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Sample records for con enfermedades vasculares

  1. Asociación de XMRV con enfermedades humanas se debe a contaminación

    Cancer.gov

    Nuevas investigaciones muestran que una asociación, mencionada en numerosos estudios, entre el retrovirus conocido como XMRV y el cáncer de próstata así como el síndrome de fatiga crónica, se debe a contaminación de laboratorio con un virus que se originó en ratones.

  2. [Multicentric hyaline vascular Castleman's disease. A POEMS type variant].

    PubMed

    Gracia-Ramos, Abraham Edgar; Cruz-Domínguez, María del Pilar; Vera-Lastra, Olga Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Castleman es un trastorno linfoproliferativo atípico en el que pueden existir manifestaciones compatibles con síndrome POEMS. Caso clínico: hombre de 53 años de edad con antecedente de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipotiroidismo y enfermedad de Addison. Se iniciaron parestesias y debilidad en las extremidades y, posteriormente, disnea, endurecimiento cutáneo, fenómeno de Raynaud y pérdida de peso. Se identificó taquipnea, hiperpigmentación cutánea generalizada y extremidades con endurecimiento cutáneo, debilidad muscular, hipoestesia e hiporreflexia; así como hiperprolactinemia, testosterona baja, hipotiroidismo y enfermedad de Addison; los anticuerpos antinucleares y antiScl-70 fueron negativos. Los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales indicaron neuropatía periférica y la electromiografía, olineuropatía axonal severa. Radiografía torácica: infiltrado reticular bilateral y ensanchamiento mediastinal. Electrocardiograma: hipertensión arterial pulmonar moderada. Tomografía toracoabdominal: ganglios axilares, mediastinales y retroperitoneales. Con la biopsia se identificó enfermedad de Castleman multicéntrica hialina vascular. El paciente recibió rituximab. Conclusiones: si bien la experiencia con el rituximab aún es limitada, en el caso descrito se observó buena respuesta.

  3. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  4. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  5. Neuroimagen en la enfermedad de Alzheimer: nuevas perspectivas

    PubMed Central

    Becker, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción y desarrollo En los próximos 50 años vamos a presenciar un incremento significativo de la población mayor de 65 años y por lo tanto va a aumentar, considerablemente, el número de individuos con riesgo de desarrollar demencias neurodegenerativas, especialmente la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Las estrategias actuales de tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico se han centrado en las fases sintomáticas de esta enfermedad y, gradualmente, vamos teniendo una mayor comprensión de los posibles factores de riesgo del síndrome clínico. Conclusiones Los estudios de neuroimagen han sido muy útiles para mostrar los cambios estructurales del envejecimiento normal y patológico, así como también los factores de riesgo para la EA. Los tratamientos apropiados de los factores de riesgo y su posible combinación con tratamientos específicos para la EA podrían prolongar el período presintomático de la EA y, por tanto, mejorar la calidad de vida y disminuir la carga para el paciente, la familia y la sociedad. PMID:20517866

  6. Vascular Cures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease Chronic Venous Insufficiency Congenital Vascular Malformation Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Diabetes and Vascular Disease Fibromuscular Dysplasia High ...

  7. [Vascular parkinsonism].

    PubMed

    Marxreiter, F; Winkler, J

    2016-07-01

    Parkinsonism may result from cerebral vascular disorders that feature white matter lesions and small vessel pathology. Vascular Parkinsonism typically presents as lower body Parkinsonism with predominant gait impairment. Urinary incontinence and cognitive decline are additional features of the disease. There is a considerable overlap between vascular Parkinsonism and vascular dementia. We review the clinical characteristics of vascular Parkinsonism and discuss the current treatment approaches, as well as the role of brain imaging for the diagnostic workup. . PMID:27299942

  8. Vascular ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aberrant subclavian and left ligamentum ateriosus; Congenital heart defect - vascular ring; Birth defect heart - vascular ring ... accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart problems. The condition occurs as often in males ...

  9. [Detection of vascular risk factors and unknown atrial fibrillation in patients hospitalised in the stroke unit].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Caballero, Pedro E; López-Espuela, Fidel; Portilla-Cuenca, Juan C; Jiménez-Gracia, M Antonia; Casado-Naranjo, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    Introduccion. Existe una serie de factores de riesgo cerebrovascular modificables, como son la hipertension arterial, la diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias y la fibrilacion auricular, cuyo reconocimiento y control es fundamental para disminuir la aparicion de enfermedades cerebrovasculares. En ocasiones, el ictus puede ser el sintoma de presentacion de estos factores de riesgo. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo de los pacientes que ingresan en la unidad de ictus de nuestro hospital por enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda –accidente isquemico transitorio e ictus isquemico– para conocer el porcentaje de pacientes con hipertension arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias y fibrilacion auricular no diagnosticadas previamente. Resultados. Se selecciono a 186 pacientes, de los que 24 presentaban hipertension arterial no conocida (12,9%); 11, diabetes mellitus no conocida (5,9%); 49, hipercolesterolemia no conocida (26,3%); 15, hipertrigliceridemia no conocida (8,1%), y 22 tenian fibrilacion auricular no conocida (11,8%). En total, 96 pacientes (51,6%) tenian alguno de estos factores de riesgo cerebrovascular. La existencia de un factor de riesgo no diagnosticado previamente era mayor en el medio rural, en los sujetos que no habian fallecido a los seis meses y en los ataques isquemicos transitorios respecto a los ictus isquemicos. Conclusiones. Mas de la mitad de los sujetos que sufren un evento cerebrovascular tienen un factor de riesgo que no se ha diagnosticado previamente. Se deben realizar campanas para implementar la deteccion de estos factores, asi como incidir en el control de estos para disminuir la aparicion y recidiva de patologia vascular.

  10. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.

  11. [Vascular dementia].

    PubMed

    Peters, N; Dichgans, M

    2010-10-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) constitutes the second most frequent cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast to AD, VaD encompasses a variety of conditions and dementia mechanisms including multiple and strategic infarcts, widespread white matter lesions and hemorrhages. The diagnosis of VaD is based on the patient history, the clinical evaluation and neuroimaging. Treatment of VaD should account for the underlying vascular condition and is directed towards the control of vascular risk factors and stroke prevention. The need for early diagnosis and preventive treatment has promoted the concept of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Harmonization standards for the description and study of VCI have recently been published. A common and distinct subtype of VaD is subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) which is related to cerebral small vessel disease. SIVD is clinically characterized by impairment of executive functions and processing speed with relatively preserved memory. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic variant of SIVD, represents an important differential diagnosis and may serve as a model of SIVD.

  12. Pruebas de BRCA en pacientes jóvenes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Pruebas de mutaciones genéticas fuertemente asociadas con un mayor riesgo de cáncer de seno han aumentado dramáticamente entre mujeres menores de 40 años diagnosticadas con la enfermedad, según un nuevo estudio.

  13. Vascular emergencies.

    PubMed

    Semashko, D C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the initial assessment and emergent management of several common as well as uncommon vascular emergencies. Aortic dissection, aneurysms, and arterial occlusive disease are familiar but challenging clinical entities. Less frequently encountered conditions are also discussed including an aortic enteric fistula, mesenteric venous thrombosis, phlegmasia alba dolens, and subclavian vein thrombosis.

  14. [Consensus document on spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Grupo de Enfermedades Desmielinizantes de la Sociedad Española de Neurología].

    PubMed

    Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Montalban, Xavier; de Andrés, Clara; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Muñoz-García, Delicias; García, Inmaculada; Fernández, Óscar

    2013-10-16

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple es una enfermedad neurologica cronica, desmielinizante e inflamatoria. Los neurologos implicados en el tratamiento sintomatico de esta enfermedad tienden a aplicar criterios diagnosticos y de tratamiento heterogeneos. Objetivo. Elaborar un documento de consenso para establecer criterios homogeneos para el tratamiento de la espasticidad, basados en el conocimiento cientifico disponible que faciliten la toma de decisiones en la practica clinica habitual. Desarrollo. Un grupo de expertos españoles en esclerosis multiple del Grupo de Enfermedades Desmielinizantes de la Sociedad Española de Neurologia (SEN) se reunieron para revisar los aspectos relacionados con la espasticidad en esta enfermedad y elaborar el consenso. Tras una busqueda bibliografica exhaustiva y siguiendo la metodologia metaplan se establecieron unas recomendaciones preliminares para incorporar al documento. Finalmente, cada argumento se clasifico segun su grado de recomendacion, atendiendo a las categorias del sistema SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network). El texto resultante fue sometido a la revision de los miembros del Grupo de Enfermedades Desmielinizantes de la SEN. Se ha alcanzado un consenso de expertos respecto a los factores desencadenantes de la espasticidad, la sintomatologia relacionada, los criterios diagnosticos, los metodos de valoracion de la espasticidad, la calidad de vida y los criterios en el manejo terapeutico (farmacologicos y no farmacologicos). Conclusion. Las recomendaciones contenidas en este consenso pueden ser una herramienta util para el neurologo para la practica clinica del dia a dia y para mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente, ya que permiten un mejor diagnostico y tratamiento de la espasticidad.

  15. Plant Vascular Biology 2013: vascular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ursache, Robertas; Heo, Jung-Ok; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-04-01

    About 200 researchers from around the world attended the Third International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2013) held in July 2013 at the Rantapuisto Conference Center, in Helsinki, Finland (http://www.pvb2013.org). The plant vascular system, which connects every organ in the mature plant, continues to attract the interest of researchers representing a wide range of disciplines, including development, physiology, systems biology, and computational biology. At the meeting, participants discussed the latest research advances in vascular development, long- and short-distance vascular transport and long-distance signalling in plant defence, in addition to providing a context for how these studies intersect with each other. The meeting provided an opportunity for researchers working across a broad range of fields to share ideas and to discuss future directions in the expanding field of vascular biology. In this report, the latest advances in understanding the mechanism of vascular trafficking presented at the meeting have been summarized.

  16. Branding of vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Perler, Bruce A

    2008-03-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery surveyed primary care physicians (PCPs) to understand how PCPs make referral decisions for their patients with peripheral vascular disease. Responses were received from 250 PCPs in 44 states. More than 80% of the respondents characterized their experiences with vascular surgeons as positive or very positive. PCPs perceive that vascular surgeons perform "invasive" procedures and refer patients with the most severe vascular disease to vascular surgeons but were more than twice as likely to refer patients to cardiologists, believing they are better able to perform minimally invasive procedures. Nevertheless, PCPs are receptive to the notion of increasing referrals to vascular surgeons. A successful branding campaign will require considerable education of referring physicians about the totality of traditional vascular and endovascular care increasingly provided by the contemporary vascular surgical practice and will be most effective at the local grassroots level.

  17. Collagen vascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many ...

  18. Vascular restoration therapy and bioresorbable vascular scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbing; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of minimally invasive intervention technologies for vascular restoration therapy from early-stage balloon angioplasty in 1970s, metallic bare metal stent and metallic drug-eluting stent technologies in 1990s and 2000s, to bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) technology in large-scale development in recent years. The history, the current stage, the challenges and the future of BVS development are discussed in detail as the best available approach for vascular restoration therapy. The criteria of materials selection, design and processing principles of BVS, and the corresponding clinical trial results are also summarized in this article. PMID:26816624

  19. Multifocal vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T

    2016-03-01

    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations. PMID:27607324

  20. Initiation of vascular development.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-06-01

    The initiation of vascular development occurs during embryogenesis and the development of lateral organs, such as lateral roots and leaves. Understanding the mechanism underlying the initiation of vascular development has been an important goal of plant biologists. Auxin flow is a crucial factor involved in the initiation of vascular development. In addition, recent studies have identified key factors that regulate the establishment of vascular initial cells in embryos and roots. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in this field and discuss the initiation of vascular development.

  1. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  2. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sessions June 14-17, 2017 Sheraton New Orleans New Orleans, LA USA Board Review Course June 16-18, 2017 SVM in the Vascular Lab June 17, 2017 Learn more Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine October 2016 Smoking Cessation More info for patients. SVM Case ...

  3. [Vascular graft prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Chakfé, N; Dieval, F; Thaveau, F; Rinckenbach, S; Hassani, O; Camelot, G; Durand, B; Kretz, J-G

    2004-06-01

    Performed since the 1950s, vascular grafting has opened modern era of vascular surgery. Autologous venous grafts are of first choice for revascularisation of small arteries. Synthetic grafts are mainly modelled using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene or terephtalate polyethylene. These prosthesis are mainly used for revascularization of medium and large size arteries. PMID:15220107

  4. [Vascular factors in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Mottet, B; Aptel, F; Geiser, M; Romanet, J P; Chiquet, C

    2015-12-01

    The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation.

  5. [Vascular factors in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Mottet, B; Aptel, F; Geiser, M; Romanet, J P; Chiquet, C

    2015-12-01

    The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation. PMID:26597554

  6. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  7. [Vascular factors in dementia].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrovascular factors are a common cause of dementia or contribute to cognitive decline in other dementias. Studies showing that cerebrovascular factors are the risk factors for neurodegenerative dementias, especially Alzheimer's disease. Practically all neurodegenerative dementias have a vascular component that reduces cerebral perfusion and has great impact on the clinical picture. Recent data support the view that the neurodegenerative process is caused by cerebrovascular mechanisms. The results showed that patients with vascular cognitive impairment have a typical clinical picture. Various important non-cognitive features are caused by cerebrovascular factors and are associated with a more rapid course of illness. On the other hand the term vascular diseases or cerebrovascular factors include a variety of vascular pathologies. PMID:16358596

  8. Vascular ring (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Vascular ring is a term used to describe a number of abnormal formations of the aorta, the large artery ... the pulmonary artery. The abnormal vessel(s) forms a ring, which encircles and may press down on the ...

  9. Heart and vascular services

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan of the heart Stress tests (many different types of stress tests exist) Vascular ultrasound, such as carotid ultrasound Venous ultrasound of the arms and legs SURGERIES AND INTERVENTIONS ... these types of procedures, a catheter is inserted through the ...

  10. Vascular Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 911 immediately. @ 2016 Vascular Cures is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization tax ID#: 94-2825216 as described in the Section ... 3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax deductible. 555 Price Ave., Suite 180, Redwood City, ...

  11. Implications of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Barodka, Viachaslau M.; Joshi, Brijen L.; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Hogue, Charles W.; Nyhan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Chronological age is a well established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The changes that accumulate in the vasculature with age, though, are highly variable. It is now increasingly recognized that indices of vascular health are more reliable than age per se in predicting adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The variation in the accrual of these age-related vascular changes is a function of multiple genetic and environmental factors. In this review, we highlight some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that characterize the vascular aging phenotype. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the key outcome studies that address the value of these vascular health indices in general and discuss potential effects on perioperative cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:21474663

  12. Sinuosities in vascular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, J.-B.; Martin, J.-L.

    2007-12-01

    In most organs, depending on the scale, the nature of the heart pump, the geometry and topology of the organ, some of the blood vessels tend to exhibit sinuous trajectories. We describe a part of this sinuous behavior, including partial biological and strong physical effects in a global physical framework. We will voluntarily focus on physical and topological effects. This study is performed on the vitelline membrane of the chicken embryo. Crossing angles, sinuosity, and the oscillation amplitude of the vascular system are analyzed. Surprisingly, the equation of river meandering dynamics is found to model the sinuosities in the vascular system, and an extension of this equation to non planar case is able to explain the effect of tissue global curvature on the vascular system. Results of this study could lead to a new understanding of the interplay between biological signaling and physical effects in determining the vascular pattern in different tissues.

  13. What Is Vascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 911 immediately. @ 2016 Vascular Cures is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization tax ID#: 94-2825216 as described in the Section ... 3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax deductible. 555 Price Ave., Suite 180, Redwood City, ...

  14. Women and Vascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Women and Vascular Disease Early Warning Symptom for ... major public health issue, the Society of Interventional Radiology recommends greater screening efforts by the medical community ...

  15. Vascular structures in dermoscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Ayhan, Erhan; Ucmak, Derya; Akkurt, ZeynepMeltem

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy is an aiding method in the visualization of the epidermis and dermis. It is usually used to diagnose melanocytic lesions. In recent years, dermoscopy has increasingly been used to diagnose non-melanocytic lesions. Certain vascular structures, their patterns of arrangement and additional criteria may demonstrate lesion-specific characteristics. In this review, vascular structures and their arrangements are discussed separately in the light of conflicting views and an overview of recent literature. PMID:26375224

  16. Vascular Hyperpermeability and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Ryan; Tharakan, Binu

    2014-01-01

    Vascular hyperpermeability, the excessive leakage of fluid and proteins from blood vessels to the interstitial space, commonly occurs in traumatic and ischemic injuries. This hyperpermeability causes tissue vasogenic edema, which often leads to multiple organ failure resulting in patient death. Vascular hyperpermeability occurs most readily in small blood vessels as their more delicate physical constitution makes them an easy target for barrier dysfunction. A single layer of endothelial cells, linked to one another by cell adhesion molecules, covers the interior surface of each blood vessel. The cell adhesion molecules play a key role in maintaining barrier functions like the regulation of permeability. Aging is a major risk factor for microvascular dysfunction and hyperpermeability. Apart from age-related remodeling of the vascular wall, endothelial barrier integrity and function declines with the advancement of age. Studies that address the physiological and molecular basis of vascular permeability regulation in aging are currently very limited. There have been many cellular and molecular mechanisms proposed to explain aging-related endothelial dysfunction but their true relationship to barrier dysfunction and hyperpermeability is not clearly known. Among the several mechanisms that promote vascular dysfunction and hyperpermeability, the following are considered major contributors: oxidative stress, inflammation, and the activation of apoptotic signaling pathways. In this review we highlighted (a) the physiological, cellular and molecular changes that occur in the vascular system as a product of aging; (b) the potential mechanisms by which aging leads to barrier dysfunction and vascular hyperpermeability in the peripheral and the blood-brain barrier; (c) the mechanisms by which the age-related increases in oxidative stress, inflammatory markers and apoptotic signaling etc. cause endothelial dysfunction and their relationship to hyperpermeability; and (d) the

  17. Assessing vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Forette, F; Rigaud, A S; Morin, M; Gisselbrecht, M; Bert, P

    1995-10-01

    Vascular dementia is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly after Alzheimer's disease. Many forms of vascular dementia have been described: multi-infarct dementia, lacunar dementia, Binswanger's subcortical encephalopathy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, white matter lesions associated with dementias, single infarct dementia, dementia linked to hypoperfusion and haemorrhagic dementia. The difficulty of diagnosing vascular dementia must not be underestimated and an international consensus is needed for epidemiological studies. The NINCDS-AIREN group has recently published diagnostic criteria. The State of California Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers also proposed some which differ from the NINCDS-AIREN criteria in considering only ischaemic vascular dementia and not other mechanisms such as haemorrhagic or hypoxic lesions. Most studies stress hypertension as the most powerful risk factor for all forms of vascular dementia. The incidence rate ranges from 7 per 1000 person-years in normal volunteers to 16 per 1000 person-years in hypertensive patients. No therapeutic attempt has influenced the course of the disease once the dementing condition is established. The only effective approach is preventive treatment. The objective of the SYST-EUR Vascular Dementia project is to confirm that the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension is able to reduce its incidence.

  18. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  19. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  20. Building Vascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hojae; Puranik, Amey S.; Gauvin, Robert; Edalat, Faramarz; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Only a few engineered tissues—skin, cartilage, bladder—have achieved clinical success, and biomaterials designed to replace more complex organs are still far from commercial availability. This gap exists in part because biomaterials lack a vascular network to transfer the oxygen and nutrients necessary for survival and integration after transplantation. Thus, generation of a functional vasculature is essential to the clinical success of engineered tissue constructs and remains a key challenge for regenerative medicine. In this Perspective, we discuss recent advances in vascularization of biomaterials through the use of biochemical modification, exogenous cells, or microengineering technology. PMID:23152325

  1. Vascular wall extracellular matrix proteins and vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyan; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins form the basic structure of blood vessels. Along with providing basic structural support to blood vessels, matrix proteins interact with different sets of vascular cells via cell surface integrin or non-integrin receptors. Such interactions induce vascular cell de novo synthesis of new matrix proteins during blood vessel development or remodeling. Under pathological conditions, vascular matrix proteins undergo proteolytic processing, yielding bioactive fragments to influence vascular wall matrix remodeling. Vascular cells also produce alternatively spliced variants that induce vascular cell production of different matrix proteins to interrupt matrix homeostasis, leading to increased blood vessel stiffness; vascular cell migration, proliferation, or death; or vascular wall leakage and rupture. Destruction of vascular matrix proteins leads to vascular cell or blood-borne leukocyte accumulation, proliferation, and neointima formation within the vascular wall; blood vessels prone to uncontrolled enlargement during blood flow diastole; tortuous vein development; and neovascularization from existing pathological tissue microvessels. Here we summarize discoveries related to blood vessel matrix proteins within the past decade from basic and clinical studies in humans and animals — from expression to cross-linking, assembly, and degradation under physiological and vascular pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, varicose veins, and hypertension. PMID:25045854

  2. Vascular air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, Stephanie; Rowell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Vascular air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal event. It may occur in a variety of procedures and surgeries but is most often associated as an iatrogenic complication of central line catheter insertion. This article reviews the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this phenomenon. PMID:23724390

  3. Adhesion in vascular biology

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The vasculature delivers vital support for all other tissues by supplying oxygen and nutrients for growth and by transporting the immune cells that protect and cure them. Therefore, the microvasculature developed a special barrier that is permissive for gasses like oxygen and carbon dioxide, while fluids are kept inside and pathogens are kept out. While maintaining this tight barrier, the vascular wall also allows immune cells to exit at sites of inflammation or damage, a process that is called transmigration. The endothelial cell layer that forms the inner lining of the vasculature is crucial for the vascular barrier function as well as the regulation of transmigration. Therefore, adhesions between vascular endothelial cells are both tight and dynamic and the mechanisms by which they are established, and the mechanisms by which they are controlled have been extensively studied over the past decades. Because of our fundamental strive to understand biology, but also because defects in vascular barrier control cause a variety of clinical problems and treatment strategies may evolve from our detailed understanding of its mechanisms. This special focus issue features a collection of articles that review key components of the development and control of the endothelial cell-cell junction that is central to endothelial barrier function. PMID:25422845

  4. Engineered Vascularized Muscle Flap.

    PubMed

    Egozi, Dana; Shandalov, Yulia; Freiman, Alina; Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2016-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the thickness of a tissue construct and its consequential viability and applicability in vivo, is the control of oxygen supply to the cell microenvironment, as passive diffusion is limited to a very thin layer. Although various materials have been described to restore the integrity of full-thickness defects of the abdominal wall, no material has yet proved to be optimal, due to low graft vascularization, tissue rejection, infection, or inadequate mechanical properties. This protocol describes a means of engineering a fully vascularized flap, with a thickness relevant for muscle tissue reconstruction. Cell-embedded poly L-lactic acid/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid constructs are implanted around the mouse femoral artery and vein and maintained in vivo for a period of one or two weeks. The vascularized graft is then transferred as a flap towards a full thickness defect made in the abdomen. This technique replaces the need for autologous tissue sacrifications and may enable the use of in vitro engineered vascularized flaps in many surgical applications. PMID:26779840

  5. Vascular Anomalies and Airway Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Caroline; Lee, Edward I.; Edmonds, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies, both tumors and malformations, can occur anywhere in the body, including the airway, often without any external manifestations. However, vascular anomalies involving the airway deserve special consideration as proper recognition and management can be lifesaving. In this article, the authors discuss vascular anomalies as they pertains to the airway, focusing on proper diagnosis, diagnostic modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:25045336

  6. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark of vascular depression. Cognitive dysfunction is common in late-life depression, particularly executive dysfunction, a finding predictive of poor antidepressant response. Over time, progression of hyperintensities and cognitive deficits predicts a poor course of depression and may reflect underlying worsening of vascular disease. This work laid the foundation for examining the mechanisms by which vascular disease influences brain circuits and influences the development and course of depression. We review data testing the vascular depression hypothesis with a focus on identifying potential underlying vascular mechanisms. We propose a disconnection hypothesis, wherein focal vascular damage and white matter lesion location is a crucial factor influencing neural connectivity that contributes to clinical symptomatology. We also propose inflammatory and hypoperfusion hypotheses, concepts that link underlying vascular processes with adverse effects on brain function that influence the development of depression. Testing such hypotheses will not only inform the relationship between vascular disease and depression but also provide guidance on the potential repurposing of pharmacological agents that may improve late-life depression outcomes. PMID:23439482

  7. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Philip B; Counts, Scott E; Nyenhuis, David

    2016-05-01

    Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment are receiving heightened attention as potentially modifiable factors for dementias of later life. These factors have now been linked not only to vascular cognitive disorders but also Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter we review 3 related topics that address vascular contributions to cognitive impairment: 1. vascular pathogenesis and mechanisms; 2. neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypic manifestations of cerebrovascular disease; and 3. prospects for prevention of cognitive impairment of later life based on cardiovascular and stroke risk modification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26704177

  8. Neurobiology of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Enciu, Ana-Maria; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Popescu, Laurenţiu M.; Mureşanu, Dafin F.; Popescu, Bogdan O.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular dementia is, in its current conceptual form, a distinct type of dementia with a spectrum of specific clinical and pathophysiological features. However, in a very large majority of cases, these alterations occur in an already aged brain, characterized by a milieu of cellular and molecular events common for different neurodegenerative diseases. The cell signaling defects and molecular dyshomeostasis might lead to neuronal malfunction prior to the death of neurons and the alteration of neuronal networks. In the present paper, we explore some of the molecular mechanisms underlying brain malfunction triggered by cerebrovascular disease and risk factors. We suggest that, in the age of genetic investigation and molecular diagnosis, the concept of vascular dementia needs a new approach. PMID:21876809

  9. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  10. [Vascular variability syndromes].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Kuniaki; Okajima, Kiyotaka; Yamanaka, Takashi; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2014-08-01

    Analytical global and local methods applied to human blood pressure (BP) records of around-the-clock measurements. The chronobiological interpretation of ambulatory BP monitoring records in the light of time-specified reference values derived from healthy peers matched by sex and age identify vascular variability disorders (VVDs) for an assessment of cardio-, cerebro-, and renovascular disease risk. VVD includes circadian BP over-swinging (CHAT, short for circadian hyper-amplitude tension), deficient heart rate variability, MESOR (midline-estimating statistic of rhythm) hypertension, excessively elevated pulse pressure over 60 mmHg, BP ecphasia (an odd timing of the circadian rhythms in BP but not in that of heart rate) and frequency alteration. The term MESOR-hypertension indicates only one of several VVDs that can combine to for sets of 2, 3 and n-component vascular variability syndromes. PMID:25167758

  11. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  12. Vascular Cambium Development

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Kaisa; Blomster, Tiina; Helariutta, Ykä; Mähönen, Ari Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Secondary phloem and xylem tissues are produced through the activity of vascular cambium, the cylindrical secondary meristem which arises among the primary plant tissues. Most dicotyledonous species undergo secondary development, among them Arabidopsis. Despite its small size and herbaceous nature, Arabidopsis displays prominent secondary growth in several organs, including the root, hypocotyl and shoot. Together with the vast genetic resources and molecular research methods available for it, this has made Arabidopsis a versatile and accessible model organism for studying cambial development and wood formation. In this review, we discuss and compare the development and function of the vascular cambium in the Arabidopsis root, hypocotyl, and shoot. We describe the current understanding of the molecular regulation of vascular cambium and compare it to the function of primary meristems. We conclude with a look at the future prospects of cambium research, including opportunities provided by phenotyping and modelling approaches, complemented by studies of natural variation and comparative genetic studies in perennial and woody plant species. PMID:26078728

  13. Congenital Vascular Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gravereaux, Edwin C.; Nguyen, Louis L.; Cunningham, Leslie D.

    2004-04-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies are rare. The cardiovascular specialist should nevertheless be aware of the more common types of vascular anomalies and understand the implications for patient treatment and the likelihood of associated morbidity. The presentation of congenital arteriovenous malformations can range from asymptomatic or cosmetic lesions, to those causing ischemia, ulceration, hemorrhage, or high-output congestive heart failure. Treatment of large, symptomatic arteriovenous malformations often requires catheter-directed embolization prior to the attempt at complete surgical excision. Later recurrence, due to collateral recruitment, is frequent. Graded compression stockings and leg elevation are the mainstays of treatment for the predominantly venous congenital vascular anomalies. Most congenital central venous disorders are clinically silent. An exception is the retrocaval ureter. Retroaortic left renal vein, circumaortic venous ring, and absent, left-sided or duplicated inferior vena cava are relevant when aortic or inferior vena cava procedures are planned. The treatment of the venous disorders is directed at prevention or management of symptoms. Persistent sciatic artery, popliteal entrapment syndrome, and aberrant right subclavian artery origin are congenital anomalies that are typically symptomatic at presentation. Because they mimic more common diseases, diagnosis is frequently delayed. Delay can result in significant morbidity for the patient. Failure to make the diagnosis of persistent sciatic artery and popliteal entrapment can result in critical limb ischemia and subsequent amputation. Unrecognized aberrant right subclavian artery origin associated with aneurysmal degeneration can rupture and result in death. The treatment options for large-vessel arterial anomalies are surgical, sometimes in combination with endovascular techniques.

  14. Retinal vascular changes are a marker for cerebral vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    The retinal circulation is a potential marker of cerebral vascular disease because it shares origin and drainage with the intracranial circulation and because it can be directly visualized using ophthalmoscopy. Cross sectional and cohort studies have demonstrated associations between chronic retinal and cerebral vascular disease, acute retinal and cerebral vascular disease and chronic retinal vascular disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. In particular, certain qualitative features of retinopathy, retinal artery occlusion and increased retinal vein caliber are associated with concurrent and future cerebrovascular events. These associations persist after accounting for confounding variables known to be disease-causing in both circulations, which supports the potential use of retinal vasculature findings to stratify individuals with regards to cerebral vascular disease risk. PMID:26008809

  15. Vascular effects of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Almeida Rezende, Bruno; Pereira, Aline Carvalho; Cortes, Steyner F; Lemos, Virginia Soares

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are natural plant-derived polyphenolic compounds with various biological properties particularly in the cardiovascular system, including antiatherogenic, antioxidant, vasodilation, antihypertensive, and antiplatelet activities. These biological properties have been evaluated in several experimental and clinical studies. In addition, extensive reviews have discussed the antiatherogenic effect of these polyphenols. However, limited studies have investigated the potential therapeutic vascular effects of these compounds. This review brings together some recent studies, to establish the different signaling pathways involved in the molecular mechanisms that underlie the vasodilation induced by flavonoids.

  16. Medical management of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Cameron C

    2016-03-01

    We have entered an exciting era in the care of patients with vascular anomalies. These disorders require multidisciplinary care and coordination and dedicated centers have emerged to address this need. Vascular tumors have been treated with medical therapies for many years, while malformations have been historically treated with endovascular and operative procedures. The recent serendipitous discoveries of propranolol and sirolimus for vascular anomalies have revolutionized this field. In particular, sirolimus responses are challenging the dogma that vascular malformations are not biologically active. While initially explored for lymphatic anomalies, sirolimus is now being used broadly throughout the spectrum of vascular anomalies. Whether medical therapies are reserved for refractory patients or used first line is currently dependent on the experience and availability of alternative therapies at each institution. On the horizon, we anticipate new drugs targeting genes and pathways involved in vascular anomalies to be developed. Also, combinations of medications and protocols combining medical and procedural approaches are in development for refractory patients. PMID:27607327

  17. The pathobiology of vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer’s disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic signaling that links inextricably the well being of neurons and glia to that of cerebrovascular cells. This review will examine how vascular damage disrupts these vital homeostatic interactions, focusing on the hemispheric white matter, a region at heightened risk for vascular damage, and on the interplay between vascular factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Finally, preventative and therapeutic prospects will be examined, highlighting the importance of midlife vascular risk factor control in the prevention of late-life dementia. PMID:24267647

  18. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    PubMed

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns.

  19. Vascular trauma in civilian practice.

    PubMed Central

    Golledge, J.; Scriven, M. W.; Fligelstone, L. J.; Lane, I. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular trauma is associated with major morbidity and mortality, but little is known about its incidence or nature in Britain. A retrospective study of 36 patients requiring operative intervention for vascular trauma under one vascular surgeon over a 6-year period was undertaken. Twenty-four patients suffered iatrogenic trauma (median age 61 years); including cardiological intervention (19), radiological intervention (2), varicose vein surgery (1), umbilical vein catherisation (1) and isolated hyperthermic limb perfusion (1). There were 23 arterial and three venous injuries. Twelve patients had accidental trauma (median age 23 years). Three of the ten patients with blunt trauma were referred for vascular assessment before orthopaedic intervention, two after an on-table angiogram and five only after an initial orthopaedic procedure (range of delay 6 h to 10 days). Injuries were arterial in nine, venous in two and combined in one. Angiography was obtained in six patients, and in two patients with multiple upper limb fractures identified the site of injury when clinical localisation was difficult. A variety of vascular techniques were used to treat the injuries. Two patients died postoperatively and one underwent major limb amputation. Thirty-two (89%) remain free of vascular sequelae after a median follow-up of 48 months (range 3-72 months). Vascular trauma is uncommon in the United Kingdom. To repair the injuries a limited repertoire of vascular surgery techniques is needed. Therefore, vascular surgical assessment should be sought at an early stage to prevent major limb loss. PMID:8540659

  20. Vascularization of engineered teeth.

    PubMed

    Nait Lechguer, A; Kuchler-Bopp, S; Hu, B; Haïkel, Y; Lesot, H

    2008-12-01

    The implantation of cultured dental cell-cell re-associations allows for the reproduction of fully formed teeth, crown morphogenesis, epithelial histogenesis, mineralized dentin and enamel deposition, and root-periodontium development. Since vascularization is critical for organogenesis and tissue engineering, this work aimed to study: (a) blood vessel formation during tooth development, (b) the fate of blood vessels in cultured teeth and re-associations, and (c) vascularization after in vivo implantation. Ex vivo, blood vessels developed in the dental mesenchyme from the cap to bell stages and in the enamel organ, shortly before ameloblast differentiation. In cultured teeth and re-associations, blood-vessel-like structures remained in the peridental mesenchyme, but never developed into dental tissues. After implantation, both teeth and re-associations became revascularized, although later in the case of the re-associations. In implanted re-associations, newly formed blood vessels originated from the host, allowing for their survival, and affording conditions organ growth, mineralization, and enamel secretion.

  1. Vascular Distribution of Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Once considered primarily occupational, novel nanotechnology innovation and application has led to widespread domestic use and intentional biomedical exposures. With these exciting advances, the breadth and depth of toxicological considerations must also be expanded. The vascular system interacts with every tissue in the body, striving to homeostasis. Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have been reported to distribute in many different organs and tissues. However, these observations have tended to use approaches requiring tissue homogenization and/or gross organ analyses. These techniques, while effective in establishing presence, preclude an exact determination of where ENM are deposited within a tissue. It is necessary to identify this exact distribution and deposition of ENM throughout the cardiovascular system, with respect to vascular hemodynamics and in vivo/ in vitro ENM modifications taken into account if nanotechnology is to achieve its full potential. Distinct levels of the vasculature will first be described as individual compartments. Then the vasculature will be considered as a whole. These unique compartments and biophysical conditions will be discussed in terms of their propensity to favor ENM deposition. Understanding levels of the vasculature will also be discussed. Ultimately, future studies must verify the mechanisms speculated on and presented herein. PMID:24777845

  2. Vascular graft infections.

    PubMed

    Hasse, Barbara; Husmann, Lars; Zinkernagel, Annelies; Weber, Rainer; Lachat, Mario; Mayer, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Vascular procedures are rarely complicated by infection, but if prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) occurs, morbidity and mortality are high. Several patient-related, surgery-related and postoperative risk factors are reported, but they are not well validated. PVGI is due to bacterial colonisation of the wound and the underlying prosthetic graft, generally as a result of direct contamination during the operative procedure, mainly from the patient's skin or adjacent bowel. There is no consensus on diagnostic criteria or on the best management of PVGI. On the basis of reported clinical studies and our own experience, we advocate a surgical approach combining repeated radical local debridement, with graft preservation whenever possible or partial excision of the infected graft, depending on its condition, plus simultaneous negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT). In addition, antimicrobial therapy is recommended, but there is no consensus on which classes of agent are adequate for the treatment of PVGI and whether certain infections may be treated by means of NPWT alone. Since staphylococci and Gram-negative rods are likely to be isolated, empirical treatment might include a penicillinase-resistant beta-lactam or a glycopeptide, plus an aminoglycoside, the latter for Gram-negative coverage and synergistic treatment of Gram-positive cocci. Additionally, empirical treatment might include rifampicin since it penetrates well into biofilms.

  3. 219 vascular fellows' perception of the future of vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Anil P; Ascher, Enrico; Marks, Natalie; Shiferson, Alexander; Puggioni, Alessandra; Tran, Victor; Patel, Nirav; Jacob, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to identify the fellows' concerns about the future of the field of vascular surgery, we conducted a survey consisting of 22 questions at an annual national meeting in March from 2004 to 2007. In order to obtain accurate data, all surveys were kept anonymous. The fellows were asked (1) what type of practice they anticipated they would be in, (2) what the new training paradigm for fellows should be, (3) to assess their expectation of the needed manpower with respect to the demand for vascular surgeons, (4) what were major threats to the future of vascular surgery, (5) whether they had heard of and were in favor of the American Board of Vascular Surgery (ABVS), (6) who should be able to obtain vascular privileges, and (7) about their interest in an association for vascular surgical trainees. Of 273 attendees, 219 (80%) completed the survey. Males made up 87% of those surveyed, and 60% were between the ages of 31 and 35 years. Second-year fellows made up 82% of those surveyed. Those expecting to join a private, academic, or mixed practice made up 35%, 28%, and 20% of the respondents, respectively, with 71% anticipating entering a 100% vascular practice. Forty percent felt that 5 years of general surgery with 2 years of vascular surgery should be the training paradigm, while 45% suggested 3 and 3 years, respectively. A majority, 79%, felt that future demand would exceed the available manpower, while 17% suggested that manpower would meet demand. The major challenges to the future of vascular surgery were felt to be competition from cardiology (82%) or radiology (30%) and lack of an independent board (29%). Seventeen percent were not aware of the ABVS, and only 2% were against it; 71% suggested that vascular privileges be restricted to board-certified vascular surgeons. Seventy-six percent were interested in forming an association for vascular trainees to address the issues of the future job market (67%), endovascular training during fellowship (56

  4. Vascular surgery: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1999-09-01

    Isaac Newton, among others, observed that 'we see so far because we are standing upon the shoulders of giants'. In vascular surgery most of the giants have been European, and this is a heritage which we as Europeans can take pride in and build upon if we chose to do so. As in other areas of life, commitment is essential in order to influence the future. For vascular surgeons in Europe this means active participation in the European scientific societies for vascular surgery and in the UEMS. The main value of the EBSQ.VASC assessments to date has been to expose the uneven standards of training in vascular surgery within the European Union. Only if action follows to address these inequalities will the tactics of the European Board of Vascular Surgery be vindicated.

  5. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Echeverri, Darío; Montes, Félix R.; Cabrera, Mariana; Galán, Angélica; Prieto, Angélica

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial. PMID:21188209

  6. Geriatric syndromes--vascular disorders?

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Timo E; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Tilvis, Reijo S; O'Neill, Desmond; Erkinjuntti, Timo J

    2013-05-01

    The term geriatric syndrome is used to characterize multifactorial clinical conditions among older people which are not subsumed readily into disease entities, but which nevertheless predispose older people to disability and death. Commonly included are frailty, dementia, delirium, incontinence, falls, and dizziness. Geriatric syndromes are common among older people: in a recent survey, 50% of those aged more than 65 had one or more of these conditions. Better methods for prevention and treatment are needed, but current strategies have lacked a coherent conceptual and diagnostic framework. Prevention and interventions need to be targeted at earlier ages, with geriatrics expertise needed in the definition and operationalization of these complex entities. In this review we consolidate evidence that vascular disorders, including vascular ageing and vascular diseases, are key etiological factors of geriatric syndromes. Identifying this vascular dimension would offer opportunities for more efficient preventive strategies and mandates earlier intervention, especially for women, among whom vascular disease is often expressed more insidiously than among men. This would entail a sensitization of the health care system to the systematic detection of the syndromes, which are currently underdiagnosed. Further disentangling of the mechanisms of vascular ageing may offer therapies for vascular diseases and geriatric syndromes alike.

  7. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. PMID:25937473

  8. [The future of vascular medicine].

    PubMed

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B

    2014-10-01

    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to deal with the growing multi-morbidity of the patient, to perform complex therapies even in an acute emergency and due to sufficient number of cases to present with well-trained and experienced teams. These requirements are mandatory to decrease patients' mortality step by step.

  9. Vascular Injuries: Trends in Management

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Wani, Nasir-ud-din

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent loss of life or limb. Sometimes serious vascular injury presents with only subtle or occult signs or symptoms. The patient may present weeks or months after initial injury with symptoms of vascular insufficiency, embolization, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula etc. Although the majority of vascular injuries are caused by penetrating trauma from gunshot wounds, stabbing or blast injury, the possibility of vascular injury needs to be considered in patients presenting with displaced long bone fractures, crush injury, prolonged immobilization in a fixed position by tight casts or bandages and various invasive procedures. iatrogenic vascular injuries constitute about 10% of cases in most series; however the incidence is an increasing trend because more endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and cardiac catheterization are being performed routinely. Civilian trauma is more frequently seen in young males. However, it can occur at any age due to road accidents, firearms, bomb blasts and diagnostic procedures. Most of the time, civilian trauma causes less tissue damage. There is an epidemic of vascular injuries in Kashmir valley because of problems in law and order in the past two decades. This review deals with the topic in detail. PMID:24350103

  10. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations.

  11. Vascular calcification: Mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Jane A

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is highly prevalent and, when present, is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. Vascular smooth muscle cells play an integral role in mediating vessel calcification by undergoing differentiation to osteoblast-like cells and generating matrix vesicles that serve as a nidus for calcium-phosphate deposition in the vessel wall. Once believed to be a passive process, it is now recognized that vascular calcification is a complex and highly regulated process that involves activation of cellular signaling pathways, circulating inhibitors of calcification, genetic factors, and hormones. This review will examine several of the key mechanisms linking vascular smooth muscle cells to vessel calcification that may be targeted to reduce vessel wall mineralization and, thereby, reduce cardiovascular risk.

  12. The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative.

    PubMed

    Cronenwett, Jack L; Kraiss, Larry W; Cambria, Richard P

    2012-05-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) is designed to improve the quality, safety, effectiveness, and cost of vascular health care. It uses the structure of a Patient Safety Organization to permit collection of patient-identified information but protect benchmarked comparisons from legal discovery. The SVS VQI is uniquely organized as a distributed network of regional quality groups to facilitate local translation of registry data into practice change while maintaining the power of a national registry. Detailed data specific to each commonly performed open and endovascular procedure are collected, both in-hospital and at ≥ 1 year of follow-up. Quality measures are reported to physicians and hospitals, which allow anonymous risk-adjusted benchmarking within regions or nationally. All specialties that perform vascular procedures are included, and international participation is encouraged. This review describes the current status of the SVS VQI.

  13. Defining excellence in vascular neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Nader; Spetzler, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    Success as a vascular neurosurgeon almost always begins with passion, an inherent love for the work that drives an insatiable desire for personal improvement. A personal definition of excellence in vascular neurosurgery includes several fundamental qualities: mastery of the basics, refinement of technique, advancement of technology, investigative study, advanced decision making, microsurgical innovation, a well-rounded surgical armamentarium, and a lifelong commitment to teaching. Ultimately, the reward for these efforts is the ability to influence generations to come, particularly as one follows the rising careers of former trainees, each redefining the term "excellence" in vascular neurosurgery.

  14. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  15. Retina vascular network recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  16. Constructal vascularized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  17. BMP signaling in vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Pardali, Evangelia; Sánchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; ten Dijke, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that signal via type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. BMPs are multifunctional regulators of development and tissue homeostasis and they were initially characterized as inducers of bone regeneration. Genetic studies in humans and mice showed that perturbations in BMP signaling lead to various diseases, such as skeletal diseases, vascular diseases and cancer. Mutations in BMP type II receptor and BMP type I receptor/activin receptor-like kinase 1 have been linked to pulmonary arterial hypertension and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, respectively. BMPs have also been implicated in promoting vascular calcification and tumor angiogenesis. In this review we discuss the role of BMP signaling in vascular diseases and the value of BMP signaling as a vascular disease marker or a therapeutic target. PMID:22710160

  18. Biomaterials for vascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Swathi; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the USA. The limited availability of healthy autologous vessels for bypass grafting procedures has led to the fabrication of prosthetic vascular conduits. While synthetic polymers have been extensively studied as substitutes in vascular engineering, they fall short of meeting the biological challenges at the blood–material interface. Various tissue engineering strategies have emerged to address these flaws and increase long-term patency of vascular grafts. Vascular cell seeding of scaffolds and the design of bioactive polymers for in situ arterial regeneration have yielded promising results. This article describes the advances made in biomaterials design to generate suitable materials that not only match the mechanical properties of native vasculature, but also promote cell growth, facilitate extracellular matrix production and inhibit thrombogenicity. PMID:20017698

  19. Tissue engineering: Perfusable vascular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgacs, Gabor

    2012-09-01

    A rapid vascular casting approach that uses carbohydrate glass as a sacrificial template allows tissues to be built that can be kept alive for longer in the laboratory until needed for transplantation.

  20. Measuring Vascular Permeability In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Eelco F J; Baish, James W; Padera, Timothy P; Fukumura, Dai

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, in vivo vascular permeability measurements have provided significant insight into vascular functions in physiological and pathophysiological conditions such as the response to pro- and anti-angiogenic signaling, abnormality of tumor vasculature and its normalization, and delivery and efficacy of therapeutic agents. Different approaches for vascular permeability measurements have been established. Here, we describe and discuss a conventional 2D imaging method to measure vascular permeability, which was originally documented by Gerlowski and Jain in 1986 (Microvasc Res 31:288-305, 1986) and further developed by Yuan et al. in the early 1990s (Microvasc Res 45:269-289, 1993; Cancer Res 54:352-3356, 1994), and our recently developed 3D imaging method, which advances the approach originally described by Brown et al. in 2001 (Nat Med 7:864-868, 2001). PMID:27581015

  1. How to Prevent Vascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 911 immediately. @ 2016 Vascular Cures is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization tax ID#: 94-2825216 as described in the Section ... 3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax deductible. 555 Price Ave., Suite 180, Redwood City, ...

  2. Social media in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. PMID:23321344

  3. Vascular heterogeneity in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Molema, Grietje; Aird, William C

    2012-03-01

    Blood vessels and their endothelial lining are uniquely adapted to the needs of the underlying tissue. The structure and function of the vasculature varies both between and within different organs. In the kidney, the vascular architecture is designed to function both in oxygen/nutrient delivery and filtration of blood according to the homeostatic needs of the body. Here, we review spatial and temporal differences in renal vascular phenotypes in both health and disease.

  4. Multimodality imaging of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Vascular malformations and hemangiomas are common in children but remain a source of confusion during diagnosis, in part because of the lack of a uniform terminology. With the existing treatments for hemangiomas and vascular malformations, it is important to make the correct diagnosis initially to prevent adverse physical and emotional sequelae in not only the child but also the family. The diagnosis of vascular malformations is made primarily by the clinician and based on the physical exam. Imaging is carried out using predominantly ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are complementary modalities. In most cases of vascular anomalies, US is the first line of imaging as it is readily available, less expensive, lacks ionizing radiation and does not require sedation. MRI is also of great help for further characterizing the lesions. Conventional arteriography is reserved for cases that require therapeutic intervention, more commonly for arteriovenous malformations. Radiographs usually play no role in diagnosing vascular anomalies in children. In this article, the author describes the terminology and types of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and their clinical, histological features, as well as the imaging approach and appearance.

  5. Differentiation of Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells Contributes to Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenyu; Wang, Aijun; Yuan, Falei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Bo; Chu, Julia S.; Helms, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the de-differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative/synthetic phenotype has an important role during vascular remodeling and diseases. Here we provide evidence that challenges this theory. We identify a new type of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) in blood vessel wall. MVSCs express markers including Sox17, Sox10 and S100β, are cloneable, have telomerase activity, and can differentiate into neural cells and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells that subsequently differentiate into SMCs. On the other hand, we use lineage tracing with smooth muscle myosin heavy chain as a marker to show that MVSCs and proliferative or synthetic SMCs do not arise from the de-differentiation of mature SMCs. Upon vascular injuries, MVSCs, instead of SMCs, become proliferative, and MVSCs can differentiate into SMCs and chondrogenic cells, thus contributing to vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. These findings support a new hypothesis that the differentiation of MVSCs, rather than the de-differentiation of SMCs, contributes to vascular remodeling and diseases. PMID:22673902

  6. Early experience on peripheral vascular application of the vascular plugs

    PubMed Central

    Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Sinha, Alok Kumar; Kamana, Naveen Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcatheter closure of various congenital and acquired vascular malformations with Amplatzer Vascular plugs I and II has been established. Here we present our experience with device closure. Materials and methods Between October 2006 and August 2012, nine (three males and six females) patients aged between 11 months and 62 years (mean age 19 years) underwent percutaneous device closure with AVP I and II vascular plugs for congenital and acquired arteriovenous malformation and cardiac diverticulum are presented here. Results One case of coronary cameral fistula, four cases of pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, one case of large major aortopulmonary collaterals (in tetralogy of Fallot closed before intracardiac repair), one case of congenital cardiac diverticulum, one case of fistula between external carotid artery and internal jugular vein and one case of iatrogenic carotid jugular fistula were successfully closed with AVP I and II plugs. Overall in nine cases, 16 AVP I and II plugs were deployed to occlude feeding vessels and one cardiac diverticulum. The technical success rate was 100%. No major complications were observed. Conclusion Amplatzer vascular plugs can be used successfully for closure of various congenital and acquired vascular malformations with good result. PMID:24206877

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Rachel B.; Cai, Qing; Hong, Ji-Young; Plank, Jennifer L.; Aamodt, Kristie; Prasad, Nripesh; Aramandla, Radhika; Dai, Chunhua; Levy, Shawn E.; Pozzi, Ambra; Labosky, Patricia A.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Brissova, Marcela; Powers, Alvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurovascular alignment is a common anatomical feature of organs, but the mechanisms leading to this arrangement are incompletely understood. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling profoundly affects both vascularization and innervation of the pancreatic islet. In mature islets, nerves are closely associated with capillaries, but the islet vascularization process during embryonic organogenesis significantly precedes islet innervation. Although a simple neuronal meshwork interconnects the developing islet clusters as they begin to form at E14.5, the substantial ingrowth of nerve fibers into islets occurs postnatally, when islet vascularization is already complete. Using genetic mouse models, we demonstrate that VEGF regulates islet innervation indirectly through its effects on intra-islet endothelial cells. Our data indicate that formation of a VEGF-directed, intra-islet vascular plexus is required for development of islet innervation, and that VEGF-induced islet hypervascularization leads to increased nerve fiber ingrowth. Transcriptome analysis of hypervascularized islets revealed an increased expression of extracellular matrix components and axon guidance molecules, with these transcripts being enriched in the islet-derived endothelial cell population. We propose a mechanism for coordinated neurovascular development within pancreatic islets, in which endocrine cell-derived VEGF directs the patterning of intra-islet capillaries during embryogenesis, forming a scaffold for the postnatal ingrowth of essential autonomic nerve fibers. PMID:24574008

  8. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  9. Vascular tissue engineering: towards the next generation vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuji; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Duncan, Daniel; Hibino, Narutoshi; Solomon, Daniel; Cleary, Muriel; Rathore, Animesh; Fein, Corey; Church, Spencer; Breuer, Christopher

    2011-04-30

    The application of tissue engineering technology to cardiovascular surgery holds great promise for improving outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Currently used synthetic vascular grafts have several limitations including thrombogenicity, increased risk of infection, and lack of growth potential. We have completed the first clinical trial evaluating the feasibility of using tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVG) created by seeding autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) onto biodegradable tubular scaffolds. Despite an excellent safety profile, data from the clinical trial suggest that the primary graft related complication of the TEVG is stenosis, affecting approximately 16% of grafts within the first seven years after implantation. Continued investigation into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying vascular neotissue formation will improve our basic understanding and provide insights that will enable the rationale design of second generation TEVG. PMID:21421015

  10. Vascular changes in hard palate sialolipoma: Sialoangiolipoma or vascular malformation?

    PubMed Central

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Palate sialolipomas are rare. Less than 10 cases located in the hard palate are reported to our knowledge. We report a case of hard palate sialolipoma, peculiar by the intratumor vascular patterns. A 67-year-old man presented with a 1.5 cm lesion of the oral hard palate. The lesion was surgically resected. On microscopy, the lesion, partly encapsulated, consisted of a proliferation of mature adipocytes containing normal minor salivary gland tissue and branching intratumoral vessels of varied size with irregularly thickened wall and papillary projections or tufts. The microscopic features of the tumor we report suggest that vascular malformation-like patterns may occur in sialolipomas of the hard palate. This morphological vascular peculiarity should be acknowledged since it may represent source of hemorrhage. PMID:26604516

  11. Vascular effect of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Svyatoslav N.; Kopayeva, V. G.; Andreev, J. B.; Ponomarev, Gelii V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Suchin, H. M.

    1996-01-01

    Vascular effect of PDT has been studied in patients with corneal vascularized leucomas (10 patients) and in patients with corneal neovascularized transplant (3 patients). For vascularized leucomas the method of photodynamic therapy consisted of the local injection of dimegin (deiteroporphyrin derivative) into the space of the newly-formed vessels under operating microscope (opton) with the microneedle (diameter 200 microns) and corneal irradiation by the operating microscope light. For corneal neovascularized transplant the injection of photogem (hematoporphyrin derivative) intravenously were made with subsequent irradiation by light of dye laser (5 hours after the injection) with light density of 150 mW/cm2 for 15 minutes. In all the cases at the time of irradiation the aggregated blood flow was appeared, followed by blood flow stasis. In postoperative period the vessels disintegrated into separate fragments which disappeared completely after 10 - 15 days. Taking into account the data of light microscopy, the disappearance of the vessels took place as a result of the vascular endothelium lisis along the vascular walls. Neovascularized cornea and newly-formed vessels in tumor stroms have much in common. The vessel alterations study presented in this paper, may serve to specify the mechanism of photodynamic destruction of neovascularized stroma of tumor.

  12. Vascular potassium channels in NVC.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K

    2016-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the external potassium ion ([K(+)]0) works as a potent vasodilator in the dynamic regulation of local cerebral blood flow. Astrocytes may play a central role for producing K(+) outflow possibly through calcium-activated potassium channels on the end feet, responding to a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which might well reflect local neuronal activity. A mild elevation of [K(+)]0 in the end feet/vascular smooth muscle space could activate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase concomitant with inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to a hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle and relaxation of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels. Also proposed notion is endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels and/or inwardly rectifying potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle. A larger elevation of [K(+)]0, which may occur pathophysiologically in such as spreading depression or stroke, can trigger a depolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasoconstriction instead. PMID:27130411

  13. Adverse Outcome Pathways for Embryonic Vascular Disruption and Alternative Methods to Identify Chemical Vascular Disruptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide range of adverse prenatal outcomes. We used information from genetic mouse models linked to phenotypic outcomes and a vascular toxicity knowledge base to construct an embryonic vascular disrupt...

  14. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a “primitive” vascular tissue (a lycophyte), as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte), and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non-vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT, and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants. PMID:23882276

  15. Vascular ultrasound for atherosclerosis imaging

    PubMed Central

    de Korte, Chris L.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; van der Steen, Anton F. W.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world. Therefore, detection and quantification of atherosclerotic disease is of paramount importance to monitor treatment and possible prevention of acute events. Vascular ultrasound is an excellent technique to assess the geometry of vessel walls and plaques. The high temporal as well as spatial resolution allows quantification of luminal area and plaque size and volume. While carotid arteries can be imaged non-invasively, scanning of coronary arteries requires invasive intravascular catheters. Both techniques have already demonstrated their clinical applicability. Using linear array technology, detection of disease as well as monitoring of pharmaceutical treatment in carotid arteries are feasible. Data acquired with intravascular ultrasound catheters have proved to be especially beneficial in understanding the development of atherosclerotic disease in coronary arteries. With the introduction of vascular elastography not only the geometry of plaques but also the risk for rupture of plaques might be identified. These so-called vulnerable plaques are frequently not flow-limiting and rupture of these plaques is responsible for the majority of cerebral and cardiac ischaemic events. Intravascular ultrasound elastography studies have demonstrated a high correlation between high strain and vulnerable plaque features, both ex vivo and in vivo. Additionally, pharmaceutical intervention could be monitored using this technique. Non-invasive vascular elastography has recently been developed for carotid applications by using compound scanning. Validation and initial clinical evaluation is currently being performed. Since abundance of vasa vasorum (VV) is correlated with vulnerable plaque development, quantification of VV might be a unique tool to even prevent this from happening. Using ultrasound contrast agents, it has been demonstrated that VV can be identified and quantified. Although far from routine

  16. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area. PMID:25926569

  17. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  18. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike many neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, vascular damage is preventable. Despite the heterogeneity of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the complexity of its clinical presentations, the potential for limiting progression and changing the trajectory of damage makes it all the more important for physicians to be educated about the syndrome and to remain vigilant when taking care of patients. In this review, we outline an approach to patients with possible VCI, summarize current treatment and prevention guidelines, and provide an overview with case examples. PMID:26124978

  19. Genetic basis for vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kirkorian, A Yasmine; Grossberg, Anna L; Püttgen, Katherine B

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental genetics of many isolated vascular anomalies and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies have been elucidated. The rate of discovery continues to increase, expanding our understanding of the underlying interconnected molecular pathways. This review summarizes genetic and clinical information on the following diagnoses: capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, arteriovenous malformation, PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), Proteus syndrome, SOLAMEN syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, congenital hemangioma, verrucous venous malformation, cutaneomucosal venous malformation, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, Parkes-Weber syndrome, and Maffucci syndrome. PMID:27607321

  20. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Solveig L; Hook, Kristen P

    2016-03-01

    This review provides a clinically-oriented summary of the most commonly encountered overgrowth syndromes associated with vascular malformations. This manuscript will outline morphologic features, clinical evaluation and management of this complex group of patients. Recent genetic advances have aided in classification and help to explain overlapping clinical features in many cases. PMID:27607325

  1. The relationships of vascular plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kenrick, P

    2000-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic research indicates that vascular plants evolved from bryophyte-like ancestors and that this involved extensive modifications to the life cycle. These conclusions are supported by a range of systematic data, including gene sequences, as well as evidence from comparative morphology and the fossil record. Within vascular plants, there is compelling evidence for two major clades, which have been termed lycophytes (clubmosses) and euphyllophytes (seed plants, ferns, horsetails). The implications of recent phylogenetic work are discussed with reference to life cycle evolution and the interpretation of stratigraphic inconsistencies in the early fossil record of land plants. Life cycles are shown to have passed through an isomorphic phase in the early stages of vascular plant evolution. Thus, the gametophyte generation of all living vascular plants is the product of massive morphological reduction. Phylogenetic research corroborates earlier suggestions of a major representational bias in the early fossil record. Mega-fossils document a sequence of appearance of groups that is at odds with that predicted by cladogram topology. It is argued here that the pattern of appearance and diversification of plant megafossils owes more to changing geological conditions than to rapid biological diversification. PMID:10905613

  2. Vascular effects of intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kanagy, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by repeated upper airway obstruction during sleep and affects between 5% and 20% of the population. Epidemiological studies reveal that sleep apnea and associated intermittent hypoxemia increase the risk for hypertension and vascular disease but the mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood. This review reports the results of rodent models of intermittent hypoxia (IH) and relates them to the observed hemodynamic and vascular consequences of sleep apnea. These animal studies have demonstrated that IH exposure in the absence of any other comorbidity causes hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and augmented constrictor sensitivity, all due at least in part to increased vascular oxidative stress. Animal studies have used a variety of exposure paradigms to study intermittent hypoxia and these different exposure protocols can cause hypocapnia or hypercapnia-or maintain eucapnia-with accompanying alterations in plasma pH. It appears that these different profiles of arterial blood gases can lead to divergent results but the impact of these differences is still being investigated. Overall, the studies in rodents have clearly demonstrated that the vascular and hemodynamic impact of intermittent hypoxia provides a strong rationale for treating clinical sleep apnea to prevent the resulting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. Peripheral vascular imaging and intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D. ); Orron, D.E. )

    1990-01-01

    This reference addresses the entire clinical approach to the vascular system from the diagnosis of pathology to surgery or interventional radiological management. All diagnostic imaging modalities currently available are included with specific information on how to interpret various results. It features discussions of the latest therapeutic techniques, including laser angioplasty, intravascular stents, and transluminal embolization.

  4. [Vascular risk of oral contraceptive agents: realities and mechanisms. I. Risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Beaumont, V; Beaumont, J L

    1989-06-17

    The suspected risk of oral contraception was confirmed when large scale epidemiological studies became available. The present work recalls the methodology of a good evaluation, the pros and cons of retrospective and prospective studies, the different appreciations provided by measuring "relative risk" or "attributable risk". In terms of public health, the data obtained supported the necessity to include mortality related to oral contraception in an evaluation of reproductive mortality. This work compares the incidence of vascular complications evaluated through different studies, according to the criteria selected and the type of vascular disease. The advantage of lowering estrogen content is considered. PMID:2525761

  5. Nilotinib-associated vascular events.

    PubMed

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge

    2012-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that nilotinib therapy may be associated with severe peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). The authors describe the experience at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center regarding vascular events associated with nilotinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Overall, 5 cases of PAOD were identified among 233 patients, for an incidence of 2%. Nilotinib is a highly selective inhibitor of the inactive conformation of ABL1 kinase. An improved topologic fit to the ABL1 protein-binding surface contributes to its increased potency over imatinib. This higher selectivity in vitro translated to an improved tolerability in vivo. In fact, nilotinib therapy in the frontline phase III ENESTnd (Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials-Newly Diagnosed Patients) study was associated with an improved toxicity profile compared with that of imatinib. Intriguingly, several cases of severe peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have been reported among patients treated with nilotinib in small series. We have identified 5 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in whom vascular events developed that were likely related to nilotinib therapy among 233 (2%) patients treated at our institution: 1 patient had recurrent Raynaud syndrome, a second patient had recurrent cerebrovascular accidents, and 3 other patients had PAOD (2 of them with other vascular events, including coronary artery disease and pulmonary emboli, respectively). Risk factors for vascular disease were present in only 1 patient with a history of diabetes mellitus. Although the incidence of vascular events is low, this potential complication should be taken into account when selecting nilotinib for the treatment of CML.

  6. History of vascular access for haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Konner, Klaus

    2005-12-01

    The history of vascular access is a history of vascular surgery as well as a history of dialysis therapy. This survey is a personal view on the history of vascular access without the ambition to cover every detail, but with an effort to mention the major steps in a fascinating panorama.

  7. Vascular diseases: aortitis, aortic aneurysms, and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Ladich, Elena; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Romero, Maria E; Virmani, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the aorta broadly include noninfectious and infectious aortitis, periaortitis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. Aortitis is uncommon but is increasingly recognized as an important cause of aortic aneurysms and dissections. Abdominal (AAA) and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) have different pathologies and etiologies. AAAs are the most common type of aortic aneurysm, and the vast majority of these are atherosclerotic. The causes of TAA vary depending on the site of involvement, but medial degeneration is a common pathologic substrate, regardless of etiology, and genetic influences play a prominent role in TAA expression. Standardized classification schemes for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the aorta have only recently been added to the pathology literature. A brief overview of the new histopathologic classifications for aortic inflammatory and degenerative diseases has recently been published by the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology as a consensus document on the surgical pathology of the aorta. Vascular calcification is a highly regulated biologic process, and the mechanisms leading to vascular calcification are under investigation. Calcification may occur in the intima (atherosclerotic) or in the media secondary to metabolic disease. Rarely, vascular calcification may be associated with genetic disorders. PMID:27526100

  8. Akt isoforms in vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haixiang; Littlewood, Trevor; Bennett, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The mammalian serine/threonine Akt kinases comprise three closely related isoforms: Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3. Akt activation has been implicated in both normal and disease processes, including in development and metabolism, as well as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Although Akt signalling has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, its role in cardiovascular disease is less clear. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that the three Akt isoforms exhibit distinct tissue expression profiles, localise to different subcellular compartments, and have unique modes of activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, genetic studies in mice show distinct effects of individual Akt isoforms on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. This review summarises recent studies of individual Akt isoforms in atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and aneurysm formation, to provide a comprehensive overview of Akt function in vascular disease.

  9. Akt isoforms in vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haixiang; Littlewood, Trevor; Bennett, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian serine/threonine Akt kinases comprise three closely related isoforms: Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3. Akt activation has been implicated in both normal and disease processes, including in development and metabolism, as well as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Although Akt signalling has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, its role in cardiovascular disease is less clear. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that the three Akt isoforms exhibit distinct tissue expression profiles, localise to different subcellular compartments, and have unique modes of activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, genetic studies in mice show distinct effects of individual Akt isoforms on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. This review summarises recent studies of individual Akt isoforms in atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and aneurysm formation, to provide a comprehensive overview of Akt function in vascular disease. PMID:25929188

  10. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    PubMed

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  11. Vascular Pathophysiology in Hearing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh

    2014-01-01

    The inner ear vasculature is responsible for maintenance of the blood-labyrinth barrier, transport of systemic hormones for ion homeostasis, and supplying nutrients for metabolic functions. Unfortunately, these blood vessels also expose the ear to circulating inflammatory factors resulting from systemic diseases. Thus, while the inner ear blood vessels are critical for normal function, they also are facilitating pathologic mechanisms that result in hearing and vestibular dysfunction. In spite of these numerous critical roles of inner ear vasculature, little is known of its normal homeostatic functions and how these are compromised in disease. The objective of this review is to discuss the current concepts of vascular biology, how blood vessels naturally respond to circulating inflammatory factors, and how such mechanisms of vascular pathophysiology may cause hearing loss. PMID:25346568

  12. Metoclopramide and renal vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Manara, A R; Bolsin, S; Monk, C R; Hartnell, G; Harris, R A

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the effect of i.v. metoclopramide on renal vascular resistance in nine healthy volunteers. Peak systolic and end-diastolic frequencies were measured using duplex Doppler ultrasound of a renal interlobar artery, before and after the administration of i.v. metoclopramide 10 mg, and the resistance index derived. There was no significant change in mean arterial pressure or resistance index following metoclopramide.

  13. Vascular compression of the duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Moskovich, R; Cheong-Leen, P

    1986-01-01

    Compression of the third or fourth part of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery or one of its branches is the anatomic basis for some cases of duodenal obstruction. Two cases of vascular obstruction of the duodenum after surgical correction of scoliosis are presented. The embryologic and pathoanatomic bases for this condition, and the rationale for treatment, are described. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:3761291

  14. Metoclopramide and renal vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Manara, A R; Bolsin, S; Monk, C R; Hartnell, G; Harris, R A

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the effect of i.v. metoclopramide on renal vascular resistance in nine healthy volunteers. Peak systolic and end-diastolic frequencies were measured using duplex Doppler ultrasound of a renal interlobar artery, before and after the administration of i.v. metoclopramide 10 mg, and the resistance index derived. There was no significant change in mean arterial pressure or resistance index following metoclopramide. PMID:1997046

  15. [Jaboulay, vascular surgeon at Lyon].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Mathieu Jaboulay was an excellent surgeon. He was the first to come up with the principles of vascular surgery as he made a surgical anastomosis between two arteries of a dog by an eversion circular suture. In 1902, he implemented a suture between an artery and a vein in an arteritis by obliteration. Jaboulay also tried the graft of an animal kidney on the crease of a human elbow in 1906. Jaboulay was an initiator for Alexis Carrel. PMID:20527332

  16. The European experience with vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Abe; Leppäniemi, Ari K; Androulakis, George A; Archodovassilis, F; Bouillon, Bertil; Cavina, Enrico; Chaloner, Eddie; Chiarugi, Massimo; Davidovic, Lazar; Delgado-Millan, Miguel Angel; Goris, Jan; Gunnlaugsson, Gunnar H; Jover, Jose Maria; Konstandoulakis, Manoussos M; Kurtoglu, Mehmet; Lepäntalo, Mauri; Llort-Pont, Carme; Meneu-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Moreno-Gonzales, Enrique; Navarro-Soto, Salvador; Panoussis, P; Ryan, James M; Salenius, Juha P; Seccia, Massimo; Takolander, Rabbe; Taviloglu, Korhan; Tiesenhausen, Kurt; Torfason, Bjarni; Uranüs, Selman

    2002-02-01

    The rich and diverse heritage of the management of vascular injuries in the 45 independent European countries prevents the authors from revealing a uniform picture of the European experience, but some trends are clearly emerging. In countries with a low incidence of penetrating trauma and increasing use of interventional vascular procedures, the proportion of iatrogenic vascular trauma exceeds 40% of all vascular injuries, whereas on other parts of the continent, armed conflicts are still a major cause of vascular trauma. National vascular registries, mostly in the Scandinavian countries, produce useful, nationwide data about vascular trauma and its management but suffer still from inadequate data collection. Despite a relatively low incidence of vascular trauma in most European countries, the results are satisfactory, probably in most cases because of active and early management by surgeons on call, whether with vascular training or not, treating all kinds of vascular surgical emergencies. In some countries, attempts at developing a trauma and emergency surgical specialty, including expertise in the management of vascular injuries, are on their way. PMID:11905944

  17. The European experience with vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Abe; Leppäniemi, Ari K; Androulakis, George A; Archodovassilis, F; Bouillon, Bertil; Cavina, Enrico; Chaloner, Eddie; Chiarugi, Massimo; Davidovic, Lazar; Delgado-Millan, Miguel Angel; Goris, Jan; Gunnlaugsson, Gunnar H; Jover, Jose Maria; Konstandoulakis, Manoussos M; Kurtoglu, Mehmet; Lepäntalo, Mauri; Llort-Pont, Carme; Meneu-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Moreno-Gonzales, Enrique; Navarro-Soto, Salvador; Panoussis, P; Ryan, James M; Salenius, Juha P; Seccia, Massimo; Takolander, Rabbe; Taviloglu, Korhan; Tiesenhausen, Kurt; Torfason, Bjarni; Uranüs, Selman

    2002-02-01

    The rich and diverse heritage of the management of vascular injuries in the 45 independent European countries prevents the authors from revealing a uniform picture of the European experience, but some trends are clearly emerging. In countries with a low incidence of penetrating trauma and increasing use of interventional vascular procedures, the proportion of iatrogenic vascular trauma exceeds 40% of all vascular injuries, whereas on other parts of the continent, armed conflicts are still a major cause of vascular trauma. National vascular registries, mostly in the Scandinavian countries, produce useful, nationwide data about vascular trauma and its management but suffer still from inadequate data collection. Despite a relatively low incidence of vascular trauma in most European countries, the results are satisfactory, probably in most cases because of active and early management by surgeons on call, whether with vascular training or not, treating all kinds of vascular surgical emergencies. In some countries, attempts at developing a trauma and emergency surgical specialty, including expertise in the management of vascular injuries, are on their way.

  18. Mechanosensing at the Vascular Interface

    PubMed Central

    Tarbell, John M.; Simon, Scott I.; Curry, Fitz-Roy E.

    2015-01-01

    Mammals are endowed with a complex set of mechanisms that sense mechanical forces imparted by blood flow to endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells, and circulating blood cells to elicit biochemical responses through a process referred to as mechanotransduction. These biochemical responses are critical for a host of other responses, including regulation of blood pressure, control of vascular permeability for maintaining adequate perfusion of tissues, and control of leukocyte recruitment during immunosurveillance and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of the endothelial surface proteoglycan/glycoprotein layer—the glycocalyx (GCX)—that lines all blood vessel walls and is an agent in mechanotransduction and the modulation of blood cell interactions with the EC surface. We first discuss the biochemical composition and ultrastructure of the GCX, highlighting recent developments that reveal gaps in our understanding of the relationship between composition and spatial organization. We then consider the roles of the GCX in mechanotransduction and in vascular permeability control and review the prominent interaction of plasma borne sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P), which has been shown to regulate both the composition of the GCX and the endothelial junctions. Finally, we consider the association of GCX degradation with inflammation and vascular disease and end with a final section on future research directions. PMID:24905872

  19. [Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome].

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael

    2009-04-20

    Vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited disease with an autosomal dominant trait. The mutation of the COL3A1 gene which encodes type III collagen, is responsible of early vascular (spontaneous arterial rupture or dissection), digestive (perforation) and obstetrical events (uterine and arterial rupture). Diagnosis of the disease is primarily clinical, especially in case of characteristic morphologic features. Diagnostic certainty is obtained by evidencing the mutation of the COL3A1 gene. Some arterial lesions are suggestive of the disease, as dissecting aneurysms of the internal carotid, of the iliac arteries, and of the anterior visceral aortic branches, fusiform aneurisms of the splenic artery, and the occurrence of a non traumatic direct carotid-cavernous fistula. The occurrence of a spontaneous peritonitis or of an extensive perineal tear after delivery should also draw physician's attention. Because of the unpredictability of arterial or organ rupture, any patient diagnosed with vascular type EDS presenting with an acute pain syndrome should be considered as a trauma situation and be investigated straightaway by CT-scan or MRI testing, in order to eliminate a life threatening complication. PMID:19462862

  20. New Approaches for Vascular Anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Luis F.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    2001-02-01

    Increasing interest in minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedures has generated a renewed interest in facilitated methods to create vascular anastomosis. These devices, in order to be viable, must perform equally or better than sutures. An extensive review of the literature was performed on the different ways to create a mechanical vascular anastomosis. The experience of the authors with the development of a family of connectors (The Symmetry Bypass System; St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN) is presented. The Aortic Connector System (St. Jude Medical) has undergone extensive animal testing with 30-, 90-, and 180-day follow-up. Over 250 human implants have been performed successfully. Preliminary animal studies with the stainless steel coronary connector are also presented. The creation of a facilitated mechanical vascular anastomosis should not compromise quality or patency rates, and produce at least the same results as those obtained with standard suturing techniques. These devices dramatically reduce the time to perform an anastomosis and eliminate the need for aortic clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass. These advantages should result in a significant reduction in surgical complications, and may facilitate a move to true endoscopic and/or percutaneous bypass. PMID:11177719

  1. [Vascular dementia: facts and controversies].

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Dragan; Aleksić, Vuk; Sternić, Nadezda

    2013-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five-year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors forVaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step-by-step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class Ila recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer's disease dementia. PMID:23745353

  2. Pregnancy and Vascular Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Julien; Durand, François; de Raucourt, Emmanuelle; Ceccaldi, Pierre-François; Plessier, Aurélie; Valla, Dominique; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular disorders of the liver frequently affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancy and the postpartum are prothrombotic states. Pregnancy seems to be a trigger for Budd–Chiari syndrome in patients with an underlying prothrombotic disorder. Whether pregnancy is a risk factor for other vascular liver disorders is unknown. In women with a known vascular liver disorder and a desire for pregnancy, stabilisation of the liver disease, including the use of a portal decompressive procedure when indicated, should be reached prior to conception. The presence of esophageal varices should be screened and adequate prophylaxis of bleeding applied in a manner similar to what is recommended for patients with cirrhosis. Most women likely benefit from anticoagulation during pregnancy and the postpartum. Labor and delivery are best managed by a multidisciplinary team with experience in this situation. Assisted vaginal delivery is the preferred mode of delivery. Although the risk of miscarriage and premature birth is heightened, current management of these diseases makes it very likely to see the birth of a live baby when pregnancy reaches 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:25941432

  3. Cell-based strategies for vascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tongqiang; Fan, Jiabing; Fartash, Armita; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Vascular regeneration is known to play an essential role in the repair of injured tissues mainly through accelerating the repair of vascular injury caused by vascular diseases, as well as the recovery of ischemic tissues. However, the clinical vascular regeneration is still challenging. Cell-based therapy is thought to be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration, since various cells have been identified to exert important influences on the process of vascular regeneration such as the enhanced endothelium formation on the surface of vascular grafts, and the induction of vessel-like network formation in the ischemic tissues. Here are a vast number of diverse cell-based strategies that have been extensively studied in vascular regeneration. These strategies can be further classified into three main categories, including cell transplantation, construction of tissue-engineered grafts, and surface modification of scaffolds. Cells used in these strategies mainly refer to terminally differentiated vascular cells, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the reported research advances on the application of various cells for vascular regeneration, yielding insights into future clinical treatment for injured tissue/organ. PMID:26864677

  4. Enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  5. Vascular thalamic amnesia: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2011-04-01

    In humans lacunar infarcts in the mesial and anterior regions of the thalami are frequently associated with amnesic syndromes. In this review paper, we scrutinized 41 papers published between 1983 and 2009 that provided data on a total of 83 patients with the critical ischemic lesions (i.e. 17 patients with right-sided lesions, 25 with left-sided lesions and 41 with bilateral lesions). We aimed to find answers to the following questions concerning the vascular thalamic amnesia syndrome: (i) Which qualitative pattern of memory impairment (and associated cognitive and behavioral deficits) do these patients present? (ii) Which lesioned intrathalamic structures are primarily responsible for the amnesic syndrome? (iii) Are the recollection and familiarity components of declarative memory underlain by the same or by different thalamic structures? Results of the review indicate that, similar to patients with amnesic syndromes due to mesio-temporal lobe damage, patients with vascular thalamic amnesia display a prevalent deficit of declarative anterograde long-term memory, a less consistent deficit of declarative retrograde long-term memory and substantially spared short-term and implicit memory. Unlike mesio-temporal lobe patients, however, vascular thalamic amnesics often present dysexecutive and behavioral deficits similar to those observed in patients with frontal damage. The presence of an amnesic syndrome in patients with thalamic lacunar infarcts is strongly predicted by involvement of the mammillo-thalamic tract, which connects the anterior nuclei complex to the hippocampus proper via the fornix and the mammillary bodies. Finally, data reported in a few single cases provide support for the hypothesis that thalamic regions connected to distinct areas of the mesio-temporal lobe play differential roles in recollection and familiarity processes. The mammillo-thalamic tract/anterior nuclei axis seems primarily implicated in recollective processes, whereas the

  6. [Vascular injury as a complication of knee arthroscopic surgery. Report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Enríquez-Vega, María Elizabeth; Cruz-Castillo, Juan Ernesto; Pacheco-Pittaluga, Ernesto; Solorio-Rosette, Hugo; Linarte-Márquez, Lizbeth; Iturburu-Enríquez, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la artroscopia de rodilla es uno de los procedimientos más seguros, con tasas de complicaciones que van de 0.56 a 8.2%. Las complicaciones vasculares son aún más raras (0.0032%) y generalmente se relacionan con lesiones en la arteria poplítea. Casos clínicos: reportamos los casos de dos pacientes con complicaciones no sospechadas de lesiones vasculares post artroscopia. Ambos casos tenían lesión vascular posterior a cirugía electiva de artroscopia de rodilla. El primer caso es el de un paciente con pseudoaneurisma trombosado de la arteria poplítea y sección completa de la vena poplítea, desafortunadamente el diagnóstico se estableció 72 horas después de la artroscopia de rodilla y requirió amputación. El segundo caso tenía una fistula arteriovenosa a nivel poplíteo y se trató exitosamente con desmantelamiento de la fístula y reparación directa de la arteria y la vena. Conclusiones: aunque es extremadamente infrecuente, la lesión vascular postartroscopia de rodilla debe tenerse en mente como una posible complicación postquirúrgica porque su bajo índice de sospecha puede causar una desafortunada e inoportuna demora en el diagnóstico y tratamiento, con un riesgo potencial de amputación de la extremidad y muerte.

  7. Major vascular injuries complicating knee arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancu, Serban; Muresan, Mircea; Sala, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Starting with a case report, we made a detailed review of the literature, with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the type of iatrogenic vascular lesion following knee arthroscopy and the method of vascular repair. A PubMed literature search was undertaken to locate all reported cases of major vascular iatrogenic injuries during arthroscopic knee procedures. We identified 39 papers which report a total of 62 cases of major iatrogenic popliteal lesions after knee arthroscopy, between 1985 and 2014. The type of arthroscopic intervention performed, the type of iatrogenic vascular lesion encountered, the time passed until its discovery and treatment, the method of vascular reconstruction, and the postoperative course are presented. Postarthroscopy vascular complications are infrequent but potentially disastrous for the condition of the affected inferior limb. An early diagnosis and reintervention are mandatory for a good postoperative outcome. PMID:26240627

  8. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease.

  9. The decline and resurgence of vascular dementia.

    PubMed Central

    Hachinski, V C

    1990-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic narrowing of cerebral arteries was once viewed as the key to mental decline. As Alzheimer's disease gained recognition and the concept of multi-infarct dementia achieved acceptance, vascular dementia came to be regarded as uncommon. The changing nature of cerebral vascular disease, the aging of the population and the widespread use of brain imaging techniques have brought new prominence to vascular dementia, chiefly in the form of an epidemic of "Binswanger's disease". Growing evidence suggests that not only grey matter lesions but also white matter lesions contribute to dementia, that vascular factors commonly coexist and interact with Alzheimer changes and that Alzheimer's disease has a vascular and potentially treatable component. Vascular dementia needs to be redefined, reappraised and reinvestigated. PMID:2403832

  10. MicroRNAs Regulate Vascular Medial Calcification.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in patients with coronary artery disease and, when present, is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events, including an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. The pathogenesis of vascular calcification is complex and is now recognized to recapitulate skeletal bone formation. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) play an integral role in this process by undergoing transdifferentiation to osteoblast-like cells, elaborating calcifying matrix vesicles and secreting factors that diminish the activity of osteoclast-like cells with mineral resorbing capacity. Recent advances have identified microRNAs (miRs) as key regulators of this process by directing the complex genetic reprogramming of SMCs and the functional responses of other relevant cell types relevant for vascular calcification. This review will detail SMC and bone biology as it relates to vascular calcification and relate what is known to date regarding the regulatory role of miRs in SMC-mediated vascular calcification.

  11. [Pharmacological treatment of vascular cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    Vascular dementia is second most common cause of dementia. The paper highlights the most important trends in pharmacological treatment of vascular dementia. Result of a clinical trial of some agents appears to be promising. Pentoxifyline appears to be useful in multi-infarct vascular dementia. Nimodipine produced improvement in subcortical dementia. Some other agents like ginkgo biloba, acetylocholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and other also have shown mild benefit or at least were associated with some stabilization of dementia. PMID:16969897

  12. Cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, A.; Enzmann, D.

    1983-01-01

    Six patients with angiographically cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem were examined with computed tomography (CT). The clinical and CT findings of cryptic vascular malformations of the brainstem are described and distinguished from those of brainstem glioma and multiple sclerosis. Calcification within a brainstem lesion that displays relatively little mass effect and shows little contrast enhancement, particularly when associated with a long history of waxing and waning brainstem symptoms, should suggest a vascular malformation.

  13. Direct intratumoral embolization of intranasal vascular tumors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Uk; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Chang-Mook; Kim, Jung-Soo

    2013-02-01

    Embolization is a well established technique that facilitates the subsequent surgical removal of vascularized tumors such as juvenile angiofibroma. Preoperative transarterial embolization has proven beneficial for decreasing intraoperative blood loss. However, the procedure is often incomplete owing to extensive vascular structure. Direct intratumoral embolization may help overcome this limitation. We report our experience with embolization of nasal vascular tumors by means of direct intratumoral injection of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA).

  14. Supermarket model for vascular disease care.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dhiraj M; Bruni, Karen; Darling, R Clement

    2002-09-01

    A supermarket model for vascular patient care proposes an interdisciplinary group of health care teams such as vascular nurses, interventional radiologists, vascular surgeons, angiologists, internists, cardiologists, and neurologists and facilities such as diagnostic testing laboratories, subcenters such as wound care and foot care centers, atherosclerotic risk prevention centers, rehabilitation centers, vein centers, and socioeconomic follow-up centers that would provide health care of vascular disease in a comprehensive manner in terms of quality care, convenience for patients, 1-stop shopping, education and training, and research and development.

  15. Vascular anomalies: differential diagnosis and mimickers.

    PubMed

    Garzon, Maria C; Weitz, Nicole; Powell, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Vascular anomalies are very common in children and encompass a wide spectrum of diseases. Many vascular anomalies can be mistaken for infantile hemangioma (IH). In addition, there is a variety of rare disorders including benign and malignant tumors that may mimic IH and other types of vascular anomalies. Understanding the clinical features, natural history, and typical clinical course of different types of vascular anomalies is essential in order to make the correct diagnosis and guide management. Radiologic imaging plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis; and when the diagnosis remains in doubt, a biopsy performed by a surgical specialist with expertise may prove to be lifesaving. PMID:27607326

  16. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece. PMID:24043676

  17. Scaffolds in vascular regeneration: current status

    PubMed Central

    Thottappillil, Neelima; Nair, Prabha D

    2015-01-01

    An ideal vascular substitute, especially in <6 mm diameter applications, is a major clinical essentiality in blood vessel replacement surgery. Blood vessels are structurally complex and functionally dynamic tissue, with minimal regeneration potential. These have composite extracellular matrix (ECM) and arrangement. The interplay between ECM components and tissue specific cells gives blood vessels their specialized functional attributes. The core of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration relies on the challenges in creating vascular conduits that match native vessels and adequately regenerate in vivo. Out of numerous vascular regeneration concerns, the relevance of ECM emphasizes much attention toward appropriate choice of scaffold material and further scaffold development strategies. The review is intended to be focused on the various approaches of scaffold materials currently in use in vascular regeneration and current state of the art. Scaffold of choice in vascular tissue engineering ranges from natural to synthetic, decellularized, and even scaffold free approach. The applicability of tubular scaffold for in vivo vascular regeneration is under active investigation. A patent conduit with an ample endothelial luminal layer that can regenerate in vivo remains an unanswered query in the field of small diameter vascular tissue engineering. Besides, scaffolds developed for vascular regeneration, should aim at providing functional substitutes for use in a regenerative approach from the laboratory bench to patient bedside. PMID:25632236

  18. Vascular grafting strategies in coronary intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Darryl; Gillies, Elizabeth; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-06-01

    With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein reviewed, facilitating a detailed comparison on the role of seeded cells in vascular graft patency.

  19. Vascular tumors and malformations in children, Introduction.

    PubMed

    Maguiness, Sheilagh M

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, I have been amazed at the growth in the field of vascular anomalies. The recognition of vascular birthmarks as a defined area of medicine is a relatively recent event. The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) was founded by Drs John Mulliken and Anthony Young in the late 1970s. Mulliken and Glowacki's sentinel 1982 paper on the biologic classification of vascular anomalies further established the field, by providing clarity of nomenclature and unifying concepts that had previously been lacking. PMID:27607317

  20. Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated. PMID:24749005

  1. Vascular surgery--is it different?

    PubMed

    DeWeese, J A

    1978-12-01

    In 1972 the Society for Vascular Surgery and the North American Chapter of the International Cardiovascular Society recommended that the American Board of Surgery establish a method for the certification of special competence in vascular surgery. The American Board of Surgery in 1974 judged that, for the present, vascular surgery training best could be upgraded by certifying training programs and not individuals. The Residency Review Committee for Surgery now has approved guidelines which define acceptable vascular surgery training programs. These guidelines require approval of the American Medical Association and the governing bodies of the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education before accreditation procedures can be implemented. It is proposed that vascular surgery is different enough from general surgery and cardiothoracic surgery so that special training programs are needed. Vascular surgeons require a fund of knowledge and surgical skills beyond that learned in most surgical programs as well as a special experience with vascular operations if they are to provide optimal patient care. Acceptance of the principle of the accreditation of surgeons caring for vascular surgical problems is an important step in the upgrading of vascular surgery.

  2. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma.

    PubMed

    Taourel, P; Vernhet, H; Suau, A; Granier, C; Lopez, F M; Aufort, S

    2007-10-01

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of complication and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications. PMID:17851012

  3. Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

    2014-01-01

    Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements.

  4. Computational modeling of vascular anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Migliavacca, Francesco; Dubini, Gabriele

    2005-06-01

    Recent development of computational technology allows a level of knowledge of biomechanical factors in the healthy or pathological cardiovascular system that was unthinkable a few years ago. In particular, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural (CS) analyses have been used to evaluate specific quantities, such as fluid and wall stresses and strains, which are very difficult to measure in vivo. Indeed, CFD and CS offer much more variability and resolution than in vitro and in vivo methods, yet computations must be validated by careful comparison with experimental and clinical data. The enormous parallel development of clinical imaging such as magnetic resonance or computed tomography opens a new way toward a detailed patient-specific description of the actual hemodynamics and structural behavior of living tissues. Coupling of CFD/CS and clinical images is becoming a standard evaluation that is expected to become part of the clinical practice in the diagnosis and in the surgical planning in advanced medical centers. This review focuses on computational studies of fluid and structural dynamics of a number of vascular anastomoses: the coronary bypass graft anastomoses, the arterial peripheral anastomoses, the arterio-venous graft anastomoses and the vascular anastomoses performed in the correction of congenital heart diseases. PMID:15772842

  5. Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular trans-differentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

  6. Reoperation after vascular ring repair.

    PubMed

    Backer, Carl L; Mongé, Michael C; Russell, Hyde M; Popescu, Andrada R; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Costello, John M

    2014-01-01

    The majority of patients having surgical intervention for a vascular ring have resolution of their symptoms. However, 5% to 10% of these patients develop recurrent symptoms related either to airway or esophageal compression and may require reoperation. In our series of 300 patients with vascular rings, we performed a reoperation on 26 patients, not all of whom were originally operated on at our institution. The four primary indications for reoperation were Kommerell diverticulum (n = 18), circumflex aorta (n = 2), residual scarring (n = 2), and tracheobronchomalacia requiring aortopexy (n = 4). All patients undergoing reoperation have had preoperative evaluation with bronchoscopy and computed tomographic scanning (CT) with 3-dimensional reconstruction. Patients with dysphagia have had a barium esophagram and esophagoscopy. Patients with a Kommerell diverticulum have undergone resection of the diverticulum and transfer of the left subclavian artery to the left carotid artery. The aortic uncrossing procedure has been used in patients with a circumflex aorta. Aortopexy has been used to treat anterior compression of the trachea by the aorta. Results of these reinterventions have been successful in nearly all cases. Lessons learned from these reoperations can be applied to prevent the need for reoperation by properly selecting the correct initial operation. A dedicated team caring for these children consisting of medical imaging, otolaryngology, cardiovascular-thoracic surgery, and critical care is imperative.

  7. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zelenak, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  8. Enhanced vascularization of cultured skin substitutes genetically modified to overexpress vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Supp, D M; Supp, A P; Bell, S M; Boyce, S T

    2000-01-01

    Cultured skin substitutes have been used as adjunctive therapies in the treatment of burns and chronic wounds, but they are limited by lack of a vascular plexus. This deficiency leads to greater time for vascularization compared with native skin autografts and contributes to graft failure. Genetic modification of cultured skin substitutes to enhance vascularization could hypothetically lead to improved wound healing. To address this hypothesis, human keratinocytes were genetically modified by transduction with a replication incompetent retrovirus to overexpress vascular endothelial growth factor, a specific and potent mitogen for endothelial cells. Cultured skin substitutes consisting of collagen-glycosaminoglycan substrates inoculated with human fibroblasts and either vascular endothelial growth factor-modified or control keratinocytes were prepared, and were cultured in vitro for 21 d. Northern blot analysis demonstrated enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA in genetically modified keratinocytes and in cultured skin substitutes prepared with modified cells. Furthermore, the vascular endothelial growth factor-modified cultured skin substitutes secreted greatly elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor protein throughout the entire culture period. The bioactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor protein secreted by the genetically modified cultured skin substitutes was demonstrated using a microvascular endothelial cell growth assay. Vascular endothelial growth factor-modified and control cultured skin substitutes were grafted to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice, and elevated vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression was detected in the modified grafts for at least 2 wk after surgery. Vascular endothelial growth factor-modified grafts exhibited increased numbers of dermal blood vessels and decreased time to vascularization compared with controls. These results indicate that genetic modification of

  9. Vascular tumors of the choroid and retina

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid can be seen occasionally. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed. PMID:25827544

  10. 21 CFR 870.3250 - Vascular clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vascular clip. 870.3250 Section 870.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3250 Vascular clip. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 870.3250 - Vascular clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vascular clip. 870.3250 Section 870.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3250 Vascular clip. (a) Identification. A...

  12. A history of vascular and microvascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Rory F; Hudson, Donald A

    2014-10-01

    The history of microvascular surgery is intimately linked to that of vascular surgery. Microvascular techniques, developed mainly in China, Japan, Australia, and the United States of America, built on the principles of vascular anastomosis established by pioneers in France, Germany, Italy, and the United States of America. We present a history of the technique here.

  13. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  14. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  15. A large vascular leiomyoma of the leg.

    PubMed

    Cigna, E; Maruccia, M; Malzone, G; Malpassini, F; Soda, G; Drudi, F M

    2012-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman with a subcutaneous, large vascular leiomyoma of the leg is presented. The patient had a painful, slow-growing, right medial malleolus mass. Clinical symptoms, US images and histopathologic features are reported. Vascular leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of painful, lower extremity subcutaneous masses also in lesions of larger dimensions.

  16. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  17. Redox signaling in vascular angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-10-15

    Angiogenesis is thought to be regulated by several growth factors (EGF, TGF-alpha, beta-FGF, VEGF). Induction of these angiogenic factors is triggered by various stresses. For instance, tissue hypoxia exerts its pro-angiogenic action through various angiogenic factors, the most notable being vascular endothelial growth factor, which has been mainly associated with initiating the process of angiogenesis through the recruitment and proliferation of endothelial cells. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been found to stimulate angiogenic response in the ischemic reperfused hearts. Short exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation, either directly or indirectly, produces ROS that induce oxidative stress which is associated with angiogenesis or neovascularization. ROS can cause tissue injury in one hand and promote tissue repair in another hand by promoting angiogenesis. It thus appears that after causing injury to the cells, ROS promptly initiate the tissue repair process by triggering angiogenic response.

  18. Vascular permeability—the essentials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The vasculature, composed of vessels of different morphology and function, distributes blood to all tissues and maintains physiological tissue homeostasis. In pathologies, the vasculature is often affected by, and engaged in, the disease process. This may result in excessive formation of new, unstable, and hyperpermeable vessels with poor blood flow, which further promotes hypoxia and disease propagation. Chronic vessel permeability may also facilitate metastatic spread of cancer. Thus, there is a strong incentive to learn more about an important aspect of vessel biology in health and disease: the regulation of vessel permeability. The current review aims to summarize current insights into different mechanisms of vascular permeability, its regulatory factors, and the consequences for disease. PMID:26220421

  19. [Prefabrication of vascularized facial bones].

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, R; Jehn, P; Spalthoff, S; Kokemüller, H; Gellrich, N-C

    2015-03-01

    Critical size defects in the craniomaxillofacial region often result from ablative tumor surgery, inflammation and posttraumatic deformities. To date, autologous bone grafts are still the gold standard for the reconstruction of these defects; however, they are frequently associated with severe donor site morbidity as well as functional and aesthetic compromises. In this context various resorbable and non-resorbable bone replacement materials have been developed and intensively investigated. Particularly in critical size defects these materials fail due to their lack of osteogenic potential and endogenous vascularization. The combination of alloplastic osteoconductive scaffolds, osteogenic cells, and axial prevascularization in bioartificial bone grafts might present an innovative approach for the microsurgical reconstruction of critical size defects.

  20. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  1. Mechanisms and Clinical Consequences of Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dongxing; Mackenzie, Neil C. W.; Farquharson, Colin; MacRae, Vicky E.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in arteries and cardiac valves. However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone formation. In this article, we outline the current understanding of key mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight the clinical consequences. By understanding better the molecular pathways and genetic circuitry responsible for the pathological mineralization process novel drug targets may be identified and exploited to combat and reduce the detrimental effects of vascular calcification on human health. PMID:22888324

  2. Hedgehog and Resident Vascular Stem Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Ciaran J.; Hakimjavadi, Roya; Fitzpatrick, Emma; Kennedy, Eimear; Walls, Dermot; Morrow, David; Redmond, Eileen M.; Cahill, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hedgehog pathway is a pivotal morphogenic driver during embryonic development and a key regulator of adult stem cell self-renewal. The discovery of resident multipotent vascular stem cells and adventitial progenitors within the vessel wall has transformed our understanding of the origin of medial and neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during vessel repair in response to injury, lesion formation, and overall disease progression. This review highlights the importance of components of the Hh and Notch signalling pathways within the medial and adventitial regions of adult vessels, their recapitulation following vascular injury and disease progression, and their putative role in the maintenance and differentiation of resident vascular stem cells to vascular lineages from discrete niches within the vessel wall. PMID:26064136

  3. Stem/Progenitor cells in vascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-06-01

    A series of studies has been presented in the search for proof of circulating and resident vascular progenitor cells, which can differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and pericytes in animal and human studies. In terms of pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, iPS, and partial-iPS cells, they display a great potential for vascular lineage differentiation. Development of stem cell therapy for treatment of vascular and ischemic diseases remains a major challenging research field. At the present, there is a clear expansion of research into mechanisms of stem cell differentiation into vascular lineages that are tested in animal models. Although there are several clinical trials ongoing that primarily focus on determining the benefits of stem cell transplantation in ischemic heart or peripheral ischemic tissues, intensive investigation for translational aspects of stem cell therapy would be needed. It is a hope that stem cell therapy for vascular diseases could be developed for clinic application in the future.

  4. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  5. Smoking cessation strategies in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Emily L; Goodney, Philip P

    2015-06-01

    Tobacco abuse is a highly prevalent modifiable risk factor in vascular surgery patient populations. Despite the known benefits of smoking cessation, quitting smoking is difficult for most patients. Physician advice to stop smoking can help, though more intensive or multifactorial interventions have greater impact. Smoking cessation initiatives based in vascular clinics are feasible, although currently there is significant variation in physician delivery of smoking cessation interventions. Vascular surgeons are optimally poised to be able to capitalize on the "teachable moment" of the vascular procedure to encourage smoking cessation. Concise and effective smoking cessation strategies include standardized physician "very brief advice" (a standardized advice delivery developed and validated by the National Health Service), referral to telephone counseling, and prescription of pharmacotherapy, all of which are best utilized together. This review will discuss different smoking cessation strategies, as well as their inclusion in multicenter trials designed to study delivery of smoking cessation interventions in vascular surgery patients.

  6. Engineering clinically relevant volumes of vascularized bone.

    PubMed

    Roux, Brianna M; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Brey, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    Vascularization remains one of the most important challenges that must be overcome for tissue engineering to be consistently implemented for reconstruction of large volume bone defects. An extensive vascular network is needed for transport of nutrients, waste and progenitor cells required for remodelling and repair. A variety of tissue engineering strategies have been investigated in an attempt to vascularize tissues, including those applying cells, soluble factor delivery strategies, novel design and optimization of bio-active materials, vascular assembly pre-implantation and surgical techniques. However, many of these strategies face substantial barriers that must be overcome prior to their ultimate translation into clinical application. In this review recent progress in engineering vascularized bone will be presented with an emphasis on clinical feasibility.

  7. Engineering clinically relevant volumes of vascularized bone

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Brianna M; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Brey, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Vascularization remains one of the most important challenges that must be overcome for tissue engineering to be consistently implemented for reconstruction of large volume bone defects. An extensive vascular network is needed for transport of nutrients, waste and progenitor cells required for remodelling and repair. A variety of tissue engineering strategies have been investigated in an attempt to vascularize tissues, including those applying cells, soluble factor delivery strategies, novel design and optimization of bio-active materials, vascular assembly pre-implantation and surgical techniques. However, many of these strategies face substantial barriers that must be overcome prior to their ultimate translation into clinical application. In this review recent progress in engineering vascularized bone will be presented with an emphasis on clinical feasibility. PMID:25877690

  8. 2011 Vascular Research Initiatives Conference: basic foundations of translational research in vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kenneth R; Dardik, Alan

    2011-07-01

    The Vascular Research Initiatives Conference (VRIC) is an annual conference organized by the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS). The 2011 VRIC was held in Chicago (IL, USA) to precede and coincide with the first day of the meeting of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (ATVB) of the American Heart Association. The event is designed to present world class vascular research results, encourage collaboration between vascular surgeons and basic scientists in related disciplines, as well as to stimulate interest in research among aspiring academic vascular surgeons. The 2011 VRIC featured plenary sessions addressing peripheral arterial disease, vascular endothelium and thrombosis, aneurysms, and stem cells and tissue engineering. Recipients of the SVS partner grants with the National Institutes of Health K08 awardees presented their progress reports, and keynote addresses were given by Linda Graham and Frank LoGerfo.

  9. 2011 Vascular Research Initiatives Conference: basic foundations of translational research in vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kenneth R; Dardik, Alan

    2011-07-01

    The Vascular Research Initiatives Conference (VRIC) is an annual conference organized by the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS). The 2011 VRIC was held in Chicago (IL, USA) to precede and coincide with the first day of the meeting of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (ATVB) of the American Heart Association. The event is designed to present world class vascular research results, encourage collaboration between vascular surgeons and basic scientists in related disciplines, as well as to stimulate interest in research among aspiring academic vascular surgeons. The 2011 VRIC featured plenary sessions addressing peripheral arterial disease, vascular endothelium and thrombosis, aneurysms, and stem cells and tissue engineering. Recipients of the SVS partner grants with the National Institutes of Health K08 awardees presented their progress reports, and keynote addresses were given by Linda Graham and Frank LoGerfo. PMID:21809965

  10. [Gastric vascular lesions in cirrhosis: gastropathy and antral vascular ectasia].

    PubMed

    Casas, Meritxell; Calvet, Xavier; Vergara, Mercedes; Bella, Maria Rosa; Junquera, Félix; Martinez-Bauer, Eva; Campo, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (GHP) is a complication of portal hypertension usually associated with liver cirrhosis. The pathogenesis is unclear but the presence of portal hypertension is an essential factor for its development. GHP may be asymptomatic or present as gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopic lesions vary from a mosaic pattern to diffuse red spots; the most common location is the fundus. Treatment is indicated when there is acute or chronic bleeding, as secondary prophylaxis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend primary prophylaxis in patients who have never bled. Drugs that decrease portal pressure, such as non-cardioselective beta-blockers, and/or endoscopic ablative treatments, such as argon-beam coagulation, may be used. The role of transarterial intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) or bypass surgery has been insufficiently analyzed. Antral vascular ectasia (EVA) is a rare entity in liver cirrhosis, whose pathophysiology is still unknown. Clinical presentation is similar to that of GHP and endoscopy usually shows red spots in the antrum. Biopsy is often required to differentiate EVA from GHP. There is no effective medical therapy, so endoscopic ablative therapy and, in severe cases, antrectomy are recommended.

  11. Adverse Outcome Pathway for Embryonic Vascular Disruption and Alternative Methods to Identify Chemical Vascular Disruptors During Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide range of adverse prenatal outcomes. We used information from genetic mouse models linked to phenotypic outcomes and a vascular toxicity knowledge base to construct an embryonic vascular disrupt...

  12. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of vascular elasticity can help detect thrombosis and prevent life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Here, we propose vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) to measure vascular elasticity in humans. VE-PAT was developed by incorporating a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system with a customized compression stage. By measuring the deformation of blood vessels under uniaxial loading, VE-PAT was able to quantify the vascular compliance. We first demonstrated the feasibility of VE-PAT in blood vessel phantoms. In large vessel phantoms, VE-PAT detected a decrease in vascular compliance due to simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. In small blood vessel phantoms embedded 3 mm deep in gelatin, VE-PAT detected elasticity changes at depths that are difficult to image using other elasticity imaging techniques. We then applied VE-PAT to assess vascular compliance in a human subject and detected a decrease in vascular compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point, demonstrating the potential of VE-PAT in clinical applications such as detection of deep venous thrombosis.

  13. Vascularization in bone tissue engineering constructs

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Stahl, Alexander M.; Shanjani, Yaser; Yang, Yunzhi

    2016-01-01

    Vascularization of large bone grafts is one of the main challenges of bone tissue engineering (BTE), and has held back the clinical translation of engineered bone constructs for two decades so far. The ultimate goal of vascularized BTE constructs is to provide a bone environment rich in functional vascular networks to achieve efficient osseointegration and accelerate restoration of function after implantation. To attain both structural and vascular integration of the grafts, a large number of biomaterials, cells, and biological cues have been evaluated. This review will present biological considerations for bone function restoration, contemporary approaches for clinical salvage of large bone defects and their limitations, state-of-the-art research on the development of vascularized bone constructs, and perspectives on evaluating and implementing novel BTE grafts in clinical practice. Success will depend on achieving full graft integration at multiple hierarchical levels, both between the individual graft components as well as between the implanted constructs and their surrounding host tissues. The paradigm of vascularized tissue constructs could not only revolutionize the progress of bone tissue engineering, but could also be readily applied to other fields in regenerative medicine for the development of new innovative vascularized tissue designs. PMID:25616591

  14. [A new specialty is born: Vascular medicine].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J-P

    2016-05-01

    On the 4th of December 2015, the French authorities officially recognized the birth of a specialty in vascular medicine entitled CO-DES cardiology-vascular/vascular Medicine. France is the 7th country to obtain this specialty after Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, six countries in the EEC. It has taken years to achieve a long but exciting experience: we went from hopes to disappointments, sometimes with the blues, but lobbying helping… with sustained confidence. This article tells the story of 30 years of struggle to achieve this vascular medicine specialty. Gaston Bachelard wrote: "Nothing is obvious, nothing is given, all is built." For the construction of vascular medicine, we had to overcome many obstacles, nothing was given to us, everything was conquered. Beware "The specialist is one who knows more and more things about an increasingly restricted field, up to 'knowing everything about nothing"' recalled Ralph Barton Ferry, philosopher; so there is room for modesty and humility but also convictions. The physical examination will remain the basis of our exercise. But let us recall the contributions of all those vascular physicians who practiced in the past, together with those currently active, who built day after day, year after year, a vascular medicine of quality. It is because of the trust of our colleagues and our patients that we can occupy the place that is ours today.

  15. Microengineered vascular systems for drug development.

    PubMed

    Hovell, Candice M; Sei, Yoshitaka J; Kim, YongTae

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in microfabrication technologies and advanced biomaterials have allowed for the development of in vitro platforms that recapitulate more physiologically relevant cellular components and function. Microengineered vascular systems are of particular importance for the efficient assessment of drug candidates to physiological barriers lining microvessels. This review highlights advances in the development of microengineered vascular structures with an emphasis on the potential impact on drug delivery studies. Specifically, this article examines the development of models for the study of drug delivery to the central nervous system and cardiovascular system. We also discuss current challenges and future prospects of the development of microengineered vascular systems. PMID:25424383

  16. BMP SIGNALING IN VASCULAR DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Jonathan W.; deCaestecker, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and functional studies indicate that common components of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway play critical roles in regulating vascular development in the embryo, and in promoting vascular homeostasis and disease in the adult. However, discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo findings, and distinct functional properties of the BMP signaling pathway in different vascular beds have led to controversies in the field that have been difficult to reconcile. This review attempts to clarify some of these issues by providing an up to date overview of the biology and genetics of BMP signaling relevant to the intact vasculature. PMID:20674464

  17. Oral vascular malformations: laser treatment and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, U.; Rocchetti, F.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Lo Giudice, G.

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations are a very heterogeneous group of circulatory system's diseases that can involve different kind of vessels: arterial, venous or lymphatic ones. Many treatments, such as conventional surgery, embolization, steroid therapy and laser therapy, are available for vascular lesions. The laser approach relies more therapeutic techniques: the transmucosal thermophotocoagulation, intralesional photocoagulation, the excisional biopsy. Today laser is demonstrated to be the gold standard technique to treat vascular lesions that allows a safe and efficient treatment and a lower post-operative healing time. The only disadvantage is the risk of carbonization that could be avoided by using the multiple-spot single pulsed wave technique.

  18. Maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  19. Surgical wound infections after peripheral vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Turtiainen, J; Hakala, T

    2014-12-01

    Surgical wound infection is one of the most common complications after peripheral vascular surgery. It increases the affected patient's risk for major amputation as well as mortality. Furthermore, surgical wound infection is an additional cost. Wound infections after vascular surgery are of multifactorial nature and generally result from the interplay of patient- and procedure-related factors. The use of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis may be the most important method in preventing surgical wound infections. In this review article, we report the current literature of surgical wound infections after peripheral vascular surgery.

  20. Vascular Inflammatory Cells in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, David G.; Marvar, Paul J.; Titze, Jens M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients, and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease. PMID:22586409

  1. Stromal vascularization prevents corneal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Conn, H; Berman, M; Kenyon, K; Langer, R; Gage, J

    1980-04-01

    Experiments were performed with a model of focal, thermal-induced ulceration to test the clinical impression that vascularization prevents ulceration of the corneal stroma. Slow-release polymers containing a vasoproliferase agent (tumor angiogenesis factor) were placed in corneal pockets 2 mm central to the limbus of albino rabbits. These polymers elicited blood vessel ingrowth up to the implant. Control eyes received empty polymers which caused minimal to no vessel growth. Polymers were removed, and each cornea received a focal, thermal burn placed just central to the polymer site. All control corneas ulcerated: most (79%) developed deep stromal or perforating ulcers. Only 25% of prevascularized corneas developed stromal ulcers, and none was deep or perforating. After thermal burns, vessels in both groups grew at the same linear rate toward the burned area. There was a direct relationship between the distance separating the nearest blood vessel and the burned area at the time of burning and the maximum depth of stromal ulceration. Thus prevention of or less severe stromal ulceration is correlated with the earlier presence of vessels in the burned area.

  2. Fascia and Primo Vascular System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Du, Yi-Kuan; Wu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Jun; Luan, Ping; Yang, Qin-Lao; Yuan, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical basis for the concept of acupuncture points/meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has not been resolved. This paper reviews the fascia research progress and the relationship among acupuncture points/meridians, primo vascular system (PVS), and fascia. Fascia is as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and holds memory and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimately involved with nourishment of all cells of the body, including those of disease and cancer. The human body's fascia network may be the physical substrate represented by the meridians of TCM. The PVS is a newly found circulatory system; recent increased interest has led to new research and new discoveries in the anatomical and functional aspects of the PVS. The fasciology theory provides new insights into the physiological effects of acupuncture needling on basic cellular mechanisms including connective tissue mechanotransduction and regeneration. This view represents a theoretical basis and means for applying modern biomedical research to examining TCM principles and therapies, and it favors a holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Surgical management of vascular ring.

    PubMed Central

    Roesler, M; De Leval, M; Chrispin, A; Stark, J

    1983-01-01

    Between 1968 and 1980, 51 children had an operation for various forms of vascular ring. Additional cardiac malformations were present in five patients, and six had noncardiac congenital anomalies. Although symptoms started within the first month of life in 39 infants, only 16 came to operation under three months of age, and a delay of more than six months occurred in 15. Stridor, often life-threatening, and recurrent infections were the most common symptoms, but dysphagia was also important. The reasons for delay in diagnosis are discussed. Barium swallow provided the diagnosis in 44 patients and suggested it in a further four patients. Innominate artery compression of the trachea was not diagnosed by barium swallow. Operations of various types were performed. Accuracy in diagnosis is important because not all patients could be treated through the classic left thoracotomy. Severe tracheomalacia was responsible for the only two deaths in the series; one of these had tracheostomy performed in the referring hospital, the second child also had Fallot's tetralogy. The large majority of the patients have done well, 76% being asymptomatic at follow-up. Minimal to moderate stridor persists among the remainder to the present time. Images Fig. 1a and b. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6824368

  4. Vascular tumours in infants. Part I: benign vascular tumours other than infantile haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, P H; Colmenero, I

    2014-09-01

    Vascular anomalies can be subdivided into vascular tumours and vascular malformations (VMs). While most VMs are present at birth and do not exhibit significant postnatal growth, vascular tumours are characterized by their dynamics of growth and (sometimes) spontaneous regression. This review focuses on benign vascular tumours other than infantile haemangiomas (IHs), namely pyogenic granuloma, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, glomangioma, rapidly involuting and noninvoluting congenital haemangioma, verrucous haemangioma and spindle cell haemangioma. While some of them bear clinical resemblance to IH, they can be separated by age of appearance, growth characteristics and/or negative staining for glucose transporter 1. Separation of these tumours from IH is necessary because their outcome and therapeutic options are different. Semimalignant and malignant vascular tumours will be addressed in a separate review.

  5. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Zheng, Huaiyuan; Poh, Patrina S. P.; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation. PMID:26184185

  6. Lipidomics in vascular health: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms that convert a healthy vascular wall to an atherosclerotic wall is of major importance since the consequences may lead to a shortened lifespan. Classical risk factors (age, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) may result in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions by processes including inflammation and lipid accumulation. Thus, the evaluation of blood lipids and the full lipid complement produced by cells, organisms, or tissues (lipidomics) is an issue of importance. In this review, we shall describe the recent progress in vascular health research using lipidomic advances. We will begin with an overview of vascular wall biology and lipids, followed by a short analysis of lipidomics. Finally, we shall focus on the clinical implications of lipidomics and studies that have examined lipidomic approaches and vascular health. PMID:26109865

  7. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Zheng, Huaiyuan; Poh, Patrina S P; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F

    2015-07-14

    Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation.

  8. Salt controls endothelial and vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Schmitz, Boris; Brand, Eva

    2015-03-01

    High salt (NaCl) intake promotes the development of vascular diseases independent of a rise in blood pressure, whereas reduction of salt consumption has beneficial effects for the arterial system. This article summarizes our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of high salt-induced alterations of the endothelial phenotype, the impact of the individual endothelial genotype, and the overall vascular phenotype. We focus on the endothelial Na(+) channel (EnNaC)-controlled nanomechanical properties of the endothelium, since high Na(+) leads to an EnNaC-induced Na(+)-influx and subsequent stiffening of endothelial cells. The mechanical stiffness of the endothelial cell (i.e., the endothelial phenotype) plays a crucial role as it controls the production of the endothelium-derived vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) which directly affects the tone of the vascular smooth muscle cells. In contrast to soft endothelial cells, stiff endothelial cells release reduced amounts of NO, the hallmark of endothelial dysfunction. This endothelium-born process is followed by the development of arterial stiffness (i.e., the vascular phenotype), predicting the development of vascular end-organ damage such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal impairment. In this context, we outline the potential clinical implication of direct (amiloride) and indirect (spironolactone) EnNaC inhibition on vascular function. However, interindividual differences exist in the response to high salt intake which involves different endothelial genotypes. Thus, selected genes and genetic variants contributing to the development of salt-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension are discussed. In this review, we focus on the role of salt in endothelial and vascular (dys)function and the link between salt-induced changes of the endothelial and vascular phenotype and its clinical implications.

  9. Biomimicry, vascular restenosis and coronary stents.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R S; van der Giessen, W J; Holmes, D R

    1998-01-01

    Biomimicry is in its earliest stages and is being considered in the realm of tissue engineering. If arterial implants are to limit neointimal thickening, purely passive structures cannot succeed. Bioactivity must be present, either by pharmacologic intervention or by fabricating a 'living stent' that contains active cellular material. As tissue engineering evolves, useful solutions will emerge from applying this knowledge directly to vascular biologic problems resulting from angioplasty, stenting, and vascular prosthesis research.

  10. Laser-assisted vascular anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Race L.; Tsao-Wu, George; Magovern, George J.

    1990-06-01

    The milliwatt CO2 laser and a thermal activated binding compound (20% serum albumin) were used for microvascular anastomoses. Under general anesthesia, the femoral arteries (0.7 to 1.0 mm diameter) of 6 rats were isolated. After the left femoral artery in each rat was clamped and transected, the vessel was held together with 3 equidistant 10-0 Xomed sutures. The cut edges were coated 3 to 4 times with the albumin solution and sealed with the CO2 laser (power density = 120 W/cm2). The binding compound solidified to a translucent tensile substance which supported the anastomosis until self healing and repair were achieved. The right femoral artery was used as sham operated control. Complete hemostasis and patency were observed in every case immediately and at 1, 3, and 6 months following surgery. The binding compound absorbed most of the laser energy thus minimizing thermal injury to the underlying tissue. Mongrel dogs weighing 28 to 33 kg were anesthetized and prepared for sterile surgical procedures. In 5 dogs, the femoral and jugular veins were exposed, transected, and anastomosed using a CO2 laser (Sharplan 1040) with the binding compound. In another 12 dogs, cephalic veins were isolated and used for aortocoronary artery bypass procedures. The Sharplan 1040 CO2 laser and 20% albumin solution were utilized to complete the coronary anastomoses in 6 dogs, and 6 dogs were used as controls by suturing the vessels. Again, hemostasis, patency, and minimal tissue damage were observed immediately and 6 weeks after the procedures. Improved surgical results, reduced operating time, minimized tissue damage, and enhanced anastomotic integrity are the advantages of laser assisted vascular anastomosis with a thermal activated binding compound.

  11. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Kalaria, Raj N; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood-brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  12. Radiographic Findings Associated with Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Masand, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of patients with vascular tumors and malformations has been sufficiently refined to answer pertinent questions when making treatment decisions in this challenging subgroup of pediatric patients. The imaging modalities at hand include conventional radiography, Doppler ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging with time-resolved, contrast-material enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. This review article will focus on the characteristic imaging features of some focal and diffuse vascular lesions, which have been classified by their clinical history and physical exam, and further labeled as a vascular tumor or slow-flow versus high-flow vascular malformation based on the updated classification system proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. The recent advances in knowledge regarding the biology of these vascular anomalies have led to increased awareness of the current nomenclature. Moreover, with better understanding of the imaging features, the radiologist has become a key player in the multidisciplinary approach offered at various institutions where appropriate treatment algorithms and interventional strategies are put together. This is crucial in avoiding misdiagnosis and improper management. PMID:25045332

  13. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    PubMed Central

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  14. Thoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Julia; Grimberg, Alexandre; Thompson, Bruna M; Antunes, Viviane B; Jasinowodolinski, Dany; Meirelles, Gustavo S P

    2012-01-01

    Collagen vascular diseases are a diverse group of immunologically mediated systemic disorders that often lead to thoracic changes. The collagen vascular diseases that most commonly involve the lung are rheumatoid arthritis, progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis and dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, and Sjögren syndrome. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the main causes of mortality and morbidity among patients with collagen vascular diseases. Given the broad spectrum of possible thoracic manifestations and the varying frequency with which different interstitial lung diseases occur, the interpretation of thoracic images obtained in patients with collagen vascular diseases can be challenging. The task may be more difficult in the presence of treatment-related complications such as drug toxicity and infections, which are common in this group of patients. Although chest radiography is most often used for screening and monitoring of thoracic alterations, high-resolution computed tomography can provide additional information about lung involvement in collagen vascular diseases and may be especially helpful for differentiating specific disease patterns in the lung. General knowledge about the manifestations of thoracic involvement in collagen vascular diseases allows radiologists to provide better guidance for treatment and follow-up of these patients.

  15. Endothelial cells are damaged by autophagic induction before hepatocytes in Con A-induced acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chen; Chang, Chih-Peng; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2010-08-01

    We have reported both T-cell-dependent and -independent hepatitis in immunocompetent and immunodeficiency mice, respectively, after intravenous injection of Con A in mice. The mode of hepatocyte cell death is different: autophagy for T-cell-independent hepatitis in contrast to apoptosis for T-cell-dependent one. In this study, we further demonstrate that liver blood vessels are the first target in both modes. The infused Con A bond to the hepatic vascular endothelial cells and cause its damage with autophagy. Before the elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase at 6 h post-injection, the plasma leakage and hemorrhage occur at 1-3 h without inflammation. Con A induces autophagy of endothelial cells and hemorrhage that is enhanced by IFN-gamma. Using the endothelial cell line HMEC-1, a dose- and time-dependent cell death with autophagic LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3) conversion was induced by Con A and was enhanced by IFN-gamma. In conclusion, Con A induced autophagy on hepatic endothelial cells; the damage of liver blood vessel occurs before the induction of T-cell-dependent hepatitis via apoptosis or T-cell-independent hepatitis via autophagy.

  16. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yeager, Michael E; Frid, Maria G; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of α-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow-derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  17. Exercise, Vascular Stiffness, and Tissue Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Steppan, Jochen; Sikka, Gautam; Jandu, Simran; Barodka, Viachaslau; Halushka, Marc K.; Flavahan, Nicholas A.; Belkin, Alexey M.; Nyhan, Daniel; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Santhanam, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular aging is closely associated with increased vascular stiffness. It has recently been demonstrated that decreased nitric oxide (NO)‐induced S‐nitrosylation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) contributes to age‐related vascular stiffness. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise restores NO signaling and attenuates vascular stiffness by decreasing TG2 activity and cross‐linking in an aging rat model. Methods and Results Rats were subjected to 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise. Aging was associated with diminished phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase and phosphorylated vasodilator‐stimulated phosphoprotein abundance, suggesting reduced NO signaling. TG2 cross‐linking activity was significantly increased in old animals, whereas TG2 abundance remained unchanged. These alterations were attenuated in the exercise cohort. Simultaneous measurement of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) demonstrated increased aortic stiffness in old rats, compared to young, at all values of mean arterial pressure (MAP). The PWV‐MAP correlation in the old sedentary and old exercise cohorts was similar. Tensile testing of the vessels showed increased stiffness of the aorta in the old phenotype with a modest restoration of mechanical properties toward the young phenotype with exercise. Conclusions Increased vascular stiffness during aging is associated with decreased TG2 S‐nitrosylation, increased TG2 cross‐linking activity, and increased vascular stiffness likely the result of decreased NO bioavailability. In this study, a brief period of moderate aerobic exercise enhanced NO signaling, attenuated TG cross‐linking activity, and reduced ex vivo tensile properties, but failed to reverse functional vascular stiffness in vivo, as measured by PWV. PMID:24721796

  18. [NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS].

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel A; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Muñoz-Calero, Paloma; Franco-Lopez, Angeles

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: las enfermedades neurodegenerativas producen alteraciones en el nivel de conciencia o en los mecanismos de la deglución que con frecuencia hacen necesario un soporte nutricional especializado. Objetivo: revisar el riesgo de desnutrición, así como su tratamiento, en pacientes con enfermedad cerebral vascular, enfermedad de Parkinson, demencia y esclerosis lateral amiotrófica. Desarrollo: las enfermedades neurológicas degenerativas son una de las principales indicaciones de soporte nutricional en nuestro país. En los procesos agudos (enfermedad vascular cerebral), el correcto manejo nutricional se relaciona con una mejor evolución y con una disminución de las complicaciones. En los procesos neurodegenerativos crónicos (esclerosis lateral amiatrófica y demencia), la malnutrición es un problema importante que empeora el pronóstico de estos pacientes siendo, necesario un correcto manejo de la disfagia y sus complicaciones, así como la utilización de diferentes etapas de soporte nutricional. Una correcta valoración nutricional de estos pacientes, así como un claro esquema de intervención nutricional, es imprescindible en el seguimiento de su enfermedad. Por último, en la enfermedad de Parkinson avanzada, el soporte nutricional, como en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas anteriores, es de vital importancia, sin olvidarnos de la carga proteica y su distribución en la dieta de estos pacientes. Las sociedades científicas internacionales (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ASPEN) recomiendan, con un grado de evidencia B, realizar un cribaje de malnutrición a los pacientes con enfermedades neurológicas. Conclusiones: una correcta valoración nutricional, así como un adecuado soporte nutricional deben formar parte del proceso diagnóstico y terapéutico de estas enfermedades.

  19. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Sevostyanova, V. V. Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  20. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevostyanova, V. V.; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2015-10-01

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  1. [Retinal vascular diseases reflecting generalized vascular alterations. What can be mutually learnt?].

    PubMed

    Feltgen, N; Franko Zeitz, P

    2014-01-01

    Retinal vascular diseases are mostly caused by systemic vascular diseases. In some cases the systemic disease is already known but in other patients ocular anomalies often provide the first indications of a systemic disease. Treating patients with vascular fundus diseases requires close cooperation between ophthalmologists and specialists in other fields and deciding which routine and specialized diagnostic examinations are necessary in light of the potential risk factors involved requires interdisciplinary communication. This article aims to provide an overview of the most important vascular retinal diseases and which examinations are required to ensure an accurate diagnosis. The retinal vascular diseases with the highest frequency or clinical relevance are hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and retinal artery occlusion.

  2. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture

  3. Vascular Permeability and Drug Delivery in Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, Sandy; Hebda, Jagoda K.; Gavard, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The endothelial barrier strictly maintains vascular and tissue homeostasis, and therefore modulates many physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, and dynamic exchanges throughout organs. Consequently, alteration of this finely tuned function may have devastating consequences for the organism. This is particularly obvious in cancers, where a disorganized and leaky blood vessel network irrigates solid tumors. In this context, vascular permeability drives tumor-induced angiogenesis, blood flow disturbances, inflammatory cell infiltration, and tumor cell extravasation. This can directly restrain the efficacy of conventional therapies by limiting intravenous drug delivery. Indeed, for more effective anti-angiogenic therapies, it is now accepted that not only should excessive angiogenesis be alleviated, but also that the tumor vasculature needs to be normalized. Recovery of normal state vasculature requires diminishing hyperpermeability, increasing pericyte coverage, and restoring the basement membrane, to subsequently reduce hypoxia, and interstitial fluid pressure. In this review, we will introduce how vascular permeability accompanies tumor progression and, as a collateral damage, impacts on efficient drug delivery. The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor-driven vascular permeability will next be detailed, with a particular focus on the main factors produced by tumor cells, especially the emblematic vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, new perspectives in cancer therapy will be presented, centered on the use of anti-permeability factors and normalization agents. PMID:23967403

  4. Diagnosing vascular causes of renal failure.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, J G

    1995-10-15

    The incidence of renal failure due to vascular diseases is increasing. Two reasons for this are the epidemic of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the aging population and the widespread use of vasoactive drugs that can adversely affect renal function. These vascular causes of renal failure include vasomotor disorders such as that associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, small-vessel diseases such as cholesterol crystal embolization, and large-vessel diseases such as renal artery stenosis. These causes of azotemia are less familiar to physicians than more classic causes, such as acute tubular necrosis, and are less likely to be recognized in their early stages. This article describes the various vascular diseases that impair renal function and outlines the steps necessary to identify them. Although some of these conditions, such as renal artery stenosis, can gradually impair function, the vascular causes of acute renal failure are emphasized in this article. Because the vasculitides primarily cause renal failure through secondary glomerulonephritis, they are mentioned only briefly. Extensive testing is rarely necessary because the cause is usually suspected through syndrome recognition. The diagnosis can then be confirmed by the results of one or two additional tests or by improved renal function after treatment.

  5. Vascular oxidant stress and inflammation in hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Papatheodorou, Louisa; Weiss, Norbert

    2007-11-01

    Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are a metabolic risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease, as shown in numerous clinical studies that linked elevated homocysteine levels to de novo and recurrent cardiovascular events. High levels of homocysteine promote oxidant stress in vascular cells and tissue because of the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been strongly implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. In particular, ROS have been shown to cause endothelial injury, dysfunction, and activation. Elevated homocysteine stimulates proinflammatory pathways in vascular cells, resulting in leukocyte recruitment to the vessel wall, mediated by the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and circulating monocytes and neutrophils, in the infiltration of leukocytes into the arterial wall mediated by increased secretion of chemokines, and in the differentiation of monocytes into cholesterol-scavenging macrophages. Furthermore, it stimulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells followed by the production of extracellular matrix. Many of these events involve redox-sensitive signaling events, which are promoted by elevated homocysteine, and result in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. In this article, we review current knowledge about the role of homocysteine on oxidant stress-mediated vascular inflammation during the development of atherosclerosis.

  6. Vascular and metabolic reserve in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagata, K; Kondoh, Y; Atchison, R; Sato, M; Satoh, Y; Watahiki, Y; Hirata, Y; Yokoyama, E

    2000-01-01

    Vascular and metabolic reserve were analyzed in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured quantitatively with positron emission tomography (PET). Vascular reactivity (VR) was also calculated by comparing the CBF during 5% CO(2) inhalation with the CBF during normal breathing. Vascular transit time (VTT) that was calculated as a ratio of CBV/CBF and VR reflect vasodilating capacity of the small resistance vessels, whereas OEF designates metabolic (oxygen-extraction) reserve in threatening brain ischemia. Significant increase in OEF was seen in the parieto-temporal cortex and both VTT and VR were preserved in AD patients. By constrast, there was no significant increase in OEF whereas VTT was prolonged and VR was markedly depressed in VaD patients. The increase of OEF and preserved VTT and VR seen in AD patients indicate the possible participation of vascular factors in the pathogenesis of AD perhaps at the capillary level.

  7. Vascular Protection Following Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Palomares, Sara Morales; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research that has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of stroke, translation of this knowledge into effective therapies has largely failed. The only effective treatment for ischemic stroke is rapid recanalization of an occluded vessel by dissolving the clot with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, stroke adversely affects vascular function as well that can cause secondary brain injury and limit treatment that depends on a patent vasculature. In middle cerebral arteries (MCA), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) cause loss of myogenic tone, vascular paralysis, and endothelial dysfunction that can lead to loss of autoregulation. In contrast, brain parenchymal arterioles retain considerable tone during I/R that likely contributes to expansion of the infarct into the penumbra. Microvascular dysregulation also occurs during ischemic stroke that causes edema and hemorrhage, exacerbating the primary insult. Ischemic injury of vasculature is progressive with longer duration of I/R. Early postischemic reperfusion has beneficial effects on stroke outcome but can impair vascular function and exacerbate ischemic injury after longer durations of I/R. This review focuses on current knowledge on the effects of I/R on the structure and function of different vascular segments in the brain and highlight some of the more promising targets for vascular protection. PMID:22102980

  8. Motor cortex excitability in vascular depression.

    PubMed

    Bella, Rita; Ferri, Raffaele; Cantone, Mariagiovanna; Pennisi, Manuela; Lanza, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Spampinato, Concetto; Giordano, Daniela; Raggi, Alberto; Pennisi, Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate excitatory/inhibitory intracortical circuit changes in patients with vascular depression, and whether there are any interhemispheric differences of motor cortical excitability. Fifteen vascular depressed elderly (VD), ten nondepressed subcortical vascular disease patients (SVD) and ten age-matched controls underwent bilateral motor threshold and paired-pulse studies. They were also assessed for their brain vascular burden at MRI and neuropsychological profile. Executive dysfunction and apathy were significantly higher in VD; we were unable to find significant differences in resting motor threshold, cortical silent period and paired-pulse curves between VD, SVD and controls, and between the two hemispheres in the VD group. Our findings might suggest that neurophysiological mechanisms underlying VD differ from those previously reported in Major Depression (reduced excitability in the left hemisphere) and seem to be similar to those of patients with SVD. Our findings also, support the "vascular depression" hypothesis, suggesting that in VD patients the depressive syndrome is not the primary disease but can be considered as one of the clinical manifestations in the wide symptom spectrum of the cerebral small vessel disease.

  9. [Novel mechanism for retinal vascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Suzuma, Kiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    I. A new therapeutic target for diabetic retinopathy. Recent reports state that succinate may be an independent retinal angiogenic factor. We evaluated concentrations in vitreous from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and found that succinate increased significantly in PDR. Interestingly, levels of succinate from bevacizumab-pre-injected PDR were normal, suggesting that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) had a positive feedback mechanism for succinate since succinate was previously reported to induce VEGF. II. A new understanding of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). We evaluated retinal blood flow velocity with laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) made in Japan, and found that cases in which both macular edema and retinal blood flow velocity improved after anti-VEGF therapy had better prognosis. In ischemic CRVO at final visit, mean retinal blood velocity was less than 50% of fellow eyes after 1st anti-VEGF therapy, suggesting that those cases might have poor prognosis. LSFG is useful for evaluation and decision in CRVO treatment. III. From exploration for mechanism in retinal vascular diseases to re-vascularization therapy. The standard treatment for retinal non-perfusion area is scatter laser photocoagulation, which is both invasive of the peripheral retina and may prove destructive. Re-vascularization is an ideal strategy for treatment of retinal non-perfusion area. To develop a new methods for re-vascularization in retinal non-perfusion area, we have designed experiments using a retina without vasculature differentiated from induced pluripotent stem(iPS) cells.

  10. Vascularized tail bone grafts in rats.

    PubMed

    Sempuku, T; Tamai, S; Mizumoto, S; Yajima, H

    1993-03-01

    A new experimental model for vascularized corticocancellous bone grafts was established by investigation of vascular anatomy of the tail in 15 adult Fischer 344 rats and determination of the viability of vascularized tail bone grafts into the abdominal wall in 22 7-week-old rats. The tail bones of 40 rats were then raised on the pedicle of the caudal artery and its venae comitantes, transferred to a resected portion in the femur, and observed for 16 weeks. The vascularized graft showed marked reactive periosteal bone formation during the first and second weeks following transfer, and thereafter, the graft continued to show active bone formation. In transverse section, the sharp processes became rounded. In the cancellous bone, both bone resorption and bone formation were noticeably activated early after transfer, although resorption predominated and the amount of the cancellous bone consequently diminished. The nonvascularized grafts showed "creeping substitution." The results suggest that morphologic adaptation occurs if living (i.e., vascularized) tail bones are transferred to long-bone femurs.

  11. VESGEN Software for Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis is an automated software that maps and quantifies effects of vascular regulators on vascular morphology by analyzing important vessel parameters. Quantification parameters include vessel diameter, length, branch points, density, and fractal dimension. For vascular trees, measurements are reported as dependent functions of vessel branching generation. VESGEN maps and quantifies vascular morphological events according to fractal-based vascular branching generation. It also relies on careful imaging of branching and networked vascular form. It was developed as a plug-in for ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, USA). VESGEN uses image-processing concepts of 8-neighbor pixel connectivity, skeleton, and distance map to analyze 2D, black-and-white (binary) images of vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. VESGEN maps typically 5 to 12 (or more) generations of vascular branching, starting from a single parent vessel. These generations are tracked and measured for critical vascular parameters that include vessel diameter, length, density and number, and tortuosity per branching generation. The effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on vascular morphology and branching tested in human clinical or laboratory animal experimental studies are quantified by comparing vascular parameters with control groups. VESGEN provides a user interface to both guide and allow control over the users vascular analysis process. An option is provided to select a morphological tissue type of vascular trees, network or tree-network composites, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced.

  12. Mitochondria, endothelial cell function, and vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoqiang; Luo, Yu-Xuan; Chen, Hou-Zao; Liu, De-Pei

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are perhaps the most sophisticated and dynamic responsive sensing systems in eukaryotic cells. The role of mitochondria goes beyond their capacity to create molecular fuel and includes the generation of reactive oxygen species, the regulation of calcium, and the activation of cell death. In endothelial cells, mitochondria have a profound impact on cellular function under both healthy and diseased conditions. In this review, we summarize the basic functions of mitochondria in endothelial cells and discuss the roles of mitochondria in endothelial dysfunction and vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetic vascular dysfunction, pulmonary artery hypertension, and hypertension. Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in endothelial cells and vascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants and calorie restriction. PMID:24834056

  13. Effects of vascularization on cancer nanochemotherapy outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, L. R.; Ferreira, S. C.; Martins, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Cancer therapy requires anticancer agents capable of efficient and uniform systemic delivery. One promising route to their development is nanotechnology. Here, a previous model for cancer chemotherapy based on a nanosized drug carrier (Paiva et al., 2011) is extended by including tissue vasculature and a three-dimensional growth. We study through computer simulations the therapy against tumors demanding either large or small nutrient supplies growing under different levels of tissue vascularization. Our results indicate that highly vascularized tumors demand more aggressive therapies (larger injected doses administrated at short intervals) than poorly vascularized ones. Furthermore, nanoparticle endocytic rate by tumor cells, not its selectivity, is the major factor that determines the therapeutic success. Finally, our finds indicate that therapies combining cytotoxic agents with antiangiogenic drugs that reduce the abnormal tumor vasculature, instead of angiogenic drugs that normalize it, can lead to successful treatments using feasible endocytic rates and administration intervals.

  14. Advanced noninvasive imaging of spinal vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Eddleman, Christopher S.; Jeong, Hyun; Cashen, Ty A.; Walker, Matthew; Bendok, Bernard R.; Batjer, H. Hunt; Carroll, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal vascular malformations (SVMs) are an uncommon, heterogeneous group of vascular anomalies that can render devastating neurological consequences if they are not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Imaging SVMs has always presented a formidable challenge because their clinical and imaging presentations resemble those of neoplasms, demyelination diseases, and infection. Advancements in noninvasive imaging modalities (MR and CT angiography) have increased during the last decade and have improved the ability to accurately diagnose spinal vascular anomalies. In addition, intraoperative imaging techniques have been developed that aid in the intraoperative assessment before, during, and after resection of these lesions with minimal and/or optimal use of spinal digital subtraction angiography. In this report, the authors review recent advancements in the imaging of SVMs that will likely lead to more timely diagnoses and treatment while reducing procedural risk exposure to the patients who harbor these uncommon spinal lesions. PMID:19119895

  15. Scalable computer architecture for digital vascular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Iain; Chao, Hui; Skalabrin, Mark

    1998-06-01

    Digital vascular computer systems are used for radiology and fluoroscopy (R/F), angiography, and cardiac applications. In the United States alone, about 26 million procedures of these types are performed annually: about 81% R/F, 11% cardiac, and 8% angiography. Digital vascular systems have a very wide range of performance requirements, especially in terms of data rates. In addition, new features are added over time as they are shown to be clinically efficacious. Application-specific processing modes such as roadmapping, peak opacification, and bolus chasing are particular to some vascular systems. New algorithms continue to be developed and proven, such as Cox and deJager's precise registration methods for masks and live images in digital subtraction angiography. A computer architecture must have high scalability and reconfigurability to meet the needs of this modality. Ideally, the architecture could also serve as the basis for a nonvascular R/F system.

  16. Medical Therapy for Pediatric Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Judith F.; Soni, Heather Mills; Pimpalwar, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies (VAs) comprise a large variety of individual diagnoses that in different phases of treatment require a diverse number of medical specialists to provide optimal care. Medical therapies include agents usually associated with cancer chemotherapy, such as vincristine, as well more immunomodulatory types of drugs, such as glucocorticoids and sirolimus. These immunomodulating drugs are being successfully applied in cases that are typically categorized as vascular tumors, including kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA), as well as some of the more invasive types of vascular malformations (i.e., microcystic lymphatic malformations and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS). These therapies need to be combined with good supportive care, which often involves anticoagulation, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and comprehensive pain and symptom-relief strategies, as well as appropriate drug monitoring and management of side effects of medical treatment. The optimal care of these patients frequently involves close collaboration between surgeons, interventional and conventional radiologists, medical subspecialists, and nurses. PMID:25045333

  17. Mechanisms of vascular calcification and associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Marulanda, Juliana; Alqarni, Saleh; Murshed, Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of bone and tooth extracellular matrix (ECM) is a physiologic process, while soft tissue mineralization, also known as ectopic mineralization (calcification), is a pathologic condition. Vascular calcification is common in aging and also in a number of genetic and metabolic disorders. The calcific deposits in arteries complicate the prognosis and increase the morbidity in diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To completely understand the pathophysiology of these lifethreatening diseases, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. Unveiling these mechanisms will eventually identify new therapeutic targets and also improve the management of the associated complications. In the current review, we discussed the common determinants of ECM mineralization, the mechanism of vascular calcification associated with several human diseases and outlined the most common therapeutic approaches to prevent its progression.

  18. Premature vascular damage in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Mariana J

    2009-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease associated with a striking increase in the risk of premature cardiovascular (CV) complications due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Traditional CV risk factors seem to be less important predictors of CV events than the presence of active SLE. Immune dysregulation characteristic of lupus appears to play the dominant role in atherogenesis. While both SLE-specific and non-specific mechanisms have been proposed to play a prominent role in the induction of premature vascular damage in this disease, the exact etiology remains unclear. We have proposed that an imbalance between vascular damage and repair likely induced by Interferon- could play a prominent role in the induction of accelerated atherosclerosis in SLE. This review summarizes some of the proposed mechanisms that may promote accelerated vascular damage in lupus and explores potential targets for CV risk prevention in this patient population.

  19. Diabetes and its vascular complications in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jones, J J; Watkins, P J; Owyong, L Y; Loh, P P; Kutty, M K; Jogie, B

    1978-12-01

    One hundred and thirty-two newly diagnosed Asian diabetic patients (39 Malay, 30 Chinese and 63 Indians) have been studied in Kuala Lumpur. The highest proportion of diabetic patients were Indian and the lowest were Chinese. Vascular complications were equally common in Asian diabetic patients as in Europeans; coronary heart disease was relatively more common in Indians and cerebral vascular disease in Chinese. Twenty percent of all Asian diabetic patients requiring admission to hospital also had coronary heart disease, 9% had cerebral vascular disease and 8% had gangrene or ulceration of the feet. In Kuala Lumpur, diabetes is a very important risk factor for coronary heart disease: 17% of all patients admitted to the General Hospital with coronary heart disease were already diabetic. PMID:749278

  20. Vascular ring diagnosis following respiratory arrest

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Evie Alexandra; Scott, Alison; Chetcuti, Philip; Crabbe, David

    2014-01-01

    Vascular rings can present with non-specific respiratory and/or oesophageal symptoms. Early diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. This case report describes an uncommon acute presentation of a vascular ring. We report a thriving 14-month-old child with a long history of recurrent wheeze and ‘noisy breathing’. He presented acutely with food bolus impaction in the oesophagus which led to a respiratory arrest. Oesophagoscopy and bronchoscopy suggested vascular ring anomaly. A contrast-enhanced CT scan demonstrated a right-sided aortic arch with left ligamentum arteriosum encircling the oesophagus and airway. The ligament was ligated and divided. At follow-up 6 months later, the infant had mild persistent stridor but was otherwise well. PMID:24895385

  1. Evaluating hospital quality for vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Andrew; Osborne, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Increasingly, there is a wealth of data available to aid patients in determining where to seek care for quality vascular disease. At times, these data may be difficult for the public to comprehend. Hospital rating organizations, frequently motivated by profit, are marketing directly to consumers with increasingly granular data. In this report, we examine the most popular ratings for hospitals that perform vascular surgical procedures and describe the methodology of each rating system, as well as the validity of the data underscoring these ratings. Understanding how hospital quality is being evaluated and what outcomes measures are being collated allows vascular surgeons to take appropriate actions to ensure the validity of their own hospital ratings. PMID:26655048

  2. Dynamics of nephron-vascular network.

    PubMed

    Postnov, D D; Postnov, D E; Marsh, D J; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H; Sosnovtseva, O V

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents a modeling study of the spatial dynamics of a nephro-vascular network consisting of individual nephrons connected via a tree-like vascular branching structure. We focus on the effects of nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for the formation of synchronous patterns in order to learn about processes not directly amenable to experimentation. We demonstrate that: (i) the nearest nephrons are synchronized in-phase due to a vascular propagated electrical coupling, (ii) the next few branching levels display a formation of phase-shifted patterns due to hemodynamic coupling and mode elimination, and (iii) distantly located areas show asynchronous behavior or, if all nephrons and branches are perfectly identical, an infinitely long transient behavior. These results contribute to the understanding of mechanisms responsible for the highly dynamic and limited synchronization observed among groups of nephrons despite of the fairly strong interaction between the individual units.

  3. Regulatory Circuits Controlling Vascular Cell Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Tamer; Cheng, Henry; Demer, Linda L.; Tintut, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and aging. Such abnormal calcium deposition occurs in medial and/or intimal layers of blood vessels as well as in cardiac valves. Once considered a passive and inconsequential finding, the presence of calcium deposits in the vasculature is widely accepted as a predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Recognition of the importance of vascular calcification in health is driving research into mechanisms that govern its development, progression, and regression. Diverse, but highly interconnected factors, have been implicated, including disturbances in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and mineral and hormonal balances, which can lead to formation of osteoblast-like cells in the artery wall. A tight balance of procalcific and anticalcific regulators dictates the extent of disease. In this review, we focus on the main regulatory circuits modulating vascular cell calcification. PMID:23269436

  4. Neurogenic vascular headaches, food and chemical triggers.

    PubMed

    Trotsky, M B

    1994-04-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that neurogenic vascular headaches are a combination of neurological primary events and secondary vasomotor changes. The neurological events involve the hypothalamus and sensory cortex with sympathetic hypofunction and noradrenergic abnormalities. A platelet theory has been proposed but has not really been confirmed as a legitimate cause of the neurogenic vascular headaches. Food and chemicals in foods can act as a precipitating factor in the food-sensitive neurogenic vascular headache patient. In these patients evidence is now being demonstrated to confirm this, but larger patient studies are needed. The food-sensitive migraine patient and cluster headache patient must give a good history and food diary to go along with active challenges and provocative testing in order to determine the causative foods. Any concomitant allergies of inhalants or environmentals must also be treated. The treatment modalities of elimination and rotation diets or provocation neutralization may successfully control the headaches without the need for continuous medications.

  5. Update on Pharmacologic Retinal Vascular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wasinska-Borowiec, Weronika; Flynn, Harry W; Mieler, William F

    2015-01-01

    Several medications are associated with retinal vascular toxicity. These include intraocular aminoglycosides, oral contraceptives, interferon alpha, several other agents, and talc, which occurs as a vehicle in some oral medications that may be abused intravenously. As a group, these entities represent a small but clinically relevant category of retinal toxicity from medications. Some of the manifestations (e.g., retinal vascular occlusion) are nonspecific, but others are more specific, including clinically visible talc emboli in retinal vessels. Toxicity may be asymptomatic or may cause irreversible visual loss. By maintaining a high index of suspicion, the correct diagnosis can usually be made.

  6. Pattern formation by vascular mesenchymal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, Alan; Tintut, Yin; Petrasek, Danny; Boström, Kristina; Demer, Linda L.

    2004-06-01

    In embryogenesis, immature mesenchymal cells aggregate and organize into patterned tissues. Later in life, a pathological recapitulation of this process takes place in atherosclerotic lesions, when vascular mesenchymal cells organize into trabecular bone tissue within the artery wall. Here we show that multipotential adult vascular mesenchymal cells self-organize in vitro into patterns that are predicted by a mathematical model based on molecular morphogens interacting in a reaction-diffusion process. We identify activator and inhibitor morphogens for stripe, spot, and labyrinthine patterns and confirm the model predictions in vitro. Thus, reaction-diffusion principles may play a significant role in morphogenetic processes in adult mesenchymal cells.

  7. Bioactive scaffolds for engineering vascularized cardiac tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Loraine; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Functional vascularization is a key requirement for the development and function of most tissues, and most critically cardiac muscle. Rapid and irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes during cardiac infarction directly results from the lack of blood supply. Contractile cardiac grafts, engineered using cardiovascular cells in conjunction with biomaterial scaffolds, are an actively studied method for cardiac repair. In this article, we focus on biomaterial scaffolds designed to mediate the development and maturation of vascular networks, by immobilized growth factors. The interactive effects of multiple vasculogenic factors are discussed in the context of cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:20857391

  8. Vascular Radiology in Trauma: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Anthony A.

    2004-03-15

    It's been 30 years since an endovascular technique to control traumatic hemorrhage was first described. Despite major technical advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic technology, and a great deal of experience since then, endovascular techniques are rarely considered as part of frontline management for vascular trauma. This review considers the literature and calls for better planning and implementation of diagnostic and image=guided therapeutic facilities. Endovascular techniques should be an essential part of vascular trauma management along with endovascular specialists, partners in trauma teams.

  9. Update on Pharmacologic Retinal Vascular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wasinska-Borowiec, Weronika; Flynn, Harry W; Mieler, William F

    2015-01-01

    Several medications are associated with retinal vascular toxicity. These include intraocular aminoglycosides, oral contraceptives, interferon alpha, several other agents, and talc, which occurs as a vehicle in some oral medications that may be abused intravenously. As a group, these entities represent a small but clinically relevant category of retinal toxicity from medications. Some of the manifestations (e.g., retinal vascular occlusion) are nonspecific, but others are more specific, including clinically visible talc emboli in retinal vessels. Toxicity may be asymptomatic or may cause irreversible visual loss. By maintaining a high index of suspicion, the correct diagnosis can usually be made. PMID:26350526

  10. Smoking and vascular risk: are all forms of smoking harmful to all types of vascular disease?

    PubMed

    Katsiki, N; Papadopoulou, S K; Fachantidou, A I; Mikhailidis, D P

    2013-05-01

    Smoking, both active and passive, is an established vascular risk factor. The present narrative review considers the effects of different forms of smoking (i.e. cannabis, cigar, pipe, smokeless tobacco and cigarette) on cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, the impact of smoking on several vascular risk factors [e.g. hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidaemia and haemostasis] and on vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and carotid arterial disease, is discussed. The adverse effects of all forms of smoking and the interactions between smoking and established vascular risk factors highlight the importance of smoking cessation in high-risk patients in terms of both primary and secondary vascular disease prevention. Healthcare providers should discourage people (especially the young) from becoming smokers, strongly encourage all vascular patients to stop smoking and support those who decide to quit by pharmaceutical and psychological interventions. In high-risk populations such as patients with CHD, DM and/or PAD, smoking cessation should always be a part of a multifactorial treatment to reduce vascular risk. PMID:23453194

  11. Vascular plugs - A key companion to Interventionists - 'Just Plug it'.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Vascular plugs are ideally suited to close extra-cardiac, high flowing vascular communications. The family of vascular plugs has expanded. Vascular plugs in general have a lower profile and the newer variants can be delivered even through a diagnostic catheter. These features make them versatile and easy to use. The Amplatzer vascular plugs are also used for closing intracardiac defects including coronary arterio-venous fistula and paravalvular leakage in an off-label fashion. In this review, the features of currently available vascular plugs are reviewed along with tips and tricks of using them in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  12. Vascular plugs - A key companion to Interventionists - 'Just Plug it'.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Vascular plugs are ideally suited to close extra-cardiac, high flowing vascular communications. The family of vascular plugs has expanded. Vascular plugs in general have a lower profile and the newer variants can be delivered even through a diagnostic catheter. These features make them versatile and easy to use. The Amplatzer vascular plugs are also used for closing intracardiac defects including coronary arterio-venous fistula and paravalvular leakage in an off-label fashion. In this review, the features of currently available vascular plugs are reviewed along with tips and tricks of using them in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. PMID:26304581

  13. Oscillation of Angiogenesis and Vascular Dropout in Progressive Human Vascular Disease. [Vascular Pattern as Useful Read-Out of Complex Molecular Signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    When analyzed by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, vascular patterns provide useful integrative read-outs of complex, interacting molecular signaling pathways. Using VESGEN, we recently discovered and published our innovative, surprising findings that angiogenesis oscillated with vascular dropout throughout progression of diabetic retinopathy, a blinding vascular disease. Our findings provide a potential paradigm shift in the current prevailing view on progression and treatment of this disease, and a new early-stage window of regenerative therapeutic opportunities. The findings also suggest that angiogenesis may oscillate with vascular disease in a homeostatic-like manner during early stages of other inflammatory progressive diseases such as cancer and coronary vascular disease.

  14. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  15. Pumps, Aqueducts, and Drought Management: vascular physiology in vascular cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Randolph S; Lazar, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment has been traditionally defined by structural pathology – an accumulation of infarcts -- leading to progressive cognitive decline. Recent evidence, however, suggests that cognitive impairment may be independently mediated by hemodynamic dysfunction including global and hemispheral hypoperfusion and altered cerebral blood flow regulation. In this review we examine evidence for the contribution of hemodynamic impairment to cognitive dysfunction in the setting of large vessel disease, cardiac failure, and microvascular disease. If there is a hemodynamic component of vascular cognitive impairment, then treatments proposed to correct impaired vascular physiology may reasonably be expected to treat the cognitive dysfunction as well. PMID:21148438

  16. Cerebral dysplastic vascular malformation: a developmental arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Wortzman, G.; Sima, A.A.F.; Morley, T.P.

    1983-08-01

    A cryptic malformation of the brain was found to represent an arrest in vascular development. Microscopy showed plump endothelium of blood vessels, which did not have a normal lumen and consisted of solid cords of cells. The microscopic, angiographic, and computed tomographic appearance of this anomaly are discussed and compared with cavernous angiomas, arteriovenous malformations, and venous angiomas.

  17. Trichotillomania in a Case of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash; Mehta, Janki

    2013-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a complex psychiatric disorder and occurs along with a large number of comorbidity. We report a case of trichotillomania associated with vascular dementia. Trichotillomania in our case did not resolve using mirtazapine or conventional medications. Trichotillomania in dementia seems to have a neurobiological origin that needs to be elucidated. PMID:23960397

  18. Vascular precursors: origin, regulation and function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this miniseries, we discuss the phenotype, origin, and specialized microenvironment (niche) of distinct populations of stem and progenitor cells that exhibit vascular potential. Their usefulness and effectiveness for clinical therapies are also described. We have learned a great deal about post...

  19. Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibition and Vascular Function.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyehun; Allahdadi, Kyan J; Tostes, Rita C A; Webb, R Clinton

    2009-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), a family of lipid kinases, convert diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Acting as a second messenger, DG activates protein kinase C (PKC). PA, a signaling lipid, regulates diverse functions involved in physiological responses. Since DGK modulates two lipid second messengers, DG and PA, regulation of DGK could induce related cellular responses. Currently, there are 10 mammalian isoforms of DGK that are categorized into five groups based on their structural features. These diverse isoforms of DGK are considered to activate distinct cellular functions according to extracellular stimuli. Each DGK isoform is thought to play various roles inside the cell, depending on its subcellular localization (nuclear, ER, Golgi complex or cytoplasm). In vascular smooth muscle, vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and norepinephrine stimulate contraction by increasing inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), calcium, DG and PKC activity. Inhibition of DGK could increase DG availability and decrease PA levels, as well as alter intracellular responses, including calcium-mediated and PKC-mediated vascular contraction. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate a role of DGK in vascular function. Selective inhibition of DGK isoforms may represent a novel therapeutic approach in vascular dysfunction. PMID:21547002

  20. Adult neurogenesis and the vascular Nietzsche.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Theo D

    2002-06-13

    Adult neurogenesis is mediated by immature neural precursors that divide within the residual germinal matrices of the brain. In the paper by in this issue of Neuron, the "cause and effect" of adult neurogenesis takes a major step forward with the description of a vascular signaling network that influences neuronal precursor migration and fate.

  1. Effects of lead on vascular reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Chai, S S; Webb, R C

    1988-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists concerning the possible role of lead in the etiology of human hypertension. In animal studies, there is convincing evidence that lead alters cardiovascular responsiveness; rats drinking water containing 100 ppm lead develop a chronic, significant 15 to 20 mm Hg elevation in systolic blood pressure. Pressor responsiveness to catecholamines is enhanced in animals chronically exposed to lead, and the responsiveness of isolated vascular smooth muscle to adrenergic agonists is increased in rats with lead-induced hypertension. Experimental evidence suggests that alterations in the cellular mechanisms that regulate intracellular calcium concentration may contribute to the abnormal vascular function in lead-induced hypertension. Recent work in our laboratory indicates that increased vascular reactivity in genetic hypertension is associated with altered activity of the protein kinase C branch of the calcium messenger system. Contractile responses to lead in rabbit mesenteric artery are potentiated by activators (phorbol esters) of this enzyme complex, and a selective inhibitor of protein kinase C inhibited contractions induced by lead. Based on these results, it is proposed that a cellular component of the action of lead to increase vascular reactivity may relate to the role of protein kinase C in smooth muscle contraction. PMID:3060355

  2. A database coding system for vascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Harris, K A; DeRose, G; Jamieson, W

    1991-01-01

    A coding system was developed to overcome the difficulties encountered in data registry and retrieval from a national audit. In vascular surgery operations are frequently combined, and neither the OHIP fee schedule of codes (Ontario, Canada) nor the ICD-9 system provides sufficient detail for most vascular surgeons to retrieve information for long-term follow-up. However, some wish to record minimal data on their operative procedures. A numeric classification system was developed. A five-digit number is used, the first two digits classifying the operative procedure and anatomic details. Two decimal digits code the classification of operation (e.g., aortic aneurysm, tube graft, aortoiliac, or aortobifemoral) and the final digit may be used as a modifier. "Holes" in the numeric system allow for new operations to be added as they develop. Codes are stored in a database with the following fields: 1) codes; 2) description of operation; 3) translation. The translation field may be modified to permit translation of any existing databases into the system. This database has been distributed with a data registry program free of charge to vascular surgeons in Canada to allow nationwide registry of vascular surgery patients. A numeric code eliminates spelling and abbreviation errors, and can be sufficiently broad-based to allow all surgeons to participate in a nationwide audit.

  3. Nanoengineering of therapeutics for retinal vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gahlaut, Nivriti; Suarez, Sandra; Uddin, Md Imam; Gordon, Andrew Y; Evans, Stephanie M; Jayagopal, Ashwath

    2015-09-01

    Retinal vascular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, neovascular age related macular degeneration, and retinal vein occlusion, are leading causes of blindness in the Western world. These diseases share several common disease mechanisms, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, hypoxia, and inflammation, which provide opportunities for common therapeutic strategies. Treatment of these diseases using laser therapy, anti-VEGF injections, and/or steroids has significantly improved clinical outcomes. However, these strategies do not address the underlying root causes of pathology, and may have deleterious side effects. Furthermore, many patients continue to progress toward legal blindness despite receiving regular therapy. Nanomedicine, the engineering of therapeutics at the 1-100 nm scale, is a promising approach for improving clinical management of retinal vascular diseases. Nanomedicine-based technologies have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of ophthalmology, through enabling sustained release of drugs over several months, reducing side effects due to specific targeting of dysfunctional cells, and interfacing with currently "undruggable" targets. We will discuss emerging nanomedicine-based applications for the treatment of complications associated with retinal vascular diseases, including angiogenesis and inflammation.

  4. Vascular nitric oxide: formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Richard C; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a structurally simple, highly versatile molecule that was originally discovered over 30 years ago as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor. In addition to its vasorelaxing effects, NO is now recognized as a key determinant of vascular health, exerting antiplatelet, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties within the vasculature. This short-lived molecule exerts its inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets largely through cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent mechanisms, resulting in a multitude of molecular effects by which platelet activation and aggregation are prevented. The biosynthesis of NO occurs via the catalytic activity of NO synthase, an oxidoreductase found in many cell types. NO insufficiency can be attributed to limited substrate/cofactor availability as well as interactions with reactive oxygen species. Impaired NO bioavailability represents the central feature of endothelial dysfunction, a common abnormality found in many vascular diseases. In this review, we present an overview of NO synthesis and biochemistry, discuss the mechanisms of action of NO in regulating platelet and endothelial function, and review the effects of vascular disease states on NO bioavailability. PMID:21572574

  5. ETS transcription factors in embryonic vascular development.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael P; Sumanas, Saulius

    2016-07-01

    At least thirteen ETS-domain transcription factors are expressed during embryonic hematopoietic or vascular development and potentially function in the formation and maintenance of the embryonic vasculature or blood lineages. This review summarizes our current understanding of the specific roles played by ETS factors in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and the implications of functional redundancies between them.

  6. Optogenetic intervention to the vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Cui, Ningren; Wu, Yang; Zhong, Weiwei; Johnson, Christopher M; Jiang, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Endothelium lining the interior of cardiovascular system and most visceral organs plays an important role in vascular function. Its dysfunction occurs in some of the most challenging diseases. An important function of the endothelium is to release vasoactive substances that act on the smooth muscle to change vascular tones. Substance secretion from endocrine cells relies on membrane potentials and firing activity, while it is unclear whether the membrane potential regulates substance release from the ECs. Understanding of this requires selective intervention to membrane potentials of the endothelial cells in situ. Here we show a novel intervention to endothelial cells using the optogenetic approach. A strain of transgenic mice was developed with the Cre-loxP recombination system. These transgenic mice expressed channelrhodopsin (ChR) in endothelial cells driven by the vascular endothelial cadherin or cdh5 promoter. Linked in a tandem with YFP, the ChR expression was detected by YFP fluorescence in various endothelium-lining tissues and organs. The YFP fluorescence was observed in the lumen of blood vessels and pericardium, but not in tissues beneath the endothelium lining. Optostimulation of dissociated endothelial cells evoked inward currents and depolarization. In the isolated and perfused heart, surprisingly, optostimulation of endothelial cells produced fast, robust, reproducible and long-lasting vasoconstriction that was not blocked by either ET-1A or TXA2 receptor antagonist. Similar optical vasoconstriction was found in the isolated and perfused kidney. These results indicate that the optogenetics is an effective intervention to vascular endothelium where optostimulation produces vasoconstriction.

  7. The microbiology of explanted vascular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kaebnick, H W; Bandyk, D F; Bergamini, T W; Towne, J B

    1987-10-01

    The incidence of bacterial colonization and the microflora of prosthetic vascular graft material explanted from 44 patients undergoing graft revision was determined. Graft material for culture was obtained from aortofemoral or femoropopliteal vascular prostheses without signs of infection but requiring revision for femoral anastomotic aneurysm (n = 21) or thrombosis (n = 26). Explanted graft material was placed in tryptic soy broth and ultrasonically oscillated to disrupt the adherent graft surface biofilm, which is a technique that increases the recovery of microorganisms compared with standard microbiologic culture methods. Microorganisms were isolated from 90% (19/21) of grafts associated with anastomotic aneurysms and 69% (18/26) of thrombosed grafts. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the prevalent organism recovered and accounted for 69% of the isolates. Slime production, a growth characteristic of S. epidermidis associated with prosthetic device infection in humans, was demonstrated by 87% (13/15) of strains isolated from grafts with pseudoaneurysms compared with 33% (4/12) of strains isolated from occluded grafts (p less than 0.01). Despite the high incidence (79%) of colonization of vascular prostheses, no patient developed wound or graft infection after graft replacement and perioperative antibiotic administration. Low-virulent microorganisms, such as S. epidermidis, can colonize vascular prostheses and not provoke signs of graft infection. The high recovery rate of slime-producing S. epidermidis strains from grafts with anastomotic aneurysms and the adherence-mediated growth of these bacteria on biomaterials suggest this late graft complication is the sequelae of a bacteria-laden biofilm infection.

  8. Retinal vascular tree reconstruction with anatomical realism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Shun; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Chih-Hsiangng; Sofka, Michal; Chen, Shih-Jen; Lin, Wei-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the goals of automatically extracting vessel segments and constructing retinal vascular trees with anatomical realism, this paper presents and analyses an algorithm that combines vessel segmentation and grouping of the extracted vessel segments. The proposed method aims to restore the topology of the vascular trees with anatomical realism for clinical studies and diagnosis of retinal vascular diseases, which manifest abnormalities in either venous and/or arterial vascular systems. Vessel segments are grouped using extended Kalman filter which takes into account continuities in curvature, width, and intensity changes at the bifurcation or crossover point. At a junction, the proposed method applies the minimum-cost matching algorithm to resolve the conflict in grouping due to error in tracing. The system was trained with 20 images from the DRIVE dataset, and tested using the remaining 20 images. The dataset contained a mixture of normal and pathological images. In addition, six pathological fluorescein angiogram sequences were also included in this study. The results were compared against the groundtruth images provided by a physician, achieving average success rates of 88.79% and 90.09%, respectively.

  9. Vascular sphingolipids in physiological and pathological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jun-Xiang; Su, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Yao-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Xie, Xiao-Ping; Chang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are compounds containing a long-chain fatty alcohol amine called sphingosine which exists in cellular membranes, cytoplasm, nucleus, interstitial fluid, blood and lymphatic circulation. SLs act as essential constituents of membranes of eukaryotic cells, so the seesaw of SLs will lead to structural alteration of membranes instigating cellular functional change. SLs also act as crucial signaling molecules taking effect intracellularly or extracellularly which regulates activity of downstream molecules determining cellular adaptation to numerous stimulus. This review aims to highlight the contribution of SLs to physiological and pathophysiological remodeling of vasculature. We will first provide a short overview on metabolism, trafficking and compartmentalization of SLs. Then the regulation of SLs on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, vascular tone modulation, endothelial barrier integrity, apoptosis and autophagy are summarized. Finally, we will discuss how the SLs are modulated contributing to vascular development, angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in pathological situations as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aging. The compellingly regulative actions of SLs bring about copious therapeutic targets for potential pharmacological intervention on the diseases involving vascular maladaptation. PMID:27100498

  10. The heart and vascular system in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Christoph; Amann, Kerstin; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2016-07-16

    The heart and the vascular tree undergo major structural and functional changes when kidney function declines and renal replacement therapy is required. The many cardiovascular risk factors and adaptive changes the heart undergoes include left ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation with concomitant systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Myocardial fibrosis is the consequence of impaired angio-adaptation, reduced capillary angiogenesis, myocyte-capillary mismatch, and myocardial micro-arteriopathy. The vascular tree can be affected by both atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis with both lipid rich plaques and abundant media calcification. Development of cardiac and vascular disease is rapid, especially in young patients, and the phenotype resembles all aspects of an accelerated ageing process and latent cardiac failure. The major cause of left ventricular hypertrophy and failure and the most common problem directly affecting myocardial function is fluid overload and, usually, hypertension. In situations of stress, such as intradialytic hypotension and hypoxaemia, the hearts of these patients are more vulnerable to developing cardiac arrest, especially when such episodes occur frequently. As a result, cardiac and vascular mortality are several times higher in dialysis patients than in the general population. Trials investigating one pharmacological intervention (eg, statins) have shown limitations. Pragmatic designs for large trials on cardio-active interventions are mandatory for adequate cardioprotective renal replacement therapy. PMID:27226133

  11. Recognition of vascular injury in the trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Baker, M S

    1990-05-01

    Medical personnel should be able to recognize vascular injuries. Knowing the key signs of ischemia, namely pallor, pulselessness, pain, paresis, and paresthesia and the soft signs of vascular injury will help to prevent limb loss.

  12. [Temporary vascular shunt technique for resource scarce environments].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, N; Mlynski, A; Pierret, C

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a simple and reproducible technique for temporary vascular shunting. This technique is appropriate only for exceptional situations involving scant resource availability. It is not intended to replace conventional vascular shunting techniques.

  13. Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatment of Vascular Skull Base Trauma.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Brian C; Waldau, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Vascular trauma is associated with blunt skull base fractures and penetrating injuries. We review the contemporary management of cranial vascular trauma, including blunt and penetrating cerebrovascular injury as well as refractory epistaxis from facial trauma. PMID:27648396

  14. Effects of Hemodynamic Forces on the Vascular Differentiation of Stem Cells: Implications for Vascular Graft Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, Rokhaya; Li, Song

    Although the field of vascular tissue engineering has made tremendous advances in the past decade, several complications have yet to be overcome in order to produce biocompatible small-diameter vascular conduits with long-term patency. Stem cells and progenitor cells represent potential cell sources in the development of autologous (or allogeneic), nonthrombogenic vascular grafts with mechanical properties comparable to native blood vessel. However, a better understanding of the effects of mechanical forces on stem cells and progenitor cells is needed to properly utilize these cells for tissue engineering applications. In this chapter, we discuss the current understanding of the effects of hemodynamic forces on the differentiation and function of adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and progenitor cells. We also review the use of stem cells and progenitor cells in vascular graft engineering.

  15. Current topics on vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tordoir, J H M; Van Der Sande, F M; De Haan, M W

    2004-09-01

    Vascular access remains the lifeline for end-stage renal failure patients, which have been treated by chronic intermittent hemodialysis. Due to the steady increase in the number of patients with difficulties to create access, in particular in elderly with various comorbidities, the need for more insight and regulations have evolved into the publications of the American and European guidelines. From the latter it may be obvious that an adequate preoperative assessment followed by the creation of autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) is far better and preferred to the implantation of grafts. Vascular access maintenance by monitoring and elective percutanuous or surgical revision is of utmost importance to keep the access site functional. Despite up-to-date measures for vascular access maintenance, various complications may treaten not only the access site but also quality and expectance of life. Thrombotic occlusion remains a major event, leading to permanent failure in 10% of AVFs and 20% of grafts each year. Interventional (percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and/or stent implantation) or surgical revision of thrombosed accesses have similar outcomes with a high rate of reinterventions. The elderly diabetic population with peripheral arteriosclerotic obstructive disease is in particular prone to angio-access induced handischemia. When not timely and properly treated this may lead to minor or major amputation, further hampering quality of life. Also, the enormous application in the past 2 decades of acute central venous lines has lead to a significant increase of central venous obstruction with concomittent morbidity and problems creating vascular access in the upper extremities. Radiological intervention in these cases is a primary option, leaving surgical reconstruction as a second best method. It may be obvious that creation and maintenance of hemodialysis vascular access has become an important and time-consuming speciality. Only an up

  16. General versus vascular surgeon: impact of a vascular fellowship on clinical practice, surgical case load, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Franz, Randall W

    2010-02-01

    An applicant shortage for vascular surgery (VS) residencies exists despite an increase in available training positions created to meet the growing demands for vascular surgeons. After 3 years of practice as an American Board of Surgery (ABS)-certified/board-eligible general surgeon, the author of this study attended an accredited 1-year VS training fellowship and received an ABS certificate of Added Qualifications in VS. The purpose of this review was to investigate the implications completing a vascular fellowship has had on VS procedure patterns, vascular procedure competency, clinical practice, career, and lifestyle with the aim of attracting trainees to the field of VS. The author's operative logs were reviewed retrospectively to summarize vascular procedures performed before and after the vascular fellowship. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the types and volume of vascular procedures before and after the vascular fellowship. Changes in professional career and personal life also were examined. The author performed 401 vascular procedures during 2.8 years as a general surgeon. In the first 3.4 years after the vascular fellowship, vascular procedure volume increased to 1563. The mean number of vascular procedures performed per year increased from 143.2 as a general surgeon to 459.7 as a vascular surgeon. The three major differences in vascular procedures occurring after the vascular fellowship were (1) a threefold increase in the number of vascular procedures performed, (2) a shift from major open to venous and endovascular procedures, and (3) an increase in case complexity. Specializing in VS also has resulted in increased career opportunities, more career satisfaction, a direct financial benefit, and more flexibility for lifestyle and family. Because of these positive changes, the author encourages medical students and residents interested in VS to explore the specialty early, seek vascular surgeons to serve as mentors, and enter one of the new VS

  17. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:24099797

  18. Estrogen, Vascular Estrogen Receptor and Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject’s age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:24099797

  19. Challenges of targeting vascular stability in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Basile, David P

    2008-08-01

    Acute kidney injury following folate administration is characterized by a vascular remodeling that is initially proliferative but subsequently results in vascular endothelial loss. Interventions directed toward promoting endothelial growth may preserve vascular structure and therefore renal function. However, angiopoietin-1 therapy in the setting of folate-induced acute kidney injury resulted in an expanded fibrotic response despite apparent preservation of the vasculature, indicating that renal repair responses are complex and vascular-directed therapies should be approached with caution.

  20. Iatrogenic Percutaneous Vascular Injuries: Clinical Presentation, Imaging, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Benjamin H.; Copelan, Alexander; Scola, Dominic; Watts, Micah M.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular interventional radiology procedures are relatively safe compared with analogous surgical procedures, with overall major complication rates of less than 1%. However, major vascular injuries resulting from these procedures may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. This review will discuss the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of vascular complications related to percutaneous vascular interventions. Early recognition of these complications and familiarity with treatment options are essential skills for the interventional radiologist. PMID:26038619

  1. Oral encapsulated vascular malformation: An undescribed presentation in the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Márcio-Américo; Dias, Pedro-de Souza; Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions have been classified in two broad categories, hemangiomas and malformations. Encapsulated vascular lesions have not been reported in the oral cavity, but they were described in other sites, mainly in the orbit. Herein, we present a case of an oral encapsulated vascular lesion located in the right buccal mucosa of a 69-year-old male, including histological and immunohistochemical description and a literature review. Key words:Buccal mucosa, hemangioma, vascular malformation, oral cavity. PMID:26855712

  2. Using Biplanar Fluoroscopy to Guide Radiopaque Vascular Injections: A New Method for Vascular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Haley D.; Williams, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital “dissection.” This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion. PMID:24835249

  3. Neuropilin-1 mediates vascular permeability independently of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lise; Prahst, Claudia; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Savant, Soniya; Weström, Simone; Fantin, Alessandro; Riedel, Maria; Héroult, Mélanie; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2016-04-26

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) regulates developmental and pathological angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and vascular permeability, acting as a coreceptor for semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the 165-amino acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A165). NRP1 is also the receptor for the CendR peptides, a class of cell- and tissue-penetrating peptides with a specific R-x-x-R carboxyl-terminal motif. Because the cytoplasmic domain of NRP1 lacks catalytic activity, NRP1 is mainly thought to act through the recruitment and binding to other receptors. We report here that the NRP1 intracellular domain mediates vascular permeability. Stimulation with VEGF-A165, a ligand-blocking antibody, and a CendR peptide led to NRP1 accumulation at cell-cell contacts in endothelial cell monolayers, increased cellular permeability in vitro and vascular leakage in vivo. Biochemical analyses, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) silencing, and the use of a specific VEGFR blocker established that the effects induced by the CendR peptide and the antibody were independent of VEGFR-2. Moreover, leakage assays in mice expressing a mutant NRP1 lacking the cytoplasmic domain revealed that this domain was required for NRP1-induced vascular permeability in vivo. Hence, these data define a vascular permeability pathway mediated by NRP1 but independent of VEGFR-2 activation.

  4. 21 CFR 870.3300 - Vascular embolization device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3300 Vascular embolization device. (a) Identification. A vascular embolization device is an intravascular implant intended to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vascular embolization device. 870.3300 Section...

  5. 21 CFR 870.3450 - Vascular graft prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vascular graft prosthesis. 870.3450 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3450 Vascular graft prosthesis. (a) Identification. A vascular graft prosthesis is an implanted device intended to...

  6. Exercise intensity and the protection from postprandial vascular dysfunction in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bond, B; Gates, P E; Jackman, S R; Corless, L M; Williams, C A; Barker, A R

    2015-06-01

    Acute exercise transiently improves endothelial function and protects the vasculature from the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal (HFM). We sought to identify whether this response is dependent on exercise intensity in adolescents. Twenty adolescents (10 male, 14.3 ± 0.3 yr) completed three 1-day trials: 1) rest (CON); 2) 8 × 1 min cycling at 90% peak power with 75 s recovery [high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE)]; and 3) cycling at 90% of the gas exchange threshold [moderate-intensity exercise (MIE)] 1 h before consuming a HFM (1.50 g/kg fat). Macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function was assessed before and immediately after exercise and 3 h after the HFM by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and laser Doppler imaging [peak reactive hyperemia (PRH)]. FMD and PRH increased 1 h after HIIE [P < 0.001, effect size (ES) = 1.20 and P = 0.048, ES = 0.56] but were unchanged after MIE. FMD and PRH were attenuated 3 h after the HFM in CON (P < 0.001, ES = 1.78 and P = 0.02, ES = 0.59). FMD remained greater 3 h after the HFM in HIIE compared with MIE (P < 0.001, ES = 1.47) and CON (P < 0.001, ES = 2.54), and in MIE compared with CON (P < 0.001, ES = 1.40). Compared with CON, PRH was greater 3 h after the HFM in HIIE (P = 0.02, ES = 0.71) and MIE (P = 0.02, ES = 0.84), with no differences between HIIE and MIE (P = 0.72, ES = 0.16). Plasma triacylglycerol concentration and total antioxidant status concentration were not different between trials. We conclude that exercise intensity plays an important role in protecting the vasculature from the deleterious effects of a HFM. Performing HIIE may provide superior vascular benefits than MIE in adolescent groups. PMID:25820392

  7. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  8. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.

  9. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules

    PubMed Central

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2014-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  10. [Vascular complications associated with lumbar spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Riedemann-Wistuba, M; Alonso-Pérez, M; Llaneza-Coto, J M

    2016-01-01

    Although there are currently less invasive techniques available for the treatment of spinal injuries, open surgery is still required in many cases. Vascular injuries occurring during lumbar spine surgery, although uncommon, are of great importance due to their potential gravity. Clinical manifestations vary from an acute hemorrhagic shock that needs urgent treatment to save the patient's life, to insidious injuries or an asymptomatic evolution, and should be studied to choose the best therapeutic alternative. Four cases are reported that represent this range of possibilities and emphasize the importance of a careful surgical technique during lumbar spine interventions, and the need for high clinical suspicion, essential for the early diagnosis of these vascular complications. The current therapeutic options are also discussed. PMID:25662569

  11. CSF biomarkers in neurodegenerative and vascular dementias.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Ferrer, Isidro; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates such as Alzheimer's disease, tauopathies, synucleinopathies, and prionopathies, together with vascular encephalopathies, are cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Identification of reliable biomarkers in biological fluids, particularly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is of extreme importance in optimizing the precise early clinical diagnosis of distinct entities and predicting the outcome in particular settings. In addition, the study of CSF biomarkers is useful to identify and monitor the underlying pathological processes developing in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Evidence suggests that levels of key CSF molecules correlate, in some circumstances, with prediction, disease progression, and severity of cognitive decline. Correlation of CSF markers and underlying pathological molecular substrates in brain is an exciting field for further study. However, while some dementias such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have accurate CSF biomarkers, other disease types such as dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia lack reliable biomarkers for their specific clinical diagnosis. PMID:27016008

  12. Vascular tissue engineering: the next generation.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Muriel A; Geiger, Erik; Grady, Conor; Best, Cameron; Naito, Yuji; Breuer, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    It is the ultimate goal of tissue engineering: an autologous tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) that is immunologically compatible, nonthrombogenic, and can grow and remodel. Currently, native vessels are the preferred vascular conduit for procedures such as coronary artery bypass (CABG) or peripheral bypass surgery. However, in many cases these are damaged, have already been harvested, or are simply unusable. The use of synthetic conduits is severely limited in smaller diameter vessels due to increased incidence of thrombosis, infection, and graft failure. Current research has therefore energetically pursued the development of a TEVG that can incorporate into a patient's circulatory system, mimic the vasoreactivity and biomechanics of the native vasculature, and maintain long-term patency. PMID:22695236

  13. Mechanisms of Microgravity Effect on Vascular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, Ralph E.

    1995-01-01

    The overall goal of the project is to characterize the effects of simulated microgravity on vascular function. Microgravity is simulated using the hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat, and the following vessels are removed from HU and paired control rats for in vitro analysis: abdominal aorta, carotid and femoral arteries, jugular and femoral veins. These vessels are cut into 3 mm long rings and mounted in tissue baths for the measurement of either isometric contraction, or relaxation of pre- contracted vessels. The isolated mesenteric vascular bed is perfused for the measurement of changes in perfusion pressure as an index of arteriolar constriction or dilation. This report presents, in addition to the statement of the overall goal of the project, a summary list of the specific hypotheses to be tested. These are followed by sections on results, conclusions, significance and plans for the next year.

  14. Visualizing vascular structures in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischgoll, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In order to learn more about the cause of coronary heart diseases and develop diagnostic tools, the extraction and visualization of vascular structures from volumetric scans for further analysis is an important step. By determining a geometric representation of the vasculature, the geometry can be inspected and additional quantitative data calculated and incorporated into the visualization of the vasculature. To provide a more user-friendly visualization tool, virtual environment paradigms can be utilized. This paper describes techniques for interactive rendering of large-scale vascular structures within virtual environments. This can be applied to almost any virtual environment configuration, such as CAVE-type displays. Specifically, the tools presented in this paper were tested on a Barco I-Space and a large 62x108 inch passive projection screen with a Kinect sensor for user tracking.

  15. Cerebral oxygenation and optimal vascular brain organization

    PubMed Central

    Hadjistassou, Constantinos; Bejan, Adrian; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral vascular network has evolved in such a way so as to minimize transport time and energy expenditure. This is accomplished by a subtle combination of the optimal arrangement of arteries, arterioles and capillaries and the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Elucidating the interaction between cerebral vascular architectonics and the latter physical mechanisms can catalyse progress in treating cerebral pathologies such as stroke, brain tumours, dementia and targeted drug delivery. Here, we show that brain microvascular organization is predicated on commensurate intracapillary oxygen convection and parenchymal diffusion times. Cross-species grey matter results for the rat, cat, rabbit and human reveal very good correlation between the cerebral capillary and tissue mean axial oxygen convective and diffusion time intervals. These findings agree with the constructal principle. PMID:25972435

  16. [Transcranial electrostimulation in chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Voropaev, A A; Mochalov, A D

    2006-01-01

    The method of transcranial electrostimulation (TCES) has been used for treatment of 68 patients with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency, stages I and II. A treatment course included 7 daily procedures. The influence of TCES was evaluated clinically, by EEG, transcranial ultrasonic Doppler study and hemodynamic indices in arteries and veins as well as by expression of trait and state anxiety. All the parameters were compared to those of the control group which was treated using conventional methods. TCES resulted in normalization of cerebral vascular reactivity, a decrease of venous circulation disturbances, positive influence on cerebral blood flow and EEG parameters, that corresponded to global improvement of the patients' state, regress of cephalgic syndrome and reduction of trait and state anxiety. The method is simple and safety and can be recommended for wide application including outpatient setting.

  17. [Transcranial electrostimulation in chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Voropaev, A A; Mochalov, A D

    2006-01-01

    The method of transcranial electrostimulation (TCES) has been used for treatment of 68 patients with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency, stages I and II. A treatment course included 7 daily procedures. The influence of TCES was evaluated clinically, by EEG, transcranial ultrasonic Doppler study and hemodynamic indices in arteries and veins as well as by expression of trait and state anxiety. All the parameters were compared to those of the control group which was treated using conventional methods. TCES resulted in normalization of cerebral vascular reactivity, a decrease of venous circulation disturbances, positive influence on cerebral blood flow and EEG parameters, that corresponded to global improvement of the patients' state, regress of cephalgic syndrome and reduction of trait and state anxiety. The method is simple and safety and can be recommended for wide application including outpatient setting. PMID:16768222

  18. The concept of vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Bowler, J V

    2002-11-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is increasingly recognised to reflect an outmoded concept in that it identifies cases too late for preventive therapy to have an opportunity to prevent the development of dementia and uses a cognitive paradigm inappropriately based on Alzheimer's disease. A replacement is urgently required and a new concept, that of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), has been proposed to meet this need. It is imperative that criteria for VCI are developed on the basis of knowledge and data rather than supposition and assumption, as was the case for VaD. This review details the state of knowledge that we have now reached concerning the fundamental points of severity and cognitive paradigm and also covers a number of other imaging-related essential points embracing atrophy, leukoaraiosis, infarct volume and infarct location. Finally, the increasingly important concept of mixed dementia (co-existent Alzheimer's disease and VCI) is discussed.

  19. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2015-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  20. [Vascular complications associated with lumbar spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Riedemann-Wistuba, M; Alonso-Pérez, M; Llaneza-Coto, J M

    2016-01-01

    Although there are currently less invasive techniques available for the treatment of spinal injuries, open surgery is still required in many cases. Vascular injuries occurring during lumbar spine surgery, although uncommon, are of great importance due to their potential gravity. Clinical manifestations vary from an acute hemorrhagic shock that needs urgent treatment to save the patient's life, to insidious injuries or an asymptomatic evolution, and should be studied to choose the best therapeutic alternative. Four cases are reported that represent this range of possibilities and emphasize the importance of a careful surgical technique during lumbar spine interventions, and the need for high clinical suspicion, essential for the early diagnosis of these vascular complications. The current therapeutic options are also discussed.

  1. Vascular Biology of the Biliary Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Morell, Carola M.; Fabris, Luca; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are involved in a variety of processes essential for liver pathophysiology. To meet their demanding metabolic and functional needs, bile ducts are nourished by an own arterial supply, the peribiliary plexus. This capillary network originates from the hepatic artery and is strictly arranged around the intrahepatic bile ducts. Biliary and vascular structures are linked by a close anatomic and functional association necessary for liver development, normal organ physiology and liver repair. This strong association is finely regulated by a range of angiogenic signals, enabling the crosstalk between cholangiocytes and the different vascular cell types. This review will briefly illustrate the “vascular” properties of cholangiocytes, their underlying molecular mechanisms and the relevant pathophysiological settings. PMID:23855292

  2. Biomechanics of Borrelia burgdorferi Vascular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebady, Rhodaba; Niddam, Alexandra F; Boczula, Anna E; Kim, Yae Ram; Gupta, Nupur; Tang, Tian Tian; Odisho, Tanya; Zhi, Hui; Simmons, Craig A; Skare, Jon T; Moriarty, Tara J

    2016-09-01

    Systemic dissemination of microbes is critical for progression of many infectious diseases and is associated with most mortality due to bacterial infection. The physical mechanisms mediating a key dissemination step, bacterial association with vascular endothelia in blood vessels, remain unknown. Here, we show that endothelial interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi under physiological shear stress mechanistically resemble selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling. Specifically, these interactions are mediated by transfer of mechanical load along a series of adhesion complexes and are stabilized by tethers and catch bond properties of the bacterial adhesin BBK32. Furthermore, we found that the forces imposed on adhesive bonds under flow may be small enough to permit active migration driven by bacterial flagellar motors. These findings provide insight into the biomechanics of bacterial-vascular interactions and demonstrate that disseminating bacteria and circulating host immune cells share widely conserved mechanisms for interacting with endothelia under physiological shear stress. PMID:27568563

  3. Visfatin and cardio-cerebro-vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from nicotinamide. This protein was originally cloned as a putative pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor and also found to be a visceral fat-derived adipokine (visfatin). As a multifunctional protein, visfatin plays an important role in immunity, metabolism, aging, inflammation, and responses to stress. Visfatin also participates in several pathophysiological processes contributing to cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke. However, whether visfatin is a friend or a foe in these diseases remains uncertain. This brief review focuses on the current understanding of the complex role of visfatin in the cardio-cerebro-vascular system under normal and pathophysiological conditions.

  4. Pathogenesis of diabetic cerebral vascular disease complication

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most potent independent risk factors for the development of diabetic cerebral vascular disease (CVD). Many evidences suggested that hyperglycemia caused excess free fatty acids, the loss of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, insulin resistance, the prothrombotic state, endothelial dysfunction, the abnormal release of endothelial vasoactivators, vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the downregulation of miRs participated in vessel generation and recovery as well as the balance of endotheliocytes. In turn, these abnormalities, mainly via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C activation, and increased generation of advanced glycosylation end products pathway, play an important role in inducing diabetic CVD complication. A deeper comprehension of pathogenesis producing diabetic CVD could offer base for developing new therapeutic ways preventing diabetic CVD complications, therefore, in the paper we mainly reviewed present information about the possible pathogenesis of diabetic CVD complication. PMID:25685278

  5. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ruth A.; Keen, John A.; Walker, Brian R.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing’s disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein) and the facial skin (facial skin arteries) by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10−9–10-5M) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10−9–10-5M) and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10−9–10-5M) was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01). In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006) and veins (P = 0.009) from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof. PMID:27684374

  6. Vascular Anomalies in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Lesson Learned.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Joana E; Pointer, David T; Hamner, John B

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to identify any variant anatomy prior to surgery as this could have a drastic effect on surgical planning. We describe a case in which two vascular irregularities, an Arc of Buhler and celiac stenosis, were identified on angiogram after completion of a pancreaticoduodenectomy. While there could have been catastrophic results from his surgery in the setting of celiac stenosis, the presence of the aberrant Arc of Buhler allowed this patient to emerge without any permanent morbidity.

  7. Vascular Anomalies in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Lesson Learned

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Joana E.; Pointer, David T.; Hamner, John B.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to identify any variant anatomy prior to surgery as this could have a drastic effect on surgical planning. We describe a case in which two vascular irregularities, an Arc of Buhler and celiac stenosis, were identified on angiogram after completion of a pancreaticoduodenectomy. While there could have been catastrophic results from his surgery in the setting of celiac stenosis, the presence of the aberrant Arc of Buhler allowed this patient to emerge without any permanent morbidity. PMID:27200204

  8. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma mimicking a vascular lesion*

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Paola Cecilia; Apa, Sebastian Nicolas; Lanoël, Agustina Maria; María, Josefina Sala; Sierre, Sergio; Pierini, Adrián Martin

    2016-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from peripheral nerve sheaths, generally associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). They are diffuse, painful and sometimes locally invasive, generating cosmetic problems. This report discusses an adolescent patient who presented with an isolated, giant plexiform neurofibroma on her leg that was confused with a vascular lesion due to its clinical aspects. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy, excision of the lesion was performed with improvement of the symptoms. PMID:27192529

  9. [Setting up situated learning in vascular rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mathe, Nathalie; Lascoux, Léa; Puchault, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogical tool as well as a concept, situated learning describes the skills used in a situation in a given context, structuring the reflection, analysis and choice of nursing procedures, based on theoretical knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills. A vascular rehabilitation team has chosen to formalise two situations from among the most common care procedures carried out in the department: the changing of complex dressings and ensuring the personal hygiene and comfort of a dependent patient with skin wounds.

  10. Exercise training improves vascular mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Bharath, Leena P; Bauersachs, Johann; Richardson, Russell S; Abel, E Dale; Symons, J David; Riehle, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Exercise training is recognized to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity; however, the impact of chronic exercise on vascular mitochondrial respiratory function is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise training concomitantly increases both vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and vascular function. Arteries from both sedentary (SED) and swim-trained (EX, 5 wk) mice were compared in terms of mitochondrial respiratory function, mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and vessel function. Mitochondrial complex I and complex I + II state 3 respiration and the respiratory control ratio (complex I + II state 3 respiration/complex I state 2 respiration) were greater in vessels from EX relative to SED mice, despite similar levels of arterial citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, compared with the SED mice, arteries from EX mice displayed elevated transcript levels of peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and the downstream targets cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1,isocitrate dehydrogenase(Idh)2, and Idh3a, increased manganese superoxide dismutase protein expression, increased endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation (Ser(1177)), and suppressed reactive oxygen species generation (all P< 0.05). Although there were no differences in EX and SED mice concerning endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction was blunted in vessels from EX compared with SED mice, and this effect was normalized by NOS inhibition. These training-induced increases in vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and evidence of improved redox balance, which may, at least in part, be attributable to elevated NO bioavailability, have the potential to protect against age- and disease-related challenges to arterial function.

  11. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma mimicking a vascular lesion.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Paola Cecilia; Apa, Sebastian Nicolas; Lanoël, Agustina Maria; María, Josefina Sala; Sierre, Sergio; Pierini, Adrián Martin

    2016-04-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from peripheral nerve sheaths, generally associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). They are diffuse, painful and sometimes locally invasive, generating cosmetic problems. This report discusses an adolescent patient who presented with an isolated, giant plexiform neurofibroma on her leg that was confused with a vascular lesion due to its clinical aspects. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy, excision of the lesion was performed with improvement of the symptoms. PMID:27192529

  12. REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN PULMONARY VASCULAR REMODELING

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Gross, Christine M.; Sharma, Shruti; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is a complex multifactorial process that involves the remodeling of pulmonary arteries. This remodeling process encompasses concentric medial thickening of small arterioles, neomuscularization of previously nonmuscular capillary-like vessels, and structural wall changes in larger pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary arterial muscularization is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia and hypertrophy. In addition, in uncontrolled pulmonary hypertension, the clonal expansion of apoptosis-resistant endothelial cells leads to the formation of plexiform lesions. Based upon a large number of studies in animal models, the three major stimuli that drive the vascular remodeling process are inflammation, shear stress and hypoxia. Although, the precise mechanisms by which these stimuli impair pulmonary vascular function and structure are unknown, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage appears to play an important role. ROS are highly reactive due to their unpaired valence shell electron. Oxidative damage occurs when the production of ROS exceeds the quenching capacity of the anti-oxidant mechanisms of the cell. ROS can be produced from complexes in the cell membrane (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase), cellular organelles (peroxisomes and mitochondria), and in the cytoplasm (xanthine oxidase). Furthermore, low levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and L-arginine the rate limiting co-factor and substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), can cause the uncoupling of eNOS, resulting in decreased NO production and increased ROS production. This review will focus on the ROS generation systems, scavenger antioxidants, and oxidative stress associated alterations in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23897679

  13. Protease nexin-1 regulates retinal vascular development.

    PubMed

    Selbonne, Sonia; Francois, Deborah; Raoul, William; Boulaftali, Yacine; Sennlaub, Florian; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Bouton, Marie-Christine; Arocas, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    We recently identified protease nexin-1 (PN-1) or serpinE2, as a possibly underestimated player in maintaining angiogenic balance. Here, we used the well-characterized postnatal vascular development of newborn mouse retina to further investigate the role and the mechanism of action of PN-1 in physiological angiogenesis. The development of retinal vasculature was analysed by endothelial cell staining with isolectin B4. PN-1-deficient (PN-1(-/-)) retina displayed increased vascularization in the postnatal period, with elevated capillary thickness and density, compared to their wild-type littermate (WT). Moreover, PN-1(-/-) retina presented more veins/arteries than WT retina. The kinetics of retinal vasculature development, retinal VEGF expression and overall retinal structure were similar in WT and PN-1(-/-) mice, but we observed a hyperproliferation of vascular cells in PN-1(-/-) retina. Expression of PN-1 was analysed by immunoblotting and X-Gal staining of retinas from mice expressing beta-galactosidase under a PN-1 promoter. PN-1 was highly expressed in the first week following birth and then progressively decreased to a low level in adult retina where it localized on the retinal arteries. PCR arrays performed on mouse retinal RNA identified two angiogenesis-related factors, midkine and Smad5, that were overexpressed in PN-1(-/-) newborn mice and this was confirmed by RT-PCR. Both the higher vascularization and the overexpression of midkine and Smad5 mRNA were also observed in gastrocnemius muscle of PN-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that PN-1 interferes with these pathways. Together, our results demonstrate that PN-1 strongly limits physiological angiogenesis and suggest that modulation of PN-1 expression could represent a new way to regulate angiogenesis.

  14. Advancing and Translating Knowledge in Vascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Husmann, Marc; Barton, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, physicians have depended on the use of written information to gain knowledge. Book printing and binding introduced by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century revolutionized and accelerated the distribution of information. Advancing medical knowledge and progress is not only linked to the scientific quality of a discovery determining it will be accepted by the peers but also by its communication and sharing of new findings with the medical community. All these factors determine whether new knowledge will advance and improve clinical practice, medical education, and ultimately, patient care, and human health. In the past decade medical publishing has witnessed a revolution with regard to the instant, online availability of published “open access” information, which can be accessed and printed from any computer connected to the internet. As an example, how language and availability of printed information may affect distribution of knowledge, we discuss the publication of the first results of balloon angioplasty in patients with peripheral vascular disease 40 years ago by Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. at the University of Zürich. Vascular Medicine, as part of Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, will provide open access provided to all published content for sharing and distributing new and most up-to-date information on clinical practice and medical knowledge in vascular medicine. We anticipate that the ongoing transformation of scientific publishing through open access will further accelerate this process and make new knowledge available even faster. Immediate, unrestricted, and rapid access to the most current knowledge published will play a role in maintaining and advancing human vascular health across the globe. PMID:26664857

  15. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jill; Derk, Chris T.

    2011-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia is a not so well-understood, and more rare, gastrointestinal manifestation of Systemic Sclerosis which can lead to chronic anemia. A high suspicion and better understanding of this rare manifestation is needed for early detection and treatment. Therapeutic regiments include iron supplementation with acid suppressive therapy, while endoscopic intervention has been shown to be successful in most cases, with gastrectomy or antrectomy rarely needed. PMID:22121374

  16. Exercise training improves vascular mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Bharath, Leena P; Bauersachs, Johann; Richardson, Russell S; Abel, E Dale; Symons, J David; Riehle, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Exercise training is recognized to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity; however, the impact of chronic exercise on vascular mitochondrial respiratory function is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise training concomitantly increases both vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and vascular function. Arteries from both sedentary (SED) and swim-trained (EX, 5 wk) mice were compared in terms of mitochondrial respiratory function, mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and vessel function. Mitochondrial complex I and complex I + II state 3 respiration and the respiratory control ratio (complex I + II state 3 respiration/complex I state 2 respiration) were greater in vessels from EX relative to SED mice, despite similar levels of arterial citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, compared with the SED mice, arteries from EX mice displayed elevated transcript levels of peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and the downstream targets cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1,isocitrate dehydrogenase(Idh)2, and Idh3a, increased manganese superoxide dismutase protein expression, increased endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation (Ser(1177)), and suppressed reactive oxygen species generation (all P< 0.05). Although there were no differences in EX and SED mice concerning endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction was blunted in vessels from EX compared with SED mice, and this effect was normalized by NOS inhibition. These training-induced increases in vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and evidence of improved redox balance, which may, at least in part, be attributable to elevated NO bioavailability, have the potential to protect against age- and disease-related challenges to arterial function. PMID:26825520

  17. [Aortofemoral vascular graft infections and their prevention].

    PubMed

    Taher, F; Assadian, O; Hirsch, K; Falkensammer, J; Senekowitsch, C; Assadian, A

    2015-03-01

    Vascular prosthesis infections are potentially severe adverse events following vascular reconstruction. They are often associated with a high morbidity and mortality, especially in the aortofemoral region. The present article outlines the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of vascular graft infections in a clinical setting. The clinical presentation, inflammatory markers, microbiological work-up and imaging studies can contribute to diagnosing a prosthesis infection. Regarding the bacterial spectrum involved in the etiology of prosthesis infections, single organism infections (monoinfections) have become less significant over the past years, whereas infections with multiple organisms now constitute the most abundant microbiological constellation. Also, infections with resistant bacterial strains have been increasing in number over the past years and deserve special consideration. It remains unclear whether both aspects are due to a true epidemiological change or are the result of advanced molecular microbiological diagnostic methods. While during the past decades perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was regarded as the most important measure for preventing prosthesis infections in vascular surgery, other primary preventive hygiene strategies have been increasingly explored and grouped together in the sense of preventive bundles. In most cases of deep postoperative infections involving a prosthetic device in the aortofemoral region, explantation of the prosthesis will be required. In situ and extra-anatomical reconstructions are often performed in such cases and the decision process to develop an optimal treatment plan must consider several individual factors. In select patients, palliative preservation of the prosthesis despite surrounding infection (i.e. graft salvage) and best conservative management in combination with local surgical measures, such as incision and drainage and vacuum therapy, deserve consideration as a treatment option for patients with a high

  18. US and MRI features in venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrino, F.; Maira, A.; Tarantino, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are classified as vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Venous vascular malformations are the most common type of vascular malformation. They may be isolated or multiple and they rarely affect the trunk. The authors report a rare case of isolated venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall with an emphasis on the related MRI and ultrasound (US) features. PMID:23450707

  19. Ensuring vascular surgical training is on the right track.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Erica L; Arora, Sonal; Moneta, Gregory L

    2011-02-01

    Approval of the primary certificate in vascular surgery eliminated the requirement for certification in general surgery before vascular surgery certification. New training paradigms for training in vascular surgery have emerged driven by the desire to offer greater flexibility of training and to shorten the length of training. Many of these changes are based upon "expert opinion," promise, and "logic" without objective evaluation of the residents or the training programs themselves. To be on the forefront of surgical education, vascular surgery will need to adopt methods of curriculum development firmly grounded in educational principles and use modern assessment tools for the evaluation of competence and performance. This report presents the evolution and challenges to the current vascular surgical training model and then argues for a more rigorous and scientific approach to training in vascular surgery. It presents an analysis of potential avenues for placing education and training in vascular surgery on the forefront of modern surgical education.

  20. Red blood cells in retinal vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Sherwood, Joseph; Chhablani, Jay; Ricchariya, Ashutosh; Kim, Sangho; Jones, Philip H; Balabani, Stavroula; Shima, David

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular circulation plays a vital role in regulating physiological functions, such as vascular resistance, and maintaining organ health. Pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, or hematologic diseases affect the microcirculation posing a significant risk to human health. The retinal vasculature provides a unique window for non-invasive visualisation of the human circulation in vivo and retinal vascular image analysis has been established to predict the development of both clinical and subclinical cardiovascular, metabolic, renal and retinal disease in epidemiologic studies. Blood viscosity which was otherwise thought to play a negligible role in determining blood flow based on Poiseuille's law up to the 1970s has now been shown to play an equally if not a more important role in controlling microcirculation and quantifying blood flow. Understanding the hemodynamics/rheology of the microcirculation and its changes in diseased states remains a challenging task; this is due to the particulate nature of blood, the mechanical properties of the cells (such as deformability and aggregability) and the complex architecture of the microvasculature. In our review, we have tried to postulate a possible role of red blood cell (RBC) biomechanical properties and laid down future framework for research related to hemorrheological aspects of blood in patients with retinal vascular disorders.

  1. Scuba diving activates vascular antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.

  2. Pancreatic transplantation: Radiologic evaluation of vascular complications

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Kuni, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G. )

    1991-03-01

    Transplantation of the pancreas is an increasingly common therapeutic option for preventing or delaying complications of type I diabetes mellitus. The authors studied the relative roles of various radiologic examinations in diagnosing vascular complications in these grafts including arterial and venous thrombosis, stenosis, and anastomotic leak (the most common vascular factors that necessitate pancreatectomy of the transplant), as defined with pathologic or arteriographic data. The results of 78 scintigraphic flow studies, 40 abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scans, 27 sonograms, and eight color Doppler studies were evaluated in 52 patients who received a total of 27 cadaveric and 26 living-donor grafts over a 12-year period. These results were correlated with the data from 45 gross and microscopic pathologic studies and 37 arteriograms to determine their relative value in enabling detection of graft thrombosis and other vascular complications. Scintigraphy, CT, sonography, and color Doppler were all sensitive in detection of generalized graft abnormalities but lacked specificity in defining the underlying etiologic factors.

  3. Vascular cognitive impairment, a cardiovascular complication.

    PubMed

    Frances, Adiukwu; Sandra, Ofori; Lucy, Ugbomah

    2016-06-22

    Over the past two decades, the term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been used to refer to a spectrum of cognitive decline characterized by executive dysfunction, associated with vascular pathology. With 30% of stroke survivors showing cognitive impairments, it is regarded as the most common cause of cognitive impairment. This is a narrative review of available literature citing sources from PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. VCI has a high prevalence both before and after a stroke and is associated with great economic and caregiver burden. Despite this, there is no standardized diagnostic criteria for VCI. Hypertension has been identified as a risk factor for VCI and causes changes in cerebral vessel structure and function predisposing to lacuna infarcts and small vessel haemorrhages in the frontostriatal loop leading to executive dysfunction and other cognitive impairments. Current trials have shown promising results in the use of antihypertensive medications in the management of VCI and prevention of disease progression to vascular dementia. Prevention of VCI is necessary in light of the looming dementia pandemic. All patients with cardiovascular risk factors would therefore benefit from cognitive screening with screening instruments sensitive to executive dysfunction as well as prompt and adequate control of hypertension. PMID:27354961

  4. Rodent Models of Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Kimura-Ohba, Shihoko; Thompson, Jeffrey; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2016-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID), which is an increasingly important cause of dementia in the elderly, lacks effective treatments. Many different types of vascular disease are included under the diagnosis of VCID, including large vessel disease with multiple strokes and small vessel disease with lacunar infarcts and white matter disease. Animal models have been developed to study the multiple forms of VCID. Because of its progressive course, small vessel disease (SVD) is thought to be the optimal form of VCID for treatment. One theory is that the pathophysiology involves hypoxic hypoperfusion resulting in injury to the white matter and neuronal death. Bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCAO) in a normotensive rat, which reduces cerebral blood flow, induces hypoxia with white matter damage; this model has been used to test drugs to block the injury. Another model is the spontaneously hypertensive/stroke prone rat (SHR/SP). Hypertension leads to small vessel disease resulting in progressive damage to the white matter, cortex, and hippocampus. Bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) with coils or ameroid constrictors produces a slower development of changes than BCAO, avoiding the acute ischemia. A few studies have been done with the two-clip, two-vessel occlusion renal model for induction of hypertension. There are benefits and drawbacks to each of these models with the model selected depending on the type of vascular damage that is to be studied. This review describes the most commonly used models, and the drugs that have been used to reduce the damage. PMID:27498679

  5. Ellagitannins, ellagic acid and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María T; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2010-12-01

    Hydrolysable tannins are phenolic phytochemicals that show high antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities. For this reason their potential effects preventing oxidative related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, have been largely studied. In vitro studies show that ellagitannins, at concentrations in the range 10-100 μM, show some relevant anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects, supporting the molecular mechanisms for the vascular health benefits. While there is good evidence supporting the vascular effects in vitro, the evidence on animal models or humans is much scarcer. The in vitro results often do not match the findings in the in vivo studies. This could be explained by the low bioavailability of the antioxidant ellagitannins and ellagic acid. The main ellagitannin metabolites circulating in plasma are ellagic acid microbiota metabolites known as urolithins, and they have lost their free-radical scavenging activity. They are present in plasma as glucuronide or sulphate conjugates, at concentrations in the nM range. Future studies should focus in the bioavailable metabolites, urolithins, and in the form (conjugated with glucuronic acid or sulphate) and concentrations (nM range) in which they are found in plasma. In this review we critically discuss the role of ellagitannins and ellagic acid on vascular health.

  6. The endothelium and vascular inflammation in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hartge, Martin M; Unger, Thomas; Kintscher, Ulrich

    2007-06-01

    The endothelium releases multiple mediators, not only regulators of vasomotor function but also important physiological and pathophysiological inflammatory mediators. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by chronic exposure to various stressors such as oxidative stress and modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, resulting in impaired nitric oxide (NO) production and chronic inflammation. Biomechanical forces on the endothelium, including low shear stress from disturbed blood flow and hypertension, are also important causes of endothelial dysfunction. These processes seem to be augmented in patients with diabetes. In states of insulin resistance and in type 2 diabetes insulin signalling is impaired. Increased vascular inflammation, including enhanced expression of interleukin- 6 (IL-6), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP- 1) are observed, as is a marked decrease in NO bioavailability. Furthermore, hyperglycaemia leads to increased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), which quench NO and impair endothelial function. In summary, during the development of diabetes a number of biochemical and mechanical factors converge on the endothelium, resulting in endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. In the presence of insulin resistance, these processes are potentiated and they provide a basis for the macrovascular disease seen in diabetes.

  7. Ectopic fat and cardiometabolic and vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Meigs, James B

    2013-11-01

    Given that the variation in how regional adipose tissue handles and stores excess dietary energy has substantial cardiometabolic implications, ectopic fat distribution might be an important predictor of cardiometabolic and vascular risk, in addition to overall obesity itself. Conceptually, ectopic fat depots may be divided into systemically acting fat depots and locally acting fat depots. Systemically acting fat depots include visceral fat, fat in the liver, muscle, or neck, and subcutaneous fat. Accumulation in the abdominal visceral area, compared with overall obesity, has an equally or more important role in the development of cardiometabolic risk. Fat depots in liver/muscle tissue cause adverse cardiometabolic effects by affecting energy metabolism. Fat depots in lower-body subcutaneous areas may be protective regarding cardiometabolic risk, by trapping remnant energy. Fat accumulation in the neck is a unique type of fat depot that may increase cardiovascular risk by increasing insulin resistance. Locally acting fat depots include pericardial fat, perivascular fat, and renal sinus fat. These fat depots have effects primarily on adjacent anatomic organs, directly via lipotoxicity and indirectly via cytokine secretion. Pericardial fat is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Perivascular fat may play an independent role in adverse vascular biology, including arterial stiffness. Renal sinus fat is a unique fat depot that may confer additional cardiometabolic risk. Thus, ectopic fat depots may contribute to the understanding of the link between body composition and cardiometabolic risk. In this review, we focus on the role and clinical implications of ectopic fat depots in cardiometabolic and vascular risk. PMID:24063931

  8. A Scaling Law of Vascular Volume

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yunlong; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vascular volume is of fundamental significance to the function of the cardiovascular system. An accurate prediction of blood volume in patients is physiologically and clinically significant. This study proposes what we believe is a novel volume scaling relation of the form: Vc=KvDs2/3Lc, where Vc and Lc are cumulative vessel volume and length, respectively, in the tree, and Ds is the diameter of the vessel segment. The scaling relation is validated in vascular trees of various organs including the heart, lung, mesentery, muscle, and eye of different species. Based on the minimum energy hypothesis and volume scaling relation, four structure-function scaling relations are predicted, including the diameter-length, volume-length, flow-diameter, and volume-diameter relations, with exponent values of 3/7, 127, 2⅓, and 3, respectively. These four relations are validated in the various vascular trees, which further confirm the volume scaling relation. This scaling relation may serve as a control reference to estimate the blood volume in various organs and species. The deviation from the scaling relation may indicate hypovolemia or hypervolemia and aid diagnosis. PMID:19167288

  9. Gasotransmitters in Vascular Complications of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    van den Born, Joost C; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Greffrath, Wolfgang; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2016-02-01

    In the past decades three gaseous signaling molecules-so-called gasotransmitters-have been identified: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These gasotransmitters are endogenously produced by different enzymes in various cell types and play an important role in physiology and disease. Despite their specific functions, all gasotransmitters share the capacity to reduce oxidative stress, induce angiogenesis, and promote vasorelaxation. In patients with diabetes, a lower bioavailability of the different gasotransmitters is observed when compared with healthy individuals. As yet, it is unknown whether this reduction precedes or results from diabetes. The increased risk for vascular disease in patients with diabetes, in combination with the extensive clinical, financial, and societal burden, calls for action to either prevent or improve the treatment of vascular complications. In this Perspective, we present a concise overview of the current data on the bioavailability of gasotransmitters in diabetes and their potential role in the development and progression of diabetes-associated microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy) and macrovascular (cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral arterial diseases) complications. Gasotransmitters appear to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects in the course of vascular disease development. This Perspective concludes with a discussion on gasotransmitter-based interventions as a therapeutic option.

  10. [Venous vascularization of the lentiform nucleus].

    PubMed

    Wolfram-Gabel, R; Maillot, C

    The venous vascularization of the nucleus lentiformis in man is studied in 30 brains by injecting the vascular system with gelatinous Indian ink. The venous vascularization of the nucleus lentiformis is drained towards the deep venous system of the brain by two ways, one ascending, the other descending. The first one is formed by superior lenticular veins which drain into the thalamo-striate vein, principal tributary of the internal cerebral vein. The second one is formed by inferior lenticular veins which depend from the deep middle cerebral vein, another tributary of the internal cerebral vein. The veins of the nucleus lentiformis, especially the veins of the putamen, present many similarities with these one of the cerebral cortex. They form the center of venous units surrounded by an arterial ring formed by the branches of ramification of the central arteries. The principal vein of the unit is surrounded by a capillary-free space. This similarities may be explained by the common origin of the cerebral cortex and of the putamen, both belong to the neocortical system.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of tetrandrine against vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yan-ling; Wu, Ze-zhi; Chen, Li-xue; Wu, Bai-xue; Chen, Lian-lian; Qin, Guang-cheng; Gui, Bei; Zhou, Ji-ying

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine is one of the major active ingredients in Menispermaceae Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, and has specific therapeutic effects in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Its use in vascular dementia has not been studied fully. Here, we investigated whether tetrandrine would improve behavioral and cellular impairments in a two-vessel occlusion rat model of chronic vascular dementia. Eight weeks after model establishment, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 or 30 mg/kg tetrandrine every other day for 4 weeks. Behavioral assessment in the Morris water maze showed that model rats had longer escape latencies in training trials, and spent less time swimming in the target quadrant in probe trials, than sham-operated rats. However, rats that had received tetrandrine showed shorter escape latencies and longer target quadrant swimming time than untreated model rats. Hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining revealed less neuronal necrosis and pathological damage, and more living cells, in the hippocampus of rats treated with tetrandrine than in untreated model rats. Western blot assay showed that interleukin-1β expression, and phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B receptor at tyrosine 1472, were lower in model rats that received tetrandrine than in those that did not. The present findings suggest that tetrandrine may be neuroprotective in chronic vascular dementia by reducing interleukin-1β expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472, and neuronal necrosis. PMID:27127485

  12. Vascular parkinsonism--characteristics, pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2015-06-01

    Parkinson disease is a primary degenerative disease of the brain, but parkinsonism can also result from a variety of vascular disorders. Vascular parkinsonism (VP) most frequently presents as lower body parkinsonism, a condition that is accompanied by the development of white matter lesions (WMLs) and lacunes in the brain. Patients with lower body parkinsonism exhibit gait impairment and go on to develop urinary incontinence, abnormal pyramidal responses and cognitive decline. However, WMLs and lacunes are also common observations among elderly individuals who do not have parkinsonism, which causes difficulty in determining the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to VP. In addition, imaging studies suggest that many pathological and clinical features are common to VP and Binswanger disease, a type of small vessel vascular dementia. This Review summarizes current understanding of the clinical characteristics of VP, as well as knowledge gained from neuroimaging and nuclear imaging of the pathological features of VP. The lack of current treatment options, and the emergence of new therapies such as cerebrospinal fluid drainage, are also discussed. Finally, consideration is given to whether the overlap between VP and Binswanger disease means that these two disorders should be considered as part of the same disease entity. PMID:25917706

  13. Can We Clinically Recognize a Vascular Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Bela R.; Gschwandtner, Michael E.; Mauerhofer, Michaela; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The vascular depression (VD) hypothesis postulates that cerebrovascular disease may “predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate” a depressive syndrome in elderly patients. Clinical presentation of VD has been shown to differ to major depression in quantitative disability; however, as little research has been made toward qualitative phenomenological differences in the personality aspects of the symptom profile, clinical diagnosis remains a challenge. We attempted to identify differences in clinical presentation between depression patients (n = 50) with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) vascular disease using questionnaires to assess depression, affect regulation, object relations, aggressiveness, alexithymia, personality functioning, personality traits, and counter transference. We were able to show that patients with vascular dysfunction and depression exhibit significantly higher aggressive and auto-aggressive tendencies due to a lower tolerance threshold. These data indicate that VD is a separate clinical entity and secondly that the role of personality itself may be a component of the disease process. We propose an expanded threshold disease model incorporating personality functioning and mood changes. Such findings might also aid the development of a screening program, by serving as differential criteria, ameliorating the diagnostic procedure. PMID:25950684

  14. Depth dependence of vascular fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mitchell A.; Shams Kazmi, S. M.; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo surface imaging of fluorescently labeled vasculature has become a widely used tool for functional brain imaging studies. Techniques such as phosphorescence quenching for oxygen tension measurements and indocyanine green fluorescence for vessel perfusion monitoring rely on surface measurements of vascular fluorescence. However, the depth dependence of the measured fluorescence signals has not been modeled in great detail. In this paper, we investigate the depth dependence of the measured signals using a three-dimensional Monte Carlo model combined with high resolution vascular anatomy. We found that a bulk-vascularization assumption to modeling the depth dependence of the signal does not provide an accurate picture of penetration depth of the collected fluorescence signal in most cases. Instead the physical distribution of microvasculature, the degree of absorption difference between extravascular and intravascular space, and the overall difference in absorption at the excitation and emission wavelengths must be taken into account to determine the depth penetration of the fluorescence signal. Additionally, we found that using targeted illumination can provide for superior surface vessel sensitivity over wide-field illumination, with small area detection offering an even greater amount of sensitivity to surface vasculature. Depth sensitivity can be enhanced by either increasing the detector area or increasing the illumination area. Finally, we see that excitation wavelength and vessel size can affect intra-vessel sampling distribution, as well as the amount of signal that originates from inside the vessel under targeted illumination conditions. PMID:22162824

  15. Vascular cognitive impairment, a cardiovascular complication

    PubMed Central

    Frances, Adiukwu; Sandra, Ofori; Lucy, Ugbomah

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been used to refer to a spectrum of cognitive decline characterized by executive dysfunction, associated with vascular pathology. With 30% of stroke survivors showing cognitive impairments, it is regarded as the most common cause of cognitive impairment. This is a narrative review of available literature citing sources from PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar. VCI has a high prevalence both before and after a stroke and is associated with great economic and caregiver burden. Despite this, there is no standardized diagnostic criteria for VCI. Hypertension has been identified as a risk factor for VCI and causes changes in cerebral vessel structure and function predisposing to lacuna infarcts and small vessel haemorrhages in the frontostriatal loop leading to executive dysfunction and other cognitive impairments. Current trials have shown promising results in the use of antihypertensive medications in the management of VCI and prevention of disease progression to vascular dementia. Prevention of VCI is necessary in light of the looming dementia pandemic. All patients with cardiovascular risk factors would therefore benefit from cognitive screening with screening instruments sensitive to executive dysfunction as well as prompt and adequate control of hypertension. PMID:27354961

  16. Neuroprotective effects of tetrandrine against vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan-Ling; Wu, Ze-Zhi; Chen, Li-Xue; Wu, Bai-Xue; Chen, Lian-Lian; Qin, Guang-Cheng; Gui, Bei; Zhou, Ji-Ying

    2016-03-01

    Tetrandrine is one of the major active ingredients in Menispermaceae Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, and has specific therapeutic effects in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Its use in vascular dementia has not been studied fully. Here, we investigated whether tetrandrine would improve behavioral and cellular impairments in a two-vessel occlusion rat model of chronic vascular dementia. Eight weeks after model establishment, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 or 30 mg/kg tetrandrine every other day for 4 weeks. Behavioral assessment in the Morris water maze showed that model rats had longer escape latencies in training trials, and spent less time swimming in the target quadrant in probe trials, than sham-operated rats. However, rats that had received tetrandrine showed shorter escape latencies and longer target quadrant swimming time than untreated model rats. Hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining revealed less neuronal necrosis and pathological damage, and more living cells, in the hippocampus of rats treated with tetrandrine than in untreated model rats. Western blot assay showed that interleukin-1β expression, and phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B receptor at tyrosine 1472, were lower in model rats that received tetrandrine than in those that did not. The present findings suggest that tetrandrine may be neuroprotective in chronic vascular dementia by reducing interleukin-1β expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472, and neuronal necrosis. PMID:27127485

  17. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingzi; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-10-01

    As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP)] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:26499181

  18. Connective tissue: Vascular and hematological (blood) support

    PubMed Central

    Calvino, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Connective Tissue (CT) is a ubiquitous component of all major tissues and structures of the body (50% of all body protein is CT), including that of the blood, vascular, muscle, tendon, ligament, fascia, bone, joint, IVD's (intervertebral discs) and skin. Because of its ubiquitous nature, CT is an often overlooked component of any essential nutritional program that may address the structure, and/or function of these tissues. The central role of CT in the health of a virtually all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, is discussed. General nutritional CT support strategies, as well as specific CT support strategies that focus on blood, vascular, structural system (eg, muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, bone, and joints), integument (skin) and inflammatory and immune mediation will be discussed here and will deal with connective tissue dynamics and dysfunction. An overview of the current scientific understanding and possible options for naturally enhancing the structure and function of CT through the application of these concepts will be discussed in this article, with specific attention on the vascular and hematological systems. PMID:19674592

  19. Vascular metallomics: copper in the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Easter, Renee N; Qilin Chan; Lai, Barry; Ritman, Erik L; Caruso, Joseph A; Zhenyu Qin

    2010-02-01

    Owing to recent progress in analytical techniques, metallomics are evolving from detecting distinct trace metals in a defined state to monitor the dynamic changes in the abundance and location of trace metals in vitro and in vivo. Vascular metallomics is an emerging field that studies the role of trace metals in vasculature. This review will introduce common metallomics techniques including atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a summary table to compare these techniques. Moreover, we will summarize recent research findings that have applied these techniques to human population studies in cardiovascular diseases, with a particular emphasis on the role of copper in these diseases. In order to address the issue of interdisciplinary studies between metallomics and vascular biology, we will review the progress of efforts to understand the role of copper in neovascularization. This recent advance in the metallomics field may be a powerful tool to elucidate the signaling pathways and specific biological functions of these trace metals. Finally, we summarize the evidence to support the notion that copper is a dynamic signaling molecule. As a future direction, vascular metallomics studies may lead to the identification of targets for diagnosis and therapy in cardiovascular disease.

  20. Vascular metallomics: copper in the vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Renee N.; Chan, Qilin; Lai, Barry; Ritman, Erik L.; Caruso, Joseph A.; Qin, Zhenyu

    2009-01-01

    Due to recent progress in analytical techniques, metallomics are evolving from detecting distinct trace metals in a defined state to monitoring the dynamic changes in the abundance and location of trace metals in vitro and in vivo. Vascular metallomics is an emerging field that studies the role of trace metals in vasculature. This review will introduce common metallomics techniques including atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a summary table to compare these techniques. Moreover, we will summarize recent research findings that have applied these techniques to human population studies in cardiovascular diseases, with a particular emphasis on the role of copper in these diseases. In order to address the issue of interdisciplinary studies between metallomics and vascular biology, we will review the progress of efforts to understand the role of copper in neovascularization. This recent progress in the metallomics field may be a powerful tool to elucidating the signaling pathways and specific biological functions of these trace metals. Finally, we summarize the evidence to support the notion that copper is a dynamic signaling molecule. As a future direction, vascular metallomics studies may lead to the identification of targets for diagnosis and therapy in cardiovascular disease. PMID:19808712

  1. Microvascular Repair: Post-Angiogenesis Vascular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Amanda J.; Krishnan, Laxminarayanan; Sullivan, Christopher J.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hoying, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular compromise and the accompanying perfusion deficits cause or complicate a large array of disease conditions and treatment failures. This has prompted the exploration of therapeutic strategies to repair or regenerate vasculatures thereby establishing more competent microcirculatory beds. Growing evidence indicates that an increase in vessel numbers within a tissue does not necessarily promote an increase in tissue perfusion. Effective regeneration of a microcirculation entails the integration of new stable microvessel segments into the network via neovascularization. Beginning with angiogenesis, neovascularization entails an integrated series of vascular activities leading to the formation of a new mature microcirculation and includes vascular guidance and inosculation, vessel maturation, pruning, arterio-venous specification, network patterning, structural adaptation, intussusception, and microvascular stabilization. While the generation of new vessel segments is necessary to expand a network, without the concomitant neovessel remodeling and adaptation processes intrinsic to microvascular network formation, these additional vessel segments give rise to a dysfunctional microcirculation. While many of the mechanisms regulating angiogenesis have been detailed, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms driving post-angiogenesis activities specific to neovascularization has yet to be fully realized, but is necessary in order to develop effective therapeutic strategies for repairing compromised microcirculations as a means to treat disease. PMID:22734666

  2. Heterogeneity of vascular endothelial cells with relevance to diagnosis of vascular tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzu, I.; Bicknell, R.; Harris, A. L.; Jones, M.; Gatter, K. C.; Mason, D. Y.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the distribution of factor VIII related antigen, CD31, CD34 and CD36 in normal and malignant human vascular tissues using a panel of well characterised monoclonal antibodies. METHODS: Frozen and fixed material from a wide range of normal tissues and routinely processed material from 43 benign and malignant vascular tumours were examined. Single immunocytochemical labelling was performed using the APAAP technique. Double staining involved the sequential use of APAAP with the peroxidase method. RESULTS: Human vascular endothelium was antigenically heterogeneous. One of the most restricted markers was factor VIII related antigen, despite its having been widely used in diagnostic pathology as a marker of vascular endothelium and of the tumours which arise from it. Three antibodies against factor VIII related antigen, CD31 (JC70) and CD34 (QBend 10) were identified as immunostaining routinely processed, formalin fixed, paraffin wax sections. Each antibody gave different staining when tested on a range of vascular tumours, both benign and malignant. CONCLUSIONS: A small panel of three reagents (factor VIII related antigen, CD31 (JC70) and CD34 (QBend 10)) should be used by diagnostic pathologists who want to show the presence of cells of endothelial origin in routine material. Images PMID:1371777

  3. Role of vascular endothelial progenitor cells in construction of new vascular loop.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Kuihua; Bai, Lun; Xu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    Since bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been detected in adult peripheral blood, the mode of vasculogenesis in the adult tissue has caught attention in field of vascularization research. To confirm the role of EPCs in construction of new vascular loop, we took the biomaterial scaffold implanted into adult rat as an experimental model to observe and examine the actions of the EPCs in neovascularization of the material by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, by establishing a chemotactic migration model for vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and EPCs, the migrations of ECs and EPCs were explored in simulations. The results of 20,000 simulations showed that the number of the vascular loops assisted by the EPCs was 2-5 times that of the vascular sprouts being naturally joined. Based on the results of experiments and simulations, we conclude that the EPCs are able to assist the angiogenic sprouts in joining under the condition of plenty of the EPCs being mobilized, which aggregate at sites close to sprout tips, forming a cell cord and differentiating to ECs in situ, and become vessel segments between neighboring sprouts. This suggests that there is a difference between the adult and embryo in the manner of vasculogenesis and that a small number of EPCs can play an important role to make the new blood vessels achieve rapid functionalization.

  4. Determination of the optical properties of vascular tissues: potential applications in vascular-targeting photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yongbin; Chen, Ping; Lin, Lie; Huang, Zheng; Tang, Guoqing; Xu, Heping

    2007-11-01

    It has been proven that photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective in treating various malignant and non-malignant diseases. In the treatment of certain non-malignant vascular diseases, such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and port wine stains (PWS), unlike in the treatment of malignant solid tumors, light irradiation usually starts immediately after the intravenous (IV) injection of photosensitizers while the photosensitizers is mainly circulating inside blood vessels. Under such vascular-targeting action mode, photoreactions between photosensitizers and light can selectively destruct the vascular tissues. Light distribution is complex so that it is important to understand the optical properties of targeted vessels and surrounding tissues. To better determine the optical properties of vascular tissues, we developed a tissue-simulating phantom and adopted frequency-domain measurement of phase difference. Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in blood vessels were estimated and light distribution was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. These determinations are essential for the implication of better light dosimetry models in clinical photodynamic therapy and vascular-targeting PDT, in particular.

  5. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators. PMID:27020875

  6. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  7. Adult Vascular Wall Resident Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells, Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Arterial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Bruno; Compagna, Rita; Amato, Maurizio; Grande, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; Rossi, Alessio; Naso, Agostino; Ruggiero, Michele; de Franciscis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Evidences have shown the presence of multipotent stem cells (SCs) at sites of arterial aneurysms: they can differentiate into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and are activated after residing in a quiescent state in the vascular wall. Recent studies have implicated the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of arterial aneurysms: in fact the increased synthesis of MMPs by arterial SMCs is thought to be a pivotal mechanism in aneurysm formation. The factors and signaling pathways involved in regulating wall resident SC recruitment, survival, proliferation, growth factor production, and differentiation may be also related to selective expression of different MMPs. This review explores the relationship between adult vascular wall resident multipotent vascular SCs, MMPs, and arterial aneurysms. PMID:25866513

  8. Vascular Occlusion and Sequential Compression for Recovery After Resistance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Northey, Joseph M; Rattray, Ben; Argus, Christos K; Etxebarria, Naroa; Driller, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate vascular occlusion (OCC) and sequential intermittent pneumatic compression (SIPC) as recovery strategies after fatiguing resistance exercise. Twelve strength-trained male participants (age: 24.0 ± 6.3 years, height: 180.4 ± 9.7 cm, and weight: 84.8 ± 9.6 kg) participated in a randomized cross-over study. Participants performed a fatiguing resistance exercise bout consisting of 10 sets with 10 repetitions of back squats at 70% 1 repetition maximum with 3-minute rest between sets. Outcome measures of perceived recovery status, muscle soreness, concentric peak isokinetic torque of the quadriceps, squat jump (SJ) height, and countermovement jump (CMJ) height were taken before the fatiguing resistance exercise bout and repeated immediately post, 1 hour, and 24 hours later. Immediately after the postexercise measures, participants undertook 1 of the 3 recovery strategies: OCC, SIPC, and a passive control (CON). Concentric peak isokinetic torque of the quadriceps was decreased significantly immediately post and 1 hour after the fatiguing resistance exercise bout compared with baseline values (p ≤ 0.05). Mean SJ and CMJ jump height decreased significantly immediately post and 1 hour compared with baseline measures, but only the SJ was significantly decreased at 24 hours. There were no significant differences between conditions for any of the postexercise measures (p > 0.05). In conclusion, this study indicates that OCC and SIPC are not effective for attenuating muscle performance loss after a fatiguing resistance exercise bout relative to passive recovery.

  9. Novel Paradigms for Dialysis Vascular Access: Upstream Hemodynamics and Vascular Remodeling in Dialysis Access Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Ene-Iordache, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Failure of hemodialysis access is caused mostly by venous intimal hyperplasia, a fibro-muscular thickening of the vessel wall. The pathogenesis of venous neointimal hyperplasia in primary arteriovenous fistulae consists of processes that have been identified as upstream and downstream events. Upstream events are the initial events producing injury of the endothelial layer (surgical trauma, hemodynamic shear stress, vessel wall injury due to needle punctures, etc.). Downstream events are the responses of the vascular wall at the endothelial injury that consist of a cascade of processes including leukocyte adhesion, migration of smooth muscle cells from the media to the intimal layer, and proliferation. In arteriovenous fistulae, the stenoses occur in specific sites, consistently related to the local hemodynamics determined by the vessel geometry and blood flow pattern. Recent findings that the localization of these sites matches areas of disturbed flow may add new insights into the pathogenesis of neointimal hyperplasia in the venous side of vascular access after the creation of the anastomosis. The detailed study of fluid flow motion acting on the vascular wall in anastomosed vessels and in the arm vasculature at the patient-specific level may help to elucidate the role of hemodynamics in vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia formation. These computational approaches may also help in surgical planning for the amelioration of clinical outcome. This review aims to discuss the role of the disturbed flow condition in acting as upstream event in the pathogenesis of venous intimal hyperplasia and in producing subsequent local vascular remodeling in autogenous arteriovenous fistulae used for hemodialysis access. The potential use of blood flow analysis in the management of vascular access is also discussed. PMID:23990161

  10. Comparative characterization of stromal vascular cells derived from three types of vascular wall and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Santsun; Eto, Hitomi; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kuno, Shinichiro; Kinoshita, Kahori; Ma, Hsu; Tsai, Chi-Han; Chou, Wan-Ting; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2013-12-01

    Multipotent stem/progenitor cells localize perivascularly in many organs and vessel walls. These tissue-resident stem/progenitor cells differentiate into vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and other mesenchymal lineages, and participate in physiological maintenance and repair of vasculatures. In this study, we characterized stromal vascular cells obtained through the explant culture method from three different vessel walls in humans: arterial wall (ART; >500 μm in diameter), venous wall (VN; >500 μm in diameter), and small vessels in adipose tissue (SV; arterioles and venules, <100 μm in diameter). These were examined for functionality and compared with adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs). All stromal vascular cells of different origins presented fibroblast-like morphology and we could not visually discriminate one population from another. Flow cytometry showed that the cultured population heterogeneously expressed a variety of surface antigens associated with stem/progenitor cells, but CD105 was expressed by most cells in all groups, suggesting that the cells generally shared the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Our histological and flow cytometric data suggested that the main population of vessel wall-derived stromal vascular cells were CD34(+)/CD31(-) and came from the tunica adventitia and areola tissue surrounding the adventitia. CD271 (p75NTR) was expressed by the vasa vasorum in the VN adventitia and by a limited population in the adventitia of SV. All three populations differentiated into multiple lineages as did ASCs. ART cells induced the largest quantity of calcium formation in the osteogenic medium, whereas ASCs showed the greatest adipogenic differentiation. SV and VN stromal cells had greater potency for network formation than did ART stromal cells. In conclusion, the three stromal vascular populations exhibited differential functional properties. Our results have clinical implications for vascular diseases such as

  11. Previously differentiated medial vascular smooth muscle cells contribute to neointima formation following vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The origins of neointimal smooth muscle cells that arise following vascular injury remains controversial. Studies have suggested that these cells may arise from previously differentiated medial vascular smooth muscle cells, resident stem cells or blood born progenitors. In the current study we examined the contribution of the previously differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells to the neointima that forms following carotid artery ligation. Methods We utilized transgenic mice harboring a cre recombinase-dependent reporter gene (mTmG). These mice express membrane targeted tandem dimer Tomato (mTomato) prior to cre-mediated excision and membrane targeted EGFP (mEGFP) following excision. The mTmG mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing either smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (Myh11) or smooth muscle α-actin (Acta2) driven tamoxifen regulated cre recombinase. Following treatment of adult mice with tamoxifen these mice express mEGFP exclusively in differentiated smooth muscle cells. Subsequently vascular injury was induced in the mice by carotid artery ligation and the contribution of mEGFP positive cells to the neointima determined. Results Analysis of the cellular composition of the neointima that forms following injury revealed that mEGFP positive cells derived from either Mhy11 or Acta2 tagged medial vascular smooth muscle cells contribute to the majority of neointima formation (79 ± 17% and 81 ± 12%, respectively). Conclusion These data demonstrate that the majority of the neointima that forms following carotid ligation is derived from previously differentiated medial vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:25309723

  12. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular remodelling and atherosclerotic plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M R

    1999-02-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has recently been identified as an important process in a variety of human vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, arterial injury, and restenosis after angioplasty. VSMC apoptosis is regulated by interactions between the local cell-cell and cytokine environment within the arterial wall, and the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins by the cell, including death receptors, proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. This review summarises our current knowledge of the occurrence and mechanisms underlying VSMC apoptosis in atherosclerosis and arterial remodelling.

  13. Neuropathological diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia with implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is recognised as a neurocognitive disorder, which is explained by numerous vascular causes in the general absence of other pathologies. The heterogeneity of cerebrovascular disease makes it challenging to elucidate the neuropathological substrates and mechanisms of VaD as well as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Consensus and accurate diagnosis of VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychometric and neuroimaging measures with subsequent pathological confirmation. Pathological diagnosis of suspected clinical VaD requires adequate postmortem brain sampling and rigorous assessment methods to identify important substrates. Factors that define the subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes. Atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases appear the most common substrates of vascular brain injury or infarction. Small vessel disease characterised by arteriolosclerosis and lacunar infarcts also causes cortical and subcortical microinfarcts, which appear to be the most robust substrates of cognitive impairment. Diffuse WM changes with loss of myelin and axonal abnormalities are common to almost all subtypes of VaD. Medial temporal lobe and hippocampal atrophy accompanied by variable hippocampal sclerosis are also features of VaD as they are of Alzheimer's disease. Recent observations suggest that there is a vascular basis for neuronal atrophy in both the temporal and frontal lobes in VaD that is entirely independent of any Alzheimer pathology. Further knowledge on specific neuronal and dendro-synaptic changes in key regions resulting in executive dysfunction and other cognitive deficits, which define VCI and VaD, needs to be gathered. Hereditary arteriopathies such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL have provided insights into the mechanisms of

  14. Quantification of Hepatic Vascular and Parenchymal Regeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chichi; Schwen, Lars Ole; Wei, Weiwei; Schenk, Andrea; Zafarnia, Sara; Gremse, Felix; Dahmen, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver regeneration consists of cellular proliferation leading to parenchymal and vascular growth. This study complements previous studies on cellular proliferation and weight recovery by (1) quantitatively describing parenchymal and vascular regeneration, and (2) determining their relationship. Both together are needed to (3) characterize the underlying growth pattern. Methods Specimens were created by injecting a polymerizing contrast agent in either portal or hepatic vein in normal or regenerating livers after 70% partial hepatectomy. 3D image data were obtained through micro-CT scanning. Parenchymal growth was assessed by determining weight and volume of the regenerating liver. Vascular growth was described by manually determined circumscribed parameters (maximal vessel length and radius of right inferior portal/hepatic vein), automatically determined cumulative parameters (total edge length and total vascular volume), and parameters describing vascular density (total edge length/volume, vascular volume fraction). The growth pattern was explored by comparing the relative increase of these parameters to the increase expected in case of isotropic expansion. Results Liver volume recovery paralleled weight recovery and reached 90% of the original liver volume within 7 days. Comparing radius-related vascular parameters immediately after surgical resection and after virtual resection in-silico revealed a slight increase, possibly reflecting the effect of resection-induced portal hyperperfusion. Comparing length-related parameters between post-operative day 7 and after virtual resection showed similar vascular growth in both vascular systems investigated. In contrast, radius-related parameters increased slightly more in the portal vein. Despite the seemingly homogeneous 3D growth, the observed vascular parameters were not compatible with the hypothesis of isotropic expansion of liver parenchyma and vascular structures. Conclusion We present an approach for

  15. Regionalization of services improves access to emergency vascular surgical care.

    PubMed

    Roche-Nagle, G; Bachynski, K; Nathens, A B; Angoulvant, D; Rubin, B B

    2013-04-01

    Management of vascular surgical emergencies requires rapid access to a vascular surgeon and hospital with the infrastructure necessary to manage vascular emergencies. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of regionalization of vascular surgery services in Toronto to University Health Network (UHN) and St Michael's Hospital (SMH) on the ability of CritiCall Ontario to transfer patients with life- and limb-threatening vascular emergencies for definitive care. A retrospective review of the CritiCall Ontario database was used to assess the outcome of all calls to CritiCall regarding patients with vascular disease from April 2003 to March 2010. The number of patients with vascular emergencies referred via CritiCall and accepted in transfer by the vascular centers at UHN or SMH increased 500% between 1 April 2003-31 December 2005 and 1 January 2006-31 March 2010. Together, the vascular centers at UHN and SMH accepted 94.8% of the 1002 vascular surgery patients referred via CritiCall from other hospitals between 1 January 2006 and 31 March 2010, and 72% of these patients originated in hospitals outside of the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Across Ontario, the number of physicians contacted before a patient was accepted in transfer fell from 2.9 ± 0.4 before to 1.7 ± 0.3 after the vascular centers opened. In conclusion, the vascular surgery centers at UHN and SMH have become provincial resources that enable the efficient transfer of patients with vascular surgical emergencies from across Ontario. Regionalization of services is a viable model to increase access to emergent care. PMID:23508395

  16. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  17. Management of bleeding in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Chee, Y E; Liu, S E; Irwin, M G

    2016-09-01

    Management of acute coagulopathy and blood loss during major vascular procedures poses a significant haemostatic challenge to anaesthetists. The acute coagulopathy is multifactorial in origin with tissue injury and hypotension as the precipitating factors, followed by dilution, hypothermia, acidemia, hyperfibrinolysis and systemic inflammatory response, all acting as a self-perpetuating spiral of events. The problem is confounded by the high prevalence of antithrombotic agent use in these patients and intraoperative heparin administration. Trials specifically examining bleeding management in vascular surgery are lacking, and much of the literature and guidelines are derived from studies on patients with trauma. In general, it is recommended to adopt permissive hypotension with a restrictive fluid strategy, using a combination of crystalloid and colloid solutions up to one litre during the initial resuscitation, after which blood products should be administered. A restrictive transfusion trigger for red cells remains the mainstay of treatment except for the high-risk patients, where the trigger should be individualized. Transfusion of blood components should be initiated by clinical evidence of coagulopathy such as diffuse microvascular bleeding, and then guided by either laboratory or point-of-care coagulation testing. Prophylactic antifibrinolytic use is recommended for all surgery where excessive bleeding is anticipated. Fibrinogen and prothrombin complex concentrates administration are recommended during massive transfusion, whereas rFVIIa should be reserved until all means have failed. While debates over the ideal resuscitative strategy continue, the approach to vascular haemostasis should be scientific, rational, and structured. As far as possible, therapy should be monitored and goal directed. PMID:27566811

  18. Vascular function and ocular involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Paraskevopoulos, Theodoros; Gialafos, Elias; Rapti, Aggeliki; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Zaromitidou, Marina; Mourouzis, Konstantinos; Siasou, Georgia; Gouliopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsalamandris, Sotiris; Vlasis, Konstantinos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-07-01

    Ocular involvement occurs in sarcoidosis (Sar) patients mainly in the form of uveitis. This study was designed to determine if uveitis in Sar patients is associated with vascular impairment. We enrolled 82 Sar patients and 77, age and sex matched, control subjects (Cl). Sar patients were divided into those with ocular sarcoidosis (OS) and those without ocular sarcoidosis (WOS). Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured as an index of aortic stiffness and augmentation index (AIx) as a measure of arterial wave reflections. Although there was no significant difference in sex, age and mean arterial pressure, patients with OS compared to WOS patients and Cl subjects had impaired FMD (p<0.001), increased AIx (p=0.02) and increased PWV (p=0.001). Interestingly, impaired FMD in Sar patients was independently, from possible covariates (age, sex, smoking habits, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia), associated with increased odds of ocular involvement (odds ratio=1.69, p=0.001). More precisely ROC curve analysis revealed that FMD had a significant diagnostic ability for the detection of OS (AUC=0.77, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 68% for an FMD value below 6.00%. To conclude in the present study we have shown that ocular involvement in Sar patients is associated with impaired endothelial function and increased arterial stiffness. These results strengthen the vascular theory which considers uveitis a consequence of vascular dysfunction in Sar patients and reveals a possible clinical importance of the use of endothelial function tests.

  19. [Effect of alcohol on vascular function].

    PubMed

    Kudo, Risa; Yuui, Katsuya; Kasuda, Shogo; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2015-06-01

    Vascular function is regulated by a balance of vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation. Disorder in this balance due to alcohol consumption causes various clinical conditions. In this review, we discuss the effects of acute and chronic ethanol consumption on vascular responses, including vasoconstriction, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and nerve-mediated vasorelaxation. Acute ethanol administration induces vasoconstriction in ethanol-naive animals in vitro. Furthermore, ethanol can both potentiate and suppress agonist-induced Ca(2+)-dependent vasoconstriction. Moreover, ethanol augments Ca(2+)-independent vasoconstriction by increasing Ca2+ sensitivity. Endothelium-dependent relaxation is mediated by the nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathway. Acute ethanol treatment inhibits both NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation. Furthermore, acute ethanol ingestion can also potentiate and suppress calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-induced nerve-mediated relaxation. These opposing effects may be due to differences in species or vascular beds. Thus, acute ethanol treatment decreases vasorelaxation, thereby shifting the contraction-relaxation balance towards contraction. Combined, these effects are one mechanism by which acute heavy alcohol consumption causes circulatory disturbances such as vasospasms or ischemic heart disease. In contrast, chronic low-dose ethanol has no effect on vasoconstriction, whereas chronic high-dose ethanol increases vasoconstriction. Additionally, chronic ethanol intake has diminished, unchanged, and even increased effects on nerve-mediated relaxation; therefore, conclusions on these effects are not possible at present. Interestingly, chronic low-dose ethanol administration enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation; however, higher doses inhibited these responses. Therefore, regular or light-to-moderate alcohol intake increases vasorelaxation and may suppress elevated blood pressure, whereas

  20. [Vascular effects of adenosine-triphosphate].

    PubMed

    Colson, P; Saussine, M; Gaba, S; Sequin, J; Chaptal, P A; Roquefeuil, B

    1991-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on systemic vascular resistances during the hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass phase of cardiac surgery. Twenty patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were randomly divided into an ATP group (n = 10), and a placebo group (n = 10). Anaesthesia was similar for all the patients (diazepam, fentanyl and pancuronium). During the heart arrest phase, and as soon as the arterial pressure, the level in the venous return reservoir, and the pump flow rate had all been in steady state for 5 min, ATP or placebo was injected into the venous line of the oxygenator. Injection speed was doubled every three minutes, twice. The following ATP doses were administered: 0.012, 0.025 and 0.05 mg.kg-1.min-1. The level in the venous return reservoir was kept constant. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pump flow rate (DP) were assessed every half minute. Systemic vascular resistances were calculated with the relationship MAP/DP. Changes in vascular capacitance were directly proportional to changes in DP as the heart had been excluded, and all the blood returned to the pump, the blood volume being kept constant. MAP and DP remained unchanged in the placebo group. In the opposite ATP induced a dose-related systemic vasodilation: MAP decreased from 82.8 +/- 12.5 mmHg (control) to 66.0 +/- 14.8 mmHg, 59.8 +/- 10.6 mmHg, and 49.0 +/- 4.7 mmHg with 0.012, 0.025 and 0.05 mg.kg-1.min-1 ATP respectively. The MAP returned to preinfusion control levels when the ATP infusion was discontinued (90.0 +/- 17.8 mmHg). The DP, and therefore venous return, did not change, neither during ATP infusion, nor after its discontinuation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1854051

  1. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  2. Mononuclear cells and vascular repair in HHT

    PubMed Central

    Dingenouts, Calinda K. E.; Goumans, Marie-José; Bakker, Wineke

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Rendu–Osler–Weber disease is a rare genetic vascular disorder known for its endothelial dysplasia causing arteriovenous malformations and severe bleedings. HHT-1 and HHT-2 are the most prevalent variants and are caused by heterozygous mutations in endoglin and activin receptor-like kinase 1, respectively. An undervalued aspect of the disease is that HHT patients experience persistent inflammation. Although endothelial and mural cells have been the main research focus trying to unravel the mechanism behind the disease, wound healing is a process with a delicate balance between inflammatory and vascular cells. Inflammatory cells are part of the mononuclear cells (MNCs) fraction, and can, next to eliciting an immune response, also have angiogenic potential. This biphasic effect of MNC can hold a promising mechanism to further elucidate treatment strategies for HHT patients. Before MNC are able to contribute to repair, they need to home to and retain in ischemic and damaged tissue. Directed migration (homing) of MNCs following tissue damage is regulated by the stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1). MNCs that express the C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) migrate toward the tightly regulated gradient of SDF1. This directed migration of monocytes and lymphocytes can be inhibited by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). Interestingly, MNC of HHT patients express elevated levels of DPP4 and show impaired homing toward damaged tissue. Impaired homing capacity of the MNCs might therefore contribute to the impaired angiogenesis and tissue repair observed in HHT patients. This review summarizes recent studies regarding the role of MNCs in the etiology of HHT and vascular repair, and evaluates the efficacy of DPP4 inhibition in tissue integrity and repair. PMID:25852751

  3. Medial vascular calcification revisited: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lanzer, Peter; Boehm, Manfred; Sorribas, Victor; Thiriet, Marc; Janzen, Jan; Zeller, Thomas; St Hilaire, Cynthia; Shanahan, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcifications (VCs) are actively regulated biological processes associated with crystallization of hydroxyapatite in the extracellular matrix and in cells of the media (VCm) or intima (VCi) of the arterial wall. Both patterns of VC often coincide and occur in patients with type II diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and other less frequent disorders; VCs are also typical in senile degeneration. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge about the pathology, molecular biology, and nosology of VCm, expand on potential mechanisms responsible for poor prognosis, and expose some of the directions for future research in this area. PMID:24740885

  4. Interventional Management of Vascular Renal Transplant Complications.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Kanti Pallav; LaBerge, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Renal transplantation is the therapy of choice in patients with end stage renal disease. Although transplant rejection remains the most common complication after renal transplantation, vascular anatomical complications occur in 1%-23% of renal transplant recipients. Interventional radiologists play an important role in the management of these complications. This review discusses the role of image-guided interventions within the context of multidisciplinary patient management. Particular emphasis is given to anatomical considerations unique to this patient population, techniques used for image-guided interventions, and outcomes of image-guided interventions. PMID:27641457

  5. Selective vascular injury during cutaneous laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnell, James William

    Pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) can induce selective vascular injury to remove cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port wine stains (PWS), hemangiomas, and facial veins. In this group of studies, we characterized the cryogen heat removal process and determined the effects of pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling of human skin. First, we employed an inverse heat conduction algorithm to measure the thermal boundary condition due to CSC in in vitro skin phantoms. Second, we developed a mathematical model of laser irradiation in conjunction with CSC in human skin. We determined tissue damage and temperature profiles due to varying combinations of laser pulse duration, radiant exposure, and CSC application times. Finally, we used ex vivo and in vivo human skin to determine the effects of high radiant exposures and CSC on epidermal and vascular injury. CSC induces a dynamic cooling effect, removing heat from the skin both during and following the spurt application time. Residual cryogen, deposited on the skin surface during the cryogen spurt, remains on the skin surface several times as long as the as cryogen spurt itself. The heat removal rate during the cryogen spurt is greatest; however, the total energy removed following the cryogen spurt is also substantial (approximately half as much as during the spurt application time). CSC was effective in protecting the human skin epidermis in light to moderately pigmented skin. Mathematical modeling, ex vivo, and in vivo studies showed that the epidermal damage threshold could be increased by a factor of approximately two. Increased radiant exposures increased the risk of non-selective vascular injury observed in histology as injury to the epidermis and perivascular collagen; however, proper choice of cryogen cooling durations resulted in the elimination of epidermal injury as well as perivascular tissue injury. In addition, higher radiant

  6. Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelis, F.; Neuville, A.; Labreze, C.; Kind, M.; Bui, B.; Midy, D.; Palussiere, J.; Grenier, N.

    2013-06-15

    The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

  7. Role of quercetin in vascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    A recent paper in the Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology has shown that quercetin has a vascular protective effect associated with eNOS up-regulation, blood GSH redox ratio, and reduction of oxidative stress. Recent reports have recommended the consumption of quercetin, as it may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which quercetin exerts its action have not been fully elucidated. The majority of these mechanisms have been identified with models using animals treated with quercetin, and relatively few have been corroborated in human studies, which indicates the need for further investigation.

  8. Navigating the aorta: MR virtual vascular endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Glockner, James F

    2003-01-01

    Virtual vascular endoscopy (VVE) uses two- and three-dimensional (3D) data sets from magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomographic angiography to create endoluminal views of blood vessels. This technique is relatively new and has become practical only recently as cheap and powerful computers have become widely available. MR-generated VVE can produce striking images and may prove useful as an alternative or accessory means of presenting large quantities of data. This exhibit reviews technical aspects of MR VVE, describes common errors and artifacts, and provides several examples of MR VVE along with more traditional presentations of 3D gadolinium-enhanced MR angiographic data.

  9. Mechanotransduction in vascular physiology and atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Cornelia; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Preface Forces associated with blood flow are major determinants of vascular morphogenesis and physiology. Blood flow is crucial for blood vessel development during embryogenesis and for regulation of vessel diameter in adult life. It is also a key factor in atherosclerosis, which, despite the systemic nature of major risk factors, occurs mainly at regions of arteries that experience disturbances in fluid flow. Recent data have highlighted the potential endothelial mechanotransducers that mediate responses to flow, the effects of atheroprotective versus atherogenic flow, and the mechanisms that contribute to progression of the disease over time and how systemic factors interact with flow patterns to cause atherosclerosis. PMID:19197332

  10. Vascular Complications of Pancreatitis: Imaging and Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, John M. Vora, Parag; Midia, Mehran; Rawlinson, John

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this study was to highlight technical challenges and potential pitfalls of diagnostic imaging, intervention, and postintervention follow-up of vascular complications of pancreatitis. Diagnostic and interventional radiology imaging from patients with pancreatitis from 2002 to 2006 was reviewed. We conclude that biphasic CT is the diagnostic modality of choice. Catheter angiography may (still) be required to diagnose small pseudoaneurysms. Endovascular coiling is the treatment of choice for pseudoaneurysms. Close clinical follow-up is required, as patients may rebleed/develop aneurysms elsewhere.

  11. Urticarial Reactions: Vascular Erythema, Urticaria, Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Sibbald, R. Gary

    1987-01-01

    Vascular erythemas, including urticaria and vasculitis, represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. A careful systemic approach to history and physical examination should be followed by appropriate investigations to rule out systemic disease. Chronic urticaria patients should be physically tested to identify cholinergic, dermagraphic, and cold-induced responses. Food diaries and careful drug history may be important to identify exacerbating factors in chronic urticaria. A skin biopsy is necessary to diagnose vasculitis. Therapy of any underlying cause is supplemented with H1 antihistamines in urticaria patients, while vasculitis requires a different anti-inflammatory approach. PMID:21263956

  12. Pulmonary manifestations of the collagen vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, H P; Matthay, R A

    1989-12-01

    The collagen vascular diseases are a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated inflammatory disorders. The organs and tissues that compose the respiratory system are frequently affected by these diseases. Potential targets of the inflammation and injury include the lung parenchyma, tracheobronchial tree, pulmonary vasculature, pleura, larynx, and respiratory muscles. In this article, the spectrum of respiratory disease caused by systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, ankylosing spondylitis, relapsing polychondritis, and Sjögren's syndrome is reviewed. Where appropriate, therapeutic options are discussed.

  13. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  14. Molecular Imaging of Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling in Cardiovascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Golestani, Reza; Jung, Jae-Joon; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are involved in a wide array of cardiovascular diseases, from myocardial ischemia and peripheral arterial disease, to atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm. Molecular imaging techniques to detect and quantify key molecular and cellular players in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors, αvβ3 integrin, and matrix metalloproteinases) can advance vascular biology research and serve as clinical tools for early diagnosis, risk stratification, and selection of patients who would benefit most from therapeutic interventions. To target these key mediators, a number of molecular imaging techniques have been developed and evaluated in animal models of angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. This review of the state of the art molecular imaging of angiogenesis and vascular (and valvular) remodeling, will focus mostly on nuclear imaging techniques (positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography) that offer high potential for clinical translation. PMID:27275836

  15. Characterization of vascular tree architecture using the Tokunaga taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarreta-Valverde, Miguel A.; Zoghbi, Jihan M.; Pereira, Fabricio; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jackowski, Marcel P.

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of cardiovascular disease is usually assisted by resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) imaging. The identification of abnormal vascular architecture from angiographic three-dimensional images is therefore crucial to the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Automated detection and quantification of vascular structure and architecture thus holds significant clinical value. In this work, we employ a Lindenmayer system to represent vascular trees from angiographic images and describe a quantitative measure based on the Tokunaga taxonomy to differentiate vascular architectures. Synthetic vessel architectures with varying bifurcation patterns were compared and results showed that this architectural measure is proportional to the level of branching. In real MRA images, this measure was able to differentiate between normal and abnormal intracerebral vasculature containing an aneurysm. Hence, this methodology not only allows for compact representation of vascular architectures but also provides a quantitative metric of bifurcation complexity, which has the potential to characterize different types of vascular abnormalities.

  16. [Vascular factors and progression of cognitive decline in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek; Bidzan, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of vascular factors on the rate of progression of cognitive impairment. The study included 291 subjects without dementia. Cognitive function were assessed with the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale--cognitive subscale (ADAS--cog) which were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study. Statistical analysis included 215 persons. During the observation AD developed in 19 subjects and 11 vascular and mix dementia (according to DSM-IIIR and DSM-IV criteria). Subjects were categorized by the baseline Modified Hachinski Ischemic Score as having vascular factors 0-1 point (n = 140) or vascular factors > 1 point (n = 75). Statistical analyses were based on the patients' Modified Hachinski Ischemic Score dichotomization. The results show that vascular factors were risk factors for Alzheimer type dementia but the study does not prove the impact of vascular factors on progression of cognitive impairment. PMID:16358597

  17. Early Vascular Aging: A New Target for Hypertension Treatment.

    PubMed

    Papakatsika, Sofia; Stabouli, Stella; Antza, Christina; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging represents a progressive procedure involving biochemical, enzymatic, and cellular changes of the vascular tree. Early vascular aging (EVA), is defined as the inappropriate for age of vascular damage. Increased for age arterial stiffness is a biomarker that should be considered as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that can be manipulated. EVA is a new tool for guidance in everyday clinical praxis for patients at increased CV risk or a positive family history of early onset of cardiovascular events, such as stroke or coronary artery disease. Understanding the mechanisms promoting or protecting from EVA, a process that is in close relationship with CV diseases. The role of hypertension treatment against the development of vascular damage is important and different strategies could have a considerable impact on future vascular health. PMID:26548304

  18. Molecular Mechanisms for Vascular Development and Secondary Cell Wall Formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jung Hyun; Wang, Huanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues are important for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant and as physical support of upright growth. The primary constituents of vascular tissues, xylem, and phloem, are derived from the meristematic vascular procambium and cambium. Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls (SCWs) that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. For the last decade, research on vascular development and SCW biosynthesis has seen rapid progress due to the importance of these processes to plant biology and to the biofuel industry. Plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and peptide signaling regulate procambium/cambium proliferation, vascular patterning, and xylem differentiation. Transcriptional regulatory pathways play a pivot role in SCW biosynthesis. Although most of these discoveries are derived from research in Arabidopsis, many genes have shown conserved functions in biofuel feedstock species. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of vascular development and SCW formation and discuss potential biotechnological uses. PMID:27047525

  19. Early Vascular Aging: A New Target for Hypertension Treatment.

    PubMed

    Papakatsika, Sofia; Stabouli, Stella; Antza, Christina; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging represents a progressive procedure involving biochemical, enzymatic, and cellular changes of the vascular tree. Early vascular aging (EVA), is defined as the inappropriate for age of vascular damage. Increased for age arterial stiffness is a biomarker that should be considered as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that can be manipulated. EVA is a new tool for guidance in everyday clinical praxis for patients at increased CV risk or a positive family history of early onset of cardiovascular events, such as stroke or coronary artery disease. Understanding the mechanisms promoting or protecting from EVA, a process that is in close relationship with CV diseases. The role of hypertension treatment against the development of vascular damage is important and different strategies could have a considerable impact on future vascular health.

  20. Regulatory mechanisms for specification and patterning of plant vascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Caño-Delgado, Ana; Lee, Ji-Young; Demura, Taku

    2010-01-01

    Plant vascular tissues, the conduits of water, nutrients, and small molecules, play important roles in plant growth and development. Vascular tissues have allowed plants to successfully adapt to various environmental conditions since they evolved 450 Mya. The majority of plant biomass, an important source of renewable energy, comes from the xylem of the vascular tissues. Efforts have been made to identify the underlying mechanisms of cell specification and patterning of plant vascular tissues and their proliferation. The formation of the plant vascular system is a complex process that integrates signaling and gene regulation at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Recently, a wealth of molecular genetic studies and the advent of cell biology and genomic tools have enabled important progress toward understanding its underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the cell and developmental processes of plant vascular tissue and resources recently available for studying them that will enable the discovery of new ways to develop sustainable energy using plant biomass.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms for Vascular Development and Secondary Cell Wall Formation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Hyun; Wang, Huanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues are important for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant and as physical support of upright growth. The primary constituents of vascular tissues, xylem, and phloem, are derived from the meristematic vascular procambium and cambium. Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls (SCWs) that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. For the last decade, research on vascular development and SCW biosynthesis has seen rapid progress due to the importance of these processes to plant biology and to the biofuel industry. Plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and peptide signaling regulate procambium/cambium proliferation, vascular patterning, and xylem differentiation. Transcriptional regulatory pathways play a pivot role in SCW biosynthesis. Although most of these discoveries are derived from research in Arabidopsis, many genes have shown conserved functions in biofuel feedstock species. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of vascular development and SCW formation and discuss potential biotechnological uses. PMID:27047525

  2. Microfluidic Techniques for Development of 3D Vascularized Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Anwarul; Paul, Arghya; Vrana, Nihal Engin; Zhao, Xin; Memic, Adnan; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Development of a vascularized tissue is one of the key challenges for the successful clinical application of tissue engineered constructs. Despite the significant efforts over the last few decades, establishing a gold standard to develop three dimensional (3D) vascularized tissues has still remained far from reality. Recent advances in the application of microfluidic platforms to the field of tissue engineering have greatly accelerated the progress toward the development of viable vascularized tissue constructs. Numerous techniques have emerged to induce the formation of vascular structure within tissues which can be broadly classified into two distinct categories, namely (1) prevascularization-based techniques and (2) vasculogenesis and angiogenesis-based techniques. This review presents an overview of the recent advancements in the vascularization techniques using both approaches for generating 3D vascular structure on microfluidic platforms. PMID:24906345

  3. Vascular anomalies: classification, imaging characteristics and implications for interventional radiology treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, H J S; Martin, L G; Patel, T H

    2014-01-01

    The term vascular anomaly represents a broad spectrum of vascular pathology, including proliferating vascular tumours and vascular malformations. While the treatment of most vascular anomalies is multifactorial, interventional radiology procedures, including embolic therapy, sclerotherapy and laser coagulation among others, are playing an increasingly important role in vascular anomaly management. This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of common vascular malformations, with emphasis on the technique, efficacy and complications of different interventional radiology procedures. PMID:24588666

  4. Luteolin Ameliorates Hypertensive Vascular Remodeling through Inhibiting the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jie; Xu, Han-Ting; Yu, Jing-Jing; Gao, Jian-Li; Lei, Jing; Yin, Qiao-Shan; Li, Bo; Pang, Min-Xia; Su, Min-Xia; Mi, Wen-Jia; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Preliminary researches showed that luteolin was used to treat hypertension. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin has effect on the hypertensive complication such as vascular remodeling. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of luteolin on the hypertensive vascular remodeling and its molecular mechanism. Method and Results. We evaluated the effect of luteolin on aorta thickening of hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) and found that luteolin could significantly decrease the blood pressure and media thickness of aorta in vivo. Luteolin could inhibit angiotensin II- (Ang II-) induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining result showed that luteolin reduced Ang II-stimulated ROS production in VSMCs. Furthermore, western blot and gelatin zymography results showed that luteolin treatment leaded to a decrease in ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, MMP2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein level. Conclusion. These data support that luteolin can ameliorate hypertensive vascular remodeling by inhibiting the proliferation and migration of Ang II-induced VSMCs. Its mechanism is mediated by the regulation of MAPK signaling pathway and the production of ROS. PMID:26495010

  5. Interactions of hormones with the vascular endothelium. Effects on the control of vascular tone.

    PubMed

    Pohl, U; Kaas, J

    1994-03-01

    Due to their anatomical location vascular endothelial cells are an obvious target for hormones which are transported by the bloodstream. Studies on cultured endothelial cells, isolated vessels and the intact organism revealed the existence of multiple interactions between endothelial cells and circulating hormones. Not only are endothelial cells involved in the clearance of some specific circulating hormones, but they also form a tight barrier for other hormones thus preventing or attenuating their direct effects on vascular smooth muscle. Endothelial cells are also involved in the production of circulating angiotensin II by the angiotensin converting enzyme. Probably the most significant effect of hormones in vascular control is the ability of many of them to modulate the release of vasoactive autacoids such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins and endothelin-1. Aside from acute stimulating effects on autacoid production, some hormones, particularly steroids, exert chronic effects on vasoactive-factor gene expression. Apparently, in the control of vascular tone, interactions between circulating hormones and the endothelium play a major role. However, the functional significance of these interactions, especially in pathophysiologic conditions remains to be determined. PMID:8185724

  6. Digital vascular imaging and selective renin sampling in evaluation of vascular anatomy in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, G A; Irving, J D; Farrington, K; Varghese, Z; Persaud, J W; Sweny, P; Moorhead, J F; Fernando, O N

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-five renal transplant recipients underwent digital vascular imaging of the graft and simultaneous selective venous sampling for plasma renin activity. Renal artery stenosis was found in seven patients but did not appear to be functionally important. Diffuse intrarenal arterial attenuation was found in seven patients and was associated with impaired graft function and perfusion; it may indicate chronic rejection. Lower pole hypoperfusion was found in nine patients without impaired graft function or perfusion; its clinical relevance is uncertain. Aneurysmal dilatation of the main renal artery was found in two patients. Severe hypertension was common in patients with these three major abnormalities, but a causal association between the abnormality and hypertension could rarely be inferred. It may be the abnormalities on digital vascular imaging, especially diffuse intrarenal arterial attenuation and lower pole hypoperfusion, are secondary to severe hypertension. Digital vascular imaging with simultaneous selective venous sampling for plasma renin activity is useful in evaluating the vascular anatomy of the grafted kidney and in assessing any abnormality found. The combined procedure was well tolerated by all patients with no complications and no incidence of acute tubular dysfunction or proteinuria after the investigation. Images p1005-a PMID:6403169

  7. New aspects of vascular remodelling: the involvement of all vascular cell types.

    PubMed

    McGrath, John C; Deighan, Clare; Briones, Ana M; Shafaroudi, Majid Malekzadeh; McBride, Melissa; Adler, Jeremy; Arribas, Silvia M; Vila, Elisabet; Daly, Craig J

    2005-07-01

    Conventionally, the architecture of arteries is based around the close-packed smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. However, the adventitia and endothelium are now viewed as key players in vascular growth and repair. A new dynamic picture has emerged of blood vessels in a constant state of self-maintenance. Recent work raises fundamental questions about the cellular heterogeneity of arteries and the time course and triggering of normal and pathological remodelling. A common denominator emerging in hypertensive remodelling is an early increase in adventitial cell density suggesting that adventitial cells drive remodelling and may initiate subsequent changes such as re-arrangement of smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. The organization of vascular smooth muscle cells follows regular arrangements that can be modelled mathematically. In hypertension, new patterns can be quantified in these terms and give insights to how structure affects function. As with smooth muscle, little is known about the organization of the vascular endothelium, or its role in vascular remodelling. Current observations suggest that there may be a close relationship between the helical organization of smooth muscle cells and the underlying pattern of endothelial cells. The function of myoendothelial connections is a topic of great current interest and may relate to the structure of the internal elastic lamina through which the connections must pass. In hypertensive remodelling this must present an organizational challenge. The objective of this paper is to show how the functions of blood vessels depend on their architecture and a continuous interaction of different cell types and extracellular proteins.

  8. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Methods and Results Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, called the brain arterial remodeling (BAR) score, was obtained by averaging the measured diameters within each individual. Individuals with a BAR score <−2 SDs were considered to have the smallest diameters, individuals with a BAR score >−2 and <2 SDs had average diameters, and individuals with a BAR score >2 SDs had the largest diameters. All vascular events were recorded prospectively after the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Spline curves and incidence rates were used to test our hypothesis. The association of the BAR score with death (P=0.001), vascular death (P=0.02), any vascular event (P=0.05), and myocardial infarction (P=0.10) was U-shaped except for ischemic stroke (P=0.74). Consequently, incidence rates for death, vascular death, myocardial infarction, and any vascular event were higher in individuals with the largest diameters, whereas individuals with the smallest diameters had a higher incidence of death, vascular death, any vascular event, and ischemic stroke compared with individuals with average diameters. Conclusions The risk of death, vascular death, and any vascular event increased at both extremes of brain arterial diameters. The pathophysiology linking brain arterial remodeling to systemic vascular events needs further research. PMID:26251284

  9. [Future vascular medicine: inauguration of a cardiovascular hybrid concept].

    PubMed

    Debus, S; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Kölbel, T; Kieback, A; Atlihan, G; Diener, H

    2014-10-01

    The demographic developments will lead to an exponential increase of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, technical developments of conservative and invasive treatment modalities will be added to distinguished, organ-orientated therapeutic concepts. This will also require a new orientation of vascular services. This concept implies that specific contents are referred to and contained in partner specialties. Since the heart and vascular system function as an anatomic and functional union, implementation of vascular medicine within cardiovascular centres represents a logical consequence.

  10. Caution is recommended prior to sildenafil use in vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Hannah; Zwicker, Kelley; Trenor, Cameron C

    2015-11-01

    Since publication of a single case report of lymphatic malformation improvement during sildenafil therapy for pulmonary hypertension, sildenafil use has propagated across multiple vascular anomalies diagnoses. Vascular anomalies are rare conditions, often with poor long-term outcomes from available therapies, making these patients vulnerable to novel therapy use. We have retrospectively reviewed 14 children with vascular anomalies treated with sildenafil. None of these patients reported improvement of disease while on treatment and some reported side effects including infections and bleeding. Pending more convincing prospective data, we recommend caution prior to sildenafil use for vascular anomalies. PMID:25982365

  11. Vascular Integrity in the Pathogenesis of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is an important cause of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), particularly in the young population. ICH is the first clinical symptom in about 50 % of bAVM patients. The vessels in bAVM are fragile and prone to rupture, causing bleeding into the brain. About 30 % of unruptured and non-hemorrhagic bAVMs demonstrate microscopic evidence of hemosiderin in the vascular wall. In bAVM mouse models, vascular mural cell coverage is reduced in the AVM lesion, accompanied by vascular leakage and microhemorrhage. In this review, we discuss possible signaling pathways involved in abnormal vascular development in bAVM. PMID:26463919

  12. Vascularization and Angiogenesis in Tissue Engineering: Beyond Creating Static Networks.

    PubMed

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Engineered tissues need a vascular network to supply cells with nutrients and oxygen after implantation. A network that can connect to the vasculature of the patient after implantation can be included during in vitro culture. For optimal integration, this network needs to be highly organized, including venules, capillaries, and arterioles, to supply all of the cells with sufficient nutrients. Owing to the importance of vascularization for the clinical applicability of tissue engineering, many approaches have been investigated to include an organized vascular network in tissue constructs. This review will give an overview of recent efforts, and will propose future perspectives to engineer the optimal, functional vascular network. PMID:27032730

  13. Plant vascular development: from early specification to differentiation.

    PubMed

    De Rybel, Bert; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Helariutta, Yrjö; Weijers, Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Vascular tissues in plants are crucial to provide physical support and to transport water, sugars and hormones and other small signalling molecules throughout the plant. Recent genetic and molecular studies have identified interconnections among some of the major signalling networks that regulate plant vascular development. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system, these studies enable the description of vascular development from the earliest tissue specification events during embryogenesis to the differentiation of phloem and xylem tissues. Moreover, we propose a model for how oriented cell divisions give rise to a three-dimensional vascular bundle within the root meristem.

  14. Vascular Tissue Engineering: Building Perfusable Vasculature for Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Liqiong; Niklason, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue and organ replacement is required when there are no alternative therapies available. Although vascular tissue engineering was originally developed to meet the clinical demands of small-diameter vascular conduits as bypass grafts, it has evolved into a highly advanced field where perfusable vasculatures are generated for implantation. Herein, we review several cutting-edge techniques that have led to implantable human blood vessels in clinical trials, the novel approaches that build complex perfusable microvascular networks in functional tissues, the use of stem cells to generate endothelial cells for vascularization, as well as the challenges in bringing vascular tissue engineering technologies into the clinics. PMID:24533306

  15. Bleeding Scrotal Vascular Lesions: Interventional Management with Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jaganathan, Sriram; Gamanagatti, Shivanand Mukund, Amar; Dhar, Anita

    2011-02-15

    Vascular lesions of the scrotum are uncommon; the most common among them are varicocele lesions. The other vascular lesions that may involve the scrotum are hemangioma, lymphangioma, and arteriovenous malformations, which are exceedingly rare. The imaging modalities useful in the diagnosis and management of scrotal vascular lesions are grayscale sonography, color Doppler sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. We present two cases of scrotal vascular lesions involving the extratesticular scrotal soft tissues. Patients presented with bleeding and were treated by radiological interventional technique. We emphasize the importance of superselective catheterization and distal embolization.

  16. Bone vascularization: a way to study bone microarchitecture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blery, P.; Autrusseau, F.; Crauste, E.; Freuchet, Erwan; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, J.-P.; Amouriq, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Trabecular bone and its microarchitecture are of prime importance for health. Studying vascularization helps to better know the relationship between bone and vascular microarchitecture. This research is an animal study (nine Lewis rats), based on the perfusion of vascularization by a contrast agent (a mixture of 50% barium sulfate with 1.5% of gelatin) before euthanasia. The samples were studied by micro CT at a resolution of 9μm. Softwares were used to show 3D volumes of bone and vessels, to calculate bone and vessels microarchitecture parameters. This study aims to understand simultaneously the bone microarchitecture and its vascular microarchitecture.

  17. Vascular access creation and care should be provided by nephrologists.

    PubMed

    Malovrh, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The long-term survival and quality of life of patients on hemodialysis is dependent on the adequacy of dialysis via an appropriately placed vascular access. Recent clinical practice guidelines recommend the creation of native arteriovenous fistula or synthetic graft before start of chronic hemodialysis therapy to prevent the need for complication-prone dialysis catheters. The direct involvement of nephrologists in the management of referral patterns, predialysis follow-up, policy of venous preservation, preoperative evaluation, vascular access surgery and vascular access care seems to be important and productive targets for the quality of care delivered to the patients with end-stage renal disease. Early referral to nephrologists is important for delay progression of both kidney disease and its complications by specific and adequate treatment, for education program which should include modification of lifestyle, medication management, selection of treatment modality and instruction for vein preservation and vascular access. Nephrologists are responsible for on-time placement and adequate maturation of vascular access. The number of nephrologists around the world who create their own fistulas and grafts is growing, driven by a need for better patient outcomes on hemodialysis. Nephrologists have also a key role for care of vascular access during hemodialysis treatment by following vascular access function using clinical data, physical examination and additional ultrasound evaluation. Timely detection of malfunctioning vascular access means timely surgical or radiological intervention and increases the survival of vascular access. PMID:25751545

  18. Vascular grading of angiogenesis: prognostic significance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, F B; Bak, M; Vach, W; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11 years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers was moderately reproduced (κ = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all patients (P< 0.0001), node-negative patients (P< 0.0001) and node-positive patients (P< 0.0001). Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P< 0.0001). A prognostic index including the vascular grade had clinical impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646886

  19. Transcriptional Regulation oa Endothelial Cell And Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Park, Changwon; Kim, Tae Min; Malik, Asrar B.

    2013-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of the vascular system is critical for embryonic development and postnatal life. Defects in endothelial cell development and vessel formation and function lead to embryonic lethality and are important in the etiology of vascular diseases. Here we review the underlying molecular mechanisms of endothelial cell differentiation, plasticity, and the development of the vasculature. This review focuses on the interplay among transcription factors and signaling molecules that specify the differentiation of vascular endothelial cells. We also discuss recent progress on reprogramming of somatic cells towards distinct endothelial cell lineages and its promise in regenerative vascular medicine. PMID:23661712

  20. Diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive disorders: a VASCOG statement

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder; Kalaria, Raj; O’Brien, John; Skoog, Ingmar; Alladi, Suvarna; Black, Sandra E; Blacker, Deborah; Blazer, Dan; Chen, Christopher; Chui, Helena; Ganguli, Mary; Jellinger, Kurt; Jeste, Dilip V.; Pasquier, Florence; Paulsen, Jane; Prins, Niels; Rockwood, Kenneth; Roman, Gustavo; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been published for vascular dementia (VaD) since the 1960s. The continuing ambiguity in VaD definition warrants a critical re-examination. Methods Participants at a special symposium of the International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG) in 2009 critiqued the current criteria. They drafted a proposal for a new set of criteria, later reviewed through multiple drafts by the group, including additional experts and the members of the Neurocognitive Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force. Results Cognitive disorders of vascular etiology are a heterogeneous group of disorders with diverse pathologies and clinical manifestations, discussed broadly under the rubric of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). The continuum of vascular cognitive impairment is recognized by the categories of Mild Vascular Cognitive Disorder, and Vascular Dementia or Major Vascular Cognitive Disorder. Diagnostic thresholds are defined. Clinical and neuroimaging criteria are proposed for establishing vascular etiology. Subtypes of VCD are described, and the frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology emphasized. Conclusions The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathological validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. PMID:24632990

  1. Serious Vascular Complications after Nonsurgical Rhinoplasty: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Liu, Yu; Fan, Dongliang

    2016-04-01

    There has been an increased global demand for dermal filler injections in recent years. Although hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers generally have a good safety profile, serious vascular complications have been reported. Here we present a typical case of skin necrosis following a nonsurgical rhinoplasty using hyaluronic acid filler. Despite various rescuing managements, unsightly superficial scars were left. It is critical for plastic surgeons and dermatologists to be familiar with the vascular anatomy and the staging of vascular complications. Any patients suspected to experience a vascular complication should receive early management under close monitoring. Meanwhile, the potentially devastating outcome caused by illegal practice calls for stricter regulations and law enforcement. PMID:27200245

  2. Role of Mitochondria in Cerebral Vascular Function: Energy Production, Cellular Protection, and Regulation of Vascular Tone.

    PubMed

    Busija, David W; Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V

    2016-06-13

    Mitochondria not only produce energy in the form of ATP to support the activities of cells comprising the neurovascular unit, but mitochondrial events, such as depolarization and/or ROS release, also initiate signaling events which protect the endothelium and neurons against lethal stresses via pre-/postconditioning as well as promote changes in cerebral vascular tone. Mitochondrial depolarization in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), via pharmacological activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels on the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP channels), leads to vasorelaxation through generation of calcium sparks by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequent downstream signaling mechanisms. Increased release of ROS by mitochondria has similar effects. Relaxation of VSM can also be indirectly achieved via actions of nitric oxide (NO) and other vasoactive agents produced by endothelium, perivascular and parenchymal nerves, and astroglia following mitochondrial activation. Additionally, NO production following mitochondrial activation is involved in neuronal preconditioning. Cerebral arteries from female rats have greater mitochondrial mass and respiration and enhanced cerebral arterial dilation to mitochondrial activators. Preexisting chronic conditions such as insulin resistance and/or diabetes impair mitoKATP channel relaxation of cerebral arteries and preconditioning. Surprisingly, mitoKATP channel function after transient ischemia appears to be retained in the endothelium of large cerebral arteries despite generalized cerebral vascular dysfunction. Thus, mitochondrial mechanisms may represent the elusive signaling link between metabolic rate and blood flow as well as mediators of vascular change according to physiological status. Mitochondrial mechanisms are an important, but underutilized target for improving vascular function and decreasing brain injury in stroke patients. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1529-1548, 2016.

  3. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI.

  4. Drinking Citrus Fruit Juice Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in Cuff-Induced Vascular Injury Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-no, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  5. Temporary vascular shunt for damage control of extremity vascular injury: A toolbox for trauma surgeons.

    PubMed

    Hornez, E; Boddaert, G; Ngabou, U D; Aguir, S; Baudoin, Y; Mocellin, N; Bonnet, S

    2015-12-01

    In an emergency, a general surgeon may be faced with the need to treat arterial trauma of the extremities when specialized vascular surgery is not available in their hospital setting, either because an arterial lesion was not diagnosed during pre-admission triage, or because of iatrogenic arterial injury. The need for urgent control of hemorrhage and limb ischemia may contra-indicate immediate transfer to a hospital with a specialized vascular surgery service. For a non-specialized surgeon, hemostasis and revascularization rely largely on damage control techniques and the use of temporary vascular shunts (TVS). Insertion of a TVS is indicated for vascular injuries involving the proximal portion of extremity vessels, while hemorrhage from distal arterial injuries can be treated with simple arterial ligature. Proximal and distal control of the injured vessel must be obtained, followed by proximal and distal Fogarty catheter thrombectomy and lavage with heparinized saline. The diameter of the TVS should be closely approximated to that of the artery; use of an oversized TVS may result in intimal tears. Systematic performance of decompressive fasciotomy is recommended in order to prevent compartment syndrome. In the immediate postoperative period, the need for systematic use of anticoagulant or anti-aggregant medications has not been demonstrated. The patient should be transferred to a specialized center for vascular surgery as soon as possible. The interval before definitive revascularization depends on the overall condition of the patient. The long-term limb conservation results after placement of a TVS are identical to those obtained when initial revascularization is performed.

  6. Role of Mitochondria in Cerebral Vascular Function: Energy Production, Cellular Protection, and Regulation of Vascular Tone.

    PubMed

    Busija, David W; Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria not only produce energy in the form of ATP to support the activities of cells comprising the neurovascular unit, but mitochondrial events, such as depolarization and/or ROS release, also initiate signaling events which protect the endothelium and neurons against lethal stresses via pre-/postconditioning as well as promote changes in cerebral vascular tone. Mitochondrial depolarization in vascular smooth muscle (VSM), via pharmacological activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels on the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP channels), leads to vasorelaxation through generation of calcium sparks by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and subsequent downstream signaling mechanisms. Increased release of ROS by mitochondria has similar effects. Relaxation of VSM can also be indirectly achieved via actions of nitric oxide (NO) and other vasoactive agents produced by endothelium, perivascular and parenchymal nerves, and astroglia following mitochondrial activation. Additionally, NO production following mitochondrial activation is involved in neuronal preconditioning. Cerebral arteries from female rats have greater mitochondrial mass and respiration and enhanced cerebral arterial dilation to mitochondrial activators. Preexisting chronic conditions such as insulin resistance and/or diabetes impair mitoKATP channel relaxation of cerebral arteries and preconditioning. Surprisingly, mitoKATP channel function after transient ischemia appears to be retained in the endothelium of large cerebral arteries despite generalized cerebral vascular dysfunction. Thus, mitochondrial mechanisms may represent the elusive signaling link between metabolic rate and blood flow as well as mediators of vascular change according to physiological status. Mitochondrial mechanisms are an important, but underutilized target for improving vascular function and decreasing brain injury in stroke patients. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1529-1548, 2016. PMID:27347901

  7. [Skillful care for chronic vascular wounds].

    PubMed

    Goullet de Rugy, C; Lazareth, I; You, C; Stansal, A; Priollet, P

    2016-09-01

    In vascular medicine, wound care requires pluridisciplinary expertise and nursing skill. Care must be perfectly adapted to each individual patient, the specificities of each particular wound, and the underlying vascular disease. The goal is to achieve wound healing. Inappropriate care can retard healing or even aggravate the wound. The skin should be cleaned with water a non-allergic detergent and should concern the entire limb in addition to the wound itself. Fibrin or necrosis detersion is an important step that can be painful. Different tools are available. The skin around the wound should be hydrated and protected, focusing on fragile areas, such as the tibial crest and heals, in order to prevent the development of new wounds. Other more complex interventions include tenosynovectomy, bone gouging and reduction of the necrotic toe that when properly performed can prevent a new passage in the operating room. If the ischemia becomes critical, the foot should be held warm with a carded cotton, taking care to separate the toes with dry dressings in order to preserve the healthy tissue and avoid induced wounds. Finally, compression bands are indispensable in cases with edema or venous hyperpressure. A skillful banding technique is essential, especially for legs with complex morphology. PMID:27594570

  8. Urethane and contraction of vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Altura, B. M.; Weinberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    1 In vitro studies were undertaken on rat aortic strips and portal vein segments in order to determine whether or not the anaesthetic, urethane, can exert direct actions on vascular smooth muscle. 2 Urethane was found to inhibit development of spontaneous mechanical activity. This action took place with a urethane concentration as little as one tenth of that found in anaesthetic plasma concentratios, i.e., 10(-3) M. 3 Urethane (10(-3 to 10(-1) M) dose-dependently attenuated contractions induced by adrenaline, angiotensin and KCl. These inhibitory actions were observed with urethane added either before or after the induced contractions. 4 Ca2+-induced contractions of K+-depolarized aortae and portal veins were also attenuated, dose-dependently, by urethane. 5 All of these inhibitory effects were completely, and almost immediately, reversed upon washing out the anaesthetic from the organ baths. 6 A variety of pharmacological antagonists failed to mimic or affect the inhibitory effects induced by urethane. 7 These data suggest that plasma concentrations of urethane commonly associated with induction of surgical anaesthesia can induce, directly, relaxation of vascular muscle. PMID:497529

  9. Vascular impedance analysis in human pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinlian; Gao, Jian; Huang, Wei; Yen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Vascular impedance is determined by morphometry and mechanical properties of the vascular system, as well as the rheology of the blood. The interactions between all these factors are complicated and difficult to investigate solely by experiments. A mathematical model representing the entire system of human pulmonary circulation was constructed based on experimentally measured morphometric and elasticity data of the vessels. The model consisted of 16 orders of arteries and 15 orders of veins. The pulmonary arteries and veins were considered as elastic tubes and their impedance was calculated based on Womersley's theory. The flow in capillaries was described by the "sheet-flow" theory. The model yielded an impedance modulus spectrum that fell steeply from a high value at 0 Hz to a minimum around 1.5 Hz. At about 4 Hz, it reached a second high and then oscillated around a relatively small value at higher frequencies. Characteristic impedance was 27.9 dyn-sec/cm5. Influence of variations in vessel geometry and elasticity on impedance spectra was analyzed. Simulation results showed good agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:16817653

  10. Morphogeometric Approaches to Non-vascular Plants.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Daniel E; Reeb, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of organisms has undergone a dramatic renaissance in recent years, embracing a range of novel computational and imaging techniques to provide new approaches to phenotypic characterization. These innovations have often developed piece-meal, and may reflect the taxonomic specializations and biases of their creators. In this review, we aim to provide a brief introduction to applications and applicability of modern morphometrics to non-vascular land plants, an often overlooked but evolutionarily and ecologically important group. The scale and physiology of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) differ in important and informative ways from more "traditional" model plants, and their inclusion has the potential to powerfully broaden perspectives in plant morphology. In particular we highlight three areas where the "bryophytic perspective" shows considerable inter-disciplinary potential: (i) bryophytes as models for intra-specific and inter-specific phenotypic variation, (ii) bryophyte growth-forms as areas for innovation in architectural modularity, and (iii) bryophytes as models of ecophysiological integration between organs, individuals, and stands. We suggest that advances should come from two-way dialog: the translation and adoption of techniques recently developed for vascular plants (and other organisms) to bryophytes and the use of bryophytes as model systems for the innovation of new techniques and paradigms in morphogeometric approaches. PMID:27446146

  11. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jin Bo

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease. PMID:26635921

  12. Connections Matter: Channeled Hydrogels to Improve Vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Muehleder, Severin; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Zipperle, Johannes; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The use of cell-laden hydrogels to engineer soft tissue has been emerging within the past years. Despite, several newly developed and sophisticated techniques to encapsulate different cell types the importance of vascularization of the engineered constructs is often underestimated. As a result, cell death within a construct leads to impaired function and inclusion of the implant. Here, we discuss the fabrication of hollow channels within hydrogels as a promising strategy to facilitate vascularization. Furthermore, we present an overview on the feasible use of removable spacers, 3D laser-, and planar processing strategies to create channels within hydrogels. The implementation of these structures promotes control over cell distribution and increases oxygen transport and nutrient supply in vitro. However, many studies lack the use of endothelial cells in their approaches leaving out an important factor to enhance vessel ingrowth and anastomosis formation upon implantation. In addition, the adequate endothelial cell type needs to be considered to make these approaches bridge the gap to in vivo applications. PMID:25453032

  13. Vascular and orthopedic complications of knee dislocation.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E; Smith, E C; Bone, G E

    1979-10-01

    Experience with complete dislocation of the knee in 22 consecutive patients during a six year period was analyzed. Major vascular complications occurred in nine of 13 extremities with anterior dislocation, one of seven extremities with posterior dislocation and none of two extremities with lateral dislocation. Liberal use of trans-femoral ateriography for diagnosis disclosed significant arterial injuries in four of 15 limbs, despite postreduction pedal pulses which were apparently normal. Limb salvage was accomplished in 20 of 21 survivors and in eight of nine with associated vascular complications. All patients demonstrated severe instability of the ligamentous structures of the knee consistent with the type of dislocation. Posterior instability was severe in all patients, an indication of disruption of the posterior cruciate ligament in every instance. Adequate follow-up information was available on 12 knees that had primary ligamentous repair, ten of which were stable to stress testing. Postoperative immobilization was accomplished by external skeletal fixation, skeletal traction or long leg posterior plaster splint. PMID:483133

  14. Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    WAGENSEIL, JESSICA E.; MECHAM, ROBERT P.

    2009-01-01

    An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318

  15. Vascular aspects of cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2013-11-01

    Hypertension and stroke are highly prevalent risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common forms of dementia, and both conditions are preceded by a stage of cognitive impairment. Stroke is a major risk factor for the development of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and VaD; however, stroke may also predispose to AD. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, thus linking hypertension to VCI and VaD, but hypertension is also an important risk factor for AD. Reducing these two major, but modifiable, risk factors-hypertension and stroke-could be a successful strategy for reducing the public health burden of cognitive impairment and dementia. Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) and the manipulation of factors involved in the renin-angiotensin system (e.g. angiotensin II or angiotensin-converting enzyme) have been shown to reduce the risk of developing hypertension and stroke, thereby reducing dementia risk. This paper will review the research conducted on the relationship between hypertension, stroke, and dementia and also on the impact of LC-n3-FA or antihypertensive treatments on risk factors for VCI, VaD, and AD. PMID:24022624

  16. Vascular aspects of cognitive impairment and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Claassen, Jurgen AHR

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and stroke are highly prevalent risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common forms of dementia, and both conditions are preceded by a stage of cognitive impairment. Stroke is a major risk factor for the development of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and VaD; however, stroke may also predispose to AD. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, thus linking hypertension to VCI and VaD, but hypertension is also an important risk factor for AD. Reducing these two major, but modifiable, risk factors—hypertension and stroke—could be a successful strategy for reducing the public health burden of cognitive impairment and dementia. Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) and the manipulation of factors involved in the renin–angiotensin system (e.g. angiotensin II or angiotensin-converting enzyme) have been shown to reduce the risk of developing hypertension and stroke, thereby reducing dementia risk. This paper will review the research conducted on the relationship between hypertension, stroke, and dementia and also on the impact of LC-n3-FA or antihypertensive treatments on risk factors for VCI, VaD, and AD. PMID:24022624

  17. Morphogeometric Approaches to Non-vascular Plants.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Daniel E; Reeb, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of organisms has undergone a dramatic renaissance in recent years, embracing a range of novel computational and imaging techniques to provide new approaches to phenotypic characterization. These innovations have often developed piece-meal, and may reflect the taxonomic specializations and biases of their creators. In this review, we aim to provide a brief introduction to applications and applicability of modern morphometrics to non-vascular land plants, an often overlooked but evolutionarily and ecologically important group. The scale and physiology of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) differ in important and informative ways from more "traditional" model plants, and their inclusion has the potential to powerfully broaden perspectives in plant morphology. In particular we highlight three areas where the "bryophytic perspective" shows considerable inter-disciplinary potential: (i) bryophytes as models for intra-specific and inter-specific phenotypic variation, (ii) bryophyte growth-forms as areas for innovation in architectural modularity, and (iii) bryophytes as models of ecophysiological integration between organs, individuals, and stands. We suggest that advances should come from two-way dialog: the translation and adoption of techniques recently developed for vascular plants (and other organisms) to bryophytes and the use of bryophytes as model systems for the innovation of new techniques and paradigms in morphogeometric approaches.

  18. Vascular assembly in natural and engineered tissues.

    PubMed

    Hirschi, Karen K; Skalak, Thomas C; Peirce, Shayn M; Little, Charles D

    2002-06-01

    With the advent of molecular embryology and exploitation of genetic models systems, many genes necessary for normal blood vessel formation during early development have been identified. These genes include soluble effectors and their receptors, as well as components of cell-cell junctions and mediators of cell-matrix interactions. In vitro model systems (2-D and 3-D) to study paracrine and autocrine interactions of vascular cells and their progenitors have also been created. These systems are being combined to study the behavior of genetically altered cells to dissect and define the cellular role(s) of specific genes and gene families in directing the migration, proliferation, and differentiation needed for blood vessel assembly. It is clear that a complex spatial and temporal interplay of signals, including both genetic and environmental, modulates the assembly process. The development of real-time imaging and image analysis will enable us to gain further insights into this process. Collaborative efforts among vascular biologists, biomedical engineers, mathematicians, and physicists will allow us to bridge the gap between understanding vessel assembly in vivo and assembling vessels ex vivo. PMID:12081906

  19. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Jin Bo

    2015-11-26

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease. PMID:26635921

  20. Morphogeometric Approaches to Non-vascular Plants

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Daniel E.; Reeb, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of organisms has undergone a dramatic renaissance in recent years, embracing a range of novel computational and imaging techniques to provide new approaches to phenotypic characterization. These innovations have often developed piece-meal, and may reflect the taxonomic specializations and biases of their creators. In this review, we aim to provide a brief introduction to applications and applicability of modern morphometrics to non-vascular land plants, an often overlooked but evolutionarily and ecologically important group. The scale and physiology of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) differ in important and informative ways from more “traditional” model plants, and their inclusion has the potential to powerfully broaden perspectives in plant morphology. In particular we highlight three areas where the “bryophytic perspective” shows considerable inter-disciplinary potential: (i) bryophytes as models for intra-specific and inter-specific phenotypic variation, (ii) bryophyte growth-forms as areas for innovation in architectural modularity, and (iii) bryophytes as models of ecophysiological integration between organs, individuals, and stands. We suggest that advances should come from two-way dialog: the translation and adoption of techniques recently developed for vascular plants (and other organisms) to bryophytes and the use of bryophytes as model systems for the innovation of new techniques and paradigms in morphogeometric approaches. PMID:27446146

  1. Vascular ageing and interventions: lessons and learnings.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan

    2016-06-01

    This review discusses the relationship between elevated blood pressure, hypertension, arterial stiffness and hence vascular ageing. This is a complex process and the majority of treatments target the consequences of this, rather than the pathophysiology of ageing itself. This is because preventing vascular ageing from occurring is complex and would require very early intervention and lifelong treatment. The process of arteriosclerosis is known to result from reversible and irreversible functional components, and, together, these are responsible for the increased systolic and decreased diastolic blood pressure seen with advancing age. Indeed, hypertension develops as it becomes more difficult for the heart to drive blood flow around the body, as a result of poor ventricular coupling and increased arterial stiffness. Elevated blood pressure is therefore a clinical manifestation of ageing that continues to increase with advancing years, and is also linked with an increased risk of cardiac, cerebrovascular and chronic kidney disease. These manifestations arise due to changing haemodynamics associated with ageing, and therefore treatments that reduce the development of these conditions or delay their progression have the potential to improve patient outcomes. This may be possible with existing therapies as well as new treatments currently under investigation.

  2. Amaurosis fugax associated with congenital vascular defect

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, John W; Thomas, Edward R; Rundell, William K

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old female with no significant past medical history presented with loss of vision in the lower half of her left eye that lasted <5 minutes. No abnormalities were found on ocular or physical exam. Computed tomography angiography and carotid ultrasound were performed, which confirmed the diagnosis as amaurosis fugax with two abnormalities leading to the transient retinal vessel occlusion. First, it was found that the patient has a congenital vascular anomaly, which consisted most notably of a right-sided aortic arch. This vascular anomaly also consisted of abnormal branching of the left subclavian and common carotid arteries, predisposing the patient to turbulent blood flow and increased risk of the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque at the origin of the common carotid artery. This is an abnormal location for a plaque leading to amaurosis fugax compared to the most common location at the carotid bifurcation. Endarterectomy was not performed because of the difficult location of the plaque and tortuosity of the vessel. Rather, medical intervention with antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy was initiated to lower the risk of future retinal or cerebral thromboembolic events. PMID:27445507

  3. Vascular hemichorea: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Martínez Alfonzo, Bárbara; Blanco, Andrés Enrique; Rojano, Jairo; Calleja, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Chorea rarely complicates ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular lesions. Clinical symptoms usually involve one side of the body while the injury is situated on the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Spontaneous remission is the norm, but sometimes symptomatic treatment is required. A 58-year-old male patient who suffers from untreated high blood pressure, type II obesity, smokes 6 packs of cigarettes per year and has a moderate intake of alcohol is presented. The patient’'s recent history began three days before he appeared at the Emergency Department. His symptoms were ceaseless, involuntary movements in his left arm and foot during day and night with no restriction of voluntary movements. Physical examination and laboratory tests revealed no other findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hyperintensity in the right posterolateral thalamic region consistent with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Symptomatic therapy was indicated and his underlying conditions were addressed. The importance of this case lies on the low prevalence as well as the scarcity of publications regarding vascular causes of hemichorea, including diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. PMID:25473878

  4. Vascular surgical data registries for small computers.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J L; Rosenberg, N

    1984-08-01

    Recent designs for computer-based vascular surgical registries and clinical data bases have employed large centralized systems with formal programming and mass storage. Small computers, of the types created for office use or for word processing, now contain sufficient speed and memory storage capacity to allow construction of decentralized office-based registries. Using a standardized dictionary of terms and a method of data organization adapted to word processing, we have created a new vascular surgery data registry, "VASREG." Data files are organized without programming, and a limited number of powerful logical statements in English are used for sorting. The capacity is 25,000 records with current inexpensive memory technology. VASREG is adaptable to computers made by a variety of manufacturers, and interface programs are available for conversion of the word processor formated registry data into forms suitable for analysis by programs written in a standard programming language. This is a low-cost clinical data registry available to any physician. With a standardized dictionary, preparation of regional and national statistical summaries may be facilitated.

  5. Regulated Hyaluronan Synthesis by Vascular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Manuela; Karousou, Evgenia; D'Angelo, Maria Luisa; Caon, Ilaria; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto; Vigetti, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in several pathologies including atherosclerosis. Hyaluronan (HA) content often reflects the progression of this disease in promoting vessel thickening and cell migration. HA synthesis is regulated by several factors, including the phosphorylation of HA synthase 2 (HAS2) and other covalent modifications including ubiquitination and O-GlcNAcylation. Substrate availability is important in HA synthesis control. Specific drugs reducing the UDP precursors are able to reduce HA synthesis whereas the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) increases the concentration of HA precursor UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) leading to an increase of HA synthesis. The flux through the HBP in the regulation of HA biosynthesis in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was reported as a critical aspect. In fact, inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation reduced HA production whereas increased O-GlcNAcylation augmented HA secretion. Additionally, O-GlcNAcylation regulates HAS2 gene expression resulting in accumulation of its mRNA after induction of O-GlcNAcylation with glucosamine treatments. The oxidized LDLs, the most common molecules related to atherosclerosis outcome and progression, are also able to induce a strong HA synthesis when they are in contact with vascular cells. In this review, we present recent described mechanisms involved in HA synthesis regulation and their role in atherosclerosis outcome and development. PMID:26448750

  6. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed.

  7. Vascular hemichorea: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Martínez Alfonzo, Bárbara; Blanco, Andrés Enrique; Rojano, Jairo; Calleja, José Luis

    2014-04-09

    Chorea rarely complicates ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular lesions. Clinical symptoms usually involve one side of the body while the injury is situated on the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Spontaneous remission is the norm, but sometimes symptomatic treatment is required. A 58-year-old male patient who suffers from untreated high blood pressure, type II obesity, smokes 6 packs of cigarettes per year and has a moderate intake of alcohol is presented. The patient’'s recent history began three days before he appeared at the Emergency Department. His symptoms were ceaseless, involuntary movements in his left arm and foot during day and night with no restriction of voluntary movements. Physical examination and laboratory tests revealed no other findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hyperintensity in the right posterolateral thalamic region consistent with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Symptomatic therapy was indicated and his underlying conditions were addressed. The importance of this case lies on the low prevalence as well as the scarcity of publications regarding vascular causes of hemichorea, including diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  8. An Innovative Ultrasound Technique for Evaluation of Tumor Vascularity in Breast Cancers: Superb Micro-Vascular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ah Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Yeom, Suk Keu; Lee, Seung Wha; Chung, Hwan Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Tumor vascularity is an important indicator for differential diagnosis, tumor growth, and prognosis. Superb micro-vascular imaging (SMI) is an innovative ultrasound technique for vascular examination that uses a multidimensional filter to eliminate clutter and preserve extremely low-velocity flows. Theoretically, SMI could depict more vessels and more detailed vascular morphology, due to the increased sensitivity of slow blood flow. Here, we report the early experience of using SMI in 21 breast cancer patients. We evaluated tumor vascular features in breast cancer and compared SMI and conventional color or power Doppler imaging. SMI was superior to color or power Doppler imaging in detecting tumor vessels, the details of vessel morphology, and both peripheral and central vascular distribution. In conclusion, SMI is a promising ultrasound technique for evaluating microvascular information of breast cancers. PMID:27382399

  9. Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis for vascular homeostasis: role in neointimal formation after vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal increases in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intimal region after a vascular injury is a key event in developing neointimal hyperplasia. To maintain vascular function, proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs is tightly controlled during vascular remodeling. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) system, a key component of the oxidative stress response that acts in maintaining homeostasis, plays an important role in neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury; however, the role of Nrf2/Keap1 in VSMC apoptosis has not been clarified. Here we report that 14 days after arterial injury in mice, TUNEL-positive VSMCs are detected in both the neointimal and medial layers. These layers contain cells expressing high levels of Nrf2 but low Keap1 expression. In VSMCs, Keap1 depletion induces features of apoptosis, such as positive TUNEL staining and annexin V binding. These changes are associated with an increased expression of nuclear Nrf2. Simultaneous Nrf2 depletion inhibits Keap1 depletion-induced apoptosis. At 14 days after the vascular injury, Nrf2-deficient mice demonstrated fewer TUNEL-positive cells and increased neointimal formation in the neointimal and medial areas. The results suggest that the Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates VSMC apoptosis during neointimal formation, thereby inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury. PMID:27198574

  10. VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish as a model for studying vascular toxicity and vascular preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shang; Dang, Yuan Ye; Oi Lam Che, Ginny; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2014-11-01

    In ischemic disorders such as chronic wounds and myocardial ischemia, there is inadequate tissue perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Besides, it has been observed that prolonged use of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy produces cardiovascular toxicity caused by impaired vessel integrity and regeneration. In the present study, we used VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) to chemically induce vascular insufficiency in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro to further study the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis in these pathological conditions. We also explored the possibility of treating vascular insufficiency by enhancing vascular regeneration and repair with pharmacological intervention. We observed that pretreatment of VRI induced blood vessel loss in developing zebrafish by inhibiting angiogenesis and increasing endothelial cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulation of kdr, kdrl and flt-1 genes expression. The VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish could be restored by post-treatment of calycosin, a cardiovascular protective isoflavone. Similarly, VRI induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HUVEC which could be rescued by calycosin post-treatment. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that the PI3K/AKT/Bad cell survival pathway was a main contributor of the vascular regenerative effect of calycosin. These findings indicated that the cardiovascular toxicity in anti-angiogenic therapy was mainly caused by insufficient endothelial cell survival, suggesting its essential role in vascular integrity, repair and regeneration. In addition, we showed that VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish represented a simple and effective in vivo model for studying vascular insufficiency and evaluating cancer drug vascular toxicities. - Highlights: • In vivo VRI model • Rescue effects of calycosin • Calycosin EC survival pathways.

  11. Treating vascular risk factors and maintaining vascular health: Is this the way towards successful cognitive ageing and preventing cognitive decline?

    PubMed Central

    Alagiakrishnan, K; McCracken, P; Feldman, H

    2006-01-01

    Dementia is a progressive disorder that typically worsens with time and from which recovery is unlikely. The incidence of dementia increases exponentially with ageing and is an important public health challenge. There is now growing evidence for the role of vascular factors in Alzheimer's disease, mixed dementia (Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease), and of course vascular dementia. With the rising prevalence of vascular disease, there are increasing numbers of people who are identified to be at risk of cognitive impairment. By changing modifiable vascular risk factors, there is emerging evidence that it may be possible to prevent or delay the expression and progression of dementia. PMID:16461472

  12. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods. PMID:20232594

  13. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  14. [Intimal hyperplasia within a vascular anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Kur'ianov, P S; Razuvaev, A S; Vavilov, V N

    2008-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) appears to rank high amongst plausible causes of reconstructed arteries restenosis. It always occurs in the area of a surgical intervention on a vessel in response to a mechanical lesion. IH is the cause of thrombosis in 15 to 50% of cases following vascular reconstruction during the first year after the operation (with the exception of early thromboses, which are probably caused by an improperly performed interventional technique). Of a wide variety of clinical situations leading to development of IH in the vascular wall, for the purposes of the present review, we singled out the problem concerning the onset and development of this tissue reaction in intervascular anastomoses, which is currently one of the most important issues. Analysing the publications on the problem concerned showed that amongst significantfactors influencing the development of IH in the anastomosis, the investigators single out different parameters of the anastomoses, configuration (either an end-to-end or an end-to-side anastomosis, the use of special inserts and patches within the latter), as well as the use of autologous or synthetic conduits, blanket suture or interrupted suture, peculiarities of local haemodynamics (linear blood flow rate, distribution of parietal fraction forces, zones of stagnation and flow separation), etc. To a certain degree, the published data are rather controversial. There remain many problems, which are either unaddressed as yet, or insufficiently studied, if at all. For instance, while establishing an anastomosis between a bypass graft and an artery, surgeons often resort to endarterectomy. It is not known whether or not this technique would influence the IH pattern in the anastomosis concerned. Neither is it clear whether the high velocity flow exerts a direct damaging action upon the endothelium, whether it promotes the development of IH in the area of the lesion, and if affirmative, then what the mechanisms of this effect really are

  15. Extracranial vascular malformations (hemangiomas and vascular malformations) in children and adolescents – diagnosis, clinic, and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eivazi, Behfar; Werner, Jochen A.

    2014-01-01

    The field of extracranial vascular anomalies is considered as special focus of pediatric otolaryngology and it has shown a rapid development during the last years. The reason for this interest is finally also due to the global acceptance of the classification introduced by the ISSVA (International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies). Hemangiomas are the most frequently observed vascular tumors. Today the systemic propranolol therapy is mostly used for therapy of hemangiomas requiring treatment. Increasingly, the topical application of beta blocker is discussed while the benefit in the head and neck seems to be limited. Vascular malformations are classified according to the morphology of the affected part of the vascular system in arterial, venous, arterio-venous, lymphatic, capillary, and combined vascular malformations. Conventional surgery, sclerosing therapy, and laser treatment are invasive options for the treatment of lymphatic malformations. The options for the treatment of venous malformations could be significantly improved during the last years. In this context, the use of Nd:YAG laser, the conservative treatment of the localized disseminated intravascular coagulation with low-molecular weight heparin, the re-discovery of bleomycin as effective sclerosing agent, and the improvement of alcohol-based embolization agents must be mentioned. Today the treatment with dye laser is the preferred therapy for capillary malformations and it is superior to other therapeutic options as for example photodynamic therapy. Arterio-venous malformations as representatives for high-flow lesions are the high-risk lesions. Frequently they are compared to malignant head and neck tumors, in particular when a curative treatment can no longer be assured because of diffuse or multifocal extent and when the disease shows a progressive course. The combined treatment of embolization and surgical resection and if necessary consecutive defect reconstruction have turned out to be

  16. Protein kinase C in enhanced vascular tone in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kizub, Igor V; Klymenko, Kateryna I; Soloviev, Anatoly I

    2014-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex syndrome which leads to multiple dysfunctions including vascular disorders. Hyperglycemia is considered to be a key factor responsible for the development of diabetic vascular complications and can mediate their adverse effects through multiple pathways. One of those mechanisms is the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). This important regulatory enzyme is involved in a signal transduction of several vascular functions including vascular smooth muscle contractility. Many studies have shown that hyperglycemia in DM results in oxidative stress. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by different oxidases and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), advanced glycation end products, polyol pathway flux, and hyperglicemia-induced rising in diacylglycerol (DAG) contribute to the activation of PKC. Activation of endothelial PKC in DM leads to endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction. The main manifestations of this are inhibition of vasodilatation mediated by nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and prostacyclin, and activation of vasoconstriction mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Activated PKC in DM also increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and activates NADPH oxidases leading to raised ROS production. On the other hand, PKC in DM is involved in enhancement of vascular contractility in an endothelium-independent manner by inactivation of K(+) channels and Ca(2+) sensitization of myofilaments in vascular smooth muscle cells. This shows that PKC is a potential therapeutic target for treating vascular diabetic complications.

  17. Cecal vascular hamartoma causing recurrent colic in an Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Marie; Maninchedda, Ugo; Belluco, Sara; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-06-01

    A 5-year-old mare was treated for recurrent colic and weight loss by surgical removal of an intraluminal cecal mass. Microscopic examination revealed vascular hamartoma. A 6-month follow-up showed an improvement in the general condition of the mare. Vascular hamartoma should be one of the differential diagnoses for weight loss and colic.

  18. [Temporary vascular shunt technique for resource scarce environments].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, N; Mlynski, A; Pierret, C

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a simple and reproducible technique for temporary vascular shunting. This technique is appropriate only for exceptional situations involving scant resource availability. It is not intended to replace conventional vascular shunting techniques. PMID:22235609

  19. 21 CFR 870.3300 - Vascular embolization device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vascular embolization device. 870.3300 Section 870.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3300 Vascular...

  20. 21 CFR 870.3450 - Vascular graft prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vascular graft prosthesis. 870.3450 Section 870.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3450 Vascular...

  1. 21 CFR 870.3300 - Vascular embolization device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vascular embolization device. 870.3300 Section 870.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3300 Vascular...

  2. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons. PMID:24846790

  3. The effects of early postoperative radiation on vascularized bone grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, H.B.; Brown, S.; Hurst, L.N. )

    1991-06-01

    The effects of early postoperative radiation were assessed in free nonvascularized and free vascularized rib grafts in the canine model. The mandibles of one-half of the dogs were exposed to a cobalt 60 radiation dose of 4080 cGy over a 4-week period, starting 2 weeks postoperatively. The patency of vascularized grafts was confirmed with bone scintigraphy. Histological studies, including ultraviolet microscopy with trifluorochrome labeling, and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Osteocytes persist within the cortex of the vascularized nonradiated grafts to a much greater extent than in nonvascularized, nonradiated grafts. Cortical osteocytes do not persist in either vascularized or nonvascularized grafts subjected to radiation. New bone formation is significantly retarded in radiated grafts compared with nonradiated grafts. Periosteum and endosteum remained viable in the radiated vascularized grafts, producing both bone union and increased bone turnover, neither of which were evident to any significant extent in nonvascularized grafts. Bone union was achieved in vascularized and non-vascularized nonradiated bone. In the radiated group of dogs, union was only seen in the vascularized bone grafts.

  4. Cecal vascular hamartoma causing recurrent colic in an Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Marie; Maninchedda, Ugo; Belluco, Sara; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-06-01

    A 5-year-old mare was treated for recurrent colic and weight loss by surgical removal of an intraluminal cecal mass. Microscopic examination revealed vascular hamartoma. A 6-month follow-up showed an improvement in the general condition of the mare. Vascular hamartoma should be one of the differential diagnoses for weight loss and colic. PMID:24891636

  5. Inapparent pulmonary vascular disease in an ex-heroin user

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Ludovico Maini, C.; Giuliano Bonetti, M.; Campioni, P.; Pistelli, R.; Fuso, L.

    1986-04-01

    A severe pulmonary vascular derangement, usually reported in drug addicts, was diagnosed in a 28-year-old asymptomatic ex-heroin user by means of fortuitously performed pulmonary perfusion imaging. Neither physical findings nor pulmonary function tests, aroused suspicion of the diagnosis. A search for asymptomatic pulmonary vascular disease probably should be undertaken in drug addicts.

  6. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Yun; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  7. Toxicity of Vascular Disrupting Chemicals to Developing Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vascular development is integral to proper embryonic development and disruption of that process can have serious developmental consequences. We performed static 48-hr exposures of transgenic TG(kdr:EGFP)s843 zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos with the known vascular inhibitors Vatal...

  8. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  9. Delivery of Polymeric Nanoparticles to Target Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Edward; Kandimalla, Karunyna

    2015-01-01

    Current advances in nanotechnology have paved the way for the early detection, prevention and treatment of various diseases such as vascular disorders and cancer. These advances have provided novel approaches or modalities of incorporating or adsorbing therapeutic, biosensor and targeting agents into/on nanoparticles. With significant progress, nanomedicine for vascular therapy has shown significant advantages over traditional medicine because of its ability to selectively target the disease site and reduce adverse side effects. Targeted delivery of nanoparticles to vascular endothelial cells or the vascular wall provides an effective and more efficient way for early detection and/or treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and Cerebrovascular Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA). Clinical applications of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers in areas such as vascular graft, implantable drug delivery, stent devices and tissue engineering scaffolds have advanced the candidature of polymers as potential nano-carriers for vascular-targeted delivery of diagnostic agents and drugs. This review focuses on the basic aspects of the vasculature and its associated diseases and relates them to polymeric nanoparticle-based strategies for targeting therapeutic agents to diseased vascular site. PMID:26069867

  10. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons.

  11. An integrated approach for vascular health: a call to action.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Blair J; Rana, Shadab N; Bowman, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Vascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, most causes of heart failure, dementia, peripheral arterial disease, certain kidney, and many lung and eye conditions are a result of disorders in the blood vessels (large and small) throughout the entire human body. Vascular diseases are the leading cause of preventable death and disability in Canada. Most vascular diseases share common risk factors (high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity), which can be influenced by modifiable health behaviours such as unhealthy diet, smoking, lack of physical activity, and stress. Ninety percent of Canadians face an increased risk, which could be modified by managing these health behaviours and risk factors. Canada's aging population, combined with alarming trends in obesity, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and diabetes are expected to further increase the social and economic effect of vascular diseases in the coming decades, unless there are major changes in health policy. Even more concerning is the increase in vascular risk factors among Canada's youth, and ethnically diverse populations. Vascular diseases affect not only the patient, but also place burdens on their spouses, families, friends, and communities. Tremendous potential exists to reduce the effects of vascular diseases through healthy public policy, supporting Canadians to make healthy lifestyle changes, and coordinating efforts across the continuum of care in a patient-focused manner. Vascular health requires partnerships for action across many sectors including government, health care practitioners, academia, not-for-profit organizations, and the private sector. The health sector alone cannot solve this problem. PMID:25547559

  12. Vascular biology in altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradamante, Silvia; Maier, Janette A. M.; Duncker, Dirk J.

    2005-10-01

    The physical environment of Endothelial Cells profoundly affects their gene expression, structure, function, growth differentiation and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which the genetic and local growth determinants driving morphogenesis are established and maintained remain unknown. Understanding how gravity affects vascular cells will offer new insights for novel therapeutical approaches for cardiovascular disease in general. In terms of tissue engineering and stem-cell therapy, significant future developments will depend on a profound understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of angiogenesis and of the biology of circulating Endothelial Precursor Cells. this MAP project has demonstrated how modelled microgravity influences endothelial proliferation and differentiation with the involvement of anti-angiogenic factors that may be responsible for the non-spontaneous formation of blood vessels.

  13. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in major vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    So, V C; Poon, C C M

    2016-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in using intraoperative neuromonitoring to reduce the incidence of stroke and paralysis in major vascular interventions. Electroencephalography, various neurophysiological evoked potential measurements, transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy are some of the modalities currently used to detect neural injuries. A good understanding of these modalities and their interactions with anaesthesia is important to maximize their value and to allow meaningful interpretation of their results. In view of the inter-individual differences in anatomy, physiological reserves, and severity of pathological processes, neuromonitoring may be a valuable method to evaluate the well-being of the nervous system during and after surgical interventions. In this review, we summarize some of their applications, efficacies, and drawbacks in major carotid and aortic surgeries. PMID:27566804

  14. Vascular calcification in diabetes: mechanisms and implications.

    PubMed

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Budoff, Matthew J; Hokanson, John E

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death among adults with diabetes, and CVD prevention remains a major challenge. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score measured by electron beam tomography (EBT) or multi-slice detector computed tomography correlates closely with plaque burden and coronary angiography, and predicts coronary events independently of other risk factors. Further, progression of CAC over several years has been shown to predict increased mortality. Coronary calcification is an active process strongly associated with atherosclerotic plaque evolution and is an accepted surrogate endpoint in studies of patients with diabetes older than 30. In this review, recent findings regarding the mechanisms and implications of vascular calcification in diabetes will be discussed. PMID:23526400

  15. Vascular oxidative stress, nitric oxide and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Huige; Horke, Sven; Förstermann, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    In the vascular wall, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by several enzyme systems including NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. On the other hand, the vasculature is protected by antioxidant enzyme systems, including superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases and paraoxonases, which detoxify ROS. Cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus enhance ROS generation, resulting in oxidative stress. This leads to oxidative modification of lipoproteins and phospholipids, mechanisms that contribute to atherogenesis. In addition, oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin may cause eNOS uncoupling and thus potentiation of oxidative stress and reduction of eNOS-derived NO, which is a protective principle in the vasculature. This review summarizes the latest advances in the role of ROS-producing enzymes, antioxidative enzymes as well as NO synthases in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis.

  16. Digital image processing of vascular angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, R. H.; Beckenbach, E. S.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Brooks, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the estimation of the degree of atherosclerosis in the human femoral artery through the use of a digital image processing system for vascular angiograms. The film digitizer uses an electronic image dissector camera to scan the angiogram and convert the recorded optical density information into a numerical format. Another processing step involves locating the vessel edges from the digital image. The computer has been programmed to estimate vessel abnormality through a series of measurements, some derived primarily from the vessel edge information and others from optical density variations within the lumen shadow. These measurements are combined into an atherosclerosis index, which is found in a post-mortem study to correlate well with both visual and chemical estimates of atherosclerotic disease.

  17. Macrophages in Vascular Inflammation: Origins and Functions.

    PubMed

    Decano, Julius L; Mattson, Peter C; Aikawa, Masanori

    2016-06-01

    Macrophages influence various processes of cardiovascular inflammation. Whether they are of embryonic or post-natal hematopoietic origin, their balance in differential activation may direct the course of inflammation. Accelerated macrophage activation and accumulation through a pro-inflammatory signaling pathway may result in extensive tissue damage, adverse repair, and worsened clinical outcomes. Attenuation of such a mechanism and/or promotion of the anti-inflammatory macrophage activation may lead to early resolution of inflammation. Elucidating multiple novel mechanisms of monocyte and macrophage activation leads to a better understanding of their roles in vascular inflammation. In turn, this begets better therapeutic target identification and biomarker discovery. Combined with increasingly sensitive and specific imaging techniques, we continue to push back early detection and monitoring to provide us with a greater window for disease modification. The potential success of cytokine-targeted therapy will be solid proof of the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis. PMID:27125207

  18. [Vascular complications after pelvic rami fracture].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lombardía, J; Paz-Aparicio, A; Hernández-Vaquero, D

    2014-01-01

    The case is presented of a 78 year-old patient who suffered a right ileo- and ischiopubic rami fracture after a casual fall. A few hours later, she presented with sudden abdominal pain and hypotension. Imaging test showed extraperitoneal hemorrhage with active bleeding and hemodynamic compromise. The progressive worsening, with anemia and hemodynamic instability, required her being sent to the reference hospital for selective embolization of the bleeding point. After embolization, the patient́s situation stabilized, and she was then able to sit down one week later. The fracture consolidated 3 months later. Although low-energy pelvic fractures by lateral compression do not usually present with complications, sometimes they require a strict control due to the potential risk of vascular injuries.

  19. [Minimally invasive operations in vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Stádler, Petr; Sedivý, Petr; Dvorácek, Libor; Slais, Marek; Vitásek, Petr; El Samman, Khaled; Matous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery provides an attractive alternative compared with conventional surgical approaches and is popular with patients, particularly because of its favourable cosmetic results. Vascular surgery has taken its inspiration from general surgery and, over the past few years, has also been reducing the invasiveness of its operating methods. In addition to traditional laparoscopic techniques, we most frequently encounter the endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and, most recently, robot-assisted surgery in the area of the abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries. Minimally invasive surgical interventions also have other advantages, including less operative trauma, a reduction in post-operative pain, shorter periods spent in the intensive care unit and overall hospitalization times, an earlier return to normal life and, finally, a reduction in total treatment costs.

  20. GI-Associated Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract, rare clinical entities, present as overt or occult bleeding. They can be distributed throughout the intestinal digestive system, or present as a singular cavernous hemangioma or malformation, which is often located in the rectosigmoid region. Misdiagnosis is common despite characteristic radiographic features such as radiolucent phleboliths on plain film imaging and a purplish nodule on endoscopy. Adjunctive imaging such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are suggested as there is potential for local invasion. Endorectal ultrasound with Doppler has also been found to be useful in some instances. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, with an emphasis on sphincter preservation. Nonsurgical endoscopic treatment with banding and sclerotherapy has been reported with success, especially in instances where an extensive resection is not feasible. PMID:22942801

  1. Contrast induced nephropathy in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Wong, G T C; Lee, E Y P; Irwin, M G

    2016-09-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is traditionally associated with outpatient imaging studies. More recently, patients afflicted with vascular pathologies are increasingly undergoing endovascular treatments that require the use of iodinated contrast media (CM) agents, thus placing them as risk of developing CIN. As perioperative physicians, anaesthetists should be aware of the risk factors and measures that might minimize acute kidney injury caused by CM. This review evaluates recent data regarding preventive measures against CIN and where possible, places the evidence in the context of the patient receiving endovascular surgical treatment. Measures including the use of peri-procedural hydration, N-acetylcysteine, statins, remote ischaemic preconditioning, renal vasodilators and renal replacement therapy and the use of alternatives to iodinated contrast agents are discussed. It should be noted that most of the available data regarding CIN are from non-surgical patients. PMID:27566809

  2. Vascular interventions with optical coherence reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neet, John M.

    2003-07-01

    There have been many innovations and technological advancements in balloon angioplasty since its introduction in the late 1970's, but percutaneous intervention on a totally occluded artery is still a challenge to the vascular interventionalist. Catheter-based intervention that avoids an invasive surgical procedure is a clear and desired advantage for the patient. A total occlusion challenges the interventionalist because the path of the artery can not be seen in the occluded vessel since the flow of the radiopaque contrast media is blocked. Optical coherence reflectometry techniques have been shown to be able to differentiate between artery wall and occlusive materials allowing the lumen of the blocked artery to be seen inside the occlusion. Light emitting diodes are a critical component of these systems making them technologically possible and economically feasible.

  3. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings*

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  4. Vascular disrupting agents in clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Hinnen, P; Eskens, F A L M

    2007-01-01

    Growth of human tumours depends on the supply of oxygen and nutrients via the surrounding vasculature. Therefore tumour vasculature is an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Apart from angiogenesis inhibitors that compromise the formation of new blood vessels, a second class of specific anticancer drugs has been developed. These so-called vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) target the established tumour vasculature and cause an acute and pronounced shutdown of blood vessels resulting in an almost complete stop of blood flow, ultimately leading to selective tumour necrosis. As a number of VDAs are now being tested in clinical studies, we will discuss their mechanism of action and the results obtained in preclinical studies. Also data from clinical studies will be reviewed and some considerations with regard to the future development are given. PMID:17375046

  5. [Definition and epidemiology of vascular acrosyndromes].

    PubMed

    Carpentier, P H

    1998-10-01

    Vascular acrosyndromes group several disorders around Raynaud's phenomenon, characterized by a distal involvement and a vasomotor pathogenesis. Their exact mechanisms remain unknown, but epidemiological data favour disturbances of thermoregulation: cold climate, outdoor occupation and low body mass index are significant risk factors for most of them. Acrosyndromes with vasoconstriction are highly prevalent in France: 10 to 15% for Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis; 2 to 6% for chilblains. Acrosyndromes with vasodilatation (acrocholose, erythermalgia) are much rare. There is no link between Raynaud's phenomenon and tobacco use, alcohol consumption, oestrogen treatment, carpal tunnel syndrome or thoracic outlet syndrome. By contrast, the role of connective tissue diseases and occupational disorders (vibration exposure and hand-hammer syndrome) are established. PMID:9814064

  6. Deep dorsal vein arterialisation in vascular impotence.

    PubMed

    Wespes, E; Corbusier, A; Delcour, C; Vandenbosch, G; Struyven, J; Schulman, C C

    1989-11-01

    A series of 12 patients with vasculogenic impotence (4 arterial lesions; 8 arterial and venous lesions) underwent deep dorsal vein arterialisation after pre-operative assessment by a multidisciplinary approach. Cumulative graft patency was 58% (7 of 12 patients) up to 21 months but only 4 patients developed almost normal erections. Digital angiography, with and without the intracavernous injection of papaverine, was performed during follow-up to determine the vascular physiological status. At flaccidity, the corpora cavernosa were never opacified in the absence of a venocorporeal shunt. The penile glans was always visualised. Opacification of the deep dorsal vein and the circumflex system decreased with penile rigidity, resulting from their compression between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Intracavernous pressure recorded before and after the surgical procedure showed a marked increase when a caverno-venous shunt was performed. Hypervascularisation of the glans occurred in 2 cases. The relevance of this new surgical technique and its functional mechanism are discussed.

  7. Poikiloderma Vasculare Atrophicans: A Distinct Clinical Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karaninder S; Sharma, Anju Lath

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a typical case of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA) in a 48-year-old female. Histologically, the features were suggestive of PVA with the absence of Pautrier's microabscess or atypical lymphoid cells. The biopsy specimen was positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 8 on immunohistochemical staining. Its exact pathogenesis remains obscure, and it remains unclear whether PVA actually is mycosis fungoides (MF), a forme fruste of MF, or a distinct and benign dermatosis with CD8+ phenotype that can perhaps be labeled as PVA. However, it has a long benign clinical course without progression to tumor stage of MF in most cases, and its status within the spectrum of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma remains poorly understood. Yet it is imperative to distinguish PVA from poikilodermic MF. PMID:25814753

  8. Double-filter identification of vascular-expressed genes using Arabidopsis plants with vascular hypertrophy and hypotrophy.

    PubMed

    Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Scarpella, Enrico; Goldstein, Rochelle S; Berleth, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Genes expressed in vascular tissues have been identified by several strategies, usually with a focus on mature vascular cells. In this study, we explored the possibility of using two opposite types of altered tissue compositions in combination with a double-filter selection to identify genes with a high probability of vascular expression in early organ primordia. Specifically, we generated full-transcriptome microarray profiles of plants with (a) genetically strongly reduced and (b) pharmacologically vastly increased vascular tissues and identified a reproducible cohort of 158 transcripts that fulfilled the dual requirement of being underrepresented in (a) and overrepresented in (b). In order to assess the predictive value of our identification scheme for vascular gene expression, we determined the expression patterns of genes in two unbiased subsamples. First, we assessed the expression patterns of all twenty annotated transcription factor genes from the cohort of 158 genes and found that seventeen of the twenty genes were preferentially expressed in leaf vascular cells. Remarkably, fifteen of these seventeen vascular genes were clearly expressed already very early in leaf vein development. Twelve genes with published leaf expression patterns served as a second subsample to monitor the representation of vascular genes in our cohort. Of those twelve genes, eleven were preferentially expressed in leaf vascular tissues. Based on these results we propose that our compendium of 158 genes represents a sample that is highly enriched for genes expressed in vascular tissues and that our approach is particularly suited to detect genes expressed in vascular cell lineages at early stages of their inception.

  9. Prognostic value of vascularity and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, R; Carlile, J; Pendleton, N; Schor, A

    2001-01-01

    Aims—High expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumours has been found to be associated with poor prognosis in some studies, but not in others. The aims of this study were to determine the prognostic value of VEGF in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its possible association with vascularity. Methods—Sections from 81 NSCLC archival specimens were stained with antibodies to von Willebrand factor (vWF) and VEGF. Vascularity was measured by the average density of vWF positive vessels. VEGF expression in tumour cells was assessed by consensus of two independent observers according to three indices, namely: (1) percentage of area stained, (2) intensity of staining, and (3) final score (product of area and intensity). Results—VEGF immunoreactivity was present in all tumours and adjacent normal lung tissue. None of the three VEGF indices was associated with vascularity or the clinical parameters examined. Mean survival times were shorter in patients with high VEGF expression, but the difference was not significant. This applied to the full cohort of patients, or when analysed separately according to tumour type or stage. However, high VEGF expression was associated with poor survival in patients with high vascularity (p = 0.02). VEGF had no discriminant value among patients with low vascularity. Vascularity had no prognostic value, except for late stage patients (UICC stages II and IIIa combined; n = 36), where high vascularity was associated with longer survival (p = 0.01). Conclusions—VEGF on its own has no prognostic value in NSCLC, but may become a useful indicator when combined with vascularity. VEGF may play a physiological role in the normal lung. Key Words: non-small cell lung cancer • vascular endothelial growth factor • vascularity • prognosis PMID:11215279

  10. The prevalence of obesity-related hypertension and risk for new vascular events in patients with vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Vernooij, Joris W P; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Spiering, Wilko

    2012-10-01

    Higher body weight is associated with an increased prevalence of vascular risk factors. Obesity leads to hypertension by various mechanisms, often referred to as obesity-related hypertension. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and the vascular risk of the combination of obesity and hypertension in patients with vascular diseases. A cohort of patients with various clinical manifest vascular diseases (n = 4,868) was screened for vascular risk factors and followed (median follow-up 4.2 years) for the occurrence of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death). The prevalence of obesity was 18% (95% confidence interval (CI) 17-19%) and the prevalence of hypertension was 83% (95% CI 82-84%). The prevalence of the combination of obesity and hypertension was 16% (95% CI 15-17%). Patients with high blood pressure (BP) combined with a high weight (highest tertile systolic BP (SBP) in the highest tertile BMI) were not at higher risk for new vascular events (hazard ratios (HR) 1.29; 95% CI 0.89-1.88) or mortality (HR 1.18; 95% CI 0.81-1.73) compared to patients without high BP and high weight (patients in the lowest tertile of SBP in the lowest tertile of BMI). Patients with only high weight did not have an elevated risk either for vascular events (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.91-1.98) or mortality (HR 1.22; 95% CI 0.81-1.83) compared to patients without high BP and high weight. The prevalence of the combination of hypertension and obesity is low in patients with vascular diseases and does not confer a higher risk for recurrent vascular diseases and mortality than each risk factor alone.

  11. BK Channels in the Vascular System.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy-Natarajan, G; Koide, M

    2016-01-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is essential for the preservation of organ function to ensure continuous supply of oxygen and essential nutrients and removal of metabolic waste. This is achieved by controlling the diameter of muscular arteries and arterioles that exhibit a myogenic response to changes in arterial blood pressure, nerve activity and tissue metabolism. Large-conductance voltage and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels (BK channels), expressed exclusively in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vascular wall of healthy arteries, play a critical role in regulating the myogenic response. Activation of BK channels by intracellular, local, and transient ryanodine receptor-mediated "Ca(2+) sparks," provides a hyperpolarizing influence on the SMC membrane potential thereby decreasing the activity of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and limiting Ca(2+) influx to promote SMC relaxation and vasodilation. The BK channel α subunit, a large tetrameric protein with each monomer consisting of seven-transmembrane domains, a long intracellular C-terminal tail and an extracellular N-terminus, associates with the β1 and γ subunits in vascular SMCs. The BK channel is regulated by factors originating within the SMC or from the endothelium, perivascular nerves and circulating blood, that significantly alter channel gating properties, Ca(2+) sensitivity and expression of the α and/or β1 subunit. The BK channel thus serves as a central receiving dock that relays the effects of the changes in several such concomitant autocrine and paracrine factors and influences cardiovascular health. This chapter describes the primary mechanism of regulation of myogenic response by BK channels and the alterations to this mechanism wrought by different vasoactive mediators. PMID:27238270

  12. Vascular access for hemodialysis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Benedetto, Filippo; Mondello, Placido; Pipitò, Narayana; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Cernaro, Valeria; Buemi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis (HD) procedure. There are three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter (CVC). AVF, described by Brescia and Cimino, remains the first choice for chronic HD. It is the best access for longevity and has the lowest association with morbidity and mortality, and for this reason AVF use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries. Once autogenous options have been exhausted, prosthetic fistulae become the second option of maintenance HD access alternatives. CVCs have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on HD. The preferable locations for insertion are the internal jugular and femoral veins. The subclavian vein is considered the third choice because of the high risk of thrombosis. Complications associated with CVC insertion range from 5% to 19%. Since an increasing number of patients have implanted pacemakers and defibrillators, usually inserted via the subclavian vein and superior vena cava into the right heart, a careful assessment of risk and benefits should be taken. Infection is responsible for the removal of about 30%–60% of HD CVCs, and hospitalization rates are higher among patients with CVCs than among AVF ones. Proper VA maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a VA team. This team should include a nephrologist, radiologist, vascular surgeon, infectious disease consultant, and members of the dialysis staff. They should provide their experience in order to give the best options to uremic patients and the best care for their VA. PMID:25045278

  13. Biodegradation and biocompatibility of a degradable chitosan vascular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaoying; Xu, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    An instrument made by ourselves was used to fabricate biodegradable chitosan-heparin artificial vascular prosthesis with small internal diameter (2 mm) and different crosslinking degree from biodegradable chitosan, chitosan derivates and heparin. In vivo and in vitro degradation studies, inflammatory analysis and electron microscope scanning of this artificial vascular prosthesis were performed. It was observed that 50% of the prosthesis decomposed in vivo and was replaced by natural tissues. The degradation process of the chitosan-heparin artificial vascular prosthesis of small diameter could be controlled by changing the crosslinking degree. This kind of artificial vascular prosthesis shows good biocompatibility that can be controllability designed to achieve desirable in vascular replacement application. PMID:26064241

  14. Regional differences in perivascular adipose tissue impacting vascular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ortega, Marta; Somoza, Beatriz; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik; Fernández-Alfonso, Maria S

    2015-07-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases several important vasoactive factors with physiological and pathophysiological paracrine effects. A large body of evidence suggests regional phenotypic and functional differences among PVAT depots, depending on the specific vascular bed or different regions in the vascular bed where the PVAT is located. These non-uniform and separate PVATs exert various paracrine effects on vascular structure and function that largely impact disease states, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, or insulin resistance. This emerging view of PVAT function requires considering heterogeneous PVAT as a specialized organ that can differentially regulate vascular function depending on its anatomical location. In this context, the adipose-vascular axis may represent a novel target for pharmacological intervention in vasculopathy in cardiometabolic disorders.

  15. [Alternative variants of formation of permanent vascular access for hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Batrashov, V A; Manafov, É N

    2016-01-01

    A native arteriovenous fistula is the most preferred type of a permanent vascular access (PVA) amongst the patients on programmed haemodialysis. Complications of vascular accesses leading to their lost with time would eventually and unavoidably result in exhaustion of the vascular recourses of the patient thus creating posing a problem while forming yet another PVA. Taking into consideration vitally important necessity of carrying out haemodialysis procedures for these patients, vascular surgeons have to search for alternative variants of access to the vascular bed. According to the KDOQI guidelines, in case of full loss of suitable vessels on upper limbs, formation of PVA may be possible in the area of the femur and in the upper third of the chest, predominantly with the use of a prosthesis as a shunt. Presented in the article are different variants of PVA whose creation was dictated by impossibility of using standard approaches to treatment of such patients. PMID:27626266

  16. [Progress on strategies to promote vascularization in bone tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Lu; Mao, Yu-Yan; Lu, Jian-Xi; Chen, Lei

    2015-04-01

    With the continuous development of bone tissue engineering, a variety of emerging bone graft materials provided various methods for repairing bone defects. Early and rapid accomplishment of revascularization of materials interior after implantation of bone transplantation materials is a difficulty faced to bone tissue engineering. Blood vessels ingrowth provides the requisite netritional support for the regeneration reconstruction of bone tissue, for this reason, vascularization plays a significant role in bone tissue engineering. However,there is not a golden standard strategy of vascularization at present. Scaffold materials, cells and growth factors still are three indispensable elements in tissue engineering, and are cardinal points of the promoting vascularization strategies. Multiple growth factors or multiple cells combined with scaffolds, which are hot spots, have obtained excellent vascularization. This review focused on the comprehensive strategies for promoting the successful vascularization of tissue engineered scaffolds.

  17. Assessing vascular endothelial function using frequency and rank order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Liu, An-Bang; Lin, Zong-Lin; Tang, Chieh-Ju; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2013-08-01

    Using frequency and rank order statistics (FROS), this study analyzed the fluctuations in arterial waveform amplitudes recorded from an air pressure sensing system before and after reactive hyperemia (RH) induction by temporary blood flow occlusion to evaluate the vascular endothelial function of aged and diabetic subjects. The modified probability-weighted distance (PWD) calculated from the FROS was compared with the dilatation index (DI) to evaluate its validity and sensitivity in the assessment of vascular endothelial function. The results showed that the PWD can provide a quantitative determination of the structural changes in the arterial pressure signals associated with regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure by intact vascular endothelium after the application of occlusion stress. Our study suggests that the use of FROS is a reliable noninvasive approach to the assessment of vascular endothelial degeneration in aging and diabetes.

  18. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei-ling; Qiu, Long-hai; Lian, Jia-yan; Li, Jia-chun; Hu, Jun; Liu, Xiao-lin

    2016-01-01

    Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group) alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group). As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves. PMID:27127495

  19. [Infective endocarditis. 5-years experience in a third-level reference center in Yucatan, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vega-Sánchez, Angel Emmanuel; Santaularia-Tomas, Miguel; Pérez-Román, Diana Isabel; Cortés-Telles, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad con elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. La expresión clínica es variable en diferentes poblaciones, por lo que es imperativo conocer las características de la enfermedad en nuestra región. Métodos: estudio observacional que incluyo la totalidad de los pacientes diagnosticados con endocarditis bacteriana entre el 1 de enero de 2009 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2014. Los datos se presentan como frecuencias con porcentajes y medianas con rango intercuartílico, según sea el caso. Resultados: se incluyen 10 casos. La mediana de edad fue 34 años (RIC 26-41). Los factores de riesgo identificados fueron: enfermedad valvular previa, enfermedad renal crónica con acceso vascular y enfermedad inmunológica. La válvula mitral nativa fue la más afectada. La mediana de longitud de las vegetaciones fue de 14 mm (RIC 9.3-16). El estreptococo alfa hemolítico fue el microorganismo más común. La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue del 10 %. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de la enfermedad es similar a otras series nacionales. Identificamos factores de riesgo que pueden circunscribirse a las morbilidades en la región.

  20. Assessment of vascular effects of tamoxifen and its metabolites on the rat perfused hindquarter vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Marcelo F; Pessa, Lisandra R; Gomes, Valéria A; Desta, Zeruesenay; Flockhart, David A; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2009-05-01

    Tamoxifen has been suggested to produce beneficial cardiovascular effects, although the mechanisms for these effects are not fully known. Moreover, although tamoxifen metabolites may exhibit 30-100 times higher potency than the parent drug, no previous study has compared the effects produced by tamoxifen and its metabolites on vascular function. Here, we assessed the vascular responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside on perfused hindquarter vascular bed of rats treated with tamoxifen or its main metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, and endoxifen) for 2 weeks. Plasma and whole-blood thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations were determined using a fluorometric method. Plasma nitrite and NOx (nitrite + nitrate) concentrations were determined using an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay and Griess reaction, respectively. Treatment with tamoxifen reduced the responses to acetylcholine (pD(2) = 2.2 +/- 0.06 and 1.9 +/- 0.05 after vehicle and tamoxifen, respectively; P < 0.05), while its metabolites improved these responses (pD(2) = 2.5 +/- 0.04 after N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 2.5 +/- 0.03 after 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, and 2.6 +/- 0.08 after endoxifen; P < 0.01). Tamoxifen and its metabolites showed no effect on endothelial-independent responses to sodium nitroprusside (P > 0.05). While tamoxifen treatment resulted in significantly higher plasma and whole blood lipid peroxide levels (37% and 62%, respectively; both P < 0.05), its metabolites significantly decreased lipid peroxide levels (by approximately 50%; P < 0.05). While treatment with tamoxifen decreased the concentrations of markers of nitric oxide formation by approximately 50% (P < 0.05), tamoxifen metabolites had no effect on these parameters (P > 0.05). These results suggest that while tamoxifen produces detrimental effects, its metabolites produce counteracting beneficial effects on the vascular system and on nitric oxide/reactive oxygen species formation. PMID

  1. In vitro differentiation of porcine aortic vascular precursor cells to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Bernardini, Chiara; Bertocchi, Martina; Zannoni, Augusta; Bianchi, Francesca; Avallone, Giancarlo; Mangano, Chiara; Sarli, Giuseppe; Calzà, Laura; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica

    2015-09-01

    Recent findings suggest that progenitor and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are associated with vascular niches. Cells displaying mesenchymal properties and differentiating to whole components of a functional blood vessel, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells, can be defined as vascular stem cells (VSCs). Recently, we isolated a population of porcine aortic vascular precursor cells (pAVPCs), which have MSC- and pericyte-like properties. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether pAVPCs possess VSC-like properties and assess their differentiation potential toward endothelial and smooth muscle lineages. pAVPCs, maintained in a specific pericyte growth medium, were cultured in high-glucose DMEM + 10% FBS (long-term medium, LTM) or in human endothelial serum-free medium + 5% FBS and 50 ng/ml of hVEGF (endothelial differentiation medium, EDM). After 21 days of culture in LTM, pAVPCs showed an elongated fibroblast-like morphology, and they seem to organize in cord-like structures. qPCR analysis of smooth muscle markers [α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), calponin, and smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chain] showed a significant increment of the transcripts, and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the presence of α-SMA and SMM proteins. After 21 days of culture in EDM, pAVPCs displayed an endothelial cell-like morphology and revealed the upregulation of the expression of endothelial markers (CD31, vascular endothelial-cadherin, von Willebrand factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase) showing the CD31-typical pattern. In conclusion, pAVPCs could be defined as a VSC-like population considering that, if they are maintained in a specific pericyte medium, they express MSC markers, and they have, in addition to the classical mesenchymal trilineage differentiation potential, the capacity to differentiate in vitro toward the smooth muscle and the endothelial cell phenotypes.

  2. Mussel-inspired immobilization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for enhanced endothelialization of vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Min; Lee, Yu Bin; Kim, Seok Joo; Kang, Jae Kyeong; Park, Jong-Chul; Jang, Wonhee; Shin, Heungsoo

    2012-07-01

    Most polymeric vascular prosthetic materials have low patency rate for replacement of small diameter vessels (<5 mm), mainly due to failure to generate healthy endothelium. In this study, we present polydopamine-mediated immobilization of growth factors on the surface of polymeric materials as a versatile tool to modify surface characteristics of vascular grafts potentially for accelerated endothelialization. Polydopamine was deposited on the surface of biocompatible poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) elastomer, on which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was subsequently immobilized by simple dipping. Surface characteristics and composition were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Immobilization of VEGF on the polydopamine-deposited PLCL films was effective (19.8 ± 0.4 and 197.4 ± 19.7 ng/cm(2) for DPv20 and DPv200 films, respectively), and biotin-mediated labeling of immobilized VEGF revealed that the fluorescence intensity increased as a function of the concentration of VEGF solution. The effect of VEGF on adhesion of HUVECs was marginal, which may have been masked by polydopamine layer that also enhanced cell adhesion. However, VEGF-immobilized substrate significantly enhanced proliferation of HUVECs for over 7 days of in vitro culture and also improved their migration. In addition, immobilized VEGF supported robust cell to cell interactions with strong expression of CD 31 marker. The same process was effective for immobilization of basic fibroblast growth factor, demonstrating the robustness of polydopamine layer for secondary ligation of growth factors as a simple and novel surface modification strategy for vascular graft materials. PMID:22617001

  3. The blood and vascular cell compatibility of heparin-modified ePTFE vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Ryan A.; Van Lith, Robert; Jen, Michele C.; Allen, Josephine B.; Lapidos, Karen A.; Ameer, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts do not mimic the antithrombogenic properties of native blood vessels and therefore have higher rates of complications that involve thrombosis and restenosis. We developed an approach for grafting bioactive heparin, a potent anticoagulant glycosaminoglycan, to the lumen of ePTFE vascular grafts to improve their interactions with blood and vascular cells. Heparin was bound to aminated poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) via its carboxyl functional groups onto POC-modified ePTFE grafts. The bioactivity and stability of the POC-immobilized heparin (POC–Heparin) were characterized via platelet adhesion and clotting assays. The effects of POC–Heparin on the adhesion, viability and phenotype of primary endothelial cells (EC), blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) obtained from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) isolated from human peripheral blood, and smooth muscle cells were also investigated. POC–Heparin grafts maintained bioactivity under physiologically relevant conditions in vitro for at least one month. Specifically, POC–Heparin-coated ePTFE grafts significantly reduced platelet adhesion and inhibited whole blood clotting kinetics. POC–Heparin supported EC and BOEC adhesion, viability, proliferation, NO production, and expression of endothelial cell-specific markers von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin). Smooth muscle cells cultured on POC–Heparin showed increased expression of α-actin and decreased cell proliferation. This approach can be easily adapted to modify other blood contacting devices such as stents where antithrombogenicity and improved endothelialization are desirable properties. PMID:23069711

  4. Gunshot wounds to the thigh. Evaluation of vascular and subclinical vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Payne, W K; Gabriel, R A; Massoud, R P

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective review of 173 patient charts, angiograms, surgical reports, and plain radiographs were performed for all patients admitted with gunshot wounds to the thigh from May 1988 to January 1991 at Martin Luther King, Jr. Hospital. A zonal classification of gunshot wounds to the thigh was created and defined to determine if a zonal classification was predictive of a positive angiogram. Associations and relationships of patients with vascular injury are presented.

  5. Vascular responses to compound 48/80 in rat mesenteric vascular beds.

    PubMed

    Jin, Honghua; Li, Zhen; Takatori, Shingo; Koyama, Toshihiro; Jin, Xin; Zamami, Yoshito; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Sun, Pengyuan

    2016-06-01

    A further investigation was performed on the vascular effect of endogenous histamine using the histamine releaser, compound 48/80, in rat mesenteric vascular beds with active tone. In preparations with intact endothelium, low concentrations of compound 48/80 (1.53 × 10(-5) - 3 × 1.53 × 10(-5) mg/mL) perfusion for 1 min only induced a small vasodilation. High concentrations of compound 48/80 (1.53 × 10(-4) - 3 × 1.53 × 10(-2) mg/mL) induced a biphasic vascular responses, an initial vasoconstriction followed a subsequent long-lasting vasodilation. The vasodilation induced by low concentrations of compound 48/80 and the vasoconstriction induced by high concentration of compound 48/80 was inhibited by olopatadine. However, cimetidine did not affect the responses induced by compound 48/80. Endothelium removal enlarged the compound 48/80-induced phase-2 vasoconstriction, while it attenuated the phase-3 vasodilation. Additionally, indomethacin and seratrodast significantly inhibited vasoconstriction but it did not affect the long-lasting vasodilation induced by high concentrations of compound 48/80. Ruthenium red inhibited the vasodilation induced by low concentrations and high concentrations of compound 48/80. These results suggest that the vasoconstriction induce by high concentrations of compound 48/80 is mediated by endogenous histamine released from mast cells. It is also suggested that thromboxane A2 released from mast cells is related to the vasoconstriction. PMID:26991394

  6. General Surgery Resident Vascular Operative Experience in the Era of Endovascular Surgery and Vascular Fellowships.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huan; Maximus, Steven; Kim, Jerry J; Smith, Brian; Kim, Dennis; Koopmann, Matthew; DeVirgilio, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advances in endovascular surgery have resulted in a decline in major open arterial reconstructions nationwide. Our objective is to investigate the effect of endovascular surgery on general surgery resident experience with open vascular surgery. Between 2004 and 2014, 112 residents graduated from two academic institutions in Southern California. Residents were separated into those who graduated in 2004 to 2008 (period 1) and in 2009 to 2014 (period 2). Case volumes of vascular procedures were compared using two-sample t test. A total of 43 residents were in period 1 and 59 residents were in period 2. In aggregate, there was no significant difference in open cases recorded between the two periods (84 vs 87, P = 0.194). Subgroup analysis showed period 2 recorded significantly fewer cases of open aneurysm repair (5 vs 3, P < 0.001), cerebrovascular (14 vs 10, P = 0.007), and peripheral obstructive procedures (16 vs 13, P = 0.017). Dialysis access procedures constituted the largest group of procedures and remained similar between the two periods (35 vs 42, P = 0.582). General surgery residents experienced a significant decline in several index open major arterial reconstruction cases. This decline was offset by maintenance of dialysis access procedures. If the trend continues, future general surgeons will not be proficient in open vascular procedures.

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor in central nervous system injuries - a vascular growth factor getting nervous?

    PubMed

    Sköld, Mattias K; Kanje, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is recognized as a central factor in growth, survival and permeability of blood vessels in both physiological and pathological conditions. It is as such of importance for vascular responses in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Accumulating evidence suggest that VEGF may also act as a neuroprotective and neurotrophic factor supporting neuronal survival and neuronal regeneration. Findings of neuropilins as shared co-receptors between molecules with such seemingly different functions as the axon guidance molecules semaphorins and VEGF has further boosted the interest in the role of VEGF in neural tissue injury and repair mechanisms. Thus, VEGF most likely act in parallel or concurrent on cells in both the vascular and nervous system. The present review gives a summary of known or potential aspects of the VEGF system in the healthy and diseased nervous system. The potential benefits but also problems and pitfalls in intervening in the actions of such a multifunctional factor as VEGF in the disordered CNS are also covered.

  8. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  9. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  10. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  11. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  12. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  13. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  14. Identification of Vascular Lineage-Specific Genes by Transcriptional Profiling of Isolated Blood Vascular and Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Satoshi; Hong, Young-Kwon; Harvey, Natasha; Schacht, Vivien; Matsuda, Kant; Libermann, Towia; Detmar, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In mammals, the lymphatic vascular system develops by budding of lymphatic progenitor endothelial cells from embryonic veins to form a distinct network of draining vessels with important functions in the immune response and in cancer metastasis. However, the lineage-specific molecular characteristics of blood vascular versus lymphatic endothelium have remained poorly defined. We isolated lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and blood vascular endothelial cells (BVECs) by immunomagnetic isolation directly from human skin. Cultured LECs but not BVECs expressed the lymphatic markers Prox1 and LYVE-1 and formed LYVE-1-positive vascular tubes after implantation in vivo. Transcriptional profiling studies revealed increased expression of several extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in BVECs, including versican, collagens, laminin, and N-cadherin, and of the growth factor receptors endoglin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1/Flt-1. Differential immunostains of human skin confirmed the blood vessel-specific expression of these genes. During embryonic development, endoglin expression was gradually down-regulated on lymphatic endothelium whereas vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 was absent from lymphatics. We also identified several genes with specific expression in LECs. These results demonstrate that some lineage-specific genes are only expressed during distinct developmental stages and they identify new molecular markers for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelium with important implications for future studies of vascular development and function. PMID:12547715

  15. Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, H E

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that primary tumor vascularity in a murine model of intraocular melanoma positively correlates with the development and hematogenous spread of metastasis. METHODS: Forty 12-week-old C57BL6 mice were inoculated in either the anterior chamber (AC) or posterior compartment (PC) of 1 eye with 5 x 10(5) cells/microL of Queens tissue culture melanoma cells. The inoculated eye was enucleated at 2 weeks; the mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks postinoculation, and necropsies were performed. The enucleated eyes were examined for histologic and ultrastructural features, including relationship of tumor cells to tumor vascular channels, vascular pattern, and mean vascular density. RESULTS: Melanoma grew and was confined to the eye in 12 of 20 AC eyes and 10 of 20 PC eyes. Histologic and electron microscopic examination showed tumor invasion into vascular channels. Five of 12 AC tumors (42%) and 8 of 10 PC tumors (80%) metastasized. All of the AC tumors, but none of the PC tumors, that distantly metastasized also metastasized to ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes (P = .00535). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern between the melanomas that did and did not metastasize to lungs in the PC group (P = .24), although there was a significant difference in the AC group (P = .02). Tumors with high-grade vascular patterns were more likely to metastasize than tumors with low-grade vascular patterns in the AC group. The mean vascular density positively correlated with the presence and number of metastases in both groups (P = .0000 and P < .001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern and mean vascular density for AC versus PC melanoma (P = .97). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of metastasis in this murine intraocular melanoma model positively correlates with primary tumor vascularity. The melanoma metastasizes via invasion of tumor vascular channels. AC melanoma also

  16. Behçet Disease With Vascular Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Karadeniz, Aslı; Yılmaz, Sema; Balkarlı, Ayşe; Kimyon, Gezmiş; Yazıcı, Ayten; Çınar, Muhammet; Yılmaz, Sedat; Yıldız, Fatih; Bilge, Şule Yaşar; Bilgin, Emre; Coskun, Belkis Nihan; Omma, Ahmet; Çetin, Gözde Yıldırım; Çağatay, Yonca; Karaaslan, Yaşar; Sayarlıoğlu, Mehmet; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadağ, Ömer; Kaşifoğlu, Timuçin; Erken, Eren; Pay, Salih; Çefle, Ayşe; Kısacık, Bünyamin; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Çobankara, Veli; Direskeneli, Haner

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vascular involvement is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in Behçet disease (BD). There are no controlled studies for the management of vascular BD (VBD), and according to the EULAR recommendations, only immunosuppressive (IS) agents are recommended. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic approaches chosen by Turkish physicians during the initial event and relapses of VBD and the association of different treatment options with the relapses retrospectively. Patients with BD (n = 936, female/male: 347/589, mean age: 37.6 ± 10.8) classified according to ISG criteria from 15 rheumatology centers in Turkey were included. The demographic data, clinical characteristics of the first vascular event and relapses, treatment protocols, and data about complications were acquired. VBD was observed in 27.7% (n = 260) of the patients during follow-up. In 57.3% of the VBD patients, vascular involvement was the presenting sign of the disease. After the first vascular event, ISs were given to 88.8% and AC treatment to 59.8% of the patients. Median duration of AC treatment was 13 months (1–204) and ISs, 22 months (1–204). Minor hemorrhage related to AC treatment was observed in 7 (4.7%) patients. A second vascular event developed in 32.9% (n = 86) of the patients. The vascular relapse rate was similar between patients taking only ISs and AC plus IS treatments after the first vascular event (29.1% vs 22.4%, P = 0.28) and was significantly higher in group taking only ACs than taking only ISs (91.6% vs 29.1%, P < 0.001). During follow-up, a third vascular event developed in 17 (n = 6.5%) patients. The relapse rate was also similar between the patients taking only ISs and AC plus IS treatments after second vascular event (25.3% vs 20.8%, P = 0.93). When multivariate analysis was performed, development of vascular relapse negatively correlated with only IS treatments. We did not find any additional positive

  17. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Kate; Thust, Stefanie; Berkeley, Rupert; Stuart, Sam; Barnacle, Alex; Robertson, Fergus

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of vascular anomalies in children are found in the head and neck. These lesions can present throughout antenatal, perinatal and childhood development. They broadly fall into two categories: vascular tumours and vascular malformations. Their clinical and, often, psychological impact is determined by both pathological type and location: many lesions follow an uncomplicated natural course and other more complex, extensive or progressive lesions can present a threat to life from mass effect, haemorrhage or large volume arteriovenous shunting. Vascular tumours include infantile haemangioma (IH), congenital haemangioma (CH) and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH); of which IH is the most common. Management options for vascular tumours include conservative approaches, oral medications and surgical intervention as determined by tumour type, location and associated complications. Vascular malformations can be categorised into low flow and high flow lesions. Low flow lesions include capillary, venous and lymphatic malformations (LMs). High flow lesions describe the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), a highly heterogeneous group of lesions which can present in a variety of ways—the mainstay of treatment for these dynamic lesions is endovascular or surgical obliteration. We provide a practical framework for clinical classification of vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children. We also explore principles of their clinical and radiological assessment along with management, highlighting the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:26807370

  18. Polarity, continuity, and alignment in plant vascular strands.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Megan G; Scarpella, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Plant vascular cells are joined end to end along uninterrupted lines to connect shoot organs with roots; vascular strands are thus polar, continuous, and internally aligned. What controls the formation of vascular strands with these properties? The "auxin canalization hypothesis"-based on positive feedback between auxin flow through a cell and the cell's capacity for auxin transport-predicts the selection of continuous files of cells that transport auxin polarly, thus accounting for the polarity and continuity of vascular strands. By contrast, polar, continuous auxin transport-though required-is insufficient to promote internal alignment of vascular strands, implicating additional factors. The auxin canalization hypothesis was derived from the response of mature tissue to auxin application but is consistent with molecular and cellular events in embryo axis formation and shoot organ development. Objections to the hypothesis have been raised based on vascular organizations in callus tissue and shoot organs but seem unsupported by available evidence. Other objections call instead for further research; yet the inductive and orienting influence of auxin on continuous vascular differentiation remains unique.

  19. Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?

    PubMed

    Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A(2) release. The thromboxane A(2) pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The "Timing Hypothesis," which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

  20. How do bryophytes govern generative recruitment of vascular plants?

    PubMed

    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Graae, Bente J; Douma, Jacob C; Grau, Oriol; Milbau, Ann; Shevtsova, Anna; Wolters, Loes; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2011-06-01

    Interactions between vascular plants and bryophytes determine plant community composition in many ecosystems. Yet, little is known about the importance of interspecific differences between bryophytes with respect to their effects on vascular plants. We compared the extent to which species-specific bryophyte effects on vascular plant generative recruitment depend on the following underlying mechanisms: allelopathy, mechanical obstruction, soil moisture and temperature control. We sowed 10 vascular plant species into monospecific mats of six chemically and structurally diverse bryophytes, and examined 1-yr seedling recruitment. Allelopathic effects were also assessed in a laboratory phyto-assay. Although all bryophytes suppressed vascular plant regeneration, there were significant differences between the bryophyte species. The lack of interactions indicated the absence of species-specific adaptations of vascular plants for recruitment in bryophyte mats. Differences between bryophyte species were best explained by alterations in temperature regime under bryophyte mats, mostly by reduced temperature amplitudes during germination. The temperature regime under bryophyte mats was well predicted by species-specific bryophyte cushion thickness. The fitness of established seedlings was not affected by the presence of bryophytes. Our results suggest that climatically or anthropogenically driven changes in the species' composition of bryophyte communities have knock-on effects on vascular plant populations via generative reproduction.

  1. Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?

    PubMed Central

    Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release. The thromboxane A2 pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The “Timing Hypothesis,” which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

  2. Efficient in vivo Vascularization of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hegen, Anja; Blois, Anna; Tiron, Crina E.; Hellesøy, Monica; Micklem, David R.; Nör, Jacques E.; Akslen, Lars A.; Lorens, James B.

    2010-01-01

    The success of tissue engineering depends on the rapid and efficient formation of a functional blood vasculature. Adult blood vessels comprise endothelial cells and peri-vascular mural cells that assemble into patent tubules ensheathed by a basement membrane during angiogenesis. Using individual vessel components, we characterized intra-scaffold microvessel self-assembly efficiency in a physiological in vivo tissue engineering implant context. Primary human microvascular endothelial- and vascular smooth muscle cells were seeded at different ratios in poly-L lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds enriched with basement membrane proteins (Matrigel) and implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. Temporal intra-scaffold microvessel formation, anastomosis and perfusion were monitored by immunohistochemical, flow cytometric and in vivo multiphoton fluorescence microscopy analysis. Vascularization in the tissue engineering context was strongly enhanced in the implants seeded with a complete complement of blood vessel components: Human microvascular endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo assembled a patent microvasculature within Matrigel-enriched PLLA scaffolds that anastomosed with the host circulation during the first week of implantation. Multiphoton fluorescence angiographic analysis of the intra-scaffold microcirculation showed a uniform, branched microvascular network. 3-D image reconstruction analysis of hPASMC distribution within vascularized implants was non-random and displayed a preferential peri-vascular localization. Hence, efficient microvessel self-assembly, anastomosis and establishment of a functional microvasculture in the native hypoxic in vivo tissue engineering context is promoted by providing a complete set of vascular components. PMID:20865694

  3. Critical Endothelial Regulation by LRP5 during Retinal Vascular Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Li, Qing; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Hokama, Madoka; Sardi, Sylvia H; Nagao, Masashi; Warman, Matthew L; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities in the eye are the leading cause of many forms of inherited and acquired human blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt-binding co-receptor LRP5 leads to aberrant ocular vascularization and loss of vision in genetic disorders such as osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. The canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway is known to regulate retinal vascular development. However, it is unclear what precise role LPR5 plays in this process. Here, we show that loss of LRP5 function in mice causes retinal hypovascularization during development as well as retinal neovascularization in adulthood with disorganized and leaky vessels. Using a highly specific Flk1-CreBreier line for vascular endothelial cells, together with several genetic models, we demonstrate that loss of endothelium-derived LRP5 recapitulates the retinal vascular defects in Lrp5-/- mice. In addition, restoring LRP5 function only in endothelial cells in Lrp5-/- mice rescues their retinal vascular abnormalities. Furthermore, we show that retinal vascularization is regulated by LRP5 in a dosage dependent manner and does not depend on LRP6. Our study provides the first direct evidence that endothelium-derived LRP5 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its critical role in the development and maintenance of retinal vasculature. PMID:27031698

  4. Molecular mechanisms for vascular complications of targeted cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Srila; Miller, Kenneth B; Jaffe, Iris Z

    2016-10-01

    Molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment by improving both quality of life and survival in cancer patients. However, many of these drugs are associated with cardiovascular toxicities that are sometimes dose-limiting. Moreover, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of these drugs, some of which are used chronically, are not yet known. Although the scope and mechanisms of the cardiac toxicities are better defined, the mechanisms for vascular toxicities are only beginning to be elucidated. This review summarizes what is known about the vascular adverse events associated with three classes of novel anti-cancer therapies: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, breakpoint cluster-Abelson (BCR-ABL) kinase inhibitors used to treat chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs) used in myeloma therapeutics. Three of the best described vascular toxicities are reviewed including hypertension, increased risk of acute cardiovascular ischaemic events and arteriovenous thrombosis. The available data regarding the mechanism by which each therapy causes vascular complication are summarized. When data are limited, potential mechanisms are inferred from the known effects of inhibiting each target on vascular cell function and disease. Enhanced understanding of the molecular mechanisms of vascular side effects of targeted cancer therapy is necessary to effectively manage cancer patients and to design safer targeted cancer therapies for the future. PMID:27612952

  5. Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Andrea; Turrone, Rosanna; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Bianchi, Marta; Poli, Loris; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Premi, Enrico; Formenti, Anna; Bigni, Barbara; Cosseddu, Maura; Cottini, Elisabetta; Berg, Daniela; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive deficits and incident dementia in the general population, but their role on cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unclear. The present study addresses the single and cumulative effect of vascular risk factors on cognition in PD patients, taking clinical confounders into account. Standardized neuropsychological assessment was performed in 238 consecutive PD patients. We evaluated the association of single and cumulative vascular risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and heart disease), with the diagnosis of PD normal cognition (PDNC, n = 94), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n = 111), and dementia (PDD, n = 33). The association between single neuropsychological tests and vascular risk factors was evaluated with covariance analyses adjusted for age at onset, educational levels, gender, disease duration, and motor performance. Age, educational levels, disease duration, and motor function were significantly different between PDNC, PD-MCI, and PDD. Heart disease was the only vascular factor significantly more prevalent in PDD compared with PDNC in adjusted analyses. Performance of tests assessing executive and attention functions were significantly worse in patients with hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes (p <  0.05). Heart disease is associated with dementia in PD, suggesting a potential window of intervention. Vascular risk factors act especially on attention and executive functions in PD. Vascular risk stratification may be useful in order to identify PD patients with a greater risk of developing dementia. These findings need to be verified in longitudinal studies. PMID:26890741

  6. Vascular Surgical Emergencies: How will Future Surgeons be Trained?

    PubMed Central

    Richards, T; Pittathankal, AA; Kahn, PY; Magee, TR; Lewis, MH; Galland, RB

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We wished to assess whether pattern and impact of emergency vascular surgical referrals has altered since a previous study in 1990. Following introduction of shift working patterns, we wished to assess how these changes may affect vascular training and vascular on-call cover. PATIENTS AND METHODS Prospective survey of emergency vascular referrals at two district general hospitals (DGH-R and DGH-L) in 2003. DGH-R received only regional referrals whereas DGH-L also received ‘next day’ referrals from a smaller hospital. Results were compared between centres and with a previous study undertaken at DGH-R in 1990. RESULTS From 1990 to 2003 emergency vascular referrals at DGH-R increased by 51% (53 to 80). The number seen at DGH-R and DGH-L were similar in 2003. There were significantly more out-of-hours referrals in DGH-R than DGH-L (59% versus 35%; P = 0.0123). Referrals were more likely to be seen initially by the vascular team at DGH-L than DGH-R (80% versus 47%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Vascular emergency referrals have increased. A trainee was likely to see more emergency referrals at DGH-L than DGH-R. This may impact on future training. PMID:17132313

  7. Critical Endothelial Regulation by LRP5 during Retinal Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Li, Qing; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Hokama, Madoka; Sardi, Sylvia H.; Nagao, Masashi; Warman, Matthew L.; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities in the eye are the leading cause of many forms of inherited and acquired human blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt-binding co-receptor LRP5 leads to aberrant ocular vascularization and loss of vision in genetic disorders such as osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. The canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway is known to regulate retinal vascular development. However, it is unclear what precise role LPR5 plays in this process. Here, we show that loss of LRP5 function in mice causes retinal hypovascularization during development as well as retinal neovascularization in adulthood with disorganized and leaky vessels. Using a highly specific Flk1-CreBreier line for vascular endothelial cells, together with several genetic models, we demonstrate that loss of endothelium-derived LRP5 recapitulates the retinal vascular defects in Lrp5-/- mice. In addition, restoring LRP5 function only in endothelial cells in Lrp5-/- mice rescues their retinal vascular abnormalities. Furthermore, we show that retinal vascularization is regulated by LRP5 in a dosage dependent manner and does not depend on LRP6. Our study provides the first direct evidence that endothelium-derived LRP5 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate its critical role in the development and maintenance of retinal vasculature. PMID:27031698

  8. Endovascular Management of Vascular Injury during Transsphenoidal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cinar, C; Bozkaya, H; Parildar, M; Oran, I

    2013-03-01

    Vascular injury is an unusual and serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery. We aimed to define the role of angiography and endovascular treatment in patients with vascular injuries occurring during transsphenoidal surgery. During the last ten-year period, we retrospectively evaluated nine patients with vascular injury after transsphenoidal surgery. Eight patients were symptomatic due to vascular injury, while one had only suspicion of vascular injury during surgery. Four patients presented with epistaxis, two with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with exophthalmos, and one with hemiparesia. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in four patients, contrast extravasation in two, vessel dissection in one, vessel wall irregularity in one, and arteriovenous fistula in one. All patients but one were treated successfully with parent artery occlusion, with one covered stent implantation, one stent-assisted coiling method, while one patient was managed conservatively. One patient died due to complications related to the primary insult without rebleeding. Vascular injuries suspected intra or postoperatively must be investigated rapidly after transsphenoidal surgery. Endovascular treatment with parent artery occlusion is feasible with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates in the treatment of vascular injuries occurring in transsphenoidal surgery. PMID:23472732

  9. Activation of Nrf2 by dimethyl fumarate improves vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chae-Myeong; Park, Sungmi; Choi, Young-Keun; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Oh, Chang Joo; Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jun, Do Youn; Lee, In-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has several pharmacological benefits including immunomodulation and prevention of fibrosis, which are dependent on the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathways. Therefore, we hypothesized that DMF could attenuate vascular calcification via Nrf2 activation. Vascular calcification induced by hyperphosphataemia was significantly inhibited by DMF in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a dose-dependent manner. DMF-mediated Nrf2 upregulation was accompanied by the reduced expressions of genes related with osteoblast-like phenotype based on promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and von Kossa staining. Likewise, Nrf2 overexpression significantly decreased the formation of calcium deposit similar to the level of osteogenic staining in VSMCs, and DMF with Nrf2 knockdown failed to attenuate hyperphosphatemia induced vascular calcification. Furthermore, DMF significantly attenuated the calcification of ex vivo ring culture from both rat common carotid artery and mouse thoracic aorta as well as in vivo mouse model of Vitamin D3-induced calcification consistent with the increased Nrf2 protein levels in early stage of calcification by DMF. In conclusion, our data support that DMF stimulates Nrf2 activity to attenuate hyperphosphatamia in vitro or Vitamin D3-induced in vivo vascular calcification, which would be a beneficial effect on vascular diseases induced by oxidative stress such as vascular calcification. PMID:25135648

  10. Endovascular Management of Vascular Injury during Transsphenoidal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cinar, C; Bozkaya, H; Parildar, M; Oran, I

    2013-03-01

    Vascular injury is an unusual and serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery. We aimed to define the role of angiography and endovascular treatment in patients with vascular injuries occurring during transsphenoidal surgery. During the last ten-year period, we retrospectively evaluated nine patients with vascular injury after transsphenoidal surgery. Eight patients were symptomatic due to vascular injury, while one had only suspicion of vascular injury during surgery. Four patients presented with epistaxis, two with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with exophthalmos, and one with hemiparesia. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in four patients, contrast extravasation in two, vessel dissection in one, vessel wall irregularity in one, and arteriovenous fistula in one. All patients but one were treated successfully with parent artery occlusion, with one covered stent implantation, one stent-assisted coiling method, while one patient was managed conservatively. One patient died due to complications related to the primary insult without rebleeding. Vascular injuries suspected intra or postoperatively must be investigated rapidly after transsphenoidal surgery. Endovascular treatment with parent artery occlusion is feasible with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates in the treatment of vascular injuries occurring in transsphenoidal surgery.

  11. Endovascular Management of Vascular Injury during Transsphenoidal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Çinar, C.; Bozkaya, H.; Parildar, M.; Oran, I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Vascular injury is an unusual and serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery. We aimed to define the role of angiography and endovascular treatment in patients with vascular injuries occurring during transsphenoidal surgery. During the last ten-year period, we retrospectively evaluated nine patients with vascular injury after transsphenoidal surgery. Eight patients were symptomatic due to vascular injury, while one had only suspicion of vascular injury during surgery. Four patients presented with epistaxis, two with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with exophthalmos, and one with hemiparesia. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in four patients, contrast extravasation in two, vessel dissection in one, vessel wall irregularity in one, and arteriovenous fistula in one. All patients but one were treated successfully with parent artery occlusion, with one covered stent implantation, one stent-assisted coiling method, while one patient was managed conservatively. One patient died due to complications related to the primary insult without rebleeding. Vascular injuries suspected intra or postoperatively must be investigated rapidly after transsphenoidal surgery. Endovascular treatment with parent artery occlusion is feasible with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates in the treatment of vascular injuries occurring in transsphenoidal surgery. PMID:23472732

  12. Fibronectin Deposition Participates in Extracellular Matrix Assembly and Vascular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hielscher, Abigail; Ellis, Kim; Qiu, Connie; Porterfield, Josh; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been demonstrated to facilitate angiogenesis. In particular, fibronectin has been documented to activate endothelial cells, resulting in their transition from a quiescent state to an active state in which the cells exhibit enhanced migration and proliferation. The goal of this study is to examine the role of polymerized fibronectin during vascular tubulogenesis using a 3 dimensional (3D) cell-derived de-cellularized matrix. A fibronectin-rich 3D de-cellularized ECM was used as a scaffold to study vascular morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs). Confocal analyses of several matrix proteins reveal high intra- and extra-cellular deposition of fibronectin in formed vascular structures. Using a small peptide inhibitor of fibronectin polymerization, we demonstrate that inhibition of fibronectin fibrillogenesis in ECs cultured atop de-cellularized ECM resulted in decreased vascular morphogenesis. Further, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses reveal decreased expression of stromal matrix proteins in the absence of polymerized fibronectin with high co-localization of matrix proteins found in association with polymerized fibronectin. Evaluating vascular kinetics, live cell imaging showed that migration, migration velocity, and mean square displacement, are disrupted in structures grown in the absence of polymerized fibronectin. Additionally, vascular organization failed to occur in the absence of a polymerized fibronectin matrix. Consistent with these observations, we tested vascular morphogenesis following the disruption of EC adhesion to polymerized fibronectin, demonstrating that block of integrins α5β1 and αvβ3, abrogated vascular morphogenesis. Overall, fibronectin deposition in a 3D cell-derived de-cellularized ECM appears to be imperative for matrix assembly and vascular morphogenesis. PMID:26811931

  13. Role of Fas/Fas-L in vascular cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Stoneman, Victoria E A; Bennett, Martin R

    2009-02-01

    Apoptosis of vascular cells is observed in vivo in normal vessel development and a variety of vascular pathologies. Apoptosis occurs in all cell types within the vessel wall, the consequences of which depend on both cell type and the pathology under study. The death receptor Fas is expressed throughout the vessel wall, and increasingly Fas-Fas-L-induced killing has been recognized in the vasculature. This review outlines the current developments in understanding the role, regulation, and consequences of Fas-Fas-L-induced apoptosis in vascular cells.

  14. Systemic Multiple Aneurysms Caused by Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xinyu; Li, Fangda; Wu, Lingeer; Zheng, Yuehong

    2016-07-01

    Systemic multiple aneurysms are rare and usually associated with collagen tissue disease, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or Marfan syndrome. In the present case, we describe a 39-year-old male patient with systemic multiple aneurysms and acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage who was clinically diagnosed with vascular EDS. Coil embolization of the distal segment of the common hepatic artery was performed, which resolved the patient's symptoms. With this case presentation, we aim to increase the awareness of vascular EDS among clinicians and emphasize the extreme fragility of the arteries in patients with vascular EDS.

  15. Red List of vascular plants of the Wadden Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wind, P.; van der Ende, M.; Garve, E.; Schacherer, A.; Thissen, J. B. M.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea area, a total of 248 (sub)species of vascular plants are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 216 (sub)species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trialteral Red List. 17 (sub)species of the listed vascular plants are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 47 (sub)species of vascular plants is (probably) critical; 61 (sub)species are (probably) endangered; the status of 65 (sub)species is (probably) vulnerable and that of 26 (sub)species susceptible.

  16. Vascular malformations: an update on imaging and management.

    PubMed

    Sierre, Sergio; Teplisky, Darío; Lipsich, José

    2016-04-01

    Vascular malformations comprise a broad and heterogeneous range of lesions that often represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the pediatrician. For a long time, the use of an inaccurate nomenclature has led to confusion. Since management depends on the specific vascular malformation, a proper classification and identification is critical. The objective of this article is to provide the necessary information about the current classification and terminology of vascular anomalies, including basic concepts about available imaging diagnostic and therapeutic tools for the management of such complex condition.

  17. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batagini, Nayara Cioffi; Gornik, Heather; Kirksey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder. Different from other Ehler-Danlos Syndrome subtypes, VEDS has poor prognosis due to severe fragility of connective tissues and association with life-threatening vascular and gastrointestinal complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but hazardous complication related to this syndrome. To date, only 2 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we present another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 54-year-old woman in clinical follow-up for VEDS who presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and hypotension.

  18. Regional intensity of vascular care and lower extremity amputation rates

    PubMed Central

    Goodney, Philip P.; Holman, Kerianne; Henke, Peter K.; Travis, Lori L.; Dimick, Justin B.; Stukel, Therese A.; Fisher, Elliott. S.; Birkmeyer, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the intensity of vascular care and population-based rate of major lower extremity amputation (above-or below-knee) from vascular disease. Background Because patient-level differences do not fully explain the variation in amputation rate across the United States, we hypothesized that variation in intensity of vascular care may also affect regional rates of amputation. Methods Intensity of vascular care was defined as the proportion of Medicare patients who underwent any vascular procedure in the year prior to amputation, calculated at the regional level (2003–2006), using the 306 hospital referral regions in the Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare. We examined relationship between intensity of vascular care and major amputation rate, at the regional level, between 2007–2009. Results Amputation rates varied widely by region, from 1 to 27 per 10,000 Medicare patients. Compared to regions in the lowest quintile of amputation rate, patients in the highest quintile were commonly African American (50% versus 13%) and diabetic (38% versus 31%). Intensity of vascular care also varied across regions: fewer than 35% of patients underwent revascularization in the lowest quintile of intensity, while nearly 60% of patients underwent revascularization in the highest quintile. Overall, there was an inverse correlation between intensity of vascular care and amputation rate ranging from R= −0.36 for outpatient diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, to R= −0.87 for inpatient surgical revascularizations. In analyses adjusting for patient characteristics and socioeconomic status, patients in high vascular care regions were significantly less likely to undergo amputation without an antecedent attempt at revascularization (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.34–0.37, p<0.001). Conclusions The intensity of vascular care provided to patients at risk for amputation varies, and regions with the most intensive vascular care have the lowest amputation rate

  19. Advances in Vascular Hyporeactivity After Shock: The Mechanisms and Managements.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenyang; Yang, Guangming; Li, Tao; Liu, Liangming

    2015-12-01

    Vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictors and vasodilators is greatly reduced after severe trauma, shock, and sepsis or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This reduced vascular reactivity severely interferes with the treatment of shock and other critical conditions. In particular, it interferes with the efficacy of vasoactive agents. Consequently, it is very important to elucidate the mechanisms and search for the effective treatment measures. In recent years, a lot of studies focused on the characteristics and the change rules of vascular hyporeactivity and mechanisms following shock. Also, the treatment approaches based on various mechanisms have been a hot pot these years.

  20. The Role of Uridine Adenosine Tetraphosphate in the Vascular System

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Tostes, Rita C.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    The endothelium plays a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, and endothelial dysfunction is a major feature of cardiovascular diseases, such as arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Recently, uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) has been identified as a novel and potent endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF). Up4A structurally contains both purine and pyrimidine moieties, which activate purinergic receptors. There is an accumulating body of evidence to show that Up4A modulates vascular function by actions on endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this paper, we discuss the effects of Up4A on vascular function and a potential role for Up4A in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22110488