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Sample records for con adenovirus implicaciones

  1. Waterborne adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P

    2009-01-01

    Adenoviruses are associated with numerous disease outbreaks, particularly those involving d-cares, schools, children's camps, hospitals and other health care centers, and military settings. In addition, adenoviruses have been responsible for many recreational water outbreaks, including a great number of swimming pool outbreaks than any other waterborne virus (Gerba and Enriquez 1997). Two drinking water outbreaks have been documented for adenovirus (Divizia et al. 2004; Kukkula et al. 1997) but none for food. Of the 51 known adenovirus serotypes, one third are associated with human disease, while other infections are asymptomatic. Human disease associated with adenovirus infections include gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, eye infections, acute hemorrhagic cystitis, and meningoencephalitis (Table 2). Children and the immunocompromised are more severely impacted by adenovirus infections. Subsequently, adenovirus is included in the EPA's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), which is a list of unregulated contaminants found in public water systems that may pose a risk to public health (National Research Council 1999). Adenoviruses have been detected in various waters worldwide including wastewater, river water, oceans, and swimming pools (Hurst et al. 1988; Irving and Smith 1981; Pina et al. 1998). Adenoviruses typically outnumber the enteroviruses, when both are detected in surface waters. Chapron et al. (2000) found that 38% of 29 surface water samples were positive for infectious Ad40 and Ad41. Data are lacking regarding the occurrence of adenovirus in water in the US, particularly for groundwater and drinking water. Studies have shown, however, that adenoviruses survive longer in water than enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus (Enriquez et al. 1995), which may be due to their double-stranded DNA. Risk assessments have been conducted on waterborne adenovirus (Crabtree et al. 1997; van Heerden et al. 2005c). Using dose-response data for inhalation

  2. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  3. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  4. Adenovirus structure.

    PubMed

    Rux, John J; Burnett, Roger M

    2004-12-01

    Structural studies continue to play an essential role as the focus of adenovirus research shifts in emphasis from basic biology to adenovirus-based vector technologies. A crucial step in developing novel therapeutics for gene replacement, cancer, and vaccines is often to modify the virion. Such engineered changes are designed to retarget the virus, or to reduce the immunological responses to infection. These efforts are far more effective when they are based on detailed structural knowledge. This minireview provides a brief summary of the wealth of information that has been obtained from the combined application of X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. This knowledge now includes a good working model for the architectural organization of the virion, and atomic resolution molecular structures for all the major capsid proteins, hexon, penton, and fiber. We highlight new developments, which include the structure of the penton base and the discovery that adenovirus has several relatives. We sketch how the structural information can be used to engineer novel virions and conclude with the prospects for future progress.

  5. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  6. Innate immunity to adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Greber, Urs F

    2014-04-01

    Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features.

  7. Adenovirus (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the virus by holding hands or sharing a toy with an infected person. Adenovirus can survive on ... by sharing contaminated objects (such as towels or toys), or by touch. Once a child is exposed ...

  8. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  9. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  10. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  11. Molecular evolution of human species D adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Seto, Donald; Jones, Morris S.; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses are medium-sized double stranded DNA viruses that infect vertebrates. Human adenoviruses cause an array of diseases. Currently there are 56 human adenovirus types recognized and characterized within seven species (A-G). Of those types, a majority belongs to species D. In this review, the genomic conservation and diversity are examined amongst human adenoviruses within species D, particularly in contrast to other human adenovirus species. Specifically, homologous recombination is presented as a driving force for the molecular evolution of human adenoviruses and the emergence of new adenovirus pathogens. PMID:21570490

  12. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control.

  13. Adenoviruses in the immunocompromised host.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C

    1992-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the many pathogens and opportunistic agents that cause serious infection in the congenitally immunocompromised, in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for organ and tissue transplants and for cancers, and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Adenovirus infections in these patients tend to become disseminated and severe, and the serotypes involved are clustered according to the age of the patient and the nature of the immunosuppression. Over 300 adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients, with an overall case fatality rate of 48%, are reviewed in this paper. Children with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome and other primary immunodeficiencies are exposed to the serotypes of subgroups B and C that commonly infect young children, and thus their infections are due to types 1 to 7 and 31 of subgenus A. Children with bone marrow and liver transplants often have lung and liver adenovirus infections that are due to an expanded set of subgenus A, B, C, and E serotypes. Adults with kidney transplants have viruses of subgenus B, mostly types 11, 34, and 35, which cause cystitis. This review indicates that 11% of transplant recipients become infected with adenoviruses, with case fatality rates from 60% for bone marrow transplant patients to 18% for renal transplant patients. Patients with AIDS become infected with a diversity of serotypes of all subgenera because their adult age and life-style expose them to many adenoviruses, possibly resulting in antigenically intermediate strains that are not found elsewhere. Interestingly, isolates from the urine of AIDS patients are generally of subgenus B and comprise types 11, 21, 34, 35, and intermediate strains of these types, whereas isolates from stool are of subgenus D and comprise many rare, new, and intermediate strains that are untypeable for practical purposes. It has been estimated that adenoviruses cause active infection in 12% of AIDS patients and that 45% of

  14. Biobased monoliths for adenovirus purification.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Gonçalves, Bianca; Sousa, Margarida; Martins, Duarte L; Barroso, Telma; Pina, Ana Sofia; Peixoto, Cristina; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Roque, A Cecília A

    2015-04-01

    Adenoviruses are important platforms for vaccine development and vectors for gene therapy, increasing the demand for high titers of purified viral preparations. Monoliths are macroporous supports regarded as ideal for the purification of macromolecular complexes, including viral particles. Although common monoliths are based on synthetic polymers as methacrylates, we explored the potential of biopolymers processed by clean technologies to produce monoliths for adenovirus purification. Such an approach enables the development of disposable and biodegradable matrices for bioprocessing. A total of 20 monoliths were produced from different biopolymers (chitosan, agarose, and dextran), employing two distinct temperatures during the freezing process (-20 °C and -80 °C). The morphological and physical properties of the structures were thoroughly characterized. The monoliths presenting higher robustness and permeability rates were further analyzed for the nonspecific binding of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) preparations. The matrices presenting lower nonspecific Ad5 binding were further functionalized with quaternary amine anion-exchange ligand glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride hydrochloride by two distinct methods, and their performance toward Ad5 purification was assessed. The monolith composed of chitosan and poly(vinyl) alcohol (50:50) prepared at -80 °C allowed 100% recovery of Ad5 particles bound to the support. This is the first report of the successful purification of adenovirus using monoliths obtained from biopolymers processed by clean technologies.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identify adenoviruses directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by adenoviruses and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Adenovirus infections may cause pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory diseases, and certain external...

  20. Adenovirus Early Proteins and Host Sumoylation

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sook-Young

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human adenovirus genome is transported into the nucleus, where viral gene transcription, viral DNA replication, and virion assembly take place. Posttranslational modifications by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, particularly nuclear events. It is not surprising, therefore, that adenovirus modulates and utilizes the host sumoylation system. Adenovirus early proteins play an important role in establishing optimal host environments for virus replication within infected cells by stimulating the cell cycle and counteracting host antiviral defenses. Here, we review findings on the mechanisms and functional consequences of the interplay between human adenovirus early proteins and the host sumoylation system. PMID:27651358

  1. Combination therapy with conditionally replicating adenovirus and replication defective adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon-Taek; Park, Kyung-Ho; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yasushi; Ohm, Joyce E; Nadaf, Sorena; Dikov, Mikhail M; Curiel, David T; Carbone, David P

    2004-09-15

    Low gene transfer rate is the most substantial hurdle in the practical application of gene therapy. One strategy to improve transfer efficiency is the use of a conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAD) that can selectively replicate in tumor cells. We hypothesized that conventional E1-deleted adenoviruses (ad) can become replication-competent when cotransduced with a CRAD to selectively supply E1 in trans in tumors. The resulting selective production of large numbers of the E1-deleted ad within the tumor mass will increase the transduction efficiency. We used a CRAD (Delta24RGD) that produces a mutant E1 without the ability to bind retinoblastoma but retaining viral replication competence in cancer cells with a defective pRb/p16. Ad-lacZ, adenovirus-luciferase (ad-luc), and adenovirus insulin-like growth factor-1R/dominant-negative (ad-IGF-1R/dn; 482, 950) are E1-deleted replication-defective adenoviruses. The combination of CRAD and ad-lacZ increased the transduction efficiency of lacZ to 100% from 15% observed with ad-lacZ alone. Transfer of media of CRAD and ad-lacZ cotransduced cells induced the transfer of lacZ (media transferable bystander effect). Combination of CRAD and ad-IGF-1R/dn increased the production of truncated IGF-1R or soluble IGF-1R > 10 times compared with transduction with ad-IGF-1R/dn alone. Combined intratumoral injection of CRAD and ad-luc increased the luciferase expression about 70 times compared with ad-luc alone without substantial systemic spread. Combined intratumoral injection of CRAD and ad-IGF-1R/482 induced stronger growth suppression of established lung cancer xenografts than single injections. The combination of CRAD and E1-deleted ad induced tumor-specific replication of CRAD and E1-deleted ad and increased the transduction rate and therapeutic efficacy of these viruses in model tumors.

  2. A fatal case of neonatal adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Cynthia J

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus can produce severe disease and even death in the immunocompromised neonate. Symptoms of adenovirus infection are similar to those seen with bacterial infections in neonates, making early recognition and diagnosis difficult. Consideration of adenovirus as a causative agent is important to early diagnosis. Currently available culture techniques, particularly the shell vial culture technique, make more rapid identification of adenovirus infection possible. Early identification and treatment are necessary to improve patient outcomes and prevent the spread of infection to other neonates. Available agents for the treatment of adenovirus have had mixed results, yet their use is preferable to nontreatment of critical patients. This article presents the case of a preterm infant who became fatally ill from disseminated adenoviral infection.

  3. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A.; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W.; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.

  4. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    DOE PAGES

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; ...

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved tomore » have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.« less

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided.

  6. Adenovirus Replaces Mitotic Checkpoint Controls

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Roberta L.; Groitl, Peter; Dobner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with adenovirus triggers the cellular DNA damage response, elements of which include cell death and cell cycle arrest. Early adenoviral proteins, including the E1B-55K and E4orf3 proteins, inhibit signaling in response to DNA damage. A fraction of cells infected with an adenovirus mutant unable to express the E1B-55K and E4orf3 genes appeared to arrest in a mitotic-like state. Cells infected early in G1 of the cell cycle were predisposed to arrest in this state at late times of infection. This arrested state, which displays hallmarks of mitotic catastrophe, was prevented by expression of either the E1B-55K or the E4orf3 genes. However, E1B-55K mutant virus-infected cells became trapped in a mitotic-like state in the presence of the microtubule poison colcemid, suggesting that the two viral proteins restrict entry into mitosis or facilitate exit from mitosis in order to prevent infected cells from arresting in mitosis. The E1B-55K protein appeared to prevent inappropriate entry into mitosis through its interaction with the cellular tumor suppressor protein p53. The E4orf3 protein facilitated exit from mitosis by possibly mislocalizing and functionally inactivating cyclin B1. When expressed in noninfected cells, E4orf3 overcame the mitotic arrest caused by the degradation-resistant R42A cyclin B1 variant. IMPORTANCE Cells that are infected with adenovirus type 5 early in G1 of the cell cycle are predisposed to arrest in a mitotic-like state in a p53-dependent manner. The adenoviral E1B-55K protein prevents entry into mitosis. This newly described activity for the E1B-55K protein appears to depend on the interaction between the E1B-55K protein and the tumor suppressor p53. The adenoviral E4orf3 protein facilitates exit from mitosis, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of cyclin B1. By preventing entry into mitosis and by promoting exit from mitosis, these adenoviral proteins act to prevent the infected cell from arresting in a

  7. Adenovirus sensing by the immune system.

    PubMed

    Atasheva, Svetlana; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M

    2016-12-01

    The host immune system developed multiple ways for recognition of viral pathogens. Upon disseminated adenovirus infection, the immune system senses adenovirus invasion from the moment it enters the bloodstream. The soluble blood factors, FX, antibodies, and complement, can bind and activate plethora of host-protective immune responses. Adenovirus binding to the cellular β3 integrin and endosomal membrane rupture trigger activation of IL-1α/IL-1R1 proinflammatory cascade leading to attraction of cytotoxic immune cells to the site of infection. Upon cell entry, adenovirus exposes its DNA genome in the cytoplasm and triggers DNA sensors signaling. Even when inside the nucleus, the specialized cellular machinery that recognizes the double-strand DNA breaks become activated and triggers viral DNA replication arrest. Thus, the host employs very diverse mechanisms to prevent viral dissemination.

  8. Core labeling of adenovirus with EGFP

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Long P.; Le, Helen N.; Nelson, Amy R.; Matthews, David A.; Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T. . E-mail: curiel@uab.edu

    2006-08-01

    The study of adenovirus could greatly benefit from diverse methods of virus detection. Recently, it has been demonstrated that carboxy-terminal EGFP fusions of adenovirus core proteins Mu, V, and VII properly localize to the nucleus and display novel function in the cell. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the core proteins may serve as targets for labeling the adenovirus core with fluorescent proteins. To this end, we constructed various chimeric expression vectors with fusion core genes (Mu-EGFP, V-EGFP, preVII-EGFP, and matVII-EGFP) while maintaining expression of the native proteins. Expression of the fusion core proteins was suboptimal using E1 expression vectors with both conventional CMV and modified (with adenovirus tripartite leader sequence) CMV5 promoters, resulting in non-labeled viral particles. However, robust expression equivalent to the native protein was observed when the fusion genes were placed in the deleted E3 region. The efficient Ad-wt-E3-V-EGFP and Ad-wt-E3-preVII-EGFP expression vectors were labeled allowing visualization of purified virus and tracking of the viral core during early infection. The vectors maintained their viral function, including viral DNA replication, viral DNA encapsidation, cytopathic effect, and thermostability. Core labeling offers a means to track the adenovirus core in vector targeting studies as well as basic adenovirus virology.

  9. Nuclear actin and myosins in adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Serebryannyy, Leonid A; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2015-11-01

    Adenovirus serotypes have been shown to cause drastic changes in nuclear organization, including the transcription machinery, during infection. This ability of adenovirus to subvert transcription in the host cell facilitates viral replication. Because nuclear actin and nuclear myosin I, myosin V and myosin VI have been implicated as direct regulators of transcription and important factors in the replication of other viruses, we sought to determine how nuclear actin and myosins are involved in adenovirus infection. We first confirmed reorganization of the host's transcription machinery to viral replication centers. We found that nuclear actin also reorganizes to sites of transcription through the intermediate but not the advanced late phase of viral infection. Furthermore, nuclear myosin I localized with nuclear actin and sites of transcription in viral replication centers. Intriguingly, nuclear myosins V and VI, which also reorganized to viral replication centers, exhibited different localization patterns, suggesting specialized roles for these nuclear myosins. Finally, we assessed the role of actin in adenovirus infection and found both cytoplasmic and nuclear actin likely play roles in adenovirus infection and replication. Together our data suggest the involvement of actin and multiple myosins in the nuclear replication and late viral gene expression of adenovirus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates from Previously Vaccinated Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ADENOVIRUS ISOLATES FROM PREVIOUSLY VACCINATED YOUNG ADULTS D. A. Blasiole...Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates From Previously Vaccinated Young Adults . 6. AUTHORS Daniel A Blasiole, David Metzgar, Luke T Daum, Margaret AK

  11. Rotavirus and adenovirus gastroenteritis: time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Celik, Cem; Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Turkay, Hakan; Bakici, Mustafa Zahir; Güven, Ahmet Sami; Elaldi, Nazif

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of changes in weather conditions (monthly average temperature, monthly minimum temperature, monthly average humidity) on rotavirus and adenovirus gastroenteritis frequency and whether there was a seasonal correlation. Between 2006 and 2012, 4702 fecal samples were taken from patients ≤ 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis; these samples were analyzed in terms of rotavirus group A and adenovirus serotype 40-41 antigens using time-series and negative binomial regression analysis. Rotavirus antigens were found in 797 samples (17.0%), adenovirus antigens in 113 samples (2.4%), and rotavirus and adenovirus antigens together in 16 samples (0.3%). There was a seasonal change in rotavirus gastroenteritis (P < 0.001), and a 1°C decrease in average temperature increased the ratio of rotavirus cases in those with diarrhea by 0.523%. In addition, compared with data from other years, the number of patients was lower in the first month of 2008 and in the second month of 2012, when the temperature was below -20°C (monthly minimum temperature). There was no statistically significant relationship between adenovirus infection and change in weather conditions. Various factors such as change in weather conditions, as well as the population's sensitivity and associated changes in activity, play a role in the spread of rotavirus infection. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Elasticity and Binding of Adenovirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Garrett; Negishi, Atsuko; Seeger, Adam; McCarty, Doug; Taylor, Russell; Samulshi, Jude; Superfine, Richard

    1999-11-01

    Adenovirus was the first human virus found to cause the transformation of cells and is one of the more common vectors being used for the development of gene therapy. As such, much is known about the viral structure and genome; however, the events of the early infection cycle, such as binding of the virus to the cell membrane and the release of genetic material from the capsid, for this and other nonenveloped viruses, are not fully understood. With the atomic force microscope (AFM) we are able to image the virus in both air and liquids, allowing us to change the surrounding environment, varying such physiologically relevant parameters as osmolality or pH. We additionally have the ability to do manipulations on single virus particles in these environments using the nanoManipulator. The nanoManipulator is an advanced interface for AFM that allows real time three dimensional rendering of the topographical data, allows the sample surface to be non-destructively felt using a hand held stylus that responds to the information being sensed at the tip, and allows controlled modification of the surface. Using this tool we have translated single virions over various surfaces, allowing us to measure the adhesion between the capsid and these surfaces. Additionally, we are able to place the tip directly atop individual viruses and measure their elasticity under a compressive load being supplied by that tip. We can explore how this property changes as a function of the properties of the surrounding liquid.

  13. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  14. Adenovirus Serotype 14 Infection, New Brunswick, Canada, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Garceau, Richard; Thibault, Louise; Oussedik, Youcef; Bastien, Nathalie; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    We describe 3 culture-proven cases of adenovirus serotype 14 infection in New Brunswick, Canada, during the summer of 2011. Strains isolated from severely ill patients were closely related to strains of a genomic variant, adenovirus 14p1, circulating in the United States and Ireland. Physicians in Canada should be aware of this emerging adenovirus. PMID:23260201

  15. Rapid Adenovirus typing method for species identification.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Fabienne; Wittkop, Linda; Bader, Clément; Kassab, Somar; Tumiotto, Camille; Berciaud, Sylvie; Wodrich, Harald; Lafon, Marie-Edith

    2017-11-01

    Adenoviruses are characterized by a large variability, reflected by their classification in species A to G. Certain species, eg A and C, could be associated with increased clinical severity, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts suggesting that in some instances species identification provides clinically relevant information. Here we designed a novel "pVI rapid typing method" to obtain quick, simple and cost effective species assignment for Adenoviruses, thanks to combined fusion temperature (Tm) and amplicon size analysis. Rapid typing results were compared to Sanger sequencing in the hexon gene for 140 Adenovirus-positive clinical samples included in the Typadeno study. Species A and C could be identified with a 100% positive predictive value, thus confirming the value of this simple typing method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational analysis of human adenovirus serotype 18

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael P.; Seto, Jason; Tirado, Damaris; Chodosh, James; Schnurr, David; Seto, Donald; Jones, Morris S.

    2010-01-01

    The genome of the sole remaining unsequenced member of species A, human adenovirus type 18 (HAdV-A18), has been sequenced and analyzed. Members of species A are implicated as gastrointestinal pathogens and were shown to be tumorigenic in rodents. These whole genome and in silico proteome data are important as references for re-examining and integrating earlier work and observations based on lower resolution techniques, such as restriction enzyme digestion patterns, particularly for hypotheses based on pre-genomics data. Additionally, the genome of HAdV-A18 will also serve as reference for current studies examining the molecular evolution and origins of human and simian adenoviruses, particularly genome recombination studies. Applications of this virus as a potential vector for gene delivery protocols may be practical as data accumulates on this and other adenovirus genomes. PMID:20542532

  17. Circumvention of Immunity to the Adenovirus Major Coat Protein Hexon

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumitra; Shirley, Pamela S.; McClelland, Alan; Kaleko, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Immunity to adenoviruses is an important hurdle to be overcome for successful gene therapy. The presence of antibodies to the capsid proteins prevents efficacious adenovirus vector administration in vivo. We tested whether immunity to a particular serotype of adenovirus (Ad5) may be overcome with a vector that encodes the hexon sequences from a different adenovirus serotype (Ad12). We successfully constructed an adenovirus vector with a chimeric Ad5-Ad12 hexon which was not neutralized by plasma from C57BL/6 mice immunized with Ad5. The vector was also capable of transducing the livers of C57BL/6 mice previously immunized with Ad5. PMID:9658137

  18. Immunologic and Genetic Selection of Adenovirus Vaccine Strains: Synthesis and Characterization of Adenovirus Antigens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    exhibited strikingly different chromatographic characteristics. 2. Effect of proflavine on the synthesis of adenovirus, type 5, and associated soluble...antigens. The synthesis of type 5 adenovirus in HeLa cells was suppressed to a considerable extent by low concentrations of proflavine , an acridine dye...chemical. Addition of proflavine to infected cells at different times during the virus growth cycle revealed that the processes leading to the synthesis

  19. Proposed Nomenclature for Mutants of Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Harold S.; Williams, James F.; Doerfler, Walter H.; Shimojo, Hiroto

    1973-01-01

    In accord with the nomenclature proposed for mutants of simian virus 40 the same rules, with minor modifications, are recommended for naming mutants of adenoviruses. It is further suggested that these rules, which pertain to a system of classification based primarily upon complementation analysis, also be applied to mutants of other DNA-containing animal viruses. PMID:4355864

  20. Structure and Uncoating of Immature Adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Berna, A.J.; Mangel, W.; Marabini, R.; Scheres, S. H. W., Menendez-Conejero, R.; Dmitriev, I. P.; Curiel, D. T.; Flint, S. J.; San Martin, C.

    2009-09-18

    Maturation via proteolytic processing is a common trait in the viral world and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion, and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytic processing are not infectious. We studied the three-dimensional structure of immature adenovirus particles as represented by the adenovirus type 2 thermosensitive mutant ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions and compared it with the mature capsid. Our three-dimensional electron microscopy maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large-scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the locations of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged.

  1. Inactivation of adenovirus type 5 by caustics.

    PubMed

    Jannat, Risat; Hsu, David; Maheshwari, Gargi

    2005-01-01

    Adenovirus shows significant promise as a vehicle for transfer of therapeutic genes into humans. Based on the importance of this viral vector, it is critical that adequate decontamination procedures are implemented during its large-scale production in multiproduct manufacturing facilities to prevent cross-product contamination and to reduce the risk of personnel exposure. Liquid decontamination procedures based on caustics are easily implemented in a manufacturing setting and are not corrosive to stainless steel surfaces at the concentrations found to inactivate viral proteins and nucleic acids. In this study, we have conducted small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of caustic inactivation procedures on adenovirus type 5 and have evaluated the robustness of the process to different sample matrices and adenovirus constructs. We find that the pH of a sample post-addition of caustic solution is a more accurate indicator of the effectiveness of the caustic than its concentration. We have demonstrated that a greater than 6 log reduction in the potency of adenovirus type 5 may be obtained upon exposure of the sample to sodium hydroxide and CIP-100 at concentrations greater than 0.09 M and 0.9%, respectively, at times greater than 10 min.

  2. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, Julie E; DeZure, Adam D; Stanley, Daphne A; Coates, Emily E; Novik, Laura; Enama, Mary E; Berkowitz, Nina M; Hu, Zonghui; Joshi, Gyan; Ploquin, Aurélie; Sitar, Sandra; Gordon, Ingelise J; Plummer, Sarah A; Holman, LaSonji A; Hendel, Cynthia S; Yamshchikov, Galina; Roman, Francois; Nicosia, Alfredo; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Bailer, Robert T; Schwartz, Richard M; Roederer, Mario; Mascola, John R; Koup, Richard A; Sullivan, Nancy J; Graham, Barney S

    2017-03-09

    The unprecedented 2014 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) prompted an international response to accelerate the availability of a preventive vaccine. A replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine (cAd3-EBO), encoding the glycoprotein from Zaire and Sudan species, that offers protection in the nonhuman primate model, was rapidly advanced into phase 1 clinical evaluation. We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of cAd3-EBO. Twenty healthy adults, in sequentially enrolled groups of 10 each, received vaccination intramuscularly in doses of 2×10(10) particle units or 2×10(11) particle units. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed throughout the first 8 weeks after vaccination; in addition, longer-term vaccine durability was assessed at 48 weeks after vaccination. In this small study, no safety concerns were identified; however, transient fever developed within 1 day after vaccination in two participants who had received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were induced in all 20 participants; the titers were of greater magnitude in the group that received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose than in the group that received the 2×10(10) particle-unit dose (geometric mean titer against the Zaire antigen at week 4, 2037 vs. 331; P=0.001). Glycoprotein-specific T-cell responses were more frequent among those who received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose than among those who received the 2×10(10) particle-unit dose, with a CD4 response in 10 of 10 participants versus 3 of 10 participants (P=0.004) and a CD8 response in 7 of 10 participants versus 2 of 10 participants (P=0.07) at week 4. Assessment of the durability of the antibody response showed that titers remained high at week 48, with the highest titers in those who received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose. Reactogenicity and immune responses to cAd3-EBO vaccine were dose

  3. Labeling of Adenovirus Particles with PARACEST Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vasalatiy, Olga; Gerard, Robert D; Zhao, Piyu; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus type 5 particles (AdCMVLuc) were labeled with two different bifunctional ligands capable of forming stable complexes with paramagnetic lanthanide ions. The number of covalently attached ligands varied between 630 and 1960 per adenovirus particle depending upon the chemical reactivity of the bifunctional ligand (NHS ester versus isothiocyanide), the amount of excess ligand added, and the reaction time. The bioactivity of each labeled adenovirus derivative, as measured by the ability of the virus to infect cells and express luciferase, was shown to be highly dependent upon the number of covalently attached ligands. This indicates that certain amino groups, likely on the surface of the adenovirus fiber protein where cell binding is known to occur, are critical for viral attachment and infection. Addition of 177Lu3+ to chemically modified versus control viruses demonstrated a significant amount of nonspecific binding of 177Lu3+ to the virus particles that could not be sequestered by addition of excess DTPA. Thus, it became necessary to implement a prelabeling strategy for conjugation of preformed lanthanide ligand chelates to adenovirus particles. Using preformed Tm3+-L2, a large number of chelates having chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties were attached to the surface residues of AdCMVLuc without nonspecific binding of metal ions elsewhere on the virus particle. The potential of such conjugates to act as PARACEST imaging agents was tested using an on-resonance WALTZ sequence for CEST activation. A 12% decrease in bulk water signal intensity was observed relative to controls. This demonstrates that viral particles labeled with PARACEST-type imaging agents can potentially serve as targeted agents for molecular imaging. PMID:18254605

  4. Suppression of Adenovirus Replication by Cardiotonic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Filomena; Stoilov, Peter; Lingwood, Clifford; Brown, Martha; Cochrane, Alan

    2017-02-01

    The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Both drugs reduced the yields of four human adenoviruses (HAdV-A31, -B35, and -C5 and a species D conjunctivitis isolate) by at least 2 to 3 logs by affecting one or more steps needed for genome replication. Immediate early E1A protein levels are unaffected by the drugs, but synthesis of the delayed protein E4orf6 and the major late capsid protein hexon is compromised. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that both drugs altered E1A RNA splicing (favoring the production of 13S over 12S RNA) early in infection and partially blocked the transition from 12S and 13S to 9S RNA at late stages of virus replication. Expression of multiple late viral protein mRNAs was lost in the presence of either drug, consistent with the observed block in viral DNA replication. The antiviral effect was dependent on the continued presence of the drug and was rapidly reversible. RIDK34, a derivative of convallotoxin, although having more potent antiviral activity, did not show an improved selectivity index. All three drugs reduced metabolic activity to some degree without evidence of cell death. By blocking adenovirus replication at one or more steps beyond the onset of E1A expression and prior to genome replication, digoxin and digitoxin show potential as antiviral agents for treatment of serious adenovirus infections. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism(s) by which digoxin and digitoxin inhibit adenovirus replication will guide the development of novel antiviral therapies.

  5. [Autoreactive TCD8+ lymphocytes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in association with HLA and adenovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Sergio E; Echeverría, Miriam; Salcedo, Pedro; Márquez, Georgina; Carrillo, Zuhey; Parra, Yennis; Cipriani, Ana María; Núñez, José R; Álvarez de Mon, Melchor; Farruco, Atilio

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: algunos adenovirus se han señalado como activadores clonales en leucemias. El alelo HLA-DRB1* 14 subtipos DRB1*14:21, 14:22, 14:45, 14:26, 14:33, 14:51, 14:35 se asociaron con leucemia mieloide crónica (LMC) en pacientes venezolanos. Objetivo: evaluar el mimetismo molecular entre el adenovirus y la estructura del antígeno HLA-DRB1*14 que exhiben el mismo cambio en la posición de aminoácido del epítopo DR53. Material y método: estudio experimental realizado en el IHO Banco de Sangre del Estado Zulia, Venezuela en muestras de sangre periférica de pacientes con LLA, LMC y controles sanos. Se realizaron cultivo mixto de linfocitos, serología, proliferación linfocitaria y citofluorometría. Resultados: los linfocitos DRB1*14 del paciente reaccionaron en 48 horas versus los linfocitos DRB1*14 estimuladores, que exhibieron aumento de los linfocitos T CD8+. Los pacientes con LMC tuvieron un perfil serológico diferente contra el adenovirus. Sólo pacientes con LMC reaccionaron frente al péptido secuencia LLERRRA con incremento de las células TCD8+. Conclusión: se estableció que la relación leucemia mieloide crónica, HLA-DRB1*14, células TCD8+ de memoria autorreactivas y TCD8+ en respuesta específica frente al adenovirus podría estar en el origen de la leucemia mieloide crónica de pacientes venezolanos.

  6. Adenoviruses associated with acute diarrhea in children in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liying; Qian, Yuan; Zhang, You; Deng, Jie; Jia, Liping; Dong, Huijin

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses have been recognized as important causal pathogens of community-acquired diarrhea (CAD) among children, but their role in hospital-acquired diarrhea (HAD) is not well-understood. Hospitalized children with acute diarrhea and children who visited the outpatient department due to diarrhea were investigated from 2011 to 2012. Adenovirus was detected in stool specimens by PCR and further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. SPSS software (version 19.0) was used for statistical analyses. A total of 2233 diarrheal children were enrolled in this study; this sample was comprised of 1371 hospitalized children, including 885 with CAD (IP-CAD) and 486 with HAD, and 862 outpatients with CAD (OP-CAD). Among these 2,233 patients, adenovirus was detected in 219 cases (9.8%). The positive rates for adenovirus were significantly different between the IP-CAD (9.3%), HAD (13.8%) and OP-CAD (8.1%) cases (X² = 11.76, p = 0.003). The positive rate of adenovirus was lower in infants under six months of age compared to the positive rates in the other age groups. Of the 219 of adenovirus positive patients, 91 (41.6%) were identified as having serotype 41. Although enteric adenovirus (group F) was the most frequently detected adenovirus among children with either CAD or HAD, the role of non-enteric adenoviruses, especially the adenovirus 31 type (19.7%), cannot be ignored in diarrheal children.

  7. Molecular characterization of adenoviruses among finnish military conscripts.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, Markos; Hemmilä, Heidi; Rönkkö, Esa; Virkki, Maria; Nikkari, Simo; Ziegler, Thedi

    2016-04-01

    Although adenoviruses were identified as important respiratory pathogens many years ago, little information is available concerning the prevalence of different adenovirus serotypes, which are circulating and causing epidemics in Finnish military training centers. Over a period of five years from 2008 to 2012, 3577 respiratory specimens were collected from military conscripts presenting with symptoms compatible with acute respiratory tract infection. Upon initial testing for certain respiratory viruses by real-time PCR, 837 of these specimens were identified as adenovirus-positive. For 672 of these specimens, the serotype of the adenovirus responsible was successfully determined by DNA sequencing. Serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 were detected in 1, 3, 181, and 487 samples, respectively. Adenovirus epidemics were observed during each year of this study. Based on these findings, adenovirus vaccination should be considered for military conscripts in the Finnish Defence Forces.

  8. Adenovirus dodecahedron, a new vector for human gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Fender, P; Ruigrok, R W; Gout, E; Buffet, S; Chroboczek, J

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus is one of most efficient delivery vehicles for gene therapy. However, the initial enthusiasm for the use of recombinant adenovirus for gene therapy has been tempered by strong immune responses that develop to the virus and virus-infected cells. Even though recombinant adenoviruses are replication-defective, they introduce into the recipient cell, together with the gene of interest, viral genetes that might lead to fortuitous recombination if the recipient is infected by wild-type adenovirus. We propose the use of a dodecahedron made of adenovirus pentons or penton bases as an alternative vector for human gene therapy. The penton is a complex of two oligomeric proteins, a penton base and fiber, involved in the cell attachment, internalization, and liberation of virus into the cytoplasm. The dodecahedron retains many of the advantages of adenovirus for gene transfer such as efficiency of entry, efficient release of DNA from endosomes, and wide range of cell and tissue targets. Because it consists of only one or two adenovirus proteins instead of the 11 contained in an adenovirus virion and it does not contain the viral genome, it is potentially a safer alternative to recombinant adenovirus.

  9. ADENOVIRUS INTERACTION WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR CAR.

    SciTech Connect

    HOWITT,J.; ANDERSON,C.W.; FREIMUTH,P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of adenovirus attachment to the host cell plasma membrane has been revealed in detail by research over the past 10 years. It has long been known that receptor binding activity is associated with the viral fibers, trimeric spike proteins that protrude radially from the vertices of the icosahedral capsid (Philipson et al. 1968). In some adenovirus serotypes, fiber and other virus structural proteins are synthesized in excess and accumulate in the cell nucleus during late stages of infection. Fiber protein can be readily purified from lysates of cells infected with subgroup C viruses, for example Ad2 and Ad5 (Boulanger and Puvion 1973). Addition of purified fiber protein to virus suspensions during adsorption strongly inhibits infection, indicating that fiber and intact virus particles compete for binding sites on host cells (Philipson et al. 1968; Hautala et al. 1998). Cell binding studies using purified radiolabeled fiber demonstrated that fiber binds specifically and with high affinity to the cell plasma membrane, and that cell lines typically used for laboratory propagation of adenovirus have approximately 10{sup 4} high-affinity receptor sites per cell (Persson et al. 1985; Freimuth 1996). Similar numbers of high-affinity binding sites for radiolabeled intact virus particles also were observed (Seth et al. 1994).

  10. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    DOE PAGES

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core ismore » more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.« less

  11. Structure and uncoating of immature adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; Marabini, Roberto; Scheres, Sjors H. W.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Curiel, David T.; Mangel, Walter F.; Flint, S. Jane; Martín, Carmen San

    2009-01-01

    Summary Maturation via proteolytical processing is a common trait in the viral world, and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins, but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion; and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytical processing are not infectious. We present the 3D structure of immature adenovirus particles, as represented by the thermosensitive mutant Ad2 ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions, and compare it with the mature capsid. Our 3DEM maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the location of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help to define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged. PMID:19563809

  12. Structure, Function and Dynamics in Adenovirus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. Finally, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed. PMID:25421887

  13. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Mangel, Walter F.; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. In conclusion, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.

  14. General Strategy for Broadening Adenovirus Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Laura; Nuzzo, Maurizio; Urbanelli, Lorena; Monaci, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    In spite of its broad host range, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) transduces a number of clinically relevant tissues and cell types inefficiently, mostly because of low expression of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR). To improve gene transfer to such cells, we modified the Ad5 fiber knob to recognize novel receptors. We expressed a functional Ad5 fiber knob domain on the capsid of phage λ and employed this display system to construct a large collection of ligands in the HI loop of the Ad5 knob. Panning this library on the CAR-negative mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 resulted in the identification of three clones with increased binding to these cells. Adenoviruses incorporating these ligands in the fiber gene transduced NIH 3T3 cells 2 or 3 orders of magnitude better than the parent vector. The same nonnative tropism was revealed in other cell types, independently of CAR expression. These Ad5 derivatives proved capable of transducing mouse and human primary immature dendritic cells with up to 100-fold increased efficiency. PMID:14512557

  15. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation.

    PubMed

    Mangel, Walter F; San Martín, Carmen

    2014-11-21

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a "molecular sled" to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkable example of one-dimensional chemistry. Immature adenovirus containing the precursor proteins lacks infectivity because of its inability to uncoat. The immature core is more compact and stable than the mature one, due to the condensing action of unprocessed core polypeptides; shell precursors underpin the vertex region and the connections between capsid and core. Maturation makes the virion metastable, priming it for stepwise uncoating by facilitating vertex release and loosening the condensed genome and its attachment to the icosahedral shell. The packaging scaffold protein L1 52/55k is also a substrate for AVP. Proteolytic processing of L1 52/55k disrupts its interactions with other virion components, providing a mechanism for its removal during maturation. Finally, possible roles for maturation of the terminal protein are discussed.

  16. Adenovirus DNA polymerase is a phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, M; Nakano, R; Mohan, P M; Rawitch, A B; Padmanabhan, R

    1993-01-05

    Biological activities of many of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins are modulated by protein phosphorylation. Investigations of the phosphorylation of adenovirus DNA polymerase (AdPol) have been difficult mainly because of its low level of synthesis in adenovirus-infected HeLa cells. However, when AdPol was overproduced using the recombinant vaccinia virus (RV-AdPol) and the baculovirus expression systems, or by a large scale metabolic labeling of adenovirus 2-infected HeLa cells (native AdPol), in vivo phosphorylation of AdPol could be demonstrated. Phosphoamino acid analysis of [32P]AdPol indicated the presence of phosphoserine independent of the source of AdPol. Comparison of tryptic peptide maps of native AdPol and RV-AdPol revealed that the majority of phosphopeptides were common. Fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography and sequencing of one of the major phosphopeptides revealed serine 67 as a site of phosphorylation. Interestingly, this site is located close to the nuclear localization signal of AdPol and has a consensus substrate recognition sequence for histone H1 (cdc2-related) kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Dephosphorylation of AdPol with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase resulted in significant decrease in its activity in the in vitro DNA replication initiation assay, suggesting that phosphorylation is important for its biological activity.

  17. Evaluation of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) as a disinfectant for adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Eric G; Yates, Kathleen A; O'Connor, Katherine E; Mah, Francis S; Shanks, Robert M Q; Kowalski, Regis P

    2013-04-01

    Swimming pools can be a vector for transmission of adenovirus ocular infections. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a disinfectant used in swimming pools and hot tubs. To determine whether PHMB is an effective disinfectant against ocular adenovirus serotypes at a concentration used to disinfect swimming pools and hot tubs. In vitro laboratory study. The direct disinfecting activity of PHMB was determined in triplicate assays by incubating 9 human adenovirus types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7a, 8, 19, and 37) with PHMB concentrations of 50 and 0 ppm (micrograms per milliliter) for 24 hours at room temperature to simulate swimming pool temperatures or 40oC to simulate hot tub temperatures. Plaque assays were performed to determine adenovirus titers after incubation. Titers were log10 converted and mean (SD) log10 reductions relative to controls were calculated. Virucidal (>99.9%) decreases in mean adenovirus titers after PHMB treatment were determined for each adenovirus type and temperature tested. RESULTS At room temperature, 50 ppm of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 log10 for all adenovirus types tested. At 40°C, 50 ppm of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 log10 for 2 adenovirus types and greater than 1 but less than 3 log10 for 7 of 9 adenovirus types. At a concentration of 50 ppm, PHMB was not virucidal against adenovirus at temperatures consistent with swimming pools or hot tubs. Recreational water maintained and sanitized with PHMB can serve as a vector for the transmission of ocular adenovirus infections.

  18. Capturing and concentrating adenovirus using magnetic anionic nanobeads

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated how various enveloped viruses can be efficiently concentrated using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). However, the exact mechanism of interaction between the virus particles and anionic beads remains unclear. To further investigate whether these magnetic anionic beads specifically bind to the viral envelope, we examined their potential interaction with a nonenveloped virus (adenovirus). The beads were incubated with either adenovirus-infected cell culture medium or nasal aspirates from adenovirus-infected individuals and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thoroughly washing the beads, adsorption of adenovirus was confirmed by a variety of techniques, including immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and cell culture infection assays. These detection methods positively identified the hexon and penton capsid proteins of adenovirus along with the viral genome on the magnetic beads. Furthermore, various types of adenovirus including Types 5, 6, 11, 19, and 41 were captured using the magnetic bead procedure. Our bead capture method was also found to increase the sensitivity of viral detection. Adenovirus below the detectable limit for immunochromatography was efficiently concentrated using the magnetic bead procedure, allowing the virus to be successfully detected using this methodology. Moreover, these findings clearly demonstrate that a viral envelope is not required for binding to the anionic magnetic beads. Taken together, our results show that this capture procedure increases the sensitivity of detection of adenovirus and would, therefore, be a valuable tool for analyzing both clinical and experimental samples. PMID:27274228

  19. Adenovirus dodecahedron allows large multimeric protein transduction in human cells.

    PubMed

    Fender, P; Schoehn, G; Foucaud-Gamen, J; Gout, E; Garcel, A; Drouet, E; Chroboczek, J

    2003-04-01

    Adenovirus dodecahedron is a virus-like particle composed of only two viral proteins of human adenovirus serotype 3 that are responsible for virus attachment and internalization. We show here that this dodecameric particle, devoid of genetic information, efficiently penetrates human cells and can deliver large multimeric proteins such as immunoglobulins.

  20. A novel adenovirus in Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Yon Mi; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Hankyeom; Choi, Han-Gu; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-05-07

    Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.

  1. The search for adenovirus 14 in children in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Laham, Federico R; Jewell, Alan M; Schoonover, Shauna L; Demmler, Gail J; Piedra, Pedro A

    2008-07-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)14 has recently emerged in the United States causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease. To determine if Ad14 circulated in Houston, Texas, during the same time as an outbreak in military recruits in nearby San Antonio, 215 pediatric adenovirus isolates were serotyped using microneutralization. None were Ad14; Ad1, Ad2, and Ad3 were the most common identified serotypes.

  2. Enhanced inactivation of adenovirus under polychromatic UV lamps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adenovirus is recognized as the most UV-resistant waterborne pathogen of concern to public health microbiologists. The US EPA has stipulated that a UV fluence (dose) of 186 mJ cm-2 is required for 4-log inactivation credit in water treatment. However, all adenovirus inactivation data to date publi...

  3. Group C adenovirus DNA sequences in human lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.; Palkonyay, L.; Weber, J.

    1986-07-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy adults, cord blood lymphocytes, and lymphoblastoid cell lines were screened by hybridization for the presence of group C adenovirus DNA sequences. In 13 of 17 peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from adults, 1 of 10 cord blood samples, and seven of seven lymphoblastoid cell lines tested, results were positive for Group C adenovirus DNA (adenovirus 1 (Ad1), Ad2, Ad5, or Ad6). About 1 to 2% of the lymphocytes carried 50 to 100 viral genome copies per positive cell, as estimated by in situ hybridization. Infectious virus representing all members of group C were recovered, but cultivation in the presence of adenovirus antibody did not cure the cells of free viral genomes. Viral DNA was found in B, T, and N cells but only in 1 of 10 cord blood samples. The results suggest that group C adenovirus infectious in childhood result in the persistence of the viral genome in circulating lymphocytes.

  4. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  5. Mechanisms of pathogenesis of emerging adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cook, James; Radke, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of human adenovirus infections can cause severe illness in people with no known predisposing conditions. The reasons for this increased viral pathogenicity are uncertain. Adenoviruses are constantly undergoing mutation during circulation in the human population, but related phenotypic changes of the viruses are rarely detected because of the infrequency of such outbreaks and the limited biological studies of the emergent strains. Mutations and genetic recombinations have been identified in these new strains. However, the linkage between these genetic changes and increased pathogenicity is poorly understood. It has been observed recently that differences in virus-induced immunopathogenesis can be associated with altered expression of non-mutant viral genes associated with changes in viral modulation of the host innate immune response. Initial small animal studies indicate that these changes in viral gene expression can be associated with enhanced immunopathogenesis in vivo. Available evidence suggests the hypothesis that there is a critical threshold of expression of certain viral genes that determines both the sustainability of viral transmission in the human population and the enhancement of immunopathogenesis. Studies of this possibility will require extension of the analysis of outbreak viral strains from a sequencing-based focus to biological studies of relationships between viral gene expression and pathogenic responses. Advances in this area will require increased coordination among public health organizations, diagnostic microbiology laboratories, and research laboratories to identify, catalog, and systematically study differences between prototype and emergent viral strains that explain the increased pathogenicity that can occur during clinical outbreaks. PMID:28184296

  6. Isolation and Epidemiology of Falcon Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, J. Lindsay; Schrenzel, Mark; Rideout, Bruce; Sandfort, Cal

    2005-01-01

    An adenovirus was detected by electron microscopy in tissues from falcons that died during an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis and enteritis that affected neonatal Northern aplomado (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) and peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum) falcons. Molecular characterization has identified the falcon virus as a new member of the aviadenovirus group (M. Schrenzel, J. L. Oaks, D. Rotstein, G. Maalouf, E. Snook, C. Sandfort, and B. Rideout, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:3402-3413, 2005). In this study, the virus was successfully isolated and propagated in peregrine falcon embryo fibroblasts, in which it caused visible and reproducible cytopathology. Testing for serum neutralizing antibodies found that infection with this virus was limited almost exclusively to falcons. Serology also found that wild and captive peregrine falcons had high seropositivity rates of 80% and 100%, respectively, although clinical disease was rarely reported in this species. These data implicate peregrine falcons as the natural host and primary reservoir for the virus. Other species of North American falcons, including aplomado falcons, had lower seropositivity rates of 43 to 57%. Falcon species of tropical and/or island origin were uniformly seronegative, although deaths among adults of these species have been described, suggesting they are highly susceptible. Chickens and quail were uniformly seronegative and not susceptible to infection, indicating that fowl were not the source of infection. Based on the information from this study, the primary control of falcon adenovirus infections should be based on segregation of carrier and susceptible falcon species. PMID:16000467

  7. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion

  8. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2004-05-18

    Disclosed is a mutant adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have significantly weakened binding affinity for CARD1 relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type. In the method, residues of the adenovirus fiber protein knob domain which are predicted to alter D1 binding when mutated, are identified from the crystal structure coordinates of the AD12knob:CAR-D1 complex. A mutation which alters one or more of the identified residues is introduced into the genome of the adenovirus to generate a mutant adenovirus. Whether or not the mutant produced exhibits altered adenovirus-CAR binding properties is then determined.

  9. Development of replication-deficient adenovirus malaria vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hollingdale, Michael R; Sedegah, Martha; Limbach, Keith

    2017-03-01

    Malaria remains a major threat to endemic populations and travelers, including military personnel to these areas. A malaria vaccine is feasible, as radiation attenuated sporozoites induce nearly 100% efficacy. Areas covered: This review covers current malaria clinical trials using adenoviruses and pre-clinical research. Heterologous prime-boost regimens, including replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 (HuAd5) carrying malaria antigens, are efficacious. However, efficacy appears to be adversely affected by pre-existing anti-HuAd5 antibodies. Current strategies focus on replacing HuAd5 with rarer human adenoviruses or adenoviruses isolated from non-human primates (NHPs). The chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 is undergoing evaluation in clinical trials including infants in malaria-endemic areas. Key antigens have been identified and are being used alone, in combination, or with protein subunit vaccines. Gorilla adenoviruses carrying malaria antigens are also currently being evaluated in preclinical models. These replacement adenovirus vectors will be successfully used to develop vaccines against malaria, as well as other infectious diseases. Expert commentary: Simplified prime-boost single shot regimens, dry-coated live vector vaccines or silicon microneedle arrays could be developed for malaria or other vaccines. Replacement vectors with similar or superior immunogenicity have rapidly advanced, and several are now in extensive Phase 2 and beyond in malaria as well as other diseases, notably Ebola.

  10. Adrenal Gland Infection by Serotype 5 Adenovirus Requires Coagulation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Philippe R.; Darcourt, Jacques; Cornilleau, Gaétan; Benihoud, Karim; Vassaux, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin) as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney) could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting. PMID:23638001

  11. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Nikitenko, N. A.; Speiseder, T.; Lam, E.; Rubtsov, P. M.; Tonaeva, Kh. D.; Borzenok, S. A.; Dobner, T.; Prassolov, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy. PMID:26483965

  12. Regulation of Human Adenovirus Replication by RNA Interference.

    PubMed

    Nikitenko, N A; Speiseder, T; Lam, E; Rubtsov, P M; Tonaeva, Kh D; Borzenok, S A; Dobner, T; Prassolov, V S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses cause a wide variety of human infectious diseases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are commonly associated with human species D adenoviruses. Currently, there is no sufficient or appropriate treatment to counteract these adenovirus infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new etiology-directed therapies with selective activity against human adenoviruses. To address this problem, the adenoviral early genes E1A and E2B (viral DNA polymerase) seem to be promising targets. Here, we propose an effective approach to downregulate the replication of human species D adenoviruses by means of RNA interference. We generated E1A expressing model cell lines enabling fast evaluation of the RNA interference potential. Small interfering RNAs complementary to the E1A mRNA sequences of human species D adenoviruses mediate significant suppression of the E1A expression in model cells. Furthermore, we observed a strong downregulation of replication of human adenoviruses type D8 and D37 by small hairpin RNAs complementary to the E1A or E2B mRNA sequences in primary human limbal cells. We believe that our results will contribute to the development of efficient anti-adenoviral therapy.

  13. Identification of Excipients for Stabilizing Fiberless Adenovirus as Biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kupgan, Grit; Choudhari, Shyamal P; Flynn, Nicholas H; Nigatu, Adane; Vupputuri, Sravanthi; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D; Ramsey, Joshua D

    2017-07-01

    Reducing the promiscuous tropism of native adenovirus by using fiberless adenovirus is advantageous toward its use as a gene therapy vector or vaccine component. The removal of the fiber protein on native adenovirus abrogates several undesirable interactions; however, this approach decreases the particle's physical stability. To create stable fiberless adenovirus for pharmaceutical use, the effects of temperature and pH on the particle's stability profile must be addressed. Our results indicate that the stability of fiberless adenovirus is increased when it is stored in mildly acidic conditions around pH 6. The stability of fiberless adenovirus can be further enhanced by using excipients. Excipient screening results indicate that the nonionic surfactant Pluronic F-68 and the amino acid glycine are potential stabilizers because of their ability to increase the thermal transition temperature of the virus particle and promote retention of biological activity after exposure to prolonged thermal stress. Our data indicate that the instability of fiberless adenovirus can be ameliorated by storing the virus in the appropriate environment, and it should be possible to further optimize the virus so that it can be used as a biopharmaceutical. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proinflammatory Effects of Interferon Gamma in Mouse Adenovirus 1 Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mary K.; Procario, Megan C.; Twisselmann, Nele; Wilkinson, J. Erby; Archambeau, Ashley J.; Michele, Daniel E.; Day, Sharlene M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenoviruses are frequent causes of pediatric myocarditis. Little is known about the pathogenesis of adenovirus myocarditis, and the species specificity of human adenoviruses has limited the development of animal models, which is a significant barrier to strategies for prevention or treatment. We have developed a mouse model of myocarditis following mouse adenovirus 1 (MAV-1) infection to study the pathogenic mechanisms of this important cause of pediatric myocarditis. Following intranasal infection of neonatal C57BL/6 mice, we detected viral replication and induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the hearts of infected mice. MAV-1 caused myocyte necrosis and induced substantial cellular inflammation that was composed predominantly of CD3+ T lymphocytes. Depletion of IFN-γ during acute infection reduced cardiac inflammation in MAV-1-infected mice without affecting viral replication. We observed decreased contractility during acute infection of neonatal mice, and persistent viral infection in the heart was associated with cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy in adulthood. IFN-γ is a proinflammatory mediator during adenovirus-induced myocarditis, and persistent adenovirus infection may contribute to ongoing cardiac dysfunction. IMPORTANCE Studying the pathogenesis of myocarditis caused by different viruses is essential in order to characterize both virus-specific and generalized factors that contribute to disease. Very little is known about the pathogenesis of adenovirus myocarditis, which is a significant impediment to the development of treatment or prevention strategies. We used MAV-1 to establish a mouse model of human adenovirus myocarditis, providing the means to study host and pathogen factors contributing to adenovirus-induced cardiac disease during acute and persistent infection. The MAV-1 model will enable fundamental studies of viral myocarditis, including IFN-γ modulation as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:25320326

  15. Adenovirus hepatitis presenting as tumoral lesions in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Putra, Juan; Suriawinata, Arief A

    2014-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia on alemtuzumab presented with neutropenic fever, intermittent nausea, and multiple ill-defined low attenuation foci in the liver on abdominal computed tomography scan which were suspicious for metastatic disease. Histological examination revealed the diagnosis of adenovirus hepatitis. Patient responded well to cidofovir. Adenovirus hepatitis is a rare but important entity to be considered by the clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to improve the prognosis of adenovirus hepatitis in immunocompromised patients.

  16. Structure of adenovirus bound to cellular receptor car

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a mutant CAR-DI-binding adenovirus which has a genome comprising one or more mutations in sequences which encode the fiber protein knob domain wherein the mutation causes the encoded viral particle to have a significantly weakened binding affinity for CAR-DI relative to wild-type adenovirus. Such mutations may be in sequences which encode either the AB loop, or the HI loop of the fiber protein knob domain. Specific residues and mutations are described. Also disclosed is a method for generating a mutant adenovirus which is characterized by a receptor binding affinity or specificity which differs substantially from wild type.

  17. Adenovirus Microsatellite Reveals Dynamics of Transmission during a Recent Epidemic of Human Adenovirus Serotype 14 Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Houng, Huo-Shu H.; Lott, Lisa; Gong, Heping; Kuschner, Robert A.; Lynch, Julia A.; Metzgar, David

    2009-01-01

    This study reveals diverse-length polymorphisms in long mononucleotide repeats (microsatellites) in several serotypes of epidemic human respiratory adenovirus. The length of one of these microsatellites, a homopolymeric thymidine [poly(T)] repeat, is measured in 68 isolates of adenovirus serotype 14. These isolates were collected during a series of sudden and sometimes fatal outbreaks among both military recruits and civilians as the virus emerged for the first time in the United States in 2006 and 2007. The results demonstrate the usefulness of adenoviral microsatellites as high-resolution molecular strain markers. The described homopolymer is hypervariable in length, varying from 12 to 17 bp in the analyzed sample set. All intermediate lengths were identified in at least one isolate. Furthermore, the specific length of the marker is stable for significant periods of time (up to 7 months) at individual sites where the virus is in consistent circulation. The microsatellite also can maintain specific length identity through site-to-site transmission events, as determined by the analysis of isolates from three advanced training sites that appeared to be subject to pathogen transfer from one of the affected recruit training installations. Public database searches revealed that the polymorphic nature of the microsatellite extends to other species B serotypes, and that other polymorphic microsatellites can be identified readily in a variety of epidemic respiratory adenovirus clades. This study shows that microsatellites are a ubiquitous source of polymorphic markers for human adenoviruses and demonstrates their use through an epidemiological analysis of isolates from a recent North American epidemic. PMID:19403773

  18. The Intracellular Domain of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor Differentially Influences Adenovirus Entry.

    PubMed

    Loustalot, Fabien; Kremer, Eric J; Salinas, Sara

    2015-09-01

    The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule used as a docking molecule by some adenoviruses (AdVs) and group B coxsackieviruses. We previously proposed that the preferential transduction of neurons by canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) is due to CAR-mediated internalization. Our proposed pathway of CAV-2 entry is in contrast to that of human AdV type 5 (HAdV-C5) in nonneuronal cells, where internalization is mediated by auxiliary receptors such as integrins. We therefore asked if in fibroblast-like cells the intracellular domain (ICD) of CAR plays a role in the internalization of the CAV-2 fiber knob (FK(CAV)), CAV-2, or HAdV-C5 when the capsid cannot engage integrins. Here, we show that in fibroblast-like cells, the CAR ICD is needed for FK(CAV) entry and efficient CAV-2 transduction but dispensable for HAdV-C5 and an HAdV-C5 capsid lacking the RGD sequence (an integrin-interacting motif) in the penton. Moreover, the deletion of the CAR ICD further impacts CAV-2 intracellular trafficking, highlighting the crucial role of CAR in CAV-2 intracellular dynamics. These data demonstrate that the CAR ICD contains sequences important for the recruitment of the endocytic machinery that differentially influences AdV cell entry. Understanding how viruses interact with the host cell surface and reach the intracellular space is of crucial importance for applied and fundamental virology. Here, we compare the role of a cell adhesion molecule (CAR) in the internalization of adenoviruses that naturally infect humans and Canidae. We show that the intracellular domain of CAR differentially regulates AdV entry and trafficking. Our study highlights the mechanistic differences that a receptor can have for two viruses from the same family. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. IMMUNOFLUORESCENT STUDIES OF THE POTENTIATION OF AN ADENOVIRUS-ASSOCIATED VIRUS BY ADENOVIRUS 7

    PubMed Central

    Blacklow, Neil R.; Hoggan, M. David; Rowe, Wallace P.

    1967-01-01

    A quantitative immunofluorescent procedure for detection of viral antigen was used to study the potentiation of AAV-1 by Ad.7. AAV viral antigen formed only when the cells were also infected with adenovirus, and only in cell culture systems in which the adenovirus infection proceeded to completion. Ad. 7 infection of AGMK. cell cultures did not potentiate AAV unless the Ad. 7 infection was itself potentiated by SV40. Dose-response studies indicated that a single AAV particle and a single infectious Ad. 7 particle sufficed to initiate AAV antigen synthesis. Sequential inoculation studies showed that AAV antigen formed simultaneously with Ad. 7 viral antigen when the AAV was inoculated any time between 15 hr before to 10 hr after the Ad. 7, both antigens appearing about 15 hr after inoculation of Ad. 7. The AAV-1 antigen formation had a minimum latent period of 5 hr, as seen with Ad. 7 preinfection of 10 hr or more. When UV-irradiated Ad. 7 was used as helper, the AAV antigen still appeared simultaneously with the Ad. 7 viral antigen, even though the latter was delayed by 23 hr compared to nonirradiated virus. When the early replicative events of both viruses were allowed to proceed in FUDR-inhibited cells, and then the FUDR inhibition was reversed, AAV antigen formed within 2 hr, which was 3 hr before the Ad. 7 viral antigen appeared. It was inferred that the event in the adenovirus cycle that renders a cell competent to synthesize AAV occurs after the 10th hr and may be temporally associated with replication of the adenovirus DNA. PMID:4225814

  20. Ljungan virus and an adenovirus in Italian squirrel populations.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Ferrari, Nicola; Rossi, Chiara; Everest, David J; Grierson, Sylvia S; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Saino, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas A; Hauffe, Heidi C

    2014-04-01

    We report Ljungan virus infection in Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) for the first time, and extend the known distribution of adenoviruses in both native red squirrels and alien gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) to southern Europe.

  1. Predicting the Next Eye Pathogen: Analysis of a Novel Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Zhou, Xiaohong; Rajaiya, Jaya; Yousuf, Mohammad A.; Singh, Gurdeep; DeSerres, Joshua J.; Walsh, Michael P.; Wong, Sallene; Seto, Donald; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Jones, Morris S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT For DNA viruses, genetic recombination, addition, and deletion represent important evolutionary mechanisms. Since these genetic alterations can lead to new, possibly severe pathogens, we applied a systems biology approach to study the pathogenicity of a novel human adenovirus with a naturally occurring deletion of the canonical penton base Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) loop, thought to be critical to cellular entry by adenoviruses. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a new highly recombinant species D human adenovirus (HAdV-D60). A synthesis of in silico and laboratory approaches revealed a potential ocular tropism for the new virus. In vivo, inflammation induced by the virus was dramatically greater than that by adenovirus type 37, a major eye pathogen, possibly due to a novel alternate ligand, Tyr-Gly-Asp (YGD), on the penton base protein. The combination of bioinformatics and laboratory simulation may have important applications in the prediction of tissue tropism for newly discovered and emerging viruses. PMID:23572555

  2. Temporal regulation of adenovirus major late alternative RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Akusjarvi, Goran

    2008-05-01

    Adenovirus makes extensive use of alternative RNA splicing to produce a complex set of spliced mRNAs during replication. The accumulation of viral mRNAs is subjected to a temporal regulation, a mechanism that ensures that proteins that are needed at certain stages of the virus life cycle are produced in a timely fashion. The complex interactions between the virus and the host cell RNA splicing machinery has been studied in detail during the last decade. These studies have resulted in the characterization of two viral proteins, E4-ORF4 and L4-33K, that adenovirus uses to remodel the host cell RNA splicing machinery. Here I will review the current knowledge of how mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit is controlled with a particular emphasis on how cis-acting sequence element, trans-acting factors and mechanisms regulating adenovirus major late L1 alternative RNA splicing is controlled.

  3. Adenovirus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are an important cause of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, and they continue to provide clinical challenges pertaining to diagnostics and treatment. The growing number of HAdV types identified by genomic analysis, as well as the improved understanding of the sites of viral persistence and reactivation, requires continuous adaptions of diagnostic approaches to facilitate timely detection and monitoring of HAdV infections. In view of the clinical relevance of life-threatening HAdV diseases in the immunocompromised setting, there is an urgent need for highly effective treatment modalities lacking major side effects. The present review summarizes the recent progress in the understanding and management of HAdV infections. PMID:24982316

  4. [Gene engineering of the adenovirus vector].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Saki; Terashima, Miho; Fukuda, Hiromitsu; Saito, Izumu; Kanegae, Yumi

    2007-06-01

    The adenovirus vector is very attractive tool not only for the gene therapy but also for the basic sciences. However, because a construction method of this vector had been complex, only limited scientists had constructed and enjoyed the benefits. Recently, various methods were developed and the researchers came to be able to choose an efficient method, which is the COS-TPC method, or a concise procedure, which is the intact-genome transfection method (in vitro ligation method). Here we described not only these methods but also new method to construct the various Ads simultaneously using the recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by the site-specific recombinase. And also we want to refer the possibility to the worth of the vector, especially the vector of the expression-switch.

  5. Polymeric oncolytic adenovirus for cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Lee, Young Sook; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors present a promising modality to treat cancer. Many clinical trials have been done with either naked oncolytic Ad or combination with chemotherapies. However, the systemic injection of oncolytic Ad in clinical applications is restricted due to significant liver toxicity and immunogenicity. To overcome these issues, Ad has been engineered physically or chemically with numerous polymers for shielding the Ad surface, accomplishing extended blood circulation time and reduced immunogenicity as well as hepatotoxicity. In this review, we describe and classify the characteristics of polymer modified oncolytic Ad following each strategy for cancer treatment. Furthermore, this review concludes with the highlights of various polymer-coated Ads and their prospects, and directions for future research. PMID:26453806

  6. Adenovirus-receptor interaction with human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mentel, R; Döpping, G; Wegner, U; Seidel, W; Liebermann, H; Döhner, L

    1997-03-01

    Lymphocytes play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and are host cells for several viral and bacterial pathogens. Their importance in adenovirus (Ad) infections is not yet fully understood. The initial event, the attachment of Ad to lymphocytes and their subsets, was examined using flow cytometry. The study included analysis of stimulated T cells in binding assays with FITC-labeled Ad fiber. The results confirm that native peripheral lymphocytes express very small amounts of Ad receptors. Stimulation with PHA and interleukin 2 induced the expression. The presence of Ad DNA as a sign of internalization in stimulated cells was demonstrated using the polymerase chain reaction. The findings suggest that lymphocytes after stimulation can turn into target cells for Ad. This is particularly important if there are indications for persistence of Ad, and in the case of immunocompromised patients severe, life-threatening diseases can develop.

  7. Vaccine Design: Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2016-01-01

    Replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for gene transfer for correction of genetic diseases. Although Ad vectors achieved high levels of transgene product expression in a variety of target cells, expression of therapeutic proteins was found to be transient as vigorous T cell responses directed to components of the vector as well as the transgene product rapidly eliminate Ad vector-transduced cells. This opened the use of Ad vectors as vaccine carriers and by now a multitude of preclinical as well as clinical studies has shown that Ad vectors induce very potent and sustained transgene product-specific T and B cell responses. This chapter provides guidance on developing E1-deleted Ad vectors based on available viral molecular clones. Specifically, it describes methods for cloning, viral rescue and purification as well as quality control studies.

  8. Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Therapy Against Viral Biothreat Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-12

    disease has led to modify adenoviruses as vectors for vaccine development against other viral agents. Human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAd5) is the most...to contain the spread of viruses to the general population . Most licensed vaccines are made either by chemically inactivated whnle viruses or by...be catastrophic for viral biothreat agents that often cause the most lethal infections in humans . Therefore, new approaches are needed for the

  9. An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0629 TITLE: An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Igor P. Dmitriev...Aug 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An Oncotropic Adenovirus Vector System for Breast Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1...epithelial cells, the origin of most human cancers. However, realization of the full potential of Ad vectors for targeted cancer treatment is currently

  10. Inactivation of human adenovirus genome by different groups of disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, A; Sehr, K; Eichhorn, U; Reimer, K; Wutzler, P

    2004-05-01

    Human adenoviruses are model viruses for testing the virucidal efficacy of disinfectants. However, a recent study has shown that the chemical sensitivity of adenovirus serotypes varies significantly, possibly due to the composition of the viral capsid and/or the resistance of nucleic acids. We have investigated the effect of molecular changes in the viral genome of the human adenovirus subgenera C and D. A common oligonucleotide fragment within the hexon gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after exposure to liposomal povidone-iodine (PVP-I), peracetic acid (PAA), and formaldehyde. The findings were compared with infectivity in cell cultures. PVP-I (0.125%) destroyed the infectivity of most serotypes within 60 min. However, PCR revealed no destruction of the adenoviral genome in most serotypes, even after exposure to higher PVP-I concentrations. PAA (0.5%) failed to inactivate the hexon gene of adenovirus types 22 and 44. Furthermore, the hexon gene of adenovirus type 22 was not altered by 0.7% formaldehyde. In conclusion, the genomes of human adenoviruses show considerably more chemical resistance than the complete viral particle. The molecular resistance of individual serotypes also varies. However, there was no clear correlation between the differences in the effect of disinfectants on infectivity of the complete viral particle and destruction of the viral genome.

  11. Human Adenovirus 52 Uses Sialic Acid-containing Glycoproteins and the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor for Binding to Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lenman, Annasara; Liaci, A. Manuel; Liu, Yan; Årdahl, Carin; Rajan, Anandi; Nilsson, Emma; Bradford, Will; Kaeshammer, Lisa; Jones, Morris S.; Frängsmyr, Lars; Feizi, Ten; Stehle, Thilo; Arnberg, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK) binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK) binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy. PMID:25674795

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Adenoviruses Persistently Shed from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kryazhimskiy, Sergey; Grant, Rebecca; Calcedo, Roberto; Yuan, Xin; Keough, Martin; Sandhu, Arbans; Wang, Qiang; Medina-Jaszek, C. Angelica; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Wilson, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Adenoviruses are important human pathogens that have been developed as vectors for gene therapies and genetic vaccines. Previous studies indicated that human infections with adenoviruses are self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts with evidence of some persistence in adenoid tissue. We sought to better understand the natural history of adenovirus infections in various non-human primates and discovered that healthy populations of great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) and macaques shed substantial quantities of infectious adenoviruses in stool. Shedding in stools from asymptomatic humans was found to be much less frequent, comparable to frequencies reported before. We purified and fully sequenced 30 novel adenoviruses from apes and 3 novel adenoviruses from macaques. Analyses of the new ape adenovirus sequences (as well as the 4 chimpanzee adenovirus sequences we have previously reported) together with 22 complete adenovirus genomes available from GenBank revealed that (a) the ape adenoviruses could clearly be classified into species corresponding to human adenovirus species B, C, and E, (b) there was evidence for intraspecies recombination between adenoviruses, and (c) the high degree of phylogenetic relatedness of adenoviruses across their various primate hosts provided evidence for cross species transmission events to have occurred in the natural history of B and E viruses. The high degree of asymptomatic shedding of live adenovirus in non-human primates and evidence for zoonotic transmissions warrants caution for primate handling and housing. Furthermore, the presence of persistent and/or latent adenovirus infections in the gut should be considered in the design and interpretation of human and non-human primate studies with adenovirus vectors. PMID:19578438

  13. Insights into Adenovirus Uncoating from Interactions with Integrins and Mediators of Host Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Stewart, Phoebe L.

    2016-01-01

    Human adenoviruses are large (150 MDa) nonenveloped double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that cause acute respiratory, gastrointestinal and ocular infections. Despite these disease associations, adenovirus has aided basic and clinical research efforts through studies of its association with cells and as a target of host antiviral responses. This review highlights the knowledge of adenovirus disassembly and nuclear transport gleaned from structural, biophysical and functional analyses of adenovirus interactions with soluble and membrane-associated host molecules. PMID:28009821

  14. Retargeted adenoviruses for radiation-guided gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaliberov, S A; Kaliberova, L N; Yan, H; Kapoor, V; Hallahan, D E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of radiation with radiosensitizing gene delivery or oncolytic viruses promises to provide an advantage that could improve the therapeutic results for glioblastoma. X-rays can induce significant molecular changes in cancer cells. We isolated the GIRLRG peptide that binds to radiation-inducible 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), which is overexpressed on the plasma membranes of irradiated cancer cells and tumor-associated microvascular endothelial cells. The goal of our study was to improve tumor-specific adenovirus-mediated gene delivery by selectively targeting the adenovirus binding to this radiation-inducible protein. We employed an adenoviral fiber replacement approach to conduct a study of the targeting utility of GRP78-binding peptide. We have developed fiber-modified adenoviruses encoding the GRP78-binding peptide inserted into the fiber-fibritin. We have evaluated the reporter gene expression of fiber-modified adenoviruses in vitro using a panel of glioma cells and a human D54MG tumor xenograft model. The obtained results demonstrated that employment of the GRP78-binding peptide resulted in increased gene expression in irradiated tumors following infection with fiber-modified adenoviruses, compared with untreated tumor cells. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of adenoviral retargeting using the GRP78-binding peptide that selectively recognizes tumor cells responding to radiation treatment. PMID:27492853

  15. Bovine adenovirus-3 as a vaccine delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ayalew, Lisanework E; Kumar, Pankaj; Gaba, Amit; Makadiya, Niraj; Tikoo, Suresh K

    2015-01-15

    The use of vaccines is an effective and relatively inexpensive means of controlling infectious diseases, which cause heavy economic losses to the livestock industry through animal loss, decreased productivity, treatment expenses and decreased carcass quality. However, some vaccines produced by conventional means are imperfect in many respects including virulence, safety and efficacy. Moreover, there are no vaccines for some animal diseases. Although genetic engineering has provided new ways of producing effective vaccines, the cost of production for veterinary use is a critical criterion for selecting the method of production and delivery of vaccines. The cost effective production and intrinsic ability to enter cells has made adenovirus vectors a highly efficient tool for delivery of vaccine antigens. Moreover, adenoviruses induce both humoral and cellular immune responses to expressed vaccine antigens. Since nonhuman adenoviruses are species specific, the development of animal specific adenoviruses as vaccine delivery vectors is being evaluated. This review summarizes the work related to the development of bovine adenovirus-3 as a vaccine delivery vehicle in animals, particularly cattle.

  16. Exploiting features of adenovirus replication to support mammalian kinase production

    PubMed Central

    Cotten, Matt; Stegmueller, Kerstin; Eickhoff, Jan; Hanke, Miriam; Herzberger, Katrin; Herget, Thomas; Choidas, Axel; Daub, Henrik; Godl, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Faced with the current wealth of genomic data, it is essential to have robust and reliable methods of converting DNA sequences into their functional gene products. We demonstrate here that when conditions are established that take advantage of the replication-associated virus amplification, the virus-induced shutdown of host protein synthesis as well as the activation of signalling pathways that normally occur during virus replication, adenovirus biology can be exploited to generate a potent kinase expression system. Residual virus in the protein production has always been a limitation for adenovirus systems and we describe a DNA intercalator/ultraviolet light treatment that eliminates residual adenovirus in protein preparations that has no deleterious effect on enzyme activity. The use of mammalian cells in combination with adenovirus generated a variety of active enzymes which could not be produced in Escherichia coli or baculovirus-infected insect cells. Thus, the utility of adenovirus-mediated enzyme expression as a versatile alternative to established protein production technologies is demonstrated. PMID:14576328

  17. Exploiting features of adenovirus replication to support mammalian kinase production.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Matt; Stegmueller, Kerstin; Eickhoff, Jan; Hanke, Miriam; Herzberger, Katrin; Herget, Thomas; Choidas, Axel; Daub, Henrik; Godl, Klaus

    2003-11-01

    Faced with the current wealth of genomic data, it is essential to have robust and reliable methods of converting DNA sequences into their functional gene products. We demonstrate here that when conditions are established that take advantage of the replication-associated virus amplification, the virus-induced shutdown of host protein synthesis as well as the activation of signalling pathways that normally occur during virus replication, adenovirus biology can be exploited to generate a potent kinase expression system. Residual virus in the protein production has always been a limitation for adenovirus systems and we describe a DNA intercalator/ultraviolet light treatment that eliminates residual adenovirus in protein preparations that has no deleterious effect on enzyme activity. The use of mammalian cells in combination with adenovirus generated a variety of active enzymes which could not be produced in Escherichia coli or baculovirus-infected insect cells. Thus, the utility of adenovirus-mediated enzyme expression as a versatile alternative to established protein production technologies is demonstrated.

  18. Oncolytic virotherapy for osteosarcoma using midkine promoter-regulated adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Takagi-Kimura, M; Yamano, T; Tagawa, M; Kubo, S

    2014-03-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy using adenoviruses has potential therapeutic benefits for a variety of cancers. We recently developed MOA5, a tumor-specific midkine promoter-regulated oncolytic vector based on human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). We modified the binding tropism of MOA5 by replacing the cell-binding domain of the Ad5 fiber knob with that from another adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35); the resulting vector was designated MOA35. Here we evaluated the therapeutic efficacies of MOA5 and MOA35 for human osteosarcoma. Midkine mRNA expression and its promoter activity was significantly high in five human osteosarcoma cell lines, but was restricted in normal cells. Very low levels of adenovirus cellular receptor coxsackievirus/adenovirus receptor (CAR) (Ad5 receptor) expression were observed in MNNG-HOS and MG-63 cells, whereas high levels of CAR expression were seen in the other osteosarcoma cell lines. By contrast, CD46 (Ad35 receptor) was highly expressed in all osteosarcoma cell lines. Infectivity and in vitro cytocidal effect of MOA35 was significantly enhanced in MNNG-HOS and MG-63 cells compared with MOA5, although the cytocidal effects of MOA5 were sometimes higher in high CAR-expressing cell lines. In MG-63 xenograft models, MOA35 significantly enhanced antitumor effects compared with MOA5. Our findings indicate that MOA5 and MOA35 allow tailored virotherapy and facilitate more effective treatments for osteosarcoma.

  19. Inactivation of adenovirus types 5 and 6 by Virkon S.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Lisa; Maheshwari, Gargi

    2004-10-01

    Throughout the pharmaceutical industry, adenovirus-based products are being developed for human use as vaccine vectors and gene therapy delivery vehicles. The implementation of effective decontamination procedures is critical to the successful manufacture of these products to minimize the risk of personnel exposure and prevent product cross-contamination in the manufacturing facility. In this investigation, we have conducted small-scale decontamination studies to determine the efficacy of Virkon S on the inactivation of adenovirus types 5 and 6 in suspension. Virkon S is a commercially available oxidative disinfectant used against a variety of bacteria, spores, fungi, and viruses. A cytotoxicity-based endpoint dilution assay was used to quantify adenovirus potency before and after Virkon S treatment. We show that the level of organic content in the inactivation sample matrix has a significant impact on Virkon S activity. The potency of adenovirus types 5 and 6 was reduced by greater than six logs upon a five minute exposure to the appropriate concentration of Virkon S. Based on these results, we propose that Virkon S liquid decontamination procedures for adenovirus types 5 and 6 use 0.9% Virkon S for contact times greater than five minutes.

  20. Latest insights on adenovirus structure and assembly.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  1. Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies. PMID:22754652

  2. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv) mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed. PMID:26184280

  3. Pertussis-like syndrome associated with adenovirus presenting with hyperleukocytosis: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Sarbay, Hakan; Polat, Aziz; Mete, Emin; Balci, Yasemin Isik; Akin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is an infectious viral agent that causes variety of clinical presentations such as respiratory disease, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. Hepatitis, pancreatitis, myocarditis, encephalitis, and disseminated infection are primarily seen in immunocompromised patients. Rarely, adenovirus infection can present with pertussis-like syndrome. Described here is case of pertussis-like syndrome associated with adenovirus presenting with hyperleukocytosis. PMID:28058402

  4. Silencing E1A mRNA by RNA interference inhibits adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-S; Kim, M-K; Lee, W-J; Kang, C

    2007-01-01

    The adenovirus family contains 51 human serotypes, and most human adenoviruses cause widespread respiratory tract infections. Adenovirus infections can result in severe complications in some cases, such as in adenovirus type 11 infection in immunocompromised patients. However, effective treatment methods for adenovirus infections are currently unavailable. This prompted the search for antiviral agents effective against adenovirus infections. In the present study, adenovirus E1A was targeted by RNA interference (RNAi) using synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in an attempt to inhibit viral replication, since adenovirus E1A proteins are known to be involved in the transcriptional activation of the viral and cellular genes necessary for controlling the cell cycle and viral replication. The results indicated that the siRNAs effectively reduced the amount of adenovirus E1A mRNA and the levels of replicative intermediates. Additionally, siRNA-mediated gene silencing inhibited adenovirus replication by suppressing the E1A mRNA. These results suggest that the RNAi-mediated targeting of adenovirus E1A may have a potentially therapeutic effect in controlling adenovirus infections.

  5. Infectivity-selective Oncolytic Adenovirus Developed by High-throughput Screening of Adenovirus-formatted Library

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Davydova, Julia; Brown, Eric; Aoki, Kazunori; Vickers, Selwyn; Yamamoto, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is a potent gene-delivery vehicle and has frequently been used for designing oncolytic viruses. However, lack of selectivity on infection has hampered the achievement of sufficient in vivo efficiency. Here, we developed a novel oncolytic virus system, infectivity-selective oncolytic adenovirus (ISOAd), via direct high-throughput screening of a high-diversity targeting-ligand library in adenoviral format. Through our newly designed rescue virus system, the high-diversity Ad library carrying the random seven amino acid sequences ligand-library in the AB-loop of its fiber-knob region (5 × 109 diversity) was successfully generated. During the screening of this library with the cells expressing the target molecule (mesothelin, MSLN), the AB-loop sequence of the virus clones converged to one dominant sequence and a novel MSLN-targeting sequence was isolated. The virus with the isolated motif showed selective infectivity to MSLN-positive cells in vitro. In vivo, it exhibited a selective and potent antitumor effect resulted from the viral replication in MSLN-positive xenografts. The ISOAd is a novel class of oncolytic Ad, which has selectivity at the step of transduction. The selectivity at the stage of infection can open new perspectives in oncolytic Ad therapy for various diseases. PMID:23032977

  6. An adenovirus vector with a chimeric fiber derived from canine adenovirus type 2 displays novel tropism.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Joel N; Kremer, Eric J; Hemminki, Akseli; Siegal, Gene P; Douglas, Joanne T; Curiel, David T

    2004-06-20

    Many clinically relevant tissues are refractory to Ad5 transduction because of negligible levels of the primary Ad5 receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Thus, development of Ad vectors that display CAR-independent tropism could lead directly to therapeutic gain. The Toronto strain of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) exhibits native tropism that is augmented by, but not fully dependent upon, CAR for cellular transduction. We hypothesized that an Ad5 vector containing the nonhuman CAV2 knob would provide expanded tropism and constructed Ad5Luc1-CK, an E1-deleted Ad5 vector encoding the fiber knob domain from CAV2. Ad5Luc1-CK gene delivery to CAR-deficient cells was augmented up to 30-fold versus the Ad5 control vector, and correlated with increased cell surface binding. Further, we confirmed the importance of cellular integrins to Ad5Luc1-CK transduction. Herein, we present the rationale, design, purification, and characterization of a novel tropism modified, infectivity-enhanced Ad vector.

  7. Complete genome sequences of pigeon adenovirus 1 and duck adenovirus 2 extend the number of species within the genus Aviadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Marek, Ana; Kaján, Győző L; Kosiol, Carolin; Harrach, Balázs; Schlötterer, Christian; Hess, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Complete genomes of the first isolates of pigeon adenovirus 1 (PiAdV-1) and Muscovy duck adenovirus (duck adenovirus 2, DAdV-2) were sequenced. The PiAdV-1 genome is 45,480bp long, and has a gene organization most similar to turkey adenovirus 1. Near the left end of the genome, it lacks ORF0, ORF1A, ORF1B and ORF1C, and possesses ORF52, whereas six novel genes were found near the right end. The DAdV-2 genome is 43,734bp long, and has a gene organization similar to that of goose adenovirus 4 (GoAdV-4). It lacks ORF51, ORF1C and ORF54, and possesses ORF55A and five other novel genes. PiAdV-1 and DAdV-2 genomes contain two and one fiber genes, respectively. Genome organization, G+C content, molecular phylogeny and host type confirm the need to establish two novel species (Pigeon aviadenovirus A and Duck aviadenovirus B) within the genus Aviadenovirus. Phylogenetic data show that DAdV-2 is most closely related to GoAdV-4.

  8. Genetic Relatedness Studies with Adenovirus-associated Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rose, James A.; Hoggan, M. David; Koczot, Frank; Shatkin, Aaron J.

    1968-01-01

    Adenovirus-associated viruses (AAV) contain double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA from each of the four AAV serotypes was used as template for the in vitro synthesis of complementary 3H-ribonucleic acids(RNA). An estimation of genetic interrelatedness was made on the basis of hybridization reactions between synthetic AAV RNA and AAV DNA. Heterologous reactions were 27 to 37% of homologous reactions, suggesting that the AAV serotypes are related to about the same extent. AAV-1 synthetic RNA was also reacted with DNA from helper adenovirus types 2, 7, and SV15. Very low levels of RNA binding were observed, but it is not likely that these reactions represent AAV-adenovirus genetic relatedness. PMID:5739847

  9. Inhibition of adenovirus replication in vitro by trifluridine.

    PubMed

    Lennette, D A; Eiferman, R A

    1978-09-01

    At present, there is no effective chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. Recent evidence suggests that trifluridine (3FT) may effectively inhibit the replication of some adenovirus serotypes known to cause keratoconjunctivitis. The ability of 3FT to inhibit two reference strains of adenoviruses, type 8 and type 19, was examined using cell cultures. Two second-passage isolates of adenoviruses, identified as serotype 13, were also tested. Compared with untreated, virusinfected cell cultures, drug-treated cell cultures developed a lesser degree of cytopathic effect following infection with all three serotypes. Virus production was reduced in the drug-treated cell cultures: approximately tenfold for type 8, more than 1,000-fold for type 19, and 5,000-fold for the type 13 isolates.

  10. Characterization of a novel adenovirus isolated from a skunk.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Robert A; Ackford, James G; Slaine, Patrick; Li, Aimin; Carman, Susy; Campbell, Doug; Welch, M Katherine; Kropinski, Andrew M; Nagy, Éva

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are a ubiquitous group of viruses that have been found in a wide range of hosts. A novel adenovirus from a skunk suffering from acute hepatitis was isolated and its DNA genome sequenced. The analysis revealed this virus to be a new member of the genus Mastadenovirus, with a genome of 31,848 bp in length containing 30 genes predicted to encode proteins, and with a G+C content of 49.0%. Global genomic organization indicated SkAdV-1 was similar in organization to bat and canine adenoviruses, and phylogenetic comparison suggested these viruses shared a common ancestor. SkAdV-1 demonstrated an ability to replicate in several mammalian liver cell lines suggesting a potential tropism for this virus.

  11. Capsid-like Arrays in Crystals of Chimpanzee Adenovirus Hexon

    SciTech Connect

    Xue,F.; Burnett, R.

    2006-01-01

    The major coat protein, hexon, from a chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC68) is of interest as a target for vaccine vector modification. AdC68 hexon has been crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222 with unit cell dimensions of a = 90.8 Angstroms, b = 433.0 Angstroms, c = 159.3 Angstroms, and one trimer (3 x 104,942 Da) in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.1 Angstroms resolution. Initial studies reveal that the molecular arrangement is quite unlike that in hexon crystals for human adenovirus. In the AdC68 crystals, hexon trimers are parallel and pack closely in two-dimensional continuous arrays similar to those formed on electron microscope grids. The AdC68 crystals are the first in which adenovirus hexon has molecular interactions that mimic those used in constructing the viral capsid.

  12. Construction, production, and purification of recombinant adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Miravet, Susana; Ontiveros, Maria; Piedra, Jose; Penalva, Cristina; Monfar, Mercè; Chillón, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses provide a versatile system for gene expression studies and therapeutic applications. In this chapter, a standard procedure for their generation and small-scale production is described. Homologous recombination in E. coli between shuttle plasmids and full-length adenovirus backbones (E1-deleted) is used for the generation of recombinant adenoviral vectors genomes. The adenovirus genomes are then analyzed to confirm their identity and integrity, and further linearized and transfected to generate a recombinant adenoviral vector in permissive human cells. These vectors are then purified by two sequential CsCl gradient centrifugations and subjected to a chromatography step in order to eliminate the CsCl and exchange buffers. Finally, the viral stock is characterized through the quantification of its viral particle content and its infectivity.

  13. Effects of cold atmospheric plasmas on adenoviruses in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J. L.; Dumler, K.; Shimizu, T.; Morfill, G. E.; Wolf, A.; Boxhammer, V.; Schlegel, J.; Gansbacher, B.; Anton, M.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were performed with cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) to inactivate adenovirus, a non-enveloped double stranded DNA virus, in solution. The plasma source used was a surface micro-discharge technology operating in air. Various plasma diagnostic measurements and tests were performed in order to determine the efficacy of CAPs and to understand the inactivation mechanism(s). Different stages of the adenovirus ‘life cycle’ were investigated—infectivity and gene expression as well as viral replication and spread. Within 240 s of CAP treatment, inactivation of up to 6 decimal log levels can be achieved.

  14. Developing Novel Oncolytic Adenoviruses through Bioselection

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wen; Kitzes, Galila; Dormishian, Farid; Hawkins, Lynda; Sampson-Johannes, Adam; Watanabe, Josh; Holt, Jenny; Lee, Vivian; Dubensky, Thomas; Fattaey, Ali; Hermiston, Terry; Balmain, Allan; Shen, Yuqiao

    2003-01-01

    Mutants of human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) with enhanced oncolytic activity were isolated by using a procedure termed bioselection. Two mutants, ONYX-201 and ONYX-203, were plaque purified from a pool of randomly mutagenized Ad5 that was repeatedly passaged in the human colorectal cancer cell line HT29, and they were subsequently characterized. ONYX-201 and ONYX-203 replicated more rapidly in HT29 cells than wild-type Ad5, and they lysed HT29 cells up to 1,000-fold more efficiently. The difference was most profound when cells were infected at a relatively low multiplicity of infection, presumably due to the compounding effects of multiple rounds of infection. This enhanced cytolytic activity was observed not only in HT29 cells but also in many other human cancer cell lines tested. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of the bioselected mutants in a number of normal primary human cells was similar to that of wild-type Ad5, thus enhancing the therapeutic index (cytotoxicity in tumor cells versus that in normal cells) of these oncolytic agents. Both ONYX-201 and -203 contain seven single-base-pair mutations when compared with Ad5, four of which were common between ONYX-201 and -203. The mutation at nucleotide 8350, shared by both mutant viruses, was shown to be essential for the observed phenotypes. This mutation was mapped to the i-leader region of the major late transcription unit, resulting in the truncation of 21 amino acids from the C terminus of the i-leader protein. This work demonstrates that bioselection is a powerful tool for developing novel tumor-selective oncolytic viruses. Other potential applications of this technology are discussed. PMID:12552003

  15. Transport of human adenoviruses in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinos, Petros; Syngouna, Vasiliki I.; Tselepi, Maria A.; Bellou, Maria; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Vantarakis, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater may be contaminated with infective human enteric viruses from various wastewater discharges, sanitary landfills, septic tanks, agricultural practices, and artificial groundwater recharge. Coliphages have been widely used as surrogates of enteric viruses, because they share many fundamental properties and features. Although a large number of studies focusing on various factors (i.e. pore water solution chemistry, fluid velocity, moisture content, temperature, and grain size) that affect biocolloid (bacteria, viruses) transport have been published over the past two decades, little attention has been given toward human adenoviruses (hAdVs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pore water velocity on hAdV transport in water saturated laboratory-scale columns packed with glass beads. The effects of pore water velocity on virus transport and retention in porous media was examined at three pore water velocities (0.39, 0.75, and 1.22 cm/min). The results indicated that all estimated average mass recovery values for hAdV were lower than those of coliphages, which were previously reported in the literature by others for experiments conducted under similar experimental conditions. However, no obvious relationship between hAdV mass recovery and water velocity could be established from the experimental results. The collision efficiencies were quantified using the classical colloid filtration theory. Average collision efficiency, α, values decreased with decreasing flow rate, Q, and pore water velocity, U, but no significant effect of U on α was observed. Furthermore, the surface properties of viruses and glass beads were used to construct classical DLVO potential energy profiles. The results revealed that the experimental conditions of this study were unfavorable to deposition and that no aggregation between virus particles is expected to occur. A thorough understanding of the key processes governing virus transport is pivotal for public

  16. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  17. Adenovirus infection stimulates the Raf/MAPK signaling pathway and induces interleukin-8 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, J T; Kovesdi, I

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that airway administration of adenovirus or adenovirus vectors results in a dose-dependent inflammatory response which limits the duration of transgene expression. We explored the possibility that adenovirus infection triggers signal transduction pathways that induce the synthesis of cytokines and thus contribute to the early inflammatory response. Since stimulation of the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activates transcription factors that control the expression of inflammatory cytokines, we examined the activation of this pathway following adenovirus infection. Adenovirus infection induced the rapid activation of Raf-1 and a transient increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of p42mapk at early times postinfection. Activation of the Raf/MAPK pathway by adenovirus is likely triggered by the infection process, since it occurred rapidly and with various mutant adenoviruses and adenovirus vectors. Moreover, interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA accumulation was evident at 20 min postinfection and was induced even in the presence of cycloheximide. Both MAPK activation and IL-8 production were inhibited by forskolin, a potent inhibitor of Raf-1. These results suggest that adenovirus-induced Raf/MAPK activation contributes to IL-8 production. Adenovirus-induced activation of the Raf/MAPK signaling pathway and IL-8 production may play critical roles in the inflammation observed following in vivo administration of adenovirus vectors for gene therapy. PMID:8985363

  18. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E.; Leeuwen, M. van; Boheemen, S. van; Jong, A.A.W. de; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L.; Kuiken, T.

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls.

  19. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses isolated from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Skerratt, Lee F; Franson, J Christian; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-11-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  20. Adenovirus particle quantification in cell lysates using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Adrian; Ramms, Anne Sophie; Dohmen, Christian; Mantwill, Klaus; Bielmeier, Andrea; Kolk, Andreas; Ruppert, Andreas; Nawroth, Roman; Holm, Per Sonne

    2017-08-15

    Adenoviral vector production for therapeutic applications is a well-established routine process. However, current methods for measurement of adenovirus particle titers as a quality characteristic require highly purified virus preparations. While purified virus is typically obtained in the last step of downstream purification, rapid and reliable methods for adenovirus particle quantification in intermediate products and crude lysates to allow for optimization and validation of cell cultures and intermediate downstream processing steps are currently not at hand. Light scattering is an established process to measure virus particles' size. Though, due to cell impurities adequate quantification of adenovirus particles in cell lysates by light scattering has been impossible until today. This report describes a new method using light scattering to measure virus concentration in non-purified cell lysates. Here we report application of light scattering, a routine method to measure virus particle size, to virus quantification in enzymatically conditioned crude lysates. Samples are incubated with phospholipase A2 and benzonase and filtered through 0.22 µm filter cartridge prior to quantification by light scattering. Our results show that this treatment provides a precise method for fast and easy determination of total adenovirus particle numbers in cell lysates and is useful to monitor virus recovery throughout all downstream processing.

  1. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  2. Acute respiratory infection with mouse adenovirus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Jason B.; Stempfle, Gregory S.; Wilkinson, John E.; Younger, John G.; Spindler, Katherine R.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the pathogenesis of adenovirus respiratory disease are limited by the strict species-specificity of the adenoviruses. Following intranasal inoculation of adult C57BL/6 mice with mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1), we detected MAV-1 early region 3 (E3) and hexon gene expression in the lungs at 7 days post-infection (dpi). We detected MAV-1 E3 protein in the respiratory epithelium 7 dpi. We did not detect viral mRNA or protein at 14 dpi, but MAV-1 DNA was detected by PCR at 21 dpi. Chemokine transcript levels increased between 7 and 14 dpi in the lungs of infected mice. MAV-1 infection induced a patchy cellular infiltrate in lungs at 7 and 14 dpi. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of MAV-1 in the respiratory epithelium of infected mice and describing chemokine responses in the lung induced by MAV-1 respiratory infection. MAV-1 infection of mice has the potential to serve as a model for inflammatory changes seen in human adenovirus respiratory disease. PMID:16054189

  3. Transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, James W.; Green, Michael R.

    1989-03-01

    The adenovirus Ela protein stimulates transcription of a wide variety of viral and cellular genes. It is shown here that Ela has the two functions characteristic of a typical cellular activator: one direct Ela to the promoter, perhaps by interacting with a DMA-bound protein, and the other, an activating region, enables the bound activator to stimulate transcription.

  4. Adenovirus infection reverses the antiviral state induced by human interferon.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1987-04-06

    HeLa cells treated with human lymphoblastoid interferon do not synthesize poliovirus proteins. The antiviral state against poliovirus is reversed if cells are previously infected with adenovirus type 5. A late gene product seems to be involved in this reversion, since no effect is observed at early stages of infection or in the presence of aphidicolin.

  5. Serologic and hexon phylogenetic analysis of ruminant adenoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine the antigenic relationship among ruminant adenoviruses and determine their phylogenetic relationship based on the deduced hexon gene amino acid sequence. Results of reciprocal cross-neutralization tests demonstrated antigenic relationships in either on...

  6. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Mechanics of Viral Chromatin Reveals the Pressurization of Human Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Esteban, Alvaro; Condezo, Gabriela N; Pérez-Berná, Ana J; Chillón, Miguel; Flint, S Jane; Reguera, David; San Martín, Carmen; de Pablo, Pedro J

    2015-11-24

    Tight confinement of naked genomes within some viruses results in high internal pressure that facilitates their translocation into the host. Adenovirus, however, encodes histone-like proteins that associate with its genome resulting in a confined DNA-protein condensate (core). Cleavage of these proteins during maturation decreases core condensation and primes the virion for proper uncoating via unidentified mechanisms. Here we open individual, mature and immature adenovirus cages to directly probe the mechanics of their chromatin-like cores. We find that immature cores are more rigid than the mature ones, unveiling a mechanical signature of their condensation level. Conversely, intact mature particles demonstrate more rigidity than immature or empty ones. DNA-condensing polyamines revert the mechanics of mature capsid and cores to near-immature values. The combination of these experiments reveals the pressurization of adenovirus particles induced by maturation. We estimate a pressure of ∼30 atm by continuous elasticity, which is corroborated by modeling the adenovirus mini-chromosome as a confined compact polymer. We propose this pressurization as a mechanism that facilitates initiating the stepwise disassembly of the mature particle, enabling its escape from the endosome and final genome release at the nuclear pore.

  8. Site-specific nicking within the adenovirus inverted terminal repetition.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, K C; Pearson, G D

    1984-01-01

    Site-specific nicking occurs on the l-strand, but not on the r-strand, of the adenovirus left inverted terminal repeat. Nicks are presumably introduced into double- or single-stranded DNA by a cellular endonuclease in an ATP-independent reaction. The consensus nick site has the sequence: (sequence in text). Images PMID:6322107

  9. Hexon denaturation of human adenoviruses by different groups of biocides.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, A; Eichhorn, U; Scheibenzuber, M; Wutzler, P

    2007-03-01

    Human adenoviruses have often been used as surrogates for testing broad-spectrum virucidal efficacy of biocides. However, recent studies have shown that members of this group of viruses have quite different chemical sensitivities and only serotypes 5 and 44 can be recommended as model viruses. In this study, the hexon protein of the serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8 was exposed to biocides and subsequently detected by western blotting and the RPS Adeno Detector. Only peracetic acid (PAA) at a relatively high concentration of 0.5% led to complete denaturation of hexon protein within 60 min. This effect was uniform for all adenoviruses tested and was not observed after exposure to 0.05-2.5% povidone-iodine (PVP-I) or 0.7% formaldehyde. However, viral infectivity and genome integrity were influenced by PVP-I and formaldehyde and lower concentrations of PAA. In conclusion, the hexon protein of human adenoviruses shows an unexpectedly high and uniform resistance to chemical biocides. The different chemical sensitivities of adenoviruses cannot be explained by the sensitivity of this main structural compound, but the present findings provide new insights into the virucidal action of disinfectants.

  10. Transformation Potentials of the Noninfectious (Defective) Component in Pools of Adenoviruses Type 12 and Simian Adenovirus 7

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, J. P.; Yohn, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    Pools of adenovirus 12 and simian adenovirus 7 were separated into four or five fractions by density gradient centrifugation in cesium chloride. Each fraction was analyzed for total in vitro infectivity units, total transformation activity, and for total virus particle (VP) content. Two major subpopulations were separated with mean densities of 1.30 ± 0.02 and 1.34 ± 0.02 g/ml, respectively. Virions in the 1.34 g/ml range were highly infectious (102 to 103 VP per infectivity unit) in contrast to virions at 1.30 g/ml density (104 to 105 VP per infectivity units). Transformation capacity was evenly distributed throughout fractions of both viruses, indicating that genetically incomplete or defective virus particles were not deficient in their ability to induce transformation. The average VP per transformation unit for adenovirus 12 (2.85 × 106) and for simian adenovirus 7 (4.00 × 106) did not vary significantly from fraction to fraction. These values were obtained with optimal input multiplicities of 16 to 64 VP per cell. At higher multiplicities the apparent increase in VP per transformation unit was attributable to the viral cytocidal effect on hamster cells. These studies revealed that quantitation of in vitro transformation based on VP multiplicities was more reliable than on the basis of infectious units. These estimates were independent of method of virus production, extraction, and purification. Images PMID:4211167

  11. Detection of Bovine and Porcine Adenoviruses for Tracing the Source of Fecal Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Clemente-Casares, Pilar; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Martín, Margarita; Girones, Rosina

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a molecular procedure for the detection of adenoviruses of animal origin was developed to evaluate the level of excretion of these viruses by swine and cattle and to design a test to facilitate the tracing of specific sources of environmental viral contamination. Two sets of oligonucleotides were designed, one to detect porcine adenoviruses and the other to detect bovine and ovine adenoviruses. The specificity of the assays was assessed in 31 fecal samples and 12 sewage samples that were collected monthly during a 1-year period. The data also provided information on the environmental prevalence of animal adenoviruses. Porcine adenoviruses were detected in 17 of 24 (70%) pools of swine samples studied, with most isolates being closely related to serotype 3. Bovine adenoviruses were present in 6 of 8 (75%) pools studied, with strains belonging to the genera Mastadenovirus and Atadenovirus and being similar to bovine adenoviruses of types 2, 4, and 7. These sets of primers produced negative results in nested PCR assays when human adenovirus controls and urban-sewage samples were tested. Likewise, the sets of primers previously designed for detection of human adenovirus also produced negative results with animal adenoviruses. These results indicate the importance of further studies to evaluate the usefulness of these tests to trace the source of fecal contamination in water and food and for environmental studies. PMID:15006765

  12. Functional Heterogeneity of Virions in Human Adenovirus Types 2 and 12

    PubMed Central

    Rainbow, Andrew J.; Mak, Stanley

    1970-01-01

    Purified preparations of adenovirus types 2 and 12 were used to infect KB cells at different input multiplicities. The resulting infected cultures were scored for inclusion body formation, production of infectious centers, and cloning efficiency. Both preparations were found to contain some defective particles capable of preventing a cell from cloning but unable to induce inclusion bodies or form plaques. The proportion of such defective particles in adenovirus 12 was about 10 times that in adenovirus 2. At high input multiplicities, the percentage of cells displaying an inclusion body was less than that predicted by the Poisson distribution and reached a maximum of 40 to 60% for adenovirus 2 and 12 to 15% for adenovirus 12. This reduction may be due to interference by large numbers of non-plaque-producing particles infecting each cell. The per cent of cells forming infectious centers was substantially greater for adenovirus 2 than for adenovirus 12 when compared at the same input plaque-forming units, reaching a maximum of 35 to 73% for adenovirus 2 and 5 to 10% for adenovirus 12. The low value for adenovirus 12 may be a result of the same interference phenomenon. Images PMID:4194167

  13. Effect of adenovirus infection on expression of human histone genes.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, S J; Plumb, M A; Yang, U C; Stein, G S; Stein, J L

    1984-01-01

    The influence of adenovirus type 2 infection of HeLa cells upon expression of human histone genes was examined as a function of the period of infection. Histone RNA synthesis was assayed after run-off transcription in nuclei isolated from mock-infected cells and after various periods of adenovirus infection. Histone protein synthesis was measured by [3H]leucine labeling of intact cells and fluorography of electrophoretically fractionated nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. The cellular representation of RNA species complementary to more than 13 different human histone genes was determined by RNA blot analysis of total cellular, nuclear or cytoplasmic RNA by using a series of 32P-labeled cloned human histone genes as hybridization probes and also by analysis of 3H-labeled histone mRNA species synthesized in intact cells. By 18 h after infection, HeLa cell DNA synthesis and all parameters of histone gene expression, including transcription and the nuclear and cytoplasmic concentrations of core and H1 mRNA species, were reduced to less than 5 to 10% of the control values. By contrast, transcription and processing of other cellular mRNA sequences have been shown to continue throughout this period of infection. The early period of adenovirus infection was marked by an inhibition of transcription of histone genes that accompanied the reduction in rate of HeLa cell DNA synthesis. These results suggest that the adenovirus-induced inhibition of histone gene expression is mediated in part at the transcriptional level. However, the persistence of histone mRNA species at concentrations comparable to those of mock-infected control cells during the early phase of the infection, despite a reduction in histone gene transcription and histone protein synthesis, implies that histone gene expression is also regulated post-transcriptionally in adenovirus-infected cells. These results suggest that the tight coupling between histone mRNA concentrations and the rate of cellular DNA

  14. Human papillomavirus E6E7-mediated adenovirus cell killing: selectivity of mutant adenovirus replication in organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Balagué, C; Noya, F; Alemany, R; Chow, L T; Curiel, D T

    2001-08-01

    Replication-competent adenoviruses are being investigated as potential anticancer agents. Exclusive virus replication in cancer cells has been proposed as a safety trait to be considered in the design of oncolytic adenoviruses. From this perspective, we have investigated several adenovirus mutants for their potential to conditionally replicate and promote the killing of cells expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which are present in a high percentage of anogenital cancers. For this purpose, we have employed an organotypic model of human stratified squamous epithelium derived from primary keratinocytes that have been engineered to express HPV-18 oncoproteins stably. We show that, whereas wild-type adenovirus promotes a widespread cytopathic effect in all infected cells, E1A- and E1A/E1B-deleted adenoviruses cause no deleterious effect regardless of the coexpression of HPV18 E6E7. An adenovirus deleted in the CR2 domain of E1A, necessary for binding to the pRB family of pocket proteins, shows no selectivity of replication as it efficiently kills all normal and E6E7-expressing keratinocytes. Finally, an adenovirus mutant deleted in the CR1 and CR2 domains of E1A exhibits preferential replication and cell killing in HPV E6E7-expressing cultures. We conclude that the organotypic keratinocyte culture represents a distinct model to evaluate adenovirus selectivity and that, based on this model, further modifications of the adenovirus genome are required to restrict adenovirus replication to tumor cells.

  15. Human Papillomavirus E6E7-Mediated Adenovirus Cell Killing: Selectivity of Mutant Adenovirus Replication in Organotypic Cultures of Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Balagué, Cristina; Noya, Francisco; Alemany, Ramon; Chow, Louise T.; Curiel, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Replication-competent adenoviruses are being investigated as potential anticancer agents. Exclusive virus replication in cancer cells has been proposed as a safety trait to be considered in the design of oncolytic adenoviruses. From this perspective, we have investigated several adenovirus mutants for their potential to conditionally replicate and promote the killing of cells expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which are present in a high percentage of anogenital cancers. For this purpose, we have employed an organotypic model of human stratified squamous epithelium derived from primary keratinocytes that have been engineered to express HPV-18 oncoproteins stably. We show that, whereas wild-type adenovirus promotes a widespread cytopathic effect in all infected cells, E1A- and E1A/E1B-deleted adenoviruses cause no deleterious effect regardless of the coexpression of HPV18 E6E7. An adenovirus deleted in the CR2 domain of E1A, necessary for binding to the pRB family of pocket proteins, shows no selectivity of replication as it efficiently kills all normal and E6E7-expressing keratinocytes. Finally, an adenovirus mutant deleted in the CR1 and CR2 domains of E1A exhibits preferential replication and cell killing in HPV E6E7-expressing cultures. We conclude that the organotypic keratinocyte culture represents a distinct model to evaluate adenovirus selectivity and that, based on this model, further modifications of the adenovirus genome are required to restrict adenovirus replication to tumor cells. PMID:11462032

  16. Routine monitoring of adenovirus and norovirus within the health care environment.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, Louise; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Canales, Melisa; D'Arcy, Nikki; Hartley, John C

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the presence of adenovirus and norovirus on ward surfaces using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assist in the development of evidence-based infection control policy. Screening was carried out weekly for 6 months in the common areas of 2 pediatric wards. Additionally, a one-off screening was undertaken for adenovirus and norovirus on a day unit and for adenovirus only in patient cubicles while occupied. Over the 6-month screening of common areas, 2.4% of samples were positive for adenovirus or norovirus. In rooms occupied with adenovirus-infected children, all cubicle screening sites and almost all swabs were contaminated with adenovirus. In the day unit, 13% of samples were positive. Cleaning and environmental interaction strategies must therefore be designed to control nosocomial transmission of viruses outside of outbreak scenarios.

  17. Combinatorial treatment with oncolytic adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus augments adenoviral cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Farzad, Lisa; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Yagyu, Shigeki; Bertin, Terry; Hemminki, Akseli; Rooney, Cliona; Lee, Brendan; Suzuki, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Onc.Ads) produce significant antitumor effects but as single agents they rarely eliminate tumors. Investigators have therefore incorporated sequences into these vectors that encode immunomodulatory molecules to enhance antitumor immunity. Successful implementation of this strategy requires multiple tumor immune inhibitory mechanisms to be overcome, and insertion of the corresponding multiple functional genes reduces the titer and replication of Onc.Ads, compromising their direct ant-tumor effects. By contrast, helper-dependent (HD) Ads are devoid of viral coding sequences, allowing inclusion of multiple transgenes. HDAds, however, lack replicative capacity. Since HDAds encode the adenoviral packaging signal, we hypothesized that the coadministration of Onc.Ad with HDAd would allow to be amplified and packaged during replication of Onc.Ad in transduced cancer cells. This combination could provide immunostimulation without losing oncolytic activity. We now show that coinfection of Onc.Ad with HDAd subsequently replicates HDAd vector DNA in trans in human cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, amplifying the transgenes the HDAd encode. This combinatorial treatment significantly suppresses the tumor growth compared to treatment with a single agent in an immunocompetent mouse model. Hence, combinatorial treatment of Onc.Ad with HDAd should overcome the inherent limitations of each agent and provide a highly immunogenic oncolytic therapy. PMID:27119096

  18. Overcoming pre-existing adenovirus immunity by genetic engineering of adenovirus-based vectors.

    PubMed

    Seregin, Sergey S; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors offer several benefits showing their potential for use in a variety of vaccine applications. Recombinant Ad-based vaccines possess potent immunogenic potential, capable of generating humoral and cellular immune responses to a variety of pathogen-specific antigens expressed by the vectors. Ad5 vectors can be readily produced, allowing for usage in thousands of clinical trial subjects. This is now coupled with a history of safe clinical use in the vaccine setting. However, traditional Ad5-based vaccines may not be generating optimal antigen-specific immune responses, and generate diminished antigen-specific immune responses when pre-existing Ad5 immunity is present. These limitations have driven initiation of several approaches to improve the efficacy of Ad-based vaccines, and/or allow modified vaccines to overcome pre-existing Ad immunity. These include: generation of chemically modified Ad5 capsids; generation of chimeric Ads; complete replacement of Ad5-based vaccine platforms with alternative (human and non-human origin) Ad serotypes, and Ad5 genome modification approaches that attempt to retain the native Ad5 capsid, while simultaneously improving the efficacy of the platform as well as minimizing the effect of pre-existing Ad immunity. Here we discuss recent advances in- and limitations of each of these approaches, relative to their abilities to overcome pre-existing Ad immunity.

  19. Large Epidemic of Respiratory Illness Due to Adenovirus Types 7 and 3 in Healthy Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-15

    Epidemic of Respiratory fliness Due to Adenovirus Types 7 and 3 in Healthy Young Adults Margaret A. K. Ryan, Gregory C. Gray," Besa Smith, Jamie A...immunization, respiratory infections due to adenoviruses have reemerged to threaten the health of young adults in the military. Shortly after the loss...challenges for young adults in the military in the postvaccine era. The US military has long had concern about the impact adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7

  20. Province-wide adenovirus type 3 outbreak with severe cases in New Brunswick

    PubMed Central

    Girouard, Gabriel; Garceau, Richard; Thibault, Louise; Bourque, Christine; Bastien, Nathalie; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus is a commonly isolated virus in clinical samples. Life-threatening infections, although rare, are described worldwide. An epidemic spread of an adenovirus type 3 strain occurred in the province of New Brunswick during the fall of 2008 to the winter of 2009; it resulted in three severely ill patients, with one fatality. Adenovirus should be considered as a cause of severe community-acquired viral pneumonia, especially when the influenza test is negative. PMID:22379488

  1. Dielectrophoresis and dielectrophoretic impedance detection of adenovirus and rotavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Michihiko; Ding, Zhenhao; Suehiro, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the electrical detection of pathogenic viruses, namely, adenovirus and rotavirus, using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM). DEPIM consists of two simultaneous processes: dielectrophoretic trapping of the target and measurement of the impedance change and increase in conductance with the number of trapped targets. This is the first study of applying DEPIM, which was originally developed to detect bacteria suspended in aqueous solutions, to virus detection. The dielectric properties of the viruses were also investigated in terms of their dielectrophoretic behavior. Although their estimated dielectric properties were different from those of bacteria, the trapped viruses increased the conductance of the microelectrode in a manner similar to that in bacteria detection. We demonstrated the electrical detection of viruses within 60 s at concentrations as low as 70 ng/ml for adenovirus and 50 ng/ml for rotavirus.

  2. Adenovirus vector delivery stimulates natural killer cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tomasec, Peter; Wang, Eddie C. Y.; Groh, Veronika; Spies, Thomas; McSharry, Brian P.; Aicheler, Rebecca J.; Stanton, Richard J.; Wilkinson, Gavin W. G.

    2007-01-01

    We report that delivery of first-generation replication-deficient adenovirus (RDAd) vectors into primary human fibroblasts is associated with the induction of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytolysis in vitro. RDAd vector delivery induced cytolysis by a range of NK cell populations including the NK cell clone NKL, primary polyclonal NK lines and a proportion of NK clones (36 %) in autologous HLA-matched assays. Adenovirus-induced cytolysis was inhibited by antibody blocking of the NK-activating receptor NKG2D, implicating this receptor in this function. NKG2D is ubiquitously expressed on NK cells and CD8+ T cells. Significantly, γ-irradiation of the vector eliminated the effect, suggesting that breakthrough expression from the vector induces at least some of the pro-inflammatory responses of unknown aetiology following the application of RDAd vectors during in vivo gene delivery. PMID:17374753

  3. An Analysis of Adenovirus Genomes Using Whole Genome Software Tools

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Padmanabhan

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of sequencing technology has lead to an enormous increase in the number of genomes that have been sequenced. This is especially true in the field of virus genomics. In order to extract meaningful biological information from these genomes, whole genome data mining software tools must be utilized. Hundreds of tools have been developed to analyze biological sequence data. However, only some of these tools are user-friendly to biologists. Several of these tools that have been successfully used to analyze adenovirus genomes are described here. These include Artemis, EMBOSS, pDRAW, zPicture, CoreGenes, GeneOrder, and PipMaker. These tools provide functionalities such as visualization, restriction enzyme analysis, alignment, and proteome comparisons that are extremely useful in the bioinformatics analysis of adenovirus genomes. PMID:28293072

  4. Critical Role for Arginine Methylation in Adenovirus-Infected Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Iacovides, Demetris C.; O'Shea, Clodagh C.; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Burlingame, Alma; McCormick, Frank

    2007-01-01

    During the late stages of adenovirus infection, the 100K protein (100K) inhibits the translation of cellular messages in the cytoplasm and regulates hexon trimerization and assembly in the nucleus. However, it is not known how it switches between these two functions. Here we show that 100K is methylated on arginine residues at its C terminus during infection and that this region is necessary for binding PRMT1 methylase. Methylated 100K is exclusively nuclear. Mutation of the third RGG motif (amino acids 741 to 743) prevents localization to the nucleus during infection, suggesting that methylation of that sequence is important for 100K shuttling. Treatment of infected cells with methylation inhibitors inhibits expression of late structural proteins. These data suggest that arginine methylation of 100K is necessary for its localization to the nucleus and is a critical cellular function necessary for productive adenovirus infection. PMID:17686851

  5. Adenovirus-derived vectors for prostate cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    de Vrij, Jeroen; Willemsen, Ralph A; Lindholm, Leif; Hoeben, Rob C; Bangma, Chris H; Barber, Chris; Behr, Jean-Paul; Briggs, Simon; Carlisle, Robert; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Dautzenberg, Iris J C; de Ridder, Corrina; Dzojic, Helena; Erbacher, Patrick; Essand, Magnus; Fisher, Kerry; Frazier, April; Georgopoulos, Lindsay J; Jennings, Ian; Kochanek, Stefan; Koppers-Lalic, Daniela; Kraaij, Robert; Kreppel, Florian; Magnusson, Maria; Maitland, Norman; Neuberg, Patrick; Nugent, Regina; Ogris, Manfred; Remy, Jean-Serge; Scaife, Michelle; Schenk-Braat, Ellen; Schooten, Erik; Seymour, Len; Slade, Michael; Szyjanowicz, Pio; Totterman, Thomas; Uil, Taco G; Ulbrich, Karel; van der Weel, Laura; van Weerden, Wytske; Wagner, Ernst; Zuber, Guy

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death among men in Western countries. Whereas the survival rate approaches 100% for patients with localized cancer, the results of treatment in patients with metastasized prostate cancer at diagnosis are much less successful. The patients are usually presented with a variety of treatment options, but therapeutic interventions in prostate cancer are associated with frequent adverse side effects. Gene therapy and oncolytic virus therapy may constitute new strategies. Already a wide variety of preclinical studies has demonstrated the therapeutic potential of such approaches, with oncolytic prostate-specific adenoviruses as the most prominent vector. The state of the art and future prospects of gene therapy in prostate cancer are reviewed, with a focus on adenoviral vectors. We summarize advances in adenovirus technology for prostate cancer treatment and highlight areas where further developments are necessary.

  6. Phylogenetic analyses of novel squamate adenovirus sequences in wild-caught Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Ascher, Jill M; Geneva, Anthony J; Ng, Julienne; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Glor, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus infection has emerged as a serious threat to the health of captive snakes and lizards (i.e., squamates), but we know relatively little about this virus' range of possible hosts, pathogenicity, modes of transmission, and sources from nature. We report the first case of adenovirus infection in the Iguanidae, a diverse family of lizards that is widely-studied and popular in captivity. We report adenovirus infections from two closely-related species of Anolis lizards (anoles) that were recently imported from wild populations in the Dominican Republic to a laboratory colony in the United States. We investigate the evolution of adenoviruses in anoles and other squamates using phylogenetic analyses of adenovirus polymerase gene sequences sampled from Anolis and a range of other vertebrate taxa. These phylogenetic analyses reveal that (1) the sequences detected from each species of Anolis are novel, and (2) adenoviruses are not necessarily host-specific and do not always follow a co-speciation model under which host and virus phylogenies are perfectly concordant. Together with the fact that the Anolis adenovirus sequences reported in our study were detected in animals that became ill and subsequently died shortly after importation while exhibiting clinical signs consistent with acute adenovirus infection, our discoveries suggest the need for renewed attention to biosecurity measures intended to prevent the spread of adenovirus both within and among species of snakes and lizards housed in captivity.

  7. Addition of Polyadenylate Sequences to Virus-Specific RNA during Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, L.; Wall, R.; Glickman, G.; Darnell, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Adenovirus-specific nuclear and polysomal RNA, both early and late in the infectious cycle, contain a covalently linked region of polyadenylic acid 150-250 nucleotides long. A large proportion of the adenovirus-specific messenger RNA contains poly(A). As revealed by hybridization experiments, the poly(A) is not transcribed from adenovirus DNA. Furthermore, an adenosine analogue, cordycepin, blocks the synthesis of poly(A) and also inhibits the accumulation of adenovirus messenger RNA on polysomes. Addition of poly(A) to viral RNA may involve a host-controlled mechanism that regulates the processing and transport of messenger RNA. PMID:5315962

  8. Inhibitory effect of interferon-gamma on adenovirus replication and late transcription.

    PubMed

    Mistchenko, A S; Diez, R A; Falcoff, R

    1989-06-15

    We have previously shown that human interferon-gamma inhibited adenovirus multiplication in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion. This action was previous to capsid proteins synthesis and did not involve virus adsorption nor penetration. In this report we have analysed viral mRNA levels at early (7 hr post infection (p.i.)) or late (20 hr p.i.) times, as well as DNA replication in Wish cells pretreated with interferon-gamma and infected with adenovirus 5. Controls included untreated cells as well as cells treated with interferon-alpha, to which adenovirus are reported to be resistant. Transcription of adenovirus regions E1, E4, L1 and L2 has been analysed by Northern blot. Adenovirus DNA replication was determined by DNA-DNA hybridization with total adenovirus 2 DNA. We have also searched for adenovirus E1A proteins by immunoblot with a specific monoclonal antibody. Although pretreatment of cells with either interferon-alpha or interferon-gamma resulted in reduced amounts of E1 and E4 mRNA in the early phase of infection (7 hr p.i.), the near complete inhibition of viral DNA and late transcription was only achieved by interferon-gamma. Immunoblot has shown the absence of the 48-kD E1A protein in cells pretreated with interferon-gamma. The lack of this regulatory adenovirus protein may be involved in the inhibitory mechanism of interferon-gamma on adenovirus.

  9. Addition of polyadenylate sequences to virus-specific RNA during adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Philipson, L; Wall, R; Glickman, G; Darnell, J E

    1971-11-01

    Adenovirus-specific nuclear and polysomal RNA, both early and late in the infectious cycle, contain a covalently linked region of polyadenylic acid 150-250 nucleotides long. A large proportion of the adenovirus-specific messenger RNA contains poly(A). As revealed by hybridization experiments, the poly(A) is not transcribed from adenovirus DNA. Furthermore, an adenosine analogue, cordycepin, blocks the synthesis of poly(A) and also inhibits the accumulation of adenovirus messenger RNA on polysomes. Addition of poly(A) to viral RNA may involve a host-controlled mechanism that regulates the processing and transport of messenger RNA.

  10. Retrospective study of adenovirus in autopsied pulmonary tissue of pediatric fatal pneumonia in South China.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhi-Ying; Zeng, Qi-Yi; Wang, Feng-Hua; Xia, Hui-Min; Lu, Jun-Peng; Xia, Jian-Qing; Gong, Si-Tang; Deng, Li; Zhang, Jian-Tao; Zhou, Rong

    2008-09-21

    Adenovirus are the important pathogen of pediatric severe pneumonia. The aim of this study is to analyze the infection, subtype and distribution of adenovirus in autopsied pulmonary tissue of fatal pneumonia in infants and children, and the relationships between adenovirus infection and respiratory illness in South China. Nested PCR was performed on DNA extracted from autopsied lung tissue from patients who died of severe pneumonia, and the positive nested PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The adenovirus in autopsied pulmonary tissue was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry assay in a blind way. In the 175 autopsied pulmonary tissues, the positive percentage of adenovirus was 9.14% (16/175) and 2.29% (4/175) detected with nested PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. There are three cases of adenovirus serotype 3, twelve cases of adenovirus serotype 4 and one case of serotype 41 determined by sequencing of the cloned positive nested PCR products. Adenovirus is an important cause of severe pneumonia, and these data suggest that adenovirus serotype 4 might be an important pathogen responsible for the fatal pneumonia in Guangzhou, South China.

  11. Phylogenetic Analyses of Novel Squamate Adenovirus Sequences in Wild-Caught Anolis Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, Jill M.; Geneva, Anthony J.; Ng, Julienne; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Glor, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus infection has emerged as a serious threat to the health of captive snakes and lizards (i.e., squamates), but we know relatively little about this virus' range of possible hosts, pathogenicity, modes of transmission, and sources from nature. We report the first case of adenovirus infection in the Iguanidae, a diverse family of lizards that is widely-studied and popular in captivity. We report adenovirus infections from two closely-related species of Anolis lizards (anoles) that were recently imported from wild populations in the Dominican Republic to a laboratory colony in the United States. We investigate the evolution of adenoviruses in anoles and other squamates using phylogenetic analyses of adenovirus polymerase gene sequences sampled from Anolis and a range of other vertebrate taxa. These phylogenetic analyses reveal that (1) the sequences detected from each species of Anolis are novel, and (2) adenoviruses are not necessarily host-specific and do not always follow a co-speciation model under which host and virus phylogenies are perfectly concordant. Together with the fact that the Anolis adenovirus sequences reported in our study were detected in animals that became ill and subsequently died shortly after importation while exhibiting clinical signs consistent with acute adenovirus infection, our discoveries suggest the need for renewed attention to biosecurity measures intended to prevent the spread of adenovirus both within and among species of snakes and lizards housed in captivity. PMID:23593364

  12. Recent advances in genetic modification of adenovirus vectors for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Nagasato, Masaki; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Aoki, Kazunori

    2017-05-01

    Adenoviruses are widely used to deliver genes to a variety of cell types and have been used in a number of clinical trials for gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. However, several concerns must be addressed for the clinical use of adenovirus vectors. Selective delivery of a therapeutic gene by adenovirus vectors to target cancer is precluded by the widespread distribution of the primary cellular receptors. The systemic administration of adenoviruses results in hepatic tropism independent of the primary receptors. Adenoviruses induce strong innate and acquired immunity in vivo. Furthermore, several modifications to these vectors are necessary to enhance their oncolytic activity and ensure patient safety. As such, the adenovirus genome has been engineered to overcome these problems. The first part of the present review outlines recent progress in the genetic modification of adenovirus vectors for cancer treatment. In addition, several groups have recently developed cancer-targeting adenovirus vectors by using libraries that display random peptides on a fiber knob. Pancreatic cancer-targeting sequences have been isolated, and these oncolytic vectors have been shown by our group to be associated with a higher gene transduction efficiency and more potent oncolytic activity in cell lines, murine models, and surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer. In the second part of this review, we explain that combining cancer-targeting strategies can be a promising approach to increase the clinical usefulness of oncolytic adenovirus vectors. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Concentration of Reovirus and Adenovirus from Sewage and Effluents by Protamine Sulfate (Salmine) Treatment 1

    PubMed Central

    England, Beatrice

    1972-01-01

    Protamine sulfate was employed to recover reoviruses, adenoviruses, and certain enteroviruses from sewage and treated effluents; 50- to 400-fold concentration of viral content was achieved. PMID:4342842

  14. Antiviral antibodies target adenovirus to phagolysosomes and amplify the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Anne K; Vilaysane, Akosua; Cotter, Matthew J; Clark, Sharon A; Meijndert, H Christopher; Colarusso, Pina; Yates, Robin M; Petrilli, Virginie; Tschopp, Jurg; Muruve, Daniel A

    2009-06-01

    Adenovirus is a nonenveloped dsDNA virus that activates intracellular innate immune pathways. In vivo, adenovirus-immunized mice displayed an enhanced innate immune response and diminished virus-mediated gene delivery following challenge with the adenovirus vector AdLacZ suggesting that antiviral Abs modulate viral interactions with innate immune cells. Under naive serum conditions in vitro, adenovirus binding and internalization in macrophages and the subsequent activation of innate immune mechanisms were inefficient. In contrast to the neutralizing effect observed in nonhematopoietic cells, adenovirus infection in the presence of antiviral Abs significantly increased FcR-dependent viral internalization in macrophages. In direct correlation with the increased viral internalization, antiviral Abs amplified the innate immune response to adenovirus as determined by the expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes, type I IFNs, and caspase-dependent IL-1beta maturation. Immune serum amplified TLR9-independent type I IFN expression and enhanced NLRP3-dependent IL-1beta maturation in response to adenovirus, confirming that antiviral Abs specifically amplify intracellular innate pathways. In the presence of Abs, confocal microscopy demonstrated increased targeting of adenovirus to LAMP1-positive phagolysosomes in macrophages but not epithelial cells. These data show that antiviral Abs subvert natural viral tropism and target the adenovirus to phagolysosomes and the intracellular innate immune system in macrophages. Furthermore, these results illustrate a cross-talk where the adaptive immune system positively regulates the innate immune system and the antiviral state.

  15. First detection of adenovirus in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Elesbao, Felipe; Carnieli Junior, Pedro; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the first detection of adenovirus in a Brazilian Desmodus rotundus bat, the common vampire bat. As part of a continuous rabies surveillance program, three bat specimens were captured in Southern Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from pooled organs and submitted to a nested PCR designed to amplify a 280 bp long portion of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. One positive sample was subjected to nucleotide sequencing, confirming that this DNA fragment belongs to a member of the genus Mastadenovirus. This sequence is approximately 25 % divergent at the nucleotide level from equine adenovirus 1 and two other recently characterized bat adenoviruses.

  16. Reassessing culture media and critical metabolites that affect adenovirus production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun Fang; Voyer, Robert; Tom, Roseanne; Kamen, Amine

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus production is currently operated at low cell density because infection at high cell densities still results in reduced cell-specific productivity. To better understand nutrient limitation and inhibitory metabolites causing the reduction of specific yields at high cell densities, adenovirus production in HEK 293 cultures using NSFM 13 and CD 293 media were evaluated. For cultures using NSFM 13 medium, the cell-specific productivity decreased from 3,400 to 150 vp/cell (or 96% reduction) when the cell density at infection was increased from 1 to 3 x 10(6) cells/mL. In comparison, only 50% of reduction in the cell-specific productivity was observed under the same conditions for cultures using CD 293 medium. The effect of medium osmolality was found critical on viral production. Media were adjusted to an optimal osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg to facilitate comparison. Amino acids were not critical limiting factors. Potential limiting nutrients including vitamins, energy metabolites, bases and nucleotides, or inhibitory metabolites (lactate and ammonia) were supplemented to infected cultures to further investigate their effect on the adenovirus production. Accumulation of lactate and ammonia in a culture infected at 3 x 10(6) cells/mL contributed to about 20% reduction of the adenovirus production yield, whereas nutrient limitation appeared primarily responsible for the decline in the viral production when NSFM 13 medium was used. Overall, the results indicate that multiple factors contribute to limiting the specific production yield at cell densities beyond 1 x 10(6) cells/mL and underline the need to further investigate and develop media for better adenoviral vector productions.

  17. Therapy of Breast Cancers Using Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    virotherapy on breast cancer cells in vitro. We have developed a CRAd using the fit-I promoter element for specific EIA gene expression (CRAdflt), RGD...replicating adenoviruses (CRAd) and investigate effects of CRAd virotherapy on endothelial cells and breast cancer cells in vitro. Vascular targeting...determined the capacity of CRAdRGDflt-mda-7 virotherapy to induce breast cancer cell death. To verify the levels of MDA-7/IL-24 protein expression in vitro

  18. Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Katrina; Halldén, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death and morbidity in men in the Western world. Tumor progression is dependent on functioning androgen receptor signaling, and initial administration of antiandrogens and hormone therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) prevent growth and spread. Tumors frequently develop escape mechanisms to androgen-deprivation therapy and progress to castration-resistant late-stage metastatic disease that, in turn, inevitably leads to resistance to all current therapeutics, including chemotherapy. In spite of the recent development of more effective inhibitors of androgen–androgen receptor signaling such as enzalutamide and abiraterone, patient survival benefits are still limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have proven efficacy in prostate cancer cells and cause regression of tumors in preclinical models of numerous drug-resistant cancers. Data from clinical trials demonstrate that adenoviral mutants have limited toxicity to normal tissues and are safe when administered to patients with various solid cancers, including prostate cancer. While efficacy in response to adenovirus administration alone is marginal, findings from early-phase trials targeting local-ized and metastatic prostate cancer suggest improved efficacy in combination with cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy. Here, we review recent progress in the development of multimodal oncolytic adenoviruses as biological therapeutics to improve on tumor elimination in prostate cancer patients. These optimized mutants target cancer cells by several mechanisms including viral lysis and by expression of cytotoxic transgenes and immune-stimulatory factors that activate the host immune system to destroy both infected and noninfected prostate cancer cells. Additional modifications of the viral capsid proteins may support future systemic delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses. PMID:27579296

  19. Template requirements for the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Challberg, M D; Rawlins, D R

    1984-01-01

    The first step in the replication of the adenovirus genome is the covalent attachment of the 5'-terminal nucleotide, dCMP, to the virus-encoded terminal protein precursor (pTP). This reaction can be observed in vitro and has been previously shown to be dependent upon either viral DNA or linearized plasmid DNA containing viral terminal sequences. Plasmids containing deletions or point mutations within the viral terminal sequence were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. In the case of linear double-stranded templates, pTP-dCMP formation required sequences located within the first 18 base pairs of the viral genome. This sequence contains a segment of 10 base pairs that is conserved in all human adenovirus serotypes. Point mutations within the conserved segment greatly reduced the efficiency of initiation, while a point mutation at a nonconserved position within the first 18 base pairs had little effect. Single-stranded DNAs can also support pTP-dCMP formation in vitro. In contrast to the results obtained with duplex templates, experiments with a variety of single-stranded templates, including phage M13-adenovirus recombinants, denatured plasmids, and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, failed to reveal any requirements for specific nucleotide sequences. With single-stranded templates containing no dG residues, the specific deoxynucleoside triphosphate requirements of the initiation reaction were altered. Images PMID:6320160

  20. Effect of CD4 gene expression on adenovirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, J; Shi, L; Ginsberg, H S

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding the CD4 receptor was introduced into KB cells to establish the KBT4 cell line, a cell line susceptible to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Adenovirus replication was found to be significantly less in these cells than in the parental KB cells. Similar decreased adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication occurred in HeLaT4 cells compared with the original HeLa cells. The presence of CD4 did not alter the cell surface population of KB cell adenovirus receptors, since viral adsorption was similar in the two cell lines. Moreover, addition of soluble CD4 did not reduce viral replication in either KB or KBT4 infected cells. Uncoating of viral DNA was also unchanged in KBT4 cells compared with the parental KB cells. In contrast, migration to or entrance of viral DNA into nuclei and synthesis of early viral RNAs was delayed and reduced in KBT4 cells. These effects were more pronounced for Ad7 than for Ad5. The yields of infectious viruses were the same in both cell lines, however, after transfection of naked viral DNAs to initiate infection. These results imply that the expression of the CD4 gene in KBT4 cells interfered with passage of uncoated virus across endosomal vesicles and/or transfer of uncoated core viral DNA into the nucleus. Images PMID:7933112

  1. Effect of CD4 gene expression on adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Hotta, J; Shi, L; Ginsberg, H S

    1994-11-01

    The gene encoding the CD4 receptor was introduced into KB cells to establish the KBT4 cell line, a cell line susceptible to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Adenovirus replication was found to be significantly less in these cells than in the parental KB cells. Similar decreased adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication occurred in HeLaT4 cells compared with the original HeLa cells. The presence of CD4 did not alter the cell surface population of KB cell adenovirus receptors, since viral adsorption was similar in the two cell lines. Moreover, addition of soluble CD4 did not reduce viral replication in either KB or KBT4 infected cells. Uncoating of viral DNA was also unchanged in KBT4 cells compared with the parental KB cells. In contrast, migration to or entrance of viral DNA into nuclei and synthesis of early viral RNAs was delayed and reduced in KBT4 cells. These effects were more pronounced for Ad7 than for Ad5. The yields of infectious viruses were the same in both cell lines, however, after transfection of naked viral DNAs to initiate infection. These results imply that the expression of the CD4 gene in KBT4 cells interfered with passage of uncoated virus across endosomal vesicles and/or transfer of uncoated core viral DNA into the nucleus.

  2. Ion etching of human adenovirus 2: structure of the core

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, W.W.; Boring, J.W.; Brown, J.C.

    1984-07-01

    The surface of human adenovirus 2 was etched by irradiating intact virions with low-energy (1-keV) Ar/sup +/ ions in a Technics Hummer V sputter coater. Viral structures exposed by the etching process were shadowed and then examined in the electron microscope. Periods of etching that were sufficient to reduce the viral diameter by 20 to 30 nm revealed distinct substructural elements in the virion core. Cores were found to consist of a cluster of 12 large, uniformly sized spheres which abutted one another in the intact virion. The spheres, for which we suggest the name adenosomes, had a diameter of 23.0 +/- 2.3 nm, and they were related to each other by two-, three-, and fivefold axes of rotational symmetry. The results support the view, originally suggested by Brown et al. that the adenovirus 2 core is composed of 12 large spheres packed tightly together in such a way that each is directed toward the vertex of an icosahedron. Such a structure, constructed of 23.0-nm-diameter spheres, would have an outside diameter (vertex-to-vertex distance) of 67.0 nm and a face-to-face distance of 58.2 nm. It could be accommodated inside the icosahedral adenovirus capsid if each large sphere were located beneath a capsid vertex.

  3. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches.

  4. Co-infections of Adenovirus Species in Previously Vaccinated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Gary J.; Lin, Baochuan; Gratwick, Kevin; Meador, Carolyn; Hansen, Christian; Tibbetts, Clark; Stenger, David A.; Irvine, Marina; Seto, Donald; Purkayastha, Anjan; Freed, Nikki E.; Gibson, Marylou G.; Russell, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Despite the success of the adenovirus vaccine administered to US military trainees, acute respiratory disease (ARD) surveillance still detected breakthrough infections (respiratory illnesses associated with the adenovirus serotypes specifically targeted by the vaccine). To explore the role of adenoviral co-infection (simultaneous infection by multiple pathogenic adenovirus species) in breakthrough disease, we examined specimens from patients with ARD by using 3 methods to detect multiple adenoviral species: a DNA microarray, a polymerase chain reaction­ (PCR)–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a multiplex PCR assay. Analysis of 52 samples (21 vaccinated, 31 unvaccinated) collected from 1996 to 2000 showed that all vaccinated samples had co-infections. Most of these co-infections were community-acquired serotypes of species B1 and E. Unvaccinated samples primarily contained only 1 species (species E) associated with adult respiratory illness. This study highlights the rarely reported phenomenon of adenoviral co-infections in a clinically relevant environment suitable for the generation of new recombinational variants. PMID:16707047

  5. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8+ T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides ‘self-adjuvanting’ activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches. PMID:25876176

  6. Structural organization and polypeptide composition of the avian adenovirus core.

    PubMed Central

    Li, P; Bellett, A J; Parish, C R

    1984-01-01

    CELO virus (fowl adenovirus 1) contained three core polypeptides of molecular weights 20,000, 12,000, and 9,500. The core was similar to that of human adenoviruses, with some evidence of compact subcore domains. Micrococcal nuclease digestion of CELO virus cores produced a smear of DNA fragments of gradually decreasing size, with no nucleosome subunit or repeat pattern. Moreover, when digested cores were analyzed without protease treatment, there was again no evidence of a nucleosome substructure; neither DNA fragments nor core proteins entered a 4% polyacrylamide gel. The organization of the core is thus quite unlike that of chromatin. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the DNA from digested cores showed that the right end was on the outside of the core. We suggest that adenovirus DNA is condensed into the core by cross-linking and neutralization by the core proteins, beginning with the packaging sequence at the center of the core and ending with the right end of the DNA on the outside. Images PMID:6092686

  7. An outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

    PubMed

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Masahiko

    2013-08-30

    An outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis at a Japanese aquarium involved 3 otariids: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). In a span of about a week in February 2012, 3 otariids showed diarrhea and were acutely low-spirited; subsequently, all three animals died within a period of 3 days. Markedly increased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities were observed. Necrotic hepatitis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were observed in the South American sea lion on histological examination. Otarine adenovirus DNA was detected from the livers of all three animals by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the sequences showed that all were identical. These results suggest that a single otarine adenovirus strain may have been the etiological agent of this outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis among the different otariid species, and it may be a lethal threat to wild and captive otariids. This is the first evidence of an outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

  8. Prevalence of human adenoviruses in raw and treated water.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Ehlers, M M; van Zyl, W B; Grabow, W O K

    2004-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAds), of which there are 51 antigenic types, are associated aetiologically with gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary tract and eye infections. The clinical importance of HAds and the potential health risks constituted by HAds in water environments are widely recognised. This study was conducted to assess the use of an optimised integrated cell culture molecular-based technique to determine the prevalence of HAds in raw and treated drinking-water supplies in South Africa. Selected supplies were monitored weekly for the presence of adenoviruses over a one-year period (July 2001 to June 2002). Drinking-water supplies were derived from acceptable quality surface water sources using treatment processes that conformed to international standards for the production of safe drinking water. Adenoviruses were detected by amplification in cell cultures, followed by amplifying the extracted nucleic acids using molecular techniques (nested PCR). HAds were detected in 29.8% (59/198) of the treated drinking water, 16% (8/50) of dam water and 44% (22/50) of river-water samples tested. The results of this study confirmed the presence of HAds in some raw and treated drinking water supplies in South Africa.

  9. Adenovirus infection elevates levels of cellular topoisomerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, K C; Pearson, G D

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a specific, sensitive, and quantitative assay for topoisomerase I, which is based on the formation of a covalent enzyme-DNA intermediate. Our assay measures the quantitative transfer of 32P radioactivity from 32P-labeled DNA to topoisomerase I. Since 32P-labeled topoisomerase molecules are resolved by NaDodSO4/PAGE, HeLa topoisomerase I (100 kDa) and calf thymus topoisomerase I (82 kDa) can be quantitatively assayed in the same reaction mixture. The assay can detect at least 0.3 ng (3 fmol) of topoisomerase I. We have used our assay to measure the levels of topoisomerase I activity in crude extracts of nuclei prepared from uninfected, adenovirus-infected, and adenovirus-transformed human cells. The evidence suggests that an adenovirus early gene product, presumably a protein encoded in early region 1A (E1A), increases cellular topoisomerase I activity at least 10-fold. Immunoblotting analysis with antiserum against calf thymus topoisomerase I shows that the increase in activity is due to an increase in the amount of enzyme. Images PMID:2986107

  10. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Bru, Thierry; Salinas, Sara; Kremer, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1)-deleted to helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors. PMID:21994722

  11. History of the restoration of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, live oral (Adenovirus Vaccine) in the context of the Department of Defense acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Charles H; Snyder, Clifford E

    2013-03-15

    Respiratory pathogens cause morbidity and mortality in US military basic trainees. Following the influenza pandemic of 1918, and stimulated by WWII, the need to protect military personnel against epidemic respiratory disease was evident. Over several decades, the US military elucidated etiologies of acute respiratory diseases and invented and deployed vaccines to prevent disease caused by influenza, meningococcus, and adenoviruses. In 1994, the Adenovirus Vaccine manufacturer stopped its production. By 1999, supplies were exhausted and adenovirus-associated disease, especially serotype 4-associated febrile respiratory illness, returned to basic training installations. Advisory bodies persuaded Department of Defense leaders to initiate restoration of Adenovirus Vaccine. In 2011, after 10 years of effort by government and contractor personnel and at a cost of about $100 million, the Adenovirus Vaccine was restored to use at all military basic training installations. Disease and adenovirus serotype 4 isolation rates have fallen dramatically since vaccinations resumed in October 2011 and remain very low. Mindful of the adage that "The more successful a vaccine is, the more quickly the need for it will be forgotten.", sustainment of the supply of the Adenovirus Vaccine may be a challenge, and careful management will be required for such sustainment.

  12. Tropism modification of adenovirus vectors by peptide ligand insertion into various positions of the adenovirus serotype 41 short-fiber knob domain.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Andrea; Kosmides, Daniela; Kontermann, Roland E; Nettelbeck, Dirk M

    2007-03-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses have emerged as promising agents in therapeutic gene transfer, genetic vaccination, and viral oncolysis. Therapeutic applications of adenoviruses, however, would benefit substantially from targeted virus cell entry, for example, into cancer or immune cells, as opposed to the broad tropism that adenoviruses naturally possess. Such tropism modification of adenoviruses requires the deletion of their natural cell binding properties and the incorporation of cell binding ligands. The short fibers of subgroup F adenoviruses have recently been suggested as a tool for genetic adenovirus detargeting based on the reduced infectivity of corresponding adenovectors with chimeric fibers in vitro and in vivo. The goal of our study was to determine functional insertion sites for peptide ligands in the adenovirus serotype 41 (Ad41) short fiber knob. With a model peptide, CDCRGDCFC, we could demonstrate that ligand incorporation into three of five analyzed loops of the knob, namely, EG, HI, and IJ, is feasible without a loss of fiber trimerization. The resulting adenovectors showed enhanced infectivity for various cell types, which was superior to that of viruses with the same peptide fused to the fiber C terminus. Strategies to further augment gene transfer efficacy by extension of the fiber shaft, insertion of tandem copies of the ligand peptide, or extension of the ligand-flanking linkers failed, indicating that precise ligand positioning is pivotal. Our study establishes that internal ligand incorporation into a short-shafted adenovirus fiber is feasible and suggests the Ad41 short fiber with ligand insertion into the top (IJ loop) or side (EG and HI loops) of the knob domain as a novel platform for genetic targeting of therapeutic adenoviruses.

  13. Purification and characterization of adenovirus core protein VII: a histone-like protein that is critical for adenovirus core formation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Moria, Nithesh; Williams, Martin; Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Pouton, Colin W

    2017-07-01

    Adenovirus protein VII is a highly cationic core protein that forms a nucleosome-like structure in the adenovirus core by condensing DNA in combination with protein V and mu. It has been proposed that protein VII could condense DNA in a manner analogous to mammalian histones. Due to the lack of an expression and purification protocol, the interactions between protein VII and DNA are poorly understood. In this study we describe methods for the purification of biologically active recombinant protein VII using an E. coli expression system. We expressed a cleavable fusion of protein VII with thioredoxin and established methods for purification of this fusion protein in denatured form. We describe an efficient method for resolving the cleavage products to obtain pure protein VII using hydroxyapatite column chromatography. Mass spectroscopy data confirmed its mass and purity to be 19.4 kDa and >98 %, respectively. Purified recombinant protein VII spontaneously condensed dsDNA to form particles, as shown by dye exclusion assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and nuclease protection assay. Additionally, an in vitro bioluminescence assay revealed that protein VII can be used to enhance the transfection of mammalian cells with lipofectamine/DNA complexes. The availability of recombinant protein VII will facilitate future studies of the structure of the adenovirus core. Improved understanding of the structure and function of protein VII will be valuable in elucidating the mechanism of adenoviral DNA condensation, defining the morphology of the adenovirus core and establishing the mechanism by which adenoviral DNA enters the nucleus.

  14. A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results

    PubMed Central

    Gallaher, Sean D.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called “infectious genome titration” in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

  15. The Evaluation of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB) as a Disinfectant for Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; O’Connor, Katherine E.; Mah, Francis S.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Kowalski, Regis P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Swimming pools can be a vector for transmission of adenovirus ocular infections. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a disinfectant used in swimming pools and hot tubs. The current study determined whether PHMB is an effective disinfectant against ocular adenovirus serotypes at a concentration used to disinfect swimming pools and hot tubs. Methods The direct disinfecting activity of PHMB was determined in triplicate assays by incubating nine human adenovirus types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7a, 8, 19, and 37) with 50 and 0 PPM (µg/ml) of PHMB for 24 hours at room temperature, to simulate swimming pool temperatures, or 40°C, to simulate hot tub temperatures. Plaque assays determined adenovirus titers after incubation. Titers were Log10 converted and mean ± standard deviation Log10 reductions from controls were calculated. Virucidal (greater than 99.9%) decreases in mean adenovirus titers after PHMB treatment were determined for each adenovirus type and temperature tested. Results At room temperature, 50 PPM of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 Log10 for all adenovirus types tested. At 40°C, 50 PPM of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 Log10 for two adenovirus types and greater than 1 Log10, but less than 3 Log10, for seven of nine adenovirus types. Conclusions 50 PPM of PHMB was not virucidal against adenovirus at temperatures consistent with swimming pools or hot tubs. Clinical Relevance Recreational water maintained and sanitized with PHMB has the potential to serve as a vector for the transmission of ocular adenovirus infections. PMID:23450376

  16. Adenovirus Type 7 Pneumonia in Children Who Died from Measles-Associated Pneumonia, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hai, Le Thanh; Thach, Hoang Ngoc; Tuan, Ta Anh; Nam, Dao Huu; Dien, Tran Minh; Sato, Yuko; Kumasaka, Toshio; Suzuki, Tadaki; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Fujimoto, Tsuguto; Katano, Harutaka; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kawachi, Shoji; Nakajima, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    During a 2014 measles outbreak in Vietnam, postmortem pathologic examination of hospitalized children who died showed that adenovirus type 7 pneumonia was a contributory cause of death in children with measles-associated immune suppression. Adenovirus type 7 pneumonia should be recognized as a major cause of secondary infection after measles.

  17. Optimization and evaluation of a method to detect adenoviruses in river water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset includes the recoveries of spiked adenovirus through various stages of experimental optimization procedures. This dataset is associated with the following publication:McMinn , B., A. Korajkic, and A. Grimm. Optimization and evaluation of a method to detect adenoviruses in river water. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGICAL METHODS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 231(1): 8-13, (2016).

  18. Adenovirus-based vaccines for fighting infectious diseases and cancer: progress in the field.

    PubMed

    Majhen, Dragomira; Calderon, Hugo; Chandra, Naresh; Fajardo, Carlos Alberto; Rajan, Anandi; Alemany, Ramon; Custers, Jerome

    2014-04-01

    The field of adenovirology is undergoing rapid change in response to increasing appreciation of the potential advantages of adenoviruses as the basis for new vaccines and as vectors for gene and cancer therapy. Substantial knowledge and understanding of adenoviruses at a molecular level has made their manipulation for use as vaccines and therapeutics relatively straightforward in comparison with other viral vectors. In this review we summarize the structure and life cycle of the adenovirus and focus on the use of adenovirus-based vectors in vaccines against infectious diseases and cancers. Strategies to overcome the problem of preexisting antiadenovirus immunity, which can hamper the immunogenicity of adenovirus-based vaccines, are discussed. When armed with tumor-associated antigens, replication-deficient and oncolytic adenoviruses can efficiently activate an antitumor immune response. We present concepts on how to use adenoviruses as therapeutic cancer vaccines and consider some of the strategies used to further improve antitumor immune responses. Studies that explore the prospect of adenoviruses as vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer are underway, and here we give an overview of the latest developments.

  19. Adenovirus-based vaccines against avian-origin H5N1 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    He, Biao; Zheng, Bo-jian; Wang, Qian; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2015-02-01

    Since 1997, human infection with avian H5N1, having about 60% mortality, has posed a threat to public health. In this review, we describe the epidemiology of H5N1 transmission, advantages and disadvantages of different influenza vaccine types, and characteristics of adenovirus, finally summarizing advances in adenovirus-based H5N1 systemic and mucosal vaccines.

  20. Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, Jason C.; Morrison, Brian J.; Mannan, Poonam; Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Wildner, Oliver; Miles, Brian K.; Yim, Kevin C.; Ramanan, Vijay; Prince, Gregory A.; Morris, John C.

    2007-12-05

    Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses.

  1. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  2. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  3. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  4. Subgenomic viral DNA species synthesized in simian cells by human and simian adenoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, E

    1981-01-01

    DNA synthesized after infection of simian tissue culture cells (BSC-1 or CV-1) with human adenovirus type 2 or 5 or with simian adenovirus 7 was characterized. It was demonstrated that as much as 40% of the virus-specific DNA in nuclei of infected monkey cells consists of subgenomic pieces. No subgenomic viral DNA species were detected in the nuclei of human (HeLa) cells infected with these adenovirus types. Restriction analysis showed that these short viral DNA molecules contain normal amounts of the sequences from the ends of the viral genome, whereas internal regions are underrepresented. The production of subgenomic DNAs is not correlated with semipermissive infection. Although adenovirus types 2 and 5 are restricted in monkey cells, these cells are fully permissive for simian adenovirus 7. HR404, an adenovirus type 5 mutant which is not restricted in monkey cells, produced the same percentage of subgenomic DNAs as did its wild type (restricted) parent, and coinfection of monkey cells with adenovirus type 5 DNAs. The array of predominant size classes among the heterogeneously sized short DNAs is serotype specific. Extensive plaque purification and comparison of wild-type adenovirus type 5 with several viral mutants indicated that the distribution of aberrant sizes of DNA is characteristic of the virus and not a result of random replicative errors and then enrichment of particular species. Images PMID:6261009

  5. Location of the Origin of DNA Replication in Adenovirus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Marshall S.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing the isolated left and right halves of both adenovirus type 2 and the nondefective adenovirus simian virus 40 hybrid (Ad2+ND1), studies were undertaken to find the site on the DNA molecules at which replication begins. The data are consistent with several models which include an initiation event at both ends and bidirectional growth. PMID:4363250

  6. Recruitment of wild-type and recombinant adeno-associated virus into adenovirus replication centers.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, M D; Fisher, K J; Wilson, J M

    1996-01-01

    Replication of a human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is facilitated by coinfection with adeno-virus to provide essential helper functions. We have used the techniques of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to characterize the localization of AAV replication within infected cells, Previous studies have shown that adenovirus establishes foci called replication centers within the nucleus, where adenoviral replication and transcription occur. Our studies indicate that AAV is colocalized with the adenovirus replication centers, where it may utilize adenovirus and cellular proteins for its own replication. Expression of the AAV Rep protein inhibits the normal maturation of the adenovirus centers. Similar experiments were performed with recombinant AAV (rAAV) to establish a relationship between intranuclear localization and rAAV transduction. rAAV efficiently entered the cell, and its genome was faintly detectable in a perinuclear distribution and was mobilized to replication centers when the cell was infected with adenovirus. The recruitment of the replication-defective genome into the intranuclear adenovirus domains resulted in enhanced transduction. These studies illustrate the importance of intracellular compartmentalization for such complex interactions as the relationship between AAV and adenovirus. PMID:8627709

  7. Recruitment of wild-type and recombinant adeno-associated virus into adenovirus replication centers.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, M D; Fisher, K J; Wilson, J M

    1996-03-01

    Replication of a human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is facilitated by coinfection with adeno-virus to provide essential helper functions. We have used the techniques of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to characterize the localization of AAV replication within infected cells, Previous studies have shown that adenovirus establishes foci called replication centers within the nucleus, where adenoviral replication and transcription occur. Our studies indicate that AAV is colocalized with the adenovirus replication centers, where it may utilize adenovirus and cellular proteins for its own replication. Expression of the AAV Rep protein inhibits the normal maturation of the adenovirus centers. Similar experiments were performed with recombinant AAV (rAAV) to establish a relationship between intranuclear localization and rAAV transduction. rAAV efficiently entered the cell, and its genome was faintly detectable in a perinuclear distribution and was mobilized to replication centers when the cell was infected with adenovirus. The recruitment of the replication-defective genome into the intranuclear adenovirus domains resulted in enhanced transduction. These studies illustrate the importance of intracellular compartmentalization for such complex interactions as the relationship between AAV and adenovirus.

  8. Avian influenza mucosal vaccination in chickens with replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vaccine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial layer-type chicken groups were singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, or singly v...

  9. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with non-replicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding a H7 hemagglutinin gene from a low pathogenic North American isolate (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinate...

  10. Monitoring of adenovirus serotypes in environmental samples by combined PCR and melting point analyses.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Nils Marten; Dartscht, Melanie; Szewzyk, Regine; Selinka, Hans-Christoph

    2013-06-10

    Human adenoviruses are promising candidates for addressing health risks associated with enteric viruses in environmental waters. Relatively harmless but common, these DNA viruses persist within the population and are generally considered extremely stable, remaining infectious in water for long periods of time. Group-specific or single species detection of human adenoviruses in environmental samples is usually based on polymerase chain reaction assays. Simultaneous identification of specific species or serotypes needs additional processing. Here we present a simple molecular approach for the monitoring of serotypic diversity in the human adenovirus populations in contaminated water sites. Diversity patterns of human adenoviruses in environmental samples, collected in an outdoor artificial stream and pond simulation system, were analyzed using a closed tube polymerase chain reaction method with subsequent melting point analysis. Human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most prominent adenovirus serotype detected in environmental water samples, but melting point analyses indicated the presence of additional adenovirus serotypes. Based on investigations with spiked and environmental samples, a combination of qPCR and melting point analysis was shown to identify adenovirus serotypes in sewage contaminated water.

  11. Crystal Structure of the Fibre Head Domain of the Atadenovirus Snake Adenovirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhimanyu K.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; San Martín, Carmen; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses are non-enveloped icosahedral viruses with trimeric fibre proteins protruding from their vertices. There are five known genera, from which only Mastadenoviruses have been widely studied. Apart from studying adenovirus as a biological model system and with a view to prevent or combat viral infection, there is a major interest in using adenovirus for vaccination, cancer therapy and gene therapy purposes. Adenoviruses from the Atadenovirus genus have been isolated from squamate reptile hosts, ruminants and birds and have a characteristic gene organization and capsid morphology. The carboxy-terminal virus-distal fibre head domains are likely responsible for primary receptor recognition. We determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the Snake Adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1) fibre head using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. Despite the absence of significant sequence homology, this Atadenovirus fibre head has the same beta-sandwich propeller topology as other adenovirus fibre heads. However, it is about half the size, mainly due to much shorter loops connecting the beta-strands. The detailed structure of the SnAdV-1 fibre head and other animal adenovirus fibre heads, together with the future identification of their natural receptors, may lead to the development of new strategies to target adenovirus vectors to cells of interest. PMID:25486282

  12. Crystal structure of the fibre head domain of the Atadenovirus Snake Adenovirus 1.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhimanyu K; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; San Martín, Carmen; van Raaij, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses are non-enveloped icosahedral viruses with trimeric fibre proteins protruding from their vertices. There are five known genera, from which only Mastadenoviruses have been widely studied. Apart from studying adenovirus as a biological model system and with a view to prevent or combat viral infection, there is a major interest in using adenovirus for vaccination, cancer therapy and gene therapy purposes. Adenoviruses from the Atadenovirus genus have been isolated from squamate reptile hosts, ruminants and birds and have a characteristic gene organization and capsid morphology. The carboxy-terminal virus-distal fibre head domains are likely responsible for primary receptor recognition. We determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the Snake Adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1) fibre head using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. Despite the absence of significant sequence homology, this Atadenovirus fibre head has the same beta-sandwich propeller topology as other adenovirus fibre heads. However, it is about half the size, mainly due to much shorter loops connecting the beta-strands. The detailed structure of the SnAdV-1 fibre head and other animal adenovirus fibre heads, together with the future identification of their natural receptors, may lead to the development of new strategies to target adenovirus vectors to cells of interest.

  13. Monitoring of adenovirus serotypes in environmental samples by combined PCR and melting point analyses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses are promising candidates for addressing health risks associated with enteric viruses in environmental waters. Relatively harmless but common, these DNA viruses persist within the population and are generally considered extremely stable, remaining infectious in water for long periods of time. Group-specific or single species detection of human adenoviruses in environmental samples is usually based on polymerase chain reaction assays. Simultaneous identification of specific species or serotypes needs additional processing. Here we present a simple molecular approach for the monitoring of serotypic diversity in the human adenovirus populations in contaminated water sites. Methods Diversity patterns of human adenoviruses in environmental samples, collected in an outdoor artificial stream and pond simulation system, were analyzed using a closed tube polymerase chain reaction method with subsequent melting point analysis. Results Human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most prominent adenovirus serotype detected in environmental water samples, but melting point analyses indicated the presence of additional adenovirus serotypes. Conclusions Based on investigations with spiked and environmental samples, a combination of qPCR and melting point analysis was shown to identify adenovirus serotypes in sewage contaminated water. PMID:23758742

  14. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  15. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  16. Studies on the Interaction of Tumor-Derived HD5 Alpha Defensins with Adenoviruses and Implications for Oncolytic Adenovirus Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vragniau, Charles; Hübner, Jens-Martin; Beidler, Peter; Gil, Sucheol; Saydaminova, Kamola; Lu, Zhuo-Zhuang; Yumul, Roma; Wang, Hongjie; Richter, Maximilian; Sova, Pavel; Drescher, Charles; Fender, Pascal; Lieber, André

    2017-03-15

    Defensins are small antimicrobial peptides capable of neutralizing human adenovirus (HAdV) in vitro by binding capsid proteins and blocking endosomal escape of virus. In humans, the alpha defensin HD5 is produced by specialized epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal and genito-urinary tracts. Here, we demonstrate, using patient biopsy specimens, that HD5 is also expressed as an active, secreted peptide by epithelial ovarian and lung cancer cells in situ This finding prompted us to study the role of HD5 in infection and spread of replication-competent, oncolytic HAdV type 3 (HAdV3). HAdV3 produces large amounts of penton-dodecahedra (PtDd), virus-like particles, during replication. We have previously shown that PtDd are involved in opening epithelial junctions, thus facilitating lateral spread of de novo-produced virions. Here, we describe a second function of PtDd, namely, the blocking of HD5. A central tool to prove that viral PtDd neutralize HD5 and support spread of progeny virus was an HAdV3 mutant virus in which formation of PtDd was disabled (mut-Ad3GFP, where GFP is green fluorescent protein). We demonstrated that viral spread of mut-Ad3GFP was blocked by synthetic HD5 whereas that of the wild-type (wt) form (wt-Ad3GFP) was only minimally impacted. In human colon cancer Caco-2 cells, induction of cellular HD5 expression by fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) significantly inhibited viral spread and progeny virus production of mut-Ad3GFP but not of wt-Ad3GFP. Finally, the ectopic expression of HD5 in tumor cells diminished the in vivo oncolytic activity of mut-Ad3GFP but not of wt-Ad3GFP. These data suggest a new mechanism of HAdV3 to overcome innate antiviral host responses. Our study has implications for oncolytic adenovirus therapy.IMPORTANCE Previously, it has been reported that human defensin HD5 inactivates specific human adenoviruses by binding to capsid proteins and blocking endosomal escape of virus. The central new findings described in our

  17. Epidemiology of human adenovirus and molecular characterization of human adenovirus 55 in China, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Tong, Yi-Gang; Wo, Ying; Wang, Hong-Yu; Liu, En-Mei; Gray, Gregory C; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-05-01

    Human adenovirus 55 (HAdV-55) has caused recent outbreaks of acute respiratory disease (ARD) among adults and military trainees. The active surveillance for HAdV infections was sparse in China, and current knowledge on the HAdV-type distributions and its molecular evolution is lacking. To acquire better understanding on the prevalence and molecular evolution of HAdV-55 strains in China, for an informed strategy for disease control and prevention. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized children with ARTI in Chongqing during 2009-2012. The genotype of HAdV isolates were determined by sequencing the partial hexon and fiber genes. Whole genome sequences of HAdV-55 were obtained for molecular evolution analysis. About 191 (8·55%) HAdV were detected in 2234 children, including 92 (48·2%) with HAdV-7, 72 (37·7%) with HAdV-3, 6 (3·1%) with HAdV-55, 5 (2·6%) with HAdV-5, 4 (2·1%) with HAdV-1, 1 (0·5%) with HAdV-2, and 11(5·8%) with untyped HAdV. Four of these children developed pneumonia, two of whom were diagnosed with severe pneumonia and/or encephalopathy. HAdV-55 isolates clustered with HAdV-11 sequences based on the hexon gene and clustered with HAdV-14 sequences based on the fiber gene and the whole genome. The overall evolutionary rates of hexon gene, fiber gene, and whole genome of HAdV-55 were estimated at 6·2 × 10(-5) s/s/y, 8·0 × 10(-5 ) s/s/y, and 1·7 × 10(-5) s/s/y, respectively. This study suggested HAdV-55 as an emerging infectious disease pathogen has conserved genetic structure and is closely related to each other. Further molecular investigation based on HAdV-55 of wider origin might facilitate understanding its diversity, dissemination, and transmission in China. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Rotavirus and adenovirus prevalence at Tepecik education and research hospital (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Ece, Gulfem; Samlioglu, Pinar; Ulker, Temel; Kose, Sukran; Ersan, Gursel

    2012-06-01

    Diarrhoea affects many people globally. Rotaviruses and enteric adenovirus types 40 and 41 are the most common viruses causing childhood gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus and adenovirus from the faecal samples obtained at the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Tepecik Education and Research Hospital. The faecal samples were screened for rotavirus, and adenovirus by commercially available immunochromatographic EIA kit (Rotavirus/Adenovirus Combo Rapid Test Device) (San Diego, CA, USA). A total of 1112 stool samples were collected from May 23rd 2008 to May 25th 2010. Of these faecal samples, 201(18.07%) were positive for rotavirus and 14 (1.2 %) for adenovirus antigen. In our study the most common agent detected was rotavirus. Viral antigen analysis in stool specimens is important for diagnosis. Detection of the viral aetiology in gastroenteritis cases will prevent unnecessary antibiotic consumption.

  19. Human adenoviruses in water: occurrence and health implications: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sunny C

    2006-12-01

    Adenoviruses are important human pathogens that are responsible for both enteric illnesses and respiratory and eye infections. Recently, these viruses have been found to be prevalent in rivers, coastal waters, swimming pool waters, and drinking water supplies worldwide. United Sates Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) listed adenovirus as one of nine microorganisms on the Contamination Candidate List for drinking water because their survival characteristic during water treatment is not yet fully understood. Adenoviruses have been found to be significantly more stable than fecal indicator bacteria and other enteric viruses during UV treatment. Adenovirus infection may be caused by consumption of contaminated water or inhalation of aerosolized droplets during water recreation. The goal of this review is to summarize the state of technology for adenovirus detection in natural and drinking waters and the human health risk imposed by this emerging pathogen. The occurrence of these viruses in natural and treated waters is summarized from worldwide reports.

  20. Resident corneal c-fms+ macrophages and dendritic cells mediate early cellular infiltration in adenovirus keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Ramke, Mirja; Zhou, Xiaohong; Materne, Emma Caroline; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James

    2016-01-01

    The cornea contains a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells with the capacity to contribute to immune responses. Adenovirus keratitis is a severe corneal infection with acute and chronic phases. The role of resident corneal antigen-presenting cells in adenovirus keratitis has not been studied. We utilized transgenic MaFIA mice in which c-fms expressing macrophages and dendritic cells can be induced to undergo apoptosis, in a mouse model of adenovirus keratitis. Clinical keratitis and recruitment of myeloperoxidase and CD45+ cells were diminished in c-fms depleted, adenovirus infected mice, as compared to controls, consistent with a role for myeloid-lineage cells in adenovirus keratitis. PMID:27185163

  1. Resident corneal c-fms(+) macrophages and dendritic cells mediate early cellular infiltration in adenovirus keratitis.

    PubMed

    Ramke, Mirja; Zhou, Xiaohong; Materne, Emma Caroline; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James

    2016-06-01

    The cornea contains a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells with the capacity to contribute to immune responses. Adenovirus keratitis is a severe corneal infection with acute and chronic phases. The role of resident corneal antigen-presenting cells in adenovirus keratitis has not been studied. We utilized transgenic MaFIA mice in which c-fms expressing macrophages and dendritic cells can be induced to undergo apoptosis, in a mouse model of adenovirus keratitis. Clinical keratitis and recruitment of myeloperoxidase and CD45(+) cells were diminished in c-fms depleted, adenovirus infected mice, as compared to controls, consistent with a role for myeloid-lineage cells in adenovirus keratitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of a new species of adenovirus in falcons.

    PubMed

    Schrenzel, Mark; Oaks, J Lindsay; Rotstein, Dave; Maalouf, Gabriel; Snook, Eric; Sandfort, Cal; Rideout, Bruce

    2005-07-01

    In 1996, a disease outbreak occurred at a captive breeding facility in Idaho, causing anorexia, dehydration, and diarrhea or sudden death in 72 of 110 Northern aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) from 9 to 35 days of age and in 6 of 102 peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from 14 to 25 days of age. Sixty-two Northern aplomado and six peregrine falcons died. Epidemiologic analyses indicated a point source epizootic, horizontal transmission, and increased relative risk associated with cross-species brooding of eggs. Primary lesions in affected birds were inclusion body hepatitis, splenomegaly, and enteritis. The etiology in all mortalities was determined by molecular analyses to be a new species of adenovirus distantly related to the group I avian viruses, serotypes 1 and 4, Aviadenovirus. In situ hybridization and PCR demonstrated that the virus was epitheliotropic and lymphotropic and that infection was systemic in the majority of animals. Adeno-associated virus was also detected by PCR in most affected falcons, but no other infectious agents or predisposing factors were found in any birds. Subsequent to the 1996 epizootic, a similar disease caused by the same adenovirus was found over a 5-year period in orange-breasted falcons (Falco deiroleucus), teita falcons (Falco fasciinucha), a merlin (Falco columbarius), a Vanuatu peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nesiotes), and gyrfalcon x peregrine falcon hybrids (Falco rusticolus/peregrinus) that died in Wyoming, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and California. These findings indicate that this newly recognized adenovirus is widespread in western and midwestern North America and can be a primary pathogen in different falcon species.

  3. Characterization of a New Species of Adenovirus in Falcons

    PubMed Central

    Schrenzel, Mark; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Rotstein, Dave; Maalouf, Gabriel; Snook, Eric; Sandfort, Cal; Rideout, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In 1996, a disease outbreak occurred at a captive breeding facility in Idaho, causing anorexia, dehydration, and diarrhea or sudden death in 72 of 110 Northern aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) from 9 to 35 days of age and in 6 of 102 peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from 14 to 25 days of age. Sixty-two Northern aplomado and six peregrine falcons died. Epidemiologic analyses indicated a point source epizootic, horizontal transmission, and increased relative risk associated with cross-species brooding of eggs. Primary lesions in affected birds were inclusion body hepatitis, splenomegaly, and enteritis. The etiology in all mortalities was determined by molecular analyses to be a new species of adenovirus distantly related to the group I avian viruses, serotypes 1 and 4, Aviadenovirus. In situ hybridization and PCR demonstrated that the virus was epitheliotropic and lymphotropic and that infection was systemic in the majority of animals. Adeno-associated virus was also detected by PCR in most affected falcons, but no other infectious agents or predisposing factors were found in any birds. Subsequent to the 1996 epizootic, a similar disease caused by the same adenovirus was found over a 5-year period in orange-breasted falcons (Falco deiroleucus), teita falcons (Falco fasciinucha), a merlin (Falco columbarius), a Vanuatu peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nesiotes), and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcon hybrids (Falco rusticolus/peregrinus) that died in Wyoming, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and California. These findings indicate that this newly recognized adenovirus is widespread in western and midwestern North America and can be a primary pathogen in different falcon species. PMID:16000466

  4. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  5. Evaluation of adenovirus capsid labeling versus transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been utilized for a variety of gene therapy applications. Our group has incorporated bioluminescent, fluorographic reporters, and/or suicide genes within the adenovirus genome for analytical and/or therapeutic purposes. These molecules have also been incorporated as capsid components. Recognizing that incorporations at either locale yield potential advantages and disadvantages, our report evaluates the benefits of transgene incorporation versus capsid incorporation. To this end, we have genetically incorporated firefly luciferase within the early region 3 or at minor capsid protein IX and compared vector functionality by means of reporter readout. PMID:20102632

  6. Packaging capacity and stability of human adenovirus type 5 vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Bett, A J; Prevec, L; Graham, F L

    1993-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are extensively used for high-level expression of proteins in mammalian cells and are receiving increasing attention for their potential use as live recombinant vaccines and as transducing viruses for use in gene therapy. Although it is commonly argued that one of the chief advantages of adenovirus vectors is their relative stability, this has not been thoroughly investigated. To examine the genetic stability of adenovirus type 5 vectors and in particular to examine the relationship between genetic stability and genome size, adenovirus vectors were constructed with inserts of 4.88 (herpes simplex virus type 1 gB), 4.10 (herpes simplex virus type 1 gB), or 3.82 (LacZ) kb combined with a 1.88-kb E3 deletion or with a newly generated 2.69-kb E3 deletion. The net excess of DNA over the wild-type (wt) genome size ranged from 1.13 to 3.00 kb or 3.1 to 8.3%. Analysis of these vectors during serial passage in tissue culture revealed that when the size exceeded 105% of the wt genome length by approximately 1.2 kb (4.88-kb insert combined with a 1.88-kb deletion), the resulting vector grew very poorly and underwent rapid rearrangement, resulting in loss of the insert after only a few passages. In contrast, vectors with inserts resulting in viral DNA close to or less than a net genome size of 105% of that of the wt grew well and were relatively stable. In general, viruses with genomes only slightly above 105% of that of the wt were unstable and the rapidity with which rearrangement occurred correlated with the size of the insert. These findings suggest that there is a relatively tight constraint on the amount of DNA which can be packaged into virions and that exceeding the limit results in a sharply decreased rate of virus growth. The resultant strong selection for variants which have undergone rearrangement, generating smaller genomes, is manifested as genetic instability of the virus population. Images PMID:8371349

  7. The Length of the Terminal Repetition in Adenovirus-2 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Richard J.; Arrand, John R.; Keller, Walter

    1974-01-01

    Adenovirus-2 DNA was end-labeled by partial digestion with Escherichia coli exonuclease III and resynthesis with the DNA polymerase from avian myeloblastosis virus and α-32P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. This end-labeled DNA was cleaved with several specific endonucleases and the terminal fragments were characterized by gel electrophoresis and pyrimidine tract analysis. Two endonucleases gave identical fragments from both ends, presumably from cleavage within the inverted terminal repetition, while all other endonucleases gave dissimilar fragments from the two ends. From the sizes of these fragments it is estimated that the inverted terminal repetition is between 100 and 140 nucleotide pairs long. Images PMID:4139703

  8. Estramustine phosphate reversibly inhibits an early stage during adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Everitt, E; Ekstrand, H; Boberg, B; Hartley-Asp, B

    1990-01-01

    Estramustine phosphate, an estradiol-mustard conjugate, was shown to reversibly inhibit a stage during the first hour of productive adenovirus 2 infection of HeLa cells. This drug, employed in the therapy of advanced prostatic cancer, specifically interacts with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) of the cytoskeleton. The results obtained under physiological conditions in vivo suggest a MAPs-interference with the microtubule-mediated vectorial migration of the virus inoculum to the nucleus. Virus attachment, uncoating kinetics and the appearance of established uncoating intermediates were not affected.

  9. Transductional targeting of adenovirus vectors for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, JN; Everts, M; Curiel, DT

    2007-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy approaches will derive considerable benefit from adenovirus (Ad) vectors capable of self-directed localization to neoplastic disease or immunomodulatory targets in vivo. The ablation of native Ad tropism coupled with active targeting modalities has demonstrated that innate gene delivery efficiency may be retained while circumventing Ad dependence on its primary cellular receptor, the coxsackie and Ad receptor. Herein, we describe advances in Ad targeting that are predicated on a fundamental understanding of vector/cell interplay. Further, we propose strategies by which existing paradigms, such as nanotechnology, may be combined with Ad vectors to form advanced delivery vehicles with multiple functions. PMID:16439993

  10. Adenovirus Interstitial Nephritis and Rejection in an Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Storsley, Leroy

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are an important complication of solid organ transplantation. Although polyoma is the virus that most commonly infects the renal allograft, adenoviral infections are also reported. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings in a patient with adenoviral infection associated with acute rejection of the renal allograft. The pathologic findings of adenovirus infection usually include a granulomatous interstitial nephritis, which is helpful in distinguishing from acute rejection. We discuss the differential diagnosis and pathophysiology of allograft viral infections and concomitant rejection. PMID:21436288

  11. Novel adenovirus detected in kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gál, János; Mándoki, Míra; Sós, Endre; Kertész, Péter; Koroknai, Viktória; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2017-02-15

    A male kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) originating from a zoo facility was delivered for post mortem evaluation in Hungary. Acute lobar pneumonia with histopathologic changes resembling an adenovirus (AdV) infection was detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an AdV was confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Although the exact taxonomic position of this novel marsupial origin virus could not be determined, pairwise identity analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed that it is distantly related to other members in the family Adenoviridae.

  12. Boosting oncolytic adenovirus potency with magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic force.

    PubMed

    Tresilwised, Nittaya; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Holm, Per Sonne; Holzmüller, Regina; Anton, Martina; Thalhammer, Stefan; Adigüzel, Denis; Döblinger, Markus; Plank, Christian

    2010-08-02

    Oncolytic adenoviruses rank among the most promising innovative agents in cancer therapy. We examined the potential of boosting the efficacy of the oncolytic adenovirus dl520 by associating it with magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic-field-guided infection in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells in vitro and upon intratumoral injection in vivo. The virus was complexed by self-assembly with core-shell nanoparticles having a magnetite core of about 10 nm and stabilized by a shell containing 68 mass % lithium 3-[2-(perfluoroalkyl)ethylthio]propionate) and 32 mass % 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine. Optimized virus binding, sufficiently stable in 50% fetal calf serum, was found at nanoparticle-to-virus ratios of 5 fg of Fe per physical virus particle (VP) and above. As estimated from magnetophoretic mobility measurements, 3,600 to 4,500 magnetite nanocrystallites were associated per virus particle. Ultrastructural analysis by electron and atomic force microscopy showed structurally intact viruses surrounded by magnetic particles that occasionally bridged several virus particles. Viral uptake into cells at a given virus dose was enhanced 10-fold compared to nonmagnetic virus when infections were carried out under the influence of a magnetic field. Increased virus internalization resulted in a 10-fold enhancement of the oncolytic potency in terms of the dose required for killing 50% of the target cells (IC(50) value) and an enhancement of 4 orders of magnitude in virus progeny formation at equal input virus doses compared to nonmagnetic viruses. Furthermore, the full oncolytic effect developed within two days postinfection compared with six days in a nonmagnetic virus as a reference. Plotting target cell viability versus internalized virus particles for magnetic and nonmagnetic virus showed that the inherent oncolytic productivity of the virus remained unchanged upon association with magnetic nanoparticles. Hence, we conclude that the mechanism of boosting the

  13. Directed adenovirus evolution using engineered mutator viral polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Uil, Taco G.; Vellinga, Jort; de Vrij, Jeroen; van den Hengel, Sanne K.; Rabelink, Martijn J. W. E.; Cramer, Steve J.; Eekels, Julia J. M.; Ariyurek, Yavuz; van Galen, Michiel; Hoeben, Rob C.

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) are the most frequently used viruses for oncolytic and gene therapy purposes. Most Ad-based vectors have been generated through rational design. Although this led to significant vector improvements, it is often hampered by an insufficient understanding of Ad’s intricate functions and interactions. Here, to evade this issue, we adopted a novel, mutator Ad polymerase-based, ‘accelerated-evolution’ approach that can serve as general method to generate or optimize adenoviral vectors. First, we site specifically substituted Ad polymerase residues located in either the nucleotide binding pocket or the exonuclease domain. This yielded several polymerase mutants that, while fully supportive of viral replication, increased Ad’s intrinsic mutation rate. Mutator activities of these mutants were revealed by performing deep sequencing on pools of replicated viruses. The strongest identified mutators carried replacements of residues implicated in ssDNA binding at the exonuclease active site. Next, we exploited these mutators to generate the genetic diversity required for directed Ad evolution. Using this new forward genetics approach, we isolated viral mutants with improved cytolytic activity. These mutants revealed a common mutation in a splice acceptor site preceding the gene for the adenovirus death protein (ADP). Accordingly, the isolated viruses showed high and untimely expression of ADP, correlating with a severe deregulation of E3 transcript splicing. PMID:21138963

  14. Isolation and Characterization of an Avian Adenovirus-Associated Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Vance J.; El Mishad, Abla M.; McCormick, Kenneth J.; Trentin, John J.

    1973-01-01

    An 18- to 20-nm virus particle was isolated from the Olson strain of quail bronchitis, an avian adenovirus. On density gradient separation the small virions were primarily found at densities of 1.39 and 1.42 g/cm3. The majority of the infectious particles were at the heavier density. The virus had a hexagonal outline and contained single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. It was resistant to heating at 56 C for more than an hour and was not inactivated by treatment with chloroform or low pH. Purified virus did not agglutinate erythrocytes of various avian and mammalian species. Replication of the small particles occurred either in chicken embryos or in cultures of embryo kidney cells coinfected with an adenovirus helper. Antigenically the virus was distinct from the adeno-associated viruses types 1, 2, 3, and 4. The virus is the avian equivalent of the adeno-associated viruses of primates and lower animals. Images PMID:4351971

  15. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever.

    PubMed

    Warimwe, George M; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K; Al-dubaib, Musaad A; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V S

    2016-02-05

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A 'One Health' vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs.

  16. Inactivation kinetics of adenovirus serotype 2 with monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Shisler, Joanna L; Mariñas, Benito J

    2008-03-01

    The effect of pH (6-10), temperature (10-30 degrees C), disinfectant concentration (1-11mg/l as Cl(2)), and ammonia nitrogen-to-chlorine molar ratio (1.3-52) on the inactivation kinetics of adenovirus serotype 2 with monochloramine was investigated by performing batch-reactor experiments with synthetic 0.01M buffer (phosphate or borate) solutions. The inactivation kinetics was independent of monochloramine concentration and ammonia nitrogen-to-chlorine molar ratio but had strong pH dependence, with the rate of inactivation decreasing with increasing pH. The kinetics at pH 6 and 8 were consistent with pseudo-first-order kinetics, while curves at pH 10 were characterized by a lag phase followed by a pseudo-first-order phase. The rate of inactivation increased with increasing temperature-activation energies of 56.5kJ/mole (pH 8) and 72.6kJ/mole (pH 10). The results obtained in this study revealed that monochloramine disinfection might not generally provide adequate control of adenoviruses in drinking water at high pH and low temperature.

  17. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Eric A.; Camacho, Zenaido T.; Hillestad, Matthew L.; Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J.; Mercier, George T.; Barry, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  18. A novel adenovirus of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Wevers, Diana; Leendertz, Fabian H; Scuda, Nelly; Boesch, Christophe; Robbins, Martha M; Head, Josephine; Ludwig, Carsten; Kühn, Joachim; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2010-11-05

    Adenoviruses (AdV) broadly infect vertebrate hosts including a variety of primates. We identified a novel AdV in the feces of captive gorillas by isolation in cell culture, electron microscopy and PCR. From the supernatants of infected cultures we amplified DNA polymerase (DPOL), preterminal protein (pTP) and hexon gene sequences with generic pan primate AdV PCR assays. The sequences in-between were amplified by long-distance PCRs of 2-10 kb length, resulting in a final sequence of 15.6 kb. Phylogenetic analysis placed the novel gorilla AdV into a cluster of primate AdVs belonging to the species Human adenovirus B (HAdV-B). Depending on the analyzed gene, its position within the cluster was variable. To further elucidate its origin, feces samples of wild gorillas were analyzed. AdV hexon sequences were detected which are indicative for three distinct and novel gorilla HAdV-B viruses, among them a virus nearly identical to the novel AdV isolated from captive gorillas. This shows that the discovered virus is a member of a group of HAdV-B viruses that naturally infect gorillas. The mixed phylogenetic clusters of gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo and human AdVs within the HAdV-B species indicate that host switches may have been a component of the evolution of human and non-human primate HAdV-B viruses.

  19. Investigation of the mechanical and interfacial properties of adenovirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, William Garrett

    The ability to investigate materials at the single molecule and macromolecule level became a reality with the introduction of the atomic force microscope (AFM) by Bennig et al. in 1986. Presented in this dissertation is a modification to the AFM that facilitates imaging of delicate samples under liquids. The instrument was subsequently used to investigate a variety of material and interfacial properties of adenovirus. Firstly, the elasticity of adenovirus particles in air and in water was measured. The virus was found to be some fifty fold more compliant in water than in air, with the measured elastic modulus changing from 15 MPa to 770 MPa. Individual viruses also were translated across a variety of surfaces, and the force required to do these manipulations was recorded. A variety of behaviors were observed, including evidence for rolling of the particles. This measurement constitutes one of the first direct observations of rolling behavior on this length scale. Finally, viruses were observed to shed their capsid proteins when deposited on positively charged magnesium intercalated mica. The resulting core structure was investigated, and the uncoating process was captured in a series of images. These images represent one of the first molecular level processes to be observed at the single molecule level.

  20. Meeting product development challenges in manufacturing clinical grade oncolytic adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Working, Peter K; Lin, Andy; Borellini, Flavia

    2005-11-21

    Oncolytic adenoviruses have been considered for use as anticancer therapy for decades, and numerous means of conferring tumor selectivity have been developed. As with any new therapy, the trip from the laboratory bench to the clinic has revealed a number of significant development hurdles. Viral therapies are subject to specific regulations and must meet a variety of well-defined criteria for purity, potency, stability, and product characterization prior to their use in the clinic. Published regulatory guidelines, although developed specifically for biotechnology-derived products, are applicable to the production of oncolytic adenoviruses and other cell-based products, and they should be consulted early during development. Most importantly, both the manufacturing process and the development of characterization and release assays should be science-driven, use the best available science and technology, and must consider the unique nature of the product: a living, and mutatable, virus. Potentially significant impacts on product quality and safety stem from the possibility of genetic instability related to over-engineering the viruses (as evidenced by their recombination and/or occasional reversion to wild-type virus during manufacturing). This report provides examples of some of the critical components affecting the development and production of clinical grade material and summarizes the significant progress made in recent years.

  1. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Warimwe, George M.; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B. Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K.; Al-dubaib, Musaad A.; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A ‘One Health’ vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs. PMID:26847478

  2. Fluctuating expression of microRNAs in adenovirus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxing; Chen, Maoshan; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Pettersson, Ulf

    2015-04-01

    The changes in cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression during the course of an adenovirus type 2 infection in human lung fibroblast were studied by deep RNA sequencing. Expressions of 175 miRNAs with over 100 transcripts per million nucleotides were changed more than 1.5-fold. The expression patterns of these miRNAs changed dramatically during the course of the infection, from upregulation of the miRNAs known as tumor suppressors (such as miR-22, miR-320, let-7, miR-181b, and miR-155) and down-regulation of oncogenic miRNAs (such as miR-21 and miR-31) early to downregulation of tumor suppressor miRNAs (such as let-7 family, mir-30 family, 23/27 cluster) and upregulation of oncogenic miRNAs (include miR-125, miR-27, miR-191) late after infection. The switch in miRNA expression pattern occurred when adenovirus DNA replication started. Furthermore, deregulation of cellular miRNA expression was a step-wise and special sets of miRNAs were deregulated in different phases of infection.

  3. Adenovirus with DNA Packaging Gene Mutations Increased Virus Release

    PubMed Central

    Wechman, Stephen L.; Rao, Xiao-Mei; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have been extensively manipulated for the development of cancer selective replication, leading to cancer cell death or oncolysis. Clinical studies using E1-modified oncolytic Ads have shown that this therapeutic platform was safe, but with limited efficacy, indicating the necessity of targeting other viral genes for manipulation. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic Ads, we treated the entire Ad genome repeatedly with UV-light and have isolated AdUV which efficiently lyses cancer cells as reported previously (Wechman, S. L. et al. Development of an Oncolytic Adenovirus with Enhanced Spread Ability through Repeated UV Irradiation and Cancer Selection. Viruses 2016, 8, 6). In this report, we show that no mutations were observed in the early genes (E1 or E4) of AdUV while several mutations were observed within the Ad late genes which have structural or viral DNA packaging functions. This study also reported the increased release of AdUV from cancer cells. In this study, we found that AdUV inhibits tumor growth following intratumoral injection. These results indicate the potentially significant role of the viral late genes, in particular the DNA packaging genes, to enhance Ad oncolysis. PMID:27999391

  4. Gene Transcript Abundance Profiles Distinguish Kawasaki Disease from Adenovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Popper, Stephen J.; Watson, Virginia E.; Shimizu, Chisato; Kanegaye, John T.; Burns, Jane C.; Relman, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute Kawasaki disease (KD) is difficult to distinguish from other illnesses that involve acute rash or fever, in part because the etiologic agent(s) and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. As a result, diagnosis and critical therapies may be delayed. Methods We used DNA microarrays to identify possible diagnostic features of KD. We compared gene expression patterns in the blood of 23 children with acute KD and 18 age-matched febrile children with 3 illnesses that resemble KD. Results Genes associated with platelet and neutrophil activation were expressed at higher levels in patients with KD than in patients with acute adenovirus infections or systemic adverse drug reactions, but levels in patients with KD were not higher than those in patients with scarlet fever. Genes associated with B cell activation were also expressed at higher levels in patients with KD than in control subjects. A striking absence of interferon-stimulated gene expression in patients with KD was confirmed in an independent cohort of patients with KD. Using a set of 38 gene transcripts, we successfully predicted the diagnosis for 21 of 23 patients with KD and 7 of 8 patients with adenovirus infection. Conclusions These findings provide insight into the molecular features that distinguish KD from other febrile illnesses and support the feasibility of developing novel diagnostic reagents for KD based on the host response. PMID:19583510

  5. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Katrina; Skerratt, Lee; Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.

    2015-01-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  6. Noninvasive visualization of adenovirus replication with a fluorescent reporter in the E3 region.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hidetaka A; Le, Long P; Davydova, Julia G; Gavrikova, Tatyana; Yamamoto, Masato

    2005-11-15

    To overcome the inefficacy and undesirable side effects of current cancer treatment strategies, conditionally replicative adenoviruses have been developed to exploit the unique mechanism of oncolysis afforded by tumor-specific viral replication. Despite rapid translation into clinical trials and the established safety of oncolytic adenoviruses, the in vivo function of these agents is not well understood due to lack of a noninvasive detection system for adenovirus replication. To address this issue, we propose the expression of a reporter from the adenovirus E3 region as a means to monitor replication. Adenovirus replication reporter vectors were constructed with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene placed in the deleted E3 region under the control of the adenoviral major late promoter while retaining expression of the adenovirus death protein to conserve the native oncolytic capability of the virus. Strong EGFP fluorescence was detected from these vectors in a replication-dependent manner, which correlated with viral DNA replication. Fluorescence imaging in vivo confirmed the ability to noninvasively detect fluorescent signal during replication, which generally corresponded with the underlying level of viral DNA replication. EGFP representation of viral replication was further confirmed by Western blot comparison with the viral DNA content in the tumors. Imaging reporter expression controlled by the adenoviral major late promoter provides a viable approach to noninvasively monitor adenovirus replication in preclinical studies and has the potential for human application with clinically relevant imaging reporters.

  7. E1A RNA transcripts amplify adenovirus-mediated tumor reduction.

    PubMed

    Dion, L D; Goldsmith, K T; Strong, T V; Bilbao, G; Curiel, D T; Garver, R I

    1996-11-01

    Previous work by this group has established that E1-defective, recombinant adenoviruses can be replication-enabled by the codelivery of a plasmid encoding the deleted E1 functions, a strategy now designated conditional replication-enablement system for adenovirus (CRESA). In the studies reported here, the original replication-enabling plasmid was replaced by two separate plasmids that encoded the necessary E1A and E1B functions, respectively. An RNA transcript encoding the requisite E1A functions was shown to substitute functionally for the E1A plasmid without significant loss of new adenovirus production in in vitro experiments. No replication competent adenovirus was detectable in the cells treated with the plasmids, or the RNA and plasmid combinations. Subcutaneous human tumor nodules containing a fraction of cells cotransduced with the replication-enabling RNA + DNA and an adenovirus containing a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) expression cassette were reduced to a greater extent than control nodules containing the same fraction of cells cotransduced with the virus and an irrelevant plasmid. These experiments show that an E1-defective adenovirus can be conditionally replication-enabled by an RNA transcript encoding the required E1 functions, and that the replication-enablement is sufficient to produce an augmentation of an adenovirus-mediated therapeutic effect in vivo.

  8. Genetic Characterization of Fowl Adenovirus Strains Isolated from Poultry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hewei; Jin, Wenjie; Ding, Ke; Cheng, Xiangchao; Sun, Yaru; Wang, Jianke; Cheng, Shipeng; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Chunjie

    2017-09-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) infect chickens worldwide, resulting in global economic losses in the poultry industry. We examined the strains present in chickens in regions of China where infections are particularly prevalent. Fifteen FAdV strains were successfully isolated in the field. The L1 loop region of the hexon gene was sequenced to genetically identify the FAdV isolates. By comparing these sequences to adenovirus reference strain sequences using phylogenetics, 15 adenovirus strains were found to cluster into two distinct species. One cluster containing 12 strains belonged to the fowl adenoviruses C species and serotyped as FAdV-4. The other cluster containing three strains belonged to the fowl adenoviruses E species and serotyped as FAdV-10. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the existence of fowl adenoviruses E in China. Furthermore, at least two types of fowl adenovirus strains are predominant among poultry in China. Cumulatively, this study helps lays the groundwork for future research on the pathogenicity and potential treatment measures for FAdV infections in chickens.

  9. Design and synthesis of a peptide-PEG transporter tool for carrying adenovirus vector into cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Mitsuko; Kida, Shinya; Hojo, Keiko; Eto, Yusuke; Gaob, Jian-Qing; Kurachi, Shinnosuke; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takao; Mayumi, Tadanori; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Kawasaki, Koichi

    2005-02-01

    The adenovirus vector is a promising carrier for the efficient transfer of genes into cells via the coxackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and integrins (alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5). The clinical use of the adenovirus vector remains problematic however. Successful administration of this vector is associated with side effects because antibodies to this vector are commonly found throughout the human body. To make the adenovirus vector practicable for clinical use, it is necessary to design an auxiliary transporter. The present study describes the use of Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD)-related peptide, a peptide that binds to integrins, as an auxiliary transporter to aid efficient transport of adenovirus vector. Furthermore, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was also used as a tool to modify the adenovirus such that the risk of side effects incurred during clinical application was reduced. The present study describes the design, preparation and use of (acetyl-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro-(beta)Ala)(2)Lys-PEG-(beta)Ala-Cys-NH(2)[(Ac-YGGRGDTP(beta)A)(2)K-PEG-(beta)AC] as an efficient peptide-PEG transporter tool for carrying adenovirus vector into cells. (Ac-YGGRGDTP(beta)A)(2)K-PEG-(beta)AC was coupled with 6-maleimidohexanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and the resulting 6-[(Ac-YGGRGDTP(beta)A)(2)K-PEG-(beta)AC-succinimido]hexanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reacted with adenovirus. The modified adenovirus with the peptide-PEG hybrid exhibited high gene expression even in a CAR-negative cell line, DC2.4.

  10. Construction and characterization of recombinant adenovirus carrying a mouse TIGIT-GFP gene.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J M; Cui, J L; He, W T; Yu, D W; Gao, Y; Wang, L; Chen, Z K; Zhou, H M

    2015-12-29

    Recombinant adenovirus vector systems have been used extensively in protein research and gene therapy. However, the construction and characterization of recombinant adenovirus is a tedious and time-consuming process. TIGIT is a recently discovered immunosuppressive molecule that plays an important role in maintaining immunological balance. The construction of recombinant adenovirus mediating TIGIT expression must be simplified to facilitate its use in the study of TIGIT. In this study, the TIGIT gene was combined with green fluorescent protein (GFP); the TIGIT-GFP gene was inserted into a gateway plasmid to construct a TIGIT-GFP adenovirus. HEK 293A cells were infected with the adenovirus, which was then purified and subjected to virus titering. TIGIT-GFP adenovirus was characterized by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, and its expression in mouse liver was detected by infection through caudal vein injection. The results showed the successful construction of the TIGIT-GFP adenovirus (5 x 10(10) PFU/mL). Co-expression of TIGIT and GFP was identified in 293A and liver cells; synthesis and positioning of TIGIT-GFP was viewed under a fluorescence microscope. TIGIT-GFP was highly expressed on liver cells 1 day (25.53%) after infection and faded 3 days (11.36%) after injection. In conclusion, the fusion of TIGIT with GFP allows easy, rapid, and uncomplicated detection of TIGIT translation. The construction of a TIGIT-GFP adenovirus, mediating TIGIT expression in vitro and in vivo, lays the foundation for further research into TIGIT function and gene therapy. Moreover, the TIGIT-GFP adenovirus is a helpful tool for studying other proteins (which could replace the TIGIT gene).

  11. Infectivity and expression of the early adenovirus proteins are important regulators of wild-type and DeltaE1B adenovirus replication in human cells.

    PubMed

    Steegenga, W T; Riteco, N; Bos, J L

    1999-09-09

    An adenovirus mutant lacking the expression of the large E1B protein (DeltaE1B) has been reported to replicate selectively in cells lacking the expression of functionally wild-type (wt) p53. Based on these results the DeltaE1B or ONYX-015 virus has been proposed to be an oncolytic virus which might be useful to treat p53-deficient tumors. Recently however, contradictory results have been published indicating that p53-dependent cell death is required for productive adenovirus infection. Since there is an urgent need for new methods to treat aggressive, mutant p53-expressing primary tumors and their metastases we carefully examined adenovirus replication in human cells to determine whether or not the DeltaE1B virus can be used for tumor therapy. The results we present here show that not all human tumor cell lines take up adenovirus efficiently. In addition, we observed inhibition of the expression of adenovirus early proteins in tumor cells. We present evidence that these two factors rather than the p53 status of the cell determine whether adenovirus infection results in lytic cell death. Furthermore, the results we obtained by infecting a panel of different tumor cell lines show that viral spread of the DeltaE1B is strongly inhibited in almost all p53-proficient and -deficient cell lines compared to the wt virus. We conclude that the efficiency of the DeltaE1B virus to replicate efficiently in tumor cells is determined by the ability to infect cells and to express the early adenovirus proteins rather than the status of p53.

  12. Phylogenomic analysis of the complete sequence of a gastroenteritis-associated cetacean adenovirus (bottlenose dolphin adenovirus 1) reveals a high degree of genetic divergence.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Maja; Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Hayer, Juliette; García-Párraga, Daniel; Nieto-Pelegrín, Elvira; Melero, Mar; Álvaro, Teresa; Valls, Mónica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose Manuel; Belák, Sándor; Granberg, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Adenoviruses are common pathogens in vertebrates, infecting a wide range of hosts, but only having rarely been detected and correlated with disease in cetaceans. This article describes the first complete genomic sequence of a cetacean adenovirus, bottlenose dolphin adenovirus 1 (BdAdV-1), detected in captive bottlenose dolphin population (Tursiops truncatus) suffering from self-limiting gastroenteritis. The complete genome sequence of BdAdV-1 was recovered from data generated by high-throughput sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. The genome is 34,080bp long and has 220 nucleotides long inverted terminal repeats. A total of 29 coding sequences were identified, 26 of which were functionally annotated. Among the unusual features of this genome is a remarkably long 4380bp E3 ORF1, that displays no sequence homology with the corresponding E3 regions of other adenoviruses. In addition, the fiber protein only has 26% identity with fiber proteins described in other adenoviruses. Three hypothetical proteins were predicted. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the closest known relative to BdAdV-1 is an adenovirus detected in bottlenose dolphin (KR024710), with an amino acid sequence identity between 36 and 79% depending on the protein. Based on the phylogenic analysis, the BdAdV-1 appears to have co-evolved with its host. The results indicate that BdAdV-1 belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the Adenoviridae family, however, it is clearly different from other adenoviruses, especially in the 3'-end of the viral genome. The high degree of sequence divergence suggests that BdAdV-1 should be considered as a novel species in the Mastadenovirus genus. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of high-throughput sequencing to obtain full-length genomes of genetically divergent viruses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular characterization of adenovirus circulating in Central and South America during the 2006–2008 period

    PubMed Central

    García, Josefina; Sovero, Merly; Laguna‐Torres, Victor Alberto; Gomez, Jorge; Chicaiza, Wilson; Barrantes, Melvin; Sanchez, Felix; Jimenez, Mirna; Comach, Guillermo; De Rivera, Ivette L.; Agudo, Roberto; Arango, Ana E.; Barboza, Alma; Aguayo, Nicolas; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Human Adenoviruses are recognized pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases. Serotype identification is critical for epidemiological surveillance, detection of new strains and understanding of HAdvs pathogenesis. Little data is available about HAdvs subtypes in Latin America. Methods  In this study, we have molecularly characterized 213 adenoviruses collected from ILI presenting patients, during 2006‐08, in Central and South America. Results  Our results indicate that 161(76%) adenoviruses belong to subgroup C, 45 (21%) to subgroup B and 7 (3%) to subtype E4. PMID:19903214

  14. Molecular detection of two adenoviruses associated with disease in Australian lizards.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, T; Shilton, C M

    2011-06-01

    We give the first published description of the pathology and molecular findings associated with adenovirus infection in lizards in Australia. A central netted dragon (Ctenophorus nuchalis) exhibited severe necrotising hepatitis with abundant intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes and rarely within intestinal epithelial cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using pooled tissues yielded an amplicon that shared strong nucleotide identity with an agamid adenovirus (EU914203). PCR on the liver of a bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor) with illthrift, coccidiosis, nematodiasis and hepatic lipidosis yielded an amplicon with strong nucleotide identity to a helodermatid adenovirus (EU914207).

  15. Adenovirus urethritis and concurrent conjunctivitis: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Olivia Louise; Samuel, Mannampallil Itty; Sudhanva, Malur; Ellis, Joanna; Taylor, Chris

    2015-03-01

    We present eight cases and review the literature of concurrent urethritis and conjunctivitis where adenovirus was identified as the causative pathogen. The focus of this review concerns the identification of specific sexual practices, symptoms, signs and any serotypes that seem more commonly associated with such adenovirus infections. We discuss the seasonality of adenovirus infection and provide practical advice for clinicians to give to the patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Molecular Characterization of a Lizard Adenovirus Reveals the First Atadenovirus with Two Fiber Genes and the First Adenovirus with Either One Short or Three Long Fibers per Penton

    PubMed Central

    Pénzes, Judit J.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Condezo, Gabriela N.; Ball, Inna; Papp, Tibor; Doszpoly, Andor; Paradela, Alberto; Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; López-Sanz, María; Nguyen, Thanh H.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Marschang, Rachel E.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkő, Mária

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although adenoviruses (AdVs) have been found in a wide variety of reptiles, including numerous squamate species, turtles, and crocodiles, the number of reptilian adenovirus isolates is still scarce. The only fully sequenced reptilian adenovirus, snake adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1), belongs to the Atadenovirus genus. Recently, two new atadenoviruses were isolated from a captive Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) and Mexican beaded lizards (Heloderma horridum). Here we report the full genomic and proteomic characterization of the latter, designated lizard adenovirus 2 (LAdV-2). The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of LAdV-2 is 32,965 bp long, with an average G+C content of 44.16%. The overall arrangement and gene content of the LAdV-2 genome were largely concordant with those in other atadenoviruses, except for four novel open reading frames (ORFs) at the right end of the genome. Phylogeny reconstructions and plesiomorphic traits shared with SnAdV-1 further supported the assignment of LAdV-2 to the Atadenovirus genus. Surprisingly, two fiber genes were found for the first time in an atadenovirus. After optimizing the production of LAdV-2 in cell culture, we determined the protein compositions of the virions. The two fiber genes produce two fiber proteins of different sizes that are incorporated into the viral particles. Interestingly, the two different fiber proteins assemble as either one short or three long fiber projections per vertex. Stoichiometry estimations indicate that the long fiber triplet is present at only one or two vertices per virion. Neither triple fibers nor a mixed number of fibers per vertex had previously been reported for adenoviruses or any other virus. IMPORTANCE Here we show that a lizard adenovirus, LAdV-2, has a penton architecture never observed before. LAdV-2 expresses two fiber proteins—one short and one long. In the virion, most vertices have one short fiber, but a few of them have three long fibers attached to the same penton

  17. Clinical Trials Using Adenovirus Encoding Tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-transduced Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus encoding tyrosinase/mart-1/magea6-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine.

  18. Clinical Trials Using Adenovirus/Cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr Virus-specific Allogeneic Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus/cytomegalovirus/epstein-barr virus-specific allogeneic cytotoxic t lymphocytes.

  19. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, G.A.; Anderson, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide.

  20. Liposomal enhancement of the immunogenicity of adenovirus type 5 hexon and fiber vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Kramp, W J; Six, H R; Drake, S; Kasel, J A

    1979-01-01

    Immunogenicity of adenovirus capsid proteins carried in liposomes was comparable to that with equivalent doses administered in Freund adjuvant, and both forms were more potent than aqueous vaccines. PMID:489132

  1. Use of serum stored on filter paper disks in complement fixation tests for adenovirus antibody.

    PubMed

    Edwards, E A

    1977-02-01

    A simple method of storage and retrieval of serum samples for adenovirus serology is described. Complement-fixing antibodies remained stable for at least 5 years when stored at -10 degrees C or below.

  2. Relationship of Adenovirus to Lymphocytes in Naturally Infected Human Tonsils and Adenoids

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Veen, J.; Lambriex, M.

    1973-01-01

    Purified lymphocytes from human tonsil and adenoid specimens were cultured with and without phytohemagglutinin. Adenovirus was isolated from lymphocytes of 8 of 90 specimens tested. With one exception, it was necessary to culture the lymphocytes before infectious virus could be detected. Phytohemagglutinin stimulation enhanced the recovery of virus. The results suggest that lymphocytes in tonsils and adenoids may be naturally infected with adenovirus and that, in positive cultures, at least 1 of every 107 cells harbors virus or viral precursor at initiation of the cultures. Adenovirus was demonstrated directly in fresh suspensions of unpurified cells from tonsils and adenoids in seven cases. In five of these cases, at least 1 of every 106 cells contained infectious virus. Adenovirus was isolated from 61 (62%) of 98 tonsil and adenoid specimens by the conventional method of tissue fragment culture after various periods of cultivation. The viruses isolated were of serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6. PMID:4796933

  3. Fatal pulmonary edema in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) associated with adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sorden, S D; Woods, L W; Lehmkuhl, H D

    2000-07-01

    Sporadic sudden deaths in adult white-tailed deer occurred from November 1997 through August 1998 on an Iowa game farm. Three of the 4 deer necropsied had severe pulmonary edema, widespread mild lymphocytic vasculitis, and amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in scattered endothelial cells in blood vessels in the lung and abdominal viscera. Immunohistochemistry with bovine adenovirus 5 antisera and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated adenoviral antigen and nucleocapsids, respectively, within endothelial cells. Adenovirus was isolated in cell culture from 1 of the affected deer. The isolate was neutralized by California black-tailed deer adenovirus antiserum. These findings indicate that adenovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of both black-tailed and white-tailed deer with pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhagic enteropathy.

  4. New insights into how adenovirus might lead to obesity: An oxidative stress theory.

    PubMed

    Waye, Mary Miu Yee

    2011-08-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic that leads to many serious weight-related disorders. Recently, infection by viruses has been proposed as a possible cause of the obesity epidemic. Of the many viruses screened, adenovirus 36 has been found to be a strong candidate virus that is associated with obesity, based on evidence in various model systems as well as clinical data. The mechanism of how the adenovirus could lead to obesity is not known and this paper proposes some new insights into how oxidative stress could be a possible mechanism of how adenovirus might lead to obesity. This paper reviews the relevant literature of both the effect of adenovirus on cells' anti-oxidant response and the link between obesity and oxidative stress.

  5. Molecular Detection of Adenoviruses, Rhabdoviruses, and Paramyxoviruses in Bats from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Conrardy, Christina; Tao, Ying; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Anderson, Larry J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tong, Suxiang

    2014-01-01

    We screened 217 bats of at least 20 species from 17 locations in Kenya during July and August of 2006 for the presence of adenovirus, rhabdovirus, and paramyxovirus nucleic acids using generic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR assays. Of 217 bat fecal swabs examined, 4 bats were adenovirus DNA-positive, 11 bats were paramyxovirus RNA-positive, and 2 bats were rhabdovirus RNA-positive. Three bats were coinfected by two different viruses. By sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis, the Kenya bat paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses from this study may represent novel viral lineages within their respective families; the Kenya bat adenoviruses could not be confirmed as novel, because the same region sequences from other known bat adenovirus genomes for comparison were lacking. Our study adds to previous evidence that bats carry diverse, potentially zoonotic viruses and may be coinfected with more than one virus. PMID:24865685

  6. Adenovirus fiber disrupts CAR-mediated intercellular adhesion allowing virus escape.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert W; Freimuth, Paul; Moninger, Thomas O; Ganske, Ingrid; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J

    2002-09-20

    Adenovirus binds its receptor (CAR), enters cells, and replicates. It must then escape to the environment to infect a new host. We found that following infection, human airway epithelia first released adenovirus to the basolateral surface. Virus then traveled between epithelial cells to emerge on the apical surface. Adenovirus fiber protein, which is produced during viral replication, facilitated apical escape. Fiber binds CAR, which sits on the basolateral membrane where it maintains tight junction integrity. When fiber bound CAR, it disrupted junctional integrity, allowing virus to filter between the cells and emerge apically. Thus, adenovirus exploits its receptor for two important but distinct steps in its life cycle: entry into host cells and escape across epithelial barriers to the environment.

  7. Partial characterization of new adenoviruses found in lizards.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Behncke, Helge; Schmidt, Volker; Geflügel, F T A; Papp, Tibor; Stöhr, Anke C; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-06-01

    In the years 2011-2012, a consensus nested polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of adenovirus (AdV) infection in reptiles. During this screening, three new AdVs were detected. One of these viruses was detected in three lizards from a group of green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida). Another was detected in a green anole (Anolis carolinensis). A third virus was detected in a Jackson's chameleon (Chamaeleo jacksonii). Analysis of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes of each of these viruses revealed that they all were different from one another and from all previously described reptilian AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial DNA polymerase gene sequence showed that all newly detected viruses clustered within the genus Atadenovirus. This is the first description of AdVs in these lizard species.

  8. Oncolytic adenoviruses: A thorny path to glioma cure

    PubMed Central

    Ulasov, I.V.; Borovjagin, A.V.; Schroeder, B.A.; Baryshnikov, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a rapidly progressing brain tumor. Despite the relatively low percentage of cancer patients with glioma diagnoses, recent statistics indicate that the number of glioma patients may have increased over the past decade. Current therapeutic options for glioma patients include tumor resection, chemotherapy, and concomitant radiation therapy with an average survival of approximately 16 months. The rapid progression of gliomas has spurred the development of novel treatment options, such as cancer gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy. Preclinical testing of oncolytic adenoviruses using glioma models revealed both positive and negative sides of the virotherapy approach. Here we present a detailed overview of the glioma virotherapy field and discuss auxiliary therapeutic strategies with the potential for augmenting clinical efficacy of GBM virotherapy treatment. PMID:25685829

  9. Adenovirus type 2 nuclear RNA accumulating during productive infection.

    PubMed Central

    Bachenheimer, S L

    1977-01-01

    The viral-specific nuclear RNA which accumulates early and late during productive infection of HeLa cells by adenovirus-type 2 (Ad2) has been characterized with respect to its size and stability after denaturation by Me2SO. Early nuclear transcripts, under nondenaturing conditions, sediment in the range 28 to 45S, but treatment with Me2SO prior to sedimentation results in a shift to about 20S. Later nuclear RNA accumulates as a composite of two populations of molecules: one with a broad size distribution centering on 45S under nondenaturing conditions and less than 32S after denaturation and a second having a narrow size distribution around 35S which is quite stable to Me2SO. Analysis of late RNA by hybridization to Sma fragments of Ad2 DNA suggests that the 35S RNA species is derived from a limited portion of the left half of the viral genome. PMID:864839

  10. Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor is essential for cardiomyocyte development.

    PubMed

    Asher, Damon R; Cerny, Anna M; Weiler, Sarah R; Horner, James W; Keeler, Marilyn L; Neptune, Mychell A; Jones, Stephen N; Bronson, Roderick T; Depinho, Ronald A; Finberg, Robert W

    2005-06-01

    The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a transmembrane protein that is known to be a site of viral attachment and entry, but its physiologic functions are undefined. CAR expression is maximal in neonates and wanes rapidly after birth in organs such as heart, muscle, and brain, suggesting that CAR plays a role in the development of these tissues. Here, we show that CAR deficiency resulted in an embryonic lethal condition associated with cardiac defects. Specifically, commencing approximately 10.5 days postconception (dpc), CAR-/- cardiomyocytes exhibited regional apoptosis evidenced by both histopathologic features of cell death and positive staining for the apoptotic marker cleaved caspase 3. CAR-/- fetuses invariably suffered from degeneration of the myocardial wall and thoracic hemorrhaging, leading to death by 11.5 dpc. These findings are consistent with the view that CAR provides positive survival signals to cardiomyocytes that are essential for normal heart development.

  11. Adenovirus Membrane Penetration: Tickling the Tail of a Sleeping Dragon

    PubMed Central

    Wiethoff, Christopher M.; Nemerow, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    As is the case for nearly every viral pathogen, non-enveloped viruses (NEV) must maintain their integrity under potentially harsh environmental conditions while retaining the ability to undergo rapid disassembly at the right time and right place inside host cells. NEVs generally exist in this metastable state until they encounter key cellular stimuli such as membrane receptors, decreased intracellular pH, digestion by cellular proteases, or a combination of these factors. These stimuli trigger conformational changes in the viral capsid that exposes a sequestered membrane-perturbing protein. This protein subsequently modifies the cell membrane in such a way as to allow passage of the virion and accompanying nucleic acid payload into the cell cytoplasm. Different NEVs employ variations of this general pathway for cell entry (1), however this review will focus on significant new knowledge obtained on cell entry by human adenovirus(HAdV). PMID:25798531

  12. Large-scale purification and crystallization of adenovirus hexon.

    PubMed

    Rux, John J; Burnett, Roger M

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides a protocol for the large-scale purification of adenovirus type 2 and 5 virions and the soluble major coat protein hexon. The purified virus particles remain intact and are suitable for vector, vaccine, or structural studies and can also be used as seed stock for further rounds of infection. The hexon may be used to produce crystals suitable for high-resolution X-ray crystallographic studies. Briefly, virus is propagated in HeLa cell suspension cultures. The infected cells are lysed, virions and hexon are separated by centrifugation, and the protein is then further purified by anion exchange chromatography. The entire purification procedure takes approx 1 wk and typically yields 10(13) virus particles and 10-20 mg of highly purified hexon.

  13. Going viral: a review of replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Fanger, Gary R.; Stirn, Meaghan; Oronsky, Arnold; Reid, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses have had a tumultuous course, from the initial anecdotal reports of patients having antineoplastic effects after natural viral infections a century ago to the development of current cutting-edge therapies in clinical trials. Adenoviruses have long been the workhorse of virotherapy, and we review both the scientific and the not-so-scientific forces that have shaped the development of these therapeutics from wild-type viral pathogens, turning an old foe into a new friend. After a brief review of the mechanics of viral replication and how it has been modified to engineer tumor selectivity, we give particular attention to ONYX-015, the forerunner of virotherapy with extensive clinical testing that pioneered the field. The findings from those as well as other oncolytic trials have shaped how we now view these viruses, which our immune system has evolved to vigorously attack, as promising immunotherapy agents. PMID:26280277

  14. Adenovirus membrane penetration: Tickling the tail of a sleeping dragon.

    PubMed

    Wiethoff, Christopher M; Nemerow, Glen R

    2015-05-01

    As is the case for nearly every viral pathogen, non-enveloped viruses (NEV) must maintain their integrity under potentially harsh environmental conditions while retaining the ability to undergo rapid disassembly at the right time and right place inside host cells. NEVs generally exist in this metastable state until they encounter key cellular stimuli such as membrane receptors, decreased intracellular pH, digestion by cellular proteases, or a combination of these factors. These stimuli trigger conformational changes in the viral capsid that exposes a sequestered membrane-perturbing protein. This protein subsequently modifies the cell membrane in such a way as to allow passage of the virion and accompanying nucleic acid payload into the cell cytoplasm. Different NEVs employ variations of this general pathway for cell entry (Moyer and Nemerow, 2011, Curr. Opin. Virol., 1, 44-49), however this review will focus on significant new knowledge obtained on cell entry by human adenovirus (HAdV).

  15. Characterization of Species C Human Adenovirus Serotype 6 (Ad6)

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Eric A.; Khare, Reeti; Hillestad, Mathew L.; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Barry, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus serotype (Ad5) is the most studied Ad. Ad1, 2, and 6 are also members of species C Ad and are presumed to have biologies similar to Ad5. In this work, we have compared the ability of Ad1, 2, 5, and 6 to infect liver and muscle after intravenous and intramuscular injection. We found that Ad6 was surprisingly the most potent at liver gene delivery and that Ad1 and Ad2 were markedly weaker than Ad5 and 6. To understand these differences, we sequenced the Ad6 genome. This revealed that the Ad6 fiber protein is surprisingly three shaft repeats shorter than the others which may explain differences in virus infectivity in vitro, but not in the liver. Comparison of hexon hypervariable regions (HVRs) suggests that the higher transduction by Ad5 and 6 as compared to Ad1 and 2 may be related to differences in charge and length. PMID:21251688

  16. Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have gained popularity as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Ad entry into host cells involves specific interactions between cell surface receptors and viral capsid proteins. Several cell surface molecules have been identified as receptors for Ad attachment and entry. Tissue tropism of Ad vectors is greatly influenced by their receptor usage. A variety of strategies have been investigated to modify Ad vector tropism by manipulating the receptor-interacting moieties. Many such strategies are aimed at targeting and/or detargeting of Ad vectors. In this review, we discuss the various cell surface molecules that are implicated as receptors for virus attachment and internalization. Special emphasis is given to Ad types that are utilized as gene delivery vectors. Various strategies to modify Ad tropism using the knowledge of Ad receptors are also discussed. PMID:19647886

  17. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cascalló, Manel; Alemany, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Cell transduction in vitro is only the first step toward proving that a genetherapy vector can be useful to treat tumors. However, tumor targeting in vivo is now the milestone for gene therapy to succeed against disseminated cancer. Therefore, most valuable information is obtained from studies of vector biodistribution. Owing to the hepatotropism of adenoviral vectors, a particularly important parameter is the tumor/liver ratio. This ratio can be given at the level of gene expression if the amount of transgene expression is measured. To optimize the targeting, however, the levels of viral particles that reach the tumor compared to other organs must be studied. Most of this chapter deals with methods to quantify the virus fate in tumor-bearing animals. We present a radioactive labeling method that can be used to study biodistribution. After a small section dealing with tumor models, we describe methods to quantify different parameters related to adenovirus-mediated tumor targeting.

  18. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Eric A; Camacho, Zenaido T; Hillestad, Matthew L; Crosby, Catherine M; Turner, Mallory A; Guenzel, Adam J; Fadel, Hind J; Mercier, George T; Barry, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination.

  19. Ganciclovir Inhibits Human Adenovirus Replication and Pathogenicity in Permissive Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E.; Spencer, Jacqueline F.; Balakrishnan, Lata; Dewhurst, Stephen; Capella, Cristina; Buller, R. Mark L.; Wold, William S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients can develop into deadly multiorgan or systemic disease. The virus is especially threatening for pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients; according to some studies, 10% or more of these patients succumb to disease resulting from adenovirus infection. At present, there is no drug approved for the treatment or prevention of adenovirus infections. Compounds that are approved to treat other virus infections are used off-label to combat adenovirus, but only anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of these drugs exists. Ganciclovir, a drug approved for the treatment of herpesvirus infection, was previously reported to be effective against human adenoviruses in vitro. To model adenovirus infections in immunocompromised humans, we examined ganciclovir's efficacy in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters intravenously infected with type 5 human adenovirus (Ad5). This animal model is permissive for Ad5 replication, and the animals develop symptoms similar to those seen in humans. We demonstrate that ganciclovir suppresses Ad5 replication in the liver of infected hamsters and that it mitigates the consequences of Ad5 infections in these animals when administered prophylactically or therapeutically. We show that ganciclovir inhibits Ad5 DNA synthesis and late gene expression. The mechanism of action for the drug is not clear; preliminary data suggest that it exerts its antiadenoviral effect by directly inhibiting the adenoviral DNA polymerase. While more extensive studies are required, we believe that ganciclovir is a promising drug candidate to treat adenovirus infections. Brincidofovir, a drug with proven activity against Ad5, was used as a positive control in the prophylactic experiment. PMID:25224011

  20. Ganciclovir inhibits human adenovirus replication and pathogenicity in permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Balakrishnan, Lata; Dewhurst, Stephen; Capella, Cristina; Buller, R Mark L; Toth, Karoly; Wold, William S M

    2014-12-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients can develop into deadly multiorgan or systemic disease. The virus is especially threatening for pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients; according to some studies, 10% or more of these patients succumb to disease resulting from adenovirus infection. At present, there is no drug approved for the treatment or prevention of adenovirus infections. Compounds that are approved to treat other virus infections are used off-label to combat adenovirus, but only anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of these drugs exists. Ganciclovir, a drug approved for the treatment of herpesvirus infection, was previously reported to be effective against human adenoviruses in vitro. To model adenovirus infections in immunocompromised humans, we examined ganciclovir's efficacy in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters intravenously infected with type 5 human adenovirus (Ad5). This animal model is permissive for Ad5 replication, and the animals develop symptoms similar to those seen in humans. We demonstrate that ganciclovir suppresses Ad5 replication in the liver of infected hamsters and that it mitigates the consequences of Ad5 infections in these animals when administered prophylactically or therapeutically. We show that ganciclovir inhibits Ad5 DNA synthesis and late gene expression. The mechanism of action for the drug is not clear; preliminary data suggest that it exerts its antiadenoviral effect by directly inhibiting the adenoviral DNA polymerase. While more extensive studies are required, we believe that ganciclovir is a promising drug candidate to treat adenovirus infections. Brincidofovir, a drug with proven activity against Ad5, was used as a positive control in the prophylactic experiment.

  1. Comparison of throat swab and nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens for rapid detection of adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Hara, Michimaru; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie

    2015-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and throat swab (TS) specimens from individual patients were compared with regard to usefulness for adenovirus detection. In 153 adenovirus-infected patients, rapid test sensitivities with NPAs (90.8%) were nearly equivalent to those with TSs (91.5%) based on real-time polymerase chain reaction standards, indicating that NPAs are equally useful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of a Canine Adenovirus (Infectious Canine Hepatitis Virus) Inhibitor in Dog Liver Extracts as Arginase

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Extracts of canine liver inhibited growth of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) virus, a canine adenovirus. Purified extracts from mammalian, but not avian, liver tissue contained the inhibitor, and evidence is presented that the inhibitory factor is the enzyme arginase (arginine ureohydrolase). This study further emphasized the need for arginine in adenovirus growth and may explain some of the difficulties in isolating small amounts of ICH virus from suspensions of liver. Images PMID:4344396

  3. Unambiguous typing of canine adenovirus isolates by deoxyribonucleic acid restriction-endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, R; Marsolais, G; Yelle, J; Hamelin, C

    1983-01-01

    Viral deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from a limited number of cells infected with canine adenovirus type 1 or type 2 was cleaved with several restriction endonucleases. Agarose gel electrophoresis of the limit digests showed stable differences between the canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2 cleavage patterns. Rapid and accurate typing of large numbers of clinical isolates may thus be done by deoxyribonucleic acid restriction-endonuclease analysis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6321002

  4. Role of preterminal protein processing in adenovirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, A; Leith, I R; Nicholson, J; Hounsell, J; Hay, R T

    1997-01-01

    Preterminal protein (pTP), the protein primer for adenovirus DNA replication, is processed at two sites by the virus-encoded protease to yield mature terminal protein (TP). Here we demonstrate that processing to TP, via an intermediate (iTP), is conserved in all serotypes sequenced to date; and in determining the sites cleaved in Ad4 pTP, we extend the previously published substrate specificity of human adenovirus proteases to include a glutamine residue at P4. Furthermore, using monoclonal antibodies raised against pTP, we show that processing to iTP and TP are temporally separated in the infectious cycle, with processing to iTP taking place outside the virus particles. In vitro and in vivo studies of viral DNA replication reveal that iTP can act as a template for initiation and elongation and argue against a role for virus-encoded protease in switching off DNA replication. Virus DNA with TP attached to its 5' end (TP-DNA) has been studied extensively in in vitro DNA replication assays. Given that in vivo pTP-DNA, not TP-DNA, is the template for all but the first round of replication, the two templates were compared in vitro and shown to have different properties. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that a region spanning the TP cleavage site is involved in defining the subnuclear localization of pTP. Therefore, a likely role for the processing of pTP-DNA is to create a distinct template for early transcription (TP-DNA), while the terminal protein moiety, be it TP or pTP, serves to guide the template to the appropriate subcellular location through the course of infection. PMID:9261355

  5. Role of preterminal protein processing in adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Webster, A; Leith, I R; Nicholson, J; Hounsell, J; Hay, R T

    1997-09-01

    Preterminal protein (pTP), the protein primer for adenovirus DNA replication, is processed at two sites by the virus-encoded protease to yield mature terminal protein (TP). Here we demonstrate that processing to TP, via an intermediate (iTP), is conserved in all serotypes sequenced to date; and in determining the sites cleaved in Ad4 pTP, we extend the previously published substrate specificity of human adenovirus proteases to include a glutamine residue at P4. Furthermore, using monoclonal antibodies raised against pTP, we show that processing to iTP and TP are temporally separated in the infectious cycle, with processing to iTP taking place outside the virus particles. In vitro and in vivo studies of viral DNA replication reveal that iTP can act as a template for initiation and elongation and argue against a role for virus-encoded protease in switching off DNA replication. Virus DNA with TP attached to its 5' end (TP-DNA) has been studied extensively in in vitro DNA replication assays. Given that in vivo pTP-DNA, not TP-DNA, is the template for all but the first round of replication, the two templates were compared in vitro and shown to have different properties. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that a region spanning the TP cleavage site is involved in defining the subnuclear localization of pTP. Therefore, a likely role for the processing of pTP-DNA is to create a distinct template for early transcription (TP-DNA), while the terminal protein moiety, be it TP or pTP, serves to guide the template to the appropriate subcellular location through the course of infection.

  6. Detection and risk assessment of adenoviruses in swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Ehlers, M M; Grabow, W O K

    2005-01-01

    The role of swimming pool water as a source of human adenovirus (HAd) infection has previously been demonstrated. In this study, the risk of infection of HAds detected in a survey of swimming pool water from two indoor and one outdoor swimming pools over a period of 1 year was assessed. The HAds were concentrated from 1 l grab samples of swimming pool water using a silicon dioxide-based method. The extracted HAd DNA was amplified by means of a nested PCR method. Adenoviruses were detected in four of 26 samples (15.4%) from the indoor swimming pool A, eight of 38 samples (21.1%) from the indoor swimming pool B and three of 28 samples (10.7%) from the outdoor swimming pool C. Application of these results in an exponential risk assessment model indicated a daily risk of infection of 2.61 x 10(-3) for swimming pool A, 3.69 x 10(-3) for swimming pool B and 1.92 x 10(-3) for swimming pool C assuming a daily consumption of 30 ml of swimming pool water. No acceptable (tolerable) risk of infection has yet been recommended for swimming pool water. However, the quality of swimming pool water is generally expected to be similar to that of drinking water. One infection per 10 000 consumers per year has been recommended for drinking water. The risk of HAd infections calculated for the swimming pool water under investigation exceeded this acceptable risk. The finding that swimming pool water which conforms to generally accepted specifications for treatment, disinfection and indicator organisms constituted a risk of HAd infection, has implications for the swimming pool industry. The formulation of acceptable (tolerable) risks of infection for swimming pool water may be essential. Specifications will, therefore, have to be formulated to ensure that swimming pool water conforms to the acceptable risk of infection.

  7. Use of cidofovir in pediatric patients with adenovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Arnold, Alana; Jones, Sarah; Patterson, Al; Graham, Dionne; Harper, Marvin; Levy, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adenoviruses contribute to morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised pediatric patients including stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients. Cidofovir (CDV), an antiviral compound approved by the FDA in 1996, is used for treatment of adenoviral (ADV) infections in immunocompromised patients despite concern of potential nephrotoxicity.   Methods: We conducted a retrospective 5-year review at Boston Children’s Hospital of 16 patients (mean age = 6.5 years) receiving 19 courses of CDV. During therapy all pertinent data elements were reviewed to characterize potential response to therapy and incidence of renal dysfunction.   Results: Of the 19 CDV courses prescribed, 16 courses (84%) were in patients who had a positive blood ADV Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) alone or in combination with positive ADV PCR/ Direct Immunofluorescence Assay (DFA) at another site. Respiratory symptoms with or without pneumonia were the most common presentation (10/19, 53%). In the majority of blood positive courses (10/16, 63%), viral clearance was also accompanied by clinical response. This was not the case in four courses where patients expired despite viral clearance, including one in which death was directly attributable to adenovirus. There was reversible renal dysfunction observed during the use of CDV. Conclusions:  CDV appeared safe and reasonably tolerated for treatment of ADV in this pediatric population and was associated with viral response and clinical improvement in the majority of patients but reversible renal dysfunction was a side effect. Further studies of the efficacy of CDV for immunocompromised children with ADV infection are warranted. PMID:27239277

  8. Adenoviruses in Lymphocytes of the Human Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumitra; Calcedo, Roberto; Medina-Jaszek, Angelica; Keough, Martin; Peng, Hui; Wilson, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Persistent adenoviral shedding in stools is known to occur past convalescence following acute adenoviral infections. We wished to establish the frequency with which adenoviruses may colonize the gut in normal human subjects. Methods The presence of adenoviral DNA in intestinal specimens obtained at surgery or autopsy was tested using a nested PCR method. The amplified adenoviral DNA sequences were compared to each other and to known adenoviral species. Lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) were isolated from the specimens and the adenoviral copy numbers in the CD4+ and CD8+ fractions were determined by quantitative PCR. Adenoviral gene expression was tested by amplification of adenoviral mRNA. Results Intestinal tissue from 21 of 58 donors and LPLs from 21 of 24 donors were positive for the presence of adenoviral DNA. The majority of the sequences could be assigned to adenoviral species E, although species B and C sequences were also common. Multiple sequences were often present in the same sample. Forty-one non-identical sequences were identified from 39 different tissue donors. Quantitative PCR for adenoviral DNA in CD4+ and CD8+ fractions of LPLs showed adenoviral DNA to be present in both cell types and ranged from a few hundred to several million copies per million cells on average. Active adenoviral gene expression as evidenced by the presence of adenoviral messenger RNA in intestinal lymphocytes was demonstrated in 9 of the 11 donors tested. Conclusion Adenoviral DNA is highly prevalent in lymphocytes from the gastro-intestinal tract indicating that adenoviruses may be part of the normal gut flora. PMID:21980361

  9. “Hit-and-Run” Transformation by Adenovirus Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nevels, Michael; Täuber, Birgitt; Spruss, Thilo; Wolf, Hans; Dobner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    According to classical concepts of viral oncogenesis, the persistence of virus-specific oncogenes is required to maintain the transformed cellular phenotype. In contrast, the “hit-and-run” hypothesis claims that viruses can mediate cellular transformation through an initial “hit,” while maintenance of the transformed state is compatible with the loss (“run”) of viral molecules. It is well established that the adenovirus E1A and E1B gene products can cooperatively transform primary human and rodent cells to a tumorigenic phenotype and that these cells permanently express the viral oncogenes. Additionally, recent studies have shown that the adenovirus E4 region encodes two novel oncoproteins, the products of E4orf6 and E4orf3, which cooperate with the viral E1A proteins to transform primary rat cells in an E1B-like fashion. Unexpectedly, however, cells transformed by E1A and either E4orf6 or E4orf3 fail to express the viral E4 gene products, and only a subset contain E1A proteins. In fact, the majority of these cells lack E4- and E1A-specific DNA sequences, indicating that transformation occurred through a hit-and-run mechanism. We provide evidence that the unusual transforming activities of the adenoviral oncoproteins may be due to their mutagenic potential. Our results strongly support the possibility that even tumors that lack any detectable virus-specific molecules can be of viral origin, which could have a significant impact on the use of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy. PMID:11238835

  10. Adenovirus Vectors Targeting Distinct Cell Types in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sweigard, J. Harry; Cashman, Siobhan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Gene therapy for a number of retinal diseases necessitates efficient transduction of photoreceptor cells. Whereas adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 (Ad5) does not transduce photoreceptors efficiently, previous studies have demonstrated improved photoreceptor transduction by Ad5 pseudotyped with Ad35 (Ad5/F35) or Ad37 (Ad5/F37) fiber or by the deletion of the RGD domain in the Ad5 penton base (Ad5ΔRGD). However, each of these constructs contained a different transgene cassette, preventing the evaluation of the relative performance of these vectors, an important consideration before the use of these vectors in the clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate these vectors in the retina and to attempt photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Methods. Three Ad5-based vectors containing the same expression cassette were generated and injected into the subretinal space of adult mice. Eyes were analyzed for green fluorescence protein expression in flat-mounts, cross-sections, quantitative RT-PCR, and a modified stereological technique. A 257-bp fragment derived from the mouse opsin promoter was analyzed in the context of photoreceptor-specific transgene expression. Results. Each virus tested efficiently transduced the retinal pigment epithelium. The authors found no evidence that Ad5/F35 or Ad5/F37 transduced photoreceptors. Instead, they found that Ad5/F37 transduced Müller cells. Robust photoreceptor transduction by Ad5ΔRGD was detected. Photoreceptor-specific transgene expression from the 257-bp mouse opsin promoter in the context of Ad5ΔRGD vectors was found. Conclusions. Adenovirus vectors may be designed with tropism to distinct cell populations. Robust photoreceptor-specific transgene expression can be achieved in the context of Ad5ΔRGD vectors. PMID:19892875

  11. A Molecular Epidemiology Survey of Respiratory Adenoviruses Circulating in Children Residing in Southern Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Qurei, Lina; Seto, Donald; Salah, Zaidoun; Azzeh, Maysa

    2012-01-01

    A molecular epidemiology survey was performed in order to establish and document the respiratory adenovirus pathogen profiles among children in Southern Palestine. Three hundred and thirty-eight hospitalized pediatric cases with adenovirus-associated respiratory tract infections were analyzed. Forty four cases out of the 338 were evaluated in more detail for the adenoviruses types present. All of the children resided in Southern Palestine, that is, in city, village and refugee camp environments within the districts of Hebron and Bethlehem. Human adenoviruses circulated throughout 2005–2010, with major outbreaks occurring in the spring months. A larger percent of the children diagnosed with adenoviral infections were male infants. DNA sequence analysis of the hexon genes from 44 samples revealed that several distinct adenovirus types circulated in the region; these were HAdV-C1, HAdV-C2, HAdV-B3 and HAdV-C5. However, not all of these types were detected within each year. This is the first study ever conducted in Palestine of the genetic epidemiology of respiratory adenovirus infections. PMID:22880092

  12. Development of a prototype immunochromatographic test for rapid diagnosis of respiratory adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Paulini, Inarei; Siqueira-Silva, Joselma; Thomaz, Luciana; Rocha, Leticia; Harsi, Charlotte; Bellei, Nancy; Granato, Celso

    Human adenoviruses comprise an important group of etiologic agents that are responsible for various diseases in adults and children, such as respiratory, ocular, gastroenteric, and urinary infections. In immunocompromised and organ-transplanted individuals, these agents can cause generalized infections. Rapid diagnostic methods for detecting these infectious agents are not widely available. The aim of this work was to produce monoclonal and polyclonal anti-adenovirus antibodies to be used in a rapid diagnostic test for respiratory infections. Adenovirus hexons were satisfactorily purified by ultracentrifugation and chromatography. After virus purification, anti-hexon monoclonal antibodies were produced and characterized, following classical methods. Antibodies were specific for adenoviruses 2, 3, 5, and 41. The proposed immunochromatographic test was standardized using colloidal gold. The standardization of the rapid test was sufficient to detect adenovirus antigens (in nasopharyngeal lavage samples) with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85% when compared to direct immunofluorescence. The immunochromatographic assay prototype was sufficiently sensitive to detect B (3), C (2 and 5), and F (41) adenovirus samples. Although based on preliminary data, the test demonstrated the same performance as direct immunofluorescence, but with the advantage of being a point-of-care test. Further studies are still needed to confirm its effectiveness in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure of the C-terminal head domain of the fowl adenovirus type 1 short fibre

    SciTech Connect

    El Bakkouri, Majida; Seiradake, Elena; Cusack, Stephen; Ruigrok, Rob W.H. Schoehn, Guy

    2008-08-15

    There are more than 100 known adenovirus serotypes, including 50 human serotypes. They can infect all 5 major vertebrate classes but only Aviadenovirus infecting birds and Mastadenovirus infecting mammals have been well studied. CELO (chicken embryo lethal orphan) adenovirus is responsible for mild respiratory pathologies in birds. Most studies on CELO virus have focussed on its genome sequence and organisation whereas the structural work on CELO proteins has only recently started. Contrary to most adenoviruses, the vertices of CELO virus reveal pentons with two fibres of different lengths. The distal parts (or head) of those fibres are involved in cellular receptor binding. Here we have determined the atomic structure of the short-fibre head of CELO (amino acids 201-410) at 2.0 A resolution. Despite low sequence identity, this structure is conserved compared to the other adenovirus fibre heads. We have used the existing CELO long-fibre head structure and the one we show here for a structure-based alignment of 11 known adenovirus fibre heads which was subsequently used for the construction of an evolutionary tree. Both the fibre head sequence and structural alignments suggest that enteric human group F adenovirus 41 (short fibre) is closer to the CELO fibre heads than the canine CAdV-2 fibre head, that lies closer to the human virus fibre heads.

  14. Translation of adenovirus 2 late mRNAs microinjected into cultured African green monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.D.; Anderson, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    Adenovirus 2-infected monkey cells fail to synthesize fiber, a 62,000 M/sub r/ virion polypeptide expressed at late times in productively infected cells. Yet these cells contain fiber mRNA that, after isolation, can be translated in vitro. The reason for the failure of monkey cells to translate fiber mRNA has been approached by microinjecting adenovirus mRNA into the cytoplasm of cultured monkey cells. Late adenovirus 2 mRNA, isolated from infected HeLa cells, was efficiently expressed when microinjected into the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-C. Expressed viral proteins identified by immunoprecipitation included the adenovirus fiber polypeptide. This result demonstrates that the monkey cell translational apparatus is capable of recognizing and expressing functional adenovirus mRNA. Microinjection of late virus mRNA into cells previously infected with wild-type adenovirus 2 failed to increase significantly the yield of infectious virus. 26 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Adenovirus Vectors Target Several Cell Subtypes of Mammalian Inner Ear In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyan; Shen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian inner ear harbors diverse cell types that are essential for hearing and balance. Adenovirus is one of the major vectors to deliver genes into the inner ear for functional studies and hair cell regeneration. To identify adenovirus vectors that target specific cell subtypes in the inner ear, we studied three adenovirus vectors, carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) from two vendors or with a genome editing gene Cre recombinase (Cre), by injection into postnatal days 0 (P0) and 4 (P4) mouse cochlea through scala media by cochleostomy in vivo. We found three adenovirus vectors transduced mouse inner ear cells with different specificities and expression levels, depending on the type of adenoviral vectors and the age of mice. The most frequently targeted region was the cochlear sensory epithelium, including auditory hair cells and supporting cells. Adenovirus with GFP transduced utricular supporting cells as well. This study shows that adenovirus vectors are capable of efficiently and specifically transducing different cell types in the mammalian inner ear and provides useful tools to study inner ear gene function and to evaluate gene therapy to treat hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. PMID:28116172

  16. Construction of adenovirus vectors encoding the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Fang; Qi, Bing; Tu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Lian; Yu, Guo-Cheng; Zhong, Jing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To construct adenovirus vectors of lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology to further understand the role of lumican gene in myopia. METHODS Gateway recombinant cloning technology was used to construct adenovirus vectors. The wild-type (wt) and mutant (mut) forms of the lumican gene were synthesized and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lumican cDNA fragments were purified and ligated into the adenovirus shuttle vector pDown-multiple cloning site (MCS)-/internal ribozyme entry site (IRES)/enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Then the desired DNA fragments were integrated into the destination vector pAV.Des1d yielding the final expression constructs pAV.Ex1d-cytomegalovirus (CMV)>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES /EGFP, respectively. RESULTS The adenovirus plasmids pAV.Ex1d-CMV>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES/EGFP were successfully constructed by gateway recombinant cloning technology. Positive clones identified by PCR and sequencing were selected and packaged into recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells. CONCLUSION We construct adenovirus vectors containing the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology, which provides a basis for investigating the role of lumican gene in the pathogenesis of high myopia. PMID:27672590

  17. Detection of infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses in tap water in urban areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the viral contamination of tap water at 11 urban sites in Korea between 1997 and 1998 over a period of 11 months. A total of 23 tap water samples were examined for infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses by a cell culture technique followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. To identify the recovered viruses, sequence analysis of PCR products was performed. Infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses were detected in 11 (47.8%) and 9 (39.1%) of the samples, respectively. Both enteroviruses and adenoviruses were detected in five samples (21.7%). The level of viral contamination was quite high, ranging from 2 x 10(-3) to 2.9 x 10(-2) Most Probable Number of Infectious Unit L(-1), far above the recommended virus level in drinking water set by the US EPA. Poliovirus type I derived from vaccine was frequently detected and the remainder comprised coxsackievirus B type or echovirus type 6, which were causative agents of aseptic meningitis in Korea in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Several types of adenovirus were detected in tap water samples and some water samples were found to contain adenoviruses which were closely related to enteric adenovirus types 40 and 41.

  18. A molecular epidemiology survey of respiratory adenoviruses circulating in children residing in Southern Palestine.

    PubMed

    Qurei, Lina; Seto, Donald; Salah, Zaidoun; Azzeh, Maysa

    2012-01-01

    A molecular epidemiology survey was performed in order to establish and document the respiratory adenovirus pathogen profiles among children in Southern Palestine. Three hundred and thirty-eight hospitalized pediatric cases with adenovirus-associated respiratory tract infections were analyzed. Forty four cases out of the 338 were evaluated in more detail for the adenoviruses types present. All of the children resided in Southern Palestine, that is, in city, village and refugee camp environments within the districts of Hebron and Bethlehem. Human adenoviruses circulated throughout 2005-2010, with major outbreaks occurring in the spring months. A larger percent of the children diagnosed with adenoviral infections were male infants. DNA sequence analysis of the hexon genes from 44 samples revealed that several distinct adenovirus types circulated in the region; these were HAdV-C1, HAdV-C2, HAdV-B3 and HAdV-C5. However, not all of these types were detected within each year. This is the first study ever conducted in Palestine of the genetic epidemiology of respiratory adenovirus infections.

  19. TheQ1 Influence of Innate and Pre-Existing Immunity on Adenovirus Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Anne K.; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Herschman, Harvey R.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been studied extensively in preclinical gene therapy models and in a range of clinical trials. However, innate immune responses to adenovirus vectors limit effectiveness of Ad5 based therapies. Moreover, extensive pre-existing Ad5 immunity in human populations will likely limit the clinical utility of adenovirus vectors, unless methods to circumvent neutralizing antibodies that bind virus and block target cell transduction can be developed; Furthermore, memory T cell and humoral responses to Ad5 are associated with increased toxicity, raising safety concerns for therapeutic adenovirus vectors in immunized hosts. Most preclinical studies have been performed in naïve animals; although pre-existing immunity is among the greatest hurdles for adenovirus therapies, it is also one of the most neglected experimentally. Here we summarize findings using adenovirus vectors in naïve animals, in Ad-immunized animals and in clinical trials, and review strategies proposed to overcome innate immune responses and pre-existing immunity. PMID:19711370

  20. Direct selection of targeted adenovirus vectors by random peptide display on the fiber knob.

    PubMed

    Miura, Y; Yoshida, K; Nishimoto, T; Hatanaka, K; Ohnami, S; Asaka, M; Douglas, J T; Curiel, D T; Yoshida, T; Aoki, K

    2007-10-01

    Targeting of gene transfer at the level of cell entry is one of the most attractive challenges in vector development. However, attempts to redirect adenovirus vectors to alternative receptors by engineering the capsid-coding region have shown limited success because proper targeting ligand-receptor systems on the cells of interest are generally unknown. Systematic approaches to generate adenovirus vectors targeting any given cell type need to be developed to achieve this goal. Here, we constructed an adenovirus library that was generated by a Cre-lox-mediated in vitro recombination between an adenoviral fiber-modified plasmid library and genomic DNA to display random peptides on a fiber knob. As proof of concept, we screened the adenovirus display library on a glioma cell line and observed selection of several particular peptide sequences. The targeted vector carrying the most frequently isolated peptide significantly enhanced gene transduction in the glioma cell line but not in many other cell lines. Because the insertion of a pre-selected peptide into a fiber knob often fails to generate an adenovirus vector, the selection of targeting peptides is highly useful in the context of the adenoviral capsid. This vector-screening system can facilitate the development of a targeted adenovirus vector for a variety of applications in medicine.

  1. Replication of adenovirus type 4 DNA by a purified fraction from infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Temperley, S M; Hay, R T

    1991-01-01

    An extract from Adenovirus type 4 infected HeLa cells was fractionated by ion-exchange and DNA affinity chromatography. One fraction, which bound tightly to single stranded DNA, contained predominantly a protein of apparent molecular weight 65,000 and three less abundant proteins. Immunological cross-reactivity with adenovirus type 2 proteins confirmed the presence of preterminal protein and indicated that the abundant species was the virus coded DNA binding protein. This fraction contained an aphidicolin resistant DNA polymerase activity and in the presence of a linearised plasmid containing the adenovirus type 4 origin of DNA replication efficient transfer of dCMP onto preterminal protein, indicative of initiation, was observed. Furthermore, addition of all four deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and an ATP regenerating system resulted in the elongation of initiated molecules to generate plasmid molecules covalently attached to preterminal protein. Adenovirus type 4 DNA binding protein was extensively purified from crude adenovirus-4 infected HeLa extract by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody raised against adenovirus type 2 DNA binding protein. A low level of initiation of DNA replication was detected in the fraction depleted of DNA binding protein but activity was restored by addition of purified DNA binding protein. DNA binding protein therefore plays an important role in the initiation of Ad4 DNA replication. Images PMID:1829516

  2. Isolation of a novel adenovirus from California sea lions Zalophus californianus.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, T; Colegrove, K M; Hanson, M; Gulland, F M D

    2011-05-09

    Viral hepatitis associated with adenoviral infection has been reported in California sea lions Zalophus californianus admitted to rehabilitation centers along the California coast since the 1970s. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) causes viral hepatitis in dogs and infects a number of wildlife species. Attempts to isolate the virus from previous sea lion hepatitis cases were unsuccessful, but as the hepatitis had morphologic features resembling canine infectious hepatitis, and since the virus has a wide host range, it was thought that perhaps the etiologic agent was CAdV-1. Here, we identify a novel adenovirus in 2 stranded California sea lions and associate the infection with viral hepatitis and endothelial cell infection. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the classification of the sea lion adenovirus in the Mastadenovirus genus with the most similarity to tree shrew adenovirus 1 (TSAdV-1, 77%). However, as the sea lion adenovirus appeared to be equally distant from the other Mastadenovirus species based on phylogenetic analysis, results indicate that it represents an independent lineage and species. Although sequences from this novel virus, otarine adenovirus 1 (OtAdV-1), show some similarity to CAdV-1 and 2, it is clearly distinct and likely the cause of the viral hepatitis in the stranded California sea lions.

  3. Adenovirus-mediated efficient gene transfer into cultured three-dimensional organoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Zhang, Hongmei; Deng, Fang; Wu, Ningning; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Junhui; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Yin, Liangjun; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Liang, Houjie; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional organoids have been recently established from various tissue-specific progenitors (such as intestinal stem cells), induced pluripotent stem cells, or embryonic stem cells. These cultured self-sustaining stem cell-based organoids may become valuable systems to study the roles of tissue-specific stem cells in tissue genesis and disease development. It is thus conceivable that effective genetic manipulations in such organoids may allow us to reconstruct disease processes and/or develop novel therapeutics. Recombinant adenoviruses are one of the most commonly used viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene deliveries. In this study, we investigate if adenoviruses can be used to effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured "mini-gut" organoids derived from intestinal stem cells. Using adenoviral vectors that express fluorescent proteins, we demonstrate that adenoviruses can effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured 3-D "mini-gut" organoids. The transgene expression can last at least 10 days in the cultured organoids. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated noggin expression effectively support the survival and self-renewal of mini-gut organoids, while adenovirus-mediated expression of BMP4 inhibits the self-sustainability and proliferation of the organoids. Thus, our results strongly suggest that adenovirus vectors can be explored as effective gene delivery vehicles to introduce genetic manipulations in 3-D organoids.

  4. Replication-competent human adenovirus 11p vectors can propagate in Vero cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gokumakulapalle, Madhuri; Mei, Ya-Fang

    2016-08-15

    The use of continuous cell lines derived from the African green monkey kidney (AGMK) has led to major advances in virus vaccine development. However, to date, these cells have not been used to facilitate the creation of human adenoviruses because most human adenoviruses undergo abortive infections in them. Here, we report the susceptibility of AGMK-derived cells to adenovirus 11p (Ad11p) infection. First, we showed that CD46 molecules, which act as receptors for Ad11p, are expressed in AGMK cells. We then monitored Ad11p replication by measuring GFP expression as an indicator of viral transcription. We found that AGMK-derived cells were as capable as carcinoma cells at propagating full-length replication-competent Ad11p (RCAd11p) DNA. Of the AGMK cell lines tested, Vero cells had the greatest capacity for adenovirus production. Thus, AGMK cells can be used to evaluate RCAd11p-mediated gene delivery, and Vero cells can be used for the production of RCAd11pGFP vectors at relatively high yields. - Highlights: • Africa green monkey cell lines were monitored for human adenovirus 11p GFP vector infection. • Human CD46 molecules were detectable in these monkey cell lines. • Adenovirus 11p GFP vector can be propagated in Vero cells increases the safety of Ad11p-based vectors for clinical trials. • To use Vero cells for preparation of Ad11p vector avoids the potential inclusion of oncogenes from tumor cells.

  5. Role of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression and viral load of adenovirus and enterovirus in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mirnalini; Mishra, Baijayantimala; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Bahl, Ajay; Ratho, Radha Kanta; Talwar, Kewal Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) and adenoviruses (AdVs) are two important etiological agents of viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Both these viruses share a common receptor, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), for their infection. However, the role of viral load and CAR expression in disease severity has not yet been completely elucidated. The present study aimed to determine viral load of EV and AdV in DCM patients and correlate them with the level of CAR expression in these patients. Sixty-three DCM cases and 30 controls, each of whom died of heart disease other than DCM and non-cardiac disease respectively, were included. Viral load was determined by TaqMan real-time PCR using primers and probes specific for the AdV hexon gene and the 5'UTR region of EV. The CAR mRNA level was semi-quantitated by RT-PCR, and antigen expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. A significantly high AdV load (p < 0.05) and CAR expression (p < 0.05) were observed in DCM cases versus controls, whereas the EV load showed no significant difference. The data suggests a clinical threshold of 128 AdV copies/500 ng of DNA for DCM, with 66.7 % sensitivity and 65 % specificity. A positive correlation between AdV load and CAR expression (p < 0.001) was also observed in DCM cases. The high adenoviral load and increased CAR expression in DCM and their association with adverse disease outcome indicates role of both virus and receptor in disease pathogenesis. Thus, the need for targeting both the virus and the receptor for treatment of viral myocarditis and early DCM requires further confirmation with larger studies.

  6. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of an adenovirus-PEI-bile-acid complex in tumors with low coxsackie and adenovirus receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cho-Hee; Kasala, Dayananda; Na, Youjin; Lee, Min Sang; Kim, Sung Wan; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2014-07-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is a potential vehicle for cancer gene therapy. However, cells that express low levels of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) demonstrate poor Ad infection efficiency. We developed a bile acid-conjugated poly(ethyleneimine) (DA3)-coated Ad complex (Ad/DA3) to enhance Ad transduction efficiency. The size distribution and zeta potential of Ad/DA3 increased to 324 ± 3.08 nm and 10.13 ± 0.21 mV, respectively, compared with those of naked Ad (108 ± 2.26 nm and -17.7 ± 1.5 mV). The transduction efficiency of Ad/DA3 increased in a DA3 polymer concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced gene transfer by Ad/DA3 was more evident in CAR-moderate and CAR-negative cancer cells. Competition assays with a CAR-specific antibody revealed that internalization of Ad/DA3 was not mediated primarily by CAR but involved clathrin-, caveolae-, and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis. Cancer cell death was significantly increased when oncolytic Ad and DA3 were complexed (RdB-KOX/DA3) compared to that of naked oncolytic Ad and was inversely proportional to CAR levels. Importantly, RdB-KOX/DA3 significantly enhanced apoptosis, reduced angiogenesis, reduced proliferation, and increased active viral replication in human tumor xenografts compared to that of naked Ad. These results demonstrate that a hybrid vector system can increase the efficacy of oncolytic Ad virotherapy, particularly in CAR-limited tumors.

  7. Selective Modification of Adenovirus Replication Can Be Achieved through Rational Mutagenesis of the Adenovirus Type 5 DNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Capella, Cristina; Beltejar, Michael-John; Brown, Caitlin; Fong, Vincent; Daddacha, Waaqo; Kim, Baek

    2012-01-01

    Mutations that reduce the efficiency of deoxynucleoside (dN) triphosphate (dNTP) substrate utilization by the HIV-1 DNA polymerase prevent viral replication in resting cells, which contain low dNTP concentrations, but not in rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells, which contain high levels of dNTPs. We therefore tested whether mutations in regions of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA polymerase that interact with the dNTP substrate or DNA template could alter virus replication. The majority of the mutations created, including conservative substitutions, were incompatible with virus replication. Five replication-competent mutants were recovered from 293 cells, but four of these mutants failed to replicate in A549 lung carcinoma cells and Wi38 normal lung cells. Purified polymerase proteins from these viruses exhibited only a 2- to 4-fold reduction in their dNTP utilization efficiency but nonetheless could not be rescued, even when intracellular dNTP concentrations were artificially raised by the addition of exogenous dNs to virus-infected A549 cells. The fifth mutation (I664V) reduced biochemical dNTP utilization by the viral polymerase by 2.5-fold. The corresponding virus replicated to wild-type levels in three different cancer cell lines but was significantly impaired in all normal cell lines in which it was tested. Efficient replication and virus-mediated cell killing were rescued by the addition of exogenous dNs to normal lung fibroblasts (MRC5 cells), confirming the dNTP-dependent nature of the polymerase defect. Collectively, these data provide proof-of-concept support for the notion that conditionally replicating, tumor-selective adenovirus vectors can be created by modifying the efficiency with which the viral DNA polymerase utilizes dNTP substrates. PMID:22811532

  8. Selective modification of adenovirus replication can be achieved through rational mutagenesis of the adenovirus type 5 DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Capella, Cristina; Beltejar, Michael-John; Brown, Caitlin; Fong, Vincent; Daddacha, Waaqo; Kim, Baek; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Mutations that reduce the efficiency of deoxynucleoside (dN) triphosphate (dNTP) substrate utilization by the HIV-1 DNA polymerase prevent viral replication in resting cells, which contain low dNTP concentrations, but not in rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells, which contain high levels of dNTPs. We therefore tested whether mutations in regions of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA polymerase that interact with the dNTP substrate or DNA template could alter virus replication. The majority of the mutations created, including conservative substitutions, were incompatible with virus replication. Five replication-competent mutants were recovered from 293 cells, but four of these mutants failed to replicate in A549 lung carcinoma cells and Wi38 normal lung cells. Purified polymerase proteins from these viruses exhibited only a 2- to 4-fold reduction in their dNTP utilization efficiency but nonetheless could not be rescued, even when intracellular dNTP concentrations were artificially raised by the addition of exogenous dNs to virus-infected A549 cells. The fifth mutation (I664V) reduced biochemical dNTP utilization by the viral polymerase by 2.5-fold. The corresponding virus replicated to wild-type levels in three different cancer cell lines but was significantly impaired in all normal cell lines in which it was tested. Efficient replication and virus-mediated cell killing were rescued by the addition of exogenous dNs to normal lung fibroblasts (MRC5 cells), confirming the dNTP-dependent nature of the polymerase defect. Collectively, these data provide proof-of-concept support for the notion that conditionally replicating, tumor-selective adenovirus vectors can be created by modifying the efficiency with which the viral DNA polymerase utilizes dNTP substrates.

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis and Structural Predictions of Human Adenovirus Penton Proteins as a Basis for Tissue-Specific Adenovirus Vector Design▿

    PubMed Central

    Madisch, Ijad; Hofmayer, Soeren; Moritz, Christian; Grintzalis, Alexander; Hainmueller, Jens; Pring-Akerblom, Patricia; Heim, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The penton base is a major capsid protein of human adenoviruses (HAdV) which forms the vertices of the capsid and interacts with hexon and fiber protein. Two hypervariable loops of the penton are exposed on the capsid surface. Sequences of these and 300 adjacent amino acid residues of all 51 HAdV and closely related simian adenoviruses were studied. Adjacent sequences and predicted overall secondary structure were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering corresponding to the HAdV species and recombination events in the origin of HAdV prototypes. All HAdV except serotypes 40 and 41 of species F exhibited an integrin binding RGD motif in the second loop. The lengths of the loops (HVR1 and RGD loops) varied significantly between HAdV species with the longest RGD loop observed in species C and the longest HVR1 in species B. Long loops may permit the insertion of motifs that modify tissue tropism. Genetic analysis of HAdV prime strain p17′H30, a neutralization variant of HAdV-D17, indicated the significance of nonhexon neutralization epitopes for HAdV immune escape. Fourteen highly conserved motifs of the penton base were analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis of HAdV-D8 and tested for sustained induction of early cytopathic effects. Thus, three new motifs essential for penton base function were identified additionally to the RGD site, which interacts with a secondary cellular receptor responsible for internalization. Therefore, our penton primary structure data and secondary structure modeling in combination with the recently published fiber knob sequences may permit the rational design of tissue-specific adenoviral vectors. PMID:17522221

  10. Retargeted oncolytic adenovirus displaying a single variable domain of camelid heavy-chain-only antibody in a fiber protein.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Elisabeth A; Kaliberova, Lyudmila N; Kaliberov, Sergey A; Curiel, David T

    2015-01-01

    Conditionally replicative adenoviruses are promising agents for oncolytic virotherapy. Various approaches have been attempted to retarget adenoviruses to tumor-specific antigens to circumvent deficiency of receptor for adenoviral binding and to provide an additional level of tumor specificity. Functional incorporation of highly specific targeting molecules into the viral capsid can potentially retarget adenoviral infection. However, conventional antibodies are not compatible with the cytoplasmic adenovirus capsid synthesis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of single variable domains derived from heavy chain camelid antibodies for retargeting of adenovirus infection. We have combined transcriptional targeting using a tumor-specific promoter with transductional targeting through viral capsid incorporation of antihuman carcinoembryonic antigen single variable domains. Obtained data demonstrated that employment of a single variable domain genetically incorporated into an adenovirus fiber increased specificity of infection and efficacy of replication of single variable domain-targeted oncolytic adenovirus. The double targeting, both transcriptional through the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 promoter and transductional using the single variable domain, is a promising means to improve the therapeutic index for these advanced generation conditionally replicative adenoviruses. A successful strategy to transductional retargeting of oncolytic adenovirus infection has not been shown before and therefore we believe this is the first employment of transductional targeting using single variable domains derived from heavy chain camelid antibodies to enhance specificity of conditionally replicative adenoviruses.

  11. Crystal structure of the fibre head domain of bovine adenovirus 4, a ruminant atadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh H; Vidovszky, Márton Z; Ballmann, Mónika Z; Sanz-Gaitero, Marta; Singh, Abhimanyu K; Harrach, Balázs; Benkő, Mária; van Raaij, Mark J

    2015-05-22

    In adenoviruses, primary host cell recognition is generally performed by the head domains of their homo-trimeric fibre proteins. This first interaction is reversible. A secondary, irreversible interaction subsequently takes place via other adenovirus capsid proteins and leads to a productive infection. Although many fibre head structures are known for human mastadenoviruses, not many animal adenovirus fibre head structures have been determined, especially not from those belonging to adenovirus genera other than Mastadenovirus. We constructed an expression vector for the fibre head domain from a ruminant atadenovirus, bovine adenovirus 4 (BAdV-4), consisting of amino acids 414-535, expressed the protein in Escherichia coli, purified it by metal affinity and cation exchange chromatography and crystallized it. The structure was solved using single isomorphous replacement plus anomalous dispersion of a mercury derivative and refined against native data that extended to 1.2 Å resolution. Like in other adenoviruses, the BAdV-4 fibre head monomer contains a beta-sandwich consisting of ABCJ and GHID sheets. The topology is identical to the fibre head of the other studied atadenovirus, snake adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1), including the alpha-helix in the DG-loop, despite of them having a sequence identity of only 15 %. There are also differences which may have implications for ligand binding. Beta-strands G and H are longer and differences in several surface-loops and surface charge are observed. Chimeric adenovirus fibres have been used to retarget adenovirus-based anti-cancer and gene therapy vectors. Ovine adenovirus 7 (OAdV-7), another ruminant atadenovirus, is intensively tested as a basis for such a vector. Here, we present the high-resolution atomic structure of the BAdV-4 fibre head domain, the second atadenovirus fibre head structure known and the first of an atadenovirus that infects a mammalian host. Future research should focus on the receptor-binding properties of

  12. Prevalence and Quantitation of Species C Adenovirus DNA in Human Mucosal Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, C. T.; Erdman, D.; Xu, W.; Gooding, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The common species C adenoviruses (serotypes Ad1, Ad2, Ad5, and Ad6) infect more than 80% of the human population early in life. Following primary infection, the virus can establish an asymptomatic persistent infection in which infectious virions are shed in feces for several years. The probable source of persistent virus is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, although the molecular details of persistence or latency of adenovirus are currently unknown. In this study, a sensitive real-time PCR assay was developed to quantitate species C adenovirus DNA in human tissues removed for routine tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy. Using this assay, species C DNA was detected in Ficoll-purified lymphocytes from 33 of 42 tissue specimens tested (79%). The levels varied from fewer than 10 to greater than 2 × 106 copies of the adenovirus genome/107 cells, depending on the donor. DNA from serotypes Ad1, Ad2, and Ad5 was detected, while the rarer serotype Ad6 was not. When analyzed as a function of donor age, the highest levels of adenovirus genomes were found among the youngest donors. Antibody-coated magnetic beads were used to purify lymphocytes into subpopulations and determine whether viral DNA could be enriched within any purified subpopulations. Separation of T cells (CD4/8- expressing and/or CD3-expressing cells) enriched viral DNA in each of nine donors tested. In contrast, B-cell purification (CD19-expressing cells) invariably depleted or eliminated viral DNA. Despite the frequent finding of significant quantities of adenovirus DNA in tonsil and adenoid tissues, infectious virus was rarely present, as measured by coculture with permissive cells. These findings suggest that human mucosal T lymphocytes may harbor species C adenoviruses in a quiescent, perhaps latent form. PMID:12368303

  13. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Docherty, D.E.; Wilson, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  14. Molecular epidemiology and surveillance of circulating rotavirus and adenovirus in Congolese children with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Mayindou, Gontran; Ngokana, Berge; Sidibé, Anissa; Moundélé, Victoire; Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Christevy Vouvoungui, Jeannhey; Kwedi Nolna, Sylvie; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Ntoumi, Francine

    2016-04-01

    Infectious Diarrhea caused by rotavirus and adenovirus, is a leading cause of death in children in sub-Sahara Africa but there is limited published data on the diverse rotavirus genotypes and adenovirus serotypes circulating in the Republic of Congo. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus A (RVA) and Adenovirus serotype 40 and 41 in Congolese children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis. Stool samples were collected from 655 Congolese children less than 60 months of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis between June 2012 and June 2013. Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens were tested using commercially available ELISA kits and the RVA G- and P- genotypes were identified by seminested multiplex RT-PCR. Three hundred and four (46.4%) children were tested positive for RVA. Adenovirus infection was found in 5.5% of the 564 tested children. Rotavirus infection was frequently observed in children between 6-12 months (55.9%). The dry season months recorded increased RVA infection while no seasonality of adenovirus infection was demonstrated. The most common RVA genotypes were G1 (57.5%), G2 (6.4%), G1G2 mixture (15.5%), P[8] (58%), P[6] (13.2%), and P[8]P[6] mixture (26%). Additionally, the genotype G12P[6] was significantly associated with increased vomiting. This first study on Congolese children demonstrates a high prevalence and clinical significance of existing rotavirus genotypes. Adenovirus prevalence is similar to that of other Central African countries. This baseline epidemiology and molecular characterization study will contribute significantly to the RVA surveillance after vaccine implementation in the country. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An adenovirus linked to mortality and disease in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, Tuula E; Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Grand, James B; Lanctot, Richard B; Docherty, Douglas E; Wilson, Heather M

    2003-01-01

    An adenovirus was isolated from intestinal samples of two long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) collected during a die-off in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of Alaska in 2000. The virus was not neutralized by reference antiserum against known group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses and may represent a new serotype. The prevalence of the virus was determined in live-trapped long-tailed ducks at the mortality site and at a reference site 100 km away where no mortality was observed. Prevalence of adenovirus antibodies in serum samples at the mortality site was 86% compared to 10% at the reference site. Furthermore, 50% of cloacal swabs collected at the mortality site and only 7% of swabs from the reference site were positive for adenoviruses. In 2001, no mortality was observed at either of the study areas, and virus prevalence in both serum and cloacal samples was low, providing further evidence that the adenovirus was linked to the mortality event in 2000. The virus was used to infect long-tailed ducks under experimental conditions and resulted in lesions previously described for avian adenovirus infections and similar to those observed in long-tailed duck carcasses from the Beaufort Sea. The status of long-tailed ducks has recently become a concern in Alaska due to precipitous declines in breeding populations there since the mid-1970s. Our findings suggest that the newly isolated adenovirus is a disease agent and source of mortality in long-tailed ducks, and thus could be a contributing factor in population declines.

  16. A replicating adenovirus capsid display recombinant elicits antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in Aotus nancymaae monkeys.

    PubMed

    Karen, Kasey A; Deal, Cailin; Adams, Robert J; Nielsen, Carolyn; Ward, Cameron; Espinosa, Diego A; Xie, Jane; Zavala, Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Decades of success with live adenovirus vaccines suggest that replication-competent recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) could serve as effective vectors for immunization against other pathogens. To explore the potential of a live rAd vaccine against malaria, we prepared a viable adenovirus 5 (Ad5) recombinant that displays a B-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum on the virion surface. The recombinant induced P. falciparum sporozoite-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Human adenoviruses do not replicate in mice. Therefore, to examine immunogenicity in a system in which, as in humans, the recombinant replicates, we constructed a similar recombinant in an adenovirus mutant that replicates in monkey cells and immunized four Aotus nancymaae monkeys. The recombinant replicated in the monkeys after intratracheal instillation, the first demonstration of replication of human adenoviruses in New World monkeys. Immunization elicited antibodies both to the Plasmodium epitope and the Ad5 vector. Antibodies from all four monkeys recognized CSP on intact parasites, and plasma from one monkey neutralized sporozoites in vitro and conferred partial protection against P. falciparum sporozoite infection after passive transfer to mice. Prior enteric inoculation of two animals with antigenically wild-type adenovirus primed a response to the subsequent intratracheal inoculation, suggesting a route to optimizing performance. A vaccine is not yet available against P. falciparum, which induces the deadliest form of malaria and kills approximately one million children each year. The live capsid display recombinant described here may constitute an early step in a critically needed novel approach to malaria immunization.

  17. Adenovirus infection: A potential risk for developing intussusception in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Khamrin, Pattara; Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Damrongmanee, Alisara; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2016-11-01

    The pathogenesis of intussusception without obvious anatomical leading points remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine a feasibility of association between certain gastroenteritis viruses and intussusception. This was a prospective cohort study. Forty intussusception cases and 136 acute gastroenteritis controls with comparable age and gender were separately consecutively enrolled and relevant clinical data of both groups were recorded. The clinical specimens collected from all patients were screened for adenovirus, rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus by PCR and RT-PCR using specific primers. The genomes of detected viruses were characterized further to identify their genotypes by nucleotide sequencing. In 40 intussusception cases, adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were detected in 12 (30.0%), 2 (5.0%), and 2 (5.0%), respectively while astrovirus was undetectable. In contrast, 136 acute gastroenteritis patients, adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were detected in 11 (8.1%), 24 (17.7%), and 24 (17.7%) patients, respectively and again astrovirus was undetectable. The detection of adenovirus in intussusception patients was significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.001) with an odd ratio of 4.87 (95%CI: 1.95, 12.16). Interestingly, molecular analysis of adenovirus genome demonstrated that all of adenovirus detected in intussusception patients belonged to adenovirus C. This could be a potential risk factor or pathogenesis for developing intussusception in the cases of those without apparent anatomical leading points. J. Med. Virol. 88:1930-1935, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Impact of preexisting adenovirus vector immunity on immunogenicity and protection conferred with an adenovirus-based H5N1 influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Aseem; Singh, Neetu; Vemula, Sai V; Couëtil, Laurent; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Mittal, Suresh K

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of preexisting immunity to adenoviruses in the majority of the human population might adversely impact the development of adaptive immune responses against adenovirus vector-based vaccines. To address this issue, we primed BALB/c mice either intranasally (i.n.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) with varying doses of wild type (WT) human adenovirus subtype 5 (HAd5). Following the development of immunity against HAd5, we immunized animals via the i.n. or i.m. route of inoculation with a HAd vector (HAd-HA-NP) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) of A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza virus. The immunogenicity and protection results suggest that low levels of vector immunity (<520 virus-neutralization titer) induced by priming mice with up to 10(7) plaque forming units (p.f.u.) of HAd-WT did not adversely impact the protective efficacy of the vaccine. Furthermore, high levels of vector immunity (approximately 1500 virus-neutralization titer) induced by priming mice with 10(8) p.f.u. of HAd-WT were overcome by either increasing the vaccine dose or using alternate routes of vaccination. A further increase in the priming dose to 10(9) p.f.u. allowed only partial protection. These results suggest possible strategies to overcome the variable levels of human immunity against adenoviruses, leading to better utilization of HAd vector-based vaccines.

  19. Development of plaque assays for adenoviruses 40 and 41.

    PubMed

    Cromeans, Theresa L; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D; Humphrey, Charles D; Hill, Vincent R

    2008-07-01

    Enteric adenoviruses, important agents of infantile gastroenteritis, are difficult to culture with low titers and limited CPE. Consequently, few plaque assays have been reported and none are used routinely by investigators who may need reproducible quantitative assays for these viruses. CPE in A549 cells (an epithelial lung carcinoma cell line) was induced by isolates of human adenovirus (HAdV) serotypes 40 or 41 that were obtained by prior limited passage in primary cynmolgous monkey kidney (pCMK), human embryonic kidney (HEK), and Graham 293 cells. CPE with HAdV 40 (Dugan strain) and HAdV 41 (Tak strain) inoculated in A549 cells was also observed. Monolayers of A549 cells were inoculated with a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) of the archived stock isolates and harvested at days 10-14 with full CPE. Subsequent passages were harvested in as few as 7 days with 100% CPE to prepare virus stocks for plaque assay. Large individual plaques under agarose overlay were picked prior to staining and clonal stocks prepared. Titers of final stock preparations after six to eight passages in A549 cells were in the range of 5 x 10(7)-1 x 10(8)PFU/ml, which provides adequate virus for quantitative recovery studies. The particle to infectivity (P:I) ratios of the early passages of virus stocks were in the range reported previously. The ratio of non-infectious to infectious particles decreased with successive passages of HAdVs 40 and 41 in A549 cells. The specificity of the assay was confirmed by neutralization of plaques with type-specific antisera. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the HAdVs 40 and 41 plaque forming stocks ruled out contamination with any other HAdVs. The plaque assay developed will be useful for evaluation of virus recovery methods from water, food or other environmental matrices, as well as determination of the efficacy of water treatment techniques for inactivation of these viruses.

  20. Structure and composition of the adenovirus type 2 core.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D T; Westphal, M; Burlingham, B T; Winterhoff, U; Doerfler, W

    1975-01-01

    The structure and composition of the core of adenovirus type 2 were analyzed by electron microscopy and biochemical techniques after differential degradation of the virion by heat, by pyridine, or by sarcosyl treatment. In negatively stained preparations purified sarcosyl cores reveal spherical subunits of 21.6-nm diameter in the electron microscope. It is suggested that these subunits are organized as an icosahedron which has its axes of symmetry coincident with those of the viral capsid. The subunits are connected by the viral DNA molecule. The sarcosyl cores contain the viral DNA and predominantly the arginine/alanine-rich core polypeptide VII. When sarcosyl cores are spread on a protein film, tightly coiled particles are observed which gradually unfold giving rise to a rosette-like pattern due to the uncoiling DNA molecule. Completely unfolded DNA molecules are circular. Pyridine cores consist of the viral DNA and polypeptides V and VII. In negatively stained preparations of pyridine cores the subunit arrangement apparent in the sarcosyl cores is masked by an additional shell which is probably formed by polypeptide V. In freeze-cleaved preparations of the adenovirion two fracture planes can be recognized. One fracture plane probably passes between the outer capsid of the virion and polypeptide V exposing a subviral particle which corresponds to the pyridine core. The second fracture plane observed could be located between polypeptide V and the polypeptide VII-DNA complex, thus uncovering a subviral structure which corresponds to the sarcosyl core. In the sarcosyl core polypeptide VII is tightly bound to the viral DNA which is susceptible to digestion with DNase. The restriction endonuclease EcoRI cleaves the viral DNA in the sarcosyl cores into the six specific fragments. These fragments can be resolved on polyacrylamide-agarose gels provided the sarcosyl cores are treated with pronase after incubation with the restriction endonuclease. When pronase digestion

  1. The Dual Nature of Nek9 in Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Richard; Radko, Sandi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To successfully replicate in an infected host cell, a virus must overcome sophisticated host defense mechanisms. Viruses, therefore, have evolved a multitude of devices designed to circumvent cellular defenses that would lead to abortive infection. Previous studies have identified Nek9, a cellular kinase, as a binding partner of adenovirus E1A, but the biology behind this association remains a mystery. Here we show that Nek9 is a transcriptional repressor that functions together with E1A to silence the expression of p53-inducible GADD45A gene in the infected cell. Depletion of Nek9 in infected cells reduces virus growth but unexpectedly enhances viral gene expression from the E2 transcription unit, whereas the opposite occurs when Nek9 is overexpressed. Nek9 localizes with viral replication centers, and its depletion reduces viral genome replication, while overexpression enhances viral genome numbers in infected cells. Additionally, Nek9 was found to colocalize with the viral E4 orf3 protein, a repressor of cellular stress response. Significantly, Nek9 was also shown to associate with viral and cellular promoters and appears to function as a transcriptional repressor, representing the first instance of Nek9 playing a role in gene regulation. Overall, these results highlight the complexity of virus-host interactions and identify a new role for the cellular protein Nek9 during infection, suggesting a role for Nek9 in regulating p53 target gene expression. IMPORTANCE In the arms race that exists between a pathogen and its host, each has continually evolved mechanisms to either promote or prevent infection. In order to successfully replicate and spread, a virus must overcome every mechanism that a cell can assemble to block infection. On the other hand, to counter viral spread, cells must have multiple mechanisms to stifle viral replication. In the present study, we add to our understanding of how the human adenovirus is able to circumvent cellular roadblocks

  2. Interaction of human adenoviruses and coliphages with kaolinite and bentonite.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Maria I; Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Tselepi, Maria A; Kokkinos, Petros A; Paparrodopoulos, Spyros C; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-06-01

    Human adenoviruses (hAdVs) are pathogenic viruses responsible for public health problems worldwide. They have also been used as viral indicators in environmental systems. Coliphages (e.g., MS2, ΦX174) have also been studied as indicators of viral pollution in fecally contaminated water. Our objective was to evaluate the distribution of three viral fecal indicators (hAdVs, MS2, and ΦΧ174), between two different phyllosilicate clays (kaolinite and bentonite) and the aqueous phase. A series of static and dynamic experiments were conducted under two different temperatures (4, 25°C) for a time period of seven days. HAdV adsorption was examined in DNase I reaction buffer (pH=7.6, and ionic strength (IS)=1.4mM), whereas coliphage adsorption in phosphate buffered saline solution (pH=7, IS=2mM). Moreover, the effect of IS on hAdV adsorption under static conditions was evaluated. The adsorption of hAdV was assessed by real-time PCR and its infectivity was tested by cultivation methods. The coliphages MS2 and ΦΧ174 were assayed by the double-layer overlay method. The experimental results have shown that coliphage adsorption onto both kaolinite and bentonite was higher for the dynamic than the static experiments; whereas hAdV adsorption was lower under dynamic conditions. The adsorption of hAdV increased with decreasing temperature, contrary to the results obtained for the coliphages. This study examines the combined effect of temperature, agitation, clay type, and IS on hAdV adsorption onto clays. The results provide useful new information on the effective removal of viral fecal indicators (MS2, ΦX174 and hAdV) from dilute aqueous solutions by adsorption onto kaolinite and bentonite. Factors enabling enteric viruses to penetrate soils, groundwater and travel long distances within aquifers are important public health issues. Because the observed adsorption behavior of surrogate coliphages MS2 and ΦΧ174 is substantially different to that of hAdV, neither MS2 nor

  3. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630–24,662 bp and 35.5–35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9–39.3% (amino acid, 32.1–47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008–2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population. PMID:27309961

  4. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of a Novel Adenovirus in Antarctic Penguins Collected between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Tae-Kun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Hankyeom; Kim, Won-Keun; Choi, Han-Gu; Kang, Sung-Ho; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica is considered a relatively uncontaminated region with regard to the infectious diseases because of its extreme environment, and isolated geography. For the genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of the newly found penguin adenovirus in Antarctica, entire genome sequencing and annual survey of penguin adenovirus were conducted. The entire genome sequences of penguin adenoviruses were completed for two Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) and two Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua). The whole genome lengths and G+C content of penguin adenoviruses were found to be 24,630-24,662 bp and 35.5-35.6%, respectively. Notably, the presence of putative sialidase gene was not identified in penguin adenoviruses by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE-PCR) as well as consensus specific PCR. The penguin adenoviruses were demonstrated to be a new species within the genus Siadenovirus, with a distance of 29.9-39.3% (amino acid, 32.1-47.9%) in DNA polymerase gene, and showed the closest relationship with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) in phylogenetic analysis. During the 2008-2013 study period, the penguin adenoviruses were annually detected in 22 of 78 penguins (28.2%), and the molecular epidemiological study of the penguin adenovirus indicates a predominant infection in Chinstrap penguin population (12/30, 40%). Interestingly, the genome of penguin adenovirus could be detected in several internal samples, except the lymph node and brain. In conclusion, an analysis of the entire adenoviral genomes from Antarctic penguins was conducted, and the penguin adenoviruses, containing unique genetic character, were identified as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Moreover, it was annually detected in Antarctic penguins, suggesting its circulation within the penguin population.

  5. Lesions and transmission of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Lehmkuhl, H D; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

    1999-03-01

    Adenovirus infection was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California during the latter half of 1993. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. To study transmission of adenovirus infection in deer and susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) fawns to adenovirus infection, six 3-6-month-old black-tailed fawns were divided into two treatment groups. One group was inoculated intravenously and the other group was inoculated through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with purified adenovirus. Each treatment group also included two additional fawns (four total) that were not inoculated but were exposed to inoculated animals (contact animals). One fawn served as a negative control. Between 4 and 16 days postinoculation, 8/10 fawns developed systemic or localized infection with lesions identical to lesions seen in animals with natural disease that died during the epizootic. Transmission was by direct contact, and the route of inoculation did not affect the incubation period or the distribution of the virus (systemic or the localized infection). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antiserum against bovine adenovirus type 5 demonstrated staining in endothelial cells of vessels in numerous tissues in animals with systemic infection and endothelial staining only in vessels subtending necrotic foci in the upper alimentary tract in animals with the localized form of the disease. All inoculated or exposed animals had staining in the tonsillar epithelium. Transmission electron microscopic examination of lung and ileum from two fawns with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy demonstrated endothelial necrosis and

  6. Adenovirus disease in six small bowel, kidney and heart transplant recipients; pathology and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vikas; Chou, Pauline C; Picken, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    Adenoviruses are emerging as important viral pathogens in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients, impacting morbidity, graft survival, and even mortality. The risk seems to be highest in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients as well as heart, lung, and small bowel transplant recipients. Most of the adenovirus diseases develop in the first 6 months after transplantation, particularly in pediatric patients. Among abdominal organ recipients, small bowel grafts are most frequently affected, presumably due to the presence of a virus reservoir in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Management of these infections may be difficult and includes the reduction of immunosuppression, whenever possible, combined with antiviral therapy, if necessary. Therefore, an awareness of the pathology associated with such infections is important in order to allow early detection and specific treatment. We reviewed six transplant recipients (small bowel, kidney, and heart) with adenovirus graft involvement from two institutions. We sought to compare the diagnostic morphology and the clinical and laboratory findings. The histopathologic features of an adenovirus infection of the renal graft and one native kidney in a heart transplant recipient included a vaguely granulomatous mixed inflammatory infiltrate associated with rare cells showing a cytopathic effect (smudgy nuclei). A lymphocytic infiltrate, simulating T cell rejection, with admixture of eosinophils was also seen. In the small bowel grafts, there was a focal mixed inflammatory infiltrate with associated necrosis in addition to cytopathic effects. In the heart, allograft adenovirus infection was silent with no evidence of inflammatory changes. Immunohistochemical stain for adenovirus was positive in all grafts and in one native kidney. All patients were subsequently cleared of adenovirus infection, as evidenced by follow-up biopsies, with no loss of the grafts. Adenovirus infection can

  7. A Novel Vaccine Approach for Chagas Disease Using Rare Adenovirus Serotype 48 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Anitra L.; Peng, Binghao J.; Gu, Linlin; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Matthews, Qiana L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount of people afflicted worldwide with Chagas disease and an increasing prevalence in the United States, there is a greater need to develop a safe and effective vaccine for this neglected disease. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most common adenovirus vector used for gene therapy and vaccine approaches, but its efficacy is limited by preexisting vector immunity in humans resulting from natural infections. Therefore, we have employed rare serotype adenovirus 48 (Ad48) as an alternative choice for adenovirus/Chagas vaccine therapy. In this study, we modified Ad5 and Ad48 vectors to contain T. cruzi’s amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP-2) in the adenoviral early gene. We also modified Ad5 and Ad48 vectors to utilize the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy by adding T. cruzi epitopes to protein IX (pIX). Mice that were immunized with the modified vectors were able to elicit T. cruzi-specific humoral and cellular responses. This study indicates that Ad48-modified vectors function comparable to or even premium to Ad5-modified vectors. This study provides novel data demonstrating that Ad48 can be used as a potential adenovirus vaccine vector against Chagas disease. PMID:26978385

  8. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  9. Radioisotopic imaging allows optimization of adenovirus lung deposition for cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Lerondel, S; Le Pape, A; Sené, C; Faure, L; Bernard, S; Diot, P; Nicolis, E; Mehtali, M; Lusky, M; Cabrini, G; Pavirani, A

    2001-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a common, heriditary disease resulting from mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Airway transfer of the CFTR gene is a potential strategy to treat or prevent the lung pathology that is the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Among the vectors used for gene therapy, adenoviruses have shown their ability to transfer the CFTR gene to respiratory epithelial cells, using either instillation or nebulization. Our objective was to characterize the lung deposition of aerosolized adenovirus by quantitative radioisotopic imaging, the only noninvasive technique allowing in vivo quantitation of inhaled drugs. We first labeled an adenovirus expressing human CFTR with the gamma-emitting radioisotope, technetium 99m (99mTc), and determined the best labeling conditions to allow preservation of virus bioactivity. We then administered the radioaerosol to baboons, determined lung regional deposition of 99mTc-labeled adenovirus, and compared the expression of CFTR transcripts 3 and 21 days after inhalation. The expression of vector-encoded mRNA ranged from 4 to 22% with respect to the endogenous CFTR mRNA depending on the lung segments. Moreover, we have developed a model using 99mTc-DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid), which can be used, as an alternative to adenovirus, to determine the profile of lung deposition of the vector. This study demonstrates that scintigraphy is a useful technique to achieve optimization of gene administration to the airways.

  10. Hyperplastic stomatitis and esophagitis in a tortoise (Testudo graeca) associated with an adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Pénzes, Judit J; Costa, Taiana; Martorell, Jaime; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    A 2-year-old female, spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) was presented with poor body condition (1/5) and weakness. Fecal analysis revealed large numbers of oxyurid-like eggs, and radiographs were compatible with gastrointestinal obstruction. Despite supportive medical treatment, the animal died. At gross examination, an intestinal obstruction was confirmed. Histopathology revealed severe hyperplastic esophagitis and stomatitis with marked epithelial cytomegaly and enormous basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy examination revealed a large number of 60-80 nm, nonenveloped, icosahedral virions arranged in crystalline arrays within nuclear inclusions of esophageal epithelial cells, morphologically compatible with adenovirus-like particles. PCR for virus identification was performed with DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. A nested, consensus pan-adenovirus PCR and sequencing analysis showed a novel adenovirus. According to phylogenetic calculations, it clustered to genus Atadenovirus in contrast with all other chelonian adenoviruses described to date. The present report details the pathologic findings associated with an adenovirus infection restricted to the upper digestive tract.

  11. Characterization of the knob domain of the adenovirus type 5 fiber protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, L J; Xia, D; Wilke, M E; Deisenhofer, J; Gerard, R D

    1994-01-01

    The adenovirus fiber protein is used for attachment of the virus to a specific receptor on the cell surface. Structurally, the protein consists of a long, thin shaft that protrudes from the vertex of the virus capsid and terminates in a globular domain termed the knob. To verify that the knob is the domain which interacts with the cellular receptor, we have cloned and expressed the knob from adenovirus type 5 together with a single repeat of the shaft in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified by conventional chromatography and functionally characterized for its interaction with the adenovirus receptor. The recombinant knob domain bound about 4,700 sites per HeLa cell with an affinity of 3 x 10(9) M-1 and blocked adenovirus infection of human cells. Antibodies raised against the knob also blocked virus infection. By gel filtration and X-ray diffraction analysis of protein crystals, the knob was shown to consist of a homotrimer of 21-kDa subunits. The results confirm that the trimeric knob is the ligand for attachment to the adenovirus receptor. Images PMID:8035520

  12. Isoform-Specific Regulation and Localization of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor in Human Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Excoffon, Katherine J. D. A.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Mobily, Matthew E.; Karp, Philip H.; Parekh, Kalpaj R.; Zabner, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus is an important respiratory pathogen. Adenovirus fiber from most serotypes co-opts the Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) to bind and enter cells. However, CAR is a cell adhesion molecule localized on the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelia. Separation from the lumen of the airways by tight junctions renders airway epithelia resistant to inhaled adenovirus infection. Although a role for CAR in viral spread and egress has been established, the mechanism of initial respiratory infection remains controversial. CAR exists in several protein isoforms including two transmembrane isoforms that differ only at the carboxy-terminus (CAREx7 and CAREx8). We found low-level expression of the CAREx8 isoform in well-differentiated human airway epithelia. Surprisingly, in contrast to CAREx7, CAREx8 localizes to the apical membrane of epithelia where it augments adenovirus infection. Interestingly, despite sharing a similar class of PDZ-binding domain with CAREx7, CAREx8 differentially interacts with PICK1, PSD-95, and MAGI-1b. MAGI-1b appears to stoichiometrically regulate the degradation of CAREx8 providing a potential mechanism for the apical localization of CAREx8 in airway epithelial. In summary, apical localization of CAREx8 may be responsible for initiation of respiratory adenoviral infections and this localization appears to be regulated by interactions with PDZ-domain containing proteins. PMID:20361046

  13. Functional Effects of Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor Glycosylation on Homophilic Adhesion and Adenoviral Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Excoffon, Katherine J. D. Ashbourne; Gansemer, Nicholas; Traver, Geri; Zabner, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is both a viral receptor and homophilic adhesion protein. The extracellular portion of CAR consists of two immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, each with a consensus sequence for N-glycosylation. We used chemical, genetic, and biochemical studies to show that both sites are glycosylated and contribute to the function of CAR. Although the glycosylation of CAR does not alter cell surface levels or junctional localization, it affects both adhesion and adenovirus infection in unique ways. CAR-mediated adhesion appears to require at least one site of glycosylation since cells expressing CAR without glycosylation do not cluster with each other. In contrast, glycosylation of the Ig-like domain proximal to the membrane is key to the cooperative behavior of adenovirus binding and infection. Contrary to the hypothesis that cooperativity improves viral infection, our data show that although glycosylation of the D2 domain is required for adenovirus cooperative binding, it has a negative consequence upon infection. This is the first report dissecting the adhesion and receptor activities of CAR, revealing that factors other than the binding interface play a significant role in the function of CAR. These data have important implications for both cancers with altered glycosylation states and cancer treatments using oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:17376928

  14. Recombinant adenovirus-mediated overexpression of 3β-hydroxysteroid-Δ24 reductase

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiuli; Jia, Dan; Zhao, Chenguang; Wang, Weiqi; Liu, Ting; Chen, Shuchao; Quan, Xiaoping; Sun, Deliang; Gao, Bing

    2014-01-01

    3β-Hydroxysteroid-Δ24 reductase (DHCR24) is a multifunctional enzyme that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and has neuroprotective and cholesterol-synthesizing activities. DHCR24 overexpression confers neuroprotection against apoptosis caused by amyloid β deposition. The present study aimed to construct two recombinant adenoviruses driving DHCR24 expression specifically in neurons. Two SYN1 promoter DNA fragments were obtained from human (h) and rat (r). Recombinant Ad-r(h)SYN1-DHCR24 was transfected into AD-293, N2A (mouse neuroblastoma), and MIN6 (mouse pancreatic carcinoma) cells. Western blot analysis showed DHCR24 was specially expressed in 293 and N2A cells, but no specific band was found in MIN6 cells. This demonstrates that the recombinant adenoviruses successfully express DHCR24, and no expression is observed in non-neuronal cells. TUNEL assay results showed apoptosis was inhibited in adenovirus-transfected neurons. Detecting reactive oxygen species by immunofluorescence, we found that adenovirus transfection inhibits apoptosis through scavenging excess reactive oxygen species. Our findings show that the recombinant DHCR24 adenoviruses induce neuron-specific DHCR24 expression, and thereby lay the foundation for further studies on DHCR24 gene therapy for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25206847

  15. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV.

  16. Identification and Application of Neutralizing Epitopes of Human Adenovirus Type 55 Hexon Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xingui; Ma, Qiang; Jiang, Zaixue; Huang, Junfeng; Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaomei; Luo, Qingming; Zhou, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV55) is a newly identified re-emergent acute respiratory disease (ARD) pathogen with a proposed recombination of hexon gene between HAdV11 and HAdV14 strains. The identification of the neutralizing epitopes is important for the surveillance and vaccine development against HAdV55 infection. In this study, four type-specific epitope peptides of HAdV55 hexon protein, A55R1 (residues 138 to 152), A55R2 (residues 179 to 187), A55R4 (residues 247 to 259) and A55R7 (residues 429 to 443), were predicted by multiple sequence alignment and homology modeling methods, and then confirmed with synthetic peptides by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization tests (NT). Finally, the A55R2 was incorporated into human adenoviruses 3 (HAdV3) and a chimeric adenovirus rAd3A55R2 was successfully obtained. The chimeric rAd3A55R2 could induce neutralizing antibodies against both HAdV3 and HAdV55. This current study will contribute to the development of novel adenovirus vaccine candidate and adenovirus structural analysis. PMID:26516903

  17. Innate Functions of Immunoglobulin M Lessen Liver Gene Transfer with Helper-Dependent Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Unzu, Carmen; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

  18. Adenovirus and mycoplasma infection in an ornate box turtle (Terrapene ornata ornata) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Szilvia L; Gál, János

    2009-07-02

    A female, adult ornate box turtle (Terrapene ornata ornata) with fatty liver was submitted for virologic examination in Hungary. Signs of an adenovirus infection including degeneration of the liver cells, enlarged nuclei and intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an adenovirus was later confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this novel chelonian adenovirus was distinct from previously described reptilian adenoviruses, not belonging to any of the recognized genera of the family Adenoviridae. As a part of the routine diagnostic procedure for chelonians the detection of herpes-, rana- and iridoviruses together with Mycoplasma spp. was attempted. Amplicons were generated by a general mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S/23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) intergenic spacer region, as well as, a specific Mycoplasma agassizii PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the analyses of partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, the Mycoplasma sp. of the ornate box turtle seemed to be identical with the recently described eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) Mycoplasma sp. This is the first report of a novel chelonian adenovirus and a mycoplasma infection in an ornate box turtle (T. ornata ornata) in Europe.

  19. Localization of the N-terminus of minor coat protein IIIa in the adenovirus capsid

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Carmen; Glasgow, Joel N.; Borovjagin, Anton; Beatty, Matthew S.; Kashentseva, Elena A.; T. Curiel, David; Marabini, Roberto; Dmitriev, Igor P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Minor coat protein IIIa is conserved in all adenoviruses and required for correct viral assembly, but its precise function in capsid organization is unknown. The latest adenovirus capsid model proposes that IIIa is located underneath the vertex region. To obtain experimental evidence on the location of IIIa and further define its role, we engineered the IIIa gene to encode heterologous N-terminal peptide extensions. Recombinant adenovirus variants with IIIa encoding six-histidine tag (6-His), 6-His and FLAG peptides, or 6-His linked to FLAG with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker were rescued and analyzed for virus yield, capsid incorporation of heterologous peptides, and capsid stability. Longer extensions could not be rescued. Western blot analysis confirmed that the modified IIIa proteins were expressed in infected cells and incorporated into virions. In the adenovirus encoding the 6-His-linker-FLAG-IIIa gene, the 6-His tag was present in light particles but not in mature virions. Immuno-electron microscopy of this virus showed that the FLAG epitope is not accessible to antibodies on the viral particles. Three-dimensional electron microscopy (3DEM) and difference mapping located the IIIa N-terminal extension beneath the vertex complex, wedged at the interface between penton base and the peripentonal hexons, therefore supporting the latest proposed model. The position of the IIIa N-terminus and its low tolerance for modification provide new clues for understanding the role of this minor coat protein in adenovirus capsid assembly and disassembly. PMID:18786542

  20. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  1. Delivery of oncolytic adenovirus into the nucleus of tumorigenic cells by tumor microparticles for virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ran, Li; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Yanchun; Zhang, Huafeng; Ma, Ruihua; Ji, Tiantian; Dong, Wenqian; Tong, Tong; Liu, Yuying; Chen, Degao; Yin, Xiaonan; Liang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Ke; Ma, Jingwei; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Xuetao; Hu, Zhuowei; Qin, Xiaofeng; Huang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Oncolytic viruses have been utilized for the treatment of various cancers. However, delivery of the viral particles to tumor cells remains a major challenge. Microparticles (MP) are vesicle forms of plasma membrane fragments of 0.1-1 μm in size that are shed by cells. We have previously shown the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs using tumor cell-derived MPs (T-MP). Here we report that T-MPs can be utilized as a unique carrier system to deliver oncolytic adenoviruses to human tumors, leading to highly efficient cytolysis of tumor cells needed for in vivo treatment efficacy. This T-MP-mediated oncolytic virotherapy approach holds multiple advantages, including: 1) delivery of oncolytic adenovirus by T-MPs is able to avoid the antiviral effect of host antibodies; 2) delivery of oncolytic adenovirus by T-MPs is not limited by virus-specific receptor that mediates the entry of virus into tumor cells; 3) T-MPs are apt at delivering oncolytic adenoviruses to the nucleus of tumor cells as well as to stem-like tumor-repopulating cells for the desired purpose of killing them. These findings highlight a novel oncolytic adenovirus delivery system with highly promising clinical applications.

  2. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters.

  3. Cancer-targeted oncolytic adenoviruses for modulation of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Capasso, Cristian; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Otto; Hemminki, Akseli

    2017-05-02

    Adenovirus is one of the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy and it is the first approved virus-derived drug for treatment of cancer. As an oncolytic agent, it can induce lysis of infected cells, but it can also engage the immune system, promoting activation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In essence, oncolysis combined with the associated immunostimulatory actions result in a "personalized in situ vaccine" for each patient. In order to take full advantage of these features, we should try to understand how adenovirus interacts with the immune system, what are the receptors involved in triggering subsequent signals and which kind of responses they elicit. Tackling these questions will give us further insight in how to manipulate adenovirus-mediated immune responses for enhancement of anti-tumor efficacy. In this review, we first highlight how oncolytic adenovirus interacts with the innate immune system and its receptors such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors and other immune sensors. Then we describe the effect of these interactions on the adaptive immune system and its cells, especially B and T lymphocytes. Finally, we summarize the most significant preclinical and clinical results in the field of gene therapy where researchers have engineered adenovirus to manipulate the host immune system by expressing cytokines and signaling mediators. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Correction of a deletion mutant by gene targeting with an adenovirus vector.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q; Taylor, M W

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of adenovirus type 5 as a vector for homologous recombination was examined in CHO cells by using the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) gene. Infection of a hemizygous CHO APRT- cell line containing a 3-bp deletion in exon 5 of the aprt gene with a recombinant adenovirus containing the wild-type gene resulted in restoration of the APRT+ phenotype at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-6) per infected cell. A relatively high frequency (approximately 6 to 20%) of the transductants appears to result from a homologous recombination event. The mutation on the chromosomal aprt gene is corrected in the homologous recombinants, and APRT expression is restored to a normal hemizygous level. Neither adenovirus nor exogenous promoter sequences are detected in the homologous recombinants. The remaining transductants result from random integration of the aprt gene with the adenovirus sequence. A number of adenovirus vectors containing different promoter sequences linked to the hamster aprt gene were constructed. A possible role for the promoter region in the homologous recombination event was indicated by the lack of homologous recombination in constructs lacking an active promoter. Images PMID:8423811

  5. Isolation of an adenovirus and an adeno-associated virus from goat kids with enteritis.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erik J; Haskell, Scott R R; Frank, Rodney K; Lehmkuhl, Howard D; Hobbs, Lea Ann; Warg, Janet V; Landgraf, John G; Wünschmann, Arno

    2004-09-01

    A dairy goat operation in Minnesota experienced a sudden, markedly increased mortality among its neonatal goats. Approximately 60 of 130 kids (46%) died. The animals had diarrhea and dyspnea of 1-2 days duration before death. Necropsy of 4 goat kids revealed marked, acute, catarrhal enteritis and fibrinous pleuropneumonia. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from the lungs. Basophilic inclusion bodies filling the entire nucleus were present in enterocytes of the ileum of 3 goats. Adenoviral particles were detected in the feces by electron microscopy and adenovirus was subsequently isolated from the intestinal content together with a parvo-like virus (dependovirus). Morphology, physicochemical characteristics, and neutralization tests indicated that the adenovirus resembled ovine adenovirus-2 (OAdV-2). However, the PstI restriction endonuclease pattern produced by the goat adenovirus was distinct from that of OAdV-2. This is the first report of enteritis in goats with an adenovirus antigenically related to OAdV-2 and with a parvo-like dependovirus.

  6. Inactivation of human adenovirus by sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology and free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Keun; Shin, Gwy-Am

    2011-03-01

    There has been growing concern over human exposure to adenoviruses through drinking water due to the extreme resistance of human adenoviruses to the traditional UV technology (low-pressure (LP) UV). As an effort to develop an effective treatment strategy against human adenoviruses in drinking water, we determined the effectiveness of sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology (medium-pressure (MP) UV) and free chlorine. Human adenovirus 2 (Ad2) was irradiated with a low dose of MP UV irradiation (10 mJ/cm(2)) through UV collimated apparatus and then exposed to a low dose of free chlorine (0.17 mg/L) at pH 8 and 5°C using a bench-scale chemical disinfection system. A significant inactivation (e.g. 4 log(10)) of Ad2 was achieved with the low doses of MP UV and free chlorine within a very short contact time (∼1.5 min) although there was no apparent synergistic effect on Ad2 between MP UV and free chlorine. Overall, it is likely that the sequential disinfection with UV irradiation and free chlorine should control the contamination of drinking water by human adenoviruses within practical doses of UV and free chlorine typically used in drinking water treatment processes.

  7. Innate functions of immunoglobulin M lessen liver gene transfer with helper-dependent adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Unzu, Carmen; Melero, Ignacio; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo; Fontanellas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors.

  8. Screening for adenoviruses in haematological neoplasia: High prevalence in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kosulin, Karin; Rauch, Margit; Ambros, Peter F; Pötschger, Ulrike; Chott, Andreas; Jäger, Ulrich; Drach, Johannes; Nader, Alexander; Lion, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Human adenoviruses possess oncogenic capacity which is well documented in mammalian animal models, but their possible implication in human malignancy has remained enigmatic. Following primary infection, adenoviruses can persist in a latent state in lymphocytes where the virus is apparently able to evade immune surveillance. In the present study, we have employed a broad-spectrum adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to systematically screen more than 200 diagnostic specimens of different lymphoid malignancies including acute lymphocytic leukaemia (n=50), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n=50), various types of malignant lymphoma (n=100) and multiple myeloma (n=11) for the presence of adenoviral sequences. While most entities analysed revealed negative findings in virtually all specimens tested, adenoviral DNA was detected in 15/36 (42%) mantle cell lymphomas investigated. The most prevalent adenoviral species detected was C, and less commonly B. Adenovirus-positive findings in patients with mantle cell lymphoma were made at different sites including bone marrow (n=7), intestine (n=5), lymph nodes (n=2) and tonsillar tissue (n=1). The presence of adenoviral sequences identified by PCR was confirmed in individual cells by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). The frequent observation of adenoviruses in mantle cell lymphoma is intriguings, and raises questions about their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of this lymphoid malignancy.

  9. Adenovirus Core Protein pVII Is Translocated into the Nucleus by Multiple Import Receptor Pathways†

    PubMed Central

    Wodrich, Harald; Cassany, Aurelia; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A.; Guan, Tinglu; Nemerow, Glen; Gerace, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Adenoviruses are nonenveloped viruses with an ∼36-kb double-stranded DNA genome that replicate in the nucleus. Protein VII, an abundant structural component of the adenovirus core that is strongly associated with adenovirus DNA, is imported into the nucleus contemporaneously with the adenovirus genome shortly after virus infection and may promote DNA import. In this study, we evaluated whether protein VII uses specific receptor-mediated mechanisms for import into the nucleus. We found that it contains potent nuclear localization signal (NLS) activity by transfection of cultured cells with protein VII fusion constructs and by microinjection of cells with recombinant protein VII fusions. We identified three NLS-containing regions in protein VII by deletion mapping and determined important NLS residues by site-specific mutagenesis. We found that recombinant protein VII and its NLS-containing domains strongly and specifically bind to importin α, importin β, importin 7, and transportin, which are among the most abundant cellular nuclear import receptors. Moreover, these receptors can mediate the nuclear import of protein VII fusions in vitro in permeabilized cells. Considered together, these data support the hypothesis that protein VII is a major NLS-containing adaptor for receptor-mediated import of adenovirus DNA and that multiple import pathways are utilized to promote efficient nuclear entry of the viral genome. PMID:16973564

  10. Adenovirus core protein pVII is translocated into the nucleus by multiple import receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Wodrich, Harald; Cassany, Aurelia; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A; Guan, Tinglu; Nemerow, Glen; Gerace, Larry

    2006-10-01

    Adenoviruses are nonenveloped viruses with an approximately 36-kb double-stranded DNA genome that replicate in the nucleus. Protein VII, an abundant structural component of the adenovirus core that is strongly associated with adenovirus DNA, is imported into the nucleus contemporaneously with the adenovirus genome shortly after virus infection and may promote DNA import. In this study, we evaluated whether protein VII uses specific receptor-mediated mechanisms for import into the nucleus. We found that it contains potent nuclear localization signal (NLS) activity by transfection of cultured cells with protein VII fusion constructs and by microinjection of cells with recombinant protein VII fusions. We identified three NLS-containing regions in protein VII by deletion mapping and determined important NLS residues by site-specific mutagenesis. We found that recombinant protein VII and its NLS-containing domains strongly and specifically bind to importin alpha, importin beta, importin 7, and transportin, which are among the most abundant cellular nuclear import receptors. Moreover, these receptors can mediate the nuclear import of protein VII fusions in vitro in permeabilized cells. Considered together, these data support the hypothesis that protein VII is a major NLS-containing adaptor for receptor-mediated import of adenovirus DNA and that multiple import pathways are utilized to promote efficient nuclear entry of the viral genome.

  11. Model-driven Approaches for in Vitro Combination Therapy using ONYX-015 Replicating Oncolytic Adenovirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Zurakowski, Ryan; Wodarz, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses have shown promise as a new treatment approach against cancer. Recombinant adenoviruses replicate only in cancer cells which contain certain mutations, such as the loss of functional p53, as is the case in the virus ONYX-015. The successful entry of the viral particle into target cells is strongly dependent on the presence of the main receptor for adenovirus, the coxsackie- and adeno-virus receptor (CAR). This receptor is frequently down-regulated in highly malignant cells, rendering this population less vulnerable to viral attack. It has been shown that use of MEK inhibitors can up-regulate CAR expression, resulting in enhanced adenovirus entry into the cells. However, inhibition of MEK results in G1 cell cycle arrest, rendering infected cells temporarily unable to produce virus. This forces a tradeo1. While drug mediated up-regulation of CAR enhances virus entry into cancer cells, the consequent cell cycle arrest inhibits production of new virus particles and the replication of the virus. Optimal control-based schedules of MEK inhibitor application should increase the efficacy of this treatment, maximizing the overall tumor toxicity by exploiting the dynamics of CAR expression and viral production. We introduce a mathematical model of these dynamics and show simple optimal control based strategies which motivate this approach. PMID:17095020

  12. Epidemiology of enteric adenovirus infection in prospectively monitored Argentine families.

    PubMed Central

    Mistchenko, A. S.; Huberman, K. H.; Gomez, J. A.; Grinstein, S.

    1992-01-01

    To examine the role of enteric adenoviruses (EAV) in an urban area of Buenos Aires (Argentina), we prospectively studied faecal samples from 49 families of newborns. These were monitored weekly for diarrhoea for 2 years. A total of 180 samples from cases of diarrhoea and 766 samples obtained during diarrhoea-free periods were studied by dot-blot hybridization with an EAV-specific DNA probe. EAV were found in 6/180 (3.3%) cases of diarrhoea and 6/766 (0.8%) asymptomatic samples (P < 0.015). Incidence of EAV was 3.9 cases per 100 person-years in children < 60 months old. EAV-related diarrhoeas were slight and of short duration. In addition, 129 faeces from hospital out-patients, 1-30 months old, were also studied. EAV was identified in 7/129 cases (5.4%). These cases were 9.5 +/- 3.5 months old and the diarrhoea was mild or severe, of 3 +/- 1.5 days of duration. We suggest that EAV are low-risk causes of diarrhoea under natural conditions, although a few children may develop more severe diarrhoea. The diagnosis of EAV needs to be considered in these patients. PMID:1468536

  13. Prevalence of neutralising antibodies against adenoviruses in lizards and snakes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Ofner, Sabine; Funk, Richard S; Griffin, Chris; Riedel, Ulf; Möhring, Jens; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-10-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are relatively common in lizards and snakes, and several genetically distinct AdVs have been isolated in cell culture. The aims of this study were to examine serological relationships among lizard and snake AdVs and to determine the frequency of AdV infections in these species. Isolates from a boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), a corn snake (Pantherophis gutattus) and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and two isolates from helodermatid lizards (Heloderma horridum and H. suspectum) were used in neutralisation tests for the detection of antibodies in plasma from 263 lizards from seven families (including 12 species) and from 141 snakes from four families (including 28 species) from the USA and Europe. Most lizard and snake samples had antibodies against a range of AdV isolates, indicating that AdV infection is common among these squamates. Neutralisation tests with polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits demonstrated serological cross-reactivity between both helodermatid lizard isolates. However, squamate plasma showed different reactions to each of these lizard isolates in neutralisation tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of human adenovirus 35 and derivation of complex vectors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vectors based on human serotype 35 (Ad35) are desirable due to the relatively low prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in the human population. The structure of the viral genome and life cycle of Ad35 differs from the better characterized Ad5 and these differences require differences in the strategies for the generation of vectors for gene delivery. Results Sequences essential for E1 and E4 function were identified and removed and the effects of the deletions on viral gene transcription were determined. In addition, the non-essential E3 region was deleted from rAd35 vectors and a sequence was found that did not have an effect on viability but reduced viral fitness. The packaging capacity of rAd35 was dependent on pIX and vectors were generated with stable genome sizes of up to 104% of the wild type genome size. These data were used to make an E1-, E3-, E4-deleted rAd35 vector. This rAd35 vector with multiple gene deletions has the advantages of multiple blocks to viral replication (i.e., E1 and E4 deletions) and a transgene packaging capacity of 7.6 Kb, comparable to rAd5 vectors. Conclusions The results reported here allow the generation of larger capacity rAd35 vectors and will guide the derivation of adenovirus vectors from other serotypes. PMID:20959004

  15. How I treat adenovirus in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Lindemans, Caroline A.; Leen, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) infections are very common in the general pediatric population. The delayed clearance in young persons imposes a threat to immunocompromised patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), who can reactivate the virus, resulting in life-threatening disseminated disease. Although a definitive cure requires adequate immune reconstitution, 2 approaches appear to be feasible and effective to improve the outcomes of AdV infections. Strict monitoring with AdV quantitative polymerase chain reaction followed by preemptive treatment with low-dose (1 mg/kg) cidofovir 3 times a week, is effective in most cases to bridge the severely immunocompromised period shortly after HSCT, with acceptable toxicity rates. For centers who have the access, AdV-specific cytotoxic T cells can be the other important cornerstone of anti-AdV therapy with promising results so far. Methods to positively influence the reconstitution of the immune system after HSCT and optimizing new and currently available cellular immunotherapies will make HSCT safer against the threat of AdV infection/reactivation and associated disease. PMID:20837781

  16. Quantitative analysis of human enteric adenoviruses in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, E; Katayama, H; Oguma, K; Ohgaki, S

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine human adenoviruses (HuAdVs) in aquatic environments by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to describe the ratio of enteric serotypes to the total HuAdVs, the primer set specific for the enteric serotypes 40 and 41 was used in parallel with the universal primer set for all 51 serotypes of HuAdVs. The enteric serotypes of HuAdVs were detected at the concentration of 7.3-1500 PCR-detection units (PDU) per ml in raw sewage (n = 17), 0.00060-4.1 PDU ml(-1) in secondary-treated sewage before chlorination (n = 17), 0.0018-7.0 PDU ml(-1) in river water (n = 36), and 0.032-6.1 PDU ml(-1) in seawater (n = 18). The concentration of HuAdVs, determined by the universal primer set, was equivalent to that of enteric serotypes in almost all the samples tested. Enteric serotypes were predominant among all serotypes of HuAdVs in the aquatic environments. The abundance of enteric serotypes of HuAdVs should be more emphasized than other serotypes in order to assess the risk of their infection via water.

  17. Magnesium-Dependent Interaction of PKR with Adenovirus VAI

    SciTech Connect

    K Launer -Felty; C Wong; A Wahid; G Conn; J Cole

    2011-12-31

    Protein kinase R (PKR) is an interferon-induced kinase that plays a pivotal role in the innate immunity pathway for defense against viral infection. PKR is activated to undergo autophosphorylation upon binding to RNAs that contain duplex regions. Activated PKR phosphorylates the {alpha}-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis in virus-infected cells. Viruses have evolved diverse PKR-inhibitory strategies to evade the antiviral response. Adenovirus encodes virus-associated RNA I (VAI), a highly structured RNA inhibitor that binds PKR but fails to activate. We have characterized the stoichiometry and affinity of PKR binding to define the mechanism of PKR inhibition by VAI. Sedimentation velocity and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements indicate that PKR interactions with VAI are modulated by Mg{sup 2+}. Two PKR monomers bind in the absence of Mg{sup 2+}, but a single monomer binds in the presence of divalent ion. Known RNA activators of PKR are capable of binding multiple PKR monomers to allow the kinase domains to come into close proximity and thus enhance dimerization. We propose that VAI acts as an inhibitor of PKR because it binds and sequesters a single PKR in the presence of divalent cation.

  18. Falcon adenovirus infection in breeding Taita falcons (Falco fasciinucha).

    PubMed

    Dean, Jason; Latimer, Kenneth S; Oaks, J Lindsay; Schrenzel, Mark; Redig, Patrick T; Wünschmann, Arno

    2006-05-01

    Four female and 3 male Taita falcons (Falco fasciinucha) out of a breeding colony of 14 Taita falcons (7 pairs) died during the breeding season after showing lethargy and anorexia for 1 to 2 days. All animals were submitted for necropsy. Gross lesions in the female falcons were characterized by anemia secondary to marked hemorrhage into the ovary and oviduct, serofibrinous effusion into the cardioabdominal cavity and serosal petechiae. In addition, marked necrotizing splenitis and pulmonary hemorrhage were present. Histologically, the female falcons had mild necrotizing hepatitis with numerous intranuclear inclusion bodies and necrotizing splenitis with rare inclusion bodies. There were no gross lesions in the male falcons, and the histological lesions were characterized by urate deposition and rare intranuclear inclusion bodies in the renal tubular epithelial cells. Adenoviral particles were found by electron microscopy in the cloacal contents of the female Taita falcons but not in the male falcons. DNA in situ hybridization revealed widespread aviadenoviral nucleic acid within the nuclei of hepatocytes, renal tubular epithelial cells, and adrenal cells in the female falcons but no aviadenoviral nucleic acid in 1 male falcon and only a low quantity of adenoviral nucleic acid in the liver and kidney of another male Taita falcon. PCR amplified aviadenoviral DNA in the liver and intestine of all Taita falcons. The amplicons were sequenced, and the virus was identified as falcon adenovirus. The deaths of the female and male birds were attributed to the aviadenovirus infection.

  19. ADV36 adipogenic adenovirus in human liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Francesca M; Catalano, Daniela; Garozzo, Adriana; Martines, G Fabio; Pirri, Clara; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and liver steatosis are usually described as related diseases. Obesity is regarded as exclusive consequence of an imbalance between food intake and physical exercise, modulated by endocrine and genetic factors. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is a condition whose natural history is related to, but not completely explained by over-nutrition, obesity and insulin resistance. There is evidence that environmental infections, and notably adipogenic adenoviruses (ADV) infections in humans, are associated not only with obesity, which is sufficiently established, but also with allied conditions, such as fatty liver. In order to elucidate the role, if any, of previous ADV36 infection in humans, we investigated association of ADV36-ADV37 seropositivity with obesity and fatty liver in humans. Moreover, the possibility that lifestyle-nutritional intervention in patients with NAFLD and different ADV36 seropositive status, achieves different clinical outcomes on ultrasound bright liver imaging, insulin resistance and obesity was challenged. ADV36 seropositive patients have a more consistent decrease in insulin resistance, fatty liver severity and body weight in comparison with ADV36 seronegative patients, indicating a greater responsiveness to nutritional intervention. These effects were not dependent on a greater pre-interventional body weight and older age. These results imply that no obvious disadvantage - and, seemingly, that some benefit - is linked to ADV36 seropositivity, at least in NAFLD. ADV36 previous infection can boost weight loss and recovery of insulin sensitivity under interventional treatment. PMID:25356033

  20. Adenovirus-mediated interleukin (IL)-24 immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Rajagopal; Ioannides, Constantine G; Roth, Jack A; Chada, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family. IL-24, also known as melanoma differentiation associated gene 7 (mda-7), is a unique cytokine in that it has cytokine properties and functions as a novel tumor suppressor gene. Studies by us and other investigators using viral and non-viral vectors have demonstrated IL-24 overexpression in human cancer cells inhibited tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. A majority of these studies using immunodeficient animal models have focused on demonstrating the direct anticancer properties of IL-24. Very few studies have focused on studying the immunotherapeutic properties of IL-24 despite it being reported to function as a Th1 cytokine. A phase I clinical trial using an adenovirus vector expressing IL-24 (Ad-IL24/INGN241) reported Ad-IL24 treatment of cancer patients resulted in changes in cytokines and T cells. However, well-designed and detailed preclinical studies to support the clinical findings are warranted. Demonstrating immune modulation by IL-24 will provide a rationale for developing IL-24-based immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer treatment.In the present chapter, we provide experimental details for conducting IL-24-based immunotherapy studies. As it is not possible for the authors to cover all of the information the authors recommend reading other immunology-based literature and procedures for a better understanding of conducting preclinical studies.

  1. The composed antigenic structure of the adenovirus hexon protein.

    PubMed

    Nász, I

    1988-01-01

    Three panels of MAbs were prepared against AV1, AV35, and BAV2 hexons, respectively. It was shown, that in all cases, antibodies are developed against the genus specific determinant of the adenovirus hexon. The other MAbs specified numerous identical or overlapping epitopes on the hexon types studied. The epitopes could be characterized as intertype-, intersubgenus-, subgenus- and type-specific ones beside the genus-specific determinant based on the RPs of the MAbs from indirect ELISA and passive HA results. The identical epitopes are present in more than one copy on the trimeric form of the hexon capsomer. The epitopes on the hexon molecule could be separated into three antigenic sites, of which one antigenic site is characterized by seven epitope clusters (antigenic site II). Monoclonal antibodies were able to precipitate different hexon types in gel diffusion tests by which the differentiation of the distinct epitopes seemed to be possible. With the help of monoclonal antibodies to AV1 hexon, 17 hours after the infection, hexons (or epitopes) were detected in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus of the infected cells showing different distribution patterns in indirect immunofluorescence assay.

  2. Luciferase imaging for evaluation of oncolytic adenovirus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guse, K; Dias, J D; Bauerschmitz, G J; Hakkarainen, T; Aavik, E; Ranki, T; Pisto, T; Särkioja, M; Desmond, R A; Kanerva, A; Hemminki, A

    2007-06-01

    Oncolytic viruses kill cancer cells by tumor-selective replication. Clinical data have established the safety of the approach but also the need of improvements in potency. Efficacy of oncolysis is linked to effective infection of target cells and subsequent productive replication. Other variables include intratumoral barriers, access to target cells, uptake by non-target organs and immune response. Each of these aspects relates to the location and degree of virus replication. Unfortunately, detection of in vivo replication has been difficult, labor intensive and costly and therefore not much studied. We hypothesized that by coinfection of a luciferase expressing E1-deleted virus with an oncolytic virus, both viruses would replicate when present in the same cell. Photon emission due to conversion of D-Luciferin is sensitive and penetrates tissues well. Importantly, killing of animals is not required and each animal can be imaged repeatedly. Two different murine xenograft models were used and intratumoral coinjections of luciferase encoding virus were performed with eight different oncolytic adenoviruses. In both models, we found significant correlation between photon emission and infectious virus production. This suggests that the system can be used for non-invasive quantitation of the amplitude, persistence and dynamics of oncolytic virus replication in vivo, which could be helpful for the development of more effective and safe agents.

  3. Phylogenomic characterization of California sea lion adenovirus-1.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Gulland, Frances M D; Goldstein, Tracey; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Rivera, Rebecca; Waltzek, Thomas B; Salemi, Marco; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-04-01

    Significant adenoviral diversity has been found in humans, but in domestic and wild animals the number of identified viruses is lower. Here we present the complete genome of a recently discovered mastadenovirus, California sea lion adenovirus 1 (CSLAdV-1) isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), an important pathogen associated with hepatitis in pinnipeds. The genome of this virus has the typical mastadenoviral structure with some notable differences at the carboxy-terminal end, including a dUTPase that does not cluster with other mastadenoviral dUTPases, and a fiber that shows similarity to a trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi and choline-binding protein A (CbpA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The GC content is low (36%), and phylogenetic analyses placed the virus near the root of the clade infecting laurasiatherian hosts in the genus Mastadenovirus. These findings support the hypothesis that CSLAdV-1 in California sea lions represents a host jump from an unknown mammalian host in which it is endemic.

  4. Epigenetic mechanisms in human adenovirus type 12 oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Walter

    2009-06-01

    For the past 30 years, my laboratory has concentrated its work on demonstrating that the epigenetic consequences of foreign DNA insertion into established mammalian genomes -de novo DNA methylation of the integrate and alterations of methylation patterns across the recipient genome - are essential elements in setting the stage towards oncogenic transformation. We have primarily studied human adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) which induces undifferentiated tumors in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) either at the site of subcutaneous Ad12 injection or intraperitoneally upon intramuscular injection. Up to 90% of the hamsters injected with Ad12 develop tumors within 3-6 weeks. Integration of foreign DNA, its de novo methylation, and the consequences of insertion on the cellular methylation and transcription profiles have been studied in detail. While viral infections are a frequent source of foreign genomes entering mammalian and other hosts and often their genomes, we have also pursued the fate of food-ingested foreign DNA in the mouse organism. The persistence of this DNA in the animals is transient and there is no evidence for the expression or germ line fixation of foreign DNA. Nevertheless, the occasional cell that carries integrated genomes from that foreign source deserves the oncologist's sustained interest.

  5. Adenovirus as a gene therapy vector for hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Marini, F C; Yu, Q; Wickham, T; Kovesdi, I; Andreeff, M

    2000-06-01

    Adenovirus (Adv)-mediated gene transfer has recently gained new attention as a means to deliver genes for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) or progenitor cell gene therapy. In the past, HSCs have been regarded as poor Adv targets, mainly because they lack the specific Adv receptors required for efficient and productive Adv infection. In addition, the nonintegrating nature of Adv has prevented its application to HSC and bone marrow transduction protocols where long-term expression is required. There is even controversy as to whether Adv can infect hematopoietic cells at all. In fact, the ability of Adv to infect epithelium-based targets and its inability to effectively transfect HSCs have been used in the development of eradication schemes that use Adv to preferentially infect and "purge" tumor cell-contaminating HSC grafts. However, there are data supporting the existence of productive Adv infections into HSCs. Such protocols involve the application of cytokine mixtures, high multiplicities of infection, long incubation periods, and more recently, immunological and genetic modifications to Adv itself to enable it to efficiently transfer genes into HSCs. This is a rapidly growing field, both in terms of techniques and applications. This review examines the two sides of the Adv/CD34 controversy as well as the current developments in this field.

  6. Non-classical export of an adenovirus structural protein.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Lloyd C; Achermann, Dominik P; Keller, Stephan; Straub, Monika; Greber, Urs F

    2003-06-01

    The icosahedral capsids of Adenoviruses (Ads) consist of the hexon and stabilizing proteins building the facettes, and of the vertex protein penton base (Pb) anchoring the protruding fibers. The fibers bind to the Coxsackie virus B Ad cell surface receptor (CAR) and Pb to integrins. Here we describe a novel property of the Ad2 Pb. Pb was found to leave the infected cell and, upon exit, it attached to the surrounding noninfected cells forming a radial gradient with highest Pb levels on cells adjacent to the infected cell. The producer cells remained intact until at least 30 h post infection. At this point, Pb was not recovered from the extracellular medium, suggesting that its cell-cell spread might not involve free Pb. When viral particles were released at late stages of infection, soluble Pb was found in the extracellular medium and it randomly bound to noninfected cells. Nonlytic export of Pb occurred upon transient transfection with plasmid DNA, but plasmid-encoded fiber was not exported, indicating that cell-cell spread of Pb is autonomous of infection. Pb export was not affected by Brefeldin A-induced disruption of the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that it occurred via a nonclassical mechanism. Interestingly, the coexpression of Pb and fiber leads to both Pb and fiber export, termed 'protein abduction'. We suggest that fiber abduction might support viral dissemination in infected tissues by interfering with tissue integrity.

  7. Surveillance of adenovirus respiratory infections in children in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Satoshi; Morikawa, Saeko; Nakata, Keiko; Kase, Tetsuo

    2017-09-11

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) strains isolated from respiratory specimens of 139 children between 2008 and 2015 were analyzed with the intent of evaluating the endemic situation of HAdV infections in Osaka, Japan. The cases increased in spring and winter, and the infections were confirmed mainly in children aged ≤ 5 years, comprising 91.9% of the total population examined. Molecular typing of the isolates revealed that the most common types belonged to HAdV-B and HAdV-C, and a case of co-infection with HAdV-C1 and HAdV-C2 was confirmed. The median age of HAdV-E cases were higher than that of HAdV-B and -C cases. These results revealed age and seasonal distribution of respiratory infections caused by HAdVs in children in Osaka, and indicate that the majority of children might have acquired immunity through infection with endemic HAdVs before school age.

  8. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Adenovirus Membrane Rupture and Endosomal Escape

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Oana; Marvin, Shauna A.; Wodrich, Harald; Campbell, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    A key step in adenovirus cell entry is viral penetration of cellular membranes to gain access to the cytoplasm and deliver the genome to the nucleus. Yet little is known about this important event in the adenoviral life cycle. Using the cytosolic protein galectin-3 (gal3) as a marker of membrane rupture with both live- and fixed-cell imaging, we demonstrate that in the majority of instances, exposure of pVI and recruitment of gal3 to ruptured membranes occur early at or near the cell surface and occur minimally in EEA-1-positive (EEA-1+) early endosomes or LAMP-1+ late endosomes/lysosomes. Live-cell imaging of Ad5 egress from gal3+ endosomes occurs most frequently from perinuclear locations. While the Ad5 capsid is observed escaping from gal3+ endosomes, pVI appears to remain associated with the gal3+ ruptured endosomes. Thus, Ad5 membrane rupture and endosomal escape appear to be both spatially and temporally distinct events. PMID:22855481

  9. Recent Advances in Preclinical Developments Using Adenovirus Hybrid Vectors.

    PubMed

    Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Zhang, Wenli; Gao, Jian; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2017-10-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors are efficient gene-transfer vehicles to deliver foreign DNA into living organisms, offering large cargo capacity and low immunogenicity and genotoxicity. As Ad shows low integration rates of their genomes into host chromosomes, vector-derived gene expression decreases due to continuous cell cycling in regenerating tissues and dividing cell populations. To overcome this hurdle, adenoviral delivery can be combined with mechanisms leading to maintenance of therapeutic DNA and long-term effects of the desired treatment. Several hybrid Ad vectors (AdV) exploiting various strategies for long-term treatment have been developed and characterized. This review summarizes recent developments of preclinical approaches using hybrid AdVs utilizing either the Sleeping Beauty transposase system for somatic integration into host chromosomes or designer nucleases, including transcription activator-like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease for permanent gene editing. Further options on how to optimize these vectors further are discussed, which may lead to future clinical applications of these versatile gene-therapy tools.

  10. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Wechman, Stephen L.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-01-01

    Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads) are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viral mRNA export, and cell cycle disruption. PMID:26561828

  11. Taxonomy proposal for Old World monkey adenoviruses: characterisation of several non-human, non-ape primate adenovirus lineages.

    PubMed

    Pantó, Laura; Podgorski, Iva I; Jánoska, Máté; Márkó, Orsolya; Harrach, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    A species classification regarding Old World monkey adenoviruses is proposed. We determined the nucleotide sequences of PCR-amplified fragments from the genes of the IVa2, DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, penton base, and hexon proteins from every simian adenovirus (SAdV) serotype that originated from Old World monkeys for which the full genome sequence had not yet been published. We confirmed that the majority of Old Word monkey SAdVs belong to two previously established species. Interestingly, one is the most recently established human AdV species, Human mastadenovirus G, which includes a single human virus, HAdV-52, as well as SAdV-1, -2, -7, -11, -12, and -15. The other approved species, Simian mastadenovirus A includes SAdV-3, -4, -6, -9, -10, -14, and -48. Several SAdVs (SAdV-5, -8, -49, -50) together with baboon AdV-1 and rhesus monkey AdV strains A1139, A1163, A1173, A1258, A1285, A1296, A1312, A1327 and A1335 have been proposed to be classified into an additional species, Simian mastadenovirus B. Another proposed species, Simian mastadenovirus C has been described for SAdV-19, baboon AdV-2/4 and -3. Our study revealed the existence of four additional AdV lineages. The corresponding new candidate species are Simian mastadenovirus D (for SAdV-13), Simian mastadenovirus E (for SAdV-16), Simian mastadenovirus F (for SAdV-17 and -18), and Simian mastadenovirus G (for SAdV-20). Several biological and genomic properties, such as the host origin, haemagglutination profile, number of fibre genes, and G+C content of the genome, strongly support this classification. Three SAdV strains originating from the American Type Culture Collection turned out to be mixtures of at least two virus types, either of the same species (SAdV-12 and -15 types from Human mastadenovirus G) or of two different species (SAdV-5 types from Simian mastadenovirus B and Human mastadenovirus G).

  12. Genome Sequence of a Cynomolgus Macaque Adenovirus (CynAdV-1) Isolate from a Primate Colony in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Jing, Shuping; Cheng, Zetao; Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2016-11-03

    The genome sequence of a simian adenovirus from a cynomolgus macaque, denoted CynAdV-1, is presented here. Phylogenetic analysis supports CynAdV-1 in an independent clade, comprising a new simian adenovirus (SAdV) species. These genome data are critical for understanding the evolution and relationships of primate adenoviruses, including zoonosis and emergent human pathogens.

  13. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  14. Adenovirus-Mediated Human Paraoxonase 1 Gene Transfer to Provide Protection Against the Toxicity of the Organophosphorus Pesticide Toxicant Diazoxon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    tested whether PON1 gene transfer using adenovirus provides protection against the toxicity of the OP diazoxon. Using an adenovirus construct...expressed PON1 at 600-3480 U ml(-1) on day 5 post-treatment, which is 8-50 fold above endogenous. Six mice expressing hPON1 survived 2LD(50) doses of diazoxon

  15. Replication of type 5 adenovirus promotes middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the chinchilla model of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Murrah, Kyle A.; Turner, Roberta L.; Pang, Bing; Perez, Antonia C.; Reimche, Jennifer L.; King, Lauren B.; Wren, John; Gandhi, Uma; Swords, W. Edward; Ornelles, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviral infection is a major risk factor for otitis media. We hypothesized that adenovirus promotes bacterial ascension into the middle ear through the disruption of normal function in the Eustachian tubes due to inflammation-induced changes. An intranasal infection model of the chinchilla was used to test the ability of type 5 adenovirus to promote middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The hyperinflammatory adenovirus mutant dl327 and the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP were used to test the role of inflammation and viral replication, respectively, in promotion of pneumococcal middle ear infection. Precedent infection with adenovirus resulted in a significantly greater incidence of middle ear disease by S. pneumoniae as compared to nonadenovirus infected animals. Infection with the adenovirus mutant dl327 induced a comparable degree of bacterial ascension into the middle ear as did infection with the wild-type virus. By contrast, infection with the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP resulted in less extensive middle ear infection compared to the wild-type adenovirus. We conclude that viral replication is necessary for adenoviral-induced pneumococcal middle ear disease. PMID:25251686

  16. An adenovirus associated with intestinal impaction and mortality of male eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian; Kilpi, Mikael; Docherty, Douglas E.; Myllys, V.

    2003-01-01

    We examined 10 common eider (Somateria mollissima) males found dead in 1998 during a die-off in the northern Baltic Sea off the southwestern coast of Finland. We diagnosed impaction of the posterior small intestine with mucosal necrosis as the cause of death in all 10 and isolated adenoviruses from cloacal samples of six birds. The adenovirus isolates were not neutralized by reference antisera to group I, II, or III avian adenoviruses. Cloacal swabs from 22 apparently healthy eider females nesting at the mortality area were negative for viruses. An adenovirus isolated from one of the eiders caused clinical signs of illness and gastrointestinal pathology in experimentally infected mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings. These findings suggest that the adenovirus contributed to the mortality of common eider males in the Finnish archipelago.

  17. RNAi suppressor P19 can be broadly exploited for enhanced adenovirus replication and microRNA knockdown experiments.

    PubMed

    Rauschhuber, Christina; Mueck-Haeusl, Martin; Zhang, Wenli; Nettelbeck, Dirk M; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a key regulator of various biological systems including viral infection. Within a virus life cycle gene products can be modulated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway which can crucially impact productive virus replication. Herein we explored the RNA interference suppressor protein P19 derived from a plant virus and we found that P19 enhanced adenovirus replication up to 100-fold. Critical factors responsible for this observation were overexpression of adenovirus encoded genes on mRNA and protein levels. To investigate the impact of this phenomenon on recombinant viruses, we exploited its feasibility for therapeutic and genomic applications. We found that P19 significantly increased recombinant adenovirus yields enabling up-scaling for preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, adenoviruses possessed significantly higher oncolytic activity by expression of P19. Finally, we show that introducing a p19 expression cassette into high-capacity adenovirus provides a strategy to analyze RNAi knockdown in a tissue-specific manner.

  18. Redirecting adenovirus tropism by genetic, chemical, and mechanical modification of the adenovirus surface for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, A-Rum; Hong, Jinwoo; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2016-06-01

    Despite remarkable advancements, clinical evaluations of adenovirus (Ad)-mediated cancer gene therapies have highlighted the need for improved delivery and targeting. Genetic modification of Ad capsid proteins has been extensively attempted. Although genetic modification enhances the therapeutic potential of Ad, it is difficult to successfully incorporate extraneous moieties into the capsid and the engineering process is laborious. Recently, chemical modification of the Ad surface with nanomaterials and targeting moieties has been found to enhance Ad internalization into the target by both passive and active mechanisms. Alternatively, external stimulus-mediated targeting can result in selective accumulation of Ad in the tumor and prevent dissemination of Ad into surrounding nontarget tissues. In the present review, we discuss various genetic, chemical, and mechanical engineering strategies for overcoming the challenges that hinder the therapeutic efficacy of Ad-based approaches. Surface modification of Ad by genetic, chemical, or mechanical engineering strategies enables Ad to overcome the shortcomings of conventional Ad and enhances delivery efficiency through distinct and unique mechanisms that unmodified Ad cannot mimic. However, although the therapeutic potential of Ad-mediated gene therapy has been enhanced by various surface modification strategies, each strategy still possesses innate limitations that must be addressed, requiring innovative ideas and designs.

  19. Helper-Dependent Adenovirus is Superior to First-Generation Adenovirus for Expressing Transgenes in Atherosclerosis-Prone Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bo; Qian, Kun; Du, Liang; Luttrell, Ian; Chitaley, Kanchan; Dichek, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective- Vascular gene transfer is a powerful tool for investigating and treating vascular diseases; however, its utility is limited by brevity of transgene expression and vector-associated inflammation. Helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd), an advanced-generation Ad that lacks all viral genes, is superior to first-generation Ad (FGAd) in normal rabbit arteries. We compared HDAd to FGAd in arteries of cholesterol-fed rabbits, a model of early atherogenesis in which transgene expression might be decreased, and inflammation increased. Methods and Results- Carotid arteries of chow- and cholesterol-fed rabbits were infused with FGAd, HDAd, or medium. HDAd expressed a transgene at least as well in arteries of cholesterol-fed rabbits as in arteries of chow-fed rabbits and expressed more durably than FGAd. In arteries of cholesterol-fed rabbits, HDAd stimulated less intimal growth, lipid deposition, and inflammation than FGAd. Neither vector affected phenylephrine-induced contraction or nitroprusside-mediated relaxation; however, both vectors decreased maximal acetylcholine-stimulated vasorelaxation. Relative absence of intimal growth in HDAd arteries could interfere with the utility of this model for testing atheroprotective genes; however, both co-infusion of FGAd and extension of cholesterol feeding yielded larger intimal lesions, on which atheroprotective genes could be tested. Conclusions- HDAd is superior to FGAd for expression of transgenes in atherosclerosis-prone arteries. PMID:21454808

  20. Dicer functions as an antiviral system against human adenoviruses via cleavage of adenovirus-encoded noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Tomita, Kyoko; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-07

    In various organisms, including nematodes and plants, RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense system against virus infection; however, it is unclear whether RNAi functions as an antivirus system in mammalian cells. Rather, a number of DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, utilize post-transcriptional silencing systems for their survival. Here we show that Dicer efficiently suppresses the replication of adenovirus (Ad) via cleavage of Ad-encoding small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which efficiently promote Ad replication via the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, to viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs). The Dicer knockdown significantly increases the copy numbers of VA-RNAs, leading to the efficient inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and the subsequent promotion of Ad replication. Conversely, overexpression of Dicer significantly inhibits Ad replication. Transfection with mivaRNA does not affect eIF2α phosphorylation or Ad replication. These results indicate that Dicer-mediated processing of VA-RNAs leads to loss of activity of VA-RNAs for enhancement of Ad replication and that Dicer functions as a defence system against Ad in mammalian cells.

  1. Dicer functions as an antiviral system against human adenoviruses via cleavage of adenovirus-encoded noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Tomita, Kyoko; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In various organisms, including nematodes and plants, RNA interference (RNAi) is a defense system against virus infection; however, it is unclear whether RNAi functions as an antivirus system in mammalian cells. Rather, a number of DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, utilize post-transcriptional silencing systems for their survival. Here we show that Dicer efficiently suppresses the replication of adenovirus (Ad) via cleavage of Ad-encoding small RNAs (VA-RNAs), which efficiently promote Ad replication via the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, to viral microRNAs (mivaRNAs). The Dicer knockdown significantly increases the copy numbers of VA-RNAs, leading to the efficient inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation and the subsequent promotion of Ad replication. Conversely, overexpression of Dicer significantly inhibits Ad replication. Transfection with mivaRNA does not affect eIF2α phosphorylation or Ad replication. These results indicate that Dicer-mediated processing of VA-RNAs leads to loss of activity of VA-RNAs for enhancement of Ad replication and that Dicer functions as a defence system against Ad in mammalian cells. PMID:27273616

  2. Attachment and Detachment Behaviour of Adenovirus and Surrogates in Fine Granular Limestone Aquifer Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Margaret; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas; Sommer, Regina; Sidhu, Jatinder

    2015-04-01

    Comparison of transport of virus surrogates to the pathogenic virus is necessary to understand the differences between the virus and surrogate. Since experiments using pathogenic viruses cannot be done in the field, laboratory tests using flow through soil columns are used. Adenovirus, nanoparticles, PRD1 and MS2 bacteriophages were tested in fine granular limestone aquifer material taken from a borehole at a managed aquifer recharge site in Adelaide, Southern Australia. Results show that PRD1 is the most appropriate surrogate for adenovirus in an aquifer dominated by calcite material, although PRD1 did not mimic the detachment behaviour of adenovirus successfully under high pH conditions. It was also found that the charge of the colloid is not a dominant removal mechanism in this system. Implications from this study could influence how field tests using bacteriophages and nanoparticles are interpreted.

  3. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of class I major histocompatibility complex genes following transformation with human adenoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, J; Rotem-Yehudar, R; Ehrlich, R

    1991-01-01

    Transformation of rodent cells by human adenoviruses is a well-established model system for studying the expression, regulation, and function of class I antigens. In this report, we demonstrate that the highly oncogenic adenovirus type 12 operates at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in regulating the activity of major histocompatibility complex class I genes and products in transformed cells. Adenovirus type 12 suppresses the cell surface expression of class I antigens in most cell lines. Nevertheless, in a number of cell lines suppression is the result of reduction in the amount of stable specific mRNA, while in another group of cell lines suppression involves interference with processing of a posttranscriptional product. The two mechanisms operate both for the endogenous H-2 genes and for a miniature swine class I transgene that is expressed in the cells. Images PMID:1895404

  4. Respiratory disease caused by a species B2 adenovirus in a military camp in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Chmielewicz, Barbara; Benzler, Justus; Pauli, Georg; Krause, Gérard; Bergmann, Frank; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2005-10-01

    In April 2004, two patients were admitted to hospital in Berlin, Germany, with clinical signs of acute respiratory infection after returning from a military exercise in their home country of Turkey. They were admitted to a high security infectious disease unit as epidemiological data pointed to an outbreak of unknown etiology. Samples taken at the time of admission proved to be strongly positive for Adenovirus by PCR, but negative for Influenza A/H1N1 virus, Influenza A/H3N2 virus, Influenza B virus, Respiratory syncytial virus, and SARS coronavirus. No evidence for bacterial infection was obtained by serological tests and blood cultures. The adenovirus detected was characterized further by genotyping and was identified as a species B2 virus with the highest similarity to adenovirus type 11a. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  6. Detection of adenovirus in nasopharyngeal specimens by radioactive and nonradioactive DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hyypiae, T.

    1985-05-01

    The presence of adenovirus DNA in clinical specimens was analyzed by nucleic acid hybridization assays by both radioactive and enzymatic detection systems. The sensitivity of the hybridization tests was in the range of 10 to 100 pg of homologous adenovirus DNA. Minimal background was noticed with unrelated viral and nonviral DNA. Twenty-four nasopharyngeal mucus aspirate specimens, collected from children with acute respiratory infection, were assayed in the hybridization tests and also by an enzyme immunoassay for adenovirus hexon antigen which was used as a reference test. Sixteen specimens positive by the enzyme immunoassay also were positive in the two nucleic acid hybridization tests, and the remaining eight specimens were negative in all of the tests. The results indicate that nucleid acid hybridization tests with both radioactive and nonradioactive probes can be used for diagnosis of microbial infections.

  7. An epizootic of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease in captive black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Boyce, W M; Woods, L W; Keel, M K; MacLachlan, N J; Porter, C O; Lehmkuhl, H D

    2000-09-01

    Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute, systemic infections, a diagnosis was made by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The serum neutralization test was useful for confirming a diagnosis in animals with prolonged, localized infections. Deer originating from herds with a history of adenovirus infection should not be transferred to other captive herds or released into free-ranging populations because they may serve as carriers of adenovirus.

  8. Adenoviruses as a model in the study of the effect of space flight factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosach, L. M.; Povnitsa, O. Yu.; Zhovnovata, V. L.

    Simulated microgravity conditions, independently of multiplicity of infection, does not influence the reproduction of adenoviruses in cells which were clinorotated for 48 hours after adsorption of virus. The incubation of infected cells before clinorotation under static conditions at a temperature of 4 °C for three days (the conditions for keeping cells before the flight) does not change the number of infected cells relatively to control, but some changes of cell morphology are revealed, namely round off and aggregation of cells. The adenoviruses which were exposed in the medium keep infectivity under the conditions of clinorotation at 4 and 20-22 °C over prolonged periods (90 and 60 days, respectively). A model is elaborated for investigation of the influence of space flight factors on the interaction of the adenovirus and Epstein-Barr virus genomes at combined infection of limphoblastoid cells.

  9. Permissive growth of human adenovirus type 4 vaccine strain-based vector in porcine cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dong-sheng; Li, Xiao-jing; Wan, Wen-yan; Li, Hong-jie; Wang, Xiao-xue; Yang, Xia; Li, Yong-tao; Chang, Hong-tao; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chuan-qing; Zhao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using adenoviruses as live vectors to develop recombinant vaccines. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of HIV/SIV and influenza vaccine candidates based on human adenovirus type 4 (Ad4) replication-competent vectors in rhesus macaque and human model. To explore the possibility of human Ad4 vaccine strain used as a vector in developing porcine vaccines, the growth properties of replication-competent human Ad4 vaccine strain recombinant encoding EGFP in different porcine cell lines were investigated. All tested cell lines are permissive for Ad4 vaccine strain vector with varied replication efficiency. Thus, human Ad4 based vectors would be promising supplement to adenovirus vectors as a delivery vehicle for recombinant vaccines in swine industry.

  10. Chapter eight--Oncolytic adenoviruses for cancer immunotherapy: data from mice, hamsters, and humans.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Vincenzo; Koski, Anniina; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most commonly used vectors for gene therapy and two products have already been approved for treatment of cancer in China (Gendicine(R) and Oncorine(R)). An intriguing aspect of oncolytic adenoviruses is that by their very nature they potently stimulate multiple arms of the immune system. Thus, combined tumor killing via oncolysis and inherent immunostimulatory properties in fact make these viruses in situ tumor vaccines. When further engineered to express cytokines, chemokines, tumor-associated antigens, or other immunomodulatory elements, they have been shown in various preclinical models to induce antigen-specific effector and memory responses, resulting both in full therapeutic cures and even induction of life-long tumor immunity. Here, we review the state of the art of oncolytic adenovirus, in the context of their capability to stimulate innate and adaptive arms of the immune system and finally how we can modify these viruses to direct the immune response toward cancer.

  11. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuvieron los resultados. La investigacion es de tipo cuantitativa y se utilizo como diseno la encuesta. El cuestionario se administro en varias actividades de desarrollo profesional para maestros de ciencia. Un total de 78 maestros del nivel secundario respondieron el cuestionario. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas como la distribucion de frecuencia y el porciento. Ademas se establecieron codigos y categorias para describir las posiciones de los maestros ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Los analisis demostraron que entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la filosofia materialista de las ciencias naturales, b) la naturaleza tentativa y constructivista del conocimiento cientifico, c) el uso de una metodologia que garantiza cierto grado de objetividad y con el que se justifican y validan los enunciados cientificos y d) la funcion instrumental del conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas erroneas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) tendencia inductivista en el que las teorias cientificas comienzan con observaciones que establecen generalizaciones, b) secuencia jerarquica de la metodologia cientifica. Ademas, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas

  12. Safety and Efficacy of CMX001 as Salvage Therapy for Severe Adenovirus Infections in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Diana F.; Pergam, Steven A.; Neely, Michael N.; Qiu, Fang; Johnston, Christine; Way, SingSing; Sande, Jane; Lewinsohn, Deborah A.; Guzman-Cottrill, Judith A.; Graham, Michael L.; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Rigdon, Joseph; Painter, Wendy; Mommeja-Marin, Herve; Lanier, Randall; Anderson, Maggie; van der Horst, Charles

    2013-01-01

    No therapeutic agent has yet been established as the definitive therapy for adenovirus infections. We describe the clinical experience of 13 immunocompromised patients who received CMX001 (hexadecyloxypropyl cidofovir), an orally bioavailable lipid conjugate of cidofovir, for adenovirus disease. We retrospectively analyzed 13 patients with adenovirus disease and viremia treated with CMX001; data were available for ≥4 weeks after initiation of CMX001 therapy. Virologic response (VR) was defined as a 99% drop from baseline or undetectable adenovirus DNA in serum. The median age of the group was 6 years (range, 0.92-66 years). One patient had severe combined immunodeficiency, 1 patient was a small bowel transplant recipient, and 11 were allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Adenovirus disease was diagnosed at a median of 75 days (range, 15-720 days) after transplantation. All patients received i.v. cidofovir for a median of 21 days (range, 5-90 days) before CMX001 therapy. The median absolute lymphocyte count at CMX001 initiation was 300 cells/μL (range, 7-1500 cells/μL). Eight patients (61.5%) had a ≥1 log10 drop in viral load after the first week of therapy. By week 8, 9 patients (69.2%) demonstrated a VR, with a median time to achieve VR of 7 days (range, 3-35 days). The change in absolute lymphocyte count was inversely correlated with the change in log10 viral load only at week 6 (r = −0.74; P = .03). Patients with VR had longer survival than those without VR (median 196 days versus 54.5 days; P = .04). No serious adverse events were attributed to CMX001 during therapy. CMX001 may be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of severe adenovirus disease in immunocompromised patients. PMID:21963623

  13. Adenovirus types 40 and 41 and rotaviruses associated with diarrhea in children from Guatemala.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, J R; Cáceres, P; Cano, F; Flores, J; Bartlett, A; Torún, B

    1990-01-01

    From March 1987 to February 1988, fecal excretion of adenovirus types 40 and 41 and rotavirus serotypes in 194 children (age, 0 to 3 years) from a rural community of Guatemala was monitored. In total, 458 samples taken during 385 episodes of diarrhea and 191 specimens obtained during symptom-free periods were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fifty-seven children hospitalized because of diarrhea were also studied. Among the rural children, 43 (22.2%) excreted adenovirus types 40 and 41 and 20 (10.3%) shed rotaviruses. Adenovirus types 40 and 41 were associated with 54 (14.0%) illnesses, and rotaviruses were associated with 18 (4.7%) illnesses. Asymptomatic infections with adenovirus types 40 and 41 were documented in nine children and with rotaviruses in two children. Fifteen typeable rotaviruses were identified as serotype 2. In the hospital population, 36 (63.2%) children had viral infections. Rotaviruses were identified in 29 (50.9%) and adenovirus types 40 and 41 were identified in 15 (31.2%) of 48 subjects tested. Dual infections by these viruses were found in eight children. Of 22 typeable strains of rotaviruses, 9 (34.6%) were serotype 1, 12 (46.1%) were serotype 2, and 1 (3.8%) was serotype 3. All the children infected with serotype 2 rotavirus were coinfected with other enteric pathogens, while only three (37.5%) of those infected with rotavirus serotype 1 excreted another pathogen. Adenovirus types 40 and 41 are an important cause of gastroenteritis in both ambulatory and hospitalized Guatemalan children. There seems to be a difference in the pathogenicity among rotavirus serotypes. PMID:2168438

  14. Intraductal delivery of adenoviruses targets pancreatic tumors in transgenic Ela-myc mice and orthotopic xenografts.

    PubMed

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Miguel Camacho-Sánchez, Juan; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p less than 0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors.

  15. Intraductal Delivery of Adenoviruses Targets Pancreatic Tumors in Transgenic Ela-myc Mice and Orthotopic Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Camacho-Sánchez, Juan Miguel; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p<0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors. PMID:23328228

  16. INTERFERENCE INDUCED AGAINST VACCINIA IN AN ADENOVIRUS-RHF-1 SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Khoobyarian, Newton

    1964-01-01

    Khoobyarian, Newton (University of Illinois, Chicago). Interference induced against vaccinia in an adenovirus-RHF-1 system. J. Bacteriol. 87:24–32. 1964.—It was observed that a continuous line of rabbit heart cell culture (strain RHF-1), when overlaid with growth medium after infection of cultures with adenovirus types 2, 3, 4, and 7, would develop resistance to vaccinia plaque formation. Data are presented to provide some information on the nature of such resistance observed specifically in an adenovirus 2-RHF-1 system. An analysis of this phenomenon indicated the following. (i) At least 6 hr were required before the start of vaccinia inhibition, and 15 to 18 hr were necessary for the maximal occurrence of inhibition; the degree of interference established varied with the concentration of adenovirus. (ii) The site of interference action was inside rather than outside the cells, since hardly any difference could be shown in the rate of vaccinia adsorption on resistant and susceptible cells. (iii) The interaction of adenovirus with RHF-1 cells not only would inhibit cell infection with vaccinia but would also suppress the 24- to 48-hr yield of virus. (iv) When RHF-1 cells were overlaid with maintenance medium after their infection with a low multiplicity of RHF-1 passaged adenovirus 2 (to establish sublethal infection), an inhibitory substance of varied activity could be detected daily over a period of at least 10 days which, when transferred to normal RHF-1 cultures, would render them resistant to vaccinia infection. (v) Although limited growth of virus appeared to be responsible for the production of the inhibitor, increase in inhibitory activity did not seem to coincide with increase in virus titer. (vi) The inhibitor seemed to resemble interferons in inhibiting virus plaque production, but its exact identity and the mode of action remain to be determined. PMID:14102869

  17. INTERFERENCE INDUCED AGAINST VACCINIA IN AN ADENOVIRUS-RHF-1 SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    KHOOBYARIAN, N

    1964-01-01

    Khoobyarian, Newton (University of Illinois, Chicago). Interference induced against vaccinia in an adenovirus-RHF-1 system. J. Bacteriol. 87:24-32. 1964.-It was observed that a continuous line of rabbit heart cell culture (strain RHF-1), when overlaid with growth medium after infection of cultures with adenovirus types 2, 3, 4, and 7, would develop resistance to vaccinia plaque formation. Data are presented to provide some information on the nature of such resistance observed specifically in an adenovirus 2-RHF-1 system. An analysis of this phenomenon indicated the following. (i) At least 6 hr were required before the start of vaccinia inhibition, and 15 to 18 hr were necessary for the maximal occurrence of inhibition; the degree of interference established varied with the concentration of adenovirus. (ii) The site of interference action was inside rather than outside the cells, since hardly any difference could be shown in the rate of vaccinia adsorption on resistant and susceptible cells. (iii) The interaction of adenovirus with RHF-1 cells not only would inhibit cell infection with vaccinia but would also suppress the 24- to 48-hr yield of virus. (iv) When RHF-1 cells were overlaid with maintenance medium after their infection with a low multiplicity of RHF-1 passaged adenovirus 2 (to establish sublethal infection), an inhibitory substance of varied activity could be detected daily over a period of at least 10 days which, when transferred to normal RHF-1 cultures, would render them resistant to vaccinia infection. (v) Although limited growth of virus appeared to be responsible for the production of the inhibitor, increase in inhibitory activity did not seem to coincide with increase in virus titer. (vi) The inhibitor seemed to resemble interferons in inhibiting virus plaque production, but its exact identity and the mode of action remain to be determined.

  18. Characterization of an upstream regulatory element of adenovirus L1 poly (A) site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li

    2005-06-20

    The transition from early to late stage infection by adenovirus involves a change in mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit (AdMLTU). This early to late switch centers around alternative selection of one of five poly (A) sites (L1-L5) that code for the major structural proteins of Adenovirus. During the early stage of infection, steady state mRNA is primarily derived from the L1 poly (A) site. During the late stage of infection, each of the MLTU poly (A) sites is represented in the steady state mRNA pool (Falck-Pedersen, E., Logan, J., 1989. Regulation of poly(A) site selection in adenovirus. J. Virol. 63 (2), 532-541.). Using transient transfection of a plasmid expressing Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase with a tandem poly (A) minigene system (L13) (DeZazzo, J.D., Falck-Pedersen, E., Imperiale, M.J., 1991. Sequences regulating temporal poly(A) site switching in the adenovirus major late transcription unit. Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 (12), 5977-5984; Prescott, J., Falck-Pedersen, E., 1994. Sequence elements upstream of the 3' cleavage site confer substrate strength to the adenovirus L1 and L3 polyadenylation sites. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (7), 4682-4693.), it has been demonstrated that the promoter-proximal L1 poly (A) site which is poorly recognized by the 3' end processing machinery, contains an upstream repressor element (URE) that influences steady state levels of mRNA (Prescott, J.C., Liu, L., Falck-Pedersen, E., 1997. Sequence-mediated regulation of adenovirus gene expression by repression of mRNA accumulation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4), 2207-2216.). In this study, we have further characterized the elements that mediate L1URE function. These studies indicate that the L1 upstream regulatory element (L1 URE) contains a complex RNA architecture that serves to repress gene expression through multiple sub-effectors. The L1URE functions when located upstream of a heterologous poly (A) site, and is able to strongly suppress steady state m

  19. Selective targeting of human cells by a chimeric adenovirus vector containing a modified fiber protein.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, S C; Rollence, M; Marshall-Neff, J; McClelland, A

    1997-01-01

    The adenovirus fiber protein is responsible for attachment of the virion to unidentified cell surface receptors. There are at least two distinct adenovirus fiber receptors which interact with the group B (Ad3) and group C (Ad5) adenoviruses. We have previously shown by using expressed adenovirus fiber proteins that it is possible to change the specificity of the fiber protein by exchanging the head domain with another serotype which recognizes a different receptor (S. C. Stevenson et al., J. Virol. 69:2850-2857, 1995). A chimeric fiber cDNA containing the Ad3 fiber head domain fused to the Ad5 fiber tail and shaft was incorporated into the genome of an adenovirus vector with E1 and E3 deleted encoding beta-galactosidase to generate Av9LacZ4, an adenovirus particle which contains a chimeric fiber protein. Western blot analysis of the chimeric fiber vector confirmed expression of the chimeric fiber protein and its association with the adenovirus capsid. Transduction experiments with fiber protein competitors demonstrated the altered receptor tropism of the chimeric fiber vector compared to that of the parental Av1LacZ4 vector. Transduction of a panel of human cell lines with the chimeric and parental vectors provided evidence for a different cellular distribution of the Ad5 and Ad3 receptors. Three cell lines (THP-1, MRC-5, and FaDu) were more efficiently transduced by the vector containing the Ad3 fiber head than by the Ad5 fiber vector. In contrast, human coronary artery endothelial cells were transduced more readily with the vector containing the Ad5 fiber than with the chimeric fiber vector. HeLa and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were transduced at equivalent levels compared with human diploid fibroblasts, which were refractory to transduction with both vectors. These results provide evidence for the differential expression of the Ad5 and Ad3 receptors on human cell lines derived from clinically relevant target tissues. Furthermore, we show that exchange

  20. Adenine arabinoside inhibition of adenovirus replication enhanced by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wigand, R

    1979-01-01

    The inhibition of adenovirus multiplication by adenine arabinoside was determined by yield reduction in one-step multiplication cycle. Inhibition was greatly enhanced by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (2-deoxycoformycin) in concentrations down to 10 ng/ml. Adenovirus types from four subgroups showed similar results. However, the enhancing effect of adenosine deaminase inhibitor was great in HeLa cells, moderate in human fibroblasts, and negligible in Vero cells. This difference could be explained by different concentrations of adenosine deaminase found in cell homogenates.

  1. Mouse polyoma virus and adenovirus replication in mouse cells temperature-sensitive in DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sheinin, R; Fabbro, J; Dubsky, M

    1985-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus multiplies, apparently without impediment, in temperature-inactivated ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 mouse fibroblasts. Thus, the DNA of mouse adenovirus can replicate in the absence of functional DNA topoisomerase II, a DNA-chain-elongation factor, and a protein required for traverse of the G1/S interface, respectively, encoded in the ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 genetic loci. These results are compared with those obtained with polyoma virus.

  2. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Adenovirus Respiratory Infections in Taiwanese Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Fang; Shen, Fan-Ching; Wang, Shan-Li; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Tsai, Huey-Pin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chi, Chia-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are important causes of respiratory infections in children. They usually cause mild upper respiratory symptoms, but they can also produce severe pneumonia and other complications. The aims of this retrospective study were to better define the molecular epidemiology of respiratory adenoviruses circulating in Taiwanese children during 2002 and 2013, detect reinfections and co-infections, and characterize the clinical features and laboratory findings according to the causative genotypes. We collected a representative sample of 182 isolates of adenoviruses from 175 children during the 12-year study period. The most prevalent species was HAdV-B genotype 3 (HAdV-3) (92/182, 50.5%) followed by HAdV-C (HAdV-2) (38/182, 20.9%). A single outbreak of HAdV-E (6/182, 3.3%) was noted in 2007. The mean age of children with adenovirus infections was 3.7 ± 2.0 years, with a slight predominance of males (53.1%). Children with HAdV-B tended to be older, had more lower respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal symptoms, and a higher rate of hospitalization than those with HAdV-C (P < 0.05). Adenovirus co-infections were noted in 25/175 (14.3%) of the children. The most frequent co-infections were with species B (HAdV-3) and C (HAdV-2) (14/25, 56.0%). Additional infections were noted in 23/175 (13.1%) of the children. Of these repeated infections, the initial isolates were always genotypes of HAdV-C. The second isolates were genotypes of HAdV-B or HAdV-E. The clinical features of the first HAdV-B infection and the reinfection of HAdV-B followed the HAdV-C were similar. In conclusion, HAdV-B, C, and E were the only adenovirus species that were isolated from children who were sufficiently ill with respiratory infections to require a visit to the hospital. Human adenovirus B (HAdV-3) accounted for half of these species. HAdV-B was more likely than other species to produce severe disease. The high incidence of adenovirus co-infection and

  3. Detection and analysis of six lizard adenoviruses by consensus primer PCR provides further evidence of a reptilian origin for the atadenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P; Johnson, Calvin M; Garner, Michael M; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2004-12-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses.

  4. Experimental study of Human Adenoviruses interactions with clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellou, Maria; Syngouna, Vasiliki; Paparrodopoulos, Spyros; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos

    2014-05-01

    Clays are used to establish low permeability liners in landfills, sewage lagoons, water retention ponds, golf course ponds, and hazardous waste sites. Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are waterborne viruses which have been used as viral indicators of fecal pollution. The objective of this study was to investigate the survival of HAdV in static and dynamic clay systems. The clays used as a model were crystalline aluminosilicates: kaolinite and bentonite. The adsorption and survival of HAdVs onto these clays were characterized at two different controlled temperatures (4 and 25o C) under static and dynamic batch conditions. Control tubes, in the absence of clay, were used to monitor virus inactivation due to factors other than adsorption to clays (e.g. inactivation or sorption onto the tubes walls). For both static and dynamic batch experiments, samples were collected for a maximum period of seven days. This seven day time - period was determined to be sufficient for the virus-clay systems to reach equilibrium. To infer the presence of infectious HAdV particles, all samples were treated with Dnase and the extraction of viral nucleid acid was performed using a commercial viral RNA kit. All samples were analyzed by Real - Time PCR which was used to quantify viral particles in clays. Samples were also tested for virus infectivity by A549 cell cultures. Exposure time intervals in the range of seven days (0.50-144 hours) resulted in a load reduction of 0.74 to 2.96 logs for kaolinite and a reduction of 0.89 to 2.92 for bentonite. Furthermore, virus survival was higher onto bentonite than kaolinite (p

  5. Modification of Antigen Impacts on Memory Quality after Adenovirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Colston, Julia M; Bolinger, Beatrice; Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    The establishment of robust T cell memory is critical for the development of novel vaccines for infections and cancers. Classical memory generated by CD8(+)T cells is characterized by contracted populations homing to lymphoid organs. T cell memory inflation, as seen for example after CMV infection, is the maintenance of expanded, functional, tissue-associated effector memory cell pools. Such memory pools may also be induced after adenovirus vaccination, and we recently defined common transcriptional and phenotypic features of these populations in mice and humans. However, the rules that govern which epitopes drive memory inflation compared with classical memory are not fully defined, and thus it is not currently possible to direct this process. We used our adenoviral model of memory inflation to first investigate the role of the promoter and then the role of the epitope context in determining memory formation. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that conventional memory could be converted to inflationary memory by simple presentation of the Ag in the form of minigene vectors. When epitopes from LacZ and murine CMV that normally induce classical memory responses were presented as minigenes, they induced clear memory inflation. These data demonstrate that, regardless of the transgene promoter, the polypeptide context of a CD8(+)T cell epitope may determine whether classical or inflating memory responses are induced. The ability to direct this process by the use of minigenes is relevant to the design of vaccines and understanding of immune responses to pathogens. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of murine adenovirus 2.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Silvio; Vidovszky, Márton Z; Ruminska, Justyna; Ramelli, Sandra; Decurtins, Willy; Greber, Urs F; Harrach, Balázs

    2011-09-01

    Murine adenoviruses (MAdV) are supposedly the oldest members of the genus Mastadenovirus. Currently, there are three distinct MAdV types known with rather different tropism and pathology. Here we report and annotate the DNA sequence of the full genome of MAdV-2. It was found to consist of 35,203 bp thus being considerably larger than the genomes of the other two MAdV types. The increased size of the MAdV-2 genome is generally due to larger genes and ORFs, although some differences in the number of ORFs were observed for the early regions E1, E3 and E4. The homologue of the 19K gene of E1B from MAdV-2 codes for 330 amino acids (aa) and is almost twice as large as from other mastadenoviruses. Accordingly, only the N-terminal half (155aa) has homology to the 19K protein. A homologue of the gene of the 12.5K protein was identified in the E3 region of MAdV-2, but not in MAdV-1 or MAdV-3. The other gene of yet unknown function in the E3 region of MAdV-2 seems to be unique. The E4 region of MAdV-2 contains three ORFs. One has similarity to the 34K gene of other AdVs. Two unique ORFs in the E4 region of MAdV-2 have no homology to any of the five and six ORFs in the E4 region of MAdV-1 or MAdV-3, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the three murine AdVs have a close common ancestor. They likely formed the first branching of the lineage of mastadenoviruses, and seem to be the most ancient representatives of this genus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Α molecular epidemiological analysis of adenoviruses from excess conjunctivitis cases.

    PubMed

    Balasopoulou, A; Κokkinos, P; Pagoulatos, D; Plotas, P; Makri, O E; Georgakopoulos, C D; Vantarakis, A

    2017-04-24

    Τo perform a molecular epidemiological analysis of viral conjunctivitis among excess conjunctivitis cases recorded at the University Hospital of Patras, Greece, for the period March to June 2012. A structured questionnaire containing demographic and clinical data was developed in order to collect retrospective data on the cases. Eye swab specimens were collected and molecular detection of adenoviruses was performed by nested PCR. Positive results were confirmed by sequencing. To determine the relatedness between the isolated sequences, a phylogenetic analysis was conducted. The epidemiological analysis (including retrospective data) included 231 conjunctivitis cases (47.1% male, and 52.8% female). Based on clinical features 205 of the cases were diagnosed of viral origin (46.3% male and 53.7% female), 4 of bacterial origin (50% male and 50% female) while 22 were undefined conjunctivitis. The outbreak excess cases (included 156 cases) affected all age groups regardless gender predilection. For the positive samples indicated that 29 samples (72.5%) were AdV17, and 5 (12.5%) as AdV54. Molecular analysis could define the cause of viral conjunctivitis, while epidemiological data contributed to the assessment of the risk factors and underlined possible preventive measures. This study is one of the very few on viral conjunctivitis in Greece. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute infectious conjunctivitis outbreaks. The epidemiological as well as molecular investigation on HAdV ocular infections is rather absent in Greece, which has no surveillance system for viral conjunctivitis.

  8. Adenovirus DNA synthesized in the presence of aphidicolin.

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, M; Yamashita, T; Ariga, H; Nagano, H

    1984-01-01

    Adenovirus types 2 and 5 DNA synthesized in vivo and in vitro in the presence of aphidicolin were studied. Inhibition of adenoviral DNA synthesis by aphidicolin was only 70% even at a concentration of 30 micrograms/ml of aphidicolin, at which the cellular DNA synthesis was completely inhibited. When initiation of the viral DNA synthesis was synchronized with hydroxyurea and labeled with [3H]thymidine for 60 min, the viral DNA synthesized in the presence of 30 micrograms/ml of aphidicolin was not of full length (35 kb) but small (approximately 12 kb) by analysis of alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation. When initiation of the viral DNA synthesis was not synchronized, the viral DNAs ranging from full size to 12 kb were synthesized in the presence of aphidicolin, indicating that the nascent DNAs longer than about 12 kb can continue to elongate in the presence of aphidicolin. This 12 kb DNA was not derived from the degradation products of newly synthesized full size adenoviral DNA. The viral DNA synthesis was restored and the full size of adenoviral DNA was attained within 15 min following removal of aphidicolin. About 20% of the entire viral genome length from the 5'-end was not inhibited by aphidicolin, while the synthesis of interior fragments of the adenoviral DNA was markedly inhibited by aphidicolin, judging from the electrophoretic pattern on neutral agarose gel after digestion of DNA with Hind III. These results indicate that aphidicolin inhibits adenoviral DNA replication at the internal region located approximately 20-30% from both terminals. Images PMID:6420772

  9. Persistence and reactivation of human adenoviruses in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kosulin, K; Geiger, E; Vécsei, A; Huber, W-D; Rauch, M; Brenner, E; Wrba, F; Hammer, K; Innerhofer, A; Pötschger, U; Lawitschka, A; Matthes-Leodolter, S; Fritsch, G; Lion, T

    2016-04-01

    Reactivation of persistent human adenoviruses (HAdVs) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Although invasive HAdV infections mainly arise from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the specific sites of HAdV persistence are not well characterised. We prospectively screened biopsies from 143 non-HSCT paediatric patients undergoing GI endoscopy and monitored serial stool specimens from 148 paediatric HSCT recipients for the presence of HAdV by real-time PCR. Persistence of HAdV in the GI tract was identified in 31% of children, with the highest prevalence in the terminal ileum. In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry identified HAdV persistence in lymphoid cells of the lamina propria, whereas biopsies from five transplant recipients revealed high numbers of replicating HAdV in intestinal epithelial cells. The prevalence of HAdV species, the frequencies of persistence in the GI tract and reactivations post transplant indicated a correlation of intestinal HAdV shedding pre-transplant with high risk of invasive infection. HAdV persistence in the GI tract is a likely origin of infectious complications in immunocompromised children. Intestinal lymphocytes represent a reservoir for HAdV persistence and reactivation, whereas the intestinal epithelium is the main site of viral proliferation preceding dissemination. The findings have important implications for assessing the risk of life-threatening invasive HAdV infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Molecular epideiological and clinical feature of human calicivirus and adenovirus among children with diarrhea less than 5 years old from 2010 to 2011 in Lanzhou, Gansu province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xia; Li, Dan-Di; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hong; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Li, Yu-Ning; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiology characteristics of calicivirus and adenovirus in children for viral diarrhea in Lanzhou. Stool samples were collected from 295 children with diarrhea at the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Gansu Province,China, between July 2010 and June 2011. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR were used to detected calicivirus and adenovirus. The adenovirus positive samples were typed by nested PCR and multiple PCR. Of the 295 specimens, 13.2% (39/295) were positive for calicivirus, and 5.1% (15/295) were adenovirus. Typing and Phylogenetic analysis revealed that novirus GII-3 and adenovirus 41 were the dominant strains. Both calicivirus and adenovirus predominately affect children under the age of 2. In seasonal distribution, there was no obvious peak. Human calicivirus and adenovirus are important pathogens of viral diarrhea,it is important to develop long-term systematic surveillance.

  11. Pseudotyping Serotype 5 Adenovirus with the Fiber from Other Serotypes Uncovers a Key Role of the Fiber Protein in Adenovirus 5-Induced Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Raddi, Najat; Vigant, Frédéric; Wagner-Ballon, Oriane; Giraudier, Stéphane; Custers, Jerome; Hemmi, Silvio; Benihoud, Karim

    2016-02-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) infection in humans is associated with inflammatory responses and thrombocytopenia. Although several studies were conducted in mice models to understand molecular and cellular mechanisms of Ad-induced inflammatory responses, only few of them turned their interest toward the mechanisms of Ad-induced thrombocytopenia. Using different depletion methods, the present study ruled out any significant role of spleen, macrophages, and vitamin K-dependent factor in Ad-induced thrombocytopenia. Interestingly, mice displaying thrombocytopenia expressed high levels of cytokines/chemokines after Ad administration. Most importantly, pseudotyping adenovirus with the fiber protein from other serotypes was associated with reduction of both cytokine/chemokine production and thrombocytopenia. Altogether, our results suggest that capsid fiber protein (and more precisely its shaft) of Ad serotype 5 triggers the cytokine production that leads to Ad-induced thrombocytopenia.

  12. HUMAN ADENOVIRUS TYPE 37 AND THE BALB/C MOUSE: PROGRESS TOWARD A RESTRICTED ADENOVIRUS KERATITIS MODEL (AN AMERICAN OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY THESIS)

    PubMed Central

    Chodosh, James

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To establish a mouse model of adenovirus keratitis in order to study innate immune mechanisms in the adenovirus-infected cornea. Methods Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts were inoculated with human adenovirus (HAdV) serotypes 8, 19, or 37 and observed for cytopathic effect. Viral growth titers were performed, and apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay. Viral and host cytokine gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR in cultured Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts and in the corneas of virus-injected Balb/c mice. Western blot analysis was performed to detect cell signaling in the virus-infected cornea. Results Only HAdV37 induced cytopathic effect in mouse cells. Viral gene expression was limited, and viral replication was not detected. Apoptotic cell death in HAdV37-infected Balb/c cells was evident 48 and 72 hours postinfection (P < .01). MCP-1, IL-6, KC, and IP-10 mRNA levels were increased maximally by 8.4, 9.6, 10.5, and 20.0-fold, respectively, at 30 to 90 minutes after HAdV37 infection. Similar cytokine elevations were observed in the corneas of Balb/c mice 4 hours after stromal injection of HAdV37, when viral gene expression for the viral capsid protein IIIa was not detected. Western blot showed increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at 4 and 24 hours after corneal infection. Conclusions Despite limited viral gene expression, HAdV37 infection of Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts results in increased proinflammatory gene expression. A similar pattern of cytokine expression in the corneas of HAdV37-infected Balb/c mice suggests the mouse adenoviral keratitis model may be useful for the study of early innate immune responses in the adenovirus-infected corneal stroma. PMID:17471351

  13. Simian adenovirus type 35 has a recombinant genome comprising human and simian adenovirus sequences, which predicts its potential emergence as a human respiratory pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Shoaleh; Seto, Jason; Jones, Morris S.; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Seto, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Emergent human and simian adenoviruses (HAdVs) may arise from genome recombination. Computational analysis of SAdV type 35 reveals a genome comprising a chassis with elements mostly from two simian adenoviruses, SAdV-B21 and -B27, and regions of high sequence similarity shared with HAdV-B21 and HAdV-B16. Although recombination direction cannot be determined, the presence of these regions suggests prior infections of humans by an ancestor of SAdV-B35, and/or vice versa. Absence of this virus in humans may reflect non-optimal conditions for zoonosis. The presence of both a critical viral replication element found in HAdV genomes and genes that are highly similar to ones in HAdVs suggest the potential to establish in a human host. This allows a prediction that this virus may be a nascent human respiratory pathogen. The recombination potential of human and simian adenovirus genomes should be considered in the use of SAdVs as vectors for gene delivery in humans. PMID:24210123

  14. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into normal rabbit arteries results in prolonged vascular cell activation, inflammation, and neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, K D; Dunn, P F; Owens, J W; Schulick, A H; Virmani, R; Sukhova, G; Libby, P; Dichek, D A

    1995-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are capable of high efficiency in vivo arterial gene transfer, and are currently in use as therapeutic agents in animal models of vascular disease. However, despite substantial data on the ability of viruses to cause vascular inflammation and proliferation, and the presence in current adenovirus vectors of viral open reading frames that are translated in vivo, no study has examined the effect of adenovirus vectors alone on the arterial phenotype. In a rabbit model of gene transfer into a normal artery, we examined potential vascular cell activation, inflammation, and neointimal proliferation resulting from exposure to replication-defective adenovirus. Exposure of normal arteries to adenovirus vectors resulted in: (a) pronounced infiltration of T cells throughout the artery wall; (b) upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in arterial smooth muscle cells; (c) neointimal hyperplasia. These findings were present both 10 and 30 d after gene transfer, with no evidence of a decline in severity over time. Adenovirus vectors have pleiotropic effects on the arterial wall and cause significant pathology. Interpretation of experimental protocols that use adenovirus vectors to address either biological or therapeutic issues should take these observations into account. These observations should also prompt the design of more inert gene transfer vectors. Images PMID:8675667

  15. STAT1 Interaction with E3-14.7K in Monocytes Affects the Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Spurrell, Emma; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Wang, Pengju; Cao, Fengyu; Gao, Dongling; Feng, Baisui; Wold, William; Tollefson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses based on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) have been developed as a new class of therapeutic agents for cancers that are resistant to conventional therapies. Clinical experience shows that these agents are safe, but virotherapy alone has not achieved long-term cure in cancer patients. The vast majority of oncolytic adenoviruses used in clinical trials to date have deletion of the E3B genes. It has been demonstrated that the antitumor potency of the E3B-deleted mutant (dl309) is inferior to adenovirus with E3B genes intact. Tumors treated with dl309 show markedly greater macrophage infiltration than E3B-intact adenovirus. However, the functional mechanisms for this were not previously known. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of E3B genes increases production of chemokines by monocytes after adenovirus infection and increases monocyte migration. The E3B 14,700-Da protein (E3B-14.7K) inhibits STAT1 function by preventing its phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. The STAT1 inhibitor, fludarabine, rescues the effect of E3B-14.7K deletion by downregulating target chemokine expression in human and murine monocytes and results in an enhanced antitumor efficacy with dl309 in vivo. These findings have important implications for clinical use of E3B-deleted oncolytic adenovirus and other E3B-deleted adenovirus vector-based therapy. PMID:24335311

  16. Differential effects of adenovirus-p16 on bladder cancer cell lines can be overcome by the addition of butyrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C T; Seol, J Y; Park, K H; Yoo, C G; Kim, Y W; Ahn, C; Song, Y W; Han, S K; Han, J S; Kim, S; Lee, J S; Shim, Y S

    2001-01-01

    High frequency of p16 alteration and high local recurrence rate of bladder cancer make this cancer an ideal target for p16 gene therapy. However, a low transduction rate of p16 via adenoviral vector causes an inconsistent result. In this study, we have tested adenovirus-p16 in several bladder cancer cell lines and investigated a way of improving the low transduction rate. Adenovirus-p16 showed a strong antitumor effect on bladder cancer cell lines (253J and T24) with strong Coxackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR) expression but little antitumor effect on bladder cancer cell lines (J82 and HT1376) with little CAR expression. In this study, we suggest a simple way of overcoming the differential effects of the adenovirus. The addition of butyrate to media was found to increase the transduction rate of adenovirus remarkably and increase the antitumor effect of adenovirus-p16 in bladder cancer cell lines with little CAR expression. Butyrate effects were related with increased CAR expression on the cell surface as well as increased transgene expression from adenoviral vector. From these observations, application of adenovirus-p16 gene therapy with butyrate can overcome the obstacle of low gene transfer and enhance the antitumor effect of adenovirus-p16 in bladder cancer.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell carriers enhance antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses in an immunocompetent mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Esther; Cejalvo, Teresa; Kanojia, Deepak; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Rodríguez-Milla, Miguel Ángel; Hoyos, Raul Andrés Gil; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lingjiao; Alemany, Ramón; Lesniak, Maciej S.; García-Castro, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown. In this study, we used the syngeneic murine CMT64 cell line as a human adenovirus-semi-permissive tumor model and demonstrate the homing capacity of mouse Celyvir (mCelyvir) to CMT64 tumors. We found that the combined treatment of mCelyvir and intratumoral injections (i.t.) of ICOVIR5 was more effective than treatment with i.t. ICOVIR5 alone. Interestingly, the superior therapeutic effect of the combined therapy was associated with a higher tumor infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Our findings suggest that the use of MSCs as carriers of oncolytic adenovirus can improve the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer virotherapy, not only by driving the adenovirus to tumors, but also through their potential to recruit T cells. PMID:28525366

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell carriers enhance antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses in an immunocompetent mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Esther; Cejalvo, Teresa; Kanojia, Deepak; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Rodríguez-Milla, Miguel Ángel; Gil Hoyos, Raul Andrés; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lingjiao; Alemany, Ramón; Lesniak, Maciej S; García-Castro, Javier

    2017-07-11

    Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown. In this study, we used the syngeneic murine CMT64 cell line as a human adenovirus-semi-permissive tumor model and demonstrate the homing capacity of mouse Celyvir (mCelyvir) to CMT64 tumors. We found that the combined treatment of mCelyvir and intratumoral injections (i.t.) of ICOVIR5 was more effective than treatment with i.t. ICOVIR5 alone. Interestingly, the superior therapeutic effect of the combined therapy was associated with a higher tumor infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Our findings suggest that the use of MSCs as carriers of oncolytic adenovirus can improve the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer virotherapy, not only by driving the adenovirus to tumors, but also through their potential to recruit T cells.

  19. Sensitive analysis of genetic heterogeneity of adenovirus types 3 and 7 in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed Central

    Golovina, G I; Zolotaryov, F N; Yurlova, T I

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of adenovirus strains isolated in the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988 revealed four genome types of adenovirus type 3 (Ad3), i.e., Ad3a4, Ad3a9, Ad3a10, and Ad3a11, and four genome types of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7), i.e., Ad7p, Ad7a, Ad7a(1-5), and Ad7f1, identified with the DNA restriction enzymes BamHI, BglII, and HindIII. Three of them, Ad3a10, Ad3a11, and Ad7f1, are newly discovered. The genetic heterogeneity of adenoviruses was examined with restriction endonuclease Cfr13I with a 4-base recognition cleavage site. Eighteen different restriction patterns were identified among 21 selected Ad3 strains after cleavage of DNA with Cfr13I. Eight different subtypes were identified among 20 Ad7 strains by the same technique. For estimation of the relationships among these genome subtypes, pairwise analyses of comigrating DNA restriction fragments from isolates of Ad3 and Ad7 were done after digestion with Cfr13I or with restriction endonucleases recognizing DNA sequences of 6 bp. Surprisingly, the results were very discrepant. Images PMID:1658038

  20. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

  1. Challenges of Treating Adenovirus Infection: Application of a Deployable Rapid-Assembly Shelter Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bai, Song; Yu, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yong-Zhong; Ding, Hui; Wu, Zhou-Wei; Fan, Bin; Fan, Hao-Jun; Hou, Shi-Ke; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-06

    This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 6).

  2. Replication-competent human adenovirus 11p vectors can propagate in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gokumakulapalle, Madhuri; Mei, Ya-Fang

    2016-08-01

    The use of continuous cell lines derived from the African green monkey kidney (AGMK) has led to major advances in virus vaccine development. However, to date, these cells have not been used to facilitate the creation of human adenoviruses because most human adenoviruses undergo abortive infections in them. Here, we report the susceptibility of AGMK-derived cells to adenovirus 11p (Ad11p) infection. First, we showed that CD46 molecules, which act as receptors for Ad11p, are expressed in AGMK cells. We then monitored Ad11p replication by measuring GFP expression as an indicator of viral transcription. We found that AGMK-derived cells were as capable as carcinoma cells at propagating full-length replication-competent Ad11p (RCAd11p) DNA. Of the AGMK cell lines tested, Vero cells had the greatest capacity for adenovirus production. Thus, AGMK cells can be used to evaluate RCAd11p-mediated gene delivery, and Vero cells can be used for the production of RCAd11pGFP vectors at relatively high yields.

  3. Simultaneous presence of human herpesvirus 6 and adenovirus infections in intestinal intussusception of young children.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Suvi; Ylitalo, Samuli; Arola, Anita; Halkosalo, Anne; Räsänen, Sirpa; Vesikari, Timo

    2012-06-01

    This prospective study investigated the role of viral infections in the pathogenesis of intussusception, including human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), a known lymphotropic virus. Fifty-three children with intussusception treated in hospital were enroled, and children of comparable age and gender served as controls. Blood, stool and throat swab specimens, as well as mesenteric lymph nodes and pieces of intestine from patients requiring surgery were tested for various viruses by PCR methods. Altogether, 85% of intussusception cases showed evidence of a recent or ongoing viral infection. Among the 53 intussusception cases, adenovirus was detected in 25 (47%), HHV-6 in 24 (45%), rhinovirus in 12 (23%), cytomegalovirus in 7 (13%), enterovirus in 4 (8%) and rotavirus in 3 (6%) patients. Of the 50 whole blood samples, 44% were positive for HHV-6 and of the 16 resected mesenteric lymph nodes, 50% were positive for HHV-6. Simultaneous presence of HHV-6 and adenovirus infection correlated significantly with intussusception (OR 12.1, 95% CI 2.2 to 66.5). A statistically significant association was observed between adenovirus and childhood intussusception. HHV-6 was a common finding and occurred concomitantly with other viruses. A simultaneous infection with HHV-6 and adenovirus carried the highest risk for intussusception. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Aggregation and Adsorption Behaviors of Human Adenovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, influence of solution chemistries to the transport properties (aggregation and attachment behavior) of human adenovirus (HAdV) was investigated. Results showed isoelectric point (IEP) of HAdV in different salt conditions varied minimally, and it ranged from pH 3.5 ...

  5. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5–FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad–FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy. PMID:27014840

  6. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera.

    PubMed

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5-FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad-FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy.

  7. Nanoporous Crystals of Chicken Embryo Lethal Orphan (CELO) Adenovirus Major Coat Protein, Hexon

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lan; Benson, Stacy D.; Burnett, Roger M.

    2007-01-01

    CELO (chicken embryo lethal orphan) virus is an avian adenovirus that is being developed as a gene transfer vector. Its trimeric major coat protein (942 residues, 106,709 Da) has 42% sequence identity to human adenovirus type 2 (AdH2) hexon and 45% to AdH5 hexon. For structural studies, the growth of CELO virus has been optimized, and its hexon purified and crystallized. The hexon crystals, the first non-human example, diffract to 3.9 Å resolution. Molecular replacement using the AdH5 model was used to identify the location of the CELO hexon within the unit cell. There is one hexon monomer in the asymmetric unit of the trigonal space group P321 (a = b = 157.8 Å, c = 114.2 Å, γ = 120º) and the solvent content is 67.8%. The hexons pack in a hexagonal honeycomb so that large ~100 Å diameter channels run through the entire crystal. This remarkable property of the crystals lends itself to their exploitation as a nanomaterial. Structural studies on CELO will elucidate the differences between avian and human adenoviruses and contribute to a better understanding of adenoviruses with non-human hosts. PMID:17071105

  8. Detection and serological identification of adeno-associated virus in avian adenovirus stocks.

    PubMed

    El Mishad, A M; McCormick, K J; Yates, V J; Trentin, J J

    1975-02-01

    Eleven avian adenovirus strains were tested for the presence of avian adeno-associated viruses (AAAV). Six strains contained AAAV. Electron microscopy using rabbit anti-AAAV serum was useful in detecting the satellite virus. The AAAV previously isolated from guail bronchitis virus was related to each of the six new isolates by immunoagglutination, complement fixation, immunodiffusion, and neutralization tests.

  9. Detection and serological identification of adeno-associated virus in avian adenovirus stocks.

    PubMed Central

    El Mishad, A M; McCormick, K J; Yates, V J; Trentin, J J

    1975-01-01

    Eleven avian adenovirus strains were tested for the presence of avian adeno-associated viruses (AAAV). Six strains contained AAAV. Electron microscopy using rabbit anti-AAAV serum was useful in detecting the satellite virus. The AAAV previously isolated from guail bronchitis virus was related to each of the six new isolates by immunoagglutination, complement fixation, immunodiffusion, and neutralization tests. Images PMID:803468

  10. Influence of Inorganic Ions on Aggregation and Adsorption Behaviors of Human Adenovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigated the influence of inorganic ions on the aggregation and deposition (adsorption) behavior of human adenovirus (HAdV). Experiments were conducted to determine the surface charge and size of HAdV and viral adsorption capacity of sand in different salt c...

  11. Sequential and Simultaneous Applications of UV and Chlorine for Adenovirus Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rattanakul, Surapong; Oguma, Kumiko; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    Adenoviruses are water-borne human pathogens with high resistance to UV disinfection. Combination of UV treatment and chlorination could be an effective approach to deal with adenoviruses. In this study, human adenovirus 5 (HAdV-5) was challenged in a bench-scale experiment by separate applications of UV or chlorine and by combined applications of UV and chlorine in either a sequential or simultaneous manner. The treated samples were then propagated in human lung carcinoma epithelial cells to quantify the log inactivation of HAdV-5. When the processes were separate, a fluence of 100 mJ/cm(2) and a CT value of 0.02 mg min/L were required to achieve 2 log inactivation of HAdV-5 by UV disinfection and chlorination, respectively. Interestingly, synergistic effects on the HAdV-5 inactivation rates were found in the sequential process of chlorine followed by UV (Cl2-UV) (p < 0.05, ANCOVA) in comparison to the separate processes or the simultaneous application of UV/Cl2. This implies that a pretreatment with chlorine may increase the sensitivity of the virus to the subsequent UV disinfection. In conclusion, this study suggests that the combined application of UV and chlorine could be an effective measure against adenoviruses as a multi-barrier approach in water disinfection.

  12. Inactivation of human adenovirus by sequential disinfection with an alternative ultraviolet technology and monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gwy-Am; Lee, Jung-Keun

    2010-07-01

    In an effort to reduce human exposure to adenoviruses through drinking water, we determined the effectiveness of sequential disinfection with an alternative ultraviolet (UV) technology (medium-pressure (MP) UV) and monochloramine. The results of this study showed that MP UV was much more effective than traditional UV technology (low-pressure (LP) UV) against human adenovirus 2 (Ad2). Specifically, an inactivation of approximately 3 log10 was achieved by a dose of 40 mJ/cm2 of MP UV compared to ~1 log10 by the same dose of LP UV. However, because of the ineffective inactivation of Ad2 by monochloramine, a very high dose (40 mJ/cm2) of MP UV and a very large Ct99 value (approximately 1200 mg/L.min) was still needed to achieve a significant inactivation (e.g., 4 log10) of Ad2. Also, it appears that the inactivation of Ad2 by monochloramine is not enhanced by prior exposure to MP UV. Overall, the results of this study indicated that, in spite of the enhanced effectiveness of alternative UV technologies on human adenoviruses, sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology (MP UV) and monochloramine still may not provide adequate inactivation of human adenoviruses - especially at high pH and low temperature - in drinking water treatment processes.

  13. Relative transport of human adenovirus and MS2 in porous media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) is the most prevalent enteric virus found in the water environment by numerous monitoring studies and MS2 is the most common surrogate used for previous virus transport studies. However, the current knowledge on the transport behavior of HAdV in porous med...

  14. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zorn, G A; Anderson, C W

    1981-01-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. Cells reconstructed from infected human karyoplasts and monkey cytoplasts expressed fiber, whereas cells reconstructed from infected monkey karyoplasts and human cytoplasts did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide. Furthermore, they suggest that the translational apparatus of monkey cells is competent to translate functional fiber mRNA synthesized in human cells. Images PMID:7218436

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 7 in the United States, 1966-2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Med Trop Sao Paulo 1997;39:185-9. GF, et al. Extrapulmonary manifestations of adenovirus type 7 pneumonia 31. Golovina GI, Zolotaryov FN, Yurlova TI...residues. J Virol 1996;70:1836-44. 22. McNeill KM, Ridgely Benton F, Monteith SC, Tuchscherer MA, Gaydos 44. Kajon AE, Murtagh P, Garcia Franco S, Freire

  16. Inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles against adenovirus type 3 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nana; Zheng, Yang; Yin, Jianjian; Li, Xiujing; Zheng, Conglong

    2013-11-01

    Adenoviruses are associated with respiratory, ocular, or gastrointestinal disease. With various species and high morbidity, adenoviruses are increasingly recognized as significant viral pathogen among pediatric and immunocompromised patients. However, there is almost no specific drug for treatment. Silver nanoparticles are demonstrated to be virucidal against influenza A (H1N1) virus, human immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis B virus. Currently, there is no data regarding whether the silver nanoparticles inhibit the adenovirus or not. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles on adenovirus type 3 (Ad3). The results revealed that HeLa cells infected with silver nanoparticles treated Ad3 did not show obvious CPE. The viability of HeLa cells infected with silver nanoparticles treated Ad3 was significantly higher than that of cells infected with untreated Ad3. There was a significant difference of fluorescence intensity between the cells infected with silver nanoparticles treated and untreated Ad3. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that silver nanoparticles could directly damage the structure of Ad3 particle. The PCR amplification products of DNA isolated from silver nanoparticles treated Ad3 was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The decreased DNA loads were also confirmed by real-time PCR experiment. The present study indicates silver nanoparticles exhibit remarkably inhibitory effects on Ad3 in vitro, which suggests silver nanoparticles could be a potential antiviral agent for inhibiting Ad3 infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine1

    PubMed Central

    McCormic, Zachary D.; Gaydos, Joel C.; Hawksworth, Anthony W.; Jordan, Nikki N.

    2017-01-01

    The 1999 cessation of vaccination against adenovirus types 4 and 7 among US Army trainees resulted in reemergence of acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. The 2011 implementation of a replacement vaccine led to dramatic and sustained decreases in ARD cases, supporting continuation of vaccination in this population at high risk for ARD. PMID:27748651

  18. Suicide gene therapy using adenovirus vector for human oral squamous carcinoma cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Hayashi, Yasushi; Kagami, Hideaki; Fukui, Takafumi; Fukuhara, Hirokazu; Tohnai, Iwai; Ueda, Minoru; Mizuno, Masaaki; Yoshida, Jun

    2005-06-01

    Recently, suicide gene therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene followed by ganciclovir (GCV) administration was evaluated for the treatment of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of suicide gene therapy using the replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vector for human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines. To evaluate transduction efficiency, each cell line was transduced in vitro with an adenovirus vector containing the beta-galactosidase gene. By 24 hours after transduction, nearly 100% of the cells were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10, and from 30 to 10% at an MOI of 1. Next, each cell line was transduced with an adenovirus vector containing the HSVtk gene, and a subsequent administration of GCV for the assessment of suicide gene therapy. A subsequent administration of GCV resulted in complete tumor cell death. In addition, we conducted a morphological analysis of that cell death using video-enhanced contrast differential interference contrast microscopy, and we observed that it included both apoptosis and necrosis after HSVtk gene and GCV treatment. These results suggest that adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy induced remarkable cytotoxicity with a bystander effect in human oral squamous cell carcinoma thus suggesting an effective treatment strategy for that tumor.

  19. Valganciclovir Inhibits Human Adenovirus Replication and Pathology in Permissive Immunosuppressed Female and Male Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Karoly; Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E.; Spencer, Jacqueline F.; Balakrishnan, Lata; Sagartz, John E.; Buller, Robert Mark L.; Wold, William S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients can develop into serious and often deadly multi-organ disease. There are no drugs approved for adenovirus infections. Cidofovir (an analog of 2-deoxycytidine monophosphate) is used at times but it can be nephrotoxic and its efficacy has not been proven in clinical trials. Brincidofovir, a promising lipid-linked derivative of cidofovir, is in clinical trials. Ganciclovir, an analog of 2-deoxyguanosine, has been employed occasionally but with unknown efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we evaluated valganciclovir against disseminated adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection in our permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model. We administered valganciclovir prophylactically, beginning 12 h pre-infection or therapeutically starting at Day 1, 2, 3, or 4 post-infection. Valganciclovir significantly increased survival, reduced viral replication in the liver, and mitigated the pathology associated with Ad5 infection. In cultured cells, valganciclovir inhibited Ad5 DNA replication and blocked the transition from early to late stage of infection. Valganciclovir directly inhibited Ad5 DNA polymerase in vitro, which may explain, at least in part, its mechanism of action. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are approved to treat infections by certain herpesviruses. Our results support the use of valganciclovir to treat disseminated adenovirus infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:25807051

  20. Valganciclovir inhibits human adenovirus replication and pathology in permissive immunosuppressed female and male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Toth, Karoly; Ying, Baoling; Tollefson, Ann E; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Balakrishnan, Lata; Sagartz, John E; Buller, Robert Mark L; Wold, William S M

    2015-03-23

    Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients can develop into serious and often deadly multi-organ disease. There are no drugs approved for adenovirus infections. Cidofovir (an analog of 2-deoxycytidine monophosphate) is used at times but it can be nephrotoxic and its efficacy has not been proven in clinical trials. Brincidofovir, a promising lipid-linked derivative of cidofovir, is in clinical trials. Ganciclovir, an analog of 2-deoxyguanosine, has been employed occasionally but with unknown efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we evaluated valganciclovir against disseminated adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection in our permissive immunosuppressed Syrian hamster model. We administered valganciclovir prophylactically, beginning 12 h pre-infection or therapeutically starting at Day 1, 2, 3, or 4 post-infection. Valganciclovir significantly increased survival, reduced viral replication in the liver, and mitigated the pathology associated with Ad5 infection. In cultured cells, valganciclovir inhibited Ad5 DNA replication and blocked the transition from early to late stage of infection. Valganciclovir directly inhibited Ad5 DNA polymerase in vitro, which may explain, at least in part, its mechanism of action. Ganciclovir and valganciclovir are approved to treat infections by certain herpesviruses. Our results support the use of valganciclovir to treat disseminated adenovirus infections in immunosuppressed patients.

  1. (13) C-metabolic flux analysis of human adenovirus infection: Implications for viral vector production.

    PubMed

    Carinhas, Nuno; Koshkin, Alexey; Pais, Daniel A M; Alves, Paula M; Teixeira, Ana P

    2017-01-01

    Adenoviruses are human pathogens increasingly used as gene therapy and vaccination vectors. However, their impact on cell metabolism is poorly characterized. We performed carbon labeling experiments with [1,2-(13) C]glucose or [U-(13) C]glutamine to evaluate metabolic alterations in the amniocyte-derived, E1-transformed 1G3 cell line during production of a human adenovirus type 5 vector (AdV5). Nonstationary (13) C-metabolic flux analysis revealed increased fluxes of glycolysis (17%) and markedly PPP (over fourfold) and cytosolic AcCoA formation (nearly twofold) following infection of growing cells. Interestingly, infection of growth-arrested cells increased overall carbon flow even more, including glutamine anaplerosis and TCA cycle activity (both over 1.5-fold), but was unable to stimulate the PPP and was associated with a steep drop in AdV5 replication (almost 80%). Our results underscore the importance of nucleic and fatty acid biosynthesis for adenovirus replication. Overall, we portray a metabolic blueprint of human adenovirus infection, highlighting similarities with other viruses and cancer, and suggest strategies to improve AdV5 production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 195-207. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Adenovirus detection in Guthrie cards from paediatric leukaemia cases and controls

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, G M; Kang, M; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S; Schiffman, J D; Lorey, F; Buffler, P; Wiemels, J L

    2008-01-01

    Archived neonatal blood cards (Guthrie cards) from children who later contracted leukaemia and matched normal controls were assayed for adenovirus (AdV) C DNA content using two highly sensitive methods. In contrast to a previous report, AdV DNA was not detected at a higher frequency among neonates who later developed leukaemia, when compared with controls. PMID:19002185

  3. Titration of Adenovirus by Counting Cells Containing Virus-Induced Inclusion Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Joseph

    1972-01-01

    A new method for the titration of adenovirus types 2 and 12 based on the enumeration of viral inclusions in infected cells was devised and evaluated. The technique gave virus titers comparable to those obtained by the plaque assay procedure. Images PMID:4113255

  4. Human Adenovirus Type 7 Outbreak in Police Training Center, Malaysia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Tengku Rogayah Tengku Abdul; Thayan, Ravindran; Othman, Khairul Azuan; Abu Hasan, Norhasnida; Adnan, Norfaezah; Saat, Zainah

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, an outbreak of acute respiratory disease was reported at the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) Police Training Centre. Approximately 100 trainees were hospitalized and 5 were admitted to the intensive care unit. Three of these 5 trainees died. Human adenovirus type 7 was identified as the etiologic agent. PMID:22515984

  5. Effect of organic carbon on sorption of human adenovirus to soil particles and laboratory containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key factor controlling the relationship between virus release and human exposure is how virus particles interact with soils, sediments and other solid particles in the environment and in engineered treatment systems. Finding no previous investigations of human adenovirus (HAdV)...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Adenovirus 7 Associated with Fatal Adult Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yatsyshina, Svetlana B; Ageeva, Margarita R; Deviatkin, Andrey A; Pimkina, Ekaterina V; Markelov, Mikhail L; Dedkov, Vladimir G; Safonova, Marina V; Shumilina, Elena Y; Lukashev, Alexander N; Shipulin, German A

    2016-10-27

    Human adenovirus 7 (hAdv7) 19BOVLB/Volgograd/Rus/2014 was isolated from the autopsy material from an adult with fatal pneumonia in Volgograd, Russia, in March 2014. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus isolate was performed.

  7. Biochemical studies on bovine adenovirus type 3. I. Purification and properties.

    PubMed Central

    Niiyama, Y; Igarashi, K; Tsukamoto, K; Kurokawa, T; Sugino, Y

    1975-01-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV3) was purified and its properties were studied. On productive infection of CKT1 cells (a cell line derived from calf kidney) with BAV3, it was observed that viral DNA synthesis was initiated after about 24 h and its rate was maximal after about 40 h. Maturation of the virus occurred several hours after this. Purified BAV3 was separated into four discrete bands by CsCl density gradient centrifugation (complete, incomplete, empty, and degraded viruses). The complete BAV3 was similar in size and structure to human and avian adenoviruses. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the complete BAV3 virion contained at least 10 polypeptides. The total structural proteins of the virion had a similar amino acid composition to those of human adenoviruses. DNA of the complete virus was a linear duplex and its contour length was 12.3 +/- 0.9 mum. The So20,w value of the DNA was 32.9S and its buoyant density in CsCl was 1.717 g/ml. There was about 25% homology between the DNAs of BAV3 and human adenovirus type 5 by filter hybridization. It was also noted that BAV3 produced incomplete virus. The incomplete virus was similar in morphology to the complete virus and contained almost all the structural polypeptides of the latter, but lacked infectivity. However, its DNA had a deletion(s) (13%) which seemed to locate near a terminal. Images PMID:1171993

  8. A double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with improved safety for adenocarcinoma therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Na; Fan, Jun Kai; Gu, Jin Fa; He, Ling Feng; Tang, Wen Hao; Cao, Xin; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-10-16

    Safety and efficiency are equally important to be considered in developing oncolytic adenovirus. Previously, we have reported that ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the deletion of E1B-55K gene, exhibited potent antitumor activity. In this study, to improve the safety of ZD55, we utilized MUC1 promoter to replace the native promoter of E1A on the basis of ZD55, and generated a double-regulated adenovirus, named MUD55. Our data demonstrated that the expression of early and late genes of MUD55 was both reduced in MUC1-negative cells, resulting in its stricter glandular-tumor selective progeny production. The cytopathic effect of MUD55 was about 10-fold lower than mono-regulated adenovirus ZD55 or Ad.MUC1 in normal cells and not obviously attenuated in glandular tumor cells. Moreover, MUD55 showed the least liver toxicity when administrated by intravenous injection in nude mice. These results indicate that MUD55 could be a promising candidate for the treatment of adenocarcinoma.

  9. Effect of organic carbon on sorption of human adenovirus to soil particles and laboratory containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key factor controlling the relationship between virus release and human exposure is how virus particles interact with soils, sediments and other solid particles in the environment and in engineered treatment systems. Finding no previous investigations of human adenovirus (HAdV)...

  10. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

  11. Influence of Inorganic Ions on Aggregation and Adsorption Behaviors of Human Adenovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigated the influence of inorganic ions on the aggregation and deposition (adsorption) behavior of human adenovirus (HAdV). Experiments were conducted to determine the surface charge and size of HAdV and viral adsorption capacity of sand in different salt c...

  12. Relative transport of human adenovirus and MS2 in porous media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) is the most prevalent enteric virus found in the water environment by numerous monitoring studies and MS2 is the most common surrogate used for previous virus transport studies. However, the current knowledge on the transport behavior of HAdV in porous med...

  13. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Aggregation and Adsorption Behaviors of Human Adenovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, influence of solution chemistries to the transport properties (aggregation and attachment behavior) of human adenovirus (HAdV) was investigated. Results showed isoelectric point (IEP) of HAdV in different salt conditions varied minimally, and it ranged from pH 3.5 ...

  14. Crystallographic Structure of Porcine Adenovirus Type 4 Fiber Head and Galectin Domains▿

    PubMed Central

    Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Muñoz, Eva M.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Fox, Gavin C.; Kahn, Richard; Curiel, David T.; Glasgow, Joel N.; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus isolate NADC-1, a strain of porcine adenovirus type 4, has a fiber containing an N-terminal virus attachment region, shaft and head domains, and a C-terminal galectin domain connected to the head by an RGD-containing sequence. The crystal structure of the head domain is similar to previously solved adenovirus fiber head domains, but specific residues for binding the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), CD46, or sialic acid are not conserved. The structure of the galectin domain reveals an interaction interface between its two carbohydrate recognition domains, locating both sugar binding sites face to face. Sequence evidence suggests other tandem-repeat galectins have the same arrangement. We show that the galectin domain binds carbohydrates containing lactose and N-acetyl-lactosamine units, and we present structures of the galectin domain with lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, 3-aminopropyl-lacto-N-neotetraose, and 2-aminoethyl-tri(N-acetyl-lactosamine), confirming the domain as a bona fide galectin domain. PMID:20686025

  15. Transformation of Hamster Embryo Cells and Tumor Induction in Newborn Hamsters by Simian Adenovirus SV11

    PubMed Central

    Casto, Bruce C.

    1969-01-01

    Simian adenovirus, SV11, readily transformed hamster embryo cell cultures in vitro and produced tumors in vivo when inoculated into newborn hamsters. Foci consisting of small, loosely attached, rounded cells could be seen as early as 7 days postinoculation. Many of these cells contained several nuclei or the nucleus was multilobed. The cells grew without extensive cell to cell contact or formed small chains or clusters when passaged in vitro. This pattern of cell morphology and growth has not been reported with other simian or human adenovirus-transformed cells. Linearity of foci formation with virus dilution was observed when the virus multiplicity was less than 3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/cell. The PFU to focus-forming units ratio for SV11 was found to be 2 × 104 to 4 × 104, which is approximately 5- to 10-fold and 50- to 100-fold lower than those reported for simian adenovirus, SA7, and human adenovirus type 12, respectively. Cells transformed by SV11: (i) produced tumors when inoculated into young hamsters, (ii) contained tumor antigen which reacts with serum obtained from hamsters bearing SV11 passaged tumors, and (iii) could be propagated in vitro through an indefinite number of generations. Images PMID:5786181

  16. Molecular Detection of Circovirus and Adenovirus in Feces of Fur Seals (Arctocephalus spp.).

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Catarina Marcon; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Amorim, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2017-03-01

    In some regions, little is known about exposure to viruses in coastal marine mammals. The present study aimed to detect viral RNA or DNA in 23 free-ranging fur seals on the northern coastline of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect nucleic acids of circoviruses, adenoviruses, morbilliviruses, vesiviruses, and coronaviruses in the feces from twenty-one South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) and two Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Adenovirus DNA fragments were detected in two South American fur seals; nucleotide sequences of these fragments revealed a high degree of similarity to human adenovirus type C. Circovirus DNA fragments were detected in six animals of the same species. Two were phylogenetically similar to the Circovirus genus, whereas the other four nucleotide fragments showed no similarity to any of the known genera within the family Circoviridae. RNA fragments indicating the presence of coronavirus, vesivirus, and morbillivirus were not detected. These findings suggest that adenoviruses and circoviruses are circulating in fur seal populations found along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  17. Establishment of higher passage PER.C6 cells for adenovirus manufacture.

    PubMed

    Berdichevsky, Marina; Gentile, Marie-Pierre; Hughes, Benjamin; Meis, Peter; Peltier, Joseph; Blumentals, Ilse; Auniņs, John; Altaras, Nedim Emil

    2008-01-01

    PER.C6 cells, an industrially relevant cell line for adenovirus manufacture, were extensively passaged in serum-free suspension cell culture to better adapt them to process conditions. The changes in cell physiology that occurred during this passaging were characterized by investigating cell growth, cell size, metabolism, and cultivation of replication-deficient adenovirus. The changes in cell physiology occurred gradually as the population doubling level, the number of times the cell population had doubled, increased. Higher passage PER.C6 (HP PER.C6) proliferated at a specific growth rate of 0.043 h(-1), 2-fold faster than lower passage PER.C6, and were capable of proliferation from lower inoculation cell densities. HP PER.C6 cell volume was 16% greater, and cellular yields on glucose, lactate, oxygen, and amino acids were greater as well. In batch cultures, HP PER.C6 cells volumetrically produced 3-fold more adenovirus, confirmed with three different constructs. The increase in productivity was also seen on a cell-specific basis. Although HP PER.C6 were more sensitive to the "cell density effect", requiring lower infection cell densities for optimal specific productivity, they proliferated more after infection than lower passage PER.C6, increasing the number of cells available for virus production. The extensive passaging established HP PER.C6 cells with several desirable attributes for adenovirus manufacture.

  18. Analysis of the adenovirus type 5 terminal protein precursor and DNA polymerase by linker insertion mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Roovers, D J; van der Lee, F M; van der Wees, J; Sussenbach, J S

    1993-01-01

    A series of adenovirus type 5 precursor terminal protein (pTP) and DNA polymerase (Ad pol) genes with linker insertion mutations were separately introduced into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a late vaccinia virus promoter. The recombinant viruses were used for overexpression of the mutant genes in HeLa cells. In total, 22 different mutant pTP and 10 different Ad pol vaccinia virus recombinants were constructed, including some that expressed carboxyl-terminus-truncated forms of both proteins and one that produced the mutant H5ts149 Ad pol. To investigate the structure-function relationships of both proteins, extracts from cells infected with the recombinant viruses were tested for in vitro complementation of the initiation and elongation steps in adenovirus DNA replication. The results were in accordance with those of earlier in vivo experiments with these insertion mutants and indicate that multiple regions of both proteins are essential for adenovirus DNA replication. The carboxyl termini of both pTP and Ad pol were shown to be essential for proper functioning of these proteins during initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. Three different DNA replication-negative pTP mutants were shown to have residual activity in the initiation assay, suggesting not only that pTP is required for initiation but also that it may play a role in DNA replication after the deoxycytidylation step. Images PMID:8416372

  19. The downstream regulatory sequence of the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter is functionally redundant.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X C; Huang, W L; Flint, S J

    1992-01-01

    Mutagenesis of promoter sequences and oligonucleotide competition assays have been used to demonstrate the late-phase-specific stimulation of the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter is mediated by functionally redundant elements located between positions +75 and +125. These octamer motif-related sequences are recognized by multiple factors. Images PMID:1501301

  20. Pulmonary vasculature directed adenovirus increases epithelial lining fluid alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.

    PubMed

    Buggio, Maurizio; Towe, Christopher; Annan, Anand; Kaliberov, Sergey; Lu, Zhi Hong; Stephens, Calvin; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Curiel, David T

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy for inherited serum deficiency disorders has previously been limited by the balance between obtaining adequate expression and causing hepatic toxicity. Our group has previously described modifications of a replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 that increase pulmonary vasculature transgene expression. In the present study, we use a modified pulmonary targeted adenovirus to express human alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in C57BL/6 J mice. Using the targeted adenovirus, we were able to achieve similar increases in serum A1AT levels with less liver viral uptake. We also increased pulmonary epithelial lining fluid A1AT levels by more than an order of magnitude compared to that of untargeted adenovirus expressing A1AT in a mouse model. These gains are achieved along with evidence of decreased systemic inflammation and no evidence for increased inflammation within the vector-targeted end organ. In addition to comprising a step towards clinically viable gene therapy for A1AT, maximization of protein production at the site of action represents a significant technical advancement in the field of systemically delivered pulmonary targeted gene therapy. It also provides an alternative to the previous limitations of hepatic viral transduction and associated toxicities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  2. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  3. A Monovalent Chimpanzee Adenovirus Ebola Vaccine Boosted with MVA.

    PubMed

    Ewer, Katie; Rampling, Tommy; Venkatraman, Navin; Bowyer, Georgina; Wright, Danny; Lambe, Teresa; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Payne, Ruth; Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Strecker, Thomas; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Krähling, Verena; Tully, Claire M; Edwards, Nick J; Bentley, Emma M; Samuel, Dhanraj; Labbé, Geneviève; Jin, Jing; Gibani, Malick; Minhinnick, Alice; Wilkie, Morven; Poulton, Ian; Lella, Natalie; Roberts, Rachel; Hartnell, Felicity; Bliss, Carly; Sierra-Davidson, Kailan; Powlson, Jonathan; Berrie, Eleanor; Tedder, Richard; Roman, Francois; De Ryck, Iris; Nicosia, Alfredo; Sullivan, Nancy J; Stanley, Daphne A; Mbaya, Olivier T; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Schwartz, Richard M; Siani, Loredana; Colloca, Stefano; Folgori, Antonella; Di Marco, Stefania; Cortese, Riccardo; Wright, Edward; Becker, Stephan; Graham, Barney S; Koup, Richard A; Levine, Myron M; Volkmann, Ariane; Chaplin, Paul; Pollard, Andrew J; Draper, Simon J; Ballou, W Ripley; Lawrie, Alison; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian V S

    2016-04-28

    The West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease that peaked in 2014 has caused more than 11,000 deaths. The development of an effective Ebola vaccine is a priority for control of a future outbreak. In this phase 1 study, we administered a single dose of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 (ChAd3) vaccine encoding the surface glycoprotein of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) to 60 healthy adult volunteers in Oxford, United Kingdom. The vaccine was administered in three dose levels--1×10(10) viral particles, 2.5×10(10) viral particles, and 5×10(10) viral particles--with 20 participants in each group. We then assessed the effect of adding a booster dose of a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) strain, encoding the same Ebola virus glycoprotein, in 30 of the 60 participants and evaluated a reduced prime-boost interval in another 16 participants. We also compared antibody responses to inactivated whole Ebola virus virions and neutralizing antibody activity with those observed in phase 1 studies of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing a ZEBOV glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV) to determine relative potency and assess durability. No safety concerns were identified at any of the dose levels studied. Four weeks after immunization with the ChAd3 vaccine, ZEBOV-specific antibody responses were similar to those induced by rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination, with a geometric mean titer of 752 and 921, respectively. ZEBOV neutralization activity was also similar with the two vaccines (geometric mean titer, 14.9 and 22.2, respectively). Boosting with the MVA vector increased virus-specific antibodies by a factor of 12 (geometric mean titer, 9007) and increased glycoprotein-specific CD8+ T cells by a factor of 5. Significant increases in neutralizing antibodies were seen after boosting in all 30 participants (geometric mean titer, 139; P<0.001). Virus-specific antibody responses in participants primed with ChAd3 remained positive 6 months after vaccination (geometric mean titer, 758) but

  4. Identification of multiple genetic loci that regulate adenovirus gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H-G; Hsu, H-C; Yang, P-A; Yang, X; Wu, Q; Liu, Z; Yi, N; Mountz, J D

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the immune response to adenovirus (Ad) gene therapy is the generation of a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response. To better understand the genetic network underlying these events, 20 strains of C57BL/6 x DBA/2 (BXD) recombinant inbred (RI) mice were administered with AdLacZ and analyzed at days 7, 21, 30, and 50 for liver beta-galactosidase (LacZ) expression and CTL response. Sera levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were analyzed at different times after AdLacZ. There was a distinct strain-dependent expression of LacZ, which was strongly correlated with the CTL response. Among the five BXD RI strains that exhibited significantly prolonged LacZ expression, four also exhibited a marked defect in the production of Ad-specific CTL. There was a strong correlation between the sera levels of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6, but cytokine responses were not significantly correlated with LacZ expression or the CTL response. Quantitative trait loci regulating LacZ on day 30 were found on chromosome (Chr) 19 (33 cM) and Chr 15 (42.8 cM). Cytotoxicity mapped to Chr 7 (41.0 and 57.4-65.2 cM), Chr 15 (61.7 cM), and Chr X (27.8 cM). IFN-gamma production mapped to Chr 18 (22, 27, and 32 cM) and Chr 11 (64.0 cM). TNF-alpha and IL-6 production mapped to Chr 6 (91.5 cM) Chr 9 (42.0 cM) and Chr 8 (52 and 73.0 cM). These results indicate that different strains of mice exhibit different pathways for effective clearance of AdLacZ depending on genetic polymorphisms and interactions at multiple genetic loci.

  5. Inactivation of Enteric Adenovirus and Feline Calicivirus by Chlorine Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Thurston-Enriquez, Jeanette A.; Haas, Charles N.; Jacangelo, Joseph; Gerba, Charles P.

    2005-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) inactivation experiments were conducted with adenovirus type 40 (AD40) and feline calicivirus (FCV). Experiments were carried out in buffered, disinfectant demand-free water under high- and low-pH and -temperature conditions. Ct values (the concentration of ClO2 multiplied by contact time with the virus) were calculated directly from bench-scale experiments and from application of the efficiency factor Hom (EFH) model. AD40 Ct ranges for 4-log inactivation (Ct99.99%) at 5°C were >0.77 to <1.53 mg/liter × min and >0.80 to <1.59 mg/liter × min for pH 6 and 8, respectively. For 15°C AD40 experiments, >0.49 to <0.74 mg/liter × min and <0.12 mg/liter × min Ct99.99% ranges were observed for pH 6 and 8, respectively. FCV Ct99.99% ranges for 5°C experiments were >20.20 to <30.30 mg/liter × min and >0.68 mg/liter × min for pH 6 and 8, respectively. For 15°C FCV experiments, Ct99.99% ranges were >4.20 to <6.72 and <0.18 mg/liter × min for pH 6 and 8, respectively. Viral inactivation was higher at pH 8 than at pH 6 and at 15°C than at 5°C. Comparison of Ct values and inactivation curves demonstrated that the EFH model described bench-scale experiment data very well. Observed bench-scale Ct99.99% ranges and EFH model Ct99.99% values demonstrated that FCV is more resistant to ClO2 than AD40 for the conditions studied. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance manual Ct99.99% values are higher than Ct99.99% values calculated from bench-scale experiments and from EFH model application. PMID:15933007

  6. Chlorine Inactivation of Adenovirus Type 40 and Feline Calicivirus

    PubMed Central

    Thurston-Enriquez, Jeanette A.; Haas, Charles N.; Jacangelo, Joseph; Gerba, Charles P.

    2003-01-01

    Ct values, the concentration of free chlorine multiplied by time of contact with virus, were determined for free-chlorine inactivation experiments carried out with chloroform-extracted (dispersed) and non-chloroform-extracted (aggregated) feline calicivirus (FCV), adenovirus type 40 (AD40), and polio virus type 1 (PV-1). Experiments were carried out with high and low pH and temperature conditions. Ct values were calculated directly from bench-scale free-chlorine inactivation experiments and from application of the efficiency factor Hom model. For each experimental condition, Ct values were higher at pH 8 than at pH 6, higher at 5°C than at 15°C, and higher for dispersed AD40 (dAD40) than for dispersed FCV (dFCV). dFCV and dAD40 were more sensitive to free chlorine than dispersed PV-1 (dPV-1). Cts for 2 log inactivation of aggregated FCV (aFCV) and aggregated PV-1 (aPV-1) were 31.0 and 2.8 orders of magnitude higher than those calculated from experiments carried out with dispersed virus. Cts for 2 log inactivation of dFCV and dAD40 in treated groundwater at 15°C were 1.2 and 13.7 times greater than in buffered-demand-free (BDF) water experiments at 5°C. Ct values listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance Manual were close to, or lower than, Ct values generated for experiments conducted with dispersed and aggregated viruses suspended in BDF water and for dispersed viruses suspended in treated groundwater. Since the state of viruses in water is most likely to be aggregated and associated with organic or inorganic matter, reevaluation of the EPA Guidance Manual Ct values is necessary, since they would not be useful for ensuring inactivation of viruses in these states. Under the tested conditions, dAD40, dFCV, aFCV, dPV-1, and aPV-1 particles would be inactivated by commonly used free chlorine concentrations (1 mg/liter) and contact times (60 to 237 min) applied for drinking water treatment in the United States. PMID:12839771

  7. Replicating Single-Cycle Adenovirus Vectors Generate Amplified Influenza Vaccine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Catherine M.; Matchett, William E.; Anguiano-Zarate, Stephanie S.; Parks, Christopher A.; Weaver, Eric A.; Pease, Larry R.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Head-to-head comparisons of conventional influenza vaccines with adenovirus (Ad) gene-based vaccines demonstrated that these viral vectors can mediate more potent protection against influenza virus infection in animal models. In most cases, Ad vaccines are engineered to be replication-defective (RD-Ad) vectors. In contrast, replication-competent Ad (RC-Ad) vaccines are markedly more potent but risk causing adenovirus diseases in vaccine recipients and health care workers. To harness antigen gene replication but avoid production of infectious virions, we developed “single-cycle” adenovirus (SC-Ad) vectors. Previous work demonstrated that SC-Ads amplify transgene expression 100-fold and produce markedly stronger and more persistent immune responses than RD-Ad vectors in Syrian hamsters and rhesus macaques. To test them as potential vaccines, we engineered RD and SC versions of adenovirus serotype 6 (Ad6) to express the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. We show here that it takes approximately 33 times less SC-Ad6 than RD-Ad6 to produce equal amounts of HA antigen in vitro. SC-Ad produced markedly higher HA binding and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers than RD-Ad in Syrian hamsters. SC-Ad-vaccinated cotton rats had markedly lower influenza titers than RD-Ad-vaccinated animals after challenge with influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. These data suggest that SC-Ads may be more potent vaccine platforms than conventional RD-Ad vectors and may have utility as “needle-free” mucosal vaccines. IMPORTANCE Most adenovirus vaccines that are being tested are replication-defective adenoviruses (RD-Ads). This work describes testing newer single-cycle adenovirus (SC-Ad) vectors that replicate transgenes to amplify protein production and immune responses. We show that SC-Ads generate markedly more influenza virus hemagglutinin protein and require substantially less vector to generate the same immune responses as RD-Ad vectors. SC-Ads therefore hold

  8. Adenovirus-vectored novel African Swine Fever Virus antigens elicit robust immune responses in swine.

    PubMed

    Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Waghela, Suryakant D; Bray, Jocelyn; Sangewar, Neha; Charendoff, Chloe; Martin, Cameron L; Hassan, Wisam S; Koynarski, Tsvetoslav; Gabbert, Lindsay; Burrage, Thomas G; Brake, David; Neilan, John; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2017-01-01

    African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a high-consequence transboundary animal pathogen that often causes hemorrhagic disease in swine with a case fatality rate close to 100%. Lack of treatment or vaccine for the disease makes it imperative that safe and efficacious vaccines are developed to safeguard the swine industry. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of seven adenovirus-vectored novel ASFV antigens, namely A151R, B119L, B602L, EP402RΔPRR, B438L, K205R and A104R. Immunization of commercial swine with a cocktail of the recombinant adenoviruses formulated in adjuvant primed strong ASFV antigen-specific IgG responses that underwent rapid recall upon boost. Notably, most vaccinees mounted robust IgG responses against all the antigens in the cocktail. Most importantly and relevant to vaccine development, the induced antibodies recognized viral proteins from Georgia 2007/1 ASFV-infected cells by IFA and by western blot analysis. The recombinant adenovirus cocktail also induced ASFV-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells that were recalled upon boosting. Evaluation of local and systemic effects of the recombinant adenovirus cocktail post-priming and post-boosting in the immunized animals showed that the immunogen was well tolerated and no serious negative effects were observed. Taken together, these outcomes showed that the adenovirus-vectored novel ASFV antigen cocktail was capable of safely inducing strong antibody and IFN-γ+ cell responses in commercial swine. The data will be used for selection of antigens for inclusion in a multi-antigen prototype vaccine to be evaluated for protective efficacy.

  9. Mechanistic Aspects of Adenovirus Serotype 2 Inactivation with Free Chlorine ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Page, Martin A.; Shisler, Joanna L.; Mariñas, Benito J.

    2010-01-01

    Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for controlling adenoviruses in drinking water, but little is known about the underlying inactivation mechanisms. The objective of this study was to elucidate the molecular components of adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) targeted by free chlorine during the inactivation process. The effects of free chlorine treatment on several Ad2 molecular components and associated life cycle events were compared to its effect on the ability of adenovirus to complete its life cycle, i.e., viability. Free chlorine treatment of Ad2 virions did not impair their ability to interact with monoclonal antibodies specific for hexon and fiber proteins of the Ad2 capsid, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, nor did it impair their interaction with recombinant, purified Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) proteins in vitro. Free chlorine-treated Ad2 virions also retained their ability to bind to CAR receptors on A549 cell monolayers, despite being unable to form plaques, suggesting that free chlorine inactivates Ad2 by inhibiting a postbinding event of the Ad2 life cycle. DNA isolated from Ad2 virions that had been inactivated by free chlorine was able to be amplified by PCR, indicating that genome damage was not the cause of inactivation. However, inactivated Ad2 virions were unable to express E1A viral proteins during infection of A549 host cells, as measured by using immunoblotting. Collectively, these results indicate that free chlorine inactivates adenovirus by damaging proteins that govern life cycle processes occurring after host cell attachment, such as endocytosis, endosomal lysis, or nuclear delivery. PMID:20305026

  10. p53/E1b58kDa complex regulates adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, P J; Hall, A R; Myers, C J; Braithwaite, A W

    1997-10-27

    We have explored a role for the adenovirus (Ad5) E1b58kDa/p53 protein complex in adenovirus replication. This was done by using virus mutants containing different defects in the E1b58kDa gene and cell lines that express either a wild-type p53 protein or a mutant p53 protein. We find that infection of wild-type p53-containing cells with wild-type Ad5 causes a shutoff of p53 and alpha-actin protein synthesis by distinct mechanisms, but neither occurs in mutant p53 cells. Our data also indicate that the shutoff is dependent on formation of the p53/E1b complex and may also involve another virus protein, E4ORF6. Following from these observations we asked whether failure to form the complex resulted in impaired adenovirus replication. Our experiments showed that neither wild-type Ad5 nor the E1b mutant dl338 could replicate in cells expressing a mutant p53 protein, but that wild-type adenovirus replicated well in wild-type p53-expressing cells. Collectively, our data suggest that the interaction between p53 and the E1b58kDa protein is necessary for efficient adenovirus replication. This is the first time such a direct link between the complex and virus replication has been demonstrated. These data raise serious questions about the usefulness of E1b-defective viruses in tumor therapy.

  11. Partial characterization of a new adenovirus lineage discovered in testudinoid turtles.

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, Andor; Wellehan, James F X; Childress, April L; Tarján, Zoltán L; Kovács, Endre R; Harrach, Balázs; Benkő, Mária

    2013-07-01

    In the USA and in Hungary, almost simultaneously, adenoviruses of a putative novel lineage were detected by PCR and sequencing in turtles belonging to four different species (including two subspecies) of the superfamily Testudinoidea. In the USA, partial sequence of the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA polymerase was obtained from samples of a captive pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri), four eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) and two red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). In Hungary, several individuals of the latter subspecies as well as some yellow-bellied sliders (T. scripta scripta) were found to harbor identical, or closely related, putative new adenoviruses. From numerous attempts to amplify any other genomic fragment by PCR, only a nested method was successful, in which a 476-bp fragment of the hexon gene could be obtained from several samples. In phylogeny reconstructions, based on either DNA polymerase or hexon partial sequences, the putative new adenoviruses formed a clade distinct from the five accepted genera of the family Adenoviridae. Three viral sub-clades corresponding to the three host genera (Malacochersus, Terrapene, Trachemys) were observed. Attempts to isolate the new adenoviruses on turtle heart (TH-1) cells were unsuccessful. Targeted PCR screening of live and dead specimens revealed a prevalence of approximately 25% in small shelter colonies of red-eared and yellow-bellied sliders in Hungary. The potential pathology of these viruses needs further investigation; clinically healthy sliders were found to shed the viral DNA in detectable amounts. Based on the phylogenetic distance, the new adenovirus lineage seems to merit the rank of a novel genus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Cross-Species Infection of Common Marmosets by Titi Monkey Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eunice C.; Liu, Maria; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Lanford, Robert E.; Kelly, Kristi R.; Bales, Karen L.; Schnurr, David P.; Canfield, Don R.; Patterson, Jean L.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV), as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses. PMID:23894316

  13. Diagnosis of eight groups of xeroderma pigmentosum by genetic complementation using recombinant adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshiharu; Okura, Masae; Ishii-Osai, Yasue; Hida, Tokimasa

    2016-10-01

    Because patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) must avoid ultraviolet (UV) light from an early age, an early diagnosis of this disorder is essential. XP is composed of seven genetic complementation groups, XP-A to -G, and a variant type (XP-V). To establish an easy and accurate diagnosis of the eight disease groups, we constructed recombinant adenoviruses that expressed one of the XP cDNA. When fibroblasts derived from patients with XP-A, -B, -C, -D, -F or -G were infected with the adenovirus expressing XPA, XPB, XPC, XPD, XPF or XPG, respectively, and UV-C at 5-20 J/m(2) was irradiated, cell viability was clearly recovered by the corresponding recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, XP-E and XP-V cells were not significantly sensitive to UV irradiation and were barely complemented by the matched recombinant adenoviruses. However, co-infection of Ad-XPA with Ad-XPE increased survival rate of XP-E cells after UV-C exposure. When XP-V cell strains, including one derived from a Japanese patient, were infected with Ad-XPV, exposed to UV-B and cultured with 1 mmol/L of caffeine, flow cytometry detected a characteristic decrease in the S phase in all the XP-V cell strains. From these results, the eight groups of XP could be differentiated by utilizing a set of recombinant adenoviruses, indicating that our procedure provides a convenient and correct diagnostic method for all the XP groups including XP-E and XP-V. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Use of macrophages to target therapeutic adenovirus to human prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Muthana, Munitta; Giannoudis, Athina; Scott, Simon D; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Coffelt, Seth B; Morrow, Fiona J; Murdoch, Craig; Burton, Julian; Cross, Neil; Burke, Bernard; Mistry, Roshna; Hamdy, Freddie; Brown, Nicola J; Georgopoulos, Lindsay; Hoskin, Peter; Essand, Magnus; Lewis, Claire E; Maitland, Norman J

    2011-03-01

    New therapies are required to target hypoxic areas of tumors as these sites are highly resistant to conventional cancer therapies. Monocytes continuously extravasate from the bloodstream into tumors where they differentiate into macrophages and accumulate in hypoxic areas, thereby opening up the possibility of using these cells as vehicles to deliver gene therapy to these otherwise inaccessible sites. We describe a new cell-based method that selectively targets an oncolytic adenovirus to hypoxic areas of prostate tumors. In this approach, macrophages were cotransduced with a hypoxia-regulated E1A/B construct and an E1A-dependent oncolytic adenovirus, whose proliferation is restricted to prostate tumor cells using prostate-specific promoter elements from the TARP, PSA, and PMSA genes. When such cotransduced cells reach an area of extreme hypoxia, the E1A/B proteins are expressed, thereby activating replication of the adenovirus. The virus is subsequently released by the host macrophage and infects neighboring tumor cells. Following systemic injection into mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic prostate tumors, cotransduced macrophages migrated into hypoxic tumor areas, upregulated E1A protein, and released multiple copies of adenovirus. The virus then infected neighboring cells but only proliferated and was cytotoxic in prostate tumor cells, resulting in the marked inhibition of tumor growth and reduction of pulmonary metastases. This novel delivery system employs 3 levels of tumor specificity: the natural "homing" of macrophages to hypoxic tumor areas, hypoxia-induced proliferation of the therapeutic adenovirus in host macrophages, and targeted replication of oncolytic virus in prostate tumor cells.

  15. Adenovirus-vectored novel African Swine Fever Virus antigens elicit robust immune responses in swine

    PubMed Central

    Waghela, Suryakant D.; Bray, Jocelyn; Sangewar, Neha; Charendoff, Chloe; Martin, Cameron L.; Hassan, Wisam S.; Koynarski, Tsvetoslav; Gabbert, Lindsay; Burrage, Thomas G.; Brake, David; Neilan, John; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2017-01-01

    African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a high-consequence transboundary animal pathogen that often causes hemorrhagic disease in swine with a case fatality rate close to 100%. Lack of treatment or vaccine for the disease makes it imperative that safe and efficacious vaccines are developed to safeguard the swine industry. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of seven adenovirus-vectored novel ASFV antigens, namely A151R, B119L, B602L, EP402RΔPRR, B438L, K205R and A104R. Immunization of commercial swine with a cocktail of the recombinant adenoviruses formulated in adjuvant primed strong ASFV antigen-specific IgG responses that underwent rapid recall upon boost. Notably, most vaccinees mounted robust IgG responses against all the antigens in the cocktail. Most importantly and relevant to vaccine development, the induced antibodies recognized viral proteins from Georgia 2007/1 ASFV-infected cells by IFA and by western blot analysis. The recombinant adenovirus cocktail also induced ASFV-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells that were recalled upon boosting. Evaluation of local and systemic effects of the recombinant adenovirus cocktail post-priming and post-boosting in the immunized animals showed that the immunogen was well tolerated and no serious negative effects were observed. Taken together, these outcomes showed that the adenovirus-vectored novel ASFV antigen cocktail was capable of safely inducing strong antibody and IFN-γ+ cell responses in commercial swine. The data will be used for selection of antigens for inclusion in a multi-antigen prototype vaccine to be evaluated for protective efficacy. PMID:28481911

  16. The Amphipathic Helix of Adenovirus Capsid Protein VI Contributes to Penton Release and Postentry Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ruben; Schellenberger, Pascale; Vasishtan, Daven; Aknin, Cindy; Austin, Sisley; Dacheux, Denis; Rayne, Fabienne; Siebert, Alistair; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Gruenewald, Kay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear delivery of the adenoviral genome requires that the capsid cross the limiting membrane of the endocytic compartment and traverse the cytosol to reach the nucleus. This endosomal escape is initiated upon internalization and involves a highly coordinated process of partial disassembly of the entering capsid to release the membrane lytic internal capsid protein VI. Using wild-type and protein VI-mutated human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5), we show that capsid stability and membrane rupture are major determinants of entry-related sorting of incoming adenovirus virions. Furthermore, by using electron cryomicroscopy, as well as penton- and protein VI-specific antibodies, we show that the amphipathic helix of protein VI contributes to capsid stability by preventing premature disassembly and deployment of pentons and protein VI. Thus, the helix has a dual function in maintaining the metastable state of the capsid by preventing premature disassembly and mediating efficient membrane lysis to evade lysosomal targeting. Based on these findings and structural data from cryo-electron microscopy, we suggest a refined disassembly mechanism upon entry. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show the intricate connection of adenovirus particle stability and the entry-dependent release of the membrane-lytic capsid protein VI required for endosomal escape. We show that the amphipathic helix of the adenovirus internal protein VI is required to stabilize pentons in the particle while coinciding with penton release upon entry and that release of protein VI mediates membrane lysis, thereby preventing lysosomal sorting. We suggest that this dual functionality of protein VI ensures an optimal disassembly process by balancing the metastable state of the mature adenovirus particle. PMID:25473051

  17. The Revolution in Viral Genomics as Exemplified by the Bioinformatic Analysis of Human Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sarah; Chodosh, James; Seto, Donald; Jones, Morris S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, genomic and bioinformatic analysis of human adenoviruses has been achieved using a variety of DNA sequencing methods; initially with the use of restriction enzymes and more currently with the use of the GS FLX pyrosequencing technology. Following the conception of DNA sequencing in the 1970s, analysis of adenoviruses has evolved from 100 base pair mRNA fragments to entire genomes. Comparative genomics of adenoviruses made its debut in 1984 when nucleotides and amino acids of coding sequences within the hexon genes of two human adenoviruses (HAdV), HAdV–C2 and HAdV–C5, were compared and analyzed. It was determined that there were three different zones (1–393, 394–1410, 1411–2910) within the hexon gene, of which HAdV–C2 and HAdV–C5 shared zones 1 and 3 with 95% and 89.5% nucleotide identity, respectively. In 1992, HAdV-C5 became the first adenovirus genome to be fully sequenced using the Sanger method. Over the next seven years, whole genome analysis and characterization was completed using bioinformatic tools such as blastn, tblastx, ClustalV and FASTA, in order to determine key proteins in species HAdV-A through HAdV-F. The bioinformatic revolution was initiated with the introduction of a novel species, HAdV-G, that was typed and named by the use of whole genome sequencing and phylogenetics as opposed to traditional serology. HAdV bioinformatics will continue to advance as the latest sequencing technology enables scientists to add to and expand the resource databases. As a result of these advancements, how novel HAdVs are typed has changed. Bioinformatic analysis has become the revolutionary tool that has significantly accelerated the in-depth study of HAdV microevolution through comparative genomics. PMID:21994684

  18. A genetic fiber modification to achieve matrix-metalloprotease-activated infectivity of oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    José, Anabel; Rovira-Rigau, Maria; Luna, Jeroni; Giménez-Alejandre, Marta; Vaquero, Eva; García de la Torre, Beatriz; Andreu, David; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2014-10-28

    Selective tumor targeting of oncolytic adenovirus at the level of cell entry remains a major challenge to improve efficacy and safety. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are overexpressed in a variety of tumors and in particular in pancreatic cancer. In the current work, we have exploited the expression of MMPs together with the penetration capabilities of a TAT-like peptide to engineer tumor selective adenoviruses. We have generated adenoviruses containing CAR-binding ablated fibers further modified with a C-terminus TAT-like peptide linked to a blocking domain by an MMP-cleavable sequence. This linker resulted in a MMP-dependent cell transduction of the reporter MMP-activatable virus AdTATMMP and in efficient transduction of neoplastic cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts. Intravenous and intraductal administration of AdTATMMP into mice showed very low AdTATMMP activity in the normal pancreas, whereas increased transduction was observed in pancreatic tumors of transgenic Ela-myc mice. Intraductal administration of AdTATMMP into mice bearing orthotopic tumors led to a 25-fold increase in tumor targeting compared to the wild type fiber control. A replication competent adenovirus, Ad(RC)MMP, with the MMP-activatable fiber showed oncolytic efficacy and increased antitumor activity compared to Adwt in a pancreatic orthotopic model. Reduced local and distant metastases were observed in Ad(RC)MMP treated-mice. Moreover, no signs of pancreatic toxicity were detected. We conclude that MMP-activatable adenovirus may be beneficial for pancreatic cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Requirements for Receptor Engagement during Infection by Adenovirus Complexed with Blood Coagulation Factor X

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Angela C.; Parker, Alan L.; Duffy, Margaret R.; Coughlan, Lynda; van Rooijen, Nico; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Nicklin, Stuart A.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Human adenoviruses from multiple species bind to coagulation factor X (FX), yet the importance of this interaction in adenovirus dissemination is unknown. Upon contact with blood, vectors based on adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) binds to FX via the hexon protein with nanomolar affinity, leading to selective uptake of the complex into the liver and spleen. The Ad5:FX complex putatively targets heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). The aim of this study was to elucidate the specific requirements for Ad5:FX-mediated cellular uptake in this high-affinity pathway, specifically the HSPG receptor requirements as well as the role of penton base-mediated integrin engagement in subsequent internalisation. Removal of HS sidechains by enzymatic digestion or competition with highly-sulfated heparins/heparan sulfates significantly decreased FX-mediated Ad5 cell binding in vitro and ex vivo. Removal of N-linked and, in particular, O-linked sulfate groups significantly attenuated the inhibitory capabilities of heparin, while the chemical inhibition of endogenous HSPG sulfation dose-dependently reduced FX-mediated Ad5 cellular uptake. Unlike native heparin, modified heparins lacking O- or N-linked sulfate groups were unable to inhibit Ad5 accumulation in the liver 1h after intravascular administration of adenovirus. Similar results were observed in vitro using Ad5 vectors possessing mutations ablating CAR- and/or αv integrin binding, demonstrating that attachment of the Ad5:FX complex to the cell surface involves HSPG sulfation. Interestingly, Ad5 vectors ablated for αv integrin binding showed markedly delayed cell entry, highlighting the need for an efficient post-attachment internalisation signal for optimal Ad5 uptake and transport following surface binding mediated through FX. This study therefore integrates the established model of αv integrin-dependent adenoviral infection with the high-affinity FX-mediated pathway. This has important implications for mechanisms that define

  20. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Sanekata, Takeshi; Fukuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Takanori; Morino, Hirofumi; Lee, Cheolsung; Maeda, Ken; Araki, Kazuko; Otake, Toru; Kawahata, Takuya; Shibata, Takashi

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the antiviral activity of a chlorine dioxide gas solution (CD) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus. CD at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm produced potent antiviral activity, inactivating >or= 99.9% of the viruses with a 15 sec treatment for sensitization. The antiviral activity of CD was approximately 10 times higher than that of SH.

  1. ConSCRIPT

    PubMed Central

    Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873

  2. DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS ADENOVIRUS IN TERTIARY TREATED AND UV DISINFECTED WASTEWATER DURING A UV DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An infectious enteric adenovirus was isolated from urban wastewater receiving tertiary treatment and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of UV disinfection (low pressure, high intensity radiation) of total and fecal coliform bac...

  3. Hamster embryo cells transformed by herpes simplex virus: reactions with adeno-associated satellite virus (AAV) and its adenovirus helpers.

    PubMed

    Mayor, H D; Jordan, L E; Gorman, C

    1977-01-01

    We have studied the reactions of hamster embryo cells transformed by ultraviolet-inactivated herpes simplex type 2 (333-8-9 T cells) to infections with adeno-associated satellite virus (AAV) and its adenovirus helpers. Resident HSV structural antigens were not detectable in early or late passage of 333-8-9 T cells. AAV structural antigens were not detected in these cells unless the cells were coinfected with a helper adenovirus. In early passage 333-8-9 T cells were permissive to infections with simian adenovirus SV15 whereas normal hamster cell line LSH was nonpermissive. In some late passages of 333-8-9 T cells infections with SV15 adenovirus led to the production of viruslike particles whose morphology was identical with reoviruses.

  4. Detection of four adenovirus serotypes within water-isolated strains of Acanthamoeba in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Coronado-Alvarez, Nieves; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Maciver, Sutherland K; Valladares, Basilio

    2007-10-01

    We surveyed 236 potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains, isolated from water sources in the Canary Islands, for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing assay. A total of 34 of these strains were found to be positive for adenovirus belonging to four different HAdV serotypes (HAdV-1, 2, 8, and 37). We found that HAdV-2 was the most frequently encountered serotype amongst the Acanthamoeba strains, and their identification was confirmed by a nested PCR specific for this serotype. We showed that Acanthamoeba genotype T4 was highly associated with serotype HAdV-2, whereas Acanthamoeba genotype T3 was most often associated with adenovirus serotypes related to ocular diseases. Based on these data, we suggest that Acanthamoeba should be considered as a potential reservoir and perhaps even a transmitter of adenoviruses to human and other secondary hosts.

  5. DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS ADENOVIRUS IN TERTIARY TREATED AND UV DISINFECTED WASTEWATER DURING A UV DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An infectious enteric adenovirus was isolated from urban wastewater receiving tertiary treatment and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of UV disinfection (low pressure, high intensity radiation) of total and fecal coliform bac...

  6. A Mortality Event in Elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni) Calves Associated with Malnutrition, Pasteurellosis, and Deer Adenovirus in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Fox, Karen A; Atwater, Levi; Hoon-Hanks, Laura; Miller, Myrna

    2017-03-22

    This report describes clinical, necropsy, and ancillary diagnostic findings for a mortality event in Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves attributed to malnutrition, pasteurellosis, and an alimentary presentation of adenovirus hemorrhagic disease.

  7. 78 FR 3906 - Prospective Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Adenovirus-Based Controls and Calibrators for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... October 24, 2000, and entitled ``Replication Deficient Recombinant Adenovirus Vector'' to Life... recombinant constructs as controls and calibrators for molecular diagnostics for infectious disease agents...-0220; Email: Reichmau@mail.nih.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The invention relates to...

  8. Eradication of melanoma in vitro and in vivo via targeting with a Killer-Red-containing telomerase-dependent adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kiyoto; Yano, Shuya; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Narii, Nobuhiro; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-01-05

    Melanoma is a highly recalcitrant cancer and transformative therapy is necessary for the cure of this disease. We recently developed a telomerase-dependent adenovirus containing the fluorescent protein Killer-Red. In the present report, we first determined the efficacy of Killer-Red adenovirus combined with laser irradiation on human melanoma cell lines in vitro. Cell viability of human melanoma cells was reduced in a dose-dependent and irradiation time-dependent manner. We used an intradermal xenografted melanoma model in nude mice to determine efficacy of the Killer-Red adenovirus. Intratumoral injection of Killer-Red adenovirus, combined with laser irradiation, eradicated the melanoma indicating the potential of a new paradigm of cancer therapy.

  9. Evolution and Cryo-electron Microscopy Capsid Structure of a North American Bat Adenovirus and Its Relationship to Other Mastadenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Hackenbrack, Nicole; Rogers, Matthew B.; Ashley, Robert E.; Keel, M. Kevin; Kubiski, Steven V.; Bryan, John A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C.; Hafenstein, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the first description of adenoviruses in bats in 2006, a number of micro- and megabat species in Europe, Africa, and Asia have been shown to carry a wide diversity of adenoviruses. Here, we report on the evolutionary, biological, and structural characterization of a novel bat adenovirus (BtAdV) recovered from a Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) in Kentucky, USA, which is the first adenovirus isolated from North American bats. This virus (BtAdV 250-A) exhibits a close phylogenetic relationship with Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A), as previously observed with other BtAdVs. To further investigate the relationships between BtAdVs and CAdVs, we conducted mass spectrometric analysis and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the BtAdV 250-A capsid and also analyzed the in vitro host ranges of both viruses. Our results demonstrate that BtAdV 250-A represents a new mastadenovirus species that, in contrast to CAdV, has a unique capsid morphology that contains more prominent extensions of protein IX and can replicate efficiently in a phylogenetically diverse range of species. These findings, in addition to the recognition that both the genetic diversity of BtAdVs and the number of different bat species from disparate geographic regions infected with BtAdVs appears to be extensive, tentatively suggest that bats may have served as a potential reservoir for the cross-species transfer of adenoviruses to other hosts, as theorized for CAdV. IMPORTANCE Although many adenoviruses are host specific and likely codiverged with their hosts over millions of years, other adenoviruses appear to have emerged through successful cross-species transmission events on more recent time scales. The wide geographic distribution and genetic diversity of adenoviruses in bats and their close phylogenetic relationship to Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A) has raised important questions about how CAdV A, and possibly other mammalian adenoviruses

  10. [Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector of calcitonin gene-related peptide gene and transfection to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-hui; Han, Jie; Shao, Lei; Wang, Li-hong; Song, Jun-xian; Wei, Zhong-hai; Zheng, Liang-rong

    2010-05-01

    To construct a recombinant adenovirus vector of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) by AdEasy system and to validate its expression in myocardial cells. The full-length of CGRP gene cDNA was acquired by RT-PCR and cloned into pShuttle-CMV. After linearization with Pme I, the recombinant plasmid (pShuttle-CMV-CGRP) was transformed into E.coli BJ5183 by electroporation to construct the recombinant adenovirus plasmid AdEasy-pShuttle-CGRP. The recombinant adenovirus plasmids were transformed into E.coli XL10-Gold cells to be amplified. Then the recombinant plasmid was digested with Pac I and transfected to 293 cells to package recombinant adenovirus particles. PCR technique was used to detect target gene. The recombinant adenovirus particles were purified by CsC1 density gradient. The purified recombinant adenovirus was transfected to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes,and the recombinant adenovirus production was observed by fluorescent microscope. Expression of CGRP in hearts 7 days after intravenous delivery of adenoviral vectors AV-CGRP was determined by radioimmunoassay. The RT-PCR products confirmed a full-length cDNA of CGRP gene in PUC(57) by sequencing. The corresponding double endonuclease and PCR analysis certified the successful cloning of the gene into the pShuttle-CMV. The recombinant adenovirus plasmid AdEasy-pShuttle-CGRP was digested by Pac I endonuclease to form the typical DNA segments, whose length was about 3 kb and 30 kb. PCR analysis and fluorescent microscope observation confirmed that the CGRP gene was inserted into the adenovirus vector with very strong power of transfection. The recombinant adenovirus particles infected neonatal rat cardiomyocytes successfully. Radioimmunoassay showed that delivery of AV-CGRP significantly increased the expression of CGRP in mice hearts. The recombinant adenovirus vector of CGRP gene has been constructed,and it can infect neonatal rat cardiomyocytes successfully. Somatic delivery of CGRP gene can significantly

  11. Evolution and Cryo-electron Microscopy Capsid Structure of a North American Bat Adenovirus and Its Relationship to Other Mastadenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Hackenbrack, Nicole; Rogers, Matthew B; Ashley, Robert E; Keel, M Kevin; Kubiski, Steven V; Bryan, John A; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C; Hafenstein, Susan L; Allison, Andrew B

    2017-01-15

    Since the first description of adenoviruses in bats in 2006, a number of micro- and megabat species in Europe, Africa, and Asia have been shown to carry a wide diversity of adenoviruses. Here, we report on the evolutionary, biological, and structural characterization of a novel bat adenovirus (BtAdV) recovered from a Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) in Kentucky, USA, which is the first adenovirus isolated from North American bats. This virus (BtAdV 250-A) exhibits a close phylogenetic relationship with Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A), as previously observed with other BtAdVs. To further investigate the relationships between BtAdVs and CAdVs, we conducted mass spectrometric analysis and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the BtAdV 250-A capsid and also analyzed the in vitro host ranges of both viruses. Our results demonstrate that BtAdV 250-A represents a new mastadenovirus species that, in contrast to CAdV, has a unique capsid morphology that contains more prominent extensions of protein IX and can replicate efficiently in a phylogenetically diverse range of species. These findings, in addition to the recognition that both the genetic diversity of BtAdVs and the number of different bat species from disparate geographic regions infected with BtAdVs appears to be extensive, tentatively suggest that bats may have served as a potential reservoir for the cross-species transfer of adenoviruses to other hosts, as theorized for CAdV. Although many adenoviruses are host specific and likely codiverged with their hosts over millions of years, other adenoviruses appear to have emerged through successful cross-species transmission events on more recent time scales. The wide geographic distribution and genetic diversity of adenoviruses in bats and their close phylogenetic relationship to Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A) has raised important questions about how CAdV A, and possibly other mammalian adenoviruses, may have emerged

  12. Human Adenovirus 36 Infection Increased the Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mei-Yan; Cao, Bing; Wang, Dong-Fang; Guo, Jing-Hui; Chen, Kai-Li; Shi, Mai; Yin, Jian; Lu, Qing-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human adenovirus 36 (HAdV-36), as the key pathogen, was supposed and discussed to be associated with obesity. We searched the references on the association between HAdV-36 infection and obesity with the different epidemiological methods, to explore the relationship with a larger sample size by meta-analysis and compare the differences of epidemiological methods and population subsets by the subgroup analyses. We conducted literature search on the association between HAdV-36 infections and obesity in English or Chinese published up to July 1, 2015. The primary outcome was the HAdV-36 infection rate in the obese and lean groups; the secondary outcomes were the BMI level and BMI z-score in the HAdV-36 positive and negative groups. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the primary outcome; the standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the secondary and third outcomes. Prediction interval (PI) was graphically presented in the forest plot of the random effect meta-analyses. Metaregression analysis and subgroup analysis were performed. Finally 24 references with 10,191 study subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The obesity subjects were more likely to be infected with HAdV-36 compared to the lean controls (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.46, 2.74; PI: 0.59, 6.76; P < 0.001) with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 80.1%; P < 0.001) estimated by the random effect model. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the pooled OR of HAdV-36 infection for obesity were 1.77 (95%CI: 1.19, 2.63; PI: 0.44, 7.03; P = 0.005) and 2.26 (95%CI: 1.67, 3.07; PI: 1.45, 3.54; P < 0.001) in the adults and children, respectively. Compared to the HAdV-36 negative subjects, the SMD of BMI was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.47; PI: −0.53, 1.08; P = 0.006) in the HAdV-36 positive subjects with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 86.5%; P < 0.001). The BMI z-score in the children with HAdV-36 infection was higher than those without HAdV-36 infection (SMD = 0

  13. The evaluation of hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and celite concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses and bacteriophage from different water matrices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The data to support the evaluation of hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and celite concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses and bacteriophage from different water matricesThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Rhodes , E., E. Huff, D. Hamilton, and J. Jones. The evaluation of hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and celite concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses and bacteriophage from different water matrices. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGICAL METHODS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 228(2): 31-38, (2016).

  14. Immune Protection of Nonhuman Primates Against Ebola Virus with Single Low-Dose Adenovirus Vectors Encoding Modified GPs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Immune Protection of Nonhuman Primates against Ebola Virus with Single Low-Dose Adenovirus Vectors Encoding Modified GPs Nancy J. Sullivan 1...Shedlock DJ, Xu L, et al. (2006) Immune protection of nonhuman primates against Ebola virus with single low-dose adenovirus vectors encoding modified...should be addressed. E-mail: gnabel@nih.gov [ These authors contributed equally to this work. A B S T R A C T Background Ebola virus causes a hemorrhagic

  15. Functional characterization of a PEI-CyD-FA-coated adenovirus as delivery vector for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Chen, Shih-Chi; Shen, Zan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-mei; Jiang, Wenqi; Wang, Zi-Feng; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lin, Marie C

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant adenovirus is evolving as a promising gene delivery vector for gene therapy due to its efficiency in transducing different genes into most types of cells. However, the host-immune response elicited by primary inoculation of an adenovirus can cause rapid clearance of the vector, impairing the efficacy of the adenovirus and hence obstructing its clinical application. We have previously synthesized a biodegradable co-polymer consisting of a low molecular weight PEI (MW 600 Da), cross-linked with β-cyclodextrin, and conjugated with folic acid (PEI-CyD-FA, named H1). Here we report that coating the adenovirus vector (Adv) with H1 (H1/rAdv) could significantly improve both the efficacy and biosafety of Adv. Enhanced transfection efficiency as well as prolonged duration of gene expression were clearly demonstrated either by intratumoral or systemic injection of a single dose of H1/rAdv in immunocompetent mice. Importantly, repeated injections of H1/rAdv did not reduce the transfection efficiency in immunocompetent mice. Furthermore, H1 transformed the surface charge of the adenovirus capsomers from negative to positive in physiological solution, suggesting that H1 coated the capsid protein of the adenovirus. This could shelter the epitopes of capsid proteins of the adenovirus, resulting in a reduced host-immune response and enhanced transfection efficiency. Taken together, these findings suggest that H1/rAdv is an effective gene delivery system superior to the adenovirus alone and that it could be considered as a preferred vehicle for gene therapy.

  16. [Circulation of parainfluenza viruses and adenoviruses in groups exposed to the action of noxious chemicals or not].

    PubMed

    Moisa, I; Bârnaure, F; Pârvu, C; Sîrbu, D

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were conducted during 1985 and 1986 years on the effect of some chemicals on the parainfluenza and adenovirus circulation in an industrial enterprise community. The presence of type 1, 2 and 3 parainfluenza virus and of adenovirus was revealed by immunofluorescence in exfoliated cells collected from nasopharynx. The kinetic of specific hemagglutination inhibiting and complement fixing antibodies was followed monthly by immunological tests. Meaning of the results is discussed from an epidemiological point of view.

  17. Late presentation of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and ureteral obstruction in a kidney-pancreas transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Michael; Haley, Clinton; Barri, Yousri; Chandrakantan, Arun; Fischbach, Bernard; Melton, Larry; Rice, Kim; Saim, Muhammad; Yango, Angelito; Klintmalm, Goran; Rajagopal, Arthi

    2015-01-01

    We report a late presentation of adenovirus-induced renal allograft and bladder infection causing azotemia and hemorrhagic cystitis in a patient 5 years after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation. Adenovirus has been increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality in both solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients. We wish to emphasize the importance of early detection, as treatment options involve reduction of immunosuppression, followed by the addition of antiviral agents and supportive care. PMID:26424950

  18. Adenovirus core protein VII down-regulates the DNA damage response on the host genome.

    PubMed

    Avgousti, Daphne C; Della Fera, Ashley N; Otter, Clayton J; Herrmann, Christin; Pancholi, Neha J; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2017-08-09

    Viral manipulation of cellular proteins allows viruses to suppress host defenses and generate infectious progeny. Due to the linear double-stranded DNA nature of the adenovirus genome, the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is considered a barrier for successful infection. The adenovirus genome is packaged with protein VII, a viral-encoded histone-like core protein that is suggested to protect incoming viral genomes from detection by cellular DNA damage machinery. We showed that protein VII localizes to host chromatin during infection, leading us to hypothesize that protein VII may affect DNA damage responses on the cellular genome. Here, we show that protein VII at cellular chromatin results in a significant decrease in accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) following irradiation, indicating that protein VII inhibits DDR signaling. The oncoprotein SET was recently suggested to modulate the DDR by affecting access of repair proteins to chromatin. Since protein VII binds SET, we investigated a role for SET in DDR inhibition by protein VII. We show that knockdown of SET partially rescues the protein VII-induced decrease in γH2AX accumulation on the host genome, suggesting that SET is required for inhibition. Finally, we show that knockdown of SET also allows ATM to localize to incoming viral genomes bound by protein VII during infection with a mutant lacking early region E4. Together, our data suggest that the protein VII-SET interaction contributes to DDR evasion by adenovirus. Our results provide an additional example of a strategy used by adenovirus to manipulate the host DDR and show how viruses can modify cellular processes through manipulation of host chromatin.IMPORTANCE The DNA damage response (DDR) is a cellular network crucial for maintaining genome integrity. DNA viruses replicating in the nucleus challenge the resident genome and must overcome cellular responses, including the DDR. Adenoviruses are prevalent human pathogens that can cause a

  19. Comparison of human and monkey cells for the ability to attenuate transcripts that begin at the adenovirus major late promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Seiberg, M.; Aloni, Y. ); Levine, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Late transcription from the adenovirus major late promoter can terminate prematurely at a site 182 to 188 nucleotides downstream. Experiments have been designed, with run-on transcription in nuclei in vitro or riboprobe protection of RNA obtained both in vivo and in vitro, that demonstrate that the ratio of attenuator RNA to readthrough RNA is greater in monkey cells (CV-1) than in human cells (HeLa). This may explain, in part, why the human adenoviruses replicate more poorly in CV-1 cells than in HeLa cells. A mutant adenovirus that replicates better than wild-type virus in monkey cells produces less of the attenuator RNA than wild-type adenovirus does in monkey cells. Monkey cell extracts have been shown to contain a factor that, when added to human cell extracts transcribing adenovirus DNA in vitro, increases the production of attenuator RNA in these reactions. These observations help to explain a portion of the block to the production of infectious adenoviruses in monkey cells.

  20. Incidence of Norwalk-like viruses, rotavirus and adenovirus infection in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Subekti, D; Lesmana, M; Tjaniadi, P; Safari, N; Frazier, E; Simanjuntak, C; Komalarini, S; Taslim, J; Campbell, J R; Oyofo, B A

    2002-03-25

    Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs), rotavirus and adenovirus are reportedly responsible from 4 to 42% of non-bacterial acute sporadic gastroenteritis. The incidence of NLVs, adenovirus and rotavirus infections in Indonesia is unclear. A total of 402 symptomatic cases from Indonesian patients with acute gastroenteritis and 102 asymptomatic controls that tested negative for bacteria and parasites were screened for the presence of NLVs, rotavirus and adenovirus using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Rotaclone kits and Adenoclone kits. Specific prototype probes were used to ascertain which NLV prototypes were present in the area. NLVs were detected in 45/218 (21%), rotavirus was detected in 170/402 (42%) and adenovirus was detected in 11/273 (4%) samples examined. Genetic analysis of the RT-PCR products using specific prototype probes for NLVs indicated that the prototypes were 42% Taunton agent and 58% Hawaii/Snow Mountain agent. Comparative data on patients showed that the incidence of rotavirus infections was two times greater than the NLVs infections, and that adenovirus infections were the least prevalent. All of the control samples tested were negative for NLVs and adenoviruses, however 8/70 (11%) of the samples were positive for rotaviruses. The high incidence of enteric viral-related infections is a threat among acute diarrheic patients in Jakarta, Indonesia.

  1. Identification of a Nonstructural DNA-Binding Protein (DBP) as an Antigen with Diagnostic Potential for Human Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vernet, Guy; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been implicated as important agents in a wide range of human illnesses. To date, 58 distinct HAdV serotypes have been identified and can be grouped into six species. For the immunological diagnosis of adenoviruses, the hexon protein, a structural protein, has been used. The potential of other HAdV proteins has not been fully addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a nonstructural antigenic protein, the DNA binding protein (DBP) of human adenovirus 5 and 35 (Ad5, Ad35) - was identified using immunoproteomic technology. The expression of Ad5 and Ad35 DBP in insect cells could be detected by rhesus monkey serum antibodies and healthy adult human serum positive for Ad5 and Ad35. Recombinant DBPs elicited high titer antibodies in mice. Their conserved domain displayed immunological cross-reactions with heterologous DBP antibodies in Western blot assays. DBP-IgM ELISA showed higher sensitivity adenovirus IgM detection than the commercial Adenovirus IgM Human ELISA Kit. A Western blot method developed based on Ad5 DBP was highly consistent with (χ2 =  44.9, P<0.01) the Western blot assay for the hexon protein in the detection of IgG, but proved even more sensitive. Conclusions/Significance The HAdV nonstructural protein DBP is an antigenic protein that could serve as an alternative common antigen for adenovirus diagnosis. PMID:23516396

  2. Viral Pollution in the Environment and in Shellfish: Human Adenovirus Detection by PCR as an Index of Human Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Sonia; Puig, Montserrat; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Joan; Girones, Rosina

    1998-01-01

    A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses [HAVs]) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river water, seawater, and shellfish. Enteroviruses were quantified by PFU in Buffalo green monkey kidney cells and fecal coliforms and phages of Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 were also evaluated in some of the samples. The amplification of viral DNA and cDNA has shown a high prevalence of human viruses that would not be detected by the use of classical techniques, such as the quantification of PFU in cell lines. The results of the analysis of slaughterhouse sewage samples together with the test of farm animal feces indicate that the adenoviruses and the HAVs detected in the environment are mostly of human origin. A significative correlation between the detection of human viruses by PCR and the values of bacteriophages of B. fragilis HSP40 in urban raw sewage was observed. Human adenoviruses were the viruses most frequently detected throughout the year, and all the samples that were positive for enteroviruses or HAVs were also positive for human adenoviruses. The results suggest that the detection of adenoviruses by PCR could be used as an index of the presence of human viruses in the environment where a molecular index is acceptable. PMID:9726885

  3. Role of DNA polymerase gamma in adenovirus DNA replication. Mechanism of inhibition by 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates.

    PubMed

    van der Vliet, P C; Kwant, M M

    1981-04-28

    In contrast to cellular or SV40 DNA replication, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) or type 2 (Ad2) DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei is strongly inhibited by low concentrations of 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate (ddTTP). On the basis of differential sensitivity of cellular DNA polymerases, a role of DNA polymerase gamma in adenovirus DNA replication has been proposed. We have investigated the mechanism of inhibition of adenovirus DNA synthesis, using [alpha-32P]ddTTP and other dNTP analogues. Both ddATP and ddGTP were as inhibitory as ddTTP, while ddCTP had an even stronger effect on adenovirus DNA replication. DNA polymerase alpha was resistant to all four ddNTP's, while DNA polymerase gamma was very sensitive. The inhibition by ddTTP in isolated infected nuclei was slowly reversible. [alpha-32P]ddTTP was incorporated into Ad5 DNA as a chain-terminating nucleotide, and the analogue could be used as a substrate by DNA polymerase gamma. Under similar conditions, incorporation in cellular DNA or using DNA polymerase alpha was not observed. The nucleoside analogues ddA and ddC suppressed adenovirus. DNA replication in intact cells and reduced plaque formation. These results provide further evidence for a function of DNA polymerase gamma in adenovirus DNA synthesis.

  4. Efficient adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into primary T cells and thymocytes in a new coxsackie/adenovirus receptor transgenic model

    PubMed Central

    Hurez, Vincent; Dzialo-Hatton, Robin; Oliver, James; Matthews, R James; Weaver, Casey T

    2002-01-01

    Background Gene transfer studies in primary T cells have suffered from the limitations of conventional viral transduction or transfection techniques. Replication-defective adenoviral vectors are an attractive alternative for gene delivery. However, naive lymphocytes are not readily susceptible to infection with adenoviruses due to insufficient expression of the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor. Results To render T cells susceptible to adenoviral gene transfer, we have developed three new murine transgenic lines in which expression of the human coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (hCAR) with a truncated cytoplasmic domain (hCARΔcyt) is limited to thymocytes and lymphocytes under direction of a human CD2 mini-gene. hCARΔcyt.CD2 transgenic mice were crossed with DO11.10 T cell receptor transgenic mice (DO11.hCARΔcyt) to allow developmental studies in a defined, clonal T cell population. Expression of hCARΔcyt enabled adenoviral transduction of resting primary CD4+ T cells, differentiated effector T cells and thymocytes from DO11.hCARΔcyt with high efficiency. Expression of hCARΔcyt transgene did not perturb T cell development in these mice and adenoviral transduction of DO11.hCARΔcyt T cells did not alter their activation status, functional responses or differentiative potential. Adoptive transfer of the transduced T cells into normal recipients did not modify their physiologic localization. Conclusion The DO11.hCARΔcyt transgenic model thus allows efficient gene transfer in primary T cell populations and will be valuable for novel studies of T cell activation and differentiation. PMID:12019030

  5. Molecular identification of adenovirus sequences: a rapid scheme for early typing of human adenoviruses in diagnostic samples of immunocompetent and immunodeficient patients.

    PubMed

    Madisch, Ijad; Wölfel, Roman; Harste, Gabi; Pommer, Heidi; Heim, Albert

    2006-09-01

    Precise typing of human adenoviruses (HAdV) is fundamental for epidemiology and the detection of infection chains. As only few of the 51 adenovirus types are associated with life- threatening disseminated diseases in immunodeficient patients, detection of one of these types may have prognostic value and lead to immediate therapeutic intervention. A recently published molecular typing scheme consisting of two steps (sequencing of a generic PCR product closely adjacent to loop 1 of the main neutralization determinant epsilon, and for species HAdV-B, -C, and -D the sequencing of loop 2 [Madisch et al., 2005]) was applied to 119 clinical samples. HAdV DNA was typed unequivocally even in cases of culture negative samples, for example in immunodeficient patients before HAdV causes high virus loads and disseminated disease. Direct typing results demonstrated the predominance of HAdV-1, -2, -5, and -31 in immunodeficient patients suggesting the significance of the persistence of these viruses for the pathogenesis of disseminated disease. In contrast, HAdV-3 predominated in immunocompetent patients and cocirculation of four subtypes was demonstrated. Typing of samples from a conjunctivitis outbreak in multiple military barracks demonstrated various HAdV types (2, 4, 8, 19) and not the suspected unique adenovirus etiology. This suggests that our molecular typing scheme will be also useful for epidemiological investigations. In conclusion, our two-step molecular typing system will permit the precise and rapid typing of clinical HAdV isolates and even of HAdV DNA in clinical samples without the need of time-consuming virus isolation prior to typing.

  6. Transforming Region of Group A, B, and C Adenoviruses: DNA Homology Studies with Twenty-Nine Human Adenovirus Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Jesse K.; Wold, William S. M.; Rigden, Patricia; Green, Maurice

    1979-01-01

    The 31 human adenovirus (Ad) serotypes form five groups based upon DNA genome homologies: group A (Ad12, 18, 31), group B (Ad3, 7, 11, 14, 16, 21), group C (Ad1, 2, 5, 6), group D (Ad8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22-30), and group E (Ad4) (M. Green, J. Mackey, W. Wold, and P. Rigden, Virology, in press). Group A Ads are highly oncogenic in newborn hamsters, group B Ads are weakly oncogenic, and other Ads are nononcogenic. However, most or all Ads transform cultured cells. We have studied the homology of Ad5, Ad7, and Ad12 transforming restriction endonuclease DNA fragments with DNAs of 29 Ad types. Ad5 HindIII-G (map position 0-7.3), Ad7 XhoI-C (map position 0-10.8), and Ad12 (strain Huie) EcoRI-C (map position 0-16) and SalI-C (map position 0-10.6) fragments were purified, labeled in vitro (nick translation), and annealed with DNAs of Ad1 to Ad16, Ad18 to Ad24, and Ad26 to Ad31. Hybrids were assayed by using hydroxylapatite. Ad5 HindIII-G hybridized 98 to 100% with DNAs of group C Ads, but only 1 to 15% with DNAs of other types. Ad7 XhoI-C fragment hybridized 85 to 99% with DNAs of group B Ads, but only 6 to 21% with DNAs of other types. Ad12 (Huie) EcoRI-C hybridized 53 to 68% with DNAs of five other Ad12 strains, 53% with Ad18 DNA, 56% with Ad31 DNA, but only 3 to 13% with DNAs of other types. In vitro-labeled Ad12 (Huie) SalI-C hybridized 35 to 71% with DNAs of 6 other Ad12 strains, 44% with Ad18 DNA, 52% with Ad31 DNA, but only 2 to 7% with DNAs Ad7, Ad2, Ad26, or Ad4. When assayed using S-1 nuclease, SalI-C annealed 17 to 44% with DNAs of group A Ads. The melting temperatures of the hybrids of Ad5 HindIII-G with all group C Ad DNAs were 84°C in 0.12 M sodium phosphate (pH 6.8). The melting temperature of the Ad12 (Huie) EcoRI-C hybrid with Ad12 (Huie) DNA was 83°C, but was only 71 to 77°C with DNAs of other group A Ads. Thus, group C and group B Ads both have very homologous transforming regions that are not represented in DNAs of non-group C Ads or non

  7. Initial assessment of impact of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine on febrile respiratory illness and virus transmission in military basic trainees, March 2012.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Charles H; Hawksworth, Anthony; Snyder, Clifford E

    2012-03-01

    After a 12-year hiatus, military recruit training centers resumed administration of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, live, oral (adenovirus vaccine) to trainees beginning in October of 2011. Subsequently, rates of febrile respiratory illnesses (FRI) and adenovirus isolations markedly declined. These findings are consistent with those of a placebo-controlled efficacy trial conducted prior to the vaccine's licensure by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Continued surveillance will clarify the longer term impact of vaccine use.

  8. Synthesis, cellular localization, and quantification of penton-dodecahedron in serotype 3 adenovirus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fender, P. . E-mail: fender@ibs.fr; Boussaid, A.; Mezin, P.; Chroboczek, J.

    2005-09-30

    Adenovirus penton is a non-covalent complex composed of the penton base and fiber proteins, localized at the twelve vertices of the icosahedral virus capsid. In cells infected by adenovirus serotype 3 (Ad3), penton is found not only in the virus capsid but also self-assembled in dodecahedra formed through interactions between the twelve penton bases. In this study, the intracellular trafficking of penton proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus has been followed, and the nuclear re-arrangement induced by viral infection has been observed by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. The amount of dodecahedra has been assessed in relation to the number of Ad3 infectious virions produced during the Ad3 replication cycle. It appears that dodecahedra are produced in a large excess over viral infectious particles and that they are located intranuclearly along the nuclear membrane of Ad3-infected cells at late times of infection.

  9. Synthesis, cellular localization, and quantification of penton-dodecahedron in serotype 3 adenovirus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Fender, P; Boussaid, A; Mezin, P; Chroboczek, J

    2005-09-30

    Adenovirus penton is a non-covalent complex composed of the penton base and fiber proteins, localized at the twelve vertices of the icosahedral virus capsid. In cells infected by adenovirus serotype 3 (Ad3), penton is found not only in the virus capsid but also self-assembled in dodecahedra formed through interactions between the twelve penton bases. In this study, the intracellular trafficking of penton proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus has been followed, and the nuclear re-arrangement induced by viral infection has been observed by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. The amount of dodecahedra has been assessed in relation to the number of Ad3 infectious virions produced during the Ad3 replication cycle. It appears that dodecahedra are produced in a large excess over viral infectious particles and that they are located intranuclearly along the nuclear membrane of Ad3-infected cells at late times of infection.

  10. Use of dodecahedron "VLPs" as an alternative to the whole adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Fender, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    During human adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) infection, an excess of penton base and fiber proteins are produced. These form dodecahedral particles composed of 12 pentamers of penton base and 12 trimers of fiber protein. Beside this "natural" expression, the adenovirus dodecahedron can be expressed in the heterologous baculovirus system in two forms: a fiber-devoid dodecahedron made only of 12 penton bases (called base-dodecahedron: Bs-Dd) and the fiber-containing dodecahedron (called penton dodecahedron: Pt-Dd). These particles partly mimic the adenoviral cellular entry pathway but are devoid of genetic information making them an unusual tool for basic research or applications. We report here how these particles are expressed and purified, the labeling method for trafficking studies as well as their use in molecular interaction studies. The potential of these particles for biotechnological applications is under evaluation, making their study a "niche" along side traditional adenoviral vectors.

  11. Influenza recombinant vaccine: matrix protein M1 on the platform of the adenovirus dodecahedron.

    PubMed

    Naskalska, A; Szolajska, E; Chaperot, L; Angel, J; Plumas, J; Chroboczek, J

    2009-12-09

    We propose a novel influenza vaccine composed of the adenovirus dodecahedron (Dd) as delivery platform carrying an internal influenza matrix protein M1. To attach the antigen to the vector we used WW domains interacting with Dd. Successful internalization of the Dd-M1WW complex was observed using biochemical and cell biology techniques. We show here that the complex of Dd with antigen is a potent activator of human myeloid dendritic cells (MDC), and that it is efficiently presented by MDC to M1-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes. These results show that proposed vaccine model is feasible and that adenovirus dodecahedron is a potent delivery platform for foreign antigens to human cells.

  12. Association of the Adenovirus DNA-Binding Protein with RNA Both in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghon, Vaughn G.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1986-12-01

    The multifunctional DNA-binding protein (DBP) encoded by human adenovirus binds RNA. The association of purified DBP with RNA in vitro was demonstrated by using either a gel filtration or a filter binding assay. This association is sensitive to ionic strength and exhibits no apparent sequence specificity. DBP also interacts with RNA in vivo; it can be crosslinked to polyadenylylated RNA by UV-irradiation of intact cells during the late phase of adenovirus infections. The 46-kDa carboxyl-terminal domain of DBP binds RNA in vitro and was found to be associated with polyadenylylated RNA in vivo. This is the same domain that interacts with DNA. However, the differences in sensitivity of DBP to trypsin when bound to RNA versus DNA suggest that RNA and DNA either bind at different sites within this domain or induce different conformational changes within the protein.

  13. A cost effective real-time PCR for the detection of adenovirus from viral swabs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Compared to traditional testing strategies, nucleic acid amplification tests such as real-time PCR offer many advantages for the detection of human adenoviruses. However, commercial assays are expensive and cost prohibitive for many clinical laboratories. To overcome fiscal challenges, a cost effective strategy was developed using a combination of homogenization and heat treatment with an “in-house” real-time PCR. In 196 swabs submitted for adenovirus detection, this crude extraction method showed performance characteristics equivalent to viral DNA obtained from a commercial nucleic acid extraction. In addition, the in-house real-time PCR outperformed traditional testing strategies using virus culture, with sensitivities of 100% and 69.2%, respectively. Overall, the combination of homogenization and heat treatment with a sensitive in-house real-time PCR provides accurate results at a cost comparable to viral culture. PMID:23758993

  14. A Multi Targeting Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus Displays Enhanced Oncolysis while Maintaining Expression of Immunotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, G. Clement; Ugai, Hideyo; Curiel, David T.; Gillespie, G. Yancey

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that oncolytic adenoviruses based on a 24 base pair deletion in the viral E1A gene (D24) may be promising therapeutics for treating a number of cancer types. In order to increase the therapeutic potential of these oncolytic viruses, a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus targeting multiple receptors upregulated on tumors was generated by incorporating an Ad5/3 fiber with a carboxyl terminus RGD ligand. The virus displayed full cytopathic effect in all tumor lines assayed at low titers with improved cytotoxicity over Ad5-RGD D24, Ad5/3 D24 and an HSV oncolytic virus. The virus was then engineered to deliver immunotherapeutic agents such as GM-CSF while maintaining enhanced heterogenic oncolysis. PMID:26689910

  15. A survey of porcine picornaviruses and adenoviruses in fecal samples in Spain.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Dolores; Cano-Gómez, Cristina; Agüero, Montserrat; Fernandez-Pacheco, Paloma; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2010-09-01

    In the course of an epidemiologic surveillance program for swine diseases carried out in Spain, 206 cytopathic viruses were isolated from 600 porcine fecal samples between 2004 and 2005. The virus isolates were examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods specific for different types of porcine picornaviruses, including members of the Teschovirus, Enterovirus, and Sapelovirus genera, and PCR for porcine adenoviruses. Of the 206 isolates, 97 (47%) were identified as teschoviruses, 18 (9%) as sapeloviruses, and 7 (3%) as porcine adenoviruses. Neither Porcine enterovirus B nor Swine vesicular disease virus was found among the isolates. The present study confirms that teschoviruses are highly prevalent in porcine fecal samples, at least in Spain. It also reveals that these viruses commonly circulate among apparently healthy pigs.

  16. Crystallization of the head and galectin-like domains of porcine adenovirus isolate NADC-1 fibre

    PubMed Central

    Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Fox, Gavin C.; Glasgow, Joel N.; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The porcine adenovirus NADC-1 isolate, a strain of porcine adenovirus type 4, has a fibre with an atypical architecture. In addition to a classical virus-attachment region, shaft and head domains, it contains an additional galectin-like domain C-­terminal to the head domain and connected to the head domain by a long RGD-containing loop. The galectin-like domain contains two putative carbohydrate-recognition domains. The head and galectin-like domains have been independently crystallized. Diffraction data have been obtained to 3.2 Å resolution from crystals of the head domain and to 1.9 Å resolution from galectin-like domain crystals. PMID:19923738

  17. Construction and uses of cell lines containing integrated adenovirus E2 promoters.

    PubMed

    Strair, R K

    1991-11-01

    The adenovirus E1a gene encodes polypeptides which regulate the expression of adenovirus early genes as well as a variety of cellular genes. Although it is likely that the E1a encoded polypeptides regulate the expression of these genes by interaction with a variety of cellular transcription factors, the precise mechanism by which this occurs is currently unknown. This report describes the development of cell lines which contain integrated copies of the E2 promoter driving the expression of the Tn5 neo gene or the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene. In each case phenotypic changes concurrent with expression of the E1a 289 amino acid polypeptide are demonstrated. The use of these cell lines to detect rare events in the activation of the E2 promoter is demonstrated in transfection experiments. These cell lines are also used to study the effects of c-myc expression on integrated E2 promoters.

  18. Identification of a novel adenovirus in a cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Hall, Natalie H; Archer, Linda L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2012-03-01

    A novel adenovirus was identified in a cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) with diarrhea by negative-staining electron microscopy of feces, consensus polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. Partial sequences were obtained from the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, the p52k gene, and the hexon. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses indicated that the virus is a member of the genus Mastadenovirus, and is herein termed Saguinus siadenovirus 1. The phylogeny of the mastadenoviruses is similar to that of their hosts, supporting coevolution. Support for this was strongest in the analysis of the predicted hexon protein. The obtained sequences were GC-rich, which may suggest a lack of recent host jumps. The diversity and evolution of the adenoviruses of platyrrhine primates merits further investigation. Additional study of the association of this virus with diarrhea is indicated.

  19. Adenovirus DNA template for late transcription is not a replicative intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Brison, O; Kédinger, C; Chambon, P

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between adenovirus replication and late transcription has been investigated using viral replication and transcription complexes isolated from infected HeLa cell nuclei. These two types of complexes extracted from adenovirus type 2-infected cell nuclei did not sediment at the same rate on sucrose gradients. Viral replicative intermediates were quantitatively precipitated by immunoglobulins raised against purified 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein, whereas viral transcription complexes remained in the supernatant. These results show that late transcription does not occur on active replication complexes or on 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein-containing replicative intermediates inactive in DNA synthesis. Additional evidence is presented indicating that it is very unlikely that replicative intermediates lacking the 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein could be the template for late transcription. PMID:232191

  20. Establishment of an agamid cell line and isolation of adenoviruses from central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Hoferer, Marc; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-03-01

    A cell line was established from whole 6-8-week-old central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) embryos. Cells were mid-sized and showed an elongated and polymorphic form. The cell line grew in a monolayer and has been serially passaged for 17 passages at time of publication. This cell line has been used with samples from adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive bearded dragons, and 2 virus isolates have been obtained so far. The isolates show a clear cytopathic effect in inoculated cells. Both virus isolates have been serially passaged on this cell line, and have been identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and show 100% nucleotide identity to the corresponding region of an agamid adenovirus. Electron microscopic examination of supernatant from infected cells demonstrated the presence of nonenveloped particles, with a diameter of approximately 80 nm in both virus isolates.