): analysis of ecosystem structure and fishing impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuozhi; Xu, Shannan; He, Peimin

    2011-06-01

    The artificial ecosystem is a large-scale enclosure in northern Hangzhou Bay, China. Using the Ecopath with Ecosim software, a trophic structure model is constructed for 2006-2007 to characterize the food web structure, functioning, and describing the ecosystem impacts of fishing. Input information for the model were gathered from published and unpublished reports and from our own estimates during the period 2006-2007. Pedigree work and simple sensitivity analysis were carried out to evaluate the quality and the uncertainty of the model. Results show that the food web in the enclosed sea area was dominated by a detritus pathway. The trophic levels of the groups varied from 1.00 for primary producers and detritus to 3.90 for piscivorous fish in the artificial system. Using network analysis, the system network was mapped into a linear food chain, and five discrete trophic levels were found with a mean transfer efficiency of 9.8% from detritus, 9.4% from primary producer within the ecosystem. The geometric mean of the trophic transfer efficiencies was 9.5%. Detritus contributed 57% of the total energy flux, and the other 43% came from primary producers. The ecosystem maturity indices-TPP/TR (total primary production/total respiration), FCI (Finn cycling index), A (ascendancy) and TB/TDET were 2.672, 25%, 31.5%, and 0.013, respectively, showing that the artificial system is at developmental stage according to Odum's theory of ecosystem development. The `Keystoneness' result indicates that herbivorous zooplankton was identified as keystone species in this system. Furthermore, a simple dynamical simulation was preformed for varying fishing mortality over 10 years. The biomass of most fish groups has a small increase when the fishing mortality at current level. Increasing fishing mortality by twofold resulted in a marked decrease in biomass of piscivorous fish accompanied by an increase in that of other fish groups, notable zooplanktivorous fish. Generally, this study

  8. Student-centered physiology in high schools.

    PubMed

    Anjur, Sowmya S

    2011-06-01

    Student test score percentages in the Physiology and Disease (PAD) course at the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, a high school for students of the state of Illinois gifted in math and science, were studied over a period of 5 yr. Inquiry-based laboratory experiences in the course were slowly converted during this time from partly student centered and mostly teacher led to completely student centered beginning in fall 2008. Quarterly analysis of the effect of increased inquiry upon average weekly report submissions of 400 students over 4 yr showed a significant improvement in submission (P < 0.0002) between quarters 1 and 2 and also improvement from year to year between the academic years of 2006/2007 and 2009/2010 (P < 0.0001). A comparison of student test score percentages from 346 students in 4 major tests showed a significant increase (P = 0.0125) beginning in the academic year of 2008/2009, when the conversion of all laboratories in the course from partly student centered to completely student centered was concluded compared with scores over the 2 yr from 2006/2007 up to this point. There was also a significant difference (P < 00001) in test score percentages between the individual tests themselves over the 4 yr studied. Taking the study a step further, the 35 students registered in the two PAD classes offered in the fall 2010 semester were divided in each of their classes into student-centered and teacher-centered groups, with the former designing all their experiments and the latter following instructions from the teacher. Student score percentages on specific test questions from the four major tests that focused on transfer of student understanding were compared between these two groups. There was a significant improvement (P = 0.012) when students designed their own laboratories (student-centered group) compared with doing what the teacher asked (teacher-centered group). There was also a significant difference between these student score

  9. Assessing supraglacial water volume and the changing dynamics of the surface topography near the Jakobshavn Glacier, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, John J.

    On the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), the effect of the melt season's changing supraglacial lakes on outlet glacier discharge is not well understood. It is known that many supraglacial lakes drain rapidly during each melt season. While there are conflicting theories of the significance of supraglacial lake drainages towards enhancing ice sheet flow, it is highly important to quantify the actual water volume of supraglacial lakes since their drainage via crevasses or moulins enables the injection of melt water directly into the GIS. The 2008 Arctic MUltiSensor Cryospheric Observation eXperiment (Arctic MUSCOX) was the first scientific Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) used in Greenland. The goal was determination of the changing volumes of supraglacial melt water lakes through the fusion of disparate data sets from in-situ, airborne, and satellite sensors. Near the Jakobshavn Isbrae region, four supraglacial lakes at different elevations along a transect at 68.73°N were monitored over the 2006, 2007, and 2008 melt seasons. The changing lake volumes are calculated for each day of usable MODIS imagery, employing DEM's from both ASTER Global and the MUSCOX lidar survey. During this three year period, no observed lake was larger in volume than 0.15km3, or larger in area than 10.4km2, implying a size limit for supraglacial lakes. In this study a new technique is developed calculating runoff using daily changing albedo and surface height measurements (dH) from the Greenland Climatic Network (GC-Net) Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) at locations JAR1 and JAR2. Runoff is calculated on a daily basis, both regionally and for a 1,183km 2 inset strip straddling the transect. At JAR1 the calculated linear runoff for 2006, 2007, and 2008 is 1.79m, 1.99m, and 1.96m, respectively; at JAR2 the calculated runoff is 2.11m, 2.86m, and 2.40m, respectively. Regional projections are made that account for future atmospheric temperature increases between 0.5°C and 3.0°C; they indicate up to a

  10. Environmental factors regulating winter CO2 flux in snow-covered boreal forest soil, interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kodama, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Winter CO2 flux is an important element to assess when estimating the annual carbon budget on regional and global scales. However, winter observation frequency is limited due to the extreme cold weather in sub-Arctic and Arctic ecosystems. In this study, the continuous monitoring of winter CO2 flux in black spruce forest soil of interior Alaska was performed using NDIR CO2 sensors at 10, 20, and 30 cm above the soil surface during the snow-covered period (DOY 357 to 466) of 2006/2007. The atmospheric pressure was divided into four phases: >1000 hPa (HP: high pressure); 9852006/2007, when snow depth experienced one of its lowest totals of the past 80 years. Atmospheric temperature and soil temperature at 5 cm depth, modulated by atmospheric pressure, were found to be significant factors in determining winter CO2 emission and fluctuation in snowpack. Regional/global process-based carbon cycle models should be reassessed to account for the effect of winter CO2 emissions, regulated by temperature and soil latent-heat flux, in the snow-covered soils of Arctic and sub-Arctic terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Sediment contaminant surveillance in Milford Haven Waterway.

    PubMed

    Little, D I; Bullimore, B; Galperin, Y; Langston, W J

    2016-01-01

    the winter of 2005-2006 previous to peak dredging. In the following winter 2006-2007, shelduck in the Pembroke River showed their lowest winter count, and spring 2007 was the largest ever drop in numbers of shelduck broods across MHW between successive breeding seasons. Wigeon counts in the Pembroke River were low in 2006-2007 and in late 2012 after further dredging nearby. These results are strongly supported by PAH data reported previously from invertebrate bioaccumulation studies in MHW 2007-2010, themselves closely reflecting sediment trends for PAHs in the Pembroke River and Angle Bay.

  12. Epidemiology and clinical presentations of human coronavirus NL63 infections in hong kong children.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting Fan; Li, Chung Yi; Lam, Wai Yip; Wong, Gary W K; Cheuk, Edmund; Ip, Margaret; Ng, Pak Cheung; Chan, Paul K S

    2009-11-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has been found in children presenting with respiratory tract infections (RTIs). However, the epidemiology and clinical course of this newly identified virus have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the epidemiology, seasonality, and clinical features of HCoV-NL63 in Hong Kong children. This study consisted of two cohorts of children hospitalized in a university-affiliated teaching hospital. In the 12-month retrospective part of the study, reverse transcription-PCR was used to detect HCoVs in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs). Positive samples were sequenced to confirm the identity of the virus and to determine its phylogenetic relationship with the HCoV-NL63 strains found elsewhere. The second part covered a subsequent 12-month period in which patients were prospectively recruited. Altogether, 1,981 and 1,001 NPA specimens were studied in 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, respectively. Seventy-four (2.5%) HCoV isolates were identified and consisted of 17 (0.6%) HCoV-NL63 isolates, 37 (1.2%) HCoV-OC43 isolates, 14 (0.5%) HCoV-HKU1 isolates, and 6 (0.2%) HCoV-229E isolates. HCoV-NL63 infection was more common in 2006-2007 than 2005-2006 (1.2% and 0.3%, respectively; P = 0.006). From 2005 to 2007, the peak season for HCoV-NL63 infection was in September-October, which was earlier than the peak for HCoV-OC43 infections (December-January). HCoV-NL63-infected patients were younger and more likely to have croup, febrile convulsions, and acute gastroenteritis. The majority of local HCoV-NL63 isolates were phylogenetically closely related to those found in Belgium and The Netherlands. In conclusion, HCoV-NL63 is an important yet uncommon virus among our hospitalized children with acute RTIs.

  13. [Relationships between urbanization and water resource utilization in Dongting Lake District of South-central China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Zhi; Zhu, Xiang; Li, Jing-Bao; Xu, Mei

    2013-06-01

    By using analytic hierarchy process and entropy method, the evaluation index system and the response relationship model of comprehensive development level of urbanization and comprehensive development and utilization potential of water resources in Dongting Lake District were constructed, with the key affecting factors, their change characteristics, and response characteristics from 2001 to 2010 analyzed. During the study period, the Dongting Lake District was undergoing a rapid development of urbanization, and at a scale expansion stage. The economic and social development level was lagged behind the population and area increase, and the quality and efficiency of urbanization were still needed to be improved. With the advance of urbanization, the water consumption increased yearly, and the water resources utilization efficiency and management level improved steadily. However, the background condition of water resources and their development and utilization level were more affected by hydrological environment rather than urbanization. To a certain extent, the development of urbanization in 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 was slowed down by the shortage of water resources. At present, Dongting Lake region was confronted with the dual task of improving the level and quality of urbanization, and hence, it would be necessary to reform the traditional epitaxial expansion of urbanization and to enhance the water resource support capability.

  14. Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Katherine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the period 2004 - 2009 have privileged different disease vectors. Chikungunya outbreaks occurred during the severe drought from late 2004 to 2006 over coastal East Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands and in the later years India and Southeast Asia. The chikungunya pandemic was caused by a Central/East African genotype that appears to have been precipitated and then enhanced by global-scale and regional climate conditions in these regions. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred following excessive rainfall period from late 2006 to late 2007 in East Africa and Sudan, and then in 2008 - 2009 in Southern Africa. The shift in the outbreak patterns of Rift Valley fever from East Africa to Southern Africa followed a transition of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena from the warm El Nino phase (2006-2007) to the cold La Nina phase (2007-2009) and associated patterns of variability in the greater Indian Ocean basin that result in the displacement of the centres of above normal rainfall from Eastern to Southern Africa. Understanding the background patterns of climate variability both at global and regional scale and their impacts on ecological drivers of vector borne-diseases is critical in long-range planning of appropriate response and mitigation measures.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of Potato virus Y strain N (PVY(N)) on celery in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khoshkhatti, Neda; Habibi Koohi, Mina; Mosahebi, Gh

    2009-01-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens) is an important crop grown in many countries. Different types of diseases present a major constraint to Celery production and can lead to significant reductions in yield Potato Virus Y, the type member of the genus Potyvirus(family Potyviridae) is one of the causal agents of viral diseases in crops. In the present study, PVY occurring in celery fields was determined as the causal agent of mosaic disease of celery (Apium graveolens). The virus is naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. During growing seasons 2006-2007 celery fields were visited through Tehran Province and a total 332 sample based on selection of plants expressing symptoms like mosaic, vein clearing and mottling were collected. By using serological method (DAS-ELIZA) with specific antiserum of PVY (DSMZ-AS-0137.403) 17.64% of the samples were infected with PVY .The reaction of PVY infected samples were positive in TAS-ELIZA with specific monoclonal antibody (MAbs) of PVYN strain (DSMZ-AS-403.1). PVY N strain isolated from celery was reported for the first time in Iran and in the world in this survey.

  16. Black and Azov Sea circulation numerical modelling on the basis of splitting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. V.; Zalesny, V. B.; Diansky, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of the Black and Azov Sea dynamics numerical modeling is considered. The INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) is used. The INMOM is based on the multicomponent splitting technique and has a flexible modular structure. The splitting into physical processes and spatial coordinates is used. The entire system is split into a number of energetically balanced modules. Each of them can be split into modules with a simpler structure. A numerical experiment consists in simulating the Black and Azov sea hydrothermodynamics with a spatial resolution 4 km and 40 σ-levels non-uniformly distributed over the depth. The atmospheric forcing is defined using the Era-Interim datasets with a spatial resolution 1.5°x1.5° . The integration period was 2006 - 2007. The results of numerical experiments are in good agreement with observational data and with the results of the model developed in Marine Hydrophysical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The presented model is planned to use in further development of monitoring and real-time forecasting systems.

  17. [Rotator cuff diseases in occupational medicine between occupational diseases and accidents: medical-legal considerations].

    PubMed

    Spigno, F; Galli, R; Casali, C; Lagattolla, N; De Lucchi, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors have gone through the complaints concerning all the cases of shoulder accidents at work filed by the Genoa office of the Italian Workers' National compensation Agency (INAIL) during the two years' period 2006-2007, reviewing in particular those somehow affecting rotator components. The aim of this paper is to assess the real role played by the occupational trauma in the rotator cuff tear. The data gathered so far have shown, on the one hand, a high prevalence of pre-existing inflammatory and degenerative diseases and, on the other, a rather modest influence of the trauma which, for this reason, has usually borne, as an immediate medico-legal consequence, the rejection of a cause-effect relationship between the accident and the rotator cuff lesion, without taking into any account whether the worker was likely to be affected by an occupational disease (ex table Ministerial Decree n. 81 April 9th 2008- item 78). In such cases a systematic and in-depth investigation of the occupational case history is suggested, in order to highlight the possible pre-existence of a former biomechanical overload of the upper limbs, so as to allow the physician to detect a pathology often misdiagnosed.

  18. Space-time analysis of visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Aline Santos; Nunes, Flavia Baluz Bezerra de Farias; dos Santos, Alcione Miranda; Caldas, Arlene de Jesus Mendes

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of cases of visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Maranhão in the period from 2000 to 2009. Based on the number of reported cases, thematic maps were prepared to show the evolution of the geographical distribution of the disease in the state. The MCMC method was used for estimating the parameters of the Bayesian model for space-time identification of risk areas. From 2000 to 2009 there were 5389 reported cases of visceral leishmaniasis, distributed in all 18 Regional Health Units in the state, with the highest indices in the cities of Caxias, Imperatriz, Presidente Dutra and Chapadinha. The Regional Health Units with the highest relative risks per biennium were: Caxias and Barra do Corda (2000-2001), Imperatriz and President Dutra (2002-2003), Imperatriz and Caxias (2004-2005), Presidente Dutra and Codó (2006-2007) and Imperatriz and Caxias (2008-2009). There was considerable geographic expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Maranhão, thus highlighting the need to adopt more effective measures for prevention and control of the disease in the state.

  19. "I'm too used to it": a longitudinal qualitative study of third year female medical students' experiences of gendered encounters in medical education.

    PubMed

    Babaria, Palav; Abedin, Sakena; Berg, David; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2012-04-01

    Although the number of women entering medical school has been steadily rising in the U.S.A., female medical students continue to report instances of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. The full spectrum of such experiences and their effect on the professional identity formation of female students over time remains largely unknown. To investigate these experiences, we interviewed 12 third year female medical students at a private New England medical school over several points during the 2006-2007 academic year. Using theoretical frameworks of gender performance and the centrality of student-patient and student-supervisor relationships, we were better able to understand how female medical students interpret the role of 'woman doctor' and the effect of negative and positive gendered interactions on the evolution of their professional identity. We found that participants quickly learned how to confront and respond to inappropriate behavior from male patients and found interactions with female patients and supervisors particularly rewarding. However, they did not feel equipped to respond to the unprofessional behavior of male supervisors, resulting in feelings of guilt and resignation over time that such events would be a part of their professional identity. The rapid acculturation to unprofessional behavior and resignation described by participants has implications for not only professional identity formation of female students but specialty choices and issues of future physician workforce.

  20. Environment and Health in Contaminated Sites: The Case of Taranto, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Pietro; Iavarone, Ivano; Zona, Amerigo; Conti, Susanna; Minelli, Giada; Manno, Valerio; Mincuzzi, Antonia; Minerba, Sante; Forastiere, Francesco; Biggeri, Annibale

    2013-01-01

    The National Environmental Remediation programme in Italy includes sites with documented contamination and associated potential health impacts (National Priority Contaminated Sites—NPCSs). SENTIERI Project, an extensive investigation of mortality in 44 NPCSs, considered the area of Taranto, a NPCS where a number of polluting sources are present. Health indicators available at municipality level were analyzed, that is, mortality (2003–2009), mortality time trend (1980–2008), and cancer incidence (2006-2007). In addition, the cohort of individuals living in the area was followed up to evaluate mortality (1998–2008) and morbidity (1998–2010) by district of residence. The results of the study consistently showed excess risks for a number of causes of death in both genders, among them: all causes, all cancers, lung cancer, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, both acute and chronic. An increased infant mortality was also observed from the time trends analysis. Mortality/morbidity excesses were detected in residents living in districts near the industrial area, for several disorders including cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. These coherent findings from different epidemiological approaches corroborate the need to promptly proceed with environmental cleanup interventions. Most diseases showing an increase in Taranto NPCS have a multifactorial etiology, and preventive measures of proven efficacy (e.g., smoking cessation and cardiovascular risk reduction programs, breast cancer screening) should be planned. The study results and public health actions are to be communicated objectively and transparently so that a climate of confidence and trust between citizens and public institutions is maintained. PMID:24454414

  1. Putting the world as classroom: an application of the inequalities imagination model in nursing and health education.

    PubMed

    Racine, Louise; Proctor, Peggy; Jewell, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the description of an educational initiative, the Interdisciplinary Population Health Project (IPHP) conducted in the academic year of 2006-2007 with a group of nursing and health care students. Inspired by population health, community development, critical pedagogy, and the inequalities imagination model, students participated in diverse educational activities to become immersed in the everyday life of an underserved urban neighborhood. A sample of convenience composed of 158 students was recruited from 4 health disciplines in a Western Canadian university. Data were collected using a modified version of the Parsell and Bligh's Readiness of Health Care Students for Interprofessional Learning Scale. A one group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the outcomes of the IPHP. Paired t tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to compare the responses of students from different academic programs to determine if there were differences across disciplines. Findings suggest that students' readiness to work in interprofessional teams did not significantly change over the course of their participation in the IPHP. However, the inequalities imagination model may be useful to enhance the quality and the effectiveness of fieldwork learning activities as a means of educating culturally and socially conscious nurses and other health care professionals of the future.

  2. The childhood sexual abuse among youth in three Asian cities: Taipei, Shanghai, and Hanoi.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2015-03-01

    The article describes the prevalence and risk factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among youth in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei. Data used in this study are from the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, 2006-2007. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were used. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of CSA was 5.2% in Taipei, 1.3% in Shanghai, and 0.5% in Hanoi. The overall prevalence was 2.2% for females and 1.7% for males. The average age of first CSA was 10.5 years. Household instability, migration before age 14, and low maternal warmth were found to be positively associated with CSA, whereas discussing problems with father and being close to mother were negatively associated with CSA, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Our findings suggested the importance of prevention programs for preteen aged children, public education to raise awareness, and further prospective studies to identify various risk markers for CSA in Asia.

  3. History of the World Allergy Organization: ICACI XI, London 1982, Planning and Results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Everyone who has aspired to have worldwide recognition has played a part in IAACI-WAO. The History of the World Allergy Organization traces the global arc of the allergy field over the past 60 years. The current officers of WAO elected to focus on this rich history, inviting prominent leaders who are interested in being part of this history project to write about their time with IAACI-WAO. This series will be presented in Cancún, México as part of the XXII World Allergy Congress (December 4-8, 2011). Leading up to the Congress in Cancún, the World Allergy Organization Journal is presenting segments of the History as part of the "Notes of Allergy Watchers Series," starting with this issue. Please enjoy. --Michael A. Kaliner, MD Historian, and Past-President (2006-2007) World Allergy Organization PMID:23282476

  4. Atmospheric Fate and Transport of Agricultural Dust and Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Thornton, D. C.; Auvermann, B. W.; Fitz, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Agricultural fugitive dust and odor are significant sources of localized air pollution in the semi-arid southern Great Plains. Daily episodes of ground-level fugitive dust emissions from the cattle feedlots associated with increased cattle activity in the early evenings are routinely observed, while consistently high ammonia is observed throughout the day. Here we present measurements of aerosol size distributions and concentrations of gas and particulate phase ammonia species collected at a feedlot in Texas during summers of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A GRIMM sequential mobility particle sizer and GRIMM 1.108 aerosol spectrometer were used to determine aerosol size distributions in the range of 10 nm to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter at the downwind and upwind edges of the facility. Using aqueous scrubbers, simultaneous measurements of both gas phase and total ammonia species present in the gas and particle phases were also collected. In addition to the continuous measurements at the edges of the facility, coincident aerosol and ammonia measurements were obtain at an additional site further downwind (~3.5 km). Taken together our measurements will be used to quantify aerosol and ammonia dispersion and transport. Relationships between the fate and transport of the aerosols and ammonia will be discussed.

  5. Reproduction and microhabitat selection in a sharply declining Northern Bobwhite population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, B.M.; Williams, C.K.; Castelli, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) populations have been declining throughout their range, but some of the sharpest declines have been documented in the Mid-Atlantic states. We conducted a 2 year (2006-2007) breeding season (1 May-30 Sep) telemetry study in southern New Jersey to collect baseline data on Northern Bobwhite reproductive rates, and nest and brood microhabitat selection. We located 23 Northern Bobwhite nests, of which 21 were usable for survival analyses. Incubation-period nest survival rate was 0.454 ?? 0.010 (95 CI =0.2800.727). Mean clutch size was 14.2 ?? 0.58 (range 10-19, n = 20) and hatching success was 96.1 ?? 2.0 (range 86-100%, n = 10). The estimated probability that an individual that entered the breeding season would initiate incubation of ???1 nest was 0.687 for females and 0.202 for males. Nest microhabitat selection was positively related to visual obstruction and percentage of litter. Brood microhabitat selection was positively related to visual obstruction, vegetation height, and percentage of forbs but negatively related to percentage of cool season grass and litter. Fecundity metrics for Northern Bobwhites in southern New Jersey appear similar to those reported elsewhere in the species' range. Conservation efforts to increase Northern Bobwhite reproductive success in southern New Jersey should focus on increasing the quantity of available breeding habitat. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  6. Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration.

    PubMed

    Atafar, Zahra; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nouri, Jafar; Homaee, Mehdi; Yunesian, Masoud; Ahmadimoghaddam, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of chemicals is annually applied at the agricultural soils as fertilizers and pesticides. Such applications may result in the increase of heavy metals particularly Cd, Pb, and As. The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of chemical applications on Cd, Pb, and As concentrations of wheat-cultivated soils. Consequently, a study area was designed and was divided into four subareas (A, B, C, and D). The soil sampling was carried out in 40 points of cultivated durum wheat during the 2006-2007 periods. The samples were taken to the laboratory to measure their heavy metal concentration, soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity, cationic exchange capacity, organic matter, and carbonate contents. The result indicated that Cd, Pb, and As concentrations were increased in the cultivated soils due to fertilizer application. Although the statistical analysis indicates that these heavy metals increased significantly (P value<0.05), the lead and arsenic concentrations were increased dramatically compared to Cd concentration. This can be related to overapplication of fertilizers as well as the pesticides that are used to replant plant pests, herbs, and rats.

  7. Managing the effects of the weather on the Equestrian Events of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Jeffcott, Leo; Leung, Wing-Mo; Riggs, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a 3 year project to investigate and manage the effects of the local weather conditions on horses competing in the 2008 Olympic Games. The first part of the investigation involved estimating the expected heat load on horses during competition and suggesting measures to ensure their safety based on data collected from dedicated weather monitoring at both Olympic venues during August 2006, 2007 and 2008. The aim of the second part was to establish a reliable system of point forecasting to monitor and predict inclement weather that might affect the competitions. This involved setting up automatic monitoring systems and exploiting numerical weather prediction models. The monitoring and predicting capabilities were tested by running two 'virtual' or simulated cross country competitions in 2006 and 2007. They were further trialled with live horses during the Test Event in August 2007, when a rapid cooling system for horses using shade tents, misting fans and iced water was refined. The results of both parts yielded valuable information which was used to establish a protocol to ensure that horses would not become heat stressed or subjected to dangerous weather conditions. Despite some very high temperatures and humidity, a number of storms and two serious tropical cyclones, there were no disruptions to the competition schedule and no serious injuries or heat stress to the horses throughout the 2008 Equestrian Events.

  8. On a relation between particle size distribution and mixing layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan; Höß, Markus; Cyrys, Josef; Pitz, Mike; Münkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Ceilometers are applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speeds and directions but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground level emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information can be used to determine the MLH influence upon the particle size distribution (PSD) which is detected near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometers LD40 and CL31 which are eye-safe commercial lidar systems. Special software for these ceilometers provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. The meteorological data are collected by the air pollution monitoring station of the Bavarian State Agency of Environment (LfU) at the southern edge of Augsburg and at the airport at the northern edge of Augsburg by the German National Meteorological Service (DWD). PSD are measured at the aerosol measurement station in the centre of Augsburg by the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA). The two intensive measurement periods during the winter 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 are studied. The weather situations are characterized, the meteorological influences upon air pollutant concentrations like wind speed and wind direction are studied and the correlations of ceilometer backscatter densities and MLH with PSD are determined.

  9. School context, friendship ties and adolescent mental health: A multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (KYPS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo

    2015-11-01

    Research on the social determinants of health suggests that interpersonal networks play a critical role in facilitating individual mental and physical well-being. Prior studies also indicate that ecological or contextual factors contribute to positive health outcomes. This study extends prior research by examining the factors associated with adolescent health in an Asian context. Based on the multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (2006 & 2007), a longitudinal project funded by the Korean government, it investigates some of the key variables related to the mental health of Korean students. Much of previous research focuses on the functions of social capital. This study contributes to the social epidemiology literature by investigating the possible downside of network ties. Specifically, it asks whether having delinquent friends is associated with negative mental health experiences. In addition, little research has been conducted concerning the associations between adolescent health outcomes and school characteristics. This study moves in that direction by examining the relationship between mental well-being of students and a variety of school related variables (e.g., subjective attitude toward school and quality of relationship with peers and teachers). Hierarchical linear modeling shows that, among the social capital control variables, being properly integrated into the family and frequent peer interaction significantly add to mental health. At the individual (student) level only, ties to delinquent friends are negatively associated with mental health, while at both individual and contextual levels, school characteristics are positively related to adolescent subjective well-being.

  10. Survey of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) annoyance levels and abundance along the Vaal and Orange Rivers, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Chantel J; Kappmeier Green, Karin

    2012-07-16

    Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are pests in the livestock and labour-intensive farming systems along the major rivers in South Africa. Since 1995, blackflies have been controlled in the Orange River with the larvicide Bacillus thuringienses var. israelensis (Bti). During 2006-2007, the views of livestock farmers concerning blackfly annoyance were determined by means of questionnaires. The results of the questionnaires were substantiated by seasonal abundance surveys of the sub-adult stages of blackflies, conducted in 2007 at 13 sites in the Orange River and 11 sites in the Vaal River. More than half (52%) of the 39 participating farmers along the Orange River and 79% of the 52 participating farmers along the Vaal River stated that they experienced severe blackfly problems. The majority of farmers were unaware of the availability of products that could be used to protect their animals against blackfly attacks and were willing to be involved in blackfly research. High numbers of blackfly sub-adult stages found in both rivers supported the high annoyance levels reported by the respondents. Simulium chutteri, Simulium damnosum s.l., Simulium hargreavesi, Simulium adersi and Simulium alcocki were identified at Christiana and Delportshoop on the Vaal River, whilst S. chutteri, S. damnosum s.l., S. adersi, S. alcocki and Simulium gariepense were identified at Marksdrift and Ses Bridge on the Orange River. Despite the extensive control of blackflies, farmers still experience problems and this contention is supported by surveys conducted along the rivers.

  11. Twenty-first century macro-trends in the institutional fabric of science: bibliometric monitoring and analysis.

    PubMed

    Tijssen, Robert J W; Winnink, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Some say that world science has become more 'applied', or at least more 'application-oriented', in recent years. Replacing the ill-defined distinction between 'basic research' and 'applied research', we introduce 'research application orientation' domains as an alternative conceptual and analytical framework for examining research output growth patterns. To distinguish possible developmental trajectories we define three institutional domains: 'university', 'industry', 'hospitals'. Our macro-level bibliometric analysis takes a closer look at general trends within and across some 750 of the world's largest research-intensive universities. To correct for database changes, our time-series analysis was applied to both a fixed journal set (same research journals and conference proceedings over time) and a dynamic journal set (changing set of publication outlets). We find that output growth in the 'hospital research orientation' has significantly outpaced the other two application domains, especially since 2006/2007. This happened mainly because of the introduction of new publication outlets in the WoS, but also partially because some universities-especially in China-seem to have become more visible in this domain. Our analytical approach needs further broadening and deepening to provide a more definitive answer whether hospitals and the medical sector are becoming increasingly dominant as a domain of scientific knowledge production and an environment for research applications.

  12. PCR identification of Culicoides dewulfi midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of bluetongue in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Anja; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Steuber, Stephan

    2009-08-01

    Due to the severe outbreaks of bluetongue disease (BTD) in the years 2006/2007 in Germany in the absence of the main African vector Culicoides imicola, a rapid and easy applicable method for identification of autochthonous Culicoides spp. had to be developed. Morphological identification is time-consuming, rendering impossible the identification of large numbers of midges in a short period of time. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedure in connection with a species-specific primer greatly simplifies the identification process. The region of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) of the ribosomal DNA has shown great potential for developing a reliable PCR-based procedure. Culicoides midges were caught with ultraviolet-light traps installed on different farms in Germany during 2007 and 2008. The midges were mounted on slides and morphologically characterised. Midge DNA was extracted and the ITS-1 region amplified using conservative primers. Potential primer regions within ITS-1 were determined and a species-specific Culicoides dewulfi primer was developed to correctly identify autochthonous C. dewulfi, one of the suspected BTV vectors in northwestern Europe. The developed primer was used to identify C. dewulfi in a pool of Culicoides midges from a farm in the state of Brandenburg.

  13. Effectiveness of insecticides in controlling the first and second generations of the Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-04-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of table and wine grape (Vitis spp.) varieties in Cyprus. Many different insecticide combinations were applied for three consecutive years (2006-2008) in a Sultana seedless table grape vineyard, aimed at controlling the first and second generations of this pest under warm and dry Mediterranean climatic conditions. In Cyprus, Sultana is the main early maturing table grape variety grown in the country. L. botrana has two generations and a partial third on this export variety, of which the first two generations are the most destructive. Applications were made according to pheromone trap captures of males. One application was used against the first and two applications against the second generation of L. botrana. A high rate of bunch damage was observed in the untreated rows during all years, reaching 56.7, 62.5, and 69.2% in 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Differences between insecticide treatments and the untreated control were statistically significant. The treatment combination of lufenuron, spinosad, and indoxacarb as well as the combination of chlorpyrifos, spinosa and indoxacarb, used against the first and second generations of L. botrana, were the most effective compared with the untreated control. Satisfactory control of the pest also was observed with other combinations such as lufenuron, cypermethrin, and Bacillus thuringiensis; chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and B. thuringiensis; and lufenuron, deltamethrin, and azadirachtin.

  14. Presence of parasitic protozoa and helminth in sewage and efficiency of sewage treatment in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, L; Schijven, J; Alouini, Z; Jemli, M; Sabbahi, S

    2009-08-01

    Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts were enumerated in raw and treated wastewater in Tunisia in order to determine their removal by wastewater treatment and to provide quantitative data for developing regulations for wastewater quality that are currently lacking. Raw and treated wastewater samples were collected from 17 plants in Tunisia during 2006-2007 and analyzed for parasites using the modified Bailenger method. Two groups of parasites, namely, Ascaris sp., Entamoeba coli, Enterobius vermicularis, and Taenia sp. (group 1) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp., and Taenia sp. (group 2) could statistically be distinguished according to their removal by wastewater treatment. Group 1 parasites were removed by 1.1 log(10) (92.4%) and group 2 parasites by 0.61 log(10) (76%). The ubiquitous presence of parasitic protozoa in Tunisian wastewater and ineffective wastewater treatment lead to their proliferation in surface waters with a high probability of exposure of human and animals to these parasites and consequent adverse health effects, as is apparent from epidemiologic data as well. This study provides a quantitative basis for risk assessment studies and development of mitigation strategies, such as improving wastewater treatment efficiency.

  15. [Cancer in adolescents and young adults in France: Epidemiology and pathways of care].

    PubMed

    Desandes, Emmanuel; Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    In adolescents and young adults (AYA), cancers are rare but represent the third significant cause of death. The aim of this paper was to investigate epidemiological data and pathways of care of AYA in France. During the 2000-2008 period, overall age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were 254.1/10(6) in 15-24-year-olds. The most frequently diagnosed cancers in male AYA were malignant gonadal germ-cell tumors and Hodgkin's lymphoma, and were melanoma, thyroid carcinoma and Hodgkin's disease in females. The ASR appeared stable over time. During the 2000-2004 period, the 5-year overall survival for all cancers was 81.8%, with differences between genders and age groups: 78.8% for males and 85.2% for females; 78.5% in 15-19-year-olds and 84.3% in 20-24-year-olds. Survival has significantly improved over time. During the 2006-2007 period, the pathways of care for French adolescent patients with cancer were heterogeneous: 82% were treated in an adult environment, 27% were included in clinical studies, and in 54% of cases the management decisions were taken in the context of a multidisciplinary team. Studies looking at management of AYA with cancer have shown a wide disparity and a lack of collaboration between adult oncologists and pediatric oncologist. An AYA cancer multidisciplinary interest group has been created to determine priorities and coordinate efforts to improve AYA cancer services and care.

  16. Who succeeds at dental school? Factors predicting students' academic performance in a dental school in republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; Lee, Gene; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Jang, Ki-Taeg; Jin, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what cognitive and non-cognitive factors were responsible for predicting the academic performance of dental students in a dental school in the Republic of Korea. This school is one of those in Korea that now require applicants to have a bachelor's degree. In terms of cognitive factors, students' undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and Dental Education Eligibility Test (DEET) scores were used, while surveys were conducted to evaluate four non-cognitive measures: locus of control, self-esteem, self-directed learning, and interpersonal skills. A total of 353 students matriculating at Seoul National University School of Dentistry in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 consented to the collection of records and completed the surveys. The main finding was that applicants who scored higher on internal locus of control and self-efficacy were more likely to be academically successful dental students. Self-directed learning was significantly associated with students ranked in the top 50 percent in cumulative GPA. However, students' interpersonal skills were negatively related to their academic performance. In particular, students' lack of achievement could be predicted by monitoring their first-year GPA. Therefore, the identification of those factors to predict dental school performance has implications for the dental curriculum and effective pedagogy in dental education.

  17. Virologic surveillance for wild-type rubella viruses in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Icenogle, Joseph P; Siqueira, Marilda M; Abernathy, Emily S; Lemos, Xenia R; Fasce, Rodrigo A; Torres, Graciela; Reef, Susan E

    2011-09-01

    The goal of eliminating rubella from the Americas by 2010 was established in 2003. Subsequently, a systematic nomenclature for wild-type rubella viruses (wtRVs) was established, wtRVs circulating in the region were catalogued, and importations of wtRVs into a number of countries were documented. The geographic distribution of wtRVs of various genotypes in the Americas, interpreted in the context of the global distribution of these viruses, contributed to the documentation of rubella elimination from some countries. Data from virologic surveillance also contributed to the conclusion that viruses of genotype 2B began circulating endemically in the Americas during 2006-2007. Viruses of one genotype (1C), which are restricted to the Americas, will likely disappear completely from the world as they are eliminated from the Americas. Efforts to expand virologic surveillance for wtRVs in the Americas will also provide additional data aiding the elimination of rubella from the region. For example, identification of vaccine virus in specimens from rash and fever cases found during elimination can identify such cases as vaccine associated.

  18. Distribution and habitat utilization of the gopher tortoise tick (Amblyomma tuberculatum) in Southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, J.R.; Qualls, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of the gopher tortoise tick (Amblyomma tuberculatum) has been considered intrinsically linked to the distribution of its primary host, gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). However, the presence of G. polyphemus does not always equate to the presence of A. tuberculatum. There is a paucity of data on the ecology, habitat preferences, and distribution of A. tuberculatum. The goals of this study were to assess the distribution of A. tuberculatum in southern Mississippi and to determine which, if any, habitat parameters explain the distribution pattern of A. tuberculatum. During 2006-2007, we examined 13 G. polyphemus populations in southern Mississippi for the presence of A. tuberculatum, and we measured a suite of habitat parameters at each site. Only 23% of the G. polyphemus populations supported A. tuberculatum, suggesting a more restricted distribution than its host. The results of our multivariate analyses identified several habitat variables, e.g., depth of sand and percentage of sand in the topsoil and burrow apron, as being important in discriminating between sites with, and without, A. tuberculatum. Amblyomma tuberculatum was only found at sites with a mean sand depth of >100 cm and a mean percentage of topsoil and burrow apron sand composition >94.0 and 92.4, respectively. Thus, environmental factors, and not just its host's range, seem to influence the distribution of A. tuberculatum. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2011.

  19. Distribution and habitat utilization of the gopher tortoise tick (Amblyomma tuberculatum) in southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Qualls, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of the gopher tortoise tick (Amblyomma tuberculatum) has been considered intrinsically linked to the distribution of its primary host, gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). However, the presence of G. polyphemus does not always equate to the presence of A. tuberculatum. There is a paucity of data on the ecology, habitat preferences, and distribution of A. tuberculatum. The goals of this study were to assess the distribution of A. tuberculatum in southern Mississippi and to determine which, if any, habitat parameters explain the distribution pattern of A. tuberculatum. During 2006-2007, we examined 13 G. polyphemus populations in southern Mississippi for the presence of A. tuberculatum, and we measured a suite of habitat parameters at each site. Only 23% of the G. polyphemus populations supported A. tuberculatum, suggesting a more restricted distribution than its host. The results of our multivariate analyses identified several habitat variables, e.g., depth of sand and percentage of sand in the topsoil and burrow apron, as being important in discriminating between sites with, and without, A. tuberculatum. Amblyomma tuberculatum was only found at sites with a mean sand depth of >100 cm and a mean percentage of topsoil and burrow apron sand composition >94.0 and 92.4, respectively. Thus, environmental factors, and not just its host's range, seem to influence the distribution of A. tuberculatum.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt Cotton.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Marcos G; Degrande, Paulo E; Mota, Thiago A

    2015-01-01

    Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781) on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpal™ (non-Bt) and DP90B™ Bt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution) and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive), showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution.