Science.gov

Sample records for con plantago lanceolata

  1. Development of phytophotodermatitis in two cases related to Plantago lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Hatice Uce; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Ozkol, Halil; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Calka, Omer

    2012-03-01

    Plantago lanceolata, also known as snake's tongue, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the family Plantaginaceae. It is a species widely distributed both in Turkey and all over the world. Today, its fresh leaves are still used to soothe and suppress cough, externally for wound healing and draining abscesses. Phytophotodermatitis (PPD) is a dermal photosensitive reaction induced by the contact to or oral intake of a plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight. Its acute course is called phototoxic. In this paper, two cases developed phototoxic reaction with the consumption of Plantago lanceolata and subsequent exposure to the sunlight. These cases were presented since such effect of the plant has not been known previously and there is no resembling case in the literature.

  2. “Sticky invasion” – the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata L. seed mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    The mucilage envelope of seeds has various functions including the provision of different ways for the dispersal of diaspores. Chemical composition and water content of the mucilage yield particular adhesive and frictional properties in the envelope that also influence the dispersal of seeds. To determine the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage we studied (1) composition, (2) desiccation, (3) adhesion, and (4) friction properties of the mucilage under different hydration conditions. We revealed the presence of cellulose fibrils in the mucilage, which are responsible for a continuous and even distribution of the mucilaginous layer on the seed surface. The measured values of adhesive and frictional properties differed significantly in comparison to the previously studied pectic mucilage of Linum usitatissimum. Also, the water loss from the cellulose mucilage was more rapid. The obtained different values can result from the presence of cellulose fibrils and their interaction with pectins in the mucilage. Because of this feature the mucilage of P. lanceolata may represent a more regularly ordered and stabile system than the pectic mucilage of flax, which lacks cellulose. In spite of the fact that P. lanceolata mucilage revealed different adhesive and frictional properties than the pectic mucilage, it still demonstrates an effective system promoting zoochoric seed dispersal. Cellulose may additionally prevent the mucilage against loss from the seed surface. PMID:28144540

  3. Association of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' with yellowing and phyllody of Plantago lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Fránová, J; Simková, M

    2009-09-01

    Long plantains (Plantago lanceolata L.) with symptoms resembling those associated with phytoplasma infection were observed repeatedly during the period 2000-2008 in southern Bohemia (Czech Republic). The symptoms of the plants were leaf yellowing, stunted growth, flower phyllody and lack of seed production. Transmission electron microscopy showed phytoplasmas in the sieve cells of affected plants but not in healthy ones. Association of phytoplasmas with the disease was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using phytoplasma-specific universal ribosomal primers R16F2n/R16R2. An amplification product of the expected size (1.2 kb) was observed in all samples of the symptomatic long plantains. The restriction profiles obtained from digestion of the PCR products with three endonucleases (AluI, HhaI, MseI) showed that the phytoplasmas infecting long plantains in the Czech Republic were indistinguishable from those belonging to the aster yellows group (subgroup 16SrI-B). Sequence analysis of 1748 bp of the ribosomal operon indicated that the closest related phytoplasma was that associated with 'Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea', originating also in Bohemia. This is the first report of the natural occurrence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' in plants of P. lanceolata.

  4. Olfactory selection of Plantago lanceolata by snails declines with seedling age.

    PubMed

    Hanley, M E; Girling, R D; Felix, A E; Olliff, E D; Newland, P L; Poppy, G M

    2013-08-01

    Despite recent recognition that (1) plant-herbivore interactions during the establishment phase, (2) ontogenetic shifts in resource allocation and (3) herbivore response to plant volatile release are each pivotal to a comprehensive understanding of plant defence, no study has examined how herbivore olfactory response varies during seedling ontogeny. Using a Y-tube olfactometer we examined snail (Helix aspersa) olfactory response to pellets derived from macerated Plantago lanceolata plants harvested at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 weeks of age to test the hypothesis that olfactory selection of plants by a generalist herbivore varies with plant age. Plant volatiles were collected for 10 min using solid-phase microextraction technique on 1- and 8-week-old P. lanceolata pellets and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. Selection of P. lanceolata was strongly negatively correlated with increasing age; pellets derived from 1-week-old seedlings were three times more likely to be selected as those from 8-week-old plants. Comparison of plant selection experiments with plant volatile profiles from GC/MS suggests that patterns of olfactory selection may be linked to ontogenetic shifts in concentrations of green leaf volatiles and ethanol (and its hydrolysis derivatives). Although confirmatory of predictions made by contemporary plant defence theory, this is the first study to elucidate a link between seedling age and olfactory selection by herbivores. As a consequence, this study provides a new perspective on the ontogenetic expression of seedling defence, and the role of seedling herbivores, particularly terrestrial molluscs, as selective agents in temperate plant communities.

  5. Purification and immunochemical characterization of Pla l 2, the profilin from Plantago lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Moya, Raquel; Rubio, Virginia; Beitia, Juan Mª; Carnés, Jerónimo; López-Matas, M Angeles

    2017-03-01

    Profilins are small actin-binding proteins found in eukaryotes and involved in cell development, cytokinesis, membrane trafficking, and cell motility. From an allergenic point of view, profilins are panallergens usually involved in allergic polysensitization, although they are generally recognized as minor allergens. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize the profilin from Plantago lanceolata pollen and to investigate the cross-reactivity between profilins from different pollen allergenic sources. Profilins from P. lancelolata (Pla l 2) and palm tree pollen (Pho d 2) were purified by affinity chromatography, deeply characterized and identified by mass spectrometry. Pla l 2 allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot with serum samples from a patient population sensitized to profilin. Immunoblot inhibition was performed to study IgG reactivity between different pollen profilins. IgE cross-reactivity was demonstrated by ImmunoCAP inhibition. Pla l 2 is the second P. lanceolata allergen included in the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature database. Four peptides from purified Pla l 2 were identified with percentages of homology with other pollen profilins between 73 and 86%. Eighty-six percent (21/24) of the patient population recognized Pla l 2. The allergenic relatedness between Pla l 2, Pho d 2 and six pollen profilins was confirmed, and IgE cross-reactivity of Pla l 2 with rBet v 2 and rPhl p 12 was demonstrated. Pla l 2 is the profilin from P. lanceolata. The demonstrated allergenicity of this protein and its cross-reactivity with other pollen profilins support its use in profilin diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzymatic activities and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in a soil root zone under heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Fojcik, Barbara; Chmura, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the present field study were to examine the soil enzyme activities in the soil root zones of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in different heavy metal contaminated stands. Moreover, the investigations concerned the intensity of root endophytic colonization and metal bioaccumulation in roots and shoots. The investigated Plantago species exhibited an excluder strategy, accumulating higher metal content in the roots than in the shoots. The heavy metal accumulation levels found in the two plantain species in this study were comparable to other plants suggested as phytostabilizers; therefore, the selected Plantago species may be applied in the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated areas. The lower level of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) as well as the higher bioavailability of metals in the root zone soil of the two plantain species were found in an area affected by smelting activity, where organic matter content in the soil was also the smallest. Mycorrhizal colonization on both species in the contaminated area was similar to colonization in non-contaminated stands. However, the lowest arbuscule occurrence and an absence of dark septate endophytes were found in the area affected by the smelting activity. It corresponded with the lowest plant cover observed in this stand. The assessment of enzyme activity, mycorrhizal colonization, and the chemical and physical properties of soils proved to be sensitive to differences between sites and between Plantago species.

  7. Characterization of copper-resistant rhizosphere bacteria from Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata for copper bioreduction and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Copper is a toxic heavy metal widely used to microbial control especially in agriculture. Consequently, high concentrations of copper residues remain in soils selecting copper-resistant organisms. In vineyards, copper is routinely used for fungi control. This work was undertaken to study copper resistance by rhizosphere microorganisms from two plants (Avena sativa L. and Plantago lanceolata L.) common in vineyard soils. Eleven rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated, and four displayed high resistance to copper. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas putida (A1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (A2) and Acinetobacter sp. (A6), isolated from Avena sativa rhizosphere, and Acinetobacter sp. (T5), isolated from Plantago lanceolata rhizosphere. The isolates displayed high copper resistance in the temperature range from 25°C to 35°C and pH in the range from 5.0 to 9.0. Pseudomonas putida A1 resisted as much as 1,000 mg L(-1) of copper. The isolates showed similar behavior on copper removal from liquid medium, with a bioremoval rate of 30% at 500 mg L(-1) after 24 h of growth. Speciation of copper revealed high copper biotransformation, reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), capacity. Results indicate that our isolates are potential agents for copper bioremoval and bacterial stimulation of copper biosorption by Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata.

  8. Influence of restoration on arbuscular mycorrhiza of Biscutella laevigata L. (Brassicaceae) and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) from calamine spoil mounds.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, E; Zubek, Sz; Jurkiewicz, A; Szarek- Łukaszewska, G; Turnau, K

    2002-06-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of two plant species, Biscutella laevigata L. and Plantago lanceolata L., was investigated on calamine spoil mounds in Bolesław (southern Poland). Although B. laevigata is a member of the Brassicaceae, a family generally accepted as non-mycorrhizal, this species formed AM symbioses on both heavy metal-contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Besides vesicles and coils, arbuscules were also observed, especially in roots collected prior to seed maturity. Relative mycorrhizal root length and relative arbuscular richness were usually much higher in P. lanceolata than in B. laevigata but not absolute arbuscule richness. Roots of P. lanceolata showed higher colonisation than B. laevigata. Although roots were collected from plants in close proximity, no correlation in mycorrhizal parameters was found between the two species.

  9. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F.; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind–stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. PMID:25297315

  10. Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area.

    PubMed

    Baroni, F; Boscagli, A; Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2000-08-01

    Preliminary data of a biogeochemical survey concerning antimony transfer from soil to plants in an abandoned Sb-mining area are presented. Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris can strongly accumulate antimony when its extractable fraction in the soil is high (139-793 mg/kg). A. ageratum accumulates in basal leaves (1367 mg/kg) and inflorescences (1105 mg/kg), P. lanceolata in roots (1150 mg/kg) and S. vulgaris in shoots (1164 mg/kg). In these plant species, the efficiency of antimony accumulation decreases when the antimony availability in the soil is high. In A. ageratum and S. vulgaris, the death of the epigeal target part at the end of the growing season contributes to a reduction of the antimony load in the plant. A study to test the use of these species as bioindicators of antimony availability in soil is suggested by our results.

  11. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D

    2014-12-06

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of plant β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of iridoid glycosides and their hydrolyzing enzymes in Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major.

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Buschmann, Torsten; Müller, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    The typical defense compounds of Plantaginaceae are the iridoid glycosides, which retard growth and/or enhance mortality of non-adapted herbivores. In plants, glycosidic defense compounds and hydrolytic enzymes often form a dual defense system, in which the glycosides are activated by the enzymes to exert biological effects. Yet, little is known about the activating enzymes in iridoid glycoside-containing plants. To examine the role of plant-derived β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of two common plantain species, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major, we determined the concentration of iridoid glycosides as well as the β-glucosidase activity in leaves of different age. To investigate the presence of other leaf metabolites potentially involved in plant defense, we used a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. According to the optimal defense hypothesis, more valuable parts such as young leaves should be better protected than less valuable parts. Therefore, we expected that both, the concentrations of defense compounds as well as the β-glucosidase activity, should be highest in younger leaves and decrease with increasing leaf age. Both species possessed β-glucosidase activity, which hydrolyzed aucubin, one of the two most abundant iridoid glycosides in both plant species, with high activity. In line with the optimal defense hypothesis, the β-glucosidase activity in both Plantago species as well as the concentration of defense-related metabolites such as iridoid glycosides correlated negatively to leaf age. When leaf extracts were incubated with bovine serum albumin and aucubin, SDS-PAGE revealed a protein-denaturing effect of the leaf extracts of both plantain species, suggesting that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidase interact in a dual defense system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Light and Nutrient Dependent Responses in Secondary Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata Offspring Are Due to Phenotypic Plasticity in Experimental Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Miehe-Steier, Annegret; Roscher, Christiane; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2015-01-01

    A few studies in the past have shown that plant diversity in terms of species richness and functional composition can modify plant defense chemistry. However, it is not yet clear to what extent genetic differentiation of plant chemotypes or phenotypic plasticity in response to diversity-induced variation in growth conditions or a combination of both is responsible for this pattern. We collected seed families of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) from six-year old experimental grasslands of varying plant diversity (Jena Experiment). The offspring of these seed families was grown under standardized conditions with two levels of light and nutrients. The iridoid glycosides, catalpol and aucubin, and verbascoside, a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside, were measured in roots and shoots. Although offspring of different seed families differed in the tissue concentrations of defensive metabolites, plant diversity in the mothers' environment did not explain the variation in the measured defensive metabolites of P. lanceolata offspring. However secondary metabolite levels in roots and shoots were strongly affected by light and nutrient availability. Highest concentrations of iridoid glycosides and verbascoside were found under high light conditions, and nutrient availability had positive effects on iridoid glycoside concentrations in plants grown under high light conditions. However, verbascoside concentrations decreased under high levels of nutrients irrespective of light. The data from our greenhouse study show that phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation rather than genetic differentiation in response to plant community diversity is responsible for variation in secondary metabolite concentrations of P. lanceolata in the six-year old communities of the grassland biodiversity experiment. Due to its large phenotypic plasticity P. lanceolata has the potential for a fast and efficient adjustment to varying environmental conditions in plant communities of

  14. Light and Nutrient Dependent Responses in Secondary Metabolites of Plantago lanceolata Offspring Are Due to Phenotypic Plasticity in Experimental Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Miehe-Steier, Annegret; Roscher, Christiane; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B.

    2015-01-01

    A few studies in the past have shown that plant diversity in terms of species richness and functional composition can modify plant defense chemistry. However, it is not yet clear to what extent genetic differentiation of plant chemotypes or phenotypic plasticity in response to diversity-induced variation in growth conditions or a combination of both is responsible for this pattern. We collected seed families of ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) from six-year old experimental grasslands of varying plant diversity (Jena Experiment). The offspring of these seed families was grown under standardized conditions with two levels of light and nutrients. The iridoid glycosides, catalpol and aucubin, and verbascoside, a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside, were measured in roots and shoots. Although offspring of different seed families differed in the tissue concentrations of defensive metabolites, plant diversity in the mothers' environment did not explain the variation in the measured defensive metabolites of P. lanceolata offspring. However secondary metabolite levels in roots and shoots were strongly affected by light and nutrient availability. Highest concentrations of iridoid glycosides and verbascoside were found under high light conditions, and nutrient availability had positive effects on iridoid glycoside concentrations in plants grown under high light conditions. However, verbascoside concentrations decreased under high levels of nutrients irrespective of light. The data from our greenhouse study show that phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation rather than genetic differentiation in response to plant community diversity is responsible for variation in secondary metabolite concentrations of P. lanceolata in the six-year old communities of the grassland biodiversity experiment. Due to its large phenotypic plasticity P. lanceolata has the potential for a fast and efficient adjustment to varying environmental conditions in plant communities of

  15. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activity on Salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and Chemical Characterisation of the Phenolic Content of a Plantago lanceolata Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Lia; Ingenito, Aniello; Roscetto, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves) on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse with a P. lanceolata mouth rinse, and Group B received a placebo mouth rinse for seven days. The salivary colonisation by streptococci and lactobacilli was investigated prior to treatment and on the fourth and seventh days. Finally, the P. lanceolata tea was analysed for its polyphenolic content, and major phenolics were identified. Results and Discussion. P. lanceolata teas demonstrate good in vitro antimicrobial activity. The in vivo test showed that Group A subjects presented a significant decrease in streptococci compared to Group B. The phytochemical analysis revealed that flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, cinnamic acids, lignans, and phenolic compounds are present in P. lanceolata infusions. Conclusions. P. lanceolata extract could represent a natural anticariogenic agent via an antimicrobial effect and might be useful as an ancillary measure to control the proliferation of cariogenic flora. PMID:25767805

  16. Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 can colonize and improve P uptake of Plantago lanceolata after exposure to ionizing gamma radiation in root organ culture.

    PubMed

    Kothamasi, David; Wannijn, Jean; van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; van Gompel, Axel; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2016-04-01

    Long-lived radionuclides such as (90)Sr and (137)Cs can be naturally or accidentally deposited in the upper soil layers where they emit β/γ radiation. Previous studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can accumulate and transfer radionuclides from soil to plant, but there have been no studies on the direct impact of ionizing radiation on AMF. In this study, root organ cultures of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 were exposed to 15.37, 30.35, and 113.03 Gy gamma radiation from a (137)Cs source. Exposed spores were subsequently inoculated to Plantago lanceolata seedlings in pots, and root colonization and P uptake evaluated. P. lanceolata seedlings inoculated with non-irradiated AMF spores or with spores irradiated with up to 30.35 Gy gamma radiation had similar levels of root colonization. Spores irradiated with 113.03 Gy gamma radiation failed to colonize P. lanceolata roots. P content of plants inoculated with non-irradiated spores or of plants inoculated with spores irradiated with up to 30.35 Gy gamma radiation was higher than in non-mycorrhizal plants or plants inoculated with spores irradiated with 113.03 Gy gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that spores of R. irregularis MUCL 41833 are tolerant to chronic ionizing radiation at high doses.

  17. Effects of the Timing of Herbivory on Plant Defense Induction and Insect Performance in Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) Depend on Plant Mycorrhizal Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Bezemer, T Martijn; van der Putten, Wim H; Biere, Arjen

    2015-11-01

    Plants often are exposed to antagonistic and symbiotic organisms both aboveground and belowground. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms may occur either simultaneously or sequentially, and jointly can determine plant responses to future enemies. However, little is known about time-dependency of such aboveground-belowground interactions. We examined how the timing of a 24 h period of aboveground herbivory by Spodoptera exigua (1-8 d prior to later arriving conspecifics) influenced the response of Plantago lanceolata and the performance of later arriving conspecifics. We also examined whether these induced responses were modulated by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae. The amount of leaf area consumed by later arriving herbivores decreased with time after induction by early herbivores. Mycorrhizal infection reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of later arriving herbivores, associated with a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food rather than a reduction in relative consumption rates. In non-mycorrhizal plants, leaf concentrations of the defense compound catalpol showed a linear two-fold increase during the eight days following early herbivory. By contrast, mycorrhizal plants already had elevated levels of leaf catalpol prior to their exposure to early herbivory and did not show any further increase following herbivory. These results indicate that AMF resulted in a systemic induction, rather than priming of these defenses. AMF infection significantly reduced shoot biomass of Plantago lanceolata. We conclude that plant responses to future herbivores are not only influenced by exposure to prior aboveground and belowground organisms, but also by when these prior organisms arrive and interact.

  18. Variation in host susceptibility among and within populations ofPlantago lanceolata L. infected by the fungusPhomopsis subordinaria (Desm.) Trav.

    PubMed

    de Nooij, Marianne P; van Damme, Jos M M

    1988-05-01

    Susceptibility toPhomopsis stalk disease ofPlantago lanceolata genotypes, sampled in three different populations with a variable degree of infection by the fungusPhomopsis subordinaria, was determined under greenhouse conditions. Susceptibility of the host varied within, but not among populations. No relationship between the intensity of the disease in the field and the mean susceptibility of the host genotypes sampled at those locations could be established. Host susceptibility appeared to be composed of the host genotypes sampled at those locations could be established. Host susceptibility appeared to be composed of different (uncorrelated) plant characteristics. Determining whether host genotypes are highly or slightly susceptible can only be achieved by field trials, where the plants are exposed to the whole set of disease inducing factors. The relevance of host susceptibility to the intensity of disease in the field is discussed in relation to the variation in pathogenicity of the fungus and the variation in environmental factors prevailing inP. lanceolata populations underP. subordinaria pathogen pressure.

  19. Growth, respiration and nutrient acquisition by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and its host plant Plantago lanceolata in cooled soil.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, T; Hodge, A; Fitter, A H

    2012-04-01

    Although plant phosphate uptake is reduced by low soil temperature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are responsible for P uptake in many plants. We investigated growth and carbon allocation of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and a host plant (Plantago lanceolata) under reduced soil temperature. Plants were grown in compartmented microcosm units to determine the impact on both fungus and roots of a constant 2.7 °C reduction in soil temperature for 16 d. C allocation was measured using two (13)CO(2) pulse labels. Although root growth was reduced by cooling, AM colonization, growth and respiration of the extraradical mycelium (ERM) and allocation of assimilated (13)C to the ERM were all unaffected; the frequency of arbuscules increased. In contrast, root respiration and (13)C content and plant P and Zn content were all reduced by cooling. Cooling had less effect on N and K, and none on Ca and Mg content. The AM fungus G. mosseae was more able to sustain activity in cooled soil than were the roots of P. lanceolata, and so enhanced plant P content under a realistic degree of soil cooling that reduced plant growth. AM fungi may therefore be an effective means to promote plant nutrition under low soil temperatures.

  20. Impact of the dual defence system of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) on performance, nutrient utilisation and feeding choice behaviour of Amata mogadorensis larvae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Gehring, René; Müller, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Iridoid glycosides are plant defence compounds with potentially detrimental effects on non-adapted herbivores. Some plant species possess β-glucosidases that hydrolyse iridoid glycosides and thereby release protein-denaturing aglycones. To test the hypothesis that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidases form a dual defence system, we used Plantago lanceolata and a polyphagous caterpillar species. To analyse the impact of leaf-age dependent differences in iridoid glycoside concentrations and β-glucosidase activities on insect performance, old or young leaves were freeze-dried and incorporated into artificial diets or were provided freshly to the larvae. We determined larval consumption rates and the amounts of assimilated nitrogen. Furthermore, we quantified β-glucosidase activities in artificial diets and fresh leaves and the amount of iridoid glycosides that larvae feeding on fresh leaves ingested and excreted. Compared to fresh leaves, caterpillars grew faster on artificial diets, on which larval weight gain correlated positively to the absorbed amount of nitrogen. When feeding fresh young leaves, larvae even lost weight and excreted only minute proportions of the ingested iridoid glycosides intact with the faeces, indicating that the hydrolysis of these compounds might have interfered with nitrogen assimilation and impaired larval growth. To disentangle physiological effects from deterrent effects of iridoid glycosides, we performed dual choice feeding assays. Young leaves, their methanolic extracts and pure catalpol reduced larval feeding in comparison to the respective controls, while aucubin had no effect on larval consumption. We conclude that the dual defence system of P. lanceolata consisting of iridoid glycosides and β-glucosidases interferes with the nutrient utilisation via the hydrolysis of iridoid glycosides and also mediates larval feeding behaviour in a concentration- and substance-specific manner.

  1. The effects of mineral nitrogen limitation, competition, arbuscular mycorrhiza, and their respective interactions, on morphological and chemical plant traits of Plantago lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Höpfner, Ingo; Matuszak, Agnieszka; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Müller, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that suffer from a multitude of challenges such as abiotic stress or the interactions with competitors, antagonists and symbionts, which influence their performance as well as their eco-physiological and biochemical responses in complex ways. In particular, the combination of different stressors and their impact on plant biomass production and the plant's ability to metabolically adjust to these challenges are less well understood. To study the effects of mineral nitrogen (N) availability, interspecific competition and the association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on biomass production, biomass allocation patterns (root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area) and metabolic responses, we chose the model organism Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Plants were grown in a full factorial experiment. Biomass production and its allocation patterns were assessed at harvest, and the influence of the different treatments and their interactions on the plant metabolome were analysed using a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Limited supply of mineral N caused the most pronounced changes with respect to plant biomass and biomass allocation patterns, and altered the concentrations of more than one third of the polar plant metabolome. Competition also impaired plant biomass production, yet affected the plant metabolome to a much lesser extent than limited mineral N supply. The interaction of competition and limited mineral N supply often caused additive changes on several traits. The association with AMF did not enhance biomass production, but altered biomass allocation patterns such as the root/shoot ratio and the specific leaf area. Interestingly, we did not find significant changes in the plant metabolome caused by AMF. A targeted analysis revealed that only limited mineral N supply reduced the concentrations of one of the main target defence

  2. Family- and population-level responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration: gas exchange and the allocation of C, N, and biomass in Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Jenkins Klus, D; Kalisz, S; Curtis, P S; Teeri, J A; Tonsor, S J

    2001-06-01

    To ascertain the inheritance of responses to changing atmospheric CO(2) content, we partitioned response to elevated CO(2) in Plantago lanceolata between families and populations in 18 families in two populations. Plants were grown in 35 Pa and 71 Pa partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)) in open-top chambers. We measured above- and belowground mass, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hexose sugar, and gas exchange properties in both CO(2) treatments. Families within populations differed in mass, mass allocation, root : shoot ratios, aboveground percentage N, C : N ratio, and gas exchange properties. The CO(2) × family interaction is the main indicator of potential evolutionary responses to changing CO(2). Significant CO(2) × family interactions were observed for N content, C : N ratio, and photosynthetic rate (A: instantaneous light-saturated carbon assimilation capacity), intercellular CO(2) concentration, transpiration rate (E), and water use efficiency (WUE = A/E), but not for stomatal conductance. Families differed significantly in acclimation across time. The ratio of A in elevated vs. ambient growth CO(2), when measured at a common internal CO(2) partial pressure was 0.79, indicating down-regulation of A under CO(2) enrichment. Mass, C : N ratio, percentage, C (%C), and soluble sugar all increased significantly but overall %N did not change. Increases in %C and sugar were significant and were coincident with redistribution of N aboveground. The observed variation among populations and families in response to CO(2) is evidence of genetic variation in response and therefore of the potential for novel evolutionary trajectories with rising atmospheric CO(2).

  3. Effect of high relative humidity on dried Plantago lanceolata L. leaves during long-term storage: effects on chemical composition, colour and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Sándor; Tóth, László; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Braun, Mihály; Emri, Tamás; Vasas, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Modern phytotherapy and quality assurance requires stability data on bioactive metabolites to identify and minimise decomposing factors during processing and storage. A compound's stability in a complex matrix can be different from the stability of the purified compound. To test the stability of iridoids and acteoside and quantify changes in colour and microbiological quality in a common herbal tea, dried P. lanceolata leaves during exposure to high-humidity air. To test the contribution of fungi to metabolite decomposition. Dried P. lanceolata leaves were exposed to atmospheres of different relative humidity (75, 45 and 0%) for 24 weeks. Changes in aucubin and catalpol concentration were determined by CE-MEKC, and those in acteoside on TLC. Colour and chlorophyll-like pigments were measured by different spectrophotometric methods. The number of fungi was monitored; 10 strains were isolated from the plant drug, and their ability to decompose the analytes of interest was tested. During incubation at 75% relative humidity (RH), aucubin, catalpol and acteoside concentrations decreased by 95.7, 97.0 and 70.5%, respectively. Strong shifts were detected in CIELAB parameters a* and b* (browning) as a result of conversion of chlorophyll to pheophytin. Intensive microbial proliferation was also observed. Changes at 45 or 0% RH were typically insignificant. Seven of the 10 isolated fungal strains could decompose both iridoids, and five could decompose acteoside in vitro. It was shown that exposure to water results in loss of bioactive molecules of P. lanceolata dried leaves, and that colonising fungi are the key contributors to this loss. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Plantago lanceolata Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Mice by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase-2 and Reducing Chemokines Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fakhrudin, Nanang; Dwi Astuti, Eny; Sulistyawati, Rini; Santosa, Djoko; Susandarini, Ratna; Nurrochmad, Arief; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in the progression of many disorders, such as tumors, arthritis, gastritis, and atherosclerosis. Thus, the development of new agents targeting inflammation is still challenging. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases including inflammation. A previous study has indicated that dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata leaves exerts anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro model. Here, we examined the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a n-hexane insoluble fraction of P. lanceolata leaves dichloromethane extract (HIFPL). We first evaluated its potency to reduce paw edema induced by carrageenan, and the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in mice. The efficacy of HIFPL to inhibit COX-2 was also evaluated in an in vitro enzymatic assay. We further studied the effect of HIFPL on leukocytes migration in mice induced by thioglycollate. The level of chemokines facilitating the migration of leukocytes was also measured. We found that HIFPL (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in mice. The HIFPL reduced the volume of paw edema and COX-2 expression. However, HIFPL acts as an unselective COX-2 inhibitor as it inhibited COX-1 with a slightly higher potency. Interestingly, HIFPL strongly inhibited leukocyte migration by reducing the level of chemokines, Interleukine-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). PMID:28335408

  5. n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Plantago lanceolata Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Mice by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase-2 and Reducing Chemokines Levels.

    PubMed

    Fakhrudin, Nanang; Dwi Astuti, Eny; Sulistyawati, Rini; Santosa, Djoko; Susandarini, Ratna; Nurrochmad, Arief; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2017-03-13

    Inflammation is involved in the progression of many disorders, such as tumors, arthritis, gastritis, and atherosclerosis. Thus, the development of new agents targeting inflammation is still challenging. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases including inflammation. A previous study has indicated that dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata leaves exerts anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro model. Here, we examined the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a n-hexane insoluble fraction of P. lanceolata leaves dichloromethane extract (HIFPL). We first evaluated its potency to reduce paw edema induced by carrageenan, and the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in mice. The efficacy of HIFPL to inhibit COX-2 was also evaluated in an in vitro enzymatic assay. We further studied the effect of HIFPL on leukocytes migration in mice induced by thioglycollate. The level of chemokines facilitating the migration of leukocytes was also measured. We found that HIFPL (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in mice. The HIFPL reduced the volume of paw edema and COX-2 expression. However, HIFPL acts as an unselective COX-2 inhibitor as it inhibited COX-1 with a slightly higher potency. Interestingly, HIFPL strongly inhibited leukocyte migration by reducing the level of chemokines, Interleukine-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).

  6. Effects of N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio on phenylethanoid glycoside pattern in tissue cultures of Plantago lanceolata L.: a metabolomics driven full-factorial experiment with LC-ESI-MS(3.).

    PubMed

    Gonda, Sándor; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Szűcs, Zsolt; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor

    2014-10-01

    Tissue cultures of a medicinal plant, Plantago lanceolata L. were screened for phenylethanoid glycosides (PGs) and other natural products (NPs) with LC-ESI-MS(3). The effects of N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio were evaluated in a full-factorial (FF) experiment. N concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 60mM, and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratios of 0, 0.11, 0.20 and 0.33 (ratio of NH4(+) in total N source) were tested. Several peaks could be identified as PGs, of which, 16 could be putatively identified from the MS/MS/MS spectra. N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio had significant effects on the metabolome, their effects on individual PGs were different despite these metabolites were of the same biosynthethic class. Chief PGs were plantamajoside and acteoside (verbascoside), their highest concentrations were 3.54±0.83% and 1.30±0.40% of dry weight, on media 10(0.33) and 40(0.33), respectively. NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio and N source concentration effects were examined on a set of 89 NPs. For most NPs, high increases in abundance were observed compared to Murashige-Skoog medium. Abundances of 42 and 10 NPs were significantly influenced by the N source concentration and the NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio, respectively. Optimal media for production of different NP clusters were 10(0), 10(0.11) and 40(0.33). Interaction was observed between NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio and N source concentration for many NPs. It was shown in simulated experiments, that one-factor at a time (OFAT) experimental designs lead to sub-optimal media compositions for production of many NPs, and alternative experimental designs (e.g. FF) should be preferred when optimizing medium N source for optimal yield of NPs. If using OFAT, the N source concentration is to be optimized first, followed by NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio, as this reduces the likeliness of suboptimal yield results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA authentication of Plantago Herb based on nucleotide sequences of 18S-28S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Fatma Pinar; Yamashita, Hiromi; Guo, Yahong; Terasaka, Kazuyoshi; Kondo, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Fujita, Masao; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Sakai, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Goda, Yukihiro; Mizukami, Hajime

    2007-07-01

    Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene were amplified from 23 plant- and herbarium specimens belonging to eight Plantago species (P. asiatica, P. depressa, P. major, P. erosa, P. hostifolia, P. camtschatica, P. virginica and P. lanceolata). Sequence comparison indicated that these Plantago species could be identified based on the sequence type of the ITS locus. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions amplified from the crude drug Plantago Herb obtained in the markets indicated that all the drugs from Japan were derived from P. asiatica whereas the samples obtained in China were originated from various Plantago species including P. asiatica, P. depressa, P. major and P. erosa.

  8. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    PubMed

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Trace Element Content of the Leaves and Roots of Three Plantago Species.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Suliburska, Joanna; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Regula, Julita; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the trace element content of the leaves and roots of three Plantago species (P. maxima Juss. ex Jacq., P. major L., and P. lanceolata L.). Trace element levels were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data indicate that the leaves of P. lanceolata are characterized by the highest Co, Cr, and Se content, whereas P. maxima leaves contained the greatest levels of Si and Zn. In contrast, the highest concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Si, and V were detected in the roots of P. major. Zn content was also higher in P. maxima roots than in the other species analyzed. The toxic trace elements were differentially distributed across the studied species. In particular, P. lanceolata leaves contained significantly higher Al, As, Li, Ni, Pb, and Sr levels, whereas the B and Cd content was elevated in P. major as compared to the other species. Surprisingly, the leaf Hg level was the lowest in P. major, whose levels of Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Li, and Sr were significantly higher than the other two species. The data indicate that the concentration of most of the essential trace elements was higher in the leaves and roots of P. major and P. lanceolata than in P. maxima, while P. maxima had less toxic metals. The obtained data on trace elements content in Plantago tissues may be taken into account while using plant preparations in practical medicine.

  10. Characterization and Physical Mapping of Ribosomal RNA Gene Families in Plantago

    PubMed Central

    DHAR, MANOJ K.; FRIEBE, BERND; KAUL, SANJANA; GILL, BIKRAM S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The organization of rRNA genes in cultivated Plantago ovata Forsk. and several of its wild allies was analysed to gain insight into the phylogenetic relationships of these species in the genus which includes some 200 species. • Methods Specific primers were designed to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions from seven Plantago species and the resulting fragments were cloned and sequenced. Similarly, using specific primers, the 5S rRNA genes from these species were amplified and subsequently cloned. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 45S ribosomal RNA genes. • Results The ITS1 region is 19–29 bp longer than the ITS2 in different Plantago species. The 5S rRNA gene-repeating unit varies in length from 289 to 581 bp. Coding regions are highly conserved across species, but the non-transcribed spacers (NTS) do not match any database sequences. The clone from the cultivated species P. ovata was used for physical mapping of these genes by FISH. Four species have one FISH site while three have two FISH sites. In P. lanceolata and P. rhodosperma, the 5S and 45S (18S-5·8S-25S) sites are coupled. • Conclusions Characterization of 5S and 45S rRNA genes has indicated a possible origin of P. ovata, the only cultivated species of the genus and also the only species with x = 4, from a species belonging to subgenus Psyllium. Based on the studies reported here, P. ovata is closest to P. arenaria, although on the basis of other data the two species have been placed in different subgenera. FISH mapping can be used as an efficient tool to help determine phylogenetic relationships in the genus Plantago and show the interrelationship between P. lanceolata and P. lagopus. PMID:16481363

  11. Abietane diterpenoids from Cephalotaxus lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jiao; Ni, Ling; Bao, Mei-Fen; Wang, Li; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2017-04-12

    A new abietane diterpenoid, 12-O-methyl-20-deoxocarnosol-3-one (1), and eight known abietane diterpenoids including 13-abietadien-12-one (2), 5,6-dehydrosugiol (3), sugiol (4), torreyayunnin (5), taxusabietane A (6), hinokiol (7), 3-acetoxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-12-ol (8), and martiusane (9) were obtained from leaves and twigs of Cephalotaxus lanceolata. The structures of isolated compounds (1-9) were determined based on analysis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with those reported in the literature. Compounds 3, 8 and 9 were first isolated from the plants of Cephalotaxus genus.

  12. Ontogenetic patterns in the mechanisms of tolerance to herbivory in Plantago

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Kasey E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Herbivory and plant defence differ markedly among seedlings and juvenile and mature plants in most species. While ontogenetic patterns of chemical resistance have been the focus of much research, comparatively little is known about how tolerance to damage changes across ontogeny. Due to dramatic shifts in plant size, resource acquisition, stored reserves and growth, it was predicted that tolerance and related underlying mechanisms would differ among ontogenetic stages. Methods Ontogenetic patterns in the mechanisms of tolerance were investigated in Plantago lanceolata and P. major (Plantaginaceae) using the genetic sib-ship approach. Pot-grown plants were subjected to 50 % defoliation at the seedling, juvenile and mature stages and either harvested in the short-term to look at plasticity in growth and photosynthesis in response to damage or allowed to grow through seed maturation to measure phenology, shoot compensation and reproductive fitness. Key Results Tolerance to defoliation was high in P. lanceolata, but low in P. major, and did not vary among ontogenetic stages in either species. Mechanisms underlying tolerance did vary across ontogeny. In P. lanceolata, tolerance was significantly related to flowering (juveniles) and pre-damage shoot biomass (mature plants). In P. major, tolerance was significantly related to pre-damage root biomass (seedlings) and induction of non-photochemical quenching, a photosynthetic parameter (juveniles). Conclusions Biomass partitioning was very plastic in response to damage and showed associations with tolerance in both species, indicating a strong role in plant defence. In contrast, photosynthesis and phenology showed weaker responses to damage and were related to tolerance only in certain ontogenetic stages. This study highlights the pivotal role of ontogeny in plant defence and herbivory. Additional studies in more species are needed to determine how seedlings tolerate herbivory in general and whether

  13. Sequence variability between Plantago asiatica mosaic virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) was described four decades ago from the weedy species Plantago asiatica in the Russian Far East, but has also been reported from lilies (Lilium spp.) and primrose (Primula seiboldii) in Japan. More recently PlAMV has been reported in the Netherlands and elsewhe...

  14. Does the direct effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration on leaf respiration vary with temperature? Responses in two species of Plantago that differ in relative growth rate.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on leaf respiration in darkness (R) over a broad range of measurement temperatures. Our aim was to further elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) of the often-reported inhibition of leaf R by a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Experiments were conducted using two species of Plantago that differed in maximum relative growth rate (fast-growing Plantago lanceolata L. and the slow-growing P. euryphylla Briggs, Carolin & Pulley). Rates of leaf respiration (R) were measured at atmospheric CO2 concentrations ranging from 75 to 2000 &mgr;mol mol-1 at temperatures from 12 to 42 degrees C. R was measured as CO2 release with a portable gas exchange system with infrared gas analysers. Our hypothesis was that the changes in temperature alter the flux coefficient (i.e. the extent to which changes in potential enzyme activity has an effect on the rate of a reaction) of enzymes potentially affected by CO2. Initial analysis of our results suggested that R was inhibited by elevated CO2 in both species, with the apparent degree of inhibition being greatest at low temperature. Moreover, the apparent degree of inhibition following a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 350 to 700 &mgr;mol mol-1 was similar to that reported by several previous studies (approximately 14% and 26% for P. lanceolata and P. euryphylla, respectively) at a temperature equal to the mean of the previous studies. However, subsequent correction for diffusion leaks of CO2 across the gas exchange's cuvette gaskets revealed that no significant inhibition had occurred in either species, at any temperature. The inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on leaf respiratory CO2 release reported by previous studies may therefore have been overestimated.

  15. In Vitro Effects of Plantago Major Extract on Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sharifa Abdul; See, Tan Lee; Khuay, Lim Yew; Osman, Khairul; Abu Bakar, Mohd. Azman

    2005-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the in vitro effect of Plantago major extract on calcium oxalate crystals and to compare the effects of Plantago major extract with clinically used drugs like allopurinol and potassium citrate (positive controls). Modified Schneider slide gel method was used for the in vitro study and the crystals formed were measured by Image Analyser system KS 300, 3.0 Carl Zeiss. The concentrations of Plantago major extract used were from 100ppm to 350ppm. Plantago major extract at concentrations in the range of (100ppm–350ppm) significantly inhibited the size of calcium oxate crystals (dihydrate variety) against negative control (p<0.05) and against positive controls (p<0.05). However the inhibition concentration 50 (IC50) values on the size of calcium oxalate crystal for the extract, potassium citrate and allopurinol were 300ppm, 350ppm and 450ppm respectively. Extract of Plantago major also has inhibition effect on the number of crystals but it was not significant. In conclusion extract of Plantago major was better than allopurinol and potassium citrate in inhibiting the size of the calcium oxalate crystal in-vitro. PMID:22605954

  16. Phytoremediation of cyanophos insecticide by Plantago major L. in water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cyanophos is commonly used in Egypt to control various agricultural and horticultural pests. It is not easily hydrolyzed and thus they are highly persistent and accumulate in various aquatic compartments such as rivers and lakes. Such issues may be solved by phytoremediation, which is the use of plants for the cleanup of pollutants. Here, we tested Plantago major L. to clean water polluted with cyanophos insecticide under laboratory conditions.The biosorption capacity (KF) of cyanophos were 76.91, 26.18 and 21.09 μg/g for dry roots, fruit (seeds with shells) and leaves of the Plantago major L., respectively. Viable Plantago major L. in water significantly reduced cyanophos by 11.0% & 94.7% during 2 hours & 9 days of exposure as compared with 0.8% & 36.9% in water without the plantain. In water with plantain, cyanophos significantly accumulated in plantain roots and leaves to reach maximum levels after two and four hours of treatment, respectively. After 1 day, the concentration of cyanophos decreased in roots and shoots until the end of testing. Three major degradation products were detected at roots and leaf samples. Here we demonstrate that plantago major L. removes efficiently cyanophos residue in water and has a potential activity for pesticide phytoremediation. PMID:24447385

  17. [Energy and nutrient characteristics of Carex lanceolata in Ziwuling of Loess Plateu].

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-ling; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2008-01-01

    The study on the energy and nutrient characteristics of Carex lanceolata, a dominant companion species in different plant communities in Ziwuling forest area of Loess Plateau showed that the ash free caloric values of the aboveground and underground parts of the species tended to decline in the communities experienced different successional stages. The aboveground part of C. lanceolata had the highest ash free caloric value in Sophora viciifolia community and the lowest in Hippophae rhamnoides community. The underground part of C. lanceolata had the highest ash free caloric value in S. viciifolia community and the lowest in Quercus liaotungensis community. The aboveground part of C. lanceolata had a remarkably higher caloric value than its underground part, and the underground part appeared to extremely significantly differ in gross and ash-free caloric values among different communities. The caloric value of C. lanceolata varied greatly in the communities going through their early successional stages (S. viciifolia, H. rhamnoides, Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla communities), and less greatly in the communities experiencing their later successional stages (Pinus tabulaeformis and Q. liaotungensis communities). There was a significant positive correlation between the gross caloric value and the C/N ratio in the underground part of C. lanceolata.

  18. Fecal microbiome of growing pigs fed a cereal based diet including chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) forage

    SciTech Connect

    Dicksved, Johan; Jansson, Janet K.; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2015-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inclusion of chicory forage or ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet influenced the fecal microbial community (microbiome) in newly weaned (35 days of age) piglets. The piglets were fed a cereal-based diet without (B) and with inclusion (80 and 160 g/kg air-dry forage) of vegetative shoots of chicory (C) and leaves of ribwort (R) forage in a 35-day growth trial. Fecal samples were collected at the start (D0), 17 (D17) and 35 (D35) days after weaning and profiles of the microbial consortia were generated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). 454-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to analyze the microbial composition in a subset of the samples already analyzed with T-RFLP. RESULTS: The microbial clustering pattern was primarily dependent on age of the pigs, but diet effects could also be observed. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria were more abundant at D0, whereas the genera Streptococcus, Treponema, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae1 and Coprococcus were present in higher abundances at D35. Pigs fed ribwort had an increased abundance of sequences classified as Treponema and a reduction in lactobacilli. However, the abundance of Prevotellaceae increased with age in on both the chicory and the ribwort diet. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the abundance of Bacteroides and the digested amount of galactose, uronic acids and total non-starch polysaccharides, and between the abundance of Bacteroidales and the digested amount of xylose. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both chicory and ribwort inclusion in the diet of newly weaned pigs influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota and that digestion of specific dietary components was correlated with species composition of the microbiota. Moreover, this study showed that the gut will be exposed to a dramatic shift in the microbial community structure several weeks after weaning.

  19. Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

    2011-02-01

    Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P < 0.05) from piglets fed diets B, R40 and R80. There were no differences in DFI and DWG between the chicory diets and diet B. Inclusion of chicory or ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05), and the CTTAD of uronic acid was higher for diets C40, C80, C160, R80 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05). Age affected the CTTAD for all parameters (P < 0.05) except for NDF, with higher values at 5 than at 3 weeks post-weaning. The coliform counts decreased with increasing age (P < 0.05), but was not affected by treatment. The results indicate that inclusion of up to 160 g/kg of chicory do not negatively affect performance, whereas high inclusion of ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of fibre compared to cereal fibre. Chicory and ribwort are both promising as feedstuffs to weaned piglets, but the low palatability of ribwort limits the inclusion level.

  20. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. (Cunninghamia lanceolata) caused by acid rain with hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaozan; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shuquan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study is using hyperspectral data to detect the reflectance differences of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) which are sensitive to acidic stress and have been under different degrees of acid deposition stress for a long time. The hyperspectral reflectance for Chinese fir leaf is measured by Fieldspec Pro FR under three simulated acid rain levels (pH2.5, 4.0 and 5.6) during three years in order to monitor the response of leaf. The results indicated: (1) chlorophyll concentration of Chinese fir increased with the increasing of the simulated rain acidity in the late experimental period; (2) the 1st derivative values increased at the green edge (480-540nm) and red edge (680-760nm) with pH increasing; (3) the RVI550 and GNDVI values did differ significantly at pH2.5 and 5.6 treatment; (4) red edge position was found moving to longer wave bands with increasing rain acidity along with the experimental time; (5) there are significant differences vale at blue 510nm and 690nm wavelength between different treatments that can be used to be an useful parameters to distinguish the severity of acid deposition. The research also indicated that the hyperspectral parameters can be used to monitor the acid rain stress on trees.

  2. [Characteristics of soil microbial community structure in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhi-Chao; Kong, Chui-Hua; Wang, Peng; Chen, Long-Chi; Wang, Si-Long

    2012-08-01

    By using dilution plate, fumigation extraction, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methods, this paper studied the quantities of soil microbial populations and the characteristics of soil microbial community structure in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation converted from an evergreen broadleaved forest. The results showed that, during the vegetation change from evergreen broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the microbial biomass carbon and the quantities of culturable bacteria and actinomyces were decreased. The total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, and fungi PLFAs in the woodland soil from Chinese fir plantation were decreased by 49.4%, 52.4%, 46.6%, simultaneously. And G+ and G- bacterial PLFAs in Chinese fir plantation were lower than in evergreen broadleaved forest. As compared with those in rhizosphere soil from Chinese fir plantation, the microbial biomass carbon and the quantities of culturable bacteria and actinomyces in bulk soil were decreased. The total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, and G+ and G- bacterial PLFAs in the rhizosphere soil were increased, while the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs was lowered. The principal component analysis of the soil microbial community structure indicated that the first principal component (PC1) and the second principal component (PC2) together accounted for 78.2% of total variation of soil microbial community structure. This study showed there were some differences in the soil microbial community structure between evergreen broadleaved forest and Chinese fir plantation.

  3. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species

    PubMed Central

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P.; Donat-Torres, María P.; Llinares, Josep V.; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus–both halophytes–and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600–800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants. PMID:27490924

  4. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species.

    PubMed

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P; Donat-Torres, María P; Llinares, Josep V; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus-both halophytes-and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600-800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants.

  5. The Ameliorating Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

    2013-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) have been traditionally used to treat lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata in scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Mice orally received fermented C. lanceolata extract at doses of 100, 300, or 500 mg/kg body weight. Fermented C. lanceolata extract (500 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) significantly shortened the escape latency times that were increased by scopolamine on the 4th day of trial sessions in the Morris water maze task. In addition, it exerted longer step-through latency times than those of the scopolamine-treated group in the passive avoidance test. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of fermented C. lanceolata extract on glutamate-induced neurocytotoxicity were investigated in HT22 cells. Fermented C. lanceolata extract showed a relative protection ratio of 59.62% at 500 μg/mL. In conclusion, fermented C. lanceolata extract ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments, exerted neuroprotective effects, and improved activity compared to that found with original C. lanceolata. Further study will be required to investigate the mechanisms underlying this cognitive-enhancing activity. PMID:23935665

  6. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. barks.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Orlando V; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Alves, Maria S; Araújo, Aílson A L; Pinto, Míriam A O; Amaral, Maria P H; Rodarte, Mírian P; Kaplan, Maria A C

    2012-09-13

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

  7. [Effects of tree species transfer on soil dissolved organic matter pools in a reforested Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) woodland].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Qun; He, Zong-Ming; Hu, Zhen-Hong; Yu, Zai-Peng; Wang, Min-Huang; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Fan, Shao-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Based on the comparison between reforested 19-year-old Mytilaria laosensis and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations on cut-over land of C. lanceolata, effects of tree species transfer on soil dissolved organic matter were investigated. Cold water, hot water and 2 mol x L(-1) KCl solution were used to extract soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers. In M. laosensis plantaion, the concentrations of soil DOC extracted by cold water, hot water and 2 mol L(-1) KCl solutions were significantly higher than that in C. lanceolata plantation. In the 0-5 and 5-10 cm layers, the concentrations of soil DON extracted by cold water and hot water in M. laosensis plantation were significantly higher than that in C. lanceolata plantation. The extracted efficiencies for DOC and DON were both in order of KCl solution > hot water > cold water. In the 0-5 cm layers, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) under M. laosensis was averagely 76.3% greater than under C. lanceolata. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive relationships between hot water extractable organic matter and soil MBC. Differences in the sizes of soil DOC and DON pools between the M. laosensis and C. lanceolata forests might be attributed to the quality and quantity of organic matter input. The transfer from C. lanceolata to M. laosensis could improve soil fertility in the plantation.

  8. Antibacterial compounds from the root of the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Carissa lanceolata R.Br.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Dhanushka S; Locher, Cornelia; Longmore, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    The conkerberry, Carissa lanceolata R.Br. (Apocynaceae), is commonly used by many indigenous Australian communities across Northern Australia for the treatment of a variety of conditions such as chest pain, toothache, colds and flu. Indigenous uses of this plant strongly argue for an antibacterial bioactivity. The aim is to identify antibacterial compounds from root material of C. lanceolata, therefore confirming the indigenous use of the plant. Antibacterial activity was examined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis using a micro broth dilution technique. Three compounds demonstrating considerable activity were isolated. The volatile phenolic compound 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and the lignan carinol both were reported for the first time from C. lanceolata, whereas this is the second account of the occurrence of carissone. All three compounds showed activity, with 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and carinol having a minimum inhibitory concentration of <1.25 mg mL⁻¹ against all four bacteria. Extracts and compounds isolated from C. lanceolata roots were found to possess a significant antibacterial activity, confirming the indigenous use of this plant.

  9. Photosynthetic activity of vascular bundles in Plantago media leaves.

    PubMed

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Silina, Ekaterina; Dymova, Olga; Golovko, Tamara; Kornas, Andrzej; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2016-10-01

    Photosynthetic processes in the leaf lamina and midribs of Plantago media were investigated using plants grown in high light (HL) or low light (LL) conditions. The fluorescence parameters, which indicate photochemical/photosynthetic activity, were different in HL and LL grown plants, but no major differences between lamina and midribs were found. An OJIP test (chlorophyll a fluorescence transient induction) of LL grown plants, indicative of the chloroplast electron transport chain, also showed both tissues to be similar. In HL plants, a partial blockage of electron flow between QA (the primary plastoquinone electron acceptor of PSII) and QB (the secondary plastoquinone acceptor of PSII) was found, and this was less visible in midribs. The effective dissipation of quantum energy per reaction center (DI0/RC) was similar in both tissues of HL grown plants, while in the midribs of LL leaves, this process seemed to be less effective. Measurements of (13)C discrimination showed that the midrib tissues of LL and HL leaves effectively used β-carboxylation products to accumulate their biomass. Thus, the well protected activity of electron transport in midribs with their limited capacity to fix CO2 from the air may indicate the involvement of this tissue in β-carboxylation, transport or signaling. Carbon accumulated in roots showed a lower (13)C discrimination value (more negative) than the values observed in lamina. This could indicate that roots are supplied with assimilates mostly during the light phase of the day cycle with intensive C3 photosynthesis.

  10. Multiple CMS-restorer gene polymorphism in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus.

    PubMed

    van Damme, J M M; Hundscheid, M P J; Ivanovic, S; Koelewijn, H P

    2004-08-01

    The mode of inheritance of the male sterility trait is crucial for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of the sexual system gynodioecy, which is the co-occurrence of female and hermaphrodite plants in natural populations. Both cytoplasmic (CMS) and nuclear (restorer) genes are known to be involved. Theoretical models usually assume a limited number of CMS genes with each a single restorer gene, while reality is more complex. In this study, it is shown that in the gynodioecious species Plantago coronopus two new CMS-restorer polymorphisms exist in addition to the two that were already known, which means four CMS-restorer systems at the species level. Furthermore, three CMS types were shown to co-occur within a single population. All new CMS types showed a multilocus system for male fertility restoration, in which both recessive and dominant restorer alleles occur. Our finding of more than two co-occurring CMS-restorer systems each with multiple restorer genes raises the question how this complex of male sterility systems is maintained in natural populations.

  11. Ancient Geographical Barriers Drive Differentiation among Sonneratia caseolaris Populations and Recent Divergence from S. lanceolata

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuchen; Duke, Norman C.; Peng, Fangfang; Li, Jianfang; Yang, Shuhuan; Zhong, Cairong; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Glacial vicariance is thought to influence population dynamics and speciation of many marine organisms. Mangroves, a plant group inhabiting intertidal zones, were also profoundly influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. In this study, we investigated phylogeographic patterns of a widespread mangrove species Sonneratia caseolaris and a narrowly distributed, closely related species S. lanceolata to infer their divergence histories and related it to historical geological events. We sequenced two chloroplast fragments and five nuclear genes for one population of S. lanceolata and 12 populations of S. caseolaris across the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region to evaluate genetic differentiation and divergence time among them. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and a nuclear gene rpl9 for all Sonneratia species indicate that S. lanceolata individuals are nested within S. caseolaris. We found strong genetic structure among geographic regions (South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and eastern Australia) inhabited by S. caseolaris. We estimated that divergence between the Indo-Malesia and Australasia populations occurred 4.035 million years ago (MYA), prior to the onset of Pleistocene. BARRIERS analysis suggested that complex geographic features in the IWP region had largely shaped the phylogeographic patterns of S. caseolaris. Furthermore, haplotype analyses provided convincing evidence for secondary contact of the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean lineages at the Indo-Pacific boundary. Demographic history inference under isolation and migration (IM) model detected substantial gene flow from the Sri Lanka populations to the populations in the Java Island. Moreover, multi-locus sequence analysis indicated that S. lanceolata was most closely related to the Indian Ocean populations of S. caseolaris and the divergence time between them was 2.057 MYA, coinciding with the onset of the Pleistocene glaciation. Our results suggest that

  12. Polysaccharide from Plantago as a green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1M HCl solution.

    PubMed

    Mobin, Mohammad; Rizvi, Marziya

    2017-03-15

    Polysaccharide from Plantago ovata was investigated for its inhibition characteristics for carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl. The mucilage of the Plantago is comprised of a highly branched polysaccharide, arabinosyl (galaturonic acid) rhamnosylxylan (AX), which is mainly responsible for the corrosion inhibition of the carbon steel. The techniques that were used to assess the inhibition and adsorption properties of the AX in the acid solution are gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. Thermodynamic and activation parameters revealed that the spontaneous adsorption of AX on carbon steel was mixed type and predominantly chemical in nature. Quantum chemical analysis supports the proposed mechanism of inhibition. AX from Plantago could serve as a green corrosion inhibitor for the carbon steel in hydrochloric medium with good inhibition efficiency but low risk of environmental pollution.

  13. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  14. Evaluation of the Association Metformin: Plantago ovata Husk in Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Láiz, Raquel; García-Vieitez, Juan J.; Diez-Liébana, M. José; Sierra-Vega, Matilde; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M.; Calle-Pardo, Ángela P.; Fernández-Martínez, Nélida

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study we have investigated whether the inclusion of the dietary fiber Plantago ovata husk could be recommended as coadjuvant in treatments with oral hypoglycemic drugs. We evaluated the use of Plantago ovata husk-metformin association in diabetic rabbits by determining its effects on glucose and insulin concentrations. Six groups of 6 rabbits were used. Groups 1 to 3 were fed with standard chow and groups 4 to 6 with chow supplemented with Plantago ovata husk (3.5 mg/kg/day). Two groups (numbers 1 and 4) were used as controls (receiving standard or supplemented chow), two groups (numbers 2 and 5) received metformin orally, and the other two (numbers 3 and 6) were treated orally with metformin and psyllium. Plasma glucose concentrations were lower in groups fed with fiber-supplemented chow whereas insulin levels showed important interindividual variations. Glucose pharmacokinetics parameters showed significant differences in Cmax and tmax in relation to fiber intake. Insulin pharmacokinetics parameters after treatment with oral metformin showed an important increase in Cmax, AUC, and tmax in animals fed with fiber. We conclude that Plantago ovata husk intake can contribute to the oral antihyperglycemic treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26576433

  15. Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling to Elucidate Effectiveness of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kim, Ji Seon; Park, Sung Jin; Ma, Choong Je; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL). Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out. PMID:24717412

  16. Microarray-based gene expression profiling to elucidate effectiveness of fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kim, Ji Seon; Park, Sung Jin; Ma, Choong Je; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-04-08

    In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL). Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out.

  17. Bicunningines A and B, two new dimeric diterpenes from Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xian-Feng; Yao, Sheng; Mándi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Tang, Chun-Ping; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Li, Xi-Qiang; Ye, Yang

    2012-01-20

    Two unprecedented dimeric diterpenoids, with a 2,3-dihydrofuran ring fusing an abietane and a 4,5-seco-abietane diterpene, were isolated from Cunninghamia lanceolata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic measurements, and their absolute configurations were determined by quantum chemical TDDFT ECD calculations, chemical transformations, and Mosher's method. The Mosher method carried out with MPA and MTPA esters of the sterically hindered sec-hydroxyl group gave contradictory results, while MPA afforded the correct absolute configuration.

  18. Allelopathic Potential of Invasive Plantago virginica on Four Lawn Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huatian; Zhou, Yumei; Chen, Yang; Wang, Quanxi; Jiang, Lifen; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-01-01

    Plantago virginica L. has invaded many lawn ecosystems in the Eastern part of China. The invasion has incurred an economic cost to remove them. In order to prevent the invasion, it is critical to understand the invasive mechanisms of this species. However, few studies have been conducted on the allelopathic mechanisms of its invasion. In this study, we examined allelopathic effects of P. virginica on germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of four widely used lawn species. We found extensive allelopathic potential of P. virginica on other lawn species, which varied with species and developmental stage. While most effects of the extracts of P. virginica were inhibitory, some variables in some species were promoted by the addition of the extracts. The extracts of P. virginica significantly inhibited seed germination of Agrostis matsumurae. While the overall differences in seed germination rate of Poa annua were significant among treatments, difference between control and any of the treatments was not significant. The height of seedlings of A. matsumurae and Cynodon dactylon was significantly lower under the treatments of adding extracts of P. virginica. In contrast, growth of seedlings of Festuca elata and P. annua did not show significant differences among treatments. The root length of A. matsumurae, C. dactylon and P. annua was suppressed by the extracts of P. virginica whereas root length of F. elata was not affected. Aboveground biomass of A. matsumurae and F. elata was significantly higher than control, except for F. elata at the concentration of 50mg/mL, whereas aboveground biomass of C. dactylon and P. annua was reduced at higher concentrations of the extracts. Except for A. matsumurae, root biomass of the other three lawn species declined under the treatments with the extracts of P. virginica. Our results revealed that P. virginica had allelopathic potential on four lawn species and supported the theory of “novel weapons hypothesis”. Invasion by P

  19. [Characteristics of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and their relationships with soil nutrients in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations].

    PubMed

    He, Youjun; Wang, Qingkui; Wang, Silong; Yu, Xiaojun

    2006-12-01

    The study on the soil microbial biomass and nutrient status under native broadleaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations at the Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem showed that after the native broadleaved forest was replaced by mono-cultured C. lanceolata or C. lanceolata was planted continuously, soil microbial biomass and nutrient pool decreased greatly. In 0 - 10 cm soil layer, the concentrations of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen in broadleaved forest were 800.5 and 84.5 mg x kg(-1) , being 1.90 and 1.03 times as much as those in the first rotation of C. lanceolata plantation, and 2.16 and 1.27 times as much as those in the second rotation of the plantation, respectively, while in 10 - 20 cm soil layer, the microbial carbon and nitrogen in broad-leaved forest were 475.4 and 63.3 mg x kg(-1), being 1.86 and 1.60 times as much as those in the first rotation, and 2.11 and 1.76 times as much as those in the second rotation, respectively. Soil nutrient pools such as total nitrogen, total potassium, NH4(+) -N, and available potassium also declined after the C. lanceolata plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest, or C. lanceolata was planted continuously. Less litter and its slower decay rate in pure C. lanceolata plantation were the crucial factors leading to the decrease of soil microbial biomass and nutrient pool in this area, and human disturbance, especially slash-burning and site preparation, was the another factor leading to the decrease. There were significant positive correlations between soil microbial carbon and nitrogen and soil nutrients. To improve soil quality and maintain sustainable productivity, some measures including planting mixed conifer with hardwood, preserving residues after harvest, and adopting scientific site preparation should be taken.

  20. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Niu; Silong, Wang; Zhiyun, Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range. To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species, we measured the above- and below-ground biomass accumulation in 22 years, as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation. Results indicated that M. macclurei plantation significantly stored more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C. lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2). Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M. macclurei plantation, 55.2% in C. lanceolata plantation). Tree and soil component of M. macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of C. lanceolata plantation (p <0.05). No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor. These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M. macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C. lanceolata) in southern China.

  1. [Long-term effects of thinning on carbon storage in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Liang; Mao, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Mu-Kui

    2014-07-01

    The stand environment and tree growth could be changed as well as carbon storage be affected by thinning. Thus it is important to conduct the research on changes of carbon stock in plantations after thinning for assessing the dynamics of forest ecosystem carbon pool. The carbon storage and its distribution of various components in 22-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations were studied with control and different treatments such as moderate and heavy thinning. Moderate (thinning intensity was 35%) and heavy (thinning intensity was 50%) thinning treatments were conducted twice at the age of 7 and 14 years, respectively. The stand of control was thinned 15% in the 14th year. The results showed that the proportion of stem carbon storage increased with the increasing thinning intensity, while the proportion of carbon storage in branches, leaves and roots slightly decreased, which suggested that thinning was beneficial for carbon stocking in stem. However, the carbon storage in arbor layer decreased with the thinning intensity in C. lanceolata plantation under moderate and heavy thinning treatments, accounted for 89.0% and 83.1% of the control, respectively. The arbor carbon storage decreased in followed two years after the first thinning. The carbon storage in arbor layer had a fast recovery rate within eight years after the second thinning, and the increment of carbon storage in arbor layer had no difference with the control for the heavy thinning treatment. The carbon storage in understory vegetation, litter and soil layers also had no significant difference under the different thinning treatments. Generally total ecosystem carbon storage under the control, moderate and heavy thinning treatments reached 169.34, 156.65 and 154.37 t x hm(-2), respectively. There was no significant difference among the three treatments. Therefore, it could be concluded that the carbon storage in C. lanceolata plantation did not reduce after thinning in more than 15 years.

  2. Chalcones from the flowers of Coreopsis lanceolata and their in vitro antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ya Fang; Oidovsambuu, Sarangerel; Jeon, Je-Seung; Nho, Chu Won; Um, Byung-Hun

    2013-03-01

    Three new chalcones, 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,3'-dimethoxychalcone-4'-glucoside (1), 4'-O-(2'''-O-caffeoyl)2',3',3,4-tetrahydroxychalcone (2), and 2',4',3-trihydroxy-3',4-dimethoxychalcone (3), along with five known phenolics, were isolated from Coreopsis lanceolata flowers. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR and MS. The three new chalcones showed a good in vitro HepG2 cell protecting effect against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Nadwodnik, Jan; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2008-04-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem.

  4. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens

    PubMed Central

    Nadwodnik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem. PMID:18188589

  5. The weak effects of climatic change on Plantago pollen concentration: 17 years of monitoring in Northwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Parrado, Zulima; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa Ma.; Vega-Maray, Ana Ma.; Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; Fernández-González, Delia

    2014-09-01

    Plantago L. species are very common in nitrified areas such as roadsides and their pollen is a major cause of pollinosis in temperate regions. In this study, we sampled airborne pollen grains in the city of León (NW, Spain) from January 1995 to December 2011, by using a Burkard® 7-day-recording trap. The percentage of Plantago pollen compared to the total pollen count ranged from 11 % (1997) to 3 % (2006) in the period under study. Peak pollen concentrations were recorded in May and June. Our 17-year analysis failed to disclose significant changes in the seasonal trend of plantain pollen concentration. In addition, there were no important changes in the start dates of pollen release and the meteorological parameters analyzed did not show significant variations in their usual trends. We analyzed the influence of several meteorological parameters on Plantago pollen concentration to explain the differences in pollen concentration trends during the study. Our results show that temperature, sun hours, evaporation, and relative humidity are the meteorological parameters best correlated to the behavior of Plantago pollen grains. In general, the years with low pollen concentrations correspond to the years with less precipitation or higher temperatures. We calculated the approximate Plantago flowering dates using the cumulative sum of daily maximum temperatures and compared them with the real bloom dates. The differences obtained were 4 days in 2009, 3 days in 2010, and 1 day in 2011 considering the complete period of pollination.

  6. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  7. Rapid quantification of 14 saponins of Maesa lanceolata by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Foubert, K; Cuyckens, F; Vleeschouwer, K; Theunis, M; Vlietinck, A; Pieters, L; Apers, S

    2010-06-15

    Saponins are high molecular weight glycosides which are known for their broad range of biological activities. In case of Maesa lanceolata, a tree growing in African countries, the maesasaponins showed virucidal, haemolytic, molluscicidal and anti-angiogenic activity. Since the different activities are dependent on the structure of the saponins, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of the individual saponins in this plant. Since the saponins were only present in small amounts, it was necessary to develop a very sensitive analytical method. For the fast and sensitive analysis of the extracted and purified plant samples ultra-performance liquid chromatography was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for MS/MS detection. A method in positive ESI mode, using sodium acetate in the mobile phase, was developed. The sodium adduct ion was selected as the precursor ion since it provided better sensitivity and a better, more stable fragmentation compared to the deprotonated and protonated ions. The intensity of the signal obtained by fragmentation of the sodium adducts of the saponins, was optimized by the addition of different concentrations of sodium acetate to the mobile phase. Reference standards were not available for all 14 saponins. Therefore, a relative MS/UV response was calculated allowing the estimation of the saponins in real samples. alpha-Hederin was used as external standard. The method was linear over the investigated concentration range with a good correlation coefficient (>0.99). The intra- and inter-day precisions were below 15% for most maesasaponins with the exception of maesasaponin II, which showed a precision within 20%. The recoveries of the spiked pure compounds maesasaponin IV.1 and VII.1 were 96.6% and 85.5%, respectively. The validated method can be applied in the investigation of the content of 14 saponins in transgenic and non-transgenic plant material of M. lanceolata.

  8. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  9. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  10. Aluminum inhibits root growth and induces hydrogen peroxide accumulation in Plantago algarbiensis and P. almogravensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Martins, Neusa; Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

    2013-12-01

    We have evaluated the impact of aluminum (Al) on germination, relative root growth, Al accumulation in roots tips, H2O2 levels, plasma membrane integrity, pigment levels, protein content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in seedlings of the endangered Portuguese species Plantago algarbiensis and Plantago almogravensis. We found that up to 400 μM Al had no impact on the germination percentage in either species but inhibited root growth in a concentration-dependent manner (more severely in P. algarbiensis). Al accumulation in the root tips of both species was concentration dependent up to 200 μM but declined thereafter despite the absence of membrane damage. We observed a concentration-dependent induction of SOD activity but no change in CAT activity resulting in the accumulation of H2O2 (a known growth inhibitor), although its impact in P. almogravensis may be partially ameliorated by the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Our data suggest an association between Al uptake, H2O2 production, and the inhibition of root growth during early seedling development in P. algarbiensis and P. almogravensis, although the latter is more tolerant towards higher concentrations of the metal.

  11. Structural characterization and rheological behavior of a heteroxylan extracted from Plantago notata Lagasca (Plantaginaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Benaoun, Fatima; Delattre, Cédric; Boual, Zakaria; Ursu, Alina V; Vial, Christophe; Gardarin, Christine; Wadouachi, Anne; Le Cerf, Didier; Varacavoudin, Tony; Ould El-Hadj, Mohamed Didi; Michaud, Philippe; Pierre, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    Plantago notata (Plantaginaceae) is a spontaneous plant from Septentrional Algerian Sahara currently used by traditional healers to treat stomach disorders, inflammations or wound healing. A water-soluble polysaccharide, called PSPN (PolySaccharide fraction from Plantago Notata), was extracted and purified from the seeds of this semi-arid plant. The structural features of this mucilage were evaluated by colorimetric assays, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and (1)H/(13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PSPN is a heteroxylan with a backbone composed of β-(1,3)-d-Xylp and β-(1,4)-d-Xylp highly branched, through (O)-2 and (O)-3 positions of β-(1,4)-d-Xylp by various side chains and terminal monosaccharides such as α-l-Araf-(1,3)-β-d-Xylp, β-d-Xylp-(1,2)-β-d-Xylp, terminal Xylp or terminal Araf. The physico-chemical and rheological analysis of this polysaccharide in dilute and semi diluted regimes showed that PSPN exhibites a molecular weight of 2.3×10(6)g/mol and a pseudoplastic behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenotypic and biochemical alterations in relation to MT2 gene expression in Plantago ovata Forsk under zinc stress.

    PubMed

    Pramanick, Paulami; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2017-04-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk is an annual herb with immense medicinal importance, the seed and husk of which is used in the treatment of chronic constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea since ancient times. Zinc, an essential metal, is required by plants as they form important components of zinc finger proteins and also aid in synthesis of photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll. However, in excess amount Zn causes chlorosis of leaf and shoot tissues and generate reactive oxygen species. The present study is aimed at investigating the changes in expression levels of MT2 gene in Plantago ovata under zinc stress. Data show up to 1.66 fold increase in expression of PoMT2 in 1000 µM ZnSO4·7H2O treated sample. Our study also describes alteration of MT2 gene expressions in Plantago ovata as observed through Real time PCR (qPCR) done by [Formula: see text] method. In this study we have observed an upregulation (or induction) in the PoMT2 gene expression level in 500 and 800 µM ZnSO4·7H2O treated samples but found saturation on further increasing the dose to 1000 µM of ZnSO4·7H2O. Determination of the phenotypic and biochemical changes in Plantago ovata due to exposure to zinc stress of concentrations 500, 800 and 1000 µM revealed oxidative stress. The enhanced expression of MT2 gene in Plantago ovata has a correlation with the increased total antioxidant activity and increased DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  13. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and rotation length on long-term productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meifang; Xiang, Wenhua; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20-30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and about 15-20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of forest

  14. Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Rotation Length on Long-Term Productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meifang; Xiang, Wenhua; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha−1 year−1 deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20–30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha−1 year−1 and about 15–20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha−1 year−1. These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of

  15. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  16. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress induced by lead in the leaves of Plantago major L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakhnina, Tamara I.; Borkowska, Aneta; Nosalewicz, Magdalena; Nosalewicz, Artur; Włodarczyk, Teresa M.; Kosobryukhov, Anatoly A.; Fomina, Irina R.

    2016-07-01

    Fluctuation of the summer day-time temperatures in the mid-latitudes in a range from 16 to 30°C should not have irreversible negative effects on plants, but may influence metabolic processes including the oxidative stress. To test the effect of moderately high temperature on oxidative stress induced by lead in the leaves of Plantago major L.; the plants were incubated in a water solution of 0, 150, 450, and 900 μM Pb (NO3)2 at 20 and 28°C. Plant reactions were evaluated by the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in leaves after 2, 24, 48, and 72 h. The Pb concentration in the leaves rose with the increase in the Pb content and was higher at 20°C. The increase in stomatal resistance caused by Pb was higher at 28°C. The contents of TBARS increased after 2 h of plant exposure to Pb and the increase was the highest at 900 μM Pb, 28°C. The AsP activity increased up to 50% after 24 h of Pb-treatment at 28°C; the highest increase in glutathione reductase activity was observed after 72 h at 20°C. Thus, the moderately high temperature 28°C compared with optimal 20°C caused a decrease in Pb accumulation in Plantago leaves but amplified the negative effects of lead, especially in the beginning of stress development.

  17. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruiyang; Wu, Bo; Zheng, Huiquan; Hu, Dehuo; Wang, Xinjie; Duan, Hongjing; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir. PMID:26154763

  18. Tree Biomass Estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Based on Bayesian Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, many different biotic and abiotic factors introduce variability in Chinese fir biomass model, suggesting that parameters of biomass model are better represented by probability distributions rather than fixed values as classical method. To deal with the problem, Bayesian method was used for estimating Chinese fir biomass model. In the Bayesian framework, two priors were introduced: non-informative priors and informative priors. For informative priors, 32 biomass equations of Chinese fir were collected from published literature in the paper. The parameter distributions from published literature were regarded as prior distributions in Bayesian model for estimating Chinese fir biomass. Therefore, the Bayesian method with informative priors was better than non-informative priors and classical method, which provides a reasonable method for estimating Chinese fir biomass. PMID:24278198

  19. Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE) has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25353662

  20. Phytochemicals and Antioxidative Properties of Borneo Indigenous Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Abdul Karim, Fifilyana; Saib, Syazlina

    2014-01-01

    Two underutilized indigenous fruits of Borneo, Liposu (Baccaurea lanceolata) and Tampoi (Baccaurea macrocarpa) were investigated for their total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), anthocyanin (TAC) and carotenoid (TCC) contents as well as antioxidant properties in vitro. The fruits were separated into three different parts (i.e., pericarp, flesh and seed) and extracted using 80% methanol. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging, ABTS decolorization and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. The results showed that B. macrocarpa pericarp contained the highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and total carotenoid with the values of 60.04 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g, 44.68 ± 0.67 mg CE/g, 1.23 ± 0.20 mg c-3-gE/100 g and 0.81 ± 0.14 mg BCE/g. Results from DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays also showed that the pericarp of B. macrocarpa displayed the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the extract was significantly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with the carotenoid contents. In conclusion, B. macrocarpa displayed high potential as natural source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. PMID:26785068

  1. Development of the photosynthetic apparatus of Cunninghamia lanceolata in light and darkness.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xian; Wang, Qi; Qu, Yanli; Wu, Hongyang; Dong, Fengqin; Cao, Haoyan; Wang, Hou-Ling; Xiao, Jianwei; Shen, Yingbai; Wan, Yinglang

    2017-01-01

    Here, we compared the development of dark- and light-grown Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) cotyledons, which synthesize chlorophyll in the dark, representing a different phenomenon from angiosperm model plants. We determined that the grana lamellar membranes were well developed in both chloroplasts and etiochloroplasts. The accumulation of thylakoid membrane protein complexes was similar between chloroplasts and etiochloroplasts. Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters indicated that photosystem II (PSII) had low photosynthetic activities, whereas the photosystem I (PSI)-driven cyclic electron flow (CEF) rate exceeded the rate of PSII-mediated photon harvesting in etiochloroplasts. Analysis of the protein contents in etiochloroplasts indicated that the light-harvesting complex II remained mostly in its monomeric conformation. The ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase and NADH dehydrogenase-like complexes were relatively abundantly expressed in etiochloroplasts for Chinese fir. Our transcriptome analysis contributes a global expression database for Chinese fir cotyledons, providing background information on the regulatory mechanisms of different genes involved in the development of dark- and light-grown cotyledons. In conclusion, we provide a novel description of the early developmental status of the light-dependent and light-independent photosynthetic apparatuses in gymnosperms.

  2. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiyang; Wu, Bo; Zheng, Huiquan; Hu, Dehuo; Wang, Xinjie; Duan, Hongjing; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yun

    2015-07-06

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir.

  3. [Effects of broadleaf plantation and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation on soil carbon and nitrogen pools].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Qun; He, Zong-Ming; Hu, Zhen-Hong; Yang, Jing-Yu; Yu, Zai-Peng; Wang, Min-huang

    2013-02-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the soil C and N pools in a 19-year-old broadleaf plantation and a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation in subtropical China, aimed to understand the effects of tree species on the soil C and N pools. In the broadleaf plantation, the C and N stocks in 0-40 cm soil layer were 99.41 Mg.hm-2 and 6. 18 Mg.hm-2, being 33.1 % and 22. 6 % larger than those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The standing biomass and the C and N stocks of forest floor in the broadleaf plantation were 1.60, 1.49, and 1.52 times of those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant. There was a significant negative relationship between the forest floor C/N ratio and the soil C and N stocks. In the broadleaf plantation, the fine root biomass in 0-80 cm soil layer was 1.28 times of that in the Chinese fir plantation, and the fine root biomass in 0-10 cm soil layer accounted for 48. 2 % of the total fine root biomass. The C and N stocks in the fine roots in the broadleaf plantation were also higher than those in the Chinese fir plantation. In 0-10 cm soil layer, its C stock had a significant positive relationship with the fine root C stock. It was suggested that as compared with Chinese fir plantation, the soil in broadleaf plantation had a greater potential to accumulate organic carbon.

  4. Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activities of Madeiran elderberry (Sambucus lanceolata) as affected by simulated in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Joana; Spínola, Vítor; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J; Fernández-de Córdova, María Luisa; Molina-García, Lucía; Castilho, Paula C

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: a) to provide a detailed report on the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of fresh berries and leaves of Sambucus lanceolata (Madeiran elderberry); b) to study the effects caused by a simulated in vitro digestion on the composition and antioxidant activity of the berries and leaves. Seventy-seven phytochemicals, mainly polyphenols, were identified in the methanol extracts of fresh berries and leaves, with the content of polyphenols higher in berries (27.2mg·g(-1) dry extract, DE) than in leaves (25.9mg·g(-1) DE). Anthocyanins were dominant in berries, while hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonols were abundant in leaves. Higher antioxidant activities were found in leaves than in berries, using several in vitro assays. After the simulated in vitro digestion, the levels of polyphenols were significantly reduced, in particular those of berries (81.8% decrease). Anthocyanins were the most affected compounds during the simulated digestion. However, despite the significant loss of phenolic compounds during digestion, methanol extracts of digested berries and leaves were still able to scavenge free-radicals. Hence, the consumption of leaves and/or berries of S. lanceolata may help prevent oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of a novel dehydrin gene from Codonopsis lanceolata and analysis of its response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Pulla, Rama Krishna; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Myung Kyum; Senthil, Kalai Selvi; In, Jun-Gyo; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2008-04-30

    Dehydrins (DHNs) compose a family of intrinsically unstructured proteins that have high water solubility and accumulate during late seed development at low temperature or in water-deficit conditions. They are believed to play a protective role in freezing and drought-tolerance in plants. A full-length cDNA encoding DHN (designated as ClDhn) was isolated from an oriental medicinal plant Codonopsis lanceolata, which has been used widely in Asia for its anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The full-length cDNA of ClDhn was 813 bp and contained a 477 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 159 amino acids. Deduced ClDhn protein had high similarities with other plant DHNs. RT-PCR analysis showed that different abiotic stresses such as salt, wounding, chilling and light, triggered a significant induction of ClDhn at different time points within 4-48 hrs post-treatment. This study revealed that ClDhn assisted C. lanceolata in becoming resistant to dehydration.

  6. Anti-Tumor Effect of Steamed Codonopsis lanceolata in H22 Tumor-Bearing Mice and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Xu, Qi; He, Yu-Fang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Shu-Bao; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies confirmed that steaming and the fermentation process could significantly improve the cognitive-enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Codonopsis lanceolata, the anti-tumor efficacy of steamed C. lanceolata (SCL) and what mechanisms are involved remain largely unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor effect in vivo of SCL in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results clearly indicated that SCL could not only inhibit the tumor growth, but also prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. Besides, the serum levels of cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), were enhanced by SCL administration. The observations of Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that SCL was able to induce tumor cell apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SCL treatment significantly increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of H22 tumor tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, LC/MS analysis of SCL indicated that it mainly contained lobetyolin and six saponins. Taken all together, the findings in the present study clearly demonstrated that SCL inhibited the H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly via improving the immune functions, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:26426041

  7. Artificial simulated saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Min, Fang-Fang; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2013-02-15

    The saliva, gastric and intestinal digestion of polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. seeds was investigated in vitro. It was found that salivary amylase had no effect on the polysaccharide; however, the polysaccharide was influenced in later gastrointestinal digestion. A steady decrease in molecular weight (M(w)) of the polysaccharide from 1903.1±93.0 to 4.7±0.2 kDa was observed as digestion time increased. Meanwhile, the reducing ends were increased from 0.157±0.009 to 0.622±0.026 mM, indicating the decrease of M(w) may due to the breakdown of glycosidic bonds. In addition, there was no monosaccharide released throughout the whole digestion period, suggesting that the gastrointestinal digestion did not result in a production of free monosaccharide. These results may provide some information on the digestion of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. in vitro, and may contribute to the methods of studying the digestion of other carbohydrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plantago ovata in broiler chicken nutrition: Performance, carcass criteria, intestinal morphology, immunity, and intestinal bacterial population.

    PubMed

    Divani, A; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Mehri, M

    2017-06-13

    In this experiment, the effect of dietary Plantago ovata (PO) on performance, carcass criteria, intestinal morphology, immunity, and intestinal bacterial population of broiler chickens was evaluated. A total of 250 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to five treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 g/kg of PO with five replicate pens and 10 birds in each replicate. Dietary PO increased body weight gain and decreased feed conversion ratio in the finisher period, improving the performance index (p < .05). Dietary treatments had no effects on carcass criteria, but breast meat percentage showed an increasing trend with incremental levels of PO in the diet (p = .069). The length of small intestine, especially jejunum section, as well as the villus height, villus width, villus area, and goblet cell numbers were significantly increased with supplemental PO (p < .05). Humoral and cellular immunity parameters, and oxidation stability of meat were improved due to use of dietary PO (p < .05). Dietary PO decreased the CFU of Escherichia coli, whereas the Lactobacilli population was increased (p = .001). Broken-line regression revealed that dietary PO at the rate of 10 g/kg may results in the best performance in broiler chickens. This study showed that PO at the level of 10 g/kg could be considered as a beneficial feed additive in broiler diet. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Acute toxicity studies of a novel excipient arabinoxylan isolated from Ispaghula (Plantago ovata) husk.

    PubMed

    Erum, Alia; Bashir, Sajid; Saghir, Shazia; Tulain, Ume Ruqia; Saleem, Uzma; Nasir, Muhammad; Kanwal, Farina; Hayat Malik, Muhammad Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The arabinoxylan from Ispaghula (Plantago ovata) husk has been proven scientifically as potential excipient. However, toxicity study of the arabinoxylan is still lacking. The present study was done to investigate the acute toxicity of arabinoxylan in two animal species. The mice were exposed to (1 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg) and rabbits (2.5 g/kg, 5 g/kg) of arabinoxylan orally and observed for a period of 14 days. On day 15 hematology, serum biochemistry and necropsy was performed in mice relative organ weight calculated and histological examination was carried out. Primary dermal and eye irritation tests were carried out. Cardiac effects of isolated arabinoxylan were studied on frog heart. The acute administration of the arabinoxylan did not produce mortality or significant changes in, water and food consumption however body weights of mice and rabbits decreased initially with a gradual increase till day 14. Internal organs relative weights were found to be normal. Hematological biochemical and histopathological examination did not show any significant (p < 0.05) change. Primary dermal and eye irritation was not observed in treated rabbits. No change in heart rate and vascular contraction was observed in frog heart. This study has shown that acute administration of arabinoxylan may be safe.

  10. Complete genome sequences of two highly divergent Japanese isolates of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ken; Yamashita, Kazuo; Sugawara, Kota; Verbeek, Martin; Fujita, Naoko; Hanada, Kaoru; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Fuji, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-01

    Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus and has an exceptionally wide host range. It causes severe damage to lilies. Here we report on the complete nucleotide sequences of two new Japanese PlAMV isolates, one from the eudicot weed Viola grypoceras (PlAMV-Vi), and the other from the eudicot shrub Nandina domestica Thunb. (PlAMV-NJ). Their genomes contain five open reading frames (ORFs), which is characteristic of potexviruses. Surprisingly, the isolates showed only 76.0-78.0 % sequence identity with each other and with other PlAMV isolates, including isolates from Japanese lily and American nandina. Amino acid alignments of the replicase coding region encoded by ORF1 showed that the regions between the methyltransferase and helicase domains were less conserved than other regions, with several insertions and/or deletions. Phylogenetic analyses of the full-length nucleotide sequences revealed a moderate correlation between phylogenetic clustering and the original host plants of the PlAMV isolates. This study revealed the presence of two highly divergent PlAMV isolates in Japan.

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Medicinally Important Plantago ovata Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Shivanjali; Kaul, Sanjana; Sharma, Pooja; Gupta, Mehak; Shankar, Rama; Jain, Mukesh; Dhar, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Plantago ovata is an economically and medicinally important plant of the family Plantaginaceae. It is used extensively for the production of seed husk for its application in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the transcriptome of P. ovata ovary was sequenced using Illumina Genome Analyzer platform to characterize the mucilage biosynthesis pathway in the plant. De novo assembly was carried out using Oases followed by velvet. A total of 46,955 non-redundant transcripts (≥100 bp) using ~29 million high-quality paired end reads were generated. Functional categorization of these transcripts revealed the presence of several genes involved in various biological processes like metabolic pathways, mucilage biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and antioxidants. In addition, simple sequence-repeat motifs, non-coding RNAs and transcription factors were also identified. Expression profiling of some genes involved in mucilage biosynthetic pathway was performed in different tissues of P. ovata using Real time PCR analysis. The study has resulted in a valuable resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics and functional genomics in P. ovata. PMID:26943165

  12. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk; Kim, Okjin

    2016-03-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites.

  13. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk

    2016-01-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:27051444

  14. Application of Isfarzeh seed (Plantago ovate L.) mucilage as a fat mimetic in mayonnaise.

    PubMed

    Amiri Aghdaei, S S; Aalami, M; Babaei Geefan, Saeed; Ranjbar, A

    2014-10-01

    In present study, application of Isfarzeh seed (Plantago ovate L.) mucilage as fat replacer was studied in mayonnaise formulation. Fat was partially substituted by mucilage gels (2 and 3 % suspensions) at levels of 30, 40 and 50 % which were referred to as FM2-30 % (2 % gel and 30 % substitution level), FM2-40 %, FM2-50 %, FM3-30 %, FM3-40 %, and FM3-50 % formulations, respectively and the full fat (Ff) mayonnaise with 78 % oil was used as control. Physicochemical, texture and sensory analysis of Ff and Low fat (Lf) treatments were evaluated. Results indicated that Lf samples had considerably lower energy content compared with control, but higher water content than their Ff counterpart. In view of texture, FM3-30 % showed similar textural characteristics as those of control. Both Ff and Lf samples exhibited thixotropic and shear thinning behavior through rheological studies and all samples followed the power law model except FM3-40 % and FM3-50 %. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that all of mayonnaise samples, containing 3 % mucilage, were more acceptable. It was concluded that Isfarzeh seed mucilage can be used as a suitable fat replacer in mayonnaise formulation.

  15. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  16. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomic Information of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook with Sibling Species from the Genera Cryptomeria D. Don, Taiwania Hayata, and Calocedrus Kurz.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Shi, Jisen

    2016-07-07

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is an important coniferous tree species for timber production, which accounts for ~40% of log supply from plantations in southern China. Chloroplast genetic engineering is an exciting field to engineer several valuable tree traits. In this study, we revisited the published complete Chinese fir (NC_021437) and four other coniferous species chloroplast genome sequence in Taxodiaceae. Comparison of their chloroplast genomes revealed three unique inversions found in the downstream of the gene clusters and evolutionary divergence were found, although overall the chloroplast genomic structure of the Cupressaceae linage was conserved. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Chinese fir among conifers by examining gene functions, selection forces, substitution rates, and the full chloroplast genome sequence. Consistent with previous molecular systematics analysis, the results provided a well-supported phylogeny framework for the Cupressaceae that strongly confirms the "basal" position of Cunninghamia lanceolata. The structure of the Cunninghamia lanceolata chloroplast genome showed a partial lack of one IR copy, rearrangements clearly occurred and slight evolutionary divergence appeared among the cp genome of C. lanceolata, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Taiwania flousiana, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica. The information from sequence divergence and length variation of genes could be further considered for bioengineering research.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomic Information of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook with Sibling Species from the Genera Cryptomeria D. Don, Taiwania Hayata, and Calocedrus Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Shi, Jisen

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is an important coniferous tree species for timber production, which accounts for ~40% of log supply from plantations in southern China. Chloroplast genetic engineering is an exciting field to engineer several valuable tree traits. In this study, we revisited the published complete Chinese fir (NC_021437) and four other coniferous species chloroplast genome sequence in Taxodiaceae. Comparison of their chloroplast genomes revealed three unique inversions found in the downstream of the gene clusters and evolutionary divergence were found, although overall the chloroplast genomic structure of the Cupressaceae linage was conserved. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Chinese fir among conifers by examining gene functions, selection forces, substitution rates, and the full chloroplast genome sequence. Consistent with previous molecular systematics analysis, the results provided a well-supported phylogeny framework for the Cupressaceae that strongly confirms the “basal” position of Cunninghamia lanceolata. The structure of the Cunninghamia lanceolata chloroplast genome showed a partial lack of one IR copy, rearrangements clearly occurred and slight evolutionary divergence appeared among the cp genome of C. lanceolata, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Taiwania flousiana, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica. The information from sequence divergence and length variation of genes could be further considered for bioengineering research. PMID:27399686

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Urosomoida agilis, and new combinations: Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov., and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasbir; Kamra, Komal

    2015-02-01

    For years, systematics of three species, Urosomoida agilis (Engelmann, 1862) Hemberger in Foissner, 1982, Urosomoida longa (Gelei and Szabados, 1950) Foissner et al., 1991 and Oxytricha lanceolata Shibuya, 1930, has remained unresolved due to lack of adequate molecular data. Though, it is known since several years that the three species are not very closely related. In the present paper, 18S rRNA gene sequences for two key species, U. agilis and U. longa, and their morphology and morphometry have been analyzed. Molecular phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood, neighbour joining and maximum parsimony methods has adequately removed ambiguity over their systematics. In phylogenetic trees, U. agilis clustered consistently with non-stylonychine oxytrichids. Both Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata clustered consistently away from U. agilis and O. granulifera, the type species of the genera Urosomoida and Oxytricha, respectively. As a result of the current molecular phylogenetic investigation and based on previously inferred morphological and morphogenetic data it is proposed to remove Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata from Urosomoida and incertae sedis in Oxytricha, respectively, and establish two new generic combinations, Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov. and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. for them.

  20. Promotion of wound healing by Plantago major L. leaf extracts--ex-vivo experiments confirm experiences from traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Nybom, Hilde; Lindholm, Christina; Brandner, Johanna M; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    The wound-healing properties of Plantago major L. (plantain) were evaluated using an ex-vivo porcine wound-healing model. Ethanol- and water-based extracts were prepared from greenhouse-grown and freeze-dried leaves of P. major. Both types of extracts stimulated wound healing in porcine skin, but the ethanol-based extracts had a somewhat stronger effect. A concentration of 1.0 mg/mL (on dry weight basis) produced the best results for both types of extracts.

  1. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of suspending properties of arabinoxylan from Ispaghula (Plantago ovata) husk.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Sajid; Erum, Alia; Saghir, Shazia; Tulain, Umme Ruqia; Rashid, Ayesha

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of arabinoxylan as potential suspending agent, an effective alternative to commercially used excipients for the preparation of pharmaceutical suspensions. Alkali extraction was done to separate arabinoxylan from ispaghula (Plantago ovata) seed husk by alkali extraction its physicochemical characterization was done and the suspending properties of arabinoxylan isolated were evaluated comparatively with those of bentonite at different concentration ranges of 0.125,0.25,0.5 and 1% in Zinc oxide suspension. The parameters employed for evaluation were sedimentation volume, degree of flocculation, flow rate, density, pH, redispersibility, microbiological evaluation and particle size analysis. Physicochemical characterization of arabinoxylan indicates its suitability as excipient as it has fair flow properties, low moisture content and almost neutral pH. Arabinoxylan at low conc. 0.125% showed sedimentation volume comparable to commercially used suspending agents such as bentonite 1% while suspensions containing higher concentrations such as 0.25% (sedimentation volume 92%), 0.5% (sedimentation volume 94%) and 1% conc. (sedimentation volume 98%) of arabinoxylan remained almost completely suspended during study period of 7 days. Formulations containing 0.125% and 0.25% arabinoxylan as suspending agents are easily redispersible as compared to bentonite containing formulation while formulation containing 0.5% arabinoxylan are moderately redispersible while formulation containing 1% suspending agent gel upon storage and was not redispersible. Furthermore arabinoxylan produces stable, highly flocculated suspension, which fulfilled microbiological, and particle size specifications, however the formulations containing higher arabinoxylan 1% concentration gel upon storage. So it is concluded that arabinoxylan could be used as effective suspending agent at low concentrations in Zinc oxide suspension.

  2. Rapid discrimination of cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata in different ages by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yun; Xu, Chang-hua; Huang, Jian; Li, Guo-yu; Liu, Xin-Hu; Sun, Su-qin; Wang, Jin-hui

    2014-07-01

    Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata) root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat lung ailments, rheumatism, menstrual disturbance and bruises with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. In this study, four types of Deodeok with different growth years were discriminated and identified by a Tri-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (conventional FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2DCOS-IR) under thermal perturbation. Although only small differences were found in the FT-IR spectra of the samples, the positions and intensities of peaks around 1736, 1634, 1246, 1055, 1033, 818, 779 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors for discriminating them. The differences among them were amplified by their SD-IR spectra. The 2DCOS-IR spectra provided obvious dynamic chemical structure information of Deodeok samples, which present different particular auto peak clusters in the range of 875-1130 cm-1 and 1170-1630 cm-1, respectively. It was demonstrated that the content of triterpene were decreasing when C. lanceolata were growing older, but the relative content of saccharides initially increased and decreased significantly afterwards. It indicated a general trend that the content of polysaccharides accumulated with increasing years. Specifically, the content of polysaccharides accumulated in the root of 2-year-old plant was the lowest, 4-years-old was the highest, and then the content decreased gradually. Furthermore, according to the differences of locations and intensities of auto-peaks in 2D-IR spectra, the integral changes of components were revealed. This study offers a promising method inherent with cost-effective and time-saving to characterize and discriminate the complicated system like Deodeok.

  3. Influence of Plantago ovata husk (dietary fiber) on the bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin in diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Díez, Raquel; García, Juan José; Diez, María José; Sierra, Matilde; Sahagun, Ana M; Fernández, Nélida

    2017-06-07

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent frequently used in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the dietary fiber Plantago ovata husk on the pharmacokinetics of this drug when included in the diet, as well as when administered at the same time as metformin. Six groups of 6 rabbits were used. Groups 1 to 3 were fed with standard chow and groups 4 to 6 with chow supplemented with fiber (3.5 mg/kg/day). Groups 1 and 4 received metformin intravenously (30 mg/kg). Groups 2 and 5 received metfomin orally (30 mg/kg), and number 3 and 6 were treated orally with metformin (30 mg/kg) and fiber (300 mg/kg). The changes caused by the inclusion of fiber in the feeding were more important in groups that received oral metformin. In this way, metformin oral bioavailability showed an increase of 34.42% when rabbits were fed with supplemented chow. Plantago ovata husk increased the amount of absorbed metformin when included in the diet (significant increase in AUC), and delayed its absorption when administered at the same time (significant increase in tmax).

  4. [Sub-chronic toxicity and test of eye irritability of leaf aqueous extract from Plantago major (plantaginaceae)].

    PubMed

    García González, Mildred; Coto Morales, Teresita; Soto Rodríguez, Gerardo A; Pazos, Liliana

    2003-01-01

    For the sub-chronic toxicity an aqueous preparation of Plantago major leaves was tested in 20 male NGP mice, with an average weight of 20.15 g and separated in two groups of ten individuals each. The dose used was 2000 mg/kg and the control group received 0.5 ml of distilled water. The extract administration was done daily during five days at week for a total period of 40 days. Signs of sub-chronic toxicity were observed in the days two and 12 of treatment. No significant change in corporal weight was observed. The ocular irritation was tested in five New Zeland male rabbits, with an average weight of 3.640 kg. The dose used was a 200 microliters the preparation (100 mg/ml) of Plantago major leaves, instill into the right eye and the control was used the left eye instill 200 microliters of distilled water. The administration was done daily during five days. The extract shows no significant irritation during the observation period.

  5. [Callose content in cell walls of leaf epidermis and mesophyll in Alisma plantago-aquatica L. plants growing in different conditions of water supply].

    PubMed

    Ovruts'ka, I I

    2014-01-01

    The relative callose content in Alisma plantago-aquatica leaves has been studied at the phases of budding and flowering--fruiting. The callose content in cell walls was shown to vary depending on the type of tissue, phase of ontogenesis and of water supply.

  6. The peculiarities of water crystallization and ice melting processes in the roots of one-year plants (Plantago major L.).

    PubMed

    Bakradze, N; Kiziria, E; Sokhadze, V; Gogichaishvili, S

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented of a water phase transition study in plantain (Plantago major L.) roots, which were used as a model system to research the peculiarities of water crystallization and ice melting processes in complex heterogeneous biological systems. It was confirmed that water in such systems is crystallized in two clearly distinguished temperature ranges: -10 to -25 degree capital ES, Cyrillic and -25 to -45 degree capital ES, Cyrillic. These water fractions are conditionally attributed to extracellular (-10 to -25 degree capital ES, Cyrillic) and intracellular (-25 to -45 degree capital ES, Cyrillic) solutions. A possible explanation is given for such significant supercooling of the intracellular solution. The values of osmotic pressures of extra- and intracellular solutions were determined according to ice melting curves. It is noted that the intracellular solution, which crystallized at lower temperatures, had a lower osmotic pressure.

  7. [Polar lipid pool modification in leaves of hoary plantain (Plantago media L.) plants during their light adaptation under natural conditions].

    PubMed

    Rozentsvet, O A; Golovko, T K; Bogdanova, E S; Tabalenkova, G N; Nesterov, V N; Dymova, O V

    2013-01-01

    Polar glycerolipids and photosynthetic pigments of Plantago media L. plants, growing on limestone outcrops of the Southern Timan, have been studied. Leaves of plants growing on well insolated and heated slopes are characterized by an intensive lipoperoxidation; the accumulation of chlorophylls and carotenoids in these plants is 1.5-2 times less and the content of polar lipids is 15-20% less than in plants growing in dense grass at the bottom of slopes. The accumulation of some classes of glycerolipids in leaves in the daytime provides for stabilization of photosystem complexes and the formation of the pool of zeaxanthin, a protective xanthophyll. Changes in the content and ratio of lipids represent an important part of the adaptive reorganizations of the photosynthetic apparatus caused by excess radiation under natural conditions.

  8. Structural Features of Alkaline Extracted Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. and Its Rheological Properties.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Yi; Chen, Hai-Hong; Lin, Hui-Xia; Xie, Ming-Yong; Nie, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-06

    Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted polysaccharide from seeds of P. asiatica L. (PLAP). Its structural and rheological properties were characterized by monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS and rheometry. PLAP, as an acidic arabinoxylan, was mainly composed of 1,2,4-linked Xylp and 1,3,4-linked Xylp residues. PLAP solution showed pseudoplastic behavior, and weak gelling properties at high concentration. Sodium and especially calcium ions played a significant role in increasing the apparent viscosity and gel strength.

  9. Gene expression and proteomic analysis of shoot apical meristem transition from dormancy to activation in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huimin; Cao, Dechang; Chen, Yanmei; Wei, Dongmei; Wang, Yanwei; Stevenson, Rebecca Ann; Zhu, Yingfang; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to annual plants, in perennial plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) can undergo seasonal transitions between dormancy and activity; understanding this transition is crucial for understanding growth in perennial plants. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM development in trees. Here, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that evident changes in starch granules, lipid bodies, and cell walls thickness of the SAM in C. lanceolata during the transition from dormancy to activation. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed that levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased and levels of abscisic acid (ABA) decreased from dormant to active stage. Examination of 20 genes and 132 differentially expressed proteins revealed that the expression of genes and proteins potentially involved in cell division and expansion significantly increased in the active stage, whereas those related to the abscisic acid insensitive 3(ABI3), the cytoskeleton and energy metabolism decreased in the dormant stage. These findings provide new insights into the complex mechanism of gene and protein expression and their relation to cytological and physiological changes of SAM in this coniferous species. PMID:26832850

  10. Gene expression and proteomic analysis of shoot apical meristem transition from dormancy to activation in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huimin; Cao, Dechang; Chen, Yanmei; Wei, Dongmei; Wang, Yanwei; Stevenson, Rebecca Ann; Zhu, Yingfang; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-02-02

    In contrast to annual plants, in perennial plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) can undergo seasonal transitions between dormancy and activity; understanding this transition is crucial for understanding growth in perennial plants. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM development in trees. Here, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that evident changes in starch granules, lipid bodies, and cell walls thickness of the SAM in C. lanceolata during the transition from dormancy to activation. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed that levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased and levels of abscisic acid (ABA) decreased from dormant to active stage. Examination of 20 genes and 132 differentially expressed proteins revealed that the expression of genes and proteins potentially involved in cell division and expansion significantly increased in the active stage, whereas those related to the abscisic acid insensitive 3(ABI3), the cytoskeleton and energy metabolism decreased in the dormant stage. These findings provide new insights into the complex mechanism of gene and protein expression and their relation to cytological and physiological changes of SAM in this coniferous species.

  11. Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes in differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Gao, Yan; Yang, Liwei; Shi, Jisen

    2007-12-01

    Wood is an important raw material for global industries with rapidly increasing demand. To isolate the genes differentially expressed during xylogenesis of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.), we used a novel system. Forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization method; for the forward library we used cDNA from the mutant Dugansha as the tester and cDNA from the wild-type clone Jurong 0 as the driver, and for the reverse library we used Jurong 0 cDNA as the tester and Dugansha cDNA as the driver. Transcriptional profiling was performed using a macroarray with 4 digoxigenin-labeled probes. We obtained 618 and 409 clones from the forward and the reverse subtracted library, respectively. A total of 405 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. Forty percent of the ESTs exhibited homologies with proteins of known function and fell into 4 major classes: metabolism, cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, signal transduction, and stress. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm the results. The expression levels of 11 selected ESTs were consistent with both macroarray and real-time PCR results. The systematic analysis of genes involved in wood formation in Chinese fir provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in xylem differentiation and is an important resource for forest research that can be directed toward understanding the genetic control of wood formation and future endeavors to modify wood and fiber properties for industrial use.

  12. Nonlinear Mixed-Effects (NLME) Diameter Growth Models for Individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Trees in Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Sun, Yujun; Wang, Xinjie; Fu, Yao; Dong, Yunfei; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and −2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)] and a compound symmetry structure (CS). The one-level (tree) NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models. PMID:25084538

  13. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) diameter growth models for individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) trees in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Sun, Yujun; Wang, Xinjie; Fu, Yao; Dong, Yunfei; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and -2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)] and a compound symmetry structure (CS). The one-level (tree) NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models.

  14. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David J; Moran, Bridget M; Otte, Marinus L

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin.

  15. Some biochemical and haematological changes in rats pretreated with aqueous stem bark extract of Lophira lanceolata and intoxicated with paracetamol (acetaminophen).

    PubMed

    Aba, Patrick Emeka; Ozioko, Ikenna Emmanuel; Udem, Ngozi Dorathy; Udem, Samuel Chukwuneke

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the acute toxicity effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Lophira lanceolata and the activities of liver enzymes and other markers of organ damage in rats pretreated with aqueous stem bark extract of L. lanceolata extract and subsequently intoxicated with paracetamol (PCM). A total of 30 rats were used to determine the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of L. lanceolata stem. They were divided into six groups consisting of five rats each. The groups (A-F) were administered the increasing doses of the extract (500 mg/kg, 1,000 mg/kg, 2,000 mg/kg, 3,200 mg/kg, 4,000 mg/kg and 5,000 mg/kg) orally. The rats were observed over a period of 24 h for acute toxicity signs such as dullness, anorexia, morbidity and death. Thirty rats of mixed sexes randomly assigned to six groups (A-F) of five rats each were used for the study on the effects of L. lanceolata extract on the haematology, liver enzymes and markers of organ damage of extract-pretreated PCM-intoxicated rats. The rats in groups A-D were pretreated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg of L. lanceolata extract and 100 mg/kg Silymarin, respectively, twice a day for 7 days. On the seventh day, all the rats in groups A-E received 1,000 mg/kg PCM (per os). Group E rats served as negative control while group F rats were neither intoxicated nor treated with the extract and served as positive control. Eighteen hours after PCM intoxication, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses. The serum activities of these enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) and other markers of organ damages (bilirubin and total protein) were investigated. Haematologic parameters such as packed cell volume, red blood cell count, white blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration were also determined. The extract did not cause any death in all the groups even at the highest dose (5,000 mg/kg body weight). The results also showed varying degrees in

  16. Stability of soil organic carbon changes in successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Wang, Qingkui

    2009-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forests in the global carbon cycle depends on the stability of the soil carbon and its availability to soil microbial biomass. We investigated the effects of successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations on the stability of SOC and its availability to microbes by adopting the two-step hydrolysis with H2SO4 and density fractionation. The results showed that successive rotations of Chinese fir decreased the quantity of total SOC, recalcitrant fraction, and carbohydrates in Labile Pool I (LP I), and microbial properties evidently, especially at 0-10 cm horizon. However, cellulose included in Labile Pool II (LP II) and the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio increased in successive rotations of Chinese fir. The non-cellulose of carbohydrates included in LP I maybe highly available to soil microbial biomass. Hence the availability of SOC to microbial biomass declined over the successive rotations. Although there was no significant change in recalcitrance of SOC over the successive rotations of Chinese fir, the percentage of heavy fraction to total SOC increased, suggesting that the degree of physical protection for SOC increased and SOC became more stable over the successive rotations. The degradation of SOC quality in successive rotation soils may be attributed to worse environmental conditions resulted from disturbance that related to "slash and burn" site preparation. Being highly correlated with soil microbial properties, the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio as an effective indicator of changes in availability of SOC to microbial biomass brought by management practices in forest soils.

  17. Compatible Models of Carbon Content of Individual Trees on a Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Fujian Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Lin; Tao, Hong; Wei, Hong; Chengzhen, Wu

    2016-01-01

    We tried to establish compatible carbon content models of individual trees for a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantation from Fujian province in southeast China. In general, compatibility requires that the sum of components equal the whole tree, meaning that the sum of percentages calculated from component equations should equal 100%. Thus, we used multiple approaches to simulate carbon content in boles, branches, foliage leaves, roots and the whole individual trees. The approaches included (i) single optimal fitting (SOF), (ii) nonlinear adjustment in proportion (NAP) and (iii) nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR). These approaches were used in combination with variables relating diameter at breast height (D) and tree height (H), such as D, D2H, DH and D&H (where D&H means two separate variables in bivariate model). Power, exponential and polynomial functions were tested as well as a new general function model was proposed by this study. Weighted least squares regression models were employed to eliminate heteroscedasticity. Model performances were evaluated by using mean residuals, residual variance, mean square error and the determination coefficient. The results indicated that models with two dimensional variables (DH, D2H and D&H) were always superior to those with a single variable (D). The D&H variable combination was found to be the most useful predictor. Of all the approaches, SOF could establish a single optimal model separately, but there were deviations in estimating results due to existing incompatibilities, while NAP and NSUR could ensure predictions compatibility. Simultaneously, we found that the new general model had better accuracy than others. In conclusion, we recommend that the new general model be used to estimate carbon content for Chinese fir and considered for other vegetation types as well. PMID:26982054

  18. Optimization of hormone combinations for root growth and bud germination in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) clone leaf cuttings.

    PubMed

    Li, Shubin; Huang, Peng; Ding, Guochang; Zhou, Lili; Tang, Piao; Sun, Min; Zheng, Yingying; Lin, Sizu

    2017-07-11

    In order to ascertain the optimal hormone combination for Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) leaf cuttings, an L16(4)(4) orthogonal test of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0, 10, 30, or 50 mg · L(-1) of each exogenous hormone) immersion for 5, 10, 15, or 20 min was conducted. Callus initiation rate and rooting promotion rate were mainly affected by treatment time, root length increase by 6-BA concentration, and bud germination rate and plantlet formation rate by NAA concentration. The expected optimal combination for callus initiation rate was 50 mg · L(-1) 6-BA + 0 mg · L(-1) NAA + 30 mg · L(-1) IBA + 10 min; for rooting promotion rate, it was 0-10 mg · L(-1) 6-BA + 10 mg · L(-1) NAA + 30 mg · L(-1) IBA + 20 min; for bud germination rate, it was 50 mg · L(-1) 6-BA + 0-10 mg · L(-1) NAA + 0-30 mg · L(-1) IBA + 20 min; and for seedling formation rate for No. 4, it was 10 mg · L(-1) 6-BA + 10 mg · L(-1) NAA + 0 mg · L(-1) IBA + 20 min. Light microscopy image analysis revealed that a cluster of primordial cells was produced 40 days after cutting, and mastoid cells developed into peninsula cells in calli that were cultured for 50 days.

  19. Compatible Models of Carbon Content of Individual Trees on a Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lin; Tao, Hong; Wei, Hong; Chengzhen, Wu

    2016-01-01

    We tried to establish compatible carbon content models of individual trees for a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantation from Fujian province in southeast China. In general, compatibility requires that the sum of components equal the whole tree, meaning that the sum of percentages calculated from component equations should equal 100%. Thus, we used multiple approaches to simulate carbon content in boles, branches, foliage leaves, roots and the whole individual trees. The approaches included (i) single optimal fitting (SOF), (ii) nonlinear adjustment in proportion (NAP) and (iii) nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR). These approaches were used in combination with variables relating diameter at breast height (D) and tree height (H), such as D, D2H, DH and D&H (where D&H means two separate variables in bivariate model). Power, exponential and polynomial functions were tested as well as a new general function model was proposed by this study. Weighted least squares regression models were employed to eliminate heteroscedasticity. Model performances were evaluated by using mean residuals, residual variance, mean square error and the determination coefficient. The results indicated that models with two dimensional variables (DH, D2H and D&H) were always superior to those with a single variable (D). The D&H variable combination was found to be the most useful predictor. Of all the approaches, SOF could establish a single optimal model separately, but there were deviations in estimating results due to existing incompatibilities, while NAP and NSUR could ensure predictions compatibility. Simultaneously, we found that the new general model had better accuracy than others. In conclusion, we recommend that the new general model be used to estimate carbon content for Chinese fir and considered for other vegetation types as well.

  20. Antifungal efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major against oral Candida albicans: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hunny; Yunus, G Y; Agrawal, Rohit; Kalra, Monika; Verma, Swati; Bhattar, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times, plants with medicinal values are being tested and used in the treatment of various infectious diseases. The present in vitro study was designed to assess the antifungal activity of three commonly available medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting oral Candida albicans in comparison to standard antifungal agents. Bark of G. glabra, stem of F. religiosa, and husk of P. major were collected, crushed into fine powder, and dissolved in 67% ethanol. Extracts were subjected to antifungal efficacy test against oral C. albicans (ATCC 66027) using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Mean zone of inhibition (ZOI) was measured by HI antibiotic zone scale. One-way ANOVA using Tukey's post hoc and t-test were applied for statistical analysis. G. glabra was found to be most effective among the three with highest mean ZOI measuring 19.8 ± 0.83, 19.4 ± 0.54, and 18.2 ± 1.09 at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Tukey's post hoc test showed statistically nonsignificant difference between antifungal activity of F. religiosa and P. major with itraconazole 10 mcg. G. glabra, F. religiosa, and P. major showed acceptable potency against C. albicans (ATCC 66027) comparable to that of synthetic antifungal agents. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentrations and clinical utility.

  1. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) and an understory herbaceous plant Plantago asiatica.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We investigated communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the fine roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, and Plantago asiatica to consider the relationship between orchard trees and herbaceous plants in AMF symbioses. The AMF communities were analyzed on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), which were amplified using the AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained AMF sequences were divided into 23 phylotypes. Among them, 12 phylotypes included AMF from both host plants, and most of the obtained sequences (689/811) were affiliated to them. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the host plant species did not have a significant effect on the distribution of AMF phylotypes, whereas the effects of sampling site, soil total C, soil total N and soil-available P were significant. It was also found that the mean observed overlaps of AMF phylotypes between the paired host plants in the same soil cores (27.1% of phylotypes shared) were significantly higher than the mean 1,000 simulated overlaps (14.2%). Furthermore, the same AMF sequences (100% sequence identity) were detected from both host plants in 8/12 soil cores having both roots. Accordingly, we concluded that Py. pyrifolia and Pl. asiatica examined shared some AMF communities, which suggested that understory herbaceous plants may function as AMF inoculum sources for orchard trees.

  2. Comparative Study on the Effect of Plantago psyllium and Ocimum basilicum Seeds on Anthropometric Measures in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Shahab-Aldin; Asgary, Sedigheh; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. Methods: All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial. They randomly assigned into four groups receiving (1) OB 10 g/day; (2) PP 10 g/day; (3) mix of OB and PP 10 g/day; and (4) control group without placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were assessed during study baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. The data were analyzed using paired sample t-test for within group and analysis of covariance for between groups. Results: In within group analysis, weight and body mass index show a significant reduction after 12 weeks intervention. In addition, soft lean mass and lean body mass were decreased in PP and mixed of PP and OB groups significantly; another group (OB) shows the same result for mass body fat. Although in intervention groups, we see considerable reduction, between group changes did not demonstrate the same consequences. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that administration of OB, PP, or mix of them for 12 weeks does not affect any of the anthropometric measures in NAFLD. PMID:27761216

  3. Althaea rosea Cavanil and Plantago major L. suppress neoplastic cell transformation through the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Sun; Cho, Sung-Dae; Shin, Ji-Ae; Kwon, Ki Han; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    For thousands of years in Asia, Althaea rosea Cavanil (ARC) and Plantago major L. (PML) have been used as powerful non-toxic therapeutic agents that inhibit inflammation. However, the anticancer mechanisms and molecular targets of ARC and PML are poorly understood, particularly in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic cell transformation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects and mechanisms of the methanol extracts from ARC (MARC) and PML (MPML) in EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells using an MTS assay, anchorage-independent cell transformation assay and western blotting. Our results showed that MARC and MPML significantly suppressed neoplastic cell transformation by inhibiting the kinase activity of the EGF receptor (EGFR). The activation of EGFR by EGF was suppressed by MARC and MPML treatment in EGFR(+/+) cells, but not in EGFR(-/-) cells. In addition, MARC and MPML inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation in EGFR-expressing murine embryonic fibroblasts (EGFR(+/+)). These results strongly indicate that EGFR targeting by MARC and MPML may be a good strategy for chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic applications.

  4. Plantago lanceolata L. water extract induces transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increases tensile strength of healing skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Kováč, Ivan; Ďurkáč, Ján; Hollý, Martin; Jakubčová, Katarína; Peržeľová, Vlasta; Mučaji, Pavel; Švajdlenka, Emil; Sabol, František; Legáth, Jaroslav; Belák, Jozef; Smetana, Karel; Gál, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although the exact underlying mechanisms are still unknown, Plantago lanceolata L. (PL) water extracts are frequently used to stimulate wound healing and to drain abscesses. Therefore, in this experimental study the effect of PL water extract on skin wound healing was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Two excisional and one incisional skin wounds were performed on the back of each rat. Wounds were treated for three consecutive days with two different concentrations of the aqueous extract of PL. Rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 21 days after surgery. Samples of wounds were processed for macroscopic (excisions - wound contraction measurement), biomechanical (incisions - wound tensile strength (TS) measurement) and histological examination (excisions). It was shown that open wounds treated with PL extract contained myofibroblasts and demonstrated significantly higher contraction rates. Furthermore, significantly increased wound TSs were recorded in treated rats as a consequence of increased organization of extracellular matrix proteins, such as the collagen type 1. We demonstrated that PL aqueous extract improves skin wound healing in rats. However, further research need to be performed to find optimal therapeutic concentration, and exact underlying mechanism prior obtained results may be introduced into the clinical practice. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Seasonal dynamic of morpho-physiological properties and the lipid composition of Plantago media (Plantaginaceae) in the Middle Volga region.

    PubMed

    Rozentsvet, Olga; Grebenkina, Tatyana; Nesterov, Viktor; Bogdanova, Elena

    2016-07-01

    The changes in morpho-physiological properties and lipid composition have been studied in the leaves of the plant Plantago media collected from two different places in the Middle Volga region during the summer of 2010. The plants gathered from the first plot (P1 plants) grew on plain ground in the midst of typical meadow-steppe perennial plants. The plants of the second group (P2 plants) grew on a flat slope of the South-West exposition, in the grass community. The leaves of the plants Р1 had lower specific area densities but larger areas and masses; they accumulated more levels lipid peroxide products. The changes in lipid compositions depended on the growth phase and habitats. Correlations between morpho-physiological parameters and certain lipids have been established. The amounts of galactolipids (GL) have been shown to correlate with the leaf areas. When the leaf areas were reduced, a ratio between phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) decreased. The result of our study showed that gradual changes of morphometrical parameters were accompanied by the alterations in biomass structure and modifications in lipids and fatty acids (FA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Phloem Loading by the PmSUC2 Sucrose Carrier from Plantago major Occurs into Companion Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, R.; Brandner, J.; Schulz, A.; Gahrtz, M.; Sauer, N.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of mRNA for the sucrose-H+ symporter PmSUC2 have been found in the vascular bundles of petioles from Plantago major. The possible role of PmSUC2 in phloem loading was studied with antiserum raised against the recombinant PmSUC2 protein. This antiserum labeled a single 35-kD protein band in detergent extracts of P. major vascular bundles. It showed no cross-reaction with the P. major sucrose carrier PmSUC1, which was tested with detergent extracts from plasma membranes of transgenic yeast strains containing either the P. major sucrose transporter PmSUC1 or PmSUC2. The antiserum was used to determine the site of PmSUC2 expression in leaves, petioles, and roots of P. major. In cross-sections and longitudinal sections, the PmSUC2 protein was found in only one single cell type. These cells were identified as companion cells because they are nucleated, contain a dense cytoplasm, and are always adjacent to a sieve element. The labeled cells had the same longitudinal extension as did their sister sieve elements and always ended next to the sieve plates, which were characterized by specific staining. PmSUC2 mRNA and PmSUC2 protein were also detected in P. major roots. The function of PmSUC2 in the different organs and its role in phloem loading are discussed. PMID:12242355

  7. Intraspecific variation in temperature dependence of gas exchange characteristics among Plantago asiatica ecotypes from different temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazumasa; Onoda, Yusuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2007-01-01

    There are large inter- and intraspecific differences in the temperature dependence of photosynthesis, but the physiological cause of the variation is poorly understood. Here, the temperature dependence of photosynthesis was examined in three ecotypes of Plantago asiatica transplanted from different latitudes, where the mean annual temperature varies between 7.5 and 16.8 degrees C. Plants were raised at 15 or 30 degrees C, and the CO(2) response of photosynthetic rates was determined at various temperatures. When plants were grown at 30 degrees C, no difference was found in the temperature dependence of photosynthesis among ecotypes. When plants were grown at 15 degrees C, ecotypes from a higher latitude maintained a relatively higher photosynthetic rate at low measurement temperatures. This difference was caused by a difference in the balance between the capacities of two processes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (J(max)) and carboxylation (V(cmax)), which altered the limiting step of photosynthesis at low temperatures. The organization of photosynthetic proteins also varied among ecotypes. The ecotype from the highest latitude increased the J(max) : V(cmax) ratio with decreasing growth temperature, while that from the lowest latitude did not. It is concluded that nitrogen partitioning in the photosynthetic apparatus and its response to growth temperature were different among ecotypes, which caused an intraspecific variation in temperature dependence of photosynthesis.

  8. Evaluation of drug uptake and deactivation in plant: Fate of albendazole in ribwort plantain (Plantago laceolata) cells and regenerants.

    PubMed

    Stuchlíková Raisová, Lucie; Podlipná, Radka; Szotáková, Barbora; Syslová, Eliška; Skálová, Lenka

    2017-03-13

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole anthelmintic widely used especially in veterinary medicine. Along with other drugs, anthelmintics have become one of a new class of micro-pollutants that disturb the environment but the information about their fate in plants remains limited. The present study was designed to test the uptake and biotransformation of ABZ in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lancelota), a common meadow plant, which can come into contact with this anthelmintic through the excrements of treated animals in pastures. Two model systems were used and compared: cell suspensions and whole plant regenerants. In addition, time-dependent changes in occurrence of ABZ and its metabolites in roots, basal parts of the leaves and tops of the leaves were followed up. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) led to the identification of 18 metabolites of ABZ formed in the ribwort. In both model systems, the same types of ABZ biotransformation reactions were found, but the spectrum and abundance of the ABZ metabolites detected in cell suspensions and regenerants differed significantly. Cell suspensions seem to be suitable only for qualitative estimations of drug biotransformation reactions while regenerants were shown to represent an adequate model for the qualitative as well as quantitative evaluation of drug uptake and metabolism in plants.

  9. Effects of elevated mean and extremely high temperatures on the physio-ecological characteristics of geographically distinctive populations of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiaorong; Liao, Huixuan; Peng, Shijia; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    Conventional models for predicting species distribution under global warming scenarios often treat one species as a homogeneous whole. In the present study, we selected Cunninghamia lanceolata (C. lanceolata), a widely distributed species in China, to investigate the physio-ecological responses of five populations under different temperature regimes. The results demonstrate that increased mean temperatures induce increased growth performance among northern populations, which exhibited the greatest germination capacity and largest increase in the overlap between the growth curve and the monthly average temperature. However,tolerance of the southern population to extremely high temperatures was stronger than among the population from the northern region,shown by the best growth and the most stable photosynthetic system of the southern population under extremely high temperature. This result indicates that the growth advantage among northern populations due to increased mean temperatures may be weakened by lower tolerance to extremely high temperatures. This finding is antithetical to the predicted results. The theoretical coupling model constructed here illustrates that the difference in growth between populations at high and low latitudes and altitudes under global warming will decrease because of the frequent occurrence of extremely high temperatures.

  10. Effects of elevated mean and extremely high temperatures on the physio-ecological characteristics of geographically distinctive populations of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiaorong; Liao, Huixuan; Peng, Shijia; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional models for predicting species distribution under global warming scenarios often treat one species as a homogeneous whole. In the present study, we selected Cunninghamia lanceolata (C. lanceolata), a widely distributed species in China, to investigate the physio-ecological responses of five populations under different temperature regimes. The results demonstrate that increased mean temperatures induce increased growth performance among northern populations, which exhibited the greatest germination capacity and largest increase in the overlap between the growth curve and the monthly average temperature. However,tolerance of the southern population to extremely high temperatures was stronger than among the population from the northern region,shown by the best growth and the most stable photosynthetic system of the southern population under extremely high temperature. This result indicates that the growth advantage among northern populations due to increased mean temperatures may be weakened by lower tolerance to extremely high temperatures. This finding is antithetical to the predicted results. The theoretical coupling model constructed here illustrates that the difference in growth between populations at high and low latitudes and altitudes under global warming will decrease because of the frequent occurrence of extremely high temperatures. PMID:28004775

  11. Evaluating water deficit and glyphosate treatment on the accumulation of phenolic compounds and photosynthesis rate in transgenic Codonopsis lanceolata (Siebold & Zucc.) Trautv. over-expressing γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-tmt) gene.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bimal Kumar; Son, Na-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Yu, Chang Yeon; Chung, Ill-Min

    2017-07-01

    The effect of water stress and herbicide treatment on the phenolic compound concentration and photosynthesis rate in transgenic Codonopsis lanceolata plants over-expressing the γ-tmt gene was investigated and compared to that in control non-transgenic C. lanceolata plants. The total phenolic compound content was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection in C. lanceolata seedlings 3 weeks after water stress and treatment with glyphosate. Changes in the composition of phenolic compounds were observed in leaf and root extracts from transformed C. lanceolata plants following water stress and treatment with glyphosate. The total concentration of phenolic compounds in the leaf extracts of transgenic samples after water stress ranged from 3455.13 ± 40.48 to 8695.00 ± 45.44 µg g(-1) dry weight (DW), whereas the total concentration phenolic compound in the leaf extracts of non-transgenic control samples was 5630.83 ± 45.91 µg g(-1) DW. The predominant phenolic compounds that increased after the water stress in the transgenic leaf were (+) catechin, benzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, rutin, vanillic acid, and veratric acid. The total concentration of phenolic compounds in the leaf extracts of transgenic samples after glyphosate treatment ranged from 4744.37 ± 81.81 to 12,051.02 ± 75.00 µg g(-1) DW, whereas the total concentration of the leaf extracts of non-transgenic control samples after glyphosate treatment was 3778.28 ± 59.73 µg g(-1) DW. Major phenolic compounds that increased in the transgenic C. lanceolata plants after glyphosate treatment included kaempherol, gallic acid, myricetin, p-hydroxybenzjoic acid, quercetin, salicylic acid, t-cinnamic acid, catechin, benzoicacid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, veratric acid, and vanillic acid. Among these, vanillic acid showed the greatest increase in both leaf and root extracts from transgenic plants relative to

  12. Studies on the individual and combined diuretic effects of four Vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus).

    PubMed

    Doan, D D; Nguyen, N H; Doan, H K; Nguyen, T L; Phan, T S; van Dau, N; Grabe, M; Johansson, R; Lindgren, G; Stjernström, N E

    1992-06-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used in Vietnam alongside modern drugs. We assessed the diuretic effect of four traditional Vietnamese herbal remedies from Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus, all claimed to produce an increase of diuresis. No influence was recorded for the 12- and 24-h urine output or on the sodium excretion for any of the drugs when tested under standardized conditions in a placebo controlled double-blind crossover model. The present study indicates the need for critical review of the present recommendations regarding therapy with plant materials in countries relying on empiric traditions.

  13. Effects of Plantago major Extracts and Its Chemical Compounds on Proliferation of Cancer Cells and Cytokines Production of Lipopolysaccharide-activated THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kartini; Piyaviriyakul, Suratsawadee; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Siripong, Pongpun; Vallisuta, Omboon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plantago major has been reported to have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, which plant parts are more suitable as starting materials has not been explored. Objectives: To investigate the antiproliferative activity of P. major extracts against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cancer cell lines as well as their effects on inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Materials and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of P. major from different plant parts and its chemical compounds, i.e., ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA), and aucubin were tested in this experiment. Results: Methanol and aqueous extracts of P. major seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity. The methanol extracts of seeds also demonstrated the highest inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable activities to those of leaves and petioles. Furthermore, UA exhibited stronger activities than OA and aucubin. Conclusions: The seeds are being proposed as the main source for further development of anticancer and anti-inflammatory products, whereas the roots could be included in the preparation of P. major derived products with respect to anti-inflammatory. SUMMARY Amongst the parts of Plantago major, seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cell lines as well as the highest inhibition on TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ productionThe roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable antiproliferative and cytokines inhibition activities to those of leaves and petiolesUrsolic acid, a chemical compound of Plantago major, exhibited stronger activities than

  14. Non-targeted Metabolite Profiling and Scavenging Activity Unveil the Nutraceutical Potential of Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manish K.; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolomics implies that psyllium (Plantago ovata) is a rich source of natural antioxidants, PUFAs (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids) and essential and sulfur-rich amino acids, as recommended by the FAO for human health. Psyllium contains phenolics and flavonoids that possess reducing capacity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. In leaves, seeds, and husks, about 76, 78, 58% polyunsaturated, 21, 15, 20% saturated, and 3, 7, 22% monounsaturated fatty acids were found, respectively. A range of FAs (C12 to C24) was detected in psyllium and among different plant parts, a high content of the nutritive indicators ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid (57%) and ω-6 linoleic acid (18%) was detected in leaves. Similarly, total content of phenolics and the essential amino acid valine were also detected utmost in leaves followed by sulfur-rich amino acids and flavonoids. In total, 36 different metabolites were identified in psyllium, out of which 26 (13 each) metabolites were detected in leaves and seeds, whereas the remaining 10 were found in the husk. Most of the metabolites are natural antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids, or alkaloids and can be used as nutrient supplements. Moreover, these metabolites have been reported to have several pharmaceutical applications, including anti-cancer activity. Natural plant ROS scavengers, saponins, were also detected. Based on metabolomic data, the probable presence of a flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was inferred, which provides useful insight for metabolic engineering in the future. Non-targeted metabolomics, antioxidants and scavenging activities reveal the nutraceutical potential of the plant and also suggest that psyllium leaves can be used as a green salad as a dietary supplement to daily food. PMID:27092153

  15. Dissecting the Genetic Basis for Seed Coat Mucilage Heteroxylan Biosynthesis in Plantago ovata Using Gamma Irradiation and Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Matthew R.; Ma, Chao; Phan, Jana; Neumann, Kylie; Shirley, Neil J.; Hahn, Michael G.; Cozzolino, Daniel; Burton, Rachel A.

    2017-01-01

    Seeds from the myxospermous species Plantago ovata release a polysaccharide-rich mucilage upon contact with water. This seed coat derived mucilage is composed predominantly of heteroxylan (HX) and is utilized as a gluten-free dietary fiber supplement to promote human colorectal health. In this study, a gamma-irradiated P. ovata population was generated and screened using histological stains and Fourier Transform Mid Infrared (FTMIR) spectroscopy to identify putative mutants showing defects in seed coat mucilage HX composition and/or structure. FTMIR analysis of dry seed revealed variation in regions of the IR spectra previously linked to xylan structure in Secale cereale (rye). Subsequent absorbance ratio and PCA multivariate analysis identified 22 putative mutant families with differences in the HX IR fingerprint region. Many of these showed distinct changes in the amount and subtle changes in structure of HX after mucilage extrusion, while 20% of the putative HX mutants identified by FTMIR showed no difference in staining patterns of extruded mucilage compared to wild-type. Transcriptional screening analysis of two putative reduced xylan in mucilage (rxm) mutants, rxm1 and rxm3, revealed that changes in HX levels in rxm1 correlate with reduced transcription of known and novel genes associated with xylan synthesis, possibly indicative of specific co-regulatory units within the xylan biosynthetic pathway. These results confirm that FTMIR is a suitable method for identifying putative mutants with altered mucilage HX composition in P. ovata, and therefore forms a resource to identify novel genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. PMID:28377777

  16. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C F; García, M B; Ehlers, B K

    2013-05-01

    Investment in reproduction and growth represent a classic tradeoff with implication for life history evolution. The local environment can play a major role in the magnitude and evolutionary consequences of such a tradeoff. Here, we examined the investment in reproductive and vegetative tissue in 40 maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity. For the perennial populations, one showed a large variation among maternal families in resource allocation and expressed significant negative genetic correlations between reproductive and vegetative biomass under drought. The other perennial population showed less variation in response to treatment and had trait values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low water availability even among geographically close populations. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Polymorphisms in LEP and NPY genes modify the response to soluble fibre Plantago ovata husk intake on cardiovascular risk biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Crescenti, Anna; Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M; Anguera, Anna; Arola, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The satiating effect of fibre consumption has been related to gut hormones, such as peptide YY and leptin. These peptides may also influence cardiovascular (CVD) risk biomarkers. Nevertheless, there is wide interindividual variation in metabolic responses to fibre consumption. The objective was to investigate differences in the effects of soluble fibre, in the form of Plantago ovata husk (Po-husk) treatment, on CVD risk biomarkers according to selected polymorphisms in genes related to satiety. The study was a multi-centred, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel and randomised trial in mild-moderate hypercholesterolaemic patients (age range: 43-67 years). Eight polymorphisms in three genes related to satiety (LEP, NPY and PYY) were identified in 178 participants; 88 patients in the placebo (microcrystalline cellulose 14 g/day) group and 90 in the Po-husk (14 g/day) group, which had added to a low-saturated-fat diet for 8 weeks. The CVD biomarkers measured included the following: lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), glucose, insulin, hs-CRP, oxidised LDL and IL-6. Relative to the placebo, Po-husk consumption lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration by 3.3 % according to rs7799039 polymorphism in the LEP gene (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the Po-husk reduced systolic BP (mean [95 % CI]) by -8 mmHg (-14.16; -1.90) and hs-CRP by 24.9 % in subjects with the AA genotype of the rs16147 polymorphism in the NPY gene (32 % of our total population; p < 0.05), which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the LEP and NPY genes potentiate the response to Po-husk, particularly the effects on systolic BP and the hs-CRP plasma concentration.

  18. Phloem-Specific Expression of Yang Cycle Genes and Identification of Novel Yang Cycle Enzymes in Plantago and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Feussner, Kirstin; Zierer, Wolfgang; Rabinovych, Valentyna; Klebl, Franz; Feussner, Ivo; Sauer, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) or Yang cycle is a set of reactions that recycle MTA to Met. In plants, MTA is a byproduct of polyamine, ethylene, and nicotianamine biosynthesis. Vascular transcriptome analyses revealed phloem-specific expression of the Yang cycle gene 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE KINASE1 (MTK1) in Plantago major and Arabidopsis thaliana. As Arabidopsis has only a single MTK gene, we hypothesized that the expression of other Yang cycle genes might also be vascular specific. Reporter gene studies and quantitative analyses of mRNA levels for all Yang cycle genes confirmed this hypothesis for Arabidopsis and Plantago. This includes the Yang cycle genes 5-METHYLTHIORIBOSE-1-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE1 and DEHYDRATASE-ENOLASE-PHOSPHATASE-COMPLEX1. We show that these two enzymes are sufficient for the conversion of methylthioribose-1-phosphate to 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In bacteria, fungi, and animals, the same conversion is catalyzed in three to four separate enzymatic steps. Furthermore, comparative analyses of vascular and nonvascular metabolites identified Met, S-adenosyl Met, and MTA preferentially or almost exclusively in the vascular tissue. Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the Yang cycle in higher plants and demonstrate that the Yang cycle works primarily in the vasculature. Finally, expression analyses of polyamine biosynthetic genes suggest that the Yang cycle in leaves recycles MTA derived primarily from polyamine biosynthesis. PMID:21540433

  19. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Plantago asiatica leaf extract and their application for the cyanation of aldehydes using K4Fe(CN)6.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Momeni, Seyedeh Samaneh; Sajadi, S Mohammad

    2017-11-15

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were synthesized via a green method by using of Plantago asiatica leaf extract as natural solvent and reaction biomedia under environmentally benign reaction conditions. It was observed that use of Plantago asiatica leaf extract makes a simple, eco-friendly and cost effective method for the preparation of the Cu NPs and can reduce copper ions into Cu(0) within 5min of reaction time without using any stabilizer or surfactant agent. The progress of the reaction was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Polyphenolics could be adsorbed on the surface of Cu NPs, possibly by interaction through π-electrons interaction in the absence of other strong ligating agents. The catalytic activity of the Cu NPs was evaluated by cyanation of aldehydes in the extract as a green solvent. This method provided several advantages such as cleaner easy work-up, shorter reaction time and higher yield. Cu NPs were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, TEM, X-ray diffraction and the synthesized products were characterized by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Partial shading of lateral branches affects growth, and foliage nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies in the conifer Cunninghamia lanceolata growing in a warm monsoon climate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingfa; Li, Junyu; Zhang, Yuanbin; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2015-06-01

    The degree to which branches are autonomous in their acclimation responses to alteration in light environment is still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of shading of the sapling crown of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook on the whole-tree and mid-crown branch growth and current-year foliage structure and physiology. Four treatments providing 0, 50, 75 and 90% shading compared with full daylight (denoted as Treatment(0), Treatment(50%), Treatment(75%) and Treatment(90%), and Shaded(0), Shaded(50%), Shaded(75%) and Shaded(90%) for the shaded branches and Sunlit(0), Sunlit(50%), Sunlit(75%) and Sunlit(90%) for the opposite sunlit branches under natural light conditions, respectively), were applied over two consecutive growing seasons. Shading treatments decreased the growth of basal stem diameter, leaf dry mass per unit leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, the ratio of water-soluble to structural leaf nitrogen content, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency and instantaneous and long-term (estimated from carbon isotope composition) water-use efficiency in shaded branches. Differences between shaded and sunlit branches increased with increasing severity and duration of shading. A non-autonomous, partly compensatory behavior of non-shaded branches was observed for most traits, thus reflecting the dependence between the traits of sunlit branches and the severity of shading of the opposite crown half. The results collectively indicated that tree growth and branch and leaf acclimation responses of C. lanceolata are not only affected by the local light environment, but also by relative within-crown light conditions. We argue that such a non-autonomous branch response to changes in light conditions can improve whole-tree resource optimization. These results contribute to better understanding of tree growth and utilization of water and nitrogen under heterogeneous light conditions within tree canopies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  1. Plasiatine, an Unprecedented Indole–Phenylpropanoid Hybrid from Plantago asiatica as a Potent Activator of the Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Shp2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhong-Hua; Shi, Yi-Ming; Qiang, Zhe; Wang, Xia; Shang, Shan-Zhai; Yang, Yan; Du, Bao-Wen; Peng, Hui-Pan; Ji, Xu; Li, Honglin; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2016-04-01

    Plasiatine (1), isolated from the seeds of Plantago asiatica, is an unprecedented indole analogue linked to a phenylpropanoid moiety via a carbon bond that builds up a novel heteromeric construction with a C19N2 scaffold. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic data and computational evidence. Notably, experimental assay demonstrated that 1 significantly enhanced the activity of the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 0.97 μM, and activated phosphorylation of ERK, a known target of Shp2. Moreover, plasiatine (1) promoted hepatocellular HepG2 cells migration. Molecular docking suggested that plasiatine (1) binds to the catalytic cleft of Shp2. These results identified plasiatine (1) as the first small molecule Shp2 activator, and it warrants further investigation as a novel pharmaceutical tool to study the function of Shp2 in tumorigenesis.

  2. Impact of bio-fertilizers and different levels of cadmium on the growth, biochemical contents and lipid peroxidation of Plantago ovata Forsk

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Irfana; Faizan, Shahla; Perveen, Rubina; Kausar, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk. (isabgol) is a valuable medicinal plant; its seeds and shell have a significant role in pharmacy as a laxative compound. Increasing soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) is one of the major concerns and is responsible for toxic effects in plants. This investigation was aimed to analyze the role of biofertilizers in alleviation of cadmium stress, given at the rate of 0, 50, and 100 mg kg−1 of soil. The plants of isabgol, were grown in pots with and without application of AM fungi and Azotobacter (alone and combination). Cadmium showed negative effect on growth and biochemical component whereas proline and MDA content increase with increasing cadmium concentration. Addition of bio-fertilizer showed better growth and higher pigment concentration under cadmium stress as compared to the control. The dual inoculation of AM fungi and Azotobacter was found to be the best in reduction of cadmium stress and promotion of growth parameters. PMID:25183940

  3. Spatio-temporal variations of spring phenology of Plantago asiatica and Taraxacum mongolicum in the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Zhu, W.

    2016-12-01

    Plant phenology is strongly controlled by climate and has become a sensitive bio-indicator to study the plant response to climate change. Since the high altitude, permafrost geography and harsh physical environment of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the phenology shift in the TP was thought to be more sensitive than many other regions. However, the study of phenology in the TP was greatly limited by the lack of ground-observed phenological data. In this study, we collected the phonological records of first leaf date (FLD) and the first flowering date (FFD) of two herbaceous species (Plantago asiatica and Taraxacum mongolicum) both from 14 stations across the TP during 2000-2011 and analyzed the spatio-temporal variations of spring phenology. The results showed that the onset dates of FLD and FFD exhibited strong dependence on latitude, longitude and altitude because the onset dates of spring phenology occurred earlier at warmer locations. The sensitivities of spring phenology temperature varied among stations and earlier phenological events showed more negative temperature sensitivity except for the FFD of Taraxacum mongolicum. But the relationship between spring phenology and precipitation was not clear. Though the diverse trends of spring phenology of Plantago asiatica and Taraxacum mongolicum were found, the differences between the onset dates of FLD of the two species tended to increase (P < 0.05). However, the differences between the onset dates of FFD of the two species showed a reducing tendency (P < 0.01). These findings can help us to better understand the responses of plants to climate change in alpine ecosystem and provide information for phenology modelling.

  4. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae) on the bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi and on drug resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kalmobé, Justin; Ndjonka, Dieudonné; Boursou, Djafsia; Vildina, Jacqueline Dikti; Liebau, Eva

    2017-08-14

    Onchocerciasis is one of the tropical neglected diseases (NTDs) caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Control strategies currently in use rely on mass administration of ivermectin, which has marked activity against microfilariae. Furthermore, the development of resistance to ivermectin was observed. Since vaccine and safe macrofilaricidal treatment against onchocerciasis are still lacking, there is an urgent need to discover novel drugs. This study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata on the cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi and the anthelmintic drug resistant strains of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and to determine the phytochemical profiles of the extracts and fractions of the plants. Plant was extracted in ethanol or methanol-methylene chloride. O. ochengi, C. elegans wild-type and C. elegans drug resistant strains were cultured in RPMI-1640 and NGM-agar respectively. Drugs diluted in dimethylsulphoxide/RPMI or M9-Buffer were added in assays and monitored at 48 h and 72 h. Worm viability was determined by using the MTT/formazan colorimetric method. Polyphenol, tannin and flavonoid contents were determined by dosage of gallic acid and rutin. Acute oral toxicity was evaluated using Swiss albino mice. Ethanolic and methanolic-methylene chloride extracts killed O. ochengi with LC50 values of 9.76, 8.05, 6.39 μg/mL and 9.45, 7.95, 6.39 μg/mL respectively for leaves, trunk bark and root bark after 72 h. The lowest concentrations required to kill 50% of the wild-type of C. elegans were 1200 and 1890 μg/mL with ethanolic crude extract, 1000 and 2030 μg/mL with MeOH-CH2Cl2 for root bark and trunk bark of L. lanceolata, respectively after 72 h. Leave extracts of L. lanceolata are lethal to albendazole and ivermectin resistant strains of C. elegans after 72 h. Methanol/methylene chloride extracted more metabolites. Additionally, extracts could be considered relatively safe. Ethanolic and

  5. Screening and Validation of Housekeeping Genes of the Root and Cotyledon of Cunninghamia lanceolata under Abiotic Stresses by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenlong; Qu, Yanli; Shan, Xiaoyi; Wan, Yinglang

    2016-07-28

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs) as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ) with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants.

  6. Screening and Validation of Housekeeping Genes of the Root and Cotyledon of Cunninghamia lanceolata under Abiotic Stresses by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenlong; Qu, Yanli; Shan, Xiaoyi; Wan, Yinglang

    2016-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs) as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ) with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants. PMID:27483238

  7. Genome-wide analysis reveals dynamic changes in expression of microRNAs during vascular cambium development in Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zongbo; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Manman; Wan, Yinglang; Cao, Dechang; Lu, Shanfa; Lin, Jinxing

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that play key roles in the process of plant development. To date, extensive studies of miRNAs have been performed in a few model plants, but few efforts have focused on small RNAs (sRNAs) in conifers because of the lack of reference sequences for their enormous genomes. In this study, Solexa sequencing of three sRNA libraries obtained from dormant, reactivating, and active vascular cambium in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) using tangential cryosectioning identified 20 known miRNA families and 18 novel potential miRNAs, of which nine novel miRNA precursors were validated by RT-PCR and sequencing. More than half of these novel miRNAs displayed stage-specific expression patterns in the vascular cambium. Furthermore, analysing the 103 miRNAs and their predicted targets indicated that about 70% appeared to negatively regulate their targets, of which two target genes involved in the regulation of cambial cell division were validated via RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends (RLM 5'-RACE) and transient co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Interestingly, miRNA156 and miRNA172 may regulate the phase transition in vascular cambium from dormancy to active growth. These results provide new insights into the important regulatory functions of miRNAs in vascular cambium development and wood formation in conifers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthetic responses are related to intensity of root severance and soil moisture conditions in the plantation tree Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Zhang, Sheng; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-07-01

    We employed the warm temperate conifer Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. as a model of plantation forest species to investigate ecophysiological responses to root treatments (control (0%), and ∼25, 50 or 75% of the initial root mass) under well-watered and water-limited conditions. Our results indicated that total root dry mass accumulation was negatively associated with the severity of root pruning, but there was evidence of multiple compensatory responses. The plants exhibited higher instantaneous and long-term (assessed by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C) water-use efficiency in pruning treatments, especially under low water availability. Root pruning also increased the fine root/total root mass ratio, specific root length and fine root vitality in both water availability treatments. As a result of the compensatory responses, under well-watered conditions, height, stem dry mass accumulation, leaf/fine root biomass ratio (L/FR), transpiration rate, photosynthetic capacity and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (EN) were the highest under 25% pruning. Yet, all these traits except L/FR and foliage nitrogen content were severely reduced under 75% pruning. Drought negatively affected growth and leaf gas exchange rates, and there was a greater negative effect on growth, water potential, gas exchange and EN when >25% of total root biomass was removed. The stem/aboveground mass ratio was the highest under 25% pruning in both watering conditions. These results indicate that the responses to root severance are related to the excision intensity and soil moisture content. A moderate root pruning proved to be an effective means to improve stem dry mass accumulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Analysis of trace elements during different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis in Plantago ovata Forssk using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Saha, Priyanka; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Chakraborty, Anindita

    2010-06-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique has been used for the determination of trace element profile during different developmental stages of somatic embryogenic callus of an economically important medicinal plant, Plantago ovata Forssk. Somatic embryogenesis is a plant tissue culture-based technique, which is used for plant regeneration and crop improvement. In the present investigation, elemental content was analysed using ED-XRF technique during different developmental stages and also determine the effect of additives--casein hydrolysate and coconut water on the trace elemental profile of embryogenic callus tissue of P. ovata. Subsequent experiments showed significant alteration in the concentration of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Br, and Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. Higher K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn accumulation was in embryogenic tissue stage compared to other stages, suggesting these elements are crucial for successful embryogenesis. The results suggest that this information could be useful for formulating a media for in vitro embryo induction of P. ovata.

  10. Experimental measurements of leaf carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange in the progenies of Plantago depressa and Setaria viridis collected from a wide altitudinal range.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoan; Han, Jiamao; Faiia, Anthony; Tan, Wenbing; Shi, Weiqi; Liu, Xiaozhuan

    2008-09-01

    Significant correlations between leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) and altitude and between gas exchange and altitude have been reported in previous studies, raising the question of whether the altitudinal variations in discrimination and gas exchange can be attributed to genetic differences among populations from different altitudes. Studies that focus on in situ analysis cannot distinguish the effects of genetic variation from environmental variation. This article describes an experiment in which seeds of Plantago depressa (C3 species) and Setaria viridis (C4 species) collected from a wide altitudinal range were grown in the same environment. Carbon isotopic ratios (delta(13)C) and gas exchange of the seedlings were measured. The progenies of P. depressa and S. viridis no longer display any significant Delta decreases with the altitude of origin as seen in situ. Furthermore, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) and intrinsic water use efficiency for P. depressa and S. viridis grown in the greenhouse are also not significantly related to the altitude of origin. The observations suggest that altitudinal variations in Delta and gas exchange are not because of genotypic differences, independent of photosynthetic type.

  11. Effects of medicinal herbs "Plantago asiatica", "Houttuynia cordata" and "Mentha haplocalyx" on non-specific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Yin-Yu; Ueng, Pien-Sheng; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of orally administered Plantago asiatica, Houttuynia cordata, and Mentha haplocalyx on the growth and nonspecific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The nonspecific immune parameters assessed were weight gain, feed conversion ratio, superoxide anion (O2(-)) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic rate, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, serum albumin and globulin, and albumin:globulin (A/G) ratio. The growth experiment indicated that 6-week dietary treatments did not significantly affect on the growth of cobia. Nonspecific immune responses showed that O2(-) production, SOD and lysozyme activity, and phagocytosis were significantly increased after the oral administration of P. asiatica and H. cordata, and the serum albumin:globulin ratio (A/G) gradually decreased. In this study, treatment of the Mentha haplocalyx on the cobia didn't present with the inducing of the phagocytosis ability compared with the treatment of P. asiatica and H. cordata. We suggest that oral administration of the 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg of the P. asiatica and H. cordata is exactly inducing the phagocytosis, ROS production, lysozyme activity and SOD production in the cobia.

  12. Microbial short-chain fatty acid production and extracellular enzymes activities during in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. treated with microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chang; Fu, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2013-06-26

    Effects of microwave irradiation on microbial short-chain fatty acid production and the activites of extracellular enzymes during in vitro fermentation of the polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. were investigated in this study. It was found that the apparent viscosity, average molecular weight, and particle size of the polysaccharide decreased after microwave irradiation. Reducing sugar amount increased with molecular weight decrease, suggesting the degradation may derive from glycosidic bond rupture. The polysaccharide surface topography was changed from large flakelike structure to smaller chips. FT-IR showed that microwave irradiation did not alter the primary functional groups in the polysaccharide. However, short-chain fatty acid productions of the polysaccharide during in vitro fermentation significantly increased after microwave irradiation. Activities of microbial extracellular enzymes xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylosidase, and glucuronidase in fermentation cultures supplemented with microwave irradiation treated polysaccharide were also generally higher than those of untreated polysaccharide. This showed that microwave irradiation could be a promising degradation method for the production of value-added polysaccharides.

  13. Alterations in transcriptome and proteome on metallothioneins following oxidative stress induced by sublethal doses of cadmium and gamma rays in Plantago ovata.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Nirmalya; Talapatra, Shonima; Moulick, Amitava; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2013-07-01

    To study the oxidative stress-induced changes by sublethal doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and gamma irradiation, two redox-inducing agents, on metallothionein (MT) gene and protein expression in Plantago ovata Forsk (P. ovata). Chlorophyll content was estimated to study the stress response in P. ovata seedlings following exposure to gamma irradiation and CdCl2. Lipid peroxidation and proline content, two oxidative stress markers, were also studied. The level of metallothionein gene and protein expression was further investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Three MT genes of P. ovata namely PoMT 1, PoMT 2 and PoMT 3 were isolated, sequenced and characterized and their expressions were found to be altered in the case of both oxidative stresses in a dose-dependent and tissue-specific manner. The results were in agreement with the observations from immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis. The results suggest that both gamma irradiation and CdCl2 alter redox balance in P. ovata. The metallothionein gene may play an important role in metal tolerance and stress balance. It is conjectured that the stress-mediated imbalance is maintained by altered MT gene and protein expression.

  14. Cross-adaptation to cadmium stress in Plantago ovata by pre-exposure to low dose of gamma rays: Effects on metallothionein and metal content.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Nirmalya; Talapatra, Shonima; Talukder, Pratik; Sengupta, Mandar; Ray, Suman Kumar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effects of gamma pre-exposure on cadmium accumulation in Plantago ovata seedlings. Metallothionein (MT) localization was also studied following Cadmium (Cd) treatment in P. ovata. DNA damage was determined by alkaline comet assay. MT gene and protein expression were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively, in root and shoot tissues. Metal accumulation (Cd, zinc [Zn], iron [Fe]) was evaluated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Cd treatment decreased seed germination rate, biomass and free radical scavenging activity and increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. When P. ovata seeds were pre- exposed to 5 Gy gamma dose (prior to Cd treatment) seed germination rate, biomass and free radical scavenging activity increased significantly. MT genes (PoMT1, PoMT2 and PoMT3) and MT protein expression enhanced when 5 Gy gamma-irradiated seeds were grown in Cd containing medium and Cd accumulation also increased in a dose-dependent manner. Higher Cd accumulation in P. ovata seedlings may be attributed to the upregulation of PoMT genes in gamma pretreated seedlings. Localization of metallothionein in cytosol and nucleus indicated its positive role against Cd-mediated cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  15. Assessment of hormone-like activities in Ginkgo biloba, Elettaria cardamomum and Plantago ovata extracts using in vitro receptor-specific bioassays.

    PubMed

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jimenez, Jesús; Diéguez, Horacio R; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of diseases and for the development of new drugs. This study was designed to determine the presence of hormone-like activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in methanol extracts prepared from three medicinal plants historically and currently used for therapeutic purposes: Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL), Elettaria cardamomum seeds (ECS) and Plantago ovata seeds (POS). After a solid-liquid extraction (SLE) step, their effects on hERa function were assessed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using the E-Screen bioassay, and their ability to induce hAR-mediated reporter gene expression was evaluated using the androgen-sensitive stable prostatic PALM cell line. Unlike POS extracts, GBL and ECS extracts showed estrogenic (0.07 and 0.20 nM E2Eq mg(-1), respectively) and anti-estrogenic (0.01 and 0.02 μM ICI182780Eq mg(-1), respectively) activities. ECS extracts evidenced androgenic activity (0.30 nM R1881Eq mg(-1)) and POS extracts anti-androgenic activity (22.30 μM ProcEq mg(-1)). According to these findings, these plant extracts may interfere with the endocrine system via one or more hormonal receptors, and further investigation is warranted into their role as endocrine disrupters in humans.

  16. UHPLC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of plantamajoside in rat plasma after oral administration of single plantamajoside and Plantago asiatica extract.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lizhi; Han, Li; Lu, Xiaoguang; Kang, Xin; Fan, Zhiwei; Xing, Rong; Zhou, Dangxia

    2017-05-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantitation of plantamajoside in rat plasma. First, this study compared the pharmacokinetic properties of plantamajoside after oral administration of Plantago asiatica extract and pure plantamajoside in rat plasma with approximately the same dosage of 8.98 mg/kg. Second, chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity HSS C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, p.d.1.7 μm) with isocratic elution using methanol-water (80:20, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.1-100 ng/mL for plantamajoside. At different time points (0, 0.083, 0.167, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 h) after administration, the concentrations of plantamajoside in plasma were measured and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. The study indicates that the pharmacokinetics of plantamajoside in rat plasma have significant differences between two groups.

  17. Plantago ovata husks-supplemented diet ameliorates metabolic alterations in obese Zucker rats through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Comparative study with other dietary fibers.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, Milagros; Morón, Rocío; Rivera, Leonor; Romero, Rosario; Anguera, Anna; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Our aim was to compare the effects of intake of diets supplemented with different dietary fibers, namely cellulose, methylcellulose or Plantago ovata husks, (insoluble, soluble non-fermentable, and soluble fermentable fiber, respectively), on the abnormalities clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Adult obese Zucker rats were distributed in four groups which were fed respectively a standard, a cellulose-supplemented, a methylcellulose-supplemented or a P. ovata husks-supplemented diet, for ten weeks. Increased body weight, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, increased TNF-alpha and reduced adiponectin secretion by adipose tissue found in obese Zucker rats were significantly improved in obese rats fed the P. ovata husks-supplemented diet, together with a lower hepatic lipid content which parallels activation of the signaling pathway of AMP-protein kinase in the liver. The methylcellulose-supplemented diet reduced body weight, hyperlipidemia, circulating free fatty acids concentration and ameliorated adipose tissue secretion of adiponectin and TNF-alpha. Feeding with the cellulose-supplemented diet only reduced free fatty acids circulating levels. The soluble dietary fibers essayed are more beneficial than insoluble fiber in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, being the soluble and fermentable the more efficient to improve metabolic alterations. Fermentation products of P. ovata husks must play an important role in such effects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Proposals of Curvibacter gracilis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Herbaspirillum putei sp. nov. for bacterial strains isolated from well water and reclassification of [Pseudomonas] huttiensis, [Pseudomonas] lanceolata, [Aquaspirillum] delicatum and [Aquaspirillum] autotrophicum as Herbaspirillum huttiense comb. nov., Curvibacter lanceolatus comb. nov., Curvibacter delicatus comb. nov. and Herbaspirillum autotrophicum comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Ding, Linxian; Yokota, Akira

    2004-11-01

    Two strains of curved bacteria, 7-1(T) and 7-2(T), isolated from well water, were phylogenetically examined to determine their taxonomic position. Strain 7-1(T) is a Gram-negative, slightly curved rod. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain 7-1(T) formed a cluster with [Aquaspirillum] delicatum and [Pseudomonas] lanceolata. It has some similar characteristics to [A.] delicatum and [P.] lanceolata, but has sufficient distance to separate it from other genera. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, as well as chemotaxonomic and morphological studies, demonstrated that strain 7-1(T), [A.] delicatum and [P.] lanceolata belong to a new genus, Curvibacter gen. nov. Strain 7-1(T) (=IAM 15033(T)=ATCC BAA-807(T)) is classified as the type strain of Curvibacter gracilis gen. nov., sp. nov., and [A.] delicatum and [P.] lanceolata are classified as Curvibacter delicatus comb. nov. and Curvibacter lanceolatus comb. nov., respectively. Strain 7-2(T) is a Gram-negative spirillum. Phylogenetic study based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that it formed a cluster with the members of the genus Herbaspirillum, [Pseudomonas] huttiensis and [Aquaspirillum] autotrophicum. The classification is therefore proposed of strain 7-2(T) (=IAM 15032(T)=ATCC BAA-806(T)) as the type strain of Herbaspirillum putei sp. nov., and [P.] huttiensis and [A.] autotrophicum are transferred to the genus Herbaspirillum as Herbaspirillum huttiense comb. nov. and Herbaspirillum autotrophicum comb. nov., respectively.

  19. Transcriptome Characteristics and Six Alternative Expressed Genes Positively Correlated with the Phase Transition of Annual Cambial Activities in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weidong; Luo, Zhanshou; Wang, Pengkai; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Renhua; Shi, Jisen

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook), a diploid (2n  = 2x  = 22) gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on previous studies, the four stage-specific cambial tissues of Chinese fir were defined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In total, 20 million sequencing reads (3.6 Gb) were obtained using Illumina sequencing from Chinese fir cambium tissue collected at active growth stage, with a mean length of 131 bp and a N50 of 90 bp. SOAPdenovo software was used to assemble 62,895 unigenes. These unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to public protein databases. Expression analysis revealed that the altered expression of six homologous genes (ClWOX1, ClWOX4, ClCLV1-like, ClCLV-like, ClCLE12, and ClPIN1-like) correlated positively with changes in cambial activities; moreover, these six genes might be directly involved in cambial function in Chinese fir. Further, the full-length cDNAs and DNAs for ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 were cloned and analyzed. Conclusions In this study, a large number of tissue/stage-specific unigene sequences were generated from the active growth stage of Chinese fir cambium. Transcriptome sequencing of Chinese fir not only provides extensive genetic resources for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cambial activities in Chinese fir, but also is expected to be an important foundation for future genetic studies of Chinese fir. This study indicates that ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 could be possible reverse genetic target genes for revealing the molecular mechanisms of cambial activities in Chinese fir. PMID

  20. Antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hunny; Yunus, G Y; Mohapatra, Ashok Kumar; Kulshrestha, Reena; Agrawal, Rohit; Kalra, Monika

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times, plants with medicinal values are being tested and used in treatment of various infectious disease. The presentin vitro study was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of three commonly available medicinal plants Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ficus religiosa, and Plantago major on inhibiting Primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. Bark of G. glabra, Stem of F. religiosa, and husk of P. major were collected, crushed into fine powder, and dissolved in 67% ethanol. Extracts were then subjected to test antimicrobial efficacy against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Mean zone of inhibition (ZOI) was measured by HI antibiotic zone scale. One-way ANOVA using Tukey's post hoc and t-test were applied for statistical analysis. G. glabra was found to have potential antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens with highest mean ZOI measuring 9.2 ± 1.09 mm and 10.6 ± 0.54 mm at 24 h, respectively. F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers only at 48 h with mean ZOI of 2.6 ± 0.54 mm. P. major showed no antibacterial activity against any of the microorganism in this study. Tukey's post hoc test showed statistically nonsignificant difference between G. glabra and standard antibiotic (vancomycin 10 mcg) for periodontal pathogens. G. glabra and F. religiosa showed antibacterial activity against primary plaque colonizers and periodontal pathogens. However, further studies should be undertaken to affirm the same and test their efficacy in different concentration and clinical utility.

  1. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photosynthesis and biochemical responses to elevated O3 in Plantago major and Sonchus oleraceus growing in a lowland habitat of northern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Benying; Zhou, Meihua; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xiujie; Li, Yonggeng; Su, Hua; Xiang, Bao

    2017-03-01

    A field experiment was carried out to compare the responses to ozone (O3) in two common herbaceous plant species, Plantago major L. and Sonchus oleraceus L., by building open-top growth chambers in situ to simulate O3 stress (+O3, 85±5ppb, 9hr/day for 30days) in a lowland habitat in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Responses to O3 of gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment content, antioxidant capability, soluble protein content, membrane lipid peroxidation and dark respiration (Rd) were analyzed. Results showed that elevated O3 exposure significantly reduced the light-saturated net photosynthesis (PNsat), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) in both species. Although non-significant interactive effect between species and O3 on PNsat was analyzed, the reduction in PNsat in S. oleraceus might be due primarily to the higher fraction of close PSII reaction centers and impaired activities of plant mesophyll cells as evidences by decreased maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after dark adapted state (Fv/Fm) and unchanged intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). Besides, biochemical analysis showed that S. oleraceus had lower antioxidant ability compared to P. major. As a result, S. oleraceus was damaged to the larger extent in terms of lipid peroxidation and visible O3 injury, indicating that S. oleraceus was more sensitive to O3 than P. major. Our results indicated that wild herbaceous plant species growing in a lowland habitat in sandy grassland were sensitive to O3 stress and S. oleraceus can be considered as one of the bio-indicators for high O3 concentration in semi-arid grassland of northern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2: an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Marloes P; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-06-01

    The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant-plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may benefit more from [CO2] elevation than others. The relative contribution of plastic (within the plant's lifetime) and genotypic (over several generations) responses to elevated [CO2] on plant performance was investigated and how these patterns are modified by plant-plant interactions was analysed. Plantago asiatica seeds originating from natural CO2 springs and from ambient [CO2] sites were grown in mono stands of each one of the two origins as well as mixtures of both origins. In total, 1944 plants were grown in [CO2]-controlled walk-in climate rooms, under a [CO2] of 270, 450 and 750 ppm. A model was used for upscaling from leaf to whole-plant photosynthesis and for quantifying the influence of plastic and genotypic responses. It was shown that changes in canopy photosynthesis, specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance in response to changes in growth [CO2] were mainly determined by plastic and not by genotypic responses. We further found that plants originating from high [CO2] habitats performed better in terms of whole-plant photosynthesis, biomass and leaf area, than those from ambient [CO2] habitats at elevated [CO2] only when both genotypes competed. Similarly, plants from ambient [CO2] habitats performed better at low [CO2], also only when both genotypes competed. No difference in performance was found in mono stands. The results indicate that natural selection under increasing [CO2] will be mainly driven by competitive interactions. This supports the notion that plant-plant interactions have an important influence on future vegetation functioning and species distribution. Furthermore, plant performance was mainly driven by plastic and not by genotypic responses to changes in

  4. Plant–plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2: an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, Marloes P.; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant–plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may benefit more from [CO2] elevation than others. The relative contribution of plastic (within the plant’s lifetime) and genotypic (over several generations) responses to elevated [CO2] on plant performance was investigated and how these patterns are modified by plant–plant interactions was analysed. Methods Plantago asiatica seeds originating from natural CO2 springs and from ambient [CO2] sites were grown in mono stands of each one of the two origins as well as mixtures of both origins. In total, 1944 plants were grown in [CO2]-controlled walk-in climate rooms, under a [CO2] of 270, 450 and 750 ppm. A model was used for upscaling from leaf to whole-plant photosynthesis and for quantifying the influence of plastic and genotypic responses. Key Results It was shown that changes in canopy photosynthesis, specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance in response to changes in growth [CO2] were mainly determined by plastic and not by genotypic responses. We further found that plants originating from high [CO2] habitats performed better in terms of whole-plant photosynthesis, biomass and leaf area, than those from ambient [CO2] habitats at elevated [CO2] only when both genotypes competed. Similarly, plants from ambient [CO2] habitats performed better at low [CO2], also only when both genotypes competed. No difference in performance was found in mono stands. Conclusion The results indicate that natural selection under increasing [CO2] will be mainly driven by competitive interactions. This supports the notion that plant–plant interactions have an important influence on future vegetation functioning and species distribution. Furthermore, plant performance was mainly

  5. ConSCRIPT

    PubMed Central

    Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873

  6. The Con Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the format of the Con Test, an Australian television game show which followed the same general rules and game play as the UK show PokerFace. At the end of each round a contestant needs to decide whether or not he or she should fold. A contestant needs to know how likely it is that he or she is in last place.…

  7. Overexpression of two cambium-abundant Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) α-expansin genes ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 affect growth and development in transgenic tobacco and increase the amount of cellulose in stem cell walls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jinjun; Yang, Liwei; Song, Rentao; Li, Xiaorong; Shi, Jisen

    2011-05-01

    Expansins are unique plant cell wall proteins that possess the ability to induce immediately cell wall extension in vitro and cell expansion in vivo. To investigate the biological functions of expansins that are abundant in wood-forming tissues, we cloned two expansin genes from the differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that they belong to α-expansin (EXPA), named ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that they are preferentially expressed in the cambium region. Overexpression of ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 in tobacco plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of plant height, stem diameter, leaf number and seed pod. The height and diameter growth of the 35S(pro) :ClEXPA1 and 35S(pro) :ClEXPA2 transgenic plants were increased drastically, exhibiting an enlargement of pith parenchyma cell size. Isolated cell walls of ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 overexpressors contained 30%-50% higher cellulose contents than the wild type, accompanied by a thickening of the cell walls in the xylem region. Both ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 are involved in plant growth and development, with a partially functional overlap. Expansins are not only able to induce cell expansion in different tissues/organs in vivo, but they also can act as a potential activator during secondary wall formation by directly or indirectly affecting cellulose metabolism, probably in a cell type-dependent manner.

  8. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  9. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black seeds, with no brown... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin... devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve. (ii) Bulblets which show...

  10. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black seeds, with no brown... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin... devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve. (ii) Bulblets which show...

  11. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... but are slightly swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin...) Bulblets which are completely devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve....

  12. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... but are slightly swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin...) Bulblets which are completely devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve....

  13. 7 CFR 201.51 - Inert matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... but are slightly swollen, dimpled or have minute holes. (7) Buckhorn (Plantago lanceolata): Black... kochia that pass through a 1 mm opening, square-hole sieve, when shaken for 30 seconds. (8) The thin...) Bulblets which are completely devoid of the husk and pass through a 1/13th-inch, round-hole sieve....

  14. Antioxidant activity and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenolic compounds during in vitro callus culture of Plantago ovata Forsk. and effect of exogenous additives on accumulation of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Pratik; Talapatra, Shonima; Ghoshal, Nirmalya; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha

    2016-01-15

    Plantago ovata, commonly called psyllium, is known to be a rich source of polyphenolic compounds. The present study was aimed at determining polyphenol content and studying their antioxidant activities in P. ovata during in vitro callus culture. An attempt was also made to enhance polyphenol content using external additives. The role of PAL gene in polyphenol accumulation was also studied. The study indicated the presence of significant amounts of polyphenols, including flavonoids, in P. ovata callus. A gradual increase in polyphenol and flavonoid content was observed up to the third passage (63 days) of callus culture, which declined at the next passage. The third-passage callus showed highest antioxidant activity. High-performance liquid chromatographic results indicated the presence of high amounts of gallic acid and rutin in P. ovata calli; however, other polyphenols were also present but to a lesser extent. Additive supplementation was effective in enhancing polyphenol production and in increasing antioxidant activity in P. ovata callus. The present research reported accumulation of polyphenols in callus culture of P. ovata, which could be applied to isolation of polyphenols for various beneficial purposes. It also indicated enhancement in the production of several polyphenols and also an increase in antioxidant activity in the additive-treated callus. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Asian plantain (Plantago asiatica) essential oils suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-co-enzyme A reductase expression in vitro and in vivo and show hypocholesterolaemic properties in mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Park, Kuen Woo; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Baek, Jun Pill; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Choi, Young-Mi; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2008-01-01

    Asian plantain (Plantago asiatica) essential oil (PAEO) contains multiple bioactive compounds, but its potential effects on lipid metabolism have not been examined. PAEO was found to be mostly composed of oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool as the major component (82.5 %, w/w), measured using GC-MS. Incubation of 0-200 microg PAEO/ml with HepG2 cells for 24 h resulted in no significant toxicity. Incubation with 0.2 mg PAEO/ml altered the expression of LDL receptor (+83 %; P < 0.05) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase ( - 37 %; P < 0.05), as assessed using RT-PCR. LDL oxidation was markedly inhibited by PAEO treatment due to the prevalence of linalool compounds in PAEO. Oral administration of PAEO for 3 weeks in C57BL/6 mice significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations by 29 and 46 %, respectively. The mRNA (+58 %; P < 0.05), but not protein, levels of the LDL receptor were significantly higher, whereas both mRNA and protein levels of HMG-CoA reductase were significantly lower ( - 46 and - 11 %, respectively; P < 0.05) in the liver of PAEO-fed than of control mice. The mRNA levels of CYP7A1 were marginally reduced in HepG2 cells, but not in mouse liver after PAEO treatment. Thus, PAEO may have hypocholesterolaemic effects by altering the expression of HMG-CoA reductase. Reduced TAG and oxidised LDL may provide additional cardiovascular protective benefits.

  16. Method validation and simultaneous determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum treated with 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and Plantago major L. by high- performance liquid chromatography using diode-array detection.

    PubMed

    Levent, Abdulkadi; Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Berber, Ismet

    2013-02-01

    A new and simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum treated with Plantago Major L. and 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed utilizing an Inertsil ODS3 reversed phase column with methanol-tetrahydrofuran-water as mobile phase under gradient conditions, at 1.5 mL min(-1) flow rate and 25 °C. Diode-array detection was at 325, 450, 290 and 270 nm (retinol and retinyl palmitate), β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C, respectively and runnig time 18 min. The high-performance liquid chromatography assay and extraction procedure proposed are simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate. The method was then applied for the determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum. Results of this study demonstrated that; at 60th day DMBA-treated group, there was a significant decrease in vitamin levels compared to the levels of control group. A significant increase was observed in vitamin levels of 7,12 dimethylbenz[α]anthracene+Plantago Major L.-treated group compared to the DMBA-treated group. Additionally, the results obtained in the study are found to be in agreement with data reported in the literature.

  17. Triterpenoid glycosides from bark of Meliosma lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Abe, F; Yamauchi, T; Shibuya, H; Kitagawa, I

    1996-06-01

    From the bark of Meliosma lanceolate, nine triterpenoid glycosides including the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester of bayogenin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside, its 4'-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside and 4'-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside were isolated and the structures characterized along with that of 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-bayogenin-3-O-beta-D-4'-anhydro-4', 5'-didehydroglucuronopyranoside. Bisdesmosidic triosides of hederagenin were obtained as minor components.

  18. Evaluation of some plants used in Turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Esma; Küpeli, Esra; Yesilada, Erdem

    2006-11-24

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in Turkish folk medicine, including Citrillus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. (seed), Jasminum fruticans L. (branches), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (fruits), Juniperus nana L. (fruit and leaves), Juniperus oxcycedrus L (fruit and leaves), Mentha longifolia L. (herba), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Richt. (fruits), Plantago lanceolata L. (leaves), and Zea mays L. (seed) were evaluated for their in vivo anthelmintic activity. Among the plant extracts studied, both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Jasminum fruticans, Mentha longifolia and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana, the aqueous extracts of Zea mays, the ethanolic extracts of Citrillus lanatus, Juniperus drupacea (fruit), Juniperus oxcycedrus and Plantago lanceolata displayed significant anthelmintic activity against pinworms, Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, in mice. Rest of the extracts from plants did not show any remarkable anthelmintic activity. The results were considered significant at p<0.05.

  19. Antioxidant activity of medicinal plant polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kardosová, A; Machová, E

    2006-07-01

    Eleven polysaccharides have been isolated from the leaves of Arctium lappa var. herkules, Aloe barbadensis, Althaea officinalis var. robusta, Plantago lanceolata var. libor, aerial parts and roots of Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii, stems of Mahonia aquifolium, and peach-tree (Prunus persica) gum exudates. The polysaccharides were investigated for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of soyabean lecithin liposomes by OH radicals. The highest inhibition was found with glucuronoxylans of A. officinalis var. robusta and P. lanceolata var. libor, aerial parts. Their antioxidant activity accounted for approximately 69% of the activity of the reference compound alpha-tocopherol. The activity of eight polysaccharides ranged from 20 to 45%, while the fructofuranan from P. lanceolata var. libor roots was practically inactive.

  20. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.

  1. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  2. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  3. GeConT: gene context analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciria, R; Abreu-Goodger, C; Morett, E; Merino, E

    2004-09-22

    The fact that adjacent genes in bacteria are often functionally related is widely known. GeConT (Gene Context Tool) is a web interface designed to visualize genome context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologs in all the completely sequenced genomes. The graphical information of GeConT can be used to analyze genome annotation, functional ortholog identification or to verify the genomic context congruence of any set of genes that share a common property. http://www.ibt.unam.mx/biocomputo/gecont.html

  4. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  5. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  6. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  7. Conserva a Puerto Rico con bosques maderables

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Wadsworth

    2009-01-01

    [article in Spanish] Puerto Rico consume muchos productos forestales costosos de importar. También tiene bosques extensos con maderas explotables. Además, existen condiciones físicas favorables para la producción de madera útil. No obstante, hoy día no se utiliza la madera de los bosques actuales ocurre la deforestación para cualquier fin. Los Bosques productivos de...

  8. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  9. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  10. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  11. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  12. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  13. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of meat...

  14. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  15. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  16. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  17. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  18. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  19. Energy Star program benefits Con Edison

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.

  20. Plant extracts as an alternative to control Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae).

    PubMed

    Alves, D S; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A; Santos, H M dos; Carvalho, D A; Santos, M A I; Carvalho, H W P de

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of crude extracts from the plantain Plantago lanceolata and the bitter gourd Momordica charantia on the oviposition preference and development of the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet under laboratory and/or greenhouse conditions. The ovicidal effects of these extracts were also studied in a greenhouse. Plantago lanceolata and M. charantia extracts also underwent fractionation directed by oviposition tests with the coffee leaf miner. The extracts of both plants reduced L. coffeella oviposition and egg hatching, apparently as a result of action of plant metabolites on the embryo. Adults originating from eggs treated with the extracts exhibited similar survival rates, but a higher female/male ratio. Fecundity was reduced for females obtained from eggs treated with the M. charantia extract. Partial chemical analysis indicated that both extracts produced polar fractions that reduced the oviposition of L. coffeella on coffee leaves under laboratory conditions. The extracts of P. lanceolata and M. charantia have potential for use in the development of new products to control the coffee leaf miner.

  1. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples.

  2. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  3. [Soil microfauna diversity among Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations based on pyrosequencing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Ang; He, Yuan-Hao; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Tan, Yi-Min; Zhou, Jie-Chen

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the function of soil microfauna and its responses to environmental changes, we used metagenome analyses of the 18S rDNA gene region to identify differences in microfauna diversity and community structure among fifteen soil samples belonging to five different Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations. The plantations were located in Youxian County, Hunan Province in central China. The trees in these plantations were of different ages (3, 13, and 26 years) and belonged to different ecological successions (first, second, and third successions). The total dataset comprised 94922 high quality sequences with an average length of 436 bp. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples were Chordata, Annelida, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Rotifera and Platyhelminthes with each accounting for 60.8%, 24.0%, 7.4%, 3.6%, 1.5% and 1.2% of the sequences, respectively. There were significant differences in ACE index and Shannon index among the five plantations. The lowest diversity of soil microfauna was in the 13-year old plantation of the first ecological succession. The correlation analysis showed that both ACE and available potassium concentration were negatively correlated to the Chaol index. However, there were no significant correlations between the Shannon, Simpson indices and the physical-chemical properties of soil. Overall, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient was less than 0.4 among samples at each site, and significant differences were found among plantations.

  4. Pros and cons of phage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867

  5. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  6. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  7. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  8. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  9. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  10. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  11. Evaluation of two Brazilian indigenous plants for phytostabilization and phytoremediation of copper-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, R; Bortolon, L; Pieniz, S; Bento, F M; Camargo, F A O

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous plants have been grown naturally and vigorously in copper contaminated soils. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation ability of two indigenous plants naturally grown in two vineyard soils copper contaminated, and in a copper mining waste. However, it was evaluated the macro and micronutrient uptake and the potential of phytoremediation. So, a greenhouse study was carried out with Bidens pilosa and Plantago lanceolata in samples of vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) copper contaminated, and in a copper mining waste. Plant growth, macro and micronutrient up take, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), metal extraction ratio (MER), bioaccumulation factor (BCF), plant effective number of the shoots (PENs), and plant effective number of the total plant (PENt) were analyzed. Both plants grown in vineyard soils showed high phytomass production and TI. P. lanceolata plants cultivated in the Inceptisol showed the highest copper concentrations in the shoots (142 mg kg-1), roots (964 mg kg-1) and entire plants (1,106 mg kg-1). High levels of copper were phytoaccumulated from the Inceptisol by B. pilosa and P. lanceolata with 3,500 and 2,200 g ha-1 respectively. Both B. pilosa and P. lanceolata plants showed characteristics of high copper hyperaccumulator. Results showed that both species play an important role in the natural copper phytoaccumulation in both vineyard soils contaminated with copper, being important to its phytoremediation.

  12. Evaluation of two Brazilian indigenous plants for phytostabilization and phytoremediation of copper-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, R; Bortolon, L; Pieniz, S; Bento, F M; Camargo, F A O

    2015-11-10

    AbstractIndigenous plants have been grown naturally and vigorously in copper contaminated soils. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation ability of two indigenous plants naturally grown in two vineyard soils copper contaminated, and in a copper mining waste. However, it was evaluated the macro and micronutrient uptake and the potential of phytoremediation. So, a greenhouse study was carried out with Bidens pilosa and Plantago lanceolata in samples of vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) copper contaminated, and in a copper mining waste. Plant growth, macro and micronutrient up take, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), metal extraction ratio (MER), bioaccumulation factor (BCF), plant effective number of the shoots (PENs), and plant effective number of the total plant (PENt) were analyzed. Both plants grown in vineyard soils showed high phytomass production and TI. P. lanceolata plants cultivated in the Inceptisol showed the highest copper concentrations in the shoots (142 mg kg-1), roots (964 mg kg-1) and entire plants (1,106 mg kg-1). High levels of copper were phytoaccumulated from the Inceptisol by B. pilosa and P. lanceolata with 3,500 and 2,200 g ha-1 respectively. Both B. pilosa and P. lanceolata plants showed characteristics of high copper hyperaccumulator. Results showed that both species play an important role in the natural copper phytoaccumulation in both vineyard soils contaminated with copper, being important to its phytoremediation.

  13. Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species.

    PubMed

    Sabais, Alexander C W; Eisenhauer, Nico; König, Stephan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Scheu, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Decomposers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) both determine plant nutrition; however, little is known about their interactive effects on plant communities. We set up a greenhouse experiment to study effects of plant competition (one- and two-species treatments), Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Protaphorura armata), and AMF (Glomus intraradices) on the performance (above- and belowground productivity and nutrient uptake) of three grassland plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Plantago lanceolata) belonging to three dominant plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, and herbs). Generally, L. perenne benefited from being released from intraspecific competition in the presence of T. pratense and P. lanceolata. However, the presence of AMF increased the competitive strength of P. lanceolata and T. pratense against L. perenne and also modified the effects of Collembola on plant productivity. The colonization of roots by AMF was reduced in treatments with two plant species suggesting that plant infection by AMF was modified by interspecific plant interactions. Collembola did not affect total colonization of roots by AMF, but increased the number of mycorrhizal vesicles in P. lanceolata. AMF and Collembola both enhanced the amount of N and P in plant shoot tissue, but impacts of Collembola were less pronounced in the presence of AMF. Overall, the results suggest that, by differentially affecting the nutrient acquisition and performance of plant species, AMF and Collembola interactively modify plant competition and shape the composition of grassland plant communities. The results suggest that mechanisms shaping plant community composition can only be understood when complex belowground interactions are considered.

  14. Determination of the content of elements in some wild medicinal plants of Uzbekistan by radioactivation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhammedov, S.; Tillaeva, K.; Badalov, N.B.

    1987-06-01

    The authors have developed a complex of activation methods of analysis using a nuclear reactor (nuclear activation analysis) and a cyclotron (charged-particle activation analysis). The methods have been used to determine the concentrations of more than 20 elements in five medicinal plants native to Uzbekistan: Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), peppermint (Mentha piperata L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and ziziphora (Ziziphora bungeana Yur.). The results of radio-activation analysis were compared with the results of standard spectral analysis performed in another laboratory and the accuracy of the procedures developed was evaluated on the basis of the results.

  15. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives.

  16. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  17. Responses of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Erica cinerea and Vaccinium macrocarpon to Glomus mosseae.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Kenneth; Mitchell, Derek T

    2004-02-01

    An investigation was carried out on the mycorrhizal colonisation, growth and nutrition of two members of the Ericaceae in close proximity to an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association. This was undertaken by separating mycorrhizal (EM) and non-mycorrhizal (NEM) Erica cinerea and Vaccinium macrocarpon from AM (inoculated by Glomus mosseae) and non-mycorrhizal (NAM) Plantago lanceolata using a 30 micro m nylon mesh in a sand culture/pot system. Ericoid mycorrhizal colonisation by Hymenoscyphus ericae on root systems of E. cinerea and V. macrocarpon was in the range 14-22% and 58-69%, respectively. The presence of AM P. lanceolata had no effect on the ericoid mycorrhizal colonisation of E. cinerea and V. macrocarpon. NEM E. cinerea showed reductions in shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentrations after exposure to AM P. lanceolata after incubations of 6 and 9 weeks but there were no differences in dry mass, length, and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of the root systems between the treatment combinations. Reductions were also found, after incubations of 6 and 9 weeks, in shoot dry mass, leaf area and shoot nitrogen concentrations of NEM V. macrocarpon in the presence of AM P. lanceolata but no changes occurred in the length and dry mass of the root systems. There were no differences in maximum photosynthesis in V. macrocarpon between treatment combinations but NEM V. macrocarpon in the presence of AM P. lanceolata had the lowest transpiration rates and stomatal conductance and the highest nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies compared with the other treatment combinations. These results are discussed in relation to the type of interaction found in these compatible and incompatible mycorrhizal associations.

  18. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Canceling Some d-CON Mouse and Rat Control Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-CON products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.

  20. Providers debate pros and cons of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and cons of each.

  1. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, C.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  2. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  3. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  4. Opioid analgesics in the substance abuser: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Ineck, Joseph R; Rule, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The pros and cons of using opioid analgesics to help manage pain in patient with a history of substance abuse are presented. Topics discussed include ethical constructs, efficacy, and safety relating to the use of opioids in patients with substance abuse histories.

  5. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  6. Dynamic trajectories of growth and nitrogen capture by competing plants.

    PubMed

    Trinder, Clare; Brooker, Rob; Davidson, Hazel; Robinson, David

    2012-03-01

    Although dynamic, plant competition is usually estimated as biomass differences at a single, arbitrary time; resource capture is rarely measured. This restricted approach perpetuates uncertainty. To address this problem, we characterized the competitive dynamics of Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata as continuous trajectories of biomass production and nitrogen (N) capture. Plants were grown together or in isolation. Biomass and N content were measured at 17 harvests up to 76 d after sowing. Data were fitted to logistic models to derive instantaneous growth and N capture rates. Plantago lanceolata was initially more competitive in terms of cumulative growth and N capture, but D. glomerata was eventually superior. Neighbours reduced maximum biomass, but influenced both maximum N capture and its rate constant. Timings of maximal instantaneous growth and N capture rates were similar between species when they were isolated, but separated by 16 d when they were competing, corresponding to a temporal convergence in maximum growth and N capture rates in each species. Plants processed N and produced biomass differently when they competed. Biomass and N capture trajectories demonstrated that competitive outcomes depend crucially on when and how 'competition' is measured. This potentially compromises the interpretation of conventional competition experiments.

  7. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  8. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics.

  9. Tailoring a ConOps for NASA LSP Integrated Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Skip Clark V., III

    2017-01-01

    An integral part of the Systems Engineering process is the creation of a Concept of Operations (ConOps) for a given system, with the ConOps initially established early in the system design process and evolved as the system definition and design matures. As Integration Engineers in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), our job is to manage the interface requirements for all the robotic space missions that come to our Program for a Launch Service. LSP procures and manages a launch service from one of our many commercial Launch Vehicle Contractors (LVCs) and these commercial companies are then responsible for developing the Interface Control Document (ICD), the verification of the requirements in that document, and all the services pertaining to integrating the spacecraft and launching it into orbit. However, one of the systems engineering tools that have not been employed within LSP to date is a Concept of Operations. The goal of this paper is to research the format and content that goes into these various aerospace industry ConOps and tailor the format and content into template form, so the template may be used as an engineering tool for spacecraft integration with future LSP procured launch services. This tailoring effort was performed as the authors final Masters Project in the Spring of 2016 for the Stevens Institute of Technology and modified for publication with INCOSE (Owens, 2016).

  10. Losing a battle but winning the war: moving past preference-performance to understand native herbivore-novel host plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Leone M; Breed, Greg A; Severns, Paul M; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2017-02-01

    Introduced plants can positively affect population viability by augmenting the diet of native herbivores, but can negatively affect populations if they are subpar or toxic resources. In organisms with complex life histories, such as insects specializing on host plants, the impacts of a novel host may differ across life stages, with divergent effects on population persistence. Most research on effects of novel hosts has focused on adult oviposition preference and larval performance, but adult preference may not optimize offspring performance, nor be indicative of host quality from a demographic perspective. We compared population growth rates of the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas phaeton, on an introduced host, Plantago lanceolata (English plantain), and the native host Chelone glabra (white turtlehead). Contrary to the previous findings suggesting that P. lanceolata could be a population sink, we found higher population growth rates (λ) on the introduced than the native host, even though some component parameters of λ were higher on the native host. Our findings illustrate the importance of moving beyond preference-performance studies to integrate vital rates across all life stages for evaluating herbivore-host plant relationships. Single measures of preference or performance are not sufficient proxies for overall host quality nor do they provide insights into longer term consequences of novel host plant use. In our system, in particular, P. lanceolata may buffer checkerspot populations when the native host is limiting, but high growth rates could lead to crashes over longer time scales.

  11. A complex photoreceptor system mediates the regulation by light of the conidiation genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, María; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Luque, Eva M; Corrochano, Luis M

    2010-04-01

    Genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa are activated during conidiation or after illumination of vegetative mycelia. Light activation requires the white-collar complex (WCC), a transcription factor complex composed of the photoreceptor WC-1 and its partner WC-2. We have characterized the photoactivation of con-10 and con-6, and we have identified 300bp required for photoactivation in the con-10 promoter. A complex stimulus-response relationship for con-10 and con-6 photoactivation suggested the activity of a complex photoreceptor system. The WCC is the key element for con-10 activation by light, but we suggest that other photoreceptors, the cryptochrome CRY-1, the rhodopsin NOP-1, and the phytochrome PHY-2, modify the activity of the WCC for con-10 photoactivation, presumably through a repressor. In addition we show that the regulatory protein VE-1 is required for full photocarotenogenesis. We propose that these proteins may modulate the WCC in a gene-specific way.

  12. Molecular diagnostics: Molecular Med Tri-Con 2013.

    PubMed

    Klein, Roger D

    2013-07-01

    The 20th annual Molecular Med Tri-Con conference, sponsored by Cambridge Health Institute (MA, USA), consisted of over 250 presentations within five parallel 'channels': 'Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Clinical, Informatics and Cancer', along with five preliminary symposia, 15 short courses, a plenary keynote session entitled 'Personalized Oncology - Fulfilling the Promise for Today's Patients' and a keynote panel entitled, 'Emerging Technologies and Industry Perspectives'. Over 3000 individuals from academia, clinical laboratories and industry were in attendance. This article will focus on the Keynote Session of 'Molecular Diagnostics' track within the Diagnostics Channel.

  13. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  14. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs.

  15. Conning the conmen: Intelligence and female desire in Dedh Ishqiya.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar

    2017-04-11

    This article investigates the ostensibly paradoxical relationship that exists between the theme of excessive love, as suggested by the title of Abhishek Chaubey's film Dedh Ishqiya (2014), and the actual representation of it in the movie, which is not only restrained and disproportionate, but is also looked at with suspicion and contempt. It examines the logic of this seeming contradiction through the other two related themes that Chaubey's chef-d'œuvre foregrounds, namely that of intelligence and female desire. The quest for financial autonomy that the female protagonists of the movie are involved in-a necessary pre-condition for leading independent lives-is so inextricably intertwined with manipulation, dexterity, and subterfuge, that any overt expression of homoerotic female desire can only jeopardize their existing possibilities of self-aggrandizement. The heteronormative arrangements of Begum Para's palace thus constitute the elaborate mise en scène, behind which female desire is enacted through a politics of intelligence, resourcefulness, discretion, and anonymity. Through this strategic negotiation, which is also a tactical necessity, the female protagonists are not only able to con the con men in the movie, but also imagine alternative subject positions that recognize the need for both pragmatism and expediency as well as deconstructing heteropatriarchal economies of desire.

  16. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called ‘endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:16501583

  17. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-07-01

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  18. Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.

  19. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  20. RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Warwick, J.; Fung, M.; Chemel, B.; Blackwell, M.

    1996-12-31

    Carnegie Mellon U. and ORNL`s Robotics and Process Systems Division are developing a state-of-the-art robot operator control station (RoboCon) with standardized hardware and software control interfaces to be adaptable to a variety of remote and robotic equipment currently funded by DOE`s Office of Science & Technology Robotics Technology Development Program. The human operation and telerobotic and supervisory control of sophisticated and remote and robotic systems is a complex, tiring, and non-intuitive activity. Since decontamination & decommissioning, selective equipment removal, mixed waste operations, and in-tank cleanup are going to be a major future activity in DOE environmental restoration and waste management cleanup agenda, it seems necessary to utilize an operator control station and interface which maximizes operator comfort and productivity.

  1. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  2. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.

  3. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-05-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called 'endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy.

  4. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  5. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  6. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake.

    PubMed

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-08-01

    Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant litter, as suggested by theory, we grew individuals of three grassland plants-Holcus lanatus, Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus-in soils into which (15)N-labelled litter of either Holcus, Plantago or Lotus was added. We measured the effects of live roots and litter of each species on soil microbes and their protozoan and nematode feeders, and to link decomposer growth and plant nutrient uptake, we measured the amount of N taken up by plants from the added litter. We hypothesised that those species that induce the highest growth of microbes, and especially that of microbial feeders, will also take up the highest amount of N from the litter. We found, however, that although numbers of bacterial-feeding Protozoa and nematodes were on average lower after addition of Holcus than Plantago or Lotus litter, N uptake was higher from Holcus litter. Further, although the effects on Protozoa and bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes did not differ between the live plants, litter-N uptake differed, with Holcus being the most efficient compared to Plantago and Lotus. Hence, although microbes and their feeders unquestionably control N mineralization in the soil, and their growth differs among plant species, these differences cannot predict differences in litter-N uptake among plant species. A likely reason is that for nutrient uptake, other species-specific plant traits, such as litter chemistry, root proliferation ability and competitiveness for soil N, override in significance the species-specific ability of plants to induce decomposer growth.

  7. Nutrient Availability and Atmospheric CO2 Partial Pressure Modulate the Effects of Nutrient Heterogeneity on the Size Structure of Populations in Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    MAESTRE, FERNANDO T.; REYNOLDS, JAMES F.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Size-asymmetric competition occurs when larger plants have a disproportionate advantage in competition with smaller plants. It has been hypothesized that nutrient heterogeneity may promote it. Experiments testing this hypothesis are inconclusive, and in most cases have evaluated the effects of nutrient heterogeneity separately from other environmental factors. The aim of this study was to test, using populations of Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus, two hypotheses: (a) nutrient heterogeneity promotes size-asymmetric competition; and (b) nutrient heterogeneity interacts with both atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) and nutrient availability to determine the magnitude of this response. • Methods Microcosms consisting of monocultures of the three species were grown for 90 d in a factorial experiment with the following treatments: PCO2 (37·5 and 70 Pa) and nutrient availability (NA; 40 and 120  mg of N added as organic material) combined with different spatial distribution of the organic material (NH; homogeneous and heterogeneous). Differences in the size of individual plants within populations (size inequality) were quantified using the coefficient of variation of individual above-ground biomass and the combined biomass of the two largest individuals in each microcosm. Increases in size inequality were associated with size-asymmetric competition. • Key Results Size inequality increased when the nutrients were heterogeneously supplied in the three species. The effects of NH on this response were more pronounced under high nutrient supply in both Plantago and Holcus (significant NA × NH interactions) and under elevated PCO2 in Plantago (significant PCO2 × NA × NH interaction). No significant two- and three-way interactions were found for Lolium. • Conclusions Our first hypothesis was supported by our results, as nutrient heterogeneity promoted size-asymmetric competition in the three species evaluated

  8. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  9. Cardiac CON Regulations and the Availability and Use of Revascularization Services

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vivian; Ross, Joseph S.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Many states enforce Certificate of Need (CON) regulations for cardiac procedures, but little is known about how CON affects utilization. We assessed the association between cardiac CON regulations, availability of revascularization facilities, and revascularization rates. Methods We determined when state cardiac CON regulations were active and obtained data for Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 and older who received coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 1989 and 2002. We compared the number of hospitals performing revascularization and patient utilization in states with and without CON regulations, and in states which discontinued CON regulations during 1989-2002. Results Each year, the per capita number of hospitals performing CABG and PCI was higher in states without CON (3.7 per 100,000 elderly for CABG, 4.5 for PCI in 2002), compared with CON states (2.5 for CABG, 3.0 for PCI in 2002). Multivariate regressions that adjusted for market and population characteristics found no difference in CABG utilization rates between states with and without CON (p=.7). However, CON was associated with 19.2 percent fewer PCIs per 1,000 elderly (p=.01), equivalent to 322,526 fewer PCIs for 1989-2002. Among most states that discontinued CON, the number of hospitals performing PCI rose in the mid 1990s, but there were no consistent trends in the number of hospitals performing CABG or in PCIs or CABGs per capita. Conclusions CON restricts the number of cardiac facilities, but its effect on utilization rates may vary by procedure. PMID:17893007

  10. Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, T C; Wexner, S D

    1998-04-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and cons of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.

  11. Pros and cons of circumcision: an evidence-based overview.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Khoury, J; Petersiel, N; Yahalomi, T; Paul, M; Neuberger, A

    2016-09-01

    Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse. When the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function and satisfaction of men are examined, high-quality evidence strongly supports lack of harm. Whether circumcision alters sexual satisfaction of female partners is not known as fewer and smaller studies reported conflicting results. Circumcision rarely causes serious complications if practiced by trained practitioners, in a sterile setting, and with a proper follow-up. These conclusions are limited by the lack of high-quality data from areas outside of Africa. RCTs have not been conducted to assess the effects of circumcising infants or MSM. Circumcision has well-proven benefits for people residing in areas with high prevalence of STIs, including HIV, and is not unethical for those who choose to be circumcised or have their children circumcised on religious, social, or cultural grounds. For many others, a definite pro or con recommendation, based on a risk-benefit ratio, cannot be made.

  12. Percutaneous coronary intervention in nonagenarians: pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Abbate, Antonio; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Presutti, Davide; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Cavarretta, Elena; Marullo, Antonino G.M.; Lotrionte, Marzia; Frati, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is a mainstay in the management of symptomatic or high-risk coronary artery disease. The bulk of clinical evidence and experience underlying this fact relies, however, on relatively young patients. Indeed, few data of very limited quality are available which adequately define the risk-benefit and cost-benefit profile of coronary angioplasty and stenting in very old subjects, such as those of 90 years of age or older (i.e., nonagenarians). The aim of this review is to provide a concise, yet practical, synthesis of the available evidence on percutaneous coronary revascularization in the very elderly. The main arguments elaborated upon are to what extent we can extrapolate findings from studies including younger patients to nonagenarians, whether we should provide higher priority to prognosis or quality of life in such patients, and whether we can afford to allocate vast resources to care for such subjects in an era of financial constraints. Our review of 18 studies and 1082 patients suggest that percutaneous coronary intervention is feasible and associated with acceptable short- and long-term results in this population, which is nonetheless fraught with a high mortality risk irrespective of the revascularization procedure. Accordingly, the pros and cons of percutaneous coronary intervention should be carefully weighed when considering this treatment in nonagenarians. PMID:23610578

  13. Immune cascades in human intervertebral disc: the pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Xu-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Gao, Yang; Samartzis, Dino; Wang, Hai-Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2013-01-01

    The unique structural hallmark of the intervertebral disc has made its central composition, the nucleus pulposus (NP), excluded from the immunologic tolerance. Consequently, the intervertebral disc is identified as an immune-privileged organ. Traditionally, local detrimental immune activities caused by NP at the lesion sites of the disc are noted as a significant factor contributing to disc degeneration. However, given the beneficial activities of immune cells in other immune-privileged sites on basis of current evidence, the degenerate disc might need the assistance of a subpopulation of immune cells to restore its structure and lessen inflammation. In addition, the beneficial impact of immune cells can be seen in the absorption of the herniated NP, which is an important factor causes the mechanical compression of nerve roots. Consequently, a modulated immune network in degenerate disc is essential for the restoration of this immune-privileged organ. Until now, the understandings of immune response in disc degeneration still rest on the harmful aspect. Further studies are needed to explore its beneficial influence. Accordingly, there are no absolutely the pros and cons in terms of immune reactions caused by NP. PMID:23696917

  14. Immune cascades in human intervertebral disc: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Xu-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Gao, Yang; Samartzis, Dino; Wang, Hai-Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2013-01-01

    The unique structural hallmark of the intervertebral disc has made its central composition, the nucleus pulposus (NP), excluded from the immunologic tolerance. Consequently, the intervertebral disc is identified as an immune-privileged organ. Traditionally, local detrimental immune activities caused by NP at the lesion sites of the disc are noted as a significant factor contributing to disc degeneration. However, given the beneficial activities of immune cells in other immune-privileged sites on basis of current evidence, the degenerate disc might need the assistance of a subpopulation of immune cells to restore its structure and lessen inflammation. In addition, the beneficial impact of immune cells can be seen in the absorption of the herniated NP, which is an important factor causes the mechanical compression of nerve roots. Consequently, a modulated immune network in degenerate disc is essential for the restoration of this immune-privileged organ. Until now, the understandings of immune response in disc degeneration still rest on the harmful aspect. Further studies are needed to explore its beneficial influence. Accordingly, there are no absolutely the pros and cons in terms of immune reactions caused by NP.

  15. Pros and cons of screening for occult Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tabarin, Antoine; Perez, Paul

    2011-03-22

    Systematic screening studies performed mainly in patients with diabetes mellitus have revealed an unexpectedly high prevalence of occult Cushing syndrome. Such studies may provide a rationale for systematically screening obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, a screening strategy is only justified if it is supported by enough evidence of its efficacy and if the benefits will outweigh drawbacks. To date, the natural history of occult Cushing syndrome and its possible effect on long-term morbidity are unknown. The clinical spectrum of occult Cushing syndrome and its relatively low prevalence may potentially negatively affect the performance of endocrine tests used to diagnose overt Cushing syndrome and generate false positives. Whether the cure of occult Cushing syndrome favorably influences clinical outcomes and is more beneficial than treatment of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors with currently available pharmacological tools remains to be demonstrated. Last, the acceptability of a screening program by professionals and the health-care system in terms of workload and costs is highly questionable. Thus, an assessment of the indications for and against screening for occult Cushing syndrome on the basis of currently available data suggests that, to date, the cons surpass the pros.

  16. Pros and Cons of Medical Management of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon and rectum. Although a complete medical cure may not be possible, UC can be treated with medications that induce and maintain remission. The medical management of this disease continues to evolve with a goal to avoid colectomy and ultimately alter the natural history of UC. Emergence of antitumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) agents has expanded the medical armamentarium. 5-Aminosalicylates continue to be used in mild to moderate UC and corticosteroids are mainly used for induction of remission with immunomodulators (6-mercaptopurine/azathiopurine/methotrexate) being applied as steroid-sparing agents for maintenance therapy. Infliximab has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and used in the treatment of moderate to severe UC; nevertheless, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects and have a negative impact on the postoperative course should the patients undergo restorative proctocolectomy. In addition, there is always a concern about patients' compliance to medical therapy, cost of medications, and risk for UC-associated dysplasia. The authors discuss the pros and cons of medications used in the treatment of UC. PMID:22131893

  17. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  18. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  19. Gestational surrogacy: could be a way to be a way to reproduction? Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Clementina, Peris

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article was to address pros and cons of gestational surrogacy, the social and psychological issues involved in surrogate motherhood triads. Pros and cons of surrogacy, the possible insurgence of a hematologic disease in the fetus, hemolytic disease of the newborn, naturally acquired microchimerism in surrogacy cases, ethical, medical, psychologic, legal and religious issues of a problem are discussed.

  20. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  1. ConSearch: An Electronic Document Research and Retrieval Utility for Windows from Management Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews ConSearch 3.0, a product that provides flexible searching of electronic files, allowing the location of related meanings as well as exact matches. ConSearch 3.0 differs from other file retrieval approaches by relating words in search phrases of questions to the "meaning" of the words, which are stored in a "conceptual…

  2. Self-Exfoliated Guanidinium-Based Ionic Covalent Organic Nanosheets (iCONs).

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Kandambeth, Sharath; Biswal, Bishnu P; Khayum M, Abdul; Choudhury, Chandan K; Mehta, Mihir; Kaur, Gagandeep; Banerjee, Subhrashis; Prabhune, Asmita; Verma, Sandeep; Roy, Sudip; Kharul, Ulhas K; Banerjee, Rahul

    2016-03-02

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as functional two-dimensional materials for versatile applications. Although π-π stacking between layers, hydrolytic instability, possible restacking prevents their exfoliation on to few thin layered CONs from crystalline porous polymers. We anticipated rational designing of a structure by intrinsic ionic linker could be the solution to produce self-exfoliated CONs without external stimuli. In an attempt to address this issue, we have synthesized three self-exfoliated guanidinium halide based ionic covalent organic nanosheets (iCONs) with antimicrobial property. Self-exfoliation phenomenon has been supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as well. Intrinsic ionic guanidinium unit plays the pivotal role for both self-exfoliation and antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using such iCONs, we have devised a mixed matrix membrane which could be useful for antimicrobial coatings with plausible medical benefits.

  3. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.

  4. Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All CoNS hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS): emergence of teicoplanin-non-susceptible CoNS strains with inducible resistance to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Wang, En Hua; Liu, Yong; Luo, En Jie

    2011-11-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become increasingly recognized as important agents of nosocomial infection. One of the characteristics of CoNS is their resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. CoNS strains (n = 745) isolated from a university teaching hospital in China between 2004 and 2009 were tested for antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics were placed into three categories based on resistance levels of the CoNS strains to these antibiotics: high resistance (resistance rate >70 %), including penicillin G, oxacillin and erythromycin; medium resistance (resistance rate between 30 and 70 %), including tetracycline, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol; and low resistance (resistance rate <30 %), including rifampicin, ceftizoxime and gentamicin. We also found that the prevalence of strains non-susceptible to teicoplanin increased from 4.5 to 6.7 % between 2008 and 2009. A one-step vancomycin agar selection experiment and subsequent population analysis revealed potentially vancomycin-resistant subpopulations that have been selected from the teicoplanin-non-susceptible strains. Vigilant surveillance of nosocomial isolates of CoNS is needed to determine their resistance to glycopeptides.

  6. Project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Susanna; Richter, Alexandra; Kunz, Michael; Ruck, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Convectively-driven strong winds usually associated with thunderstorms frequently cause substantial damage to buildings and other structures in many parts of the world. Decisive for the high damage potential are the short-term wind speed maxima with duration of a few seconds, termed as gusts. Several studies have shown that convectively-driven gusts can reach even higher wind speeds compared to turbulent gusts associated with synoptic-scale weather systems. Due to the small-scale and non-stationary nature of convective wind gusts, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding their characteristics and statistics. Furthermore, their interaction with urban structures and their influence on buildings is not yet fully understood. For these two reasons, convective wind events are not included in the present wind load standards of buildings and structures, which so far have been based solely on the characteristics of synoptically-driven wind gusts in the near-surface boundary layer (e. g., DIN EN 1991-1-4:2010-12; ASCE7). However, convective and turbulent gusts differ considerably, e.g. concerning vertical wind-speed profiles, gust factors (i.e., maximum to mean wind speed), or exceedance probability curves. In an effort to remedy this situation, the overarching objective of the DFG-project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG) is to investigate the characteristics and statistics of convective gusts as well as their interaction with urban structures. Based on a set of 110 climate stations of the German Weather Service (DWD) between 1992 and 2014, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution, intensity, and occurrence probability of convective gusts. Similar to thunderstorm activity, the frequency of convective gusts decreases gradually from South to North Germany. A relation between gust intensity/probability to orography or climate conditions cannot be identified. Rather, high wind speeds, e.g., above 30 m/s, can be expected everywhere in Germany with almost

  7. Targeted Drug Delivery in Covalent Organic Nanosheets (CONs) via Sequential Postsynthetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Sasmal, Himadri Sekhar; Kundu, Tanay; Kandambeth, Sharath; Illath, Kavya; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2017-03-29

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as a new class of functional two-dimensional (2D) porous organic polymeric materials with a high accessible surface, diverse functionality, and chemical stability. They could become versatile candidates for targeted drug delivery. Despite their many advantages, there are limitations to their use for target specific drug delivery. We anticipated that these drawbacks could be overturned by judicious postsynthetic modification steps to use CONs for targeted drug delivery. The postsynthetic modification would not only produce the desired functionality, it would also help to exfoliate to CONs as well. In order to meet this requirement, we have developed a facile, salt-mediated synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). The COFs were subjected to sequential postsynthetic modifications to yield functionalized targeted CONs for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to breast cancer cells. This postsynthetic modification resulted in simultaneous chemical delamination and functionalization to targeted CONs. Targeted CONs showed sustained release of the drug to the cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, which led to cancer cell death via apoptosis. Considering the easy and facile COF synthesis, functionality based postsynthetic modifications, and chemical delamination to CONs for potential advantageous targeted drug delivery, this process can have a significant impact in biomedical applications.

  8. Analyses of muscular dystrophy and Con A deficiency traits in testcross progeny of chickens.

    PubMed

    Kline, K; Sanders, B G

    1984-01-01

    Hereditary muscular dystrophic chickens of the Storrs strain possess two genetic disorders, muscular dystrophy (MD) and a deficient concanavalin A (Con A), a T-cell mitogen, mediated splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response. A possible amelioration of the MD phenotype in MD chickens expressing normal Con A was postulated on the basis of progeny segregating for these two traits in F2 genetic analyses. To test this possibility, testcross progeny were examined for segregation of MD and Con A deficiency traits, and for the degree of muscle destruction and Con A deficiency. The data show both traits to be inherited independently as autosomal recessive traits, and do not support any phenotypic modifications occurring in chickens expressing MD with normal Con A. In the testcross progeny, the Con A deficiency disorder is equally deficient in normal and MD progeny, and the degree of muscle destruction as measured by serum creatine phosphokinase levels is equally great in MD chickens with or without the Con A deficiency trait. The reduced numbers of MD chickens in the testcross progeny can be accounted for by chance and probably reflect losses during in ovo development.

  9. Abundancias químicas de estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso obtenidas con espectros EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de estrellas de HgMn usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO en un rango de longitud de onda comprendido entre los 400 y 890 nm. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Las abundancias se calculan usando WIDTH9 y SYNTHE. Los resultados se comparan análisis realizados por los autores usando espectros obtenidos con el espectrógrado REOSC del CASLEO, el espectrógrafo echelle del Telescopio Anglo-Australiano y el espectrógrafo Coudé del Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  10. Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1000 intradermal skin tests.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Tideman, L

    2000-06-01

    To determine the most relevant aero-allergens involved in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and provide information about these aero-allergens to the general practitioner. Dogs presented to the Animal Skin & Allergy Clinic with history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were injected intradermally with 38 different allergens and negative and positive control. Intradermal skin tests in 1000 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. One third of all patients reacted to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergens reacting in more than 15% of the patients were wheat (Triticum aestivum), sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum), English couch (Agropyron repens), yellow dock (Rumex crispus), Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) and peppercorn (Schimus spp). House dust mites are the most common allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and D farinae is involved most frequently. However, a number of grass, weed and tree pollens also are involved regularly.

  11. Determination of heavy metal concentrations in plants exposed to different degrees of pollution using ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Kos, V; Budic, B; Hudnik, V; Lobnik, F; Zupan, M

    1996-03-01

    Plant samples (Plantago lanceolata - narrow leaf plantain and Cichorium endiviae - endive) were collected in the surroundings of heavy metal emission sources and in other less contaminated areas. After digestion in a closed microwave system using HNO(3), the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined using ICP-AES. Detection limits for all the elements of interest are given. Differences in heavy metal uptake rate between both plant species were observed. The uptake is more intensive for endive than for narrow leaf plantain. High concentrations of some heavy metals were determined in the unwashed plant samples as a result of exposure to aerosols. Tukey's statistical test was used to confirm the discrepancy of Cr concentration in plant samples from various areas. Washing the leaves with water was found to remove a large amount of water-soluble aerosols.

  12. Distribution of platinum group elements and other traffic related elements among different plants along some highways in Germany.

    PubMed

    Djingova, Rumiana; Kovacheva, Petya; Wagner, Gerhard; Markert, Bernd

    2003-06-01

    Using ICP-MS and ICP-AES platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru and Ir) and Ce, La, Nd, Pb and Zr have been determined in street dust, Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Plantago lanceolata (plantain), Lolium multiflorum (annual ryegrass), Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (moss) and Vascellum pratense (mushrooms) collected along highways and streets in Germany during 1999. Among the plants Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) reflects most adequately the pollution with the investigated elements matching the results from street dust. A strong positive correlation between all elements determined in the plants is established. Transfer factor for Pt between soil and plants has been determined in an agricultural experiment ranging between 0.004 and 0.008 for two types of soils.

  13. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-04

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%).

  14. Bacteria associated with spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus geosporum and Glomus constrictum.

    PubMed

    Roesti, David; Ineichen, Kurt; Braissant, Olivier; Redecker, Dirk; Wiemken, Andres; Aragno, Michel

    2005-11-01

    Spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus geosporum and Glomus constrictum were harvested from single-spore-derived pot cultures with either Plantago lanceolata or Hieracium pilosella as host plants. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the bacterial communities associated with the spores depended more on AMF than host plant identity. The composition of the bacterial populations linked to the spores could be predominantly influenced by a specific spore wall composition or AMF exudate rather than by specific root exudates. The majority of the bacterial sequences that were common to both G. geosporum and G. constrictum spores were affiliated with taxonomic groups known to degrade biopolymers (Cellvibrio, Chondromyces, Flexibacter, Lysobacter, and Pseudomonas). Scanning electron microscopy of G. geosporum spores revealed that these bacteria are possibly feeding on the outer hyaline spore layer. The process of maturation and eventual germination of AMF spores might then benefit from the activity of the surface microorganisms degrading the outer hyaline wall layer.

  15. Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory study of ConO- (n = 1-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ren-Zhong; Liang, Jun; Xu, Xi-Ling; Xu, Hong-Guang; Zheng, Wei-Jun

    2013-06-01

    ConO- (n = 1-3) clusters were investigated with photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of ConO- (n = 1-3) were measured to be 1.54 ± 0.04, 1.43 ± 0.08, and 1.42 ± 0.08 eV respectively from their photoelectron spectra. The electron affinity and term energy of CoO were determined to be 1.54 ± 0.04 eV and 0.31 ± 0.04 eV respectively based on the vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectrum of CoO- and theoretical calculations. The structures of ConO- (n = 1-3) were determined by comparison of photoelectron experiments and calculations. The analysis of molecular orbitals shows that the HOMOs of ConO- (n = 1-3) cluster anions are mainly localized on the Co atoms.

  16. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  17. iCon-TMA for control and quantitation of immunohistochemistry and in situ molecular pathology analysis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Iver; Blind, Christiane; Koepenik, Axel; Dietel, Manfred; Krenn, Veit

    2007-01-01

    Reliable assessment of in situ pathology analyses like immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and FISH are critically important in diagnosis and treatment decisions. We describe the development of small tissue microarrays (TMA) for the internal control and quantitation of these techniques, the iCon-TMA. In its simple variant, these iCon-TMA (abbreviated from internal control TMA) consist of 2 tissue cylinders, one being clearly positive and the other clearly negative for a specific marker. In its more elaborate format, the iCon-TMAs carry additional tissue spots providing a scale for quantitatively assessable markers, e.g. representing scores of negative, weak, moderate, or strong positivity. The specimen with the yet unknown reactivity is then applied to the iCon-TMA section, and both are simultaneously processed and analyzed, thus providing a convenient measure for in situ quality control and quantitation.

  18. Characterization of the effector cells in Con A-induced cytotoxicity against HEp 2 tumour targets.

    PubMed

    Pócsik, E; González-Cabello, R; Benedek, K; Perl, A; Láng, I; Gergely, P

    1983-01-01

    Con A-induced cytotoxic activity of human lymphocyte subpopulations obtained by cell fractionation procedures was studied in a test system using human epipharynx carcinoma cells (HEp 2) as targets. Only T lymphocytes were cytotoxic, non-T cells exerted no cytotoxic activity, but enhanced the adherence of the tumour cells. Tnon-G lymphocytes (Fc-receptor negative T cells) were more active than TG cells (Fc-receptor-positive T cells) in mediating the Con A-induced cytotoxic reaction.

  19. Viscoelastic Properties of the Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Moisture Sorption Processes Determined by Harmonic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Tianyi; Lu, Jianxiong; Jiang, Jiali; Peng, Hui; Li, Anxin; Chang, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Measured by harmonic tests, the viscoelastic properties of Chinese fir during moisture sorption processes were examined under three relative humidity (RH) modes: RHramp, RHisohume, and RHstep. The stiffness decreased and damping increased as a function of the moisture content (MC), which is presumed to be the effect of plasticization and an unstable state. The increasing damping was associated with the breaking of hydrogen bonds and the formation of free volume within polymer networks. The changes of loss modulus ratio at 1 and 20 Hz, E″1Hz/E″20Hz, proved the changing trend of the unstable state. Higher ramping rates aggravated the unstable state at the RHramp period, and higher constant RH levels provided more recovery of the unstable state at the RHisohume period. Changes of viscoelastic properties were associated with RH (varied or remained constant), and the application of Boltzmann’s superposition principle is a good approach to simulate viscoelasticity development. PMID:28774140

  20. Impact of seed predators on the herb Baptista lanceolata (Fabales: Fabacae).

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula.

    2004-09-01

    Leguminous seeds are a concentrated source of nutrition (Brashier 2000). In a nutrient-poor habitat, these seeds are important resources for many of the animal species residing there. Several insect predators are known to feed on Baptisia seeds. One such insect is Apion rostrum Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a weevil that feeds on seeds of several wild indigo species. Females lay eggs in developing seed pods where the larvae eat the seeds.

  1. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Cao, Guangqiu; Ding, Guochang; Lin, Sizu

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration and longer periods of aluminum stress, the H+ ion flow gradually changed from influx into efflux; there was a large variation in the K+ efflux, which gradually decreased with increasing duration of aluminum stress; and 1 h of aluminum stress uniformly resulted in Ca2+ influx, but it changed from influx to efflux after a longer period of aluminum stress. Changes in the different concentrations of aluminum had the largest influence on Mg2+.

  2. Isolation of High-Quality Total RNA from Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Li, Shubin; Lin, Sizu

    2015-01-01

    RNA isolation with RNA in a high quantity is a basic analytical method in plant genetics, molecular biology and related physiological investigations. To understand the genetic and molecular biology of Chinese fir, sufficient high-quality total RNA must be obtained for cDNA library construction and other downstream molecular applications. However, extracting RNA from Chinese fir is difficult and often requires the modification of existing protocols. Chinese fir tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds and are one of the most difficult plant tissues for RNA isolation. Therefore, we developed a simple method for extracting high-quality RNA from Chinese fir tissues. RNA isolations were performed within two hours, RNA quality was measured for yield and purity. Total RNA obtained from this procedure was successfully used for cDNA library construction, RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing. It was proven that extracted RNA was intact and suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR, and other downstream molecular applications. Thus, this protocol represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost method. PMID:26083257

  3. Impact of Seed Predators on the Herb Baptisia Lanceolata (Fabales: Fabaceae)

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive success of plants is a complex interaction among beneficial organisms such as pollinators, and destructive ones such as defoliators or seed predators that eat plant tissue. Many insects that consume reproductive tissue destroy much of a plant's reproductive output (Breedlove & Ehrlich 1968; Janzen 1971; Evans et al. 1989). In particular, the...

  4. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Guangyi, Mei; Yujun, Sun; Hao, Xu; de-Miguel, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), and aboveground height (h) to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level. PMID:26445505

  5. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Cao, Guangqiu; Ding, Guochang; Lin, Sizu

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration and longer periods of aluminum stress, the H+ ion flow gradually changed from influx into efflux; there was a large variation in the K+ efflux, which gradually decreased with increasing duration of aluminum stress; and 1 h of aluminum stress uniformly resulted in Ca2+ influx, but it changed from influx to efflux after a longer period of aluminum stress. Changes in the different concentrations of aluminum had the largest influence on Mg2+. PMID:27270726

  6. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  7. Sport Concussion Management Using Facebook: A Feasibility Study of an Innovative Adjunct "iCon".

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Schneiders, Anthony G; McCrory, Paul R; Sullivan, S John

    2017-04-01

      Sport concussion is currently the focus of much international attention. Innovative methods to assist athletic trainers in facilitating management after this injury need to be investigated.   To investigate the feasibility of using a Facebook concussion-management program termed iCon (interactive concussion management) to facilitate the safe return to play (RTP) of young persons after sport concussion.   Observational study.   Facebook group containing interactive elements, with moderation and support from trained health care professionals.   Eleven participants (n = 9 men, n = 2 women; range, 18 to 28 years old) completed the study.   The study was conducted over a 3-month period, with participant questionnaires administered preintervention and postintervention. The primary focus was on the qualitative experiences of the participants and the effect of iCon on their RTP. Usage data were also collected.   At the completion of the study, all participants (100%) stated that they would recommend an intervention such as iCon to others. Their supporting quotes all indicated that iCon has the potential to improve the management of concussion among this cohort. Most participants (n = 9, 82%) stated they were better informed with regard to their RTP due to participating in iCon.   This interactive adjunct to traditional concussion management was appreciated among this participant group, which indicates the feasibility of a future, larger study of iCon. Athletic trainers should consider the role that multimedia technologies may play in assisting with the management of sport concussion.

  8. Pros and cons: prospective predictors of marijuana use on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B

    2013-03-01

    Marijuana use on college campuses is prevalent and associated with high rates of abuse and dependence. The Marijuana Decisional Balance (MDB) scales measure perceived pros and cons toward marijuana use. Evidence supports reliability and concurrent validity of these scales, but the predictive validity has not yet been assessed. The current study evaluated the prospective predictive validity of pros and cons scales for marijuana use, as well as explored predictive validity for marijuana problem indicators. Secondary analyses included test-retest reliability and internal consistency, to provide additional evidence of psychometric properties. A total of 149 college students (57% recent marijuana users, 77% lifetime users) participated in a baseline survey, then completed a second survey one month later. All provided data on marijuana pros and cons, as well as use status in the past month. Users at each time point reported on use frequency, problems, and disorder symptoms. In the month between assessments, 55% of the students used marijuana. Both pros and cons subscales prospectively predicted use status in the subsequent month, but not use frequency. Pros prospectively predicted marijuana problems and dependence symptoms at follow-up, and remained a significant predictor of later dependence symptoms even after controlling for baseline dependence symptoms. In contrast, pros only marginally predicted abuse. Cons did not predict problems, abuse, or dependence symptoms. Pros and cons showed strong test-retest reliability (rs = 0.80-0.85) and internal consistency (alphas = 0.92-0.95). In a college sample, pros and cons of marijuana use demonstrated stability over one month, and prospectively predicted use. Pros may also have utility in predicting problems and dependence potential on college campuses.

  9. The interplay between toxin-releasing β-glucosidase and plant iridoid glycosides impairs larval development in a generalist caterpillar, Grammia incorrupta (Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Bowers, M Deane; Dobler, Susanne

    2012-06-01

    Herbivores with polyphagous feeding habits must cope with a diet that varies in quality. One of the most important sources of this variation in host plant suitability is plant secondary chemistry. We examined how feeding on plants containing one such group of compounds, the iridoid glycosides, might affect the growth and enzymatic activity in a polyphagous caterpillar that feeds on over 80 plant species in 50 different families. Larvae of the polyphagous arctiid, Grammia incorrupta, were reared exclusively on one of two plant species, one of which contains iridoid glycosides (Plantago lanceolata, Plantaginaceae) while the other does not (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae). Larval weight was measured on the two host plants, and midgut homogenates of last instar larvae were then assayed for activity and kinetic properties of β-glucosidases, using both a standard substrate, 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucose (NPβGlc), and the iridoid glycoside aucubin, one of the two main iridoid glycosides in P. lanceolata. Larvae feeding on P. lanceolata weighed significantly less and developed more slowly compared to larvae on T. officinale. While the larval midgut β-glucosidase activity determined with NPβGlc was significantly decreased when fed on P. lanceolata, aucubin was substantially hydrolyzed and the larval β-glucosidase activity towards both substrates correlated negatively with larval weight. Our results demonstrate that host plants containing high concentrations of iridoid glycosides have a negative impact on larval development of this generalist insect herbivore. This is most likely due to the hydrolysis of plant glycosides in the larval midgut which results in the release of toxic aglycones. Linking the reduced larval weight to the toxin-releasing action of an iridoid glycoside cleaving β-glucosidase, our results thus support the detoxification limitation hypothesis, suggesting fitness costs for the larvae feeding solely on P. lanceolata. Thus, in addition to the adaptive

  10. Olfactory Attraction of the Larval Parasitoid, Hyposoter horticola, to Plants Infested with Eggs of the Host Butterfly, Melitaea cinxia

    PubMed Central

    Castelo, Marcela K.; van Nouhuys, Saskya; Corley, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids locate inconspicuous hosts in a heterogeneous habitat using plant volatiles, some of which are induced by the hosts. Hyposoter horticola Gravenhost (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a parasitoid of the Glanville fritillary butterfly Melitaea cinxia L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Melitaea cinxia lays eggs in clusters on leaves of Plantago lanceolata L. (Lamiales: Plantaginaceae) and Veronica spicata L. (Lamiales: Plantaginaceae). The parasitoid oviposits into host larvae that have not yet hatched from the egg. Thus, though H. horticola is a parasitoid of Melitaea cinxia larvae, it must find host eggs on plants that have not been fed on by the larvae. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, the response of H. horticola to odors of Melitaea cinxia and extracts of the attacked plant species were tested. Three week-old eggs (near hatching) were attractive to young H. horticola, but one week-old eggs were attractive only to old or experienced H. horticola. Melitaea cinxia larvae were not attractive. A water extract of P. lanceolata was attractive, but ethanol or hexane extracts were not. None of the extracts of V. spicata were attractive. Leaves of V. spicata were attractive only if harboring eggs, but P. lanceolata leaves with eggs were not. Free flying H. horticola in a large outdoor enclosure were presented with host and plant cues. As in the olfactometer, V. spicata was attractive only when eggs were on it, and P. lanceolata was somewhat attractive with or without eggs. This study shows for the first time that a parasitoid of larvae uses egg volatiles or oviposition-induced plant volatiles, to find host larvae, and that Melitaea cinxia eggs or traces of oviposition induce the production of these volatiles by the plant. Based on the results, and given the natural distribution of the plants and M. cinxia eggs, parasitism of Melitaea cinxia eggs on P. lanceolata would be expected to be low. Instead, under natural conditions, a fraction of the eggs in virtually all egg

  11. SubCons: a new ensemble method for improved human subcellular localization predictions.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, M; Warholm, P; Shu, N; Basile, W; Elofsson, A

    2017-08-15

    Knowledge of the correct protein subcellular localization is necessary for understanding the function of a protein. Unfortunately large-scale experimental studies are limited in their accuracy. Therefore, the development of prediction methods has been limited by the amount of accurate experimental data. However, recently large-scale experimental studies have provided new data that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of subcellular predictions in human cells. Using this data we examined the performance of state of the art methods and developed SubCons, an ensemble method that combines four predictors using a Random Forest classifier. SubCons outperforms earlier methods in a dataset of proteins where two independent methods confirm the subcellular localization. Given nine subcellular localizations, SubCons achieves an F1-Score of 0.79 compared to 0.70 of the second best method. Furthermore, at a FPR of 1% the true positive rate (TPR) is over 58% for SubCons compared to less than 50% for the best individual predictor. SubCons is freely available as a webserver (http://subcons.bioinfo.se) and source code from https://bitbucket.org/salvatore_marco/subcons-web-server. The golden dataset as well is available from http://subcons.bioinfo.se/pred/download. arne@bioinfo.se. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  13. ConsPred: a rule-based (re-)annotation framework for prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Weinmaier, Thomas; Platzer, Alexander; Frank, Jeroen; Hellinger, Hans-Jörg; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The rapidly growing number of available prokaryotic genome sequences requires fully automated and high-quality software solutions for their initial and re-annotation. Here we present ConsPred, a prokaryotic genome annotation framework that performs intrinsic gene predictions, homology searches, predictions of non-coding genes as well as CRISPR repeats and integrates all evidence into a consensus annotation. ConsPred achieves comprehensive, high-quality annotations based on rules and priorities, similar to decision-making in manual curation and avoids conflicting predictions. Parameters controlling the annotation process are configurable by the user. ConsPred has been used in the institutions of the authors for longer than 5 years and can easily be extended and adapted to specific needs. The ConsPred algorithm for producing a consensus from the varying scores of multiple gene prediction programs approaches manual curation in accuracy. Its rule-based approach for choosing final predictions avoids overriding previous manual curations. ConsPred is implemented in Java, Perl and Shell and is freely available under the Creative Commons license as a stand-alone in-house pipeline or as an Amazon Machine Image for cloud computing, see https://sourceforge.net/projects/conspred/. thomas.rattei@univie.ac.atSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Aided phytostabilization of a trace element-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Bouchardon, Jean Luc; Faure, Olivier; Moutte, Jacques; Mench, Michel

    2016-12-15

    Aided phytostabilization of a barren, alkaline metal(loid)-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes, with high soluble Cr and Mo concentrations, was assessed in a pot experiment using (1) Ni/Cd-tolerant populations of Festuca pratensis Huds., Holcus lanatus L., and Plantago lanceolata L. sowed in mixed stand and (2) six soil treatments: untreated soil (UNT), ramial chipped wood (RCW, 500m(3)ha(-1)), composted sewage sludge (CSS, 120t DW ha(-1)), UNT soil amended with compost (5% w/w) and either vermiculite (5%, VOM) or iron grit (1%, OMZ), and an uncontaminated soil (CTRL). In the CSS soil, pH and soluble Cr decreased whereas soluble Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni and P increased. The RCW treatment enhanced soluble Fe, Mn, and Mg concentrations. After 15 weeks, shoot DW yield and shoot Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, and Mg removals peaked for F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, with lowest shoot Cr, Ni and Mo concentrations. Holcus lanatus only grew on the CTRL, UNT, and CSS soils and P. lanceolata on the CTRL soil. Best treatment, F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, led to a dense grass cover but its shoot Mo concentration exceeded the maximum permitted concentration in forage.

  15. [Some radiobiological effects in higher plants growing at the territory of the East Ural radioactive trace].

    PubMed

    Abramov, V I; Stepanova, A A; Famelis, S A

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous level of cytogenetic damage in three plant species (Achyrophorus maculatus (Scop.) L., Plantago lanceolata L., Plantago media L.) growing at the territory of East Ural radioactive trace was studied. The radiation resistance of plants from radioactive and control nonpolluted sites was determined. The effects of additional fractionated irradiation by different doses and the role of antioxidant systems in the formation of radioprotector effect were examined. It was shown that the level of mutation process in the plant populations growing at the radiation polluted sites is increased compared to the control populations from the pure territory. The additional acute gamma-irradiation of seeds collected from the polluted and pure territories showed the improved radiation resistance of the plants from the polluted territory. In the control population of A. maculatus in the versions with a one-hour interval between fractions, the radiation effect follows the additivity principle; in the same time, at a one-day interval between fractions, a highly significant radioprotective effect manifested most clearly in the experimental population is induced. For higher plants, the enhanced effectiveness of the functioning of antioxidant systems in plants growing at radiation polluted territories was first shown. Thus, the radioprotector mechanisms of low-dose chronic and preliminary irradiation are similar and one of these mechanisms is the activation of antioxidant systems in plants growing under conditions of chronic low-intensity irradiation for long periods of time.

  16. [Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Shipochliev, T

    1981-01-01

    Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3.

  17. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  18. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-05

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  19. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  20. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  1. Physician Preparation for the American Board of Emergency Medicine ConCert Examination.

    PubMed

    Marco, Catherine A; Wahl, Robert P; Counselman, Francis L; Heller, Barry N; Kowalenko, Terry; Harvey, Anne L; Joldersma, Kevin B; Reisdorff, Earl J

    2016-02-01

    To maintain certification by the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM), physicians are required to pass the Continuous Certification (ConCert) examination at least every 10 years. On the 2014 ConCert postexamination survey, ABEM sought to understand the manner in which ABEM diplomates prepared for the test and to identify associations between test preparation approaches and performance on the ConCert examination. This was a cross-sectional survey study. The survey was administered at the end of the 2014 ConCert examination. Analyses included chi-square and linear regression to determine the association of preparation methods with performance. Of the 2,431 on-time test-takers, 2,338 (96.2%) were included. The most commonly used study approach was the review of written materials designed for test preparation (1,585; 67.8%), followed by an online training course (1,006; 43.0%). There were 758 (32.4%) physicians who took a single onsite board review course, while 41 (1.8%) took two or more onsite courses. Most physicians (1,611; 68.9%) spent over 35 hours preparing for the ConCert examination. The study method that was most associated with favorable test scores was the review of written materials designed for test preparation (p < 0.001). Attending an onsite preparation course was associated with poorer performance (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between no additional preparation and failing the examination (chi-square with Yates correction; p = 0.001). A substantial majority (97.8%) of physicians taking the 2014 ABEM ConCert examination prepared for it. The majority of physicians used written materials specifically designed for test preparation. Reviewing written materials designed for test preparation was associated with the highest performance. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Air pollution tolerance index and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected plant species from urban biotopes.

    PubMed

    Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Trzęsicki, Michał; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-09-01

    This research was carried out on plants Taraxacum officinale, Plantago lanceolata, Betula pendula and Robinia pseudoacacia growing in urban biotopes with different levels of heavy metal contamination in the city of Dąbrowa Górnicza (southern Poland). Based on the pollution index, the highest heavy metal contamination was determined in the site 4 (connected with industry emitters) and 6 (high traffic). The metal accumulation index (MAI) values ranged within the biotopes in Dąbrowa Górnicza between 7.3 and 20.6 for R. pseudoacacia, 4.71-23.1 for P. lanceolata, 4.68-28.1 for T. officinale and 10.5-27.2 for B. pendula. Increasing tendency in proline content in biotopes connected with high traffic was found in the leaves of investigated plants (except R. pseudoacacia). Similar tendency was observed for ascorbic acid content in the foliage of the plants as well as in T. officinalle in stands connected industrial emission. Non-protein thiols content increased especially in the leaves of R. pseudoacacia in biotopes with high traffic emissions as well as in T. officinale in stands connected with industry. The mean values of APTI (Air Pollution Tolerance Index) within the city of Dąbrowa Górnicza for investigated plants were found in the following ascending order P. lanceolata < R. pseudoacacia < B. pendula < T. officinale. Among the investigated plants B. pendula and T. officinale may be postulated as appropriate plants in urban areas with considerable soil and air contamination, especially with heavy metals. The results indicate that species deemed tolerant according to APTI are suitable plants in barriers areas to combat atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid genetic divergence in response to 15 years of simulated climate change.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Catherine H; Whitlock, Raj; Fridley, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity may play an important role in allowing individual species to resist climate change, by permitting evolutionary responses. Our understanding of the potential for such responses to climate change remains limited, and very few experimental tests have been carried out within intact ecosystems. Here, we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data to assess genetic divergence and test for signatures of evolutionary change driven by long-term simulated climate change applied to natural grassland at Buxton Climate Change Impacts Laboratory (BCCIL). Experimental climate treatments were applied to grassland plots for 15 years using a replicated and spatially blocked design and included warming, drought and precipitation treatments. We detected significant genetic differentiation between climate change treatments and control plots in two coexisting perennial plant study species (Festuca ovina and Plantago lanceolata). Outlier analyses revealed a consistent signature of selection associated with experimental climate treatments at individual AFLP loci in P. lanceolata, but not in F. ovina. Average background differentiation at putatively neutral AFLP loci was close to zero, and genomewide genetic structure was associated neither with species abundance changes (demography) nor with plant community-level responses to long-term climate treatments. Our results demonstrate genetic divergence in response to a suite of climatic environments in reproductively mature populations of two perennial plant species and are consistent with an evolutionary response to climatic selection in P. lanceolata. These genetic changes have occurred in parallel with impacts on plant community structure and may have contributed to the persistence of individual species through 15 years of simulated climate change at BCCIL. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Bioenergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of temperature on the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis: growth responses of the host plant and its AM fungal partner.

    PubMed

    Heinemeyer, A; Fitter, A H

    2004-02-01

    The growth response of the hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi has been determined, both when plant and fungus together and when only the fungus was exposed to a temperature change. Two host plant species, Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus, were grown separately in pots inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae at 20/18 degrees C (day/night); half of the pots were then transferred to 12/10 degrees C. Plant and fungal growth were determined at six sequential destructive harvests. A second experiment investigated the direct effect of temperature on the length of the extra-radical mycelium (ERM) of three mycorrhizal fungal species. Growth boxes were divided in two equal compartments by a 20 micro m mesh, allowing only the ERM and not roots to grow into a fungal compartment, which was either heated (+8 degrees C) or kept at ambient temperature. ERM length (LERM) was determined on five sampling dates. Growth of H. lanatus was little affected by temperature, whereas growth of P. lanceolata increased with temperature, and both specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) increased independently of plant size. Percentage of colonized root (LRC) and LERM were positively correlated with temperature when in symbiosis with P. lanceolata, but differences in LRC were a function of plant biomass. Colonization was very low in H. lanatus roots and there was no significant temperature effect. In the fungal compartment LERM increased over time and was greatest for Glomus mosseae. Heating the fungal compartment significantly increased LERM in two of the three species but did not affect LRC. However, it significantly increased SRL of roots in the plant compartment, suggesting that the fungus plays a regulatory role in the growth dynamics of the symbiosis. These temperature responses have implications for modelling carbon dynamics under global climate change.

  5. Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets con velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.

    1998-11-01

    Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico con velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets con variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.

  6. GeConT 2: gene context analysis for orthologous proteins, conserved domains and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerrero, C E; Ciria, R; Abreu-Goodger, C; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Merino, E

    2008-07-01

    The Gene Context Tool (GeConT) allows users to visualize the genomic context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologous relationships within fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The new version of the server incorporates information from the COG, Pfam and KEGG databases, allowing users to have an integrated graphical representation of the function of genes at multiple levels, their phylogenetic distribution and their genomic context. The sequence of any of the genes can be easily retrieved, as well as the 5' or 3' regulatory regions, greatly facilitating further types of analysis. GeConT 2 is available at: http://bioinfo.ibt.unam.mx/gecont.

  7. Reversible hydrogen adsorption on Co/N4 cluster embedded in graphene: The role of charge manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidvar, Akbar

    2017-08-01

    Electrical charging of Co/N4 cluster embedded in graphene (Co/N4/G) is proposed as an approach for electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen adsorption. Using density functional theory, we found that the H2 molecule is weakly adsorbed on the uncharged Co/N4/G cluster. Our results show that the adsorption energy of hydrogen molecule on Co/N4/G cluster is significantly increased by introducing extra positive charges into the cluster. Once the charges are removed, H2 molecule spontaneously desorb from the Co/N4/G absorbent. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Our study indicates that the Co/N4/G nanomaterial is excellent absorbent for controllable and reversible adsorption and release of H2.

  8. Evaluation of prebiotic potential of refined psyllium (Plantago ovata) fiber in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Elli, Marina; Cattivelli, Daniela; Soldi, Sara; Bonatti, Marzia; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    To assess the effects of the consumption of psyllium seed husk on fecal bifidobacteria in healthy women and the ability of fecal bifidobacteria to metabolize psyllium seed husk in vitro. Poor microbiologic evidences are nowadays available concerning the ability of psyllium seed husk to promote the growth of bifidobacteria in human gut. Eleven healthy women consumed 7.0 g/d of psyllium seed husk for 1 month. Viability of bifidobacteria in feces was assessed at different time points. In vivo results showed that the average fecal content of viable bifidobacteria was not significantly affected even if fecal counts were found to increase significantly after treatment in 6 out of 11 women having low initial concentration. In vitro trials conducted on bifidobacteria strains isolated from treated women failed to confirm the prebiotic potential of undigested psyllium seed husk, whereas treatment with simulated gastric and pancreatic juices and mimicking physical and chemical alterations during human gut transit allowed fecal Bifidobacterium isolates to metabolize psyllium seed husk as carbon source in a growth medium deprived of sugar. Psyllium seed husk can be metabolized by bifidobacteria only after partial hydrolysis. Bifidogenic potential can be detected in healthy women only in case of low level of fecal bifidobacteria before treatment.

  9. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  11. [(Con)natal teeth: a role for maternity care and dental care].

    PubMed

    Gambon, D L

    2014-02-01

    A baby was referred to a dentist by an obstetrician 18 days after birth in connection with the presence of 2 teeth in the mandibula which resembled incisors. It appeared to be a case of 2 (con)natal teeth with a high degree of mobility. Dental treatment in the form of 2 extractions was necessary.

  12. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  13. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  14. Wilderness for science: pros and cons of using wilderness areas for biological research

    Treesearch

    Diana L. Six; Paul Alaback; Robert A. Winfree; Delia Snyder; Anne Hagele

    2000-01-01

    Research is one of the intended purposes of wilderness. The Wilderness Act states that “wilderness may contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.” This session specifically focuses on the pros and cons of conducting research in wilderness.

  15. Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and Cons of Electronic Portfolio Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and cons are examined.

  16. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  17. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  18. End-User Use of Data Base Query Language: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholes, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Man-machine interface, the concept of a computer "query," a review of database technology, and a description of the use of query languages at Brigham Young University are discussed. The pros and cons of end-user use of database query languages are explored. (Author/MLW)

  19. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  20. Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and Cons of Electronic Portfolio Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and cons are examined.

  1. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  2. Pros & Cons of Using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning on Students' Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2017-01-01

    Blackboard Collaborate was introduced to King Khalid University recently in the last decade; instructors and students were trained to use it in an effective way. The objective of this study is to find pros and cons of using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning and its effect on students' learning outcomes. The researcher used the…

  3. "Con todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…

  4. "Con todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…

  5. The Con Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of Con Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…

  6. ConMap: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described…

  7. Traditional wound-healing plants used in the Balkan region (Southeast Europe).

    PubMed

    Jarić, Snežana; Kostić, Olga; Mataruga, Zorana; Pavlović, Dragana; Pavlović, Marija; Mitrović, Miroslava; Pavlović, Pavle

    2017-09-20

    The geographical and ecological specificity of the Balkan Peninsula has resulted in the development of a distinct diversity of medicinal plants. In the traditional culture of the Balkan peoples, plants have medicinal, economic and anthropological/cultural importance, which is reflected in the sound knowledge of their diversity and use. This study analyses the traditional use of medicinal plants in the treatment of wounds and the pharmacological characteristics of the most frequently used species. A detailed analysis of the literature related to ethnobhe uses of medicinal plants in the Balkan region was carried out. Twenty-five studies were analysed and those plants used for the treatment of wounds were singled out. An ethnobotanical analysis showed that 128 plant species (105 wild, 22 cultivated and 1 wild/cultivated) are used in the treatment of wounds. Their application is external, in the form of infusions, decoctions, tinctures, syrups, oils, ointments, and balms, or direct to the skin. Among those plants recorded, the most commonly used are Plantago major, Hypericum perforatum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Calendula officinalis, Sambucus nigra, Tussilago farfara and Prunus domestica. The study showed that the traditional use of plants in wound healing is confirmed by in vitro and/or in vivo studies for P. major and P. lanceolata (3 laboratory studies for P. major and 2 for P. lanceolata), H. perforatum (5 laboratory studies and 3 clinical trials), A. millefolium (3 laboratory studies and one clinical trial), C. officinalis (6 laboratory studies and 1 clinical trial), S. nigra (3 laboratory studies) and T. farfara (one laboratory study). The beneficial effects of using medicinal plants from the Balkan region to heal wounds according to traditional practices have been proven in many scientific studies. However, information on the quantitative benefits to human health of using herbal medicines to heal wounds is still scarce or fragmented, hindering

  8. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  9. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5-cm-long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10-20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90-95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2-3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-to-vacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer.

  10. ConMap - a new spatial data mining framework for terrain based digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, T.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    In this talk, we present a new digital terrain analysis framework for digital soil mapping based on spatial data mining, referred to as the contextual elevation mapping (ConMap). Aiming at integrating different scales, which can be important at landscape scale level due to interrelations of topo- and climofunctions, it comprises local surface function approximations in terms of standard local terrain attributes as well as the incorporation of geomorphic arrangements within larger neighborhoods. In contrast to common digital terrain analysis of deriving multiple terrain attributes, ConMap is based on elevation differences from the center pixel to each pixel in a local neighborhood. These differences are then used as predictors in machine learning approaches such as Random Forests. Thus, it is not necessary to choose a specific set of terrain attributes. Additionally, possibly unknown surface functions can be taken into account, as well as larger geomorphic settings. We applied and validated the framework by predicting topsoil silt content for an area of 1150 km2 in Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, Germany, based on 342 samples, a 20 m resolution DEM, and neighborhood sizes up to 12 km. Cross-validation R2 values increase from 0.15 for standard digital terrain analysis to 0.61 using ConMap. This effect is due to a spatial trend in the data. As ConMap is able to map this trend and as it is based on the pedological concept of integrating scales it can be seen as a new entry to spatial prediction approaches such as Kriging or Geographically Weighted Regression. We conclude that ConMap shows a great potential for future digital soil mapping studies.

  11. BeadCons: detection of nucleic acid sequences by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Horejsh, Douglas; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-11-01

    Molecular beacons are single-stranded nucleic acid structures with a terminal fluorophore and a distal, terminal quencher. These molecules are typically used in real-time PCR assays, but have also been conjugated with solid matrices. This unit describes protocols related to molecular beacon-conjugated beads (BeadCons), whose specific hybridization with complementary target sequences can be resolved by cytometry. Assay sensitivity is achieved through the concentration of fluorescence signal on discrete particles. By using molecular beacons with different fluorophores and microspheres of different sizes, it is possible to construct a fluid array system with each bead corresponding to a specific target nucleic acid. Methods are presented for the design, construction, and use of BeadCons for the specific, multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acids in solution. The use of bead-based detection methods will likely lead to the design of new multiplex molecular diagnostic tools.

  12. GenomeCons: a web server for manipulating multiple genome sequence alignments and their consensus sequences.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tetsuya; Suyama, Mikita

    2015-04-15

    Genome sequence alignments provide valuable information on many aspects of molecular biological processes. In this study, we developed a web server, GenomeCons, for manipulating multiple genome sequence alignments and their consensus sequences for high-throughput genome sequence analyses. This server facilitates the visual inspection of multiple genome sequence alignments for a set of genomic intervals at a time. This allows the user to examine how these sites are evolutionarily conserved over time for their functional importance. The server also reports consensus sequences for the input genomic intervals, which can be applied to downstream analyses such as the identification of common motifs in the regions determined by ChIP-seq experiments. GenomeCons is freely accessible at http://bioinfo.sls.kyushu-u.ac.jp/genomecons/ mikita@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  14. GeConT 2: gene context analysis for orthologous proteins, conserved domains and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Guerrero, C. E.; Ciria, R.; Abreu-Goodger, C.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Merino, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Gene Context Tool (GeConT) allows users to visualize the genomic context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologous relationships within fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The new version of the server incorporates information from the COG, Pfam and KEGG databases, allowing users to have an integrated graphical representation of the function of genes at multiple levels, their phylogenetic distribution and their genomic context. The sequence of any of the genes can be easily retrieved, as well as the 5′ or 3′ regulatory regions, greatly facilitating further types of analysis. GeConT 2 is available at: http://bioinfo.ibt.unam.mx/gecont. PMID:18511460

  15. Propiedades biomecánicas de la membrana limitante interna tras recibir tratamiento intravítreo con ocriplasmina.

    PubMed

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Schumann, Ricarda G; Spindler, Volker; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Henrich, Paul B; Haritoglou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la rigidez de la membrana limitante interna (MLI) humana y evaluar los posibles cambios de las propiedades mecánicas tras administrar una inyección intravítrea de ocriplasmina para tratar la tracción vitreomacular. Métodos: Este estudio se compone de una serie de casos intervencionales y comparativos de 12 muestras de MLI extraídas mediante cirugía y obtenidas de forma consecutiva de 9 ojos de 9 pacientes después de someterse sin éxito a vitreólisis farmacológica con ocriplasmina. Durante el mismo periodo de tiempo, 16 muestras de otros 13 ojos sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina se obtuvieron mediante vitrectomía y sirvieron como controles. Todos los pacientes presentaron agujeros maculares o tracción vitreomacular y se sometieron a vitrectomía con disección de la MLI tanto con tinción con azul brillante (AB) como sin ella. Todas las muestras se analizaron con un microscopio de fuerza atómica con imágenes de las regiones de 25 × 25 μm. En todas las muestras, se analizaron tanto la parte de la retina como la del vítreo de la MLI. Resultados: La microscopia de fuerza atómica no reveló diferencias significativas en cuanto a elasticidad de las muestras de MLI extraídas de ojos con o sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina. Las áreas onduladas de la parte de la retina presentaron una mayor rigidez que la parte del vítreo de la MLI. La cartografía topográfica tanto de la parte del vítreo como de la retina de la MLI no mostró ninguna alteración aparente de la morfología en ojos tratados con ocriplasmina en comparación con los ojos no tratados. La tinción con azul brillante conllevó un aumento de la rigidez tisular. Conclusiones: Las inyecciones intravítreas de ocriplasmina no varían las propiedades biomecánicas de la MLI humana. No existen pruebas de un posible efecto enzimático que interfiera con la rigidez de esta membrana basal. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion: Do the cons outweigh the pros?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF). Although anticipated pros of MIS XLIF included reduced blood loss, operative time, and length of stay (LOS), they also included, higher fusion, and lower infection rates. Unanticipated cons, however, included increased morbidity/mortality rates. Methods: We assessed the pros and cons (e.g., risks, complications, comparable value/superiority/inferiority, morbidity/mortality) of MIS XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Results: Pros of XLIF included various biomechanical and technical surgical advantages, along with multiple cons vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. For example, XLIF correlated with a considerably higher frequency of major neurological deficits vs. other constructs; plexus injuries 13.28%, sensory deficits 0–75% (permanent in 62.5%), motor deficits 0.7–33.6%, and anterior thigh pain 12.5–25%. XLIF also disproportionately contributed to other major morbidity/mortality; sympathectomy, major vascular injuries (some life-ending others life-threatening), bowel perforations, and seromas. Furthermore, multiple studies documented no superiority, and the potential inferiority of XLIF vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF. Conclusion: Reviewing the pros of XLIF (e.g. radiographic, technical, biomechanical) vs. the cons (inferiority, increased morbidity/mortality) vs. ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, and PLF, we question whether XLIF should remain part of the lumbar spinal surgical armamentarium. PMID:27843688

  17. Simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas con formación estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. G.; Merchan, M.; García Lambas, D.

    Se realizan simulaciones numéricas cosmológicas utilizando el código HYDRA modificado para incluir formación estelar. A partir de éstas, se estiman diferentes parámetros observacionales como la relación Tully- Fisher, función de luminosidad y la tasa de formación estelar en función del redshift. Estos resultados son comparados con datos observacionales de diferentes autores.

  18. The pros and cons of endovascular and open surgical treatments for patients with acute limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Branco, B C; Montero-Baker, M F; Mills, J L

    2015-06-01

    The present review addresses the pros and cons of the current, wide variety of therapeutic options available for the treatment of acute limb ischemia (ALI). Despite five prospective randomized controlled trials comparing catheter directed thrombolysis and open surgical revascularization, no single treatment strategy can yet be considered optimal for patients with ALI. This report includes 20 years of published data to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic agents and adjunctive endovascular techniques when compared to open surgical revascularization.

  19. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  20. NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.

  1. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  2. ConTrack: Finding the most likely pathways between brain regions using diffusion tractography

    PubMed Central

    Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Napel, Sandy; Wandell, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging coupled with fiber tractography (DFT) is the only non-invasive method for measuring white matter pathways in the living human brain. DFT is often used to discover new pathways. But there are also many applications, particularly in visual neuroscience, in which we are confident that two brain regions are connected, and we wish to find the most likely pathway forming the connection. In several cases, current DFT algorithms fail to find these candidate pathways. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a probabilistic DFT algorithm (ConTrack) that identifies the most likely pathways between two regions. We introduce the algorithm in three parts: a sampler to generate a large set of potential pathways, a scoring algorithm that measures the likelihood of a pathway, and an inferential step to identify the most likely pathways connecting two regions. In a series of experiments using human data, we show that ConTrack estimates known pathways at positions that are consistent with those found using a high quality deterministic algorithm. Further we show that separating sampling and scoring enables ConTrack to identify valid pathways, known to exist, that are missed by other deterministic and probabilistic DFT algorithms. PMID:18831651

  3. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-08

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181

  5. Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.

  6. ConA and UEA-I lectin histochemistry of parotid gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Ana Paula V; Rego, Moacyr J B M; Cavalacanti, Carmelita L B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2010-03-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) corresponds to 5-12% of all salivary gland tumours, and is classified as low, intermediate or high grade. Traditionally, immunohistochemistry was considered as the complementary tool for diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasia. Lectin histochemistry has also been increasingly used in recent years. In this work, lectins were used as histochemical markers for normal and transformed parotid glands. Biopsy specimens of 15 cases diagnosed as MEC (low, intermediate and high grade) of the parotid gland were trypsin- and methanol-H(2)O(2)-treated and incubated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated lectins, Concanavalin A (Con A-HRP) and Ulex europeus I (UEA-I-HRP). Con A stained the neoplasic cells of MEC (all grades). In high and intermediate cases, ductal cells were weakly stained by Con A. UEA-I weakly stained normal cells of the excretory duct and neoplasic cells in high grade. Neoplasic cells in intermediate grade were moderately stained and in low grade, the cell membrane was intensely stained with UEA-I. Stroma presented a direct relation between malignancy and staining intensity for UEA-I. The results indicated that lectin histochemistry distinguished the cell biology among histological grades of MEC.

  7. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.

  8. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  9. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  10. Equilibrium geometries, electronic structure and magnetic properties of ConSn (n = 1-12) clusters from density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing Ya; Lv, Jin

    2017-05-01

    Equilibrium geometries, relative stabilities, electronic stabilities and magnetic properties of ConSn (n = 1-12) clusters have been systematically investigated by using relativistic all-electron density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. The results indicated that the lowest-energy structures of ConSn (n = 1-5, 7, 9 and 10) clusters are similar to those of corresponding Con+1 clusters. As for Co6Sn, Co8Sn, Co11Sn and Co12Sn clusters, the most stable structures give rise to a geometry reconstruction. In the low-lying structures of ConSn (n = 1-12) clusters, tin impurity prefers to occupy the external site. The second-order difference energy of the ground-state ConSn (n = 1-12) clusters shows a pronounced odd-even oscillation with the number of Co atoms, and the clusters exhibit higher stability at n = 5. Compared with corresponding pure Con+1 clusters, the total magnetic moment of the ConSn clusters reduces with 1, 3 and 5 μB, respectively. The different magnetic changes of the tin doped Co clusters are analyzed in detail based on the magnetism coupling, density of state and hybridization between cobalt and tin atoms.

  11. The Transcription Factor Con7-1 Is a Master Regulator of Morphogenesis and Virulence in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen; Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the essential role of morphogenetic regulation in Fusarium oxysporum pathogenesis, including processes such as cell-wall biogenesis, cell division, and differentiation of infection-like structures. We identified three F. oxysporum genes encoding predicted transcription factors showing significant identities to Magnaporthe oryzae Con7p, Con7-1, plus two identical copies of Con7-2. Targeted deletion of con7-1 produced nonpathogenic mutants with altered morphogenesis, including defects in cell wall structure, polar growth, hyphal branching, and conidiation. By contrast, simultaneous inactivation of both con7-2 copies caused no detectable defects in the resulting mutants. Comparative microarray-based gene expression analysis indicated that Con7-1 modulates the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological functions, including host-pathogen interactions, morphogenesis and development, signal perception and transduction, transcriptional regulation, and primary and secondary metabolism. Taken together, our results point to Con7-1 as general regulator of morphogenesis and virulence in F. oxysporum.

  12. Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.

    2009-04-01

    Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

  13. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Eugene Michael

    2016-08-09

    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of the contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m2 to 0.146 kg/m2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a

  14. El efecto de la panfotocoagulación con láser en edema macular diabético con el fotocoagulador Pascal® versus el láser de argón convencional.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Mohamed M; Macky, Tamer A

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto de la panfotocoagulación (PFC) en el edema macular diabético (EMD) en pacientes con retinopatía diabética proliferativa (RDP) con el fotocoagulador Pascal® (FP) vs. un fotocoagulador con láser de argón convencional (FLAC). Métodos: Se aleatorizó el uso de FP o FLAC en ochenta ojos con RDP y EMD con afectación central de la mácula. Ambos grupos tuvieron una evaluación de base de mejor agudeza visual corregida y fueron examinados con tomografía de coherencia óptica y angiografía con fluoresceína. Resultados: El número medio de disparos de láser en los grupos de FP y FLAC fue 1.726,10 y 752,00 en la sesión 1 y 1.589,00 y 830,00 (p < 0,001) en la sesión 2, respectivamente. El grosor foveal central (GFC) medio antes de comenzar el estudio fue 306 ± 100 y 314 ± 98 en los grupos de FP y FLAC, respectivamente. A las 8 semanas, el GFC medio fue 332 ± 116 y 347 ± 111 en los grupos de FP y FLAC, respectivamente (p > 0,05). La MAVC media fue similar durante el periodo de estudio y no hubo ninguna diferencia significativa entre los grupos (p > 0,05). Conclusiones: El FP y el FLAC mostraron efectos similares en el EMD en ojos con RDP y fueron igualmente seguros sin un aumento significativo del GFC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in an invertebrate model: Con A does not act as a bridge.

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C A; Bayne, C J

    1986-01-01

    The plant lectin concanavalin A (Con A) has been used in an invertebrate model of lectin-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (LDCC). Macrophage-like cells from the susceptible host snail Biomphalaria glabrata become cytotoxic effectors when they encounter sporocysts of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that have been treated with Con A. The sugar alpha-methyl mannoside and rabbit anti-Con A antibodies fail to block this LDCC. Con A is effective only when the target, not the effector cell, has been exposed to it. These results constitute evidence against the molecular bridging hypothesis and support the notion that surface modulation of the target may be the stimulus that provokes cytotoxicity. Results from this invertebrate model are discussed in the context of murine T lymphocyte LDCC. PMID:3949370

  16. A phase 2 trial of long-acting TransCon growth hormone in adult GH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Höybye, Charlotte; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ferone, Diego; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Gilfoyle, David; Christoffersen, Eva Dam; Mortensen, Eva; Leff, Jonathan A; Beckert, Michael

    2017-04-01

    TransCon growth hormone is a sustained-release human growth hormone prodrug under development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope). Thirty-seven adult males and females diagnosed with adult growth hormone deficiency and stable on growth hormone replacement therapy for at least 3 months were, following a wash-out period, randomized (regardless of their pre-study dose) to one of three TransCon GH doses (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg GH/kg/week) or Omnitrope 0.04 mg GH/kg/week (divided into 7 equal daily doses) for 4 weeks. Main outcomes evaluated were adverse events, immunogenicity and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. TransCon GH was well tolerated; fatigue and headache were the most frequent drug-related adverse events and reported in all groups. No lipoatrophy or nodule formation was reported. No anti-growth hormone-binding antibodies were detected. TransCon GH demonstrated a linear, dose-dependent increase in growth hormone exposure without accumulation. Growth hormone maximum serum concentration and insulin-like growth factor 1 exposure were similar after TransCon GH or Omnitrope administered at comparable doses. The results suggest that long-acting TransCon GH has a profile similar to daily growth hormone but with a more convenient dosing regimen. These findings support further TransCon GH development. © 2017 The authors.

  17. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  18. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2017-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839

  19. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  20. On application of optimal control to SEIR normalized models: Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Maria do Rosario; Nogueira, Filipa Nunes

    2017-02-01

    In this work we normalize a SEIR model that incorporates exponential natural birth and death, as well as disease-caused death. We use optimal control to control by vaccination the spread of a generic infectious disease described by a normalized model with L1 cost. We discuss the pros and cons of SEIR normalized models when compared with classical models when optimal control with L1 costs are considered. Our discussion highlights the role of the cost. Additionally, we partially validate our numerical solutions for our optimal control problem with normalized models using the Maximum Principle.

  1. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2016-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.

  2. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  3. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  4. Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and cons and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran

    2011-02-01

    For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.

  5. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-02-18

    In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

  6. Establishing confidence in the output of qualitative research synthesis: the ConQual approach.

    PubMed

    Munn, Zachary; Porritt, Kylie; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Edoardo; Pearson, Alan

    2014-09-20

    The importance of findings derived from syntheses of qualitative research has been increasingly acknowledged. Findings that arise from qualitative syntheses inform questions of practice and policy in their own right and are commonly used to complement findings from quantitative research syntheses. The GRADE approach has been widely adopted by international organisations to rate the quality and confidence of the findings of quantitative systematic reviews. To date, there has been no widely accepted corresponding approach to assist health care professionals and policy makers in establishing confidence in the synthesised findings of qualitative systematic reviews. A methodological group was formed develop a process to assess the confidence in synthesised qualitative research findings and develop a Summary of Findings tables for meta-aggregative qualitative systematic reviews. Dependability and credibility are two elements considered by the methodological group to influence the confidence of qualitative synthesised findings. A set of critical appraisal questions are proposed to establish dependability, whilst credibility can be ranked according to the goodness of fit between the author's interpretation and the original data. By following the processes outlined in this article, an overall ranking can be assigned to rate the confidence of synthesised qualitative findings, a system we have labelled ConQual. The development and use of the ConQual approach will assist users of qualitative systematic reviews to establish confidence in the evidence produced in these types of reviews and can serve as a practical tool to assist in decision making.

  7. Avoided costs associated with cogeneration: a case study of Con Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.; Martorella, J.

    1980-08-01

    The potential impact of cogeneration in office and apartment buildings in New York City on the Consolidated Edison Company (Con Ed) has been investigated using a method of utility cost and fuel use analysis developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This method computes a utility's long run marginal costs and long run marginal fuel consumption associated with load modifications due to the introduction of on-site energy producing technologies. The principal findings of this study show that Con Ed's long run average cost is more likely to go down than up due to cogeneration in office and apartment building; the utility's avoided costs (i.e., its long run marginal savings) associated with the gross power output of the cogeneration systems are 10.5 cents/KWh for the office building and 6.4 cents/KWh for the apartment buildings; the utility's marginal savings include a component for avoided capacity costs; and there are net savings in the use of oil due to cogeneration (assuming the building used oil for its boilers before it switched and diesel fuel in its cogenerators afterwards).

  8. Reliability of knee extension and flexion measurements using the Con-Trex isokinetic dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Bizzini, Mario; Desbrosses, Kevin; Babault, Nicolas; Munzinger, Urs

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of isokinetic and isometric assessments of the knee extensor and the flexor muscle function using the Con-Trex isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty healthy subjects (15 males, 15 females) were tested and retested 7 days later for maximal strength (isokinetic peak torque, work, power and angle of peak torque as well as isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development) and fatigue (per cent loss and linear slope of torque and work across a series of 20 contractions). For both the knee extensor and the flexor muscle groups, all strength data - except angle of peak torque - demonstrated moderate-to-high reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) higher than 0.86. The highest reliability was observed for concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles (ICC = 0.99). Test-retest reliability of fatigue variables was moderate for the knee extensor (ICC range 0.84-0.89) and insufficient-to-moderate for the knee flexor muscles (ICC range 0.78-0.81). The more reliable index of muscle fatigue was the linear slope of the decline in work output. These findings establish the reliability of isokinetic and isometric measurements using the Con-Trex machine.

  9. Quick fix or long-term cure? Pros and cons of bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Madura, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of bariatric, or weight loss, operations performed. This trend is likely to continue, mirroring the epidemic of obesity around the world and its rising prevalence among children. Bariatric surgery is considered by many to be the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of maintenance of long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbid conditions. Although overly simplified, the primary mechanisms of the surgical interventions currently utilized to treat obesity are the creation of a restrictive or malabsorptive bowel anatomy. Operations based on these mechanisms include the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (considered primarily restrictive operations), the laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with or without a duodenal switch (primarily malabsorptive operation), and the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (considered a combination restrictive and selective malabsorptive procedure). Each operation has pros and cons. Important considerations, for the patient and surgeon alike, in the decision to proceed with bariatric surgery include the technical aspects of the operation, postoperative complications including long-term nutritional problems, magnitude of initial and sustained weight loss desired, and correction of obesity-related comorbidities. Herein, the pros and cons of the contemporary laparoscopic bariatric operations are reviewed and ongoing controversies relating to bariatric surgery are discussed: appropriate patient selection, appropriate operation selection for an individual patient, surgeon selection, and how to measure success after surgery. PMID:23091563

  10. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  11. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  12. Targeting of proConA to the plant vacuole depends on its nine amino-acid C-terminal propeptide.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Claude, Saint-Jore-Dupas; Gilbert, Marie-Agnès; Marie-Agnès, Gilbert; Ramis, Catalina; Catalina, Ramis; Paris, Nadine; Nadine, Paris; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Marie-Christine, Kiefer-Meyer; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Jean-Marc, Neuhaus; Faye, Loïc; Loïc, Faye; Gomord, Véronique; Véronique, Gomord

    2005-10-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA) is a well characterized and extensively used lectin accumulated in the protein bodies of jack bean cotyledons. ConA is synthesized as an inactive precursor proConA. The maturation of inactive proConA into biologically active ConA is a complex process including the removal of an internal glycopeptide and a C-terminal propeptide (CTPP), followed by a head-to-tail ligation of the two largest polypeptides. The cDNA encoding proConA was cloned and expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells. ProConA was slowly transported to the vacuole where its maturation into ConA was similar to that in jack bean cotyledons, apart from an incomplete final ligation. To investigate the role of the nine amino acid CTPP, a truncated form lacking the propeptide (proConADelta9) was expressed in BY-2 cells. In contrast to proConA, proConADelta9 was rapidly chased out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and secreted into the culture medium. The CTPP was then fused to the C-terminal end of a secreted form of green fluorescent protein (secGFP). When expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells and leaf protoplasts, the chimaeric protein was located in the vacuole whereas secGFP was located in the culture medium and in the vacuole. Altogether, our results show we have isolated a new C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant.

  13. Overcoming the aggregation problem: A new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Brian M.; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K.; Birch, David J.S.; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS–MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA’s full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand’s equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS–MT and 1 μM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA’s primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA. PMID:25058939

  14. Cue-based assertion classification for Swedish clinical text--developing a lexicon for pyConTextSwe.

    PubMed

    Velupillai, Sumithra; Skeppstedt, Maria; Kvist, Maria; Mowery, Danielle; Chapman, Brian E; Dalianis, Hercules; Chapman, Wendy W

    2014-07-01

    The ability of a cue-based system to accurately assert whether a disorder is affirmed, negated, or uncertain is dependent, in part, on its cue lexicon. In this paper, we continue our study of porting an assertion system (pyConTextNLP) from English to Swedish (pyConTextSwe) by creating an optimized assertion lexicon for clinical Swedish. We integrated cues from four external lexicons, along with generated inflections and combinations. We used subsets of a clinical corpus in Swedish. We applied four assertion classes (definite existence, probable existence, probable negated existence and definite negated existence) and two binary classes (existence yes/no and uncertainty yes/no) to pyConTextSwe. We compared pyConTextSwe's performance with and without the added cues on a development set, and improved the lexicon further after an error analysis. On a separate evaluation set, we calculated the system's final performance. Following integration steps, we added 454 cues to pyConTextSwe. The optimized lexicon developed after an error analysis resulted in statistically significant improvements on the development set (83% F-score, overall). The system's final F-scores on an evaluation set were 81% (overall). For the individual assertion classes, F-score results were 88% (definite existence), 81% (probable existence), 55% (probable negated existence), and 63% (definite negated existence). For the binary classifications existence yes/no and uncertainty yes/no, final system performance was 97%/87% and 78%/86% F-score, respectively. We have successfully ported pyConTextNLP to Swedish (pyConTextSwe). We have created an extensive and useful assertion lexicon for Swedish clinical text, which could form a valuable resource for similar studies, and which is publicly available. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Overcoming the aggregation problem: a new type of fluorescent ligand for ConA-based glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Brian M; Li, Mingchien; Locke, Andrea K; Birch, David J S; Vigh, Gyula; Coté, Gerard L

    2015-01-15

    Competitive binding assays based on the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) have displayed significant potential to serve in continuous glucose monitoring applications. However, to date, this type of fluorescent, affinity-based assay has yet to show the stable, glucose predictive capabilities that are required for such an application. This instability has been associated with the extensive crosslinking between traditionally-used fluorescent ligands (presenting multiple low-affinity moieties) and ConA (presenting multiple binding sites) in free solution. The work herein introduces the design and synthesis of a new type of fluorescent ligand that can avoid this aggregation and allow the assay to be sensitive across the physiologically relevant glucose concentration range. This fluorescent ligand (APTS-MT) presents a single high-affinity trimannose moiety that is recognized by ConA's full binding site and a fluorophore that can effectively track the ligand's equilibrium binding via fluorescent anisotropy. This is confirmed by comparing its measured fluorescent lifetime to experimentally-determined rotational correlation lifetimes of the free and bound populations. Using an assay comprised of 200 nM APTS-MT and 1 µM ConA, the fluorescence anisotropy capably tracks the concentration of monosaccharides that are known to bind to ConA's primary binding site, and the assay displays a MARD of 6.5% across physiologically relevant glucose concentrations. Ultimately, this rationally-designed fluorescent ligand can facilitate the realization of the full potential of ConA-based glucose sensing assays and provide the basis for a new set of competing ligands to be paired with ConA.

  16. Comparison of phenotypic methods in predicting methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) from animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Xiaogang; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Zervos, Marcus; Bhargava, Kanika

    2011-02-01

    Phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) of animal origin has been challenging due to the heterogeneous expression of mecA. To compare different phenotypic methods in predicting the mecA presence in CoNS, a total of 87 CoNS isolates from agricultural animals were analyzed in this study by agar dilution, disk diffusion, and broth microdilution. mecA was present in 81 CoNS isolates. Broth microdilution demonstrated the highest sensitivity of 100% in predicting the mecA presence, followed by 72.8% by agar dilution and 70.4% by disk diffusion. The results indicate that broth microdilution may be more suitable for predicting the presence of mecA in CoNS from animals than the other two methods, although staphylococcal species may also be a factor affecting the sensitivities of the methods as the top three staphylococcal species in this study were Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus sciuri, and Staphylococcus xylosus (a total of 75 of 87).

  17. Contribution of the Kallikrein/Kinin System to the Mediation of ConA-Induced Inflammatory Ascites.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2016-03-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of concanavalin A (ConA, 25 mg/kg b.w.), a cell-binding plant lectin was used for inducing inflammatory ascites, and potential inhibitors were tested in 1 h and 2.5 h experiments, i.e. still before the major influx of leucocytes. At the end of the experiment the peritoneal fluid was collected and measured. The ConA-induced ascites was significantly (p<0.01) and dose-dependently inhibited by icatibant (HOE-140), a synthetic polypeptide antagonist of bradykinin receptors. Aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor protein also had significant (p<0.01), but less marked inhibitory effect. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, and atropine methylnitrate, an anticholinergic compound, were ineffective. It is concluded, that the kallikrein/kinin system contributes to the mediation of the ConA-induced ascites by increasing subperitoneal vascular permeability, independent of the eventual vasodilation produced by NO. It is known, that membrane glycoproteins are aggregated by the tetravalent ConA and the resulting distortion of membrane structure may explain the activation of the labile prekallikrein. Complete inhibition of the ConA-induced ascites could not be achieved by aprotinin or icatibant, which indicates the involvement of additional mediators.

  18. Is ACPA positivity the main driver for rheumatoid arthritis treatment? Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Alivernini, Stefano; Galeazzi, Mauro; Peleg, Hagit; Tolusso, Barbara; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Naparstek, Yaakov

    2017-09-09

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune chronic disease that is characterized by the positivity of various antibodies, the most specific being autoantibodies against citrullinated antigens (ACPA). Despite ACPA are not arthritogenic by themselves, ACPA positive individuals have high risk of RA development and ACPA positivity is associated with severe erosive phenotype and higher mortality rate compared to seronegative RA. Moreover, ACPA status is associated with favorable response to biologics targeting pathways involving autoantibody producing cells as B lymphocytes. In the current review we have discussed the pros and cons on the available scientific evidences, regarding the diagnostic, prognostic and management implications of ACPAs in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients.

  20. Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?

    PubMed

    Liao, Song-Yan; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-12-24

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and cons of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed.

  1. From in vitro Experiments to in vivo and Clinical Studies; Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Manayi, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical investigators use different methods including experimental animals, tissue, and cell cultures as well as computational simulations and clinical studies finding the ways to treat human diseases and disorders. All the mentioned procedures have their own advantages and disadvantages. For instance although animal models provide some drawbacks like difference in biokinetics parameters or extrapolation of results to human, they are more reliable than in vitro tests. The disadvantage of the in vitro procedures is that they are mostly performed on cancerous cell lines that have a substantially abnormal function. Furthermore, although in vitro models are fruitfully used in biological fields, finding an end point, the initial aim of chemical attack, and extrapolation of the effects to the human are some real weaknesses. Absence of biokinetics in in vitro methods may lead to a misinterpretation of the data. The present review has criticized the pros and cons of both methods, especially in the fields of pharmacology, toxicology, and medical sciences.

  2. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Saitta, Daniela; Sweanor, David; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation, regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product, medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and cons. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which may arise from inappropriate regulatory action.

  3. Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and cons of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed. PMID:24476362

  4. Pros and cons of healthcare information technology implementation: the pros win.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roxana

    2006-01-01

    Countless studies and investigations have been performed siding either for or against the implementation of technology in the healthcare setting. This article presents both sides of this debate, with an obvious conclusion that the pros of this debate win. The practice of information technology in the medical domain lags behind its knowledge and discovery by at least 7 years. The key to closing this gap is to show, through various studies, how information technology systems provide decision support to users at the point in time when decisions are needed. What the reader will obtain from this article is that the pros for information technology implementation in healthcare settings weigh much more and have a greater effect than the cons.

  5. Space and terrestrial media for military communications - Technical pros and cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharamsi, Manoj T.; Reilly, James F.; Hawrylko, Warren P.

    Technical pros and cons are presented for space and terrestrial media for defense-wide long-haul military communications. Defense-wide military space communications include use of leased commercial satellite capability in addition to the government-owned Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS). The terrestrial communications include use of troposcatter, HF radios, line-of-sight microwave, and metallic and fiber-optic cables. The current usage, capacity, cost, and other attributes of these media are examined. Current trends and future uses of the space and terrestrial media for military communications are discussed. It is concluded that military communications can continue best by using a mix of both space and terrestrial media.

  6. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  7. Formación estelar en NGC 6357: viendo a través del polvo con Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, G.; Morrell, N.; Barbá, R.

    Presentamos aquí los primeros resultados de fotometría JHKs obtenidos con Flamingos I en el telescopio Gemini Sur. El mosaico comprendido por tres posiciones adyacentes tomadas a lo largo de varios semestres nos permite caracterizar la población estelar en la zona que presenta una interacción más importante entre las estrellas masivas y la nube molecular que les dió origen. Los diagramas color-magnitud nos permiten identificar numerosas fuentes con exceso infrarrojo, la mayoría de ellas imposible de detectarse en el rango óptico debido a la fuerte absorción del polvo presente en la región. Es altamente probable que la mayoría de estas fuentes con exceso sean protoestrellas, aunque es necesario realizar espectroscopía infrarroja de las mismas para confirmar su naturaleza.

  8. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  9. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2016-01-18

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from clinical specimens in Northern of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Tayyar, Ibrahim Ali; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Hussein, Emad; Khudairat, Salih; Sarosiekf, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are one of the most common bacteria found on human skin and on mucous membranes as a component of normal flora. The presence of CoNS in clinical specimens is frequently associated with an infectious aetiology or contamination. We aimed to evaluate CoNS species distribution and susceptibility patterns in specimens obtained from clinics and hospitals in the Northern area of Jordan. Standard identification methods showed the presence of CoNS in 223 specimens at different local hospitals. Susceptibility testing was performed using 18 antibiotics in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were found to be the most common species isolated from all specimens representing 122 (54.7%) and 52 (23.4%) of all CoNS species, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of CoNS species revealed their sensitivity to vancomycin, linozolid, rifampin and nitrofurantin, while showing a highly resistant pattern to ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and erythromycin. Some variation of the susceptibility pattern of CoNS species were identified in specimens isolated from the ICU and paediatric hospital wards as well as from clinical specimens of urine, blood and catheter tips. The most common CoNS isolates were found to be S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus with variable percentages according to the specimen source. Moreover, a high susceptibility CoNS to vancomycin, rifampin, and linezolid showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin.

  11. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  12. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  13. iPathCons and iPathDB: an improved insect pathway construction tool and the database

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zan; Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Jie, Wencai; Lei, Wenjie; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on earth. Some insects, such as the silkworm and honeybee, are beneficial to humans, whereas others are notorious pests of crops. At present, the genomes of 38 insects have been sequenced and made publically available. In addition, the transcriptomes of dozens of insects have been sequenced. As gene data rapidly accumulate, constructing the pathway of molecular interactions becomes increasingly important for entomological research. Here, we developed an improved tool, iPathCons, for knowledge-based construction of pathways from the transcriptomes or the official gene sets of genomes. Considering the high evolution diversity in insects, iPathCons uses a voting system for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology assignment. Both stand-alone software and a web server of iPathCons are provided. Using iPathCons, we constructed the pathways of molecular interactions of 52 insects, including 37 genome-sequenced and 15 transcriptome-sequenced ones. These pathways are available in the iPathDB, which provides searches, web server, data downloads, etc. This database will be highly useful for the insect research community. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ipath/ PMID:25388589

  14. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  15. Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.

    1996-10-01

    The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology.

  16. Pharmacodynamics of vancomycin for CoNS infection: experimental basis for optimal use of vancomycin in neonates.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martín, V; Johnson, A; Livermore, J; McEntee, L; Goodwin, J; Whalley, S; Docobo-Pérez, F; Felton, T W; Zhao, W; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Sharland, M; Turner, M A; Hope, W W

    2016-04-01

    CoNS are the most common cause of neonatal late-onset sepsis. Information on the vancomycin pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics against CoNS is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize vancomycin pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships for CoNS and investigate neonatal optimal dosage regimens. A hollow fibre and a novel rabbit model of neonatal central line-associated bloodstream CoNS infections were developed. The results were then bridged to neonates by use of population pharmacokinetic techniques and Monte Carlo simulations. There was a dose-dependent reduction in the total bacterial population and C-reactive protein levels. The AUC/MIC and Cmax/MIC ratios were strongly linked with total and mutant resistant cell kill. Maximal amplification of resistance was observed in vitro at an fAUC/MIC of 200 mg · h/L. Simulations predicted that neonates <29 weeks post-menstrual age are underdosed with standard regimens with respect to older age groups. The AUC/MIC and Cmax/MIC ratios are the pharmacodynamic indices that best explain total and resistant cell kill in CoNS infection. This suggests that less-fractionated regimens are appropriate for clinical use and continuous infusions may be associated with increased risk of emergence of antimicrobial resistance. This study has provided the pharmacodynamic evidence to inform an optimized neonatal dosage regimen to take into a randomized controlled trial. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  18. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  19. Thromboprophylaxis in carriers of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) without previous thrombosis: "Pros" and "Cons".

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Chighizola, Cecilia; Finazzi, Guido; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Valesini, Guido

    2012-06-01

    The presence of anti-phospholipid (aPL) is necessary but not sufficient to induce a thrombotic event. The "second hit" hypothesis suggested that an additional trigger may be needed to develop a vascular event in aPL carriers. In this article, pro and con of primary thromboprophylaxis in aPL carriers is deeply discussed, concluding that univocal data are not available, due to conflicting results of available clinical trials. However, in clinical practice the primary thromboprophylaxis is not indicated in all unselected asymptomatic aPL carriers, and the best strategy begin with the assessment of the peculiar risk profile of the subject. Thus, it is mandatory to eliminate modifiable prothrombotic risk factors (i.e. smoking, oral contraceptive), to treat the irreversible risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes) and to introduce an aggressive prophylaxis with subcutaneous LMWH in high-risk situations (i.e. surgical procedures with prolonged immobilization). A different evaluation should be addressed to aPL carriers with a concomitant autoimmune disease that are considered as an additional pro-thrombotic risk factor. Similarly, concomitant positivity for more than one anti-phospholipid test confer a stronger risk of developing the thrombotic manifestations. Specific trials with larger cohorts of patients are needed to better clarify this issue.

  20. Carbon dioxide rebreathing with the anaesthetic conserving device, AnaConDa®.

    PubMed

    Sturesson, L W; Malmkvist, G; Bodelsson, M; Niklason, L; Jonson, B

    2012-08-01

    The anaesthetic conserving device (ACD) AnaConDa(®) was developed to allow the reduced use of inhaled agents by conserving exhaled agent and allowing rebreathing. Elevated has been observed in patients when using this ACD, despite tidal volume compensation for the larger apparatus dead space. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CO(2), like inhaled anaesthetics, adsorbs to the ACD during expiration and returns to a test lung during the following inspiration. The ACD was attached to an experimental test lung. Apparent dead space by the single-breath test for CO(2) and the amount of CO(2) adsorbed to the carbon filter of the ACD was measured with infrared spectrometry. Apparent dead space was 230 ml larger using the ACD compared with a conventional heat and moisture exchanger (internal volumes 100 and 50 ml, respectively). Varying CO(2) flux to the test lung (85-375 ml min(-1)) did not change the measured dead space nor did varying respiratory rate (12-24 bpm). The ACD contained 3.3 times more CO(2) than the predicted amount present in its internal volume of 100 ml. Our measurements show a CO(2) reservoir effect of 180 ml in excess of the ACD internal volume. This is due to adsorption of CO(2) in the ACD during expiration and return of CO(2) during the following inspiration.

  1. Assessing ComSciCon 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSciCon), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.

  2. Pros and cons of BCG vaccination in countries with low incidence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tala, E O; Tala-Heikkilä, M M

    1994-07-01

    Preventive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, together with case finding and effective chemotherapy, has formed an integral part of the tuberculosis (TB) control program in most countries. In some low-incidence countries the balance of prevention has been more on the side of chemoprophylaxis than of BCG vaccination. The time clearly has come when the strategy of mass BCG vaccination no longer is indicated medically, nor is it cost-effective. The pros and cons of the programs need to be critically evaluated against the present epidemiological background, taking into account the facts that TB, the killer disease, is recovering strength, human immunodeficiency virus infection is on the increase, and multidrug-resistant TB has changed the outcome of this previously fully curable disease. Although no longer appropriate for mass programs, BCG vaccination still should be considered for the protection of selected risk groups in low-incidence countries. The overall efficacy may be of the order 50% to 80%, but the variation is great. Therefore, further research urgently is needed on the effectiveness of BCG as an intervention in local TB programs.

  3. Leveling data in geochemical mapping: scope of application, pros and cons of existing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Benoît; Vandeuren, Aubry; Sonnet, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical mapping successfully met a range of needs from mineral exploration to environmental management. In Europe and around the world numerous geochemical datasets already exist. These datasets may originate from geochemical mapping projects or from the collection of sample analyses requested by environmental protection regulatory bodies. Combining datasets can be highly beneficial for establishing geochemical maps with increased resolution and/or coverage area. However this practice requires assessing the equivalence between datasets and, if needed, applying data leveling to remove possible biases between datasets. In the literature, several procedures for assessing dataset equivalence and leveling data are proposed. Daneshfar & Cameron (1998) proposed a method for the leveling of two adjacent datasets while Pereira et al. (2016) proposed two methods for the leveling of datasets that contain records located within the same geographical area. Each discussed method requires its own set of assumptions (underlying populations of data, spatial distribution of data, etc.). Here we propose to discuss the scope of application, pros, cons and practical recommendations for each method. This work is illustrated with several case studies in Wallonia (Southern Belgium) and in Europe involving trace element geochemical datasets. References: Daneshfar, B. & Cameron, E. (1998), Leveling geochemical data between map sheets, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 63(3), 189-201. Pereira, B.; Vandeuren, A.; Govaerts, B. B. & Sonnet, P. (2016), Assessing dataset equivalence and leveling data in geochemical mapping, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 168, 36-48.

  4. Evaluation of the Arthritis Foundation's Camine Con Gusto Program for Hispanic Adults With Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Leigh F; Rivadeneira, Alfredo; Altpeter, Mary; Vilen, Leigha; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Sepulveda, Victoria E; Hackney, Betsy; Reuland, Daniel S; Rojas, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Camine Con Gusto (CCG) is the Hispanic version of an evidence-based walking program for people with arthritis. This study examined CCG outcomes, feasibility, tolerability, safety, and acceptability and potential tailoring. A pre and post 6-week evaluation was conducted in Hispanic people with arthritis. Outcomes included pain, stiffness, fatigue, functional capacity, helplessness, and self-efficacy. A formative evaluation with program participants and key stakeholders explored program tailoring. Participants' mean age was 46.9 years, 44.4% had a high school degree or less, 2.5% were born in United States, 60.1% spoke only Spanish, and 74.7% were female. Moderate effect sizes were found: 0.50 for pain, 0.75 for fatigue, 0.49 for stiffness, 0.33 for function, 0.26 for helplessness, and 0.24 for self-efficacy. There were 285 participants recruited with an 82% 6-week retention (feasibility), no adverse events were reported (safety), and 98% reported program satisfaction (acceptability). Recommended adaptations included simpler language, more pictures and content addressing nutrition and chronic conditions, shortened materials, and inclusion of motivational strategies. CCG showed improvement in outcomes in Hispanic individuals comparable to those noted in non-Hispanic White and Black individuals with arthritis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Pros and Cons of Histologic Systems of Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-13

    The diagnostic phenotype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)--in particular, the most significant form in terms of prognosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)--continues to rely on liver tissue evaluation, in spite of remarkable advances in non-invasive algorithms developed from serum-based tests and imaging-based or sonographically-based tests for fibrosis or liver stiffness. The most common tissue evaluation remains percutaneous liver biopsy; considerations given to the needle size and the location of the biopsy have the potential to yield the most representative tissue for evaluation. The pathologist's efforts are directed to not only global diagnosis, but also assessment of severity of injury. Just as in other forms of chronic liver disease, these assessments can be divided into necroinflammatory activity, and fibrosis with parenchymal remodeling, in order to separately analyze potentially reversible (grade) and non-reversible (stage) lesions. These concepts formed the bases for current methods of evaluating the lesions that collectively comprise the phenotypic spectra of NAFLD. Four extant methods have specific applications; there are pros and cons to each, and this forms the basis of the review.

  6. Pros and cons in endocrine practice: pre-surgical treatment with somatostatin analogues in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Bollerslev, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this commentary is to balance the pros and cons for pre-surgical SSA treatment in a modern perspective ending up with a pragmatic recommendation for treatment based on the current evidence and expertise of the authors. Even though prospective and randomized studies in this particular area are hampered by obvious limitations, the interpretation of the four published trials has in general been in favor of pre-treatment with SSA, showing a better outcome following surgery. However, major drawbacks of these studies, such as non-optimal diagnostic criteria for cure, potential selection bias, and timing of the postoperative evaluation in SSA pre-treated patients, limit their overall interpretation. Three matched-controlled studies showed remarkably similar results with no apparent beneficial effect of SSA pre-treatment on surgical outcome. Both prospective, randomized studies and retrospective studies did not find any significant difference in the rate of endocrine and non-endocrine complications related to surgery, despite the beneficial clinical effects of SSA treatment in most acromegalic patients. The newly diagnosed patient with acromegaly should be carefully evaluated in the trans-disciplinary neuroendocrine team and treatment individualized accordingly. The issue of SSA pre-treatment to improve surgical outcome is yet to be settled and further methodologically sound studies are probably necessary to clarify this point.

  7. Arab-American Hookah Smokers: Initiation, and Pros and Cons of Hookah Use.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Jackson, Sheila R; Daffa, Reem M; Liles, Sandy; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-09-01

    To examine initiation, pros and cons of hookah tobacco smoking among Arab Americans. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we recruited a community-based convenience sample of 458 adult Arab-American hookah smokers, mean age 28.4 years, who completed self-administered questionnaires. Irrespective of sex, most participants initiated hookah tobacco use by young adulthood in private homes or hookah lounges influenced by friends and family. Women initiated hookah use later than men. Ever dual smokers (hookah smokers who ever smoked a cigarette) initiated hookah use later than cigarettes; however, early hookah initiators < 18 years initiated hookah and cigarettes concurrently. Participants enjoyed the flavors of hookah tobacco, and complained about coughing, dizziness, and headaches. Early and late initiation of hookah tobacco use warrant prevention programs targeting the youth and older adults in communities, colleges, and middle and high schools that include health education campaigns, and encouragement of voluntary smokefree home rules. Tobacco control policies aimed to prevent initiation of hookah use should include regulation of hookah tobacco flavors, and should target the physical environments in neighborhoods, especially around schools and colleges, to reduce the proliferation of hookah lounges. Dual hookah tobacco and cigarette use warrant continuous monitoring.

  8. Pros and cons of condom use among gay and bisexual men as explored via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey utilizing Internet technology related to gay and bisexual men's condom use behavior as an expression of safer sexual practices. A total of 241 self-identified gay and bisexual men responded to the questionnaire in a 3-month period of time. Confidentiality was assured by utilizing an electronic system whereby the respondents e-mail address was eliminated. The study was conceptually guided by the use of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TMC) and the pros and cons of condom of use were explored. Fifty-six percent of the participants reported that one advantage (pro) of using condoms with casual partners was that it would make them safer from disease. About half of the respondents (n = 119, 49%) reported a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases. There were 14 variables found to be significantly associated with using a condom with primary and casual partners among gay and bisexual men. Essentially, findings from this study corresponded to results obtained by more traditional data collection methods. Therefore, the authors conclude that electronic data collection may well be an alternative means for collecting sensitive data such as those collected in this study.

  9. Pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.

  10. CON4EI: Evaluation of QSAR models for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Geerts, L; Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Kandarova, H; Drzewiecka, A; Fochtman, P; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R

    2017-09-20

    Assessment of ocular irritation is a regulatory requirement in safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone assays. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. For three computational models (Toxtree, and Case Ultra EYE_DRAIZE and EYE_IRR) performance parameters were calculated. Coverage ranged from 15 to 58%. Coverage was 2 to 3.4 times higher for liquids than for solids. The lowest number of false positives (5%) was reached with EYE_IRR; this model however also gave a high number of false negatives (46%). The lowest number of false negatives (25%) was seen with Toxtree; for liquids Toxtree predicted the lowest number of false negatives (11%), for solids EYE_DRAIZE did ((78%).It can be concluded that the training sets should be enlarged with high quality data. The tested models are not yet sufficiently powerful for stand-alone evaluations, but that they can surely become of value in an integrated weight-of-evidence approach in hazard assessment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of N doped Fe_mCon superlattices: First principles calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miyoung; Freeman, A. J.

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic alloys and multilayers have been widely investigated because of their potential for magnetic device applications. In this, materials exhibiting high magnetization as well as good soft magnetic properties are desirable. We investigated the magnetic and structural properties of Fe_mCon superlattices with various compositions via first principles local density full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method^(1) calculations. For the 25% Co composition which showed the maximum magnetic moments, we inserted N atoms to make (Fe_3Co)_4N_2, in order to examine the possible magnetic enhancement by N, which has drawn much attention since the first report (in 1972) of a giant magnetic moment for the quasi-stable α-Fe_16N_2. The structural optimization was fully accomplished by total energy and atomic force calculations. Despite the lattice expansion due to the N insertion, the magnetic moment of (Fe_3Co)_4N2 was found to be reduced from the value of the Fe_3Co superlattice by the strong hybridization of N with Fe and Co. (1) E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 864 (1981).

  12. A new millimeter-wave observation of the weakly bound CO-N2 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L. A.; Potapov, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Schlemmer, S.

    2015-01-01

    New millimeter-wave transitions of the CO-N2 van der Waals complex have been observed using the intracavity OROTRON jet spectrometer in the frequency range of 103-159 GHz. For the less abundant form, CO-paraN2, a total of 37 rotational transitions were assigned to three K = 0-0, 0-1, 2-1 subbands connecting the (jCO, jN2) = (1, 1) and (jCO, jN2) = (0, 1) internal rotor states. The upper K = 0 and K = 2 "stacks" of rotational levels were probed for the first time here by millimeter-wave spectroscopy following a recent infrared study by Rezaei et al. (2013). The observation of new subbands fixes with higher precision not only these upper K = 0 and K = 2 but also lower K = 1(f) levels, not linked with other stacks in earlier rotational studies. For the more abundant form, CO-orthoN2, five new P-branch rotational transitions of the K = 0-0 "CO bending" subband are reported, thus extending previous measurements. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure due to the presence of two equivalent 14N nuclei was partly resolved and analyzed to give additional information about the angular orientation of the N2 molecule in the complex.

  13. Ground and lowest-lying electronic states of CoN. A multiconfigurational study.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos

    2006-12-28

    The lowest-lying X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II electronic states of CoN have been investigated at the ab initio MRCI and MS-CASPT2 levels, with extended atomic basis sets and inclusion of scalar relativistic effects. Among the singlet states, the A1Phi and B1II states have been described for the first time. Potential energy curves, excitation energies, spectroscopic constants, and bonding character for all states are reported. Comparison with other early transition-metal nitrides (ScN, TiN, VN, and CrN), isoelectronic (NiC) and isovalent (RhN and IrN) species has been made, besides analyzing the B1II <=> X1+ electronic transition in terms of Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes. At both levels of theory, the following energetic order has been obtained: X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II, with good agreement with experimental results. In contrast, previous DFT and MRCI calculations predicted the ground state to be the 5Delta state.

  14. Autophagic Mechanism in Anti-Cancer Immunity: Its Pros and Cons for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Ying; Feun, Lynn G.; Thongkum, Angkana; Tu, Chiao-Hui; Chen, Shu-Mei; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Wu, Chunjing; Kuo, Macus T.; Savaraj, Niramol

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy, a self-eating machinery, has been reported as an adaptive response to maintain metabolic homeostasis when cancer cells encounter stress. It has been appreciated that autophagy acts as a double-edge sword to decide the fate of cancer cells upon stress factors, molecular subtypes, and microenvironmental conditions. Currently, the majority of evidence support that autophagy in cancer cells is a vital mechanism bringing on resistance to current and prospective treatments, yet whether autophagy affects the anticancer immune response remains unclear and controversial. Accumulated studies have demonstrated that triggering autophagy is able to facilitate anticancer immunity due to an increase in immunogenicity, whereas other studies suggested that autophagy is likely to disarm anticancer immunity mediated by cytotoxic T cells and nature killer (NK) cells. Hence, this contradiction needs to be elucidated. In this review, we discuss the role of autophagy in cancer cells per se and in cancer microenvironment as well as its dual regulatory roles in immune surveillance through modulating presentation of tumor antigens, development of immune cells, and expression of immune checkpoints. We further focus on emerging roles of autophagy induced by current treatments and its impact on anticancer immune response, and illustrate the pros and cons of utilizing autophagy in cancer immunotherapy based on preclinical references. PMID:28629173

  15. Pro/Con debate: Is occupational asthma induced by isocyanates an immunoglobulin E-mediated disease?

    PubMed

    Wisnewski, A V; Jones, M

    2010-08-01

    Isocyanates, low-molecular weight chemicals essential to polyurethane production, are one of the most common causes of occupational asthma, yet the mechanisms by which exposure leads to disease remain unclear. While isocyanate asthma closely mirrors other Type I Immune Hypersensitivity (Allergic) disorders, one important characteristic of hypersensitivity ('allergen'-specific IgE) is reportedly absent in a large portion of affected individuals. This variation from common environmental asthma (which typically is induced by high-molecular weight allergens) is important for two reasons. (1) Allergen-specific IgE is an important mediator of many of the symptoms of bronchial hyper-reactivity in 'allergic asthma'. Lack of allergen-specific IgE in isocyanate hypersensitive individuals suggests differences in pathogenic mechanisms, with potentially unique targets for prevention and therapy. (2) Allergen-specific IgE forms the basis of the most commonly used diagnostic tests for hypersensitivity (skin prick and RAST). Without allergen-specific IgE, isocyanates may go unrecognized as the cause of asthma. In hypersensitive individuals, chronic exposure can lead to bronchial hyperreactivity that persists years after exposure ceases. Thus, the question of whether or not isocyanate asthma is an IgE-mediated disease, has important implications for disease screening/surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The present Pro/Con Debate, addresses contemporary, controversial issues regarding IgE in isocyanate asthma.

  16. Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speak, A.; Rothwell, J.; Lindley, S.; Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    Urban particulate pollution in the UK remains at levels which have the potential to cause negative impacts on human health. There is a need, therefore, for mitigation strategies within cities, especially with regards to vehicular sources. The use of vegetation as a passive filter of urban air has been previously investigated, however green roof vegetation has not been specifically considered. The present study aims to quantify the effectiveness of four green roof species - creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), red fescue (Festuca rubra), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and sedum (Sedum album) - at capturing particulate matter smaller than 10μm (PM10). Plants were grown in a location away from major road sources of PM10 and transplanted onto two roofs in Manchester city centre. One roof is adjacent to a major traffic source and one roof is characterised more by urban background inputs. Significant differences in metal containing PM10 capture were found between sites and between species. Site differences were explained by proximity to major sources. Species differences arise from differences in macro and micro morphology of the above surface biomass. The study finds that the grasses, A. stolonifera and F. rubra, are more effective than P. lanceolata and S. album at PM10 capture. Quantification of the annual PM10 removal potential was calculated under a maximum sedum green roof installation scenario for an area of the city centre, which totals 325 ha. Remediation of 2.3% (±0.1%) of 9.18 tonnes PM10 inputs for this area could be achieved under this scenario.

  17. Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speak, A. F.; Rothwell, J. J.; Lindley, S. J.; Smith, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    Urban particulate pollution in the UK remains at levels which have the potential to cause negative impacts on human health. There is a need, therefore, for mitigation strategies within cities, especially with regards to vehicular sources. The use of vegetation as a passive filter of urban air has been previously investigated, however green roof vegetation has not been specifically considered. The present study aims to quantify the effectiveness of four green roof species - creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), red fescue (Festuca rubra), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and sedum (Sedum album) - at capturing particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10). Plants were grown in a location away from major road sources of PM10 and transplanted onto two roofs in Manchester city centre. One roof is adjacent to a major traffic source and one roof is characterised more by urban background inputs. Significant differences in metal containing PM10 capture were found between sites and between species. Site differences were explained by proximity to major sources. Species differences arise from differences in macro and micro morphology of the above surface biomass. The study finds that the grasses, A. stolonifera and F. rubra, are more effective than P. lanceolata and S. album at PM10 capture. Quantification of the annual PM10 removal potential was calculated under a maximum sedum green roof installation scenario for an area of the city centre, which totals 325 ha. Remediation of 2.3% (±0.1%) of 9.18 tonnes PM10 inputs for this area could be achieved under this scenario.

  18. Choosing and using diversity indices: insights for ecological applications from the German Biodiversity Exploratories

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E Kathryn; Caruso, Tancredi; Buscot, François; Fischer, Markus; Hancock, Christine; Maier, Tanja S; Meiners, Torsten; Müller, Caroline; Obermaier, Elisabeth; Prati, Daniel; Socher, Stephanie A; Sonnemann, Ilja; Wäschke, Nicole; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Rillig, Matthias C

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity, a multidimensional property of natural systems, is difficult to quantify partly because of the multitude of indices proposed for this purpose. Indices aim to describe general properties of communities that allow us to compare different regions, taxa, and trophic levels. Therefore, they are of fundamental importance for environmental monitoring and conservation, although there is no consensus about which indices are more appropriate and informative. We tested several common diversity indices in a range of simple to complex statistical analyses in order to determine whether some were better suited for certain analyses than others. We used data collected around the focal plant Plantago lanceolata on 60 temperate grassland plots embedded in an agricultural landscape to explore relationships between the common diversity indices of species richness (S), Shannon’s diversity (H’), Simpson’s diversity (D1), Simpson’s dominance (D2), Simpson’s evenness (E), and Berger–Parker dominance (BP). We calculated each of these indices for herbaceous plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, aboveground arthropods, belowground insect larvae, and P. lanceolata molecular and chemical diversity. Including these trait-based measures of diversity allowed us to test whether or not they behaved similarly to the better studied species diversity. We used path analysis to determine whether compound indices detected more relationships between diversities of different organisms and traits than more basic indices. In the path models, more paths were significant when using H’, even though all models except that with E were equally reliable. This demonstrates that while common diversity indices may appear interchangeable in simple analyses, when considering complex interactions, the choice of index can profoundly alter the interpretation of results. Data mining in order to identify the index producing the most significant results should be avoided, but simultaneously

  19. Intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates.

    PubMed

    Jandová, Kateřina; Dostál, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kameník, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Allelopathy may drive invasions of some exotic plants, although empirical evidence for this theory remains largely inconclusive. This could be related to the large intraspecific variability of chemically mediated plant-plant interactions, which is poorly studied. This study addressed intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed), an invasive species with a considerable negative impact on native communities and ecosystems. Bioassays were carried out to test the alleopathic effects of H. mantegazzianum root exudates on germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and Plantago lanceolata. Populations of H. mantegazzianum from the Czech Republic were sampled and variation in the phytotoxic effects of the exudates was partitioned between areas, populations within areas, and maternal lines. The composition of the root exudates was determined by metabolic profiling using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the relationships between the metabolic profiles and the effects observed in the bioassays were tested using orthogonal partial least-squares analysis. Variance partitioning indicated that the highest variance in phytotoxic effects was within populations. The inhibition of germination observed in the bioassay for the co-occurring native species P. lanceolata could be predicted by the metabolic profiles of the root exudates of particular maternal lines. Fifteen compounds associated with this inhibition were tentatively identified. The results present strong evidence that intraspecific variability needs to be considered in research on allelopathy, and suggest that metabolic profiling provides an efficient tool for studying chemically mediated plant-plant interactions whenever unknown metabolites are involved. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates

    PubMed Central

    Jandová, Kateřina; Dostál, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kameník, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Allelopathy may drive invasions of some exotic plants, although empirical evidence for this theory remains largely inconclusive. This could be related to the large intraspecific variability of chemically mediated plant–plant interactions, which is poorly studied. This study addressed intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed), an invasive species with a considerable negative impact on native communities and ecosystems. Methods Bioassays were carried out to test the alleopathic effects of H. mantegazzianum root exudates on germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and Plantago lanceolata. Populations of H. mantegazzianum from the Czech Republic were sampled and variation in the phytotoxic effects of the exudates was partitioned between areas, populations within areas, and maternal lines. The composition of the root exudates was determined by metabolic profiling using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the relationships between the metabolic profiles and the effects observed in the bioassays were tested using orthogonal partial least-squares analysis. Key Results Variance partitioning indicated that the highest variance in phytotoxic effects was within populations. The inhibition of germination observed in the bioassay for the co-occurring native species P. lanceolata could be predicted by the metabolic profiles of the root exudates of particular maternal lines. Fifteen compounds associated with this inhibition were tentatively identified. Conclusions The results present strong evidence that intraspecific variability needs to be considered in research on allelopathy, and suggest that metabolic profiling provides an efficient tool for studying chemically mediated plant–plant interactions whenever unknown metabolites are involved. PMID:25714817

  1. Trade-off between root porosity and mechanical strength in species with different types of aerenchyma.

    PubMed

    Striker, G G; Insausti, P; Grimoldi, A A; Vega, A S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to study the existence of a trade-off between aerenchyma formation and root mechanical strength. To this end, relationships among root anatomical traits and mechanical properties were analysed in plant species with contrasting root structural types: Paspalidium geminatum (graminaceous type), Cyperus eragrostis (cyperaceous type), Rumex crispus (Rumex type) and Plantago lanceolata (Apium type). Variations in anatomical traits and mechanical strength were assessed as a function of root diameter by exposing plants to 0, 7, 15 and 30 d of control and flooded conditions. For each species, the proportion of root cortex was positively associated with the increment of root diameter, contributing to the increase in root porosity under both control and flooded conditions. Moreover, cell lysis produced an additional increase in root porosity in most species under flooded conditions (except R. crispus). Both structural types that presented a uniseriate layer (epidermis) to cope with compression (Rumex and Apium types) were progressively weakened as root porosity increased. This effect was significant even when the increment of root porosity was solely because of increased root diameter (R. crispus), as when both processes (root diameter and cell lysis) added porosity to the roots (P. lanceolata). Conversely, structural types that presented a multiseriate ring of cells in the outer cortex (graminaceous and cyperaceous types) maintained mechanical strength over the whole range of porosity, in spite of lysogenic processes registered in the inner cortex. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a strong trade-off between aerenchyma formation and mechanical strength in root structural types that lacked a multiseriate ring of tissue for mechanical protection in the outer cortex. The results suggest that this ring of tissue plays a significant role in maintaining the mechanical strength of roots when flooding induces the generation of additional aerenchyma

  2. Highly toxic thallium in plants from the vicinity of Olkusz (Poland).

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, M; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G; Grodzińska, K

    2004-09-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal that plays no role in the metabolism of plants or animals. Recent studies using small mammals and bird feathers as bioindicators demonstrated for the first time that animals from the vicinity of the Bolesław metal works near Olkusz (southern Poland) had large amounts of thallium in their tissues. Because of concern over these reports, four plant species (Plantago lanceolata, Biscutella laevigata, Dianthus carthusianorum, Silene vulgaris) growing wildly in the same area on a 100-year-old calamine waste heap, as well as the waste heap soil, were examined. The average concentration of thallium in the waste heap soil was 43 mgTl/kg dry wt, with the highest value 78 mg Tl/kg dry wt. P. lanceolata accumulated extremely large amounts of thallium (average, 65 mg Tl/kg dry wt; maximum 321 mg Tl/kg dry wt in roots). S. vulgaris and D. carthusianorum accumulated much less (averages, 10 and 6.5 mg Tl/kg dry wt, respectively). On the other hand, B. leavigata accumulated negligible amounts of thallium in its tissues. The concentration of thallium in plants (shoots, roots) from the calamine waste heap was 100-1000 times the level normally found in plants (0.05 mg Tl/kg dry wt). Possible sources of thallium are discussed and the urgent need for large-scale studies on thallium contamination of soils and vegetation in Poland, especially its southern regions, which are the most industrialized, is pointed out. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

  4. Plants as bioindicators for archaeological prospection: a case of study from Domitian's Stadium in the Palatine (Rome, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, S; Caneva, G

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between buried archaeological remains (masonries, pavements, and ancient ruins) and spontaneous vegetation growing above them. We carried out several vegetation surveys in the Domitian's Stadium at the archaeological site of the Palatine (Rome). Vegetation data were collected using the Braun-Blanquet approach and elaborated using statistical analyses (cluster analysis) to assess the similarity among surveys. Structural, chorological, and ecological features of the plant communities were analyzed. Results showed that the vegetation responds significantly to the presence of sub-emerging ancient remains. The plant bioindication of this phenomenon occurs through the following floristic-vegetation variations: phenological alterations in single individuals (reduction in height, displacement of flowering/fruiting period), increase of annual species and decrease of perennial ones, decrease of total plant coverage, reduction of maturity level of the vegetation which remains blocked at a pioneer evolutive stage. The presence of sub-surfacing ruins manifests itself through the dominant occurrence of xerophilous and not-nitrophilous species (e.g., Hypochaeris achyrophorus L., Aira elegantissima Schur, Trifolium scabrum L. ssp. scabrum, Trifolium stellatum L., Plantago lagopus L., Medicago minima (L.) L., and Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E. Hubb. ex Dony ssp. rigidum) and in a rarefaction of more mesophilous and nitrophilous species (e.g., Plantago lanceolata L., Trifolium pratense L. ssp. pratense, Trifolium repens L. ssp. repens, and Poa trivialis L.). Therefore, the vegetation can be used as bioindicator for the detection of buried ruins, contributing in the archaeological prospection for a general, fast, and inexpensive interpretation of the underground.

  5. Angio-OCT de la zona avascular foveal en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina.

    PubMed

    Wons, Juliana; Pfau, Maximilian; Wirth, Magdalena A; Freiberg, Florentina J; Becker, Matthias D; Michels, Stephan

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio comprendía visualizar y cuantificar las alteraciones patológicas de la zona avascular foveal (ZAF) mediante angio-OCT en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina (OVR) en comparación con el ojo contralateral sano. Procedimientos: La angio-OCT se llevó a cabo mediante el sistema Avanti® RTVue 100 XR (Optovue Inc., Fremont, Calif., EE. UU.). Los bordes de la capa vascular superficial (CVS) se definieron como 3 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y 15 μm por debajo de la capa plexiforme interna y, para la capa vascular profunda (CVP), como 15 y 70 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y de la capa plexiforme interna, respectivamente. La longitud de la ZAF horizontal, vertical y máxima de la CVS y la CVP en cada ojo se midió de forma manual. Además, se midió el ángulo entre el diámetro máximo de la ZAF y el plano papilomacular. Resultados: La angio-OCT representó los defectos dentro de la vasculatura en el área perifoveal en ojos con oclusión de rama venosa de la retina (ORVR; n = 11) y con oclusión de la vena central de la retina (OVCR; n = 8). Esto resultó en un crecimiento del diámetro máximo de la ZAF en ojos con OVR (n = 19) en comparación con el ojo contralateral (n = 19; 921 ± 213 frente a 724 ± 145 µm; p = 0,008). Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF en la CVP (ρ de Spearman = -0,423, p < 0,01). Por último, en los ojos con OVR, el ángulo entre el plano papilomacular y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF se dio tan solo en el 21,05% (CVS) y en el 15,79% (CVP) de los casos a 0 ± 15 ó 90 ± 15°, respectivamente. En ojos sanos, estos ángulos (que supuestamente representan una configuración de la ZAF regular) fueron más prevalentes (CVS 68,42 frente a 21,05%, p = 0,003; CVP 73,68 frente a 15,79%, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La angio-OCT muestra alteraciones morfológicas de la ZAF en ojos con

  6. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  8. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean.

  9. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  10. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-08-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by

  11. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Keir X.X.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M.D.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985

  12. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  13. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  14. "Pros and cons" of total hip arthroplasty with metaphyseal Proxima endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Wraźen, Waldemar; Golec, Edward B; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Golec, Piotr; Jaworowski, Michał de Lubicz; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The authors present their own experience concerning total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. Proxima, a metaphyseal prosthesis, provides an innovative supplement to total hip arthroplasty. In this study, the authors present their own experience using Proxima in patients with hip osteoarthritis. This study was performed between 2008 to 2013 and comprised of 62 patients, of which 38 were male (61.3%) and 24 female (38.7%). All patients were operated on due to hip osteoarthritis using total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. The age of patients included into the study ranged from 23 years to 62 years with the mean age of 46 years. The authors paid close attention to the "pros and cons" of surgical techniques and assessed clinical and radiological results in both the short and long-term observation periods. The clinical evaluation was based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment of fixation of the acetabular cup of the endoprosthesis was based on Pradhan's criteria. The endoprosthesis Proxima stem was positioned using the manufacturer's recommended method, evaluating the direction, scope and duration of the displacement in the marrow cavity of the proximal stump of the femur. According to the authors' analysis, the surgery gives good functional and radiological results both in the short- and long-term observation periods. The effectiveness depends on precise qualification for surgery, proper surgical techniques and specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femur stump. The most common reasons for primary and secondary dislocations of the metaphyseal endoprosthesis Proxima stem occur during the first three months post surgery. This is due to incorrect surgical techniques, which disregard the importance of specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femoral stump, which affects Proxima implantation, and cause deviations towards a varus or valgus orientation.

  15. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  16. Best Practice in Research: Consensus Statement on Ethnopharmacological Field Studies - ConSEFS.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Michael; Lardos, Andreas; Leonti, Marco; Weckerle, Caroline; Willcox, Merlin

    2017-08-14

    Ethnopharmacological research aims at gathering information on local and traditional uses of plants and other natural substances. However, the approaches used and the methods employed vary, and while such a variability is desirable in terms of scientific diversity, research must adhere to well defined quality standards and reproducible methods OBJECTIVES: With ConSEFS (the Consensus Statement on Ethnopharmacological Field Studies) we want to define best-practice in developing, conducting and reporting field studies focusing on local and traditional uses of medicinal and food plants, including studies using a historical approach. After first developing an initial draft the core group invited community-wide feedback from researchers both through a web-based consultation and a series of workshops at conferences during 2017. The consultation resulted in a large number of responses. Feedback was received via a weblink on the Journal of Ethnopharmacology's website (ca. 100 responses), other oral and written responses (ca. 50) and discussions with stakeholders at four conferences. The main outcome is a checklist, covering best practice for designing, implementing and recording ethnopharmacological field studies and historical studies. Prior to starting ethnopharmacological field research, it is essential that the authors are fully aware of the best practice in the field. For the first time in the field of ethnopharmacology a community-wide document defines guidelines for best practice on how to conduct and report such studies. It will need to be updated and further developed. While the feedback has been based on responses by many experienced researchers, there is a need to test it in practice by using it both in implementing and reporting field studies (or historical studies), and peer-review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias con núcleo tipo Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto con un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.

  18. Strain Rate into South American Plate by SIRGAS-CON Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G. S.; Monico, J. G.; Fuck, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this study were investigated the surface strain rates computed from the direction variations and velocity values estimated from the coordinates of the continuous monitoring geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. That investigation was done using points located in the South American plate. The determination of the strain rate was based on the Finite Element method using points defined by Delaunay triangulation (sub-networks). Each one of sub-networks was considered as an homogeneous solid body. Using these methods was possible to separate the strain from the plate movement. The results showed that there are differences of strain rate along the South American plate. From the results were suggest that near to the west board of the plate, the strain is more significant, as expected, because this region is near to one area where Nazca Plate subduct South American Plate. It was detected that the contraction region founded in this area coincides whit the region where occurs most of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Far from the board, there are some areas with anomalies of significant strain of extension and contraction that can be originated by differences of stress aligned with different geological composites. By the results, It may be concluded that large surface movements occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple event of rupture, that large earthquakes arising from large tectonic activity into South American Plate are concentrated in areas with contraction strain rates predominantly oriented towards northeast-southwest, that significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated over geological structures away from fault plate boundary and that the behavior of contractions and extensions are similar to that found by different researches involving geophysical studies. Dilation and principal components of strain rate

  19. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  20. Molecular detection of pathogens in water--the pros and cons of molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Girones, Rosina; Ferrús, Maria Antonia; Alonso, José Luis; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Corrêa, Adriana de Abreu; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Carratala, Anna; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2010-08-01

    Pollution of water by sewage and run-off from farms produces a serious public health problem in many countries. Viruses, along with bacteria and protozoa in the intestine or in urine are shed and transported through the sewer system. Even in highly industrialized countries, pathogens, including viruses, are prevalent throughout the environment. Molecular methods are used to monitor viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, and to track pathogen- and source-specific markers in the environment. Molecular techniques, specifically polymerase chain reaction-based methods, provide sensitive, rapid, and quantitative analytical tools with which to study such pathogens, including new or emerging strains. These techniques are used to evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water, and to assess the efficiency of virus removal in drinking and wastewater treatment plants. The range of methods available for the application of molecular techniques has increased, and the costs involved have fallen. These developments have allowed the potential standardization and automation of certain techniques. In some cases they facilitate the identification, genotyping, enumeration, viability assessment, and source-tracking of human and animal contamination. Additionally, recent improvements in detection technologies have allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple targets in a single assay. However, the molecular techniques available today and those under development require further refinement in order to be standardized and applicable to a diversity of matrices. Water disinfection treatments may have an effect on the viability of pathogens and the numbers obtained by molecular techniques may overestimate the quantification of infectious microorganisms. The pros and cons of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of pathogens in water are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Operating on a suspicious lung mass without a preoperative tissue diagnosis: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sihoe, Alan D L; Hiranandani, Raj; Wong, Henry; Yeung, Enoch S L

    2013-08-01

    Patients with a suspicious lung mass sometimes receive surgery with no preoperative tissue diagnosis despite-and sometimes in lieu of-modern medical investigations. The pros and cons of doing so have rarely been studied. Pulmonary surgery was performed in 443 consecutive adult patients with a lung mass confirmed or suspected to be an early stage primary lung cancer. No diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively in 206 (46.5%) patients. Whether to take a core biopsy or wedge excision biopsy for frozen section assessment intraoperatively was decided at the surgeon's discretion. Patients without preoperative diagnosis were on average younger than those with a diagnosis (61 vs 66 years, P < 0.01), but were otherwise similar to those who had a preoperative diagnosis confirmed. In all patients operated on without a preoperative diagnosis, there was no mortality or major complication, and the perioperative minor morbidity rate was 9.7%. Among patients ultimately found to have lung cancer and who received a lobectomy, performing a frozen section intraoperatively did not increase mean operation time or morbidity. Among those patients with no preoperative tissue diagnosis, 97 (47.1%) proceeded to surgery without attempts at preoperative diagnosis, and 109 (52.9%), after attempts at preoperative diagnosis failed to yield a positive diagnosis. After surgery, benign disease was found in 16 (7.8%) patients without preoperative diagnosis. A significantly lower proportion of patients without preoperative diagnosis waited an interval of over 28 days between presentation and being accepted for thoracic surgery (42.2 vs 54.9%, P < 0.01). However, they were not more likely to have Stage I disease and did not have better recurrence-free survival rates on survival analysis. Proceeding to surgery without preoperative diagnosis in selected patients with a suspicious lung mass is safe and can potentially reduce the interval between presentation and surgical management. However, the shortened

  2. 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of the Day Nui Con Voi Metamorphic Complex, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Lo, C.; Yeh, M.; Chung, S.; Lee, T.

    2009-12-01

    The garnet bearing gneiss within the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) Metamorphic Complex along the Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in North Vietnam, recorded a long tectonothermal history since the Indosinian orogeny. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of biotite inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts and matrix biotites, combining with microstructural and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, deciphered the timing and duration of thermal events. Biotites from two matrix fabrics from different deformation events show approximately similar 40Ar/39Ar age ranges in 19-24Ma, depending grain size. These matrix biotite ages are best interpreted to record a rapid cooling event associating with the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ. Whereas, all biotite inclusions exhibit age zoning patterns with 40Ar/39Ar ages gradually increase from 17 Ma to more than 28 Ma according to their diffusion pathways. These age variations may have resultant from a combination effect of argon retention by garnet shielding, which provides a best recorder to the metamorphic event, and argon diffusion loss along the deformed cracks during the shearing event of the RRSZ. Diffusion modeling of these age zoning indicated that the total duration of argon diffusion loss may have lasted for nearly 9 Myr and argon diffusion may have occurred sometime around 24.5Ma. These results are generally in good agreement with previous interpretation, but provide better resolution of 40Ar/39Ar age data for deciphering the history of thermal event in the DNCV Metamorphic Complex and the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ in Vietnam, as well.

  3. Exploring the pros and cons of mechanistic case diagrams for problem-based learning

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Mechanistic case diagram (MCD) was recommended for increasing the depth of understanding of disease, but with few articles on its specific methods. We address the experience of making MCD in the fullest depth to identify the pros and cons of using MCDs in such ways. Methods During problem-based learning, we gave guidelines of MCD for its mechanistic exploration from subcellular processes to clinical features, being laid out in as much detail as possible. To understand the students’ attitudes and depth of study using MCDs, we analyzed the results of a questionnaire in an open format about experiencing MCDs and examined the resulting products. Results Through the responses to questionnaire, we found several favorable outcomes, major of which was deeper insight and comprehensive understanding of disease facilitated by the process of making well-organized diagram. The main disadvantages of these guidelines were the feeling of too much workload and difficulty of finding mechanisms. Students gave suggestions to overcome these problems: cautious reading of comprehensive texts, additional guidance from staff about depth and focus of mechanisms, and cooperative group work. From the analysis of maps, we recognized there should be allowance of diversities in the appearance of maps and many hypothetical connections, which could be related to an insufficient understanding of mechanisms in nature. Conclusion The more detailed an MCD task is, the better students can become acquainted with deep knowledges. However, this advantage should be balanced by the results that there are many ensuing difficulties for the work and deliberate help plans should be prepared. PMID:28870018

  4. Development of a stable low-fat yogurt gel using functionality of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) husk gum.

    PubMed

    Ladjevardi, Zhaleh Sadat; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mousavi, Mohammad

    2015-07-10

    Psyllium husk gum (PHG) as an ideal fat replacer was utilized to improve the production of an industrial low-fat yogurt gel. The combined effects of critical structural components (PHG concentration (0.072-0.128%) and fat content (0.29-1.71%)) on the textural (firmness and syneresis), rheological (viscosity), and chemical (pH and total titratable acidity (TTA)) attributes of developed set-yogurts were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The second-order polynomial equations with high R(2) demonstrated a good agreement between experimental and predicted data. The optimal formulation for achieving optimal pH (4.39) and TTA (81% lactic acid), maximizing firmness (0.172 N) and viscosity (6.40 Pa s) and minimizing whey separation (36.21 mL/100g) was 0.12% PHG and 0.63% fat. Sensory characterization also revealed that the yogurts manufactured at optimal point had more aroma, texture and overall acceptability than the control yogurts.

  5. Influence of molybdenum on the accumulation and composition of the water-soluble polysaccharides of Plantago psyllium

    SciTech Connect

    Lichino, I.P.; Gomanova, M.I.; Milenysheva, L.I.; Yakovlev, A.I.

    1986-07-01

    The authors have studied the dynamics of the accumulation of polysaccharides in flaxseed plantain when it is given a foliar top dressing with molybdenum, and also their monosaccaride composition and physicochemical properties. The amounts of galacturonic acid were determined by potentiometric titration. The results of the investigations permit the conclusions that molybdenum somewhat decreases the amounts of total monosaccaride complex and of galacturonic acid while considerably raising the amount of -OCH/sub 3/.

  6. Competition between tall fescue and plantago under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: Impact of endophytic fungi and mineral N inputs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is one of the most important perennial grasses as forage and turfgrass. It is usually associated with a systemic endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams). The endophytic fungus often increases the host resistance to stresses, thus e...

  7. First report of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus in imported Asiatic and Oriental lilies (Lilium hybrids) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asiatic and Oriental hybrid lilies (Lilium hybrids, Liliaceae) are bulbous ornamentals valued for their prominent flowers. Bulbs of several varieties of each lily type, imported from the Netherlands, were purchased in spring 2013 from retail nurseries and grown in a cool greenhouse; additional bulb...

  8. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K

    2017-02-01

    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the ConNECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.

  9. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E.; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  10. Nqrs Data for C10H12CoN2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12CoN2NaO8 (Subst. No. 1263)

  11. Exploring the use of Generalized Indirect Covariance to reconstruct pure shift NMR spectra: Current Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Martin, Gary E; Parella, Teodor

    2016-05-01

    The current Pros and Cons of a processing protocol to generate pure chemical shift NMR spectra using Generalized Indirect Covariance are presented and discussed. The transformation of any standard 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear spectrum to its pure shift counterpart by using a reference DIAG spectrum is described. Reconstructed pure shift NMR spectra of NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HSQMBC experiments are reported for the target molecule strychnine.

  12. Induction of Antibodies Directed Against Branched Core O-Mannosyl Glycopeptides-Selectivity Complimentary to the ConA Lectin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Grant, Oliver C; Pett, Christian; Stahl, Sabine; Woods, Robert J; Westerlind, Ulrika

    2017-03-08

    Mammalian protein O-mannosylation, initiated by attachment of α-mannopyranose to Ser or Thr residues, comprise a group of post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in muscle and brain development. Recent advances in glycoproteomics methodology and the "SimpleCell" strategy have enabled rapid identification of glycoproteins and specific glycosylation sites. Despite the enormous progress made, the biological impact of the mammalian O-mannosyl glycoproteome remains largely unknown to date. Tools are still needed to investigate the structure, role, and abundance of O-mannosyl glycans. Although O-mannosyl branching has been shown to be of relevance in integrin-dependent cell migration, and also plays a role in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, a broader understanding of the biological roles of branched O-mannosyl glycans is lacking in part due to the paucity of detection tools. In this work, a glycopeptide vaccine construct was synthesized and used to generate antibodies against branched O-mannosyl glycans. Glycopeptide microarray screening revealed high selectivity of the induced antibodies for branched glycan core structures presented on different peptide backbones, with no cross-reactivity observed with related linear glycans. For comparison, microarray screening of the mannose-binding lectin concanavalin A (ConA), which is commonly used in glycoproteomics workflows to enrich tryptic O-mannosyl peptides, showed that the ConA lectin did not recognize branched O-mannosyl glycans. The binding preference of ConA for short linear O-mannosyl glycans was rationalized in terms of molecular structure using crystallographic data augmented by molecular modeling. The contrast between the ConA binding specificity and that of the new antibodies indicates a novel role for the antibodies in studies of protein O-mannosylation.

  13. UniCon3D: de novo protein structure prediction using united-residue conformational search via stepwise, probabilistic sampling.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-09-15

    Recent experimental studies have suggested that proteins fold via stepwise assembly of structural units named 'foldons' through the process of sequential stabilization. Alongside, latest developments on computational side based on probabilistic modeling have shown promising direction to perform de novo protein conformational sampling from continuous space. However, existing computational approaches for de novo protein structure prediction often randomly sample protein conformational space as opposed to experimentally suggested stepwise sampling. Here, we develop a novel generative, probabilistic model that simultaneously captures local structural preferences of backbone and side chain conformational space of polypeptide chains in a united-residue representation and performs experimentally motivated conditional conformational sampling via stepwise synthesis and assembly of foldon units that minimizes a composite physics and knowledge-based energy function for de novo protein structure prediction. The proposed method, UniCon3D, has been found to (i) sample lower energy conformations with higher accuracy than traditional random sampling in a small benchmark of 6 proteins; (ii) perform comparably with the top five automated methods on 30 difficult target domains from the 11th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment and on 15 difficult target domains from the 10th CASP experiment; and (iii) outperform two state-of-the-art approaches and a baseline counterpart of UniCon3D that performs traditional random sampling for protein modeling aided by predicted residue-residue contacts on 45 targets from the 10th edition of CASP. Source code, executable versions, manuals and example data of UniCon3D for Linux and OSX are freely available to non-commercial users at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/UniCon3D/ CONTACT: chengji@missouri.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. ConReg-R: Extrapolative recalibration of the empirical distribution of p-values to improve false discovery rate estimates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background False discovery rate (FDR) control is commonly accepted as the most appropriate error control in multiple hypothesis testing problems. The accuracy of FDR estimation depends on the accuracy of the estimation of p-values from each test and validity of the underlying assumptions of the distribution. However, in many practical testing problems such as in genomics, the p-values could be under-estimated or over-estimated for many known or unknown reasons. Consequently, FDR estimation would then be influenced and lose its veracity. Results We propose a new extrapolative method called Constrained Regression Recalibration (ConReg-R) to recalibrate the empirical p-values by modeling their distribution to improve the FDR estimates. Our ConReg-R method is based on the observation that accurately estimated p-values from true null hypotheses follow uniform distribution and the observed distribution of p-values is indeed a mixture of distributions of p-values from true null hypotheses and true alternative hypotheses. Hence, ConReg-R recalibrates the observed p-values so that they exhibit the properties of an ideal empirical p-value distribution. The proportion of true null hypotheses (π0) and FDR are estimated after the recalibration. Conclusions ConReg-R provides an efficient way to improve the FDR estimates. It only requires the p-values from the tests and avoids permutation of the original test data. We demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves FDR estimation on several gene expression datasets obtained from microarray and RNA-seq experiments. Reviewers The manuscript was reviewed by Prof. Vladimir Kuznetsov, Prof. Philippe Broet, and Prof. Hongfang Liu (nominated by Prof. Yuriy Gusev). PMID:21595983

  15. Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.

    Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

  16. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  17. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J J; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-05-05

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Trombosis primaria de la descendente anterior en un paciente con síndrome de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Valerio, Jorge; Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Contreras-Villaseñor, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    El síndrome de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos es una situación clínica y bioquímica heterogénea. Presentamos el caso de un varón joven con antecedente de tromboembolia venosa que se presentó en esta ocasión por dolor precordial, con elevación del ST en el electrocardiograma. Fue llevado a sala de angiografía para realizar angioplastia primaria y se observó una oclusión total ostial de la descendente anterior. Se realizó aspiración manual del trombo. No se realizó angioplastia con balón ni stent. En la angiografía de control a las 48 horas se observó ausencia de trombo y de placas aterosclerosas, lo cual se corroboró mediante ultrasonido intracoronario. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a heterogeneous clinical and biochemical entity. We present the case of a young male with history of venous thromboembolism. This time he presents because of chest ischemic pain associated with ST segment elevation. He was taken to the cath lab to perform a primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery was noted. Successful thrombus aspiration was performed. No stent was deployed. He was taken to the cath lab for a second look angiography and no atherosclerotic lesions were observed, which was confirmed by intravascular ultrasound.

  19. Structures and electronic properties of CumCon-CO-H2O (m + n = 2 -7) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Peiying; Zhang, Xiurong; Zhu, Jun; Gao, Kun; Yu, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    The structures and electronic properties of CumCon-CO-H2O( m+n=2 -7) clusters have been systematically investigated using density functional theory. The results indicate that the ground-state structures of CumCon-CO-H2O clusters are obtained by adsorbing C atoms of CO and O atoms of H2O on different top sites of stable CumCon clusters. Cu2-CO-H2O, Cu4-CO-H2O, Cu3Co-CO-H2O, Cu4Co-CO-H2O and CuCo4-CO-H2O clusters have relatively stronger thermodynamic stabilities, while Cu2-CO-H2O, Cu4-CO-H2O and Cu6-CO-H2O clusters show stronger chemical stability. H2O molecule doping improves the activation of CO molecules. Mulliken charge and PDOS are also discussed to study the interaction of CO and Cu-Co clusters.

  20. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  1. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  2. STRUCTURE STABILITY AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF CumConCO (m+n=2-7) CLUSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Rong; Huo, Pei-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Cheng

    The structure stability and electronic properties of CumConCO (m+n=2-7) clusters have been systematically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results indicate that the ground state structures of CumConCO clusters obtained by adsorbing CO molecules on the top sites of stable CumCon clusters with C atoms and CO molecules have been activated during adsorption process. Cu2CO, CuCoCO, Cu3CoCO, Co4CO, Cu4CoCO and Cu3Co3CO clusters are stronger than other ground state clusters in thermodynamic stability. Cu2CO, Cu4CO and Cu6CO clusters show stronger chemical stability; Co2CO, Co4CO, Cu5CoCO, Cu3Co3CO, Cu2Co5CO and Co7CO clusters show better propensity to adsorb CO for these clusters have larger adsorption energies; Electronic states of Cu2Co3CO, CuCo4CO, Co5CO, Cu4Co3CO, Cu3Co4CO, CuCo6CO and Co7CO clusters are mainly influenced by those of 3d orbitals in Co and Cu atoms, the contribution to total magnetic moments of these clusters comes mainly from Co atoms and these clusters have high magnetism.

  3. ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain interchangeable nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389

  4. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  5. Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by ConA in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Lei; Zhang, Jinping; Qian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by ConA. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into control group and ConA treatment group. ConA (20 mg/kg) was injected through vena caudalis in ConA treatment group; the controls received the same volume of saline injection. After injection for 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h, animals were terminated. Blood, liver, and spleen were harvested. Liver function and histopathology were studied. α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were detected. Results. After ConA injection, liver damage started to increase. Expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was significantly enhanced; all above indicators reached peak at 8 h; but from 24 h after ConA injection, TGF-β3 expression began to decline, while the TGF-β1/TGF-β3 ratio at 48 h was significantly lower than control. Conclusion. (1) Autoimmune liver injury induced by ConA showed time-based features, in which the most serious liver lesions happened at 8 h after ConA injection. (2) Early activation of HSC and imbalance expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 existed in ConA-induced acute autoimmune liver injury, which may be associated with liver dysfunction and the mechanisms of progression to fibrosis. PMID:28246592

  6. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el

  7. Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

    El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

  8. Antidepressant-like effect of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) lectin in mice: evidence for the involvement of the glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Débora K; Costa, Ana Paula; Budni, Josiane; Moretti, Morgana; Barbosa, Sabrina Giovana Rocha; Nascimento, Kyria S; Teixeira, Edson H; Cavada, Benildo S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B

    2014-07-01

    Lectins recognize and reversibly bind to carbohydrates attached to proteins and lipids modulating a variety of signaling pathways. We previously showed that ConBr, a lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice by modulating the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, ConBr blocked hippocampal neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid in vivo and by glutamate in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective activity of ConBr via glutamatergic system modulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like action displayed by ConBr in the forced swimming test (FST). With the aim of verifying the involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr (10 μg/site, i.c.v.), an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with either NMDA (0.1 pmol/site) or D-serine (30 μg/site) was carried out. The results show that both treatments blocked the effect of ConBr. Furthermore, the coadministration of subeffective doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketamine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.; NMDA receptor antagonist) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) caused a synergistic reduction in immobility time. In order to verify the dependence of the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, on the effect of ConBr in the FST, a pretreatment with the NO precursor, L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.), or the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil (5 mg/kg, i.p.), was performed. Both drugs abolished the antidepressant-like action of ConBr. Finally, the administration of subeffective doses of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 30 pmol/site, i.c.v.) and ConBr (0.1 μg/site, i.c.v.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Taken together, the results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr in the FST involves NMDA

  9. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  10. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  11. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  12. Assessment of Response to Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder: A Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) Report

    PubMed Central

    Manchia, Mirko; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Banzato, Claudio EM.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bellivier, Frank; Bengesser, Susanne; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise; Calkin, Cynthia V.; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Scott; Czerski, Piotr M.; Dantas, Clarissa; Zompo, Maria Del; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Etain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A.; Fullerton, Jan; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie; Goes, Fernando S.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Hoban, Rebecca; Hou, Liping; Jamain, Stéphane; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kelsoe, John R.; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Lavebratt, Catharina; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G.; López Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Maj, Mario; Malafosse, Alain; Martinsson, Lina; Masui, Takuya; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mondimore, Frank; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nallet, Audrey; Neuner, Maria; Novák, Tomás; O’Donovan, Claire; Ösby, Urban; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B.; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Schalling, Martin; Schofield, Peter R.; Schubert, Oliver K.; Schweizer, Barbara; Seemüller, Florian; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Severino, Giovanni; Seymour, Lisa R.; Slaney, Claire; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Steele, Jo; Stopkova, Pavla; Tighe, Sarah K.; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Wray, Naomi R.; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P.; Zilles, David; Bauer, Michael; Rietschel, Marcella; McMahon, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the “Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder” scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (κ)] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment response scores available for 1,308 patients using mixture modeling. Results Substantial and moderate agreement was shown across sites in the first and second sets of vignettes (κ = 0.66 and κ = 0.54, respectively), without significant improvement from training. However, definition of response using the A score as a quantitative trait and selecting cases with B criteria of 4 or less showed an improvement between the two stages (ICC1 = 0.71 and ICC2 = 0.75, respectively). Mixture modeling of score distribution indicated three subpopulations (full responders, partial responders, non responders). Conclusions We identified two definitions of lithium response, one dichotomous and the other continuous, with moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement and reliability. Accurate phenotypic measurement of lithium response is crucial for the ongoing ConLiGen pharmacogenomic study. PMID:23840348

  13. Influence of parameter values and variances and algorithm architecture in ConsExpo model on modeled exposures.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of parameter values and variances and model architecture on modeled exposures, and identified important data gaps that influence lack-of-knowledge-related uncertainty, using Consexpo 4.1 as an illustrative case study. Understanding the influential determinants in exposure estimates enables more informed and appropriate use of this model and the resulting exposure estimates. In exploring the influence of parameter placement in an algorithm and of the values and variances chosen to characterize the parameters within ConsExpo, "sensitive" and "important" parameters were identified: product amount, weight fraction, exposure duration, exposure time, and ventilation rate were deemed "important," or "always sensitive." With this awareness, exposure assessors can strategically focus on acquiring the most robust estimates for these parameters. ConsExpo relies predominantly on three algorithms to assess the default scenarios: inhalation vapors evaporation equation using the Langmuir mass transfer, the dermal instant application with diffusion through the skin, and the oral ingestion by direct uptake algorithm. These algorithms, which do not necessarily render health conservative estimates, account for 87, 89 and 59% of the inhalation, dermal and oral default scenario assessments,respectively, according them greater influence relative to the less frequently used algorithms. Default data provided in ConsExpo may be useful to initiate assessments, but are insufficient for determining exposure acceptability or setting policy, as parameters defined by highly uncertain values produce biased estimates that may not be health conservative. Furthermore, this lack-of-knowledge uncertainty makes the magnitude of this bias uncertain. Significant data gaps persist for product amount, exposure time, and exposure duration. These "important" parameters exert influence in requiring broad values and variances to account for their uncertainty. Prioritizing

  14. The InterCon network: a program for education partnerships at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Bouldin, P A; Farver, D W; Maugans, L A; Sanders, L C; Booker, J

    1999-04-01

    The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center (UT-Houston) has created programs and activities to address the state's pressing needs in minority education. Through InterCon, a network of universities and K-12 schools, UT-Houston works with its partners to identify competitive candidates in the current pool of minority graduates with bachelor's degrees and to help them--along with their non-minority counterparts--progress in their education. Another objective is to expand the pool of minorities underrepresented in medicine who complete high school and go to college. In 1994 UT-Houston and Prairie View A&M University created a collaborative venture to provide new educational opportunities at UT-Houston for Prairie View's predominantly African American students. A three-track summer internship program--a result of that collaboration--has since been expanded to partnerships with other minority and majority universities throughout Texas. In 1998, for example, 108 undergraduate students from these universities (and 40 other universities nationwide) participated in research, professional, and administrative summer internships at UT-Houston. The InterCon network also has partnerships with K-12 schools. UT-Houston works with inner-city, suburban, and rural school districts to develop education models that can be transferred throughout the state. The partnerships deal with helping to teach basic academic skills and computer literacy, improve science-related instruction, meet demands for health promotion materials and information for school-initiated health and wellness programs, and develop distance-learning paradigms. UT-Houston views InterCon as a program helping Texas institutions to engage and adapt to the socioeconomic factors, demographic changes, and technology explosion that currently challenge public education.

  15. Sophocarpine Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-01-01

    Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg-1 of ConA intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate ConA-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway. PMID:28377718

  16. Sophocarpine Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-01-01

    Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg(-1) of ConA intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate ConA-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway.

  17. Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  18. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  19. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  20. A signal-on electrochemiluminescence biosensor for detecting Con A using phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride as signal probe.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xin; Tan, Xingrong; Liu, Xiaofang; Lu, Qiyi; Chen, Shihong; Wei, Shaping

    2015-08-15

    A novel signal-on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detecting concanavalin A (Con A) was fabricated with phenoxy dextran-graphite-like carbon nitride (DexP-g-C3N4) as signal probe. In this construction strategy, the nanocomposites of three-dimensional graphene and gold nanoparticles (3D-GR-AuNPs) were used as matrix for high loading of glucose oxidase (GOx), which served as recognition element for bounding Con A. Con A further interacted with DexP-g-C3N4 through a specific carbohydrate-Con A interaction to achieve a sandwiched scheme. With the increase of Con A incubated onto the electrode, the ECL signal resulted from DexP-g-C3N4 would enhance, thus achieving a signal-on ECL biosensor for Con A detection. Due to the integration of the virtues of 3D-GR-AuNPs and the excellent ECL performance of DexP-g-C3N4, the prepared biosensor exhibits a wide linear response range from 0.05 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and a low detection limit of 17 pg/mL (S/N=3).

  1. Interactive effects of mycorrhizae and a root hemiparasite on plant community productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudia; Rissmann, Cornelia; Hempel, Stefan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald

    2009-02-01

    Plant communities can be affected both by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and hemiparasitic plants. However, little is known about the interactive effects of these two biotic factors on the productivity and diversity of plant communities. To address this question, we set up a greenhouse study in which different AMF inocula and a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor) were added to experimental grassland communities in a fully factorial design. In addition, single plants of each species in the grassland community were grown with the same treatments to distinguish direct AMF effects from indirect effects via plant competition. We found that AMF changed plant community structure by influencing the plant species differently. At the community level, AMF decreased the productivity by 15-24%, depending on the particular AMF treatment, mainly because two dominant species, Holcus lanatus and Plantago lanceolata, showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency. Concomitantly, plant diversity increased due to AMF inoculation and was highest in the treatment with a combination of two commercial AM strains. AMF had a positive effect on growth of the hemiparasite, and thereby induced a negative impact of the hemiparasite on host plant biomass which was not found in non-inoculated communities. However, the hemiparasite did not increase plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of interactions with soil microbes for plant community structure and that these indirect effects can vary among AMF treatments. We conclude that mutualistic interactions with AMF, but not antagonistic interactions with a root hemiparasite, promote plant diversity in this grassland community.

  2. Spatial variation in soil biota mediates plant adaptation to a foliar pathogen.

    PubMed

    Mursinoff, Sini; Tack, Ayco J M

    2017-01-02

    Theory suggests that below-ground spatial heterogeneity may mediate host-parasite evolutionary dynamics and patterns of local adaptation, but this has rarely been tested in natural systems. Here, we test experimentally for the impact of spatial variation in the abiotic and biotic soil environment on the evolutionary outcome of the interaction between the host plant Plantago lanceolata and its specialist foliar pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis. Plants showed no adaptation to the local soil environment in the absence of natural enemies. However, quantitative, but not qualitative, plant resistance against local pathogens was higher when plants were grown in their local field soil than when they were grown in nonlocal field soil. This pattern was robust when extending the spatial scale beyond a single region, but disappeared with soil sterilization, indicating that soil biota mediated plant adaptation. We conclude that below-ground biotic heterogeneity mediates above-ground patterns of plant adaptation, resulting in increased plant resistance when plants are grown in their local soil environment. From an applied perspective, our findings emphasize the importance of using locally selected seeds in restoration ecology and low-input agriculture.

  3. Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

    Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

  4. Biosorption and bioreduction of copper from different copper compounds in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Bento, Fátima M; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2013-06-01

    High copper concentration is toxic for living organisms including humans. Biosorption is a bioremediation technique that can remove copper and other pollutants from aqueous medium and soils, consequently cleaning the environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the influence of different copper compounds (Cu(II) as CuCl2; Cu(II) as CuSO4; and Cu(I) as CuCl) on copper bioreduction and biosorption using four copper-resistant bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of two plants (Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata) in aqueous matrix. Copper resistance profile, bioreduction, and biosorption after 48 h of incubation were evaluated. The isolates displayed high copper resistance. However, isolate A1 did not grow very well in the CuCl2 and isolate T5 was less resistant to copper in aqueous solutions amended with CuCl (Cu(I)). The best copper source for copper bioreduction and biosorption was CuSO4 and the isolates removed as much as ten times more copper than in aqueous solutions amended with the other copper compounds. Moreover, Cu(I) did not succumb to biosorption, although the microbes were resistant to aqueous solutions of CuCl. In summary, Cu(II) from CuSO4 was furthermost susceptible to bioreduction and biosorption for all isolates. This is an indication that copper contamination of the environment from the use of CuSO4 as an agrochemical is amenable to bioremediation.

  5. The Anthelmintic Ingredient Moxidectin Negatively Affects Seed Germination of Three Temperate Grassland Species.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Carsten; Wohde, Manuel; Müller, Kerstin; Rausch, Anja; Scherrmann, Christina; Scheuren, Theresa; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Donath, Tobias W

    2016-01-01

    In animal farming, anthelmintics are regularly applied to control gastrointestinal nematodes. There is plenty of evidence that also non-target organisms, such as dung beetles, are negatively affected by residues of anthelmintics in faeces of domestic ungulates. By contrast, knowledge about possible effects on wild plants is scarce. To bridge this gap of knowledge, we tested for effects of the common anthelmintic formulation Cydectin and its active ingredient moxidectin on seed germination. We conducted a feeding experiment with sheep and germination experiments in a climate chamber. Three wide-spread plant species of temperate grasslands (Centaurea jacea, Galium verum, Plantago lanceolata) were studied. We found significant influences of both, Cydectin and moxidectin, on germination of the tested species. Across species, both formulation and active ingredient solely led to a decrease in germination percentage and synchrony of germination and an increase in mean germination time with the formulation showing a more pronounced response pattern. Our study shows for the first time that anthelmintics have the potential to negatively affect plant regeneration. This has practical implications for nature conservation since our results suggest that treatments of livestock with anthelmintics should be carefully timed to not impede endozoochorous seed exchange between plant populations.

  6. The effects on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration: An assessment of the response of Trifolium Repens L. cv. Blanca grown at F.A.C.E.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.E.

    1994-11-01

    Understanding how photosynthetic capacity acclimates to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations is vital in predicting the response of important grassland species such as Trifolium repens. Previous studies of acclimatization have been carried out in artificial experimental conditions, such as acrylic greenhouses or controlled environment chambers. The advent of FACE technology has enabled a large area of crop to be fumigated in the field, providing more realistic growing conditions. Pure stands of Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca grown at either 355 or 600{mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were examined, and their photosynthetic response to elevated Ca determined via gas exchange studies. Rates of photosynthesis of young, fully expanded leaves were increased between 21 and 36% when grown and measured at elevated CO{sub 2}. This increase in A corresponded to a decrease in g{sub S} of between 18 and 52%. No acclimation effect was observed in the most frequently cut stands, whilst the response of stands clipped only 4 times per year was more variable. When down regulation of V{sub cmax} did occur, this was not nearly as marked as that which occurred in 3 other temperate species (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Ranunculus friesianus, Plantago lanceolata (L.) J. & C. Presl.), at similar growth regimes. No acclimation of stomatal frequency, SI or pore length was found to occur in the enriched clover stands.

  7. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  8. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  9. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics.

  10. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  11. The effects of tropospheric ozone on the species dynamics of calcareous grassland.

    PubMed

    Thwaites, R H; Ashmore, M R; Morton, A J; Pakeman, R J

    2006-11-01

    Although ozone has been shown to reduce the growth of individual species and to alter the composition of simple species mixtures, there is little understanding of its long-term effects on species dynamics and composition in real communities. Intact turfs of calcareous grassland were exposed to four different ozone regimes in open-top chambers over three consecutive summers. Treatments provided a mean seasonal AOT40 ranging from approximately zero to 15 ppm h. Cumulative ozone exposure was a significant factor in compositional change, but only explained 4.6% of the variation. The dominant grass species (Festuca rubra) showed a consistent decline in cover in the high ozone treatment over time and the forb Campanula rotundifolia was lost from all three ozone treatments. The frequency of some species (Galium verum and Plantago lanceolata) increased with ozone exposure. Long-term effects of ozone on species composition in chalk grassland may be a function of both the sensitivity of individual species and the response of the dominant species.

  12. Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, R; Heise, A-M; Persicke, M; Müller, C

    2014-07-01

    The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediate induced plant defences and the corresponding pathways interact in a complex manner as has been shown on the transcript and proteine level. Downstream, metabolic changes are important for plant-herbivore interactions. This study investigated metabolic changes in leaf tissue and phloem exudates of Plantago lanceolata after single and combined JA and SA applications as well as consequences on chewing-biting (Heliothis virescens) and piercing-sucking (Myzus persicae) herbivores. Targeted metabolite profiling and untargeted metabolic fingerprinting uncovered different categories of plant metabolites, which were influenced in a specific manner, indicating points of divergence, convergence, positive crosstalk and pronounced mutual antagonism between the signaling pathways. Phytohormone-specific decreases of primary metabolite pool sizes in the phloem exudates may indicate shifts in sink-source relations, resource allocation, nutrient uptake or photosynthesis. Survival of both herbivore species was significantly reduced by JA and SA treatments. However, the combined application of JA and SA attenuated the negative effects at least against H. virescens suggesting that mutual antagonism between the JA and SA pathway may be responsible. Pathway interactions provide a great regulatory potential for the plant that allows triggering of appropriate defences when attacked by different antagonist species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Capulavirus and Grablovirus: two new genera in the family Geminiviridae.

    PubMed

    Varsani, Arvind; Roumagnac, Philippe; Fuchs, Marc; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Idris, Ali; Briddon, Rob W; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael; Murilo Zerbini, F; Martin, Darren P

    2017-02-17

    Geminiviruses are plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that occur in most parts of the world. Currently, there are seven genera within the family Geminiviridae (Becurtovirus, Begomovirus, Curtovirus, Eragrovirus, Mastrevirus, Topocuvirus and Turncurtovirus). The rate of discovery of new geminiviruses has increased significantly over the last decade as a result of new molecular tools and approaches (rolling-circle amplification and deep sequencing) that allow for high-throughput workflows. Here, we report the establishment of two new genera: Capulavirus, with four new species (Alfalfa leaf curl virus, Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus, French bean severe leaf curl virus and Plantago lanceolata latent virus), and Grablovirus, with one new species (Grapevine red blotch virus). The aphid species Aphis craccivora has been shown to be a vector for Alfalfa leaf curl virus, and the treehopper species Spissistilus festinus is the likely vector of Grapevine red blotch virus. In addition, two highly divergent groups of viruses found infecting citrus and mulberry plants have been assigned to the new species Citrus chlorotic dwarf associated virus and Mulberry mosaic dwarf associated virus, respectively. These species have been left unassigned to a genus by the ICTV because their particle morphology and insect vectors are unknown.

  14. Impact of an invasive nitrogen-fixing tree on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the development of native species

    PubMed Central

    Guisande-Collazo, Alejandra; González, Luís; Souza-Alonso, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate soil biotrophs that establish intimate relationships with 80 % of terrestrial plant families. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi obtain carbon from host plants and contribute to the acquisition of mineral nutrients, mainly phosphorus. The presence of invasive plants has been identified as a soil disturbance factor, often conditioning the structure and function of soil microorganisms. Despite the investigation of many aspects related to the invasion of Acacia dealbata, the effect produced on the structure of AMF communities has never been assessed. We hypothesize that A. dealbata modifies the structure of AMF community, influencing the establishment and growth of plants that are dependent on these mutualisms. To validate our hypothesis, we carried out denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and also grew plants of Plantago lanceolata in pots using roots of native shrublands or from A. dealbata, as inoculum of AMF. Cluster analyses from DGGE indicated an alteration in the structure of AMF communities in invaded soils. After 15 weeks, we found that plants grown in pots containing native roots presented higher stem and root growth and also produced higher biomass in comparison with plants grown with A. dealbata inoculum. Furthermore, plants that presented the highest biomass and growth exhibited the maximum mycorrhizal colonization and phosphorus content. Moreover, fluorescence measurements indicated that plants grown with A. dealbata inoculum even presented higher photosynthetic damage. Our results indicate that the presence of the invader A. dealbata modify the composition of the arbuscular fungal community, conditioning the establishment of native plants. PMID:26984185

  15. Ecological and evolutionary implications of spatial heterogeneity during the off-season for a wild plant pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Ayco JM; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While recent studies have elucidated many of the factors driving parasite dynamics during the growing season, the ecological and evolutionary dynamics during the off-season (i.e. the period between growing seasons) remain largely unexplored. We combined large-scale surveys and detailed experiments to investigate the overwintering success of the specialist plant pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis on its patchily distributed host plant Plantago lanceolata in the Åland Islands. Twelve years of epidemiological data establish the off-season as a crucial stage in pathogen metapopulation dynamics, with c. 40% of the populations going extinct during the off-season. At the end of the growing season, we observed environmentally mediated variation in the production of resting structures, with major consequences for spring infection at spatial scales ranging from single individuals to populations within a metapopulation. Reciprocal transplant experiments further demonstrated that pathogen population of origin and overwintering site jointly shaped infection intensity in spring, with a weak signal of parasite adaptation to the local off-season environment. We conclude that environmentally mediated changes in the distribution and evolution of parasites during the off-season are crucial for our understanding of host–parasite dynamics, with applied implications for combating parasites and diseases in agriculture, wildlife and human disease systems. PMID:24372358

  16. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations, rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  17. Impact of plant species evenness, dominant species identity and spatial arrangement on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities in a model grassland.

    PubMed

    Massaccesi, L; Bardgett, R D; Agnelli, A; Ostle, N; Wilby, A; Orwin, K H

    2015-03-01

    Plant communities, through species richness and composition, strongly influence soil microorganisms and the ecosystem processes they drive. To test the effects of other plant community attributes, such as the identity of dominant plant species, evenness, and spatial arrangement, we set up a model mesocosm experiment that manipulated these three attributes in a full factorial design, using three grassland plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Plantago lanceolata, and Lotus corniculatus). The impact of the three community attributes on the soil microbial community structure and functioning was evaluated after two growing seasons by ester-linked phospholipid fatty-acids analysis, substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, and nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates. Our results suggested that the dominant species identity had the most prevalent influence of the three community attributes, with significant effects on most of the measured aspects of microbial biomass, composition and functioning. Evenness had no effects on microbial community structure, but independently influenced basal respiration. Its effects on nitrogen cycling depended on the identity of the dominant plant species, indicating that interactions among species and their effects on functioning can vary with their relative abundance. Systems with an aggregated spatial arrangement had a different microbial community composition and a higher microbial biomass compared to those with a random spatial arrangement, but rarely differed in their functioning. Overall, it appears that dominant species identity was the main driver of soil microorganisms and functioning in these model grassla