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  1. Effect of CYP3A4*22, POR*28, and PPARA rs4253728 on sirolimus in vitro metabolism and trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Kamar, Nassim; Coste, Sandra; Rostaing, Lionel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have identified new candidate polymorphisms in the genes related to CYP3A activity or calcineurin inhibitor dose requirements in kidney transplant recipients. These genes and polymorphisms are CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4) (rs35599367-C>T; *22); POR [P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase] (rs1057868-C>T; *28); and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) (rs4253728-G>A). We investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on sirolimus (SRL) in vitro hepatic metabolism, SRL trough concentrations (C0), and SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients. The clinical study included 113 stable kidney transplant patients switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to SRL (SRL C0 measured at 1, 3, and 6 months thereafter). We investigated SRL metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes derived from individual donors (n = 31). Microsomes and patients were genotyped by use of Taqman® allelic discrimination assays. The effects of polymorphisms and covariates were studied using multilinear regression imbedded in linear mixed-effect models or logistic regressions. In vitro, the CYP3A4*22 allele resulted in approximately 20% lower metabolic rates of SRL (P = 0.0411). No significant association was found between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, or PPARA genotypes and SRL dose, C0, or C0/dose in kidney transplant patients. POR*28 was associated with a minor but significant decrease in SRL log-transformed C0 [CT/TT vs CC, β = -0.15 (0.05); P = 0.0197] but this did not have any impact on the dose administered, which limited the relevance of the finding. After adjustment for nongenetic covariates and correction for false discovery finding, none of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested showed significant association with SRL adverse events. These recently described polymorphisms do not seem to substantially influence the pharmacokinetics of SRL or the occurrence of SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients.

  2. Sirolimus-induced lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Motse, Kagiso G; Mashabane, Mduduzi J

    2016-08-02

    Sirolimus is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), used as an immunosuppressant for solid-organ transplant recipients and patients with autoimmune disorders. We report a case of lymphoedema, a rare complication of sirolimus, and discuss the mechanism of drug action, the adverse effects and the challenges of treating a kidney transplant recipient with this complication in a resource-limited environment. Lymphoedema is a rare complication of sirolimus, and the mechanisms are not completely understood; however, early recognition can prevent permanent disfiguration. This case highlights the need for early recognition of adverse drug effects and further research into their pathophysiology and management.

  3. Sirolimus-associated proteinuria and renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Gopala K

    2006-01-01

    Sirolimus is a novel immunosuppressant with potent antiproliferative actions through its ability to inhibit the raptor-containing mammalian target of rapamycin protein kinase. Sirolimus represents a major therapeutic advance in the prevention of acute renal allograft rejection and chronic allograft nephropathy. Its role in the therapy of glomerulonephritis, autoimmunity, cystic renal diseases and renal cancer is under investigation. Because sirolimus does not share the vasomotor renal adverse effects exhibited by calcineurin inhibitors, it has been designated a 'non-nephrotoxic drug'. However, clinical reports suggest that, under some circumstances, sirolimus is associated with proteinuria and acute renal dysfunction. A common risk factor appears to be presence of pre-existing chronic renal damage. The mechanisms of sirolimus-associated proteinuria are multifactorial and may be due to an increase in glomerular capillary pressure following calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal. It has also been suggested that sirolimus directly causes increased glomerular permeability/injury, but evidence for this mechanism is currently inconclusive. The acute renal dysfunction associated with sirolimus (such as in delayed graft function) may be due to suppression of compensatory renal cell proliferation and survival/repair processes. Although these adverse effects occur in some patients, their occurrence could be minimised by knowledge of the molecular effects of sirolimus on the kidney, the use of sirolimus in appropriate patient populations, close monitoring of proteinuria and renal function, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers if proteinuria occurs and withdrawal if needed. Further long-term analysis of renal allograft studies using sirolimus as de novo immunosuppression along with clinical and laboratory studies will refine these issues in the future.

  4. Economic evaluation of sirolimus-eluting stents

    PubMed Central

    Shrive, Fiona M.; Manns, Braden J.; Galbraith, P. Diane; Knudtson, Merril L.; Ghali, William A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Sirolimus-eluting stents have recently been shown to reduce the risk of restenosis among patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Given that sirolimus-eluting stents cost about 4 times as much as conventional stents, and considering the volume of PCI procedures, the decision to use sirolimus-eluting stents has large economic implications. Methods We performed an economic evaluation comparing treatment with sirolimus-eluting and conventional stents in patients undergoing PCI and in subgroups based on age and diabetes mellitus status. The probabilities of transition between clinical states and estimates of resource use and health-related quality of life were derived from the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease (APPROACH) database. Information on effectiveness was based on a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing sirolimus-eluting and conventional stents. Results Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained in the baseline analysis was Can$58 721. Sirolimus-eluting stents were more cost-effective in patients with diabetes and in those over 75 years of age, the costs per QALY gained being $44 135 and $40 129, respectively. The results were sensitive to plausible variations in the cost of stents, the estimate of the effectiveness of sirolimus-eluting stents and the assumption that sirolimus-eluting stents would prevent the need for cardiac catheterizations in the subsequent year when no revascularization procedure was performed to treat restenosis. Interpretation The use of sirolimus-eluting stents is associated with a cost per QALY that is similar to or higher than that of other accepted medical forms of therapy and is associated with a significant incremental cost. Sirolimus-eluting stents are more economically attractive for patients who are at higher risk of restenosis or at a high risk of death if a second revascularization procedure were to be required

  5. Sirolimus encapsulated liposomes for cancer therapy: physicochemical and mechanical characterization of sirolimus distribution within liposome bilayers.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, Ichioma; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Sygellou, Lamprini; Owusu-Ware, Samuel K; Antonijevic, Milan; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Douroumis, Dennis

    2013-11-04

    Sirolimus has recently been introduced as a therapeutic agent for breast and prostate cancer. In the current study, conventional and Stealth liposomes were used as carriers for the encapsulation of sirolimus. The physicochemical characteristics of the sirolimus liposome nanoparticles were investigated including the particle size, zeta potential, stability and membrane integrity. In addition atomic force microscopy was used to study the morphology, surface roughness and mechanical properties such as elastic modulus deformation and deformation. Sirolimus encapsulation in Stealth liposomes showed a high degree of deformation and lower packing density especially for dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Stealth liposomes compared to unloaded. Similar results were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies; sirolimus loaded liposomes were found to result in a distorted state of the bilayer. X-ray photon electron (XPS) analysis revealed a uniform distribution of sirolimus in multilamellar DPPC Stealth liposomes compared to a nonuniform, greater outer layer lamellar distribution in distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) Stealth liposomes.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Sirolimus in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Francis X.; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Moss, Joel; Singer, Lianne G.; Strange, Charlie; Nakata, Koh; Barker, Alan F.; Chapman, Jeffrey T.; Brantly, Mark L.; Stocks, James M.; Brown, Kevin K.; Lynch, Joseph P.; Goldberg, Hilary J.; Young, Lisa R.; Kinder, Brent W.; Downey, Gregory P.; Sullivan, Eugene J.; Colby, Thomas V.; McKay, Roy T.; Cohen, Marsha M.; Korbee, Leslie; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Lee, Hye-Seung; Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive, cystic lung disease in women; it is associated with inappropriate activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which regulates cellular growth and lymphangiogenesis. Sirolimus (also called rapamycin) inhibits mTOR and has shown promise in phase 1–2 trials involving patients with LAM. METHODS We conducted a two-stage trial of sirolimus involving 89 patients with LAM who had moderate lung impairment — a 12-month randomized, double-blind comparison of sirolimus with placebo, followed by a 12-month observation period. The primary end point was the difference between the groups in the rate of change (slope) in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). RESULTS During the treatment period, the FEV1 slope was −12±2 ml per month in the placebo group (43 patients) and 1±2 ml per month in the sirolimus group (46 patients) (P<0.001). The absolute between-group difference in the mean change in FEV1 during the treatment period was 153 ml, or approximately 11% of the mean FEV1 at enrollment. As compared with the placebo group, the sirolimus group had improvement from baseline to 12 months in measures of forced vital capacity, functional residual capacity, serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D), and quality of life and functional performance. There was no significant between-group difference in this interval in the change in 6-minute walk distance or diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. After discontinuation of sirolimus, the decline in lung function resumed in the sirolimus group and paralleled that in the placebo group. Adverse events were more common with sirolimus, but the frequency of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with LAM, sirolimus stabilized lung function, reduced serum VEGF-D levels, and was associated with a reduction in symptoms and improvement in quality of life. Therapy with sirolimus may

  7. Sirolimus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 60 milliliters [1/4 cup]) of water or orange juice. Do not use apple juice, grapefruit juice, ... 120 milliliters [1/2 cup]) of water or orange juice. Stir vigorously and drink the rinse solution. ...

  8. Palmoplantar Peeling Secondary to Sirolimus Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L. S.; McNiff, J. M.; Colegio, O. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. PMID:24224736

  9. Palmoplantar peeling secondary to sirolimus therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, L S; McNiff, J M; Colegio, O R

    2014-01-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Sirolimus use and cancer incidence among US kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Yanik, E L; Gustafson, S K; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Hess, G P; Engels, E A; Segev, D L

    2015-01-01

    Sirolimus has anti-carcinogenic properties and can be included in maintenance immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. We investigated sirolimus effects on cancer incidence among kidney recipients. The US transplant registry was linked with 15 population-based cancer registries and national pharmacy claims. Recipients contributed sirolimus-exposed time when sirolimus claims were filled, and unexposed time when other immunosuppressant claims were filled without sirolimus. Cox regression was used to estimate associations with overall and specific cancer incidence, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers (not captured in cancer registries). We included 32,604 kidney transplants (5687 sirolimus-exposed). Overall, cancer incidence was suggestively lower during sirolimus use (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-1.11). Prostate cancer incidence was higher during sirolimus use (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-3.02). Incidence of other cancers was similar or lower with sirolimus use, with a 26% decrease overall (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, excluding prostate cancer). Results were similar after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. This modest association does not provide strong evidence that sirolimus prevents posttransplant cancer, but it may be advantageous among kidney recipients with high cancer risk. Increased prostate cancer diagnoses may result from sirolimus effects on screen detection.

  11. Topical rapamycin (sirolimus) for facial angiofibromas.

    PubMed

    Madke, Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a fungal fermentation product that inhibits the proper functioning of a serine/threonine protein kinase in mammalian cells eponymously named mammalian target of rapamycin, or mTOR. Rapamycin is a novel class of anticancer and immunosuppressant drugs targeting the proteins at molecular level. Rapamycin (sirolimus) is routinely incorporated in drug-eluting stents used for cardiac angioplasty. In recent years, rapamycin was found to be efficacious in managing the symptom complex of tuberous sclerosis, i.e. renal angiomyolipoma, giant cell astrocytoma and pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. Various investigators have also proved that topically applied rapamycin causes regression of facial angiofibromas, giving better cosmetic results.

  12. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  13. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  14. Sirolimus: its discovery, biological properties, and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, S N

    2003-05-01

    Sirolimus is the USAN-assigned generic name for the natural product rapamycin. Sirolimus is produced by a strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus, isolated from a soil sample collected from Rapa Nui commonly known as Easter Island. Although sirolimus was isolated as an antifungal agent with potent anticandida activity, subsequent studies revealed impressive antitumor and immunosuppressive activities. Sirolimus demonstrates activity against several murine tumors, such as B16 43 melanocarcinoma, Colon 26 tumor, EM ependymoblastoma, and mammary and colon 38 solid tumors. Sirolimus is a potent inhibitor of antigen-induced proliferation of T cells, B cells, and antibody production. Demonstration of the potent immunosuppressive activity of sirolimus in animal models of organ transplantation led to clinical trials and subsequent approval by regulatory authorities for prophylaxis of renal graft rejection. Interest in sirolimus as an immunosuppressive therapy in organ transplantation derives from its unique mechanism of action, its unique side-effect profile, and its ability to synergize with other immunosuppressive agents. The molecular mechanism underlying the antifungal, antiproliferative, and immunosuppressive activities of sirolimus is the same. Sirolimus forms an immunosuppressive complex with intracellular protein, FKBP12. This complex blocks the activation of the cell-cycle-specific kinase, TOR. The downstream events that follow the inactivation of TOR result in the blockage of cell-cycle progression at the juncture of G1 and S phase.

  15. Gonadal dysfunction and infertility in kidney transplant patients receiving sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Boobes, Yousef; Bernieh, Bassam; Saadi, Hussein; Raafat Al Hakim, M; Abouchacra, Samra

    2010-06-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosupressor of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) group. Recent studies have emphasized a potential impact of sirolimus on male gonadal function. We report our clinical experience with sirolimus-induced gonadal dysfunction and infertility in both male and female kidney transplant patients. Of the 170 kidney transplant patients, nine (5.3%) patients (six males and three females) were receiving sirolimus. Follow-up data for two male patients were not available. The one unmarried female patient developed amenorrhea post-transplantation and had resumption of her menstrual cycles after discontinuation of sirolimus. The remaining six married patients (four males and two females), who all had fathered or conceived children in the pre-transplantation period, developed gonadal dysfunction and infertility on average 5-12 months after transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in all four male patients with full recovery of the oligo/azospermia and restoration of fertility. Both married female patients developed amenorrhea post-transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in one female patient with resumption of her menstrual cycles. In this small population of patients treated with sirolimus, the prevalence rate of reversible gonadal dysfunction and infertility was significant in both males and females. Infertility secondary to sirolimus is under-diagnosed and should be studied further.

  16. Sirolimus-eluting coronary stents: a review

    PubMed Central

    Abizaid, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    The sirolimus-eluting coronary stent received CE Mark approval in Europe in April 2002. In the US, FDA approval followed in April 2003. Since the preliminary results from the First-in-Man feasibility study were presented, several randomized, controlled trials have documented the profound antiproliferative effects of sirolimus, a macrolide antibiotic and potent cytostatic inhibitor of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Subsequently, the body of clinical evidence was increased by the second wave of evidence from trials in more complex lesions (such as in-stent restenosis, small vessels, chronic total occlusions) and “high-risk” patients such as those with diabetes. More recently we have had the opportunity to compare the two commercially available drug-eluting stents following the presentation of data from six head-to-head trials. As a result of numerous single and multi-center, national and international studies in which the safety and efficacy of sirolimus-eluting coronary stents have been subjected to close scrutiny, the global interventional cardiology community now has a wealth of evidence in support of the use of this technology resulting in dramatically improved patient outcomes after percutaneous intervention. PMID:17580729

  17. Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome: Promising Response To Sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Canan; Susam-Sen, Hilal; Aydin, Burca

    2017-01-15

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is a rare disease involving venous malformations. We present a 6-year-old female with the syndrome, and consumptive coagulopathy. After management with sirolimus, symptoms resolved. Sirolimus may be a valuable option for reducing bleeding complications and cosmetic sequelae for the patients with this syndrome.

  18. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  19. Nonlinear Population Pharmacokinetics of Sirolimus in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, K; Cohen, E E W; House, L K; Ramírez, J; Zhang, W; Ratain, M J; Bies, R R

    2012-01-01

    Sirolimus, the prototypical inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, has substantial antitumor activity. In this study, sirolimus showed nonlinear pharmacokinetic characteristics over a wide dose range (from 1 to 60 mg/week). The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model to describe the nonlinearity of sirolimus. Whole blood concentration data, obtained from four phase I clinical trials, were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) approach. The influence of potential covariates was evaluated. Model robustness was assessed using nonparametric bootstrap and visual predictive check approaches. The data were well described by a two-compartment model incorporating a saturable Michaelis–Menten kinetic absorption process. A covariate analysis identified hematocrit as influencing the oral clearance of sirolimus. The visual predictive check indicated that the final pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted observed concentrations. The pharmacokinetics of sirolimus, based on whole blood concentrations, appears to be nonlinear due to saturable absorption. PMID:23887441

  20. Controlled release of sirolimus from a multilayered PLGA stent matrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xintong; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Boey, Freddy Y C; Loo, Joachim S C; Tan, Lay Poh

    2006-11-01

    The release of sirolimus from a bi-layer biodegradable polymeric film is reported in this study. Approved drug-eluting metal stents use a thin polymer coating to control drug release, but the degree of control is limited. In a fully polymeric stent, the use of multilayers allows a range of release kinetics. A bi-layer system, with PLLA as the supporting layer and PLGA as the drug-eluting layer, was used in this study to simulate release of sirolimus from a stent. The results show that the release of sirolimus is diffusion and degradation-controlled, and that the amount of sirolimus loading does not affect its release kinetics. The release of sirolimus is, however, accelerated by the addition of a plasticizer, such as PEG, as water uptake is increased. An increased water uptake increases polymer degradation, and changes the dominant mode of release to degradation-control. The release of sirolimus can, on the other hand, be retarded by using a coating of a biodegradable polyester with a lauryl ester end group. Therefore, multilayered systems offer many options for controlling sirolimus release over months.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of injectable sirolimus formulated with polymeric nanoparticle for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ha Na; Chung, Hye Kyung; Ju, Eun Jin; Jung, Joohee; Kang, Hye-Won; Lee, Sa-Won; Seo, Min-Hyo; Lee, Jin Seong; Lee, Jung Shin; Park, Heon Joo; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles are useful delivery vehicles for promising drug candidates that face obstacles for clinical applicability. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin has gained attention for targeted anticancer therapy, but its clinical application has been limited by its poor solubility. This study was designed to enhance the feasibility of sirolimus for human cancer treatment. Polymeric nanoparticle (PNP)-sirolimus was developed as an injectable formulation and has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that PNP-sirolimus has prolonged circulation in the blood. In addition, PNP-sirolimus preserved the in vitro killing effect of free sirolimus against cancer cells, and intravenous administration displayed its potent in vivo anticancer efficacy in xenograft tumor mice. In addition, PNP-sirolimus enhanced the radiotherapeutic efficacy of sirolimus both in vitro and in vivo. Clinical application of PNP-sirolimus is a promising strategy for human cancer treatment.

  2. [Pulmonary toxicity associated with sirolimus therapy in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Pérez, Miguel; Olmedo Martín, Raúl; Marín García, David; Lozano Rey, Juan Miguel; de la Cruz Lombardo, Jesús; Rodrigo López, Juan Miguel

    2006-12-01

    Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressive drug that began to be used in the last few years. This drug was initially used in renal transplantation but its use in other solid organ transplantations such as liver, heart, lung and pancreas, has been increasing. Sirolimus is indicated in rescue therapies and to reduce the secondary toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors. However, this drug has been associated with infrequent but severe pulmonary toxicity and cases of interstitial pneumonitis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, and alveolar proteinosis have been described. We present the case of a male liver transplant recipient who developed interstitial pneumonitis associated with sirolimus use.

  3. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  4. Airway response to sirolimus therapy for the treatment of complex pediatric lymphatic malformations.

    PubMed

    Alemi, A Sean; Rosbe, Kristina W; Chan, Dylan K; Meyer, Anna K

    2015-12-01

    Head and neck lymphatic malformations can create airway management challenges requiring tracheotomy. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), may inhibit growth of lymphatic malformations. We describe two patients born with large lymphatic malformations with improved airway symptoms following sirolimus therapy. Patient #1 underwent tracheotomy and multi-modal therapy including sirolimus with reduction in airway involvement but regrowth after discontinuation of sirolimus. Patient #2 also experienced a significant response to sirolimus allowing for extubation and discharge without tracheotomy. Early initiation of sirolimus therapy should be considered as a means to avoid tracheotomy in complex head and neck lymphatic malformations.

  5. 21 CFR 862.3840 - Sirolimus test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862... Document: Sirolimus Test Systems.” See § 862.1(d) for the availability of this guidance document....

  6. Sirolimus-loaded polymeric micelles with honokiol for oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinru; Hou, Xucheng; Ding, Weiming; Cong, Shuangchen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Mengmeng; Meng, Yansha; Lei, Jiongxi; Liu, Yan; Li, Guiling

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to design polymeric micelles loading sirolimus with honokiol to increase drug solubility and to gain an insight into the effect of honokiol on oral transport of P-glycoprotein substrate (P-gp). Particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, drug-loading content and in-vitro release of sirolimus-loaded micelles with honokiol were determined. Transport of sirolimus-loaded micelles across Caco-2 cell monolayers and jejunum segment of rats were investigated. In-vitro cytotoxicity experiments and the cellular uptake study were carried out via sulforhodamine B assay and flow cytometry, respectively. A coadministration of honokiol with sirolimus in micelles did not significantly modify the particle size, polydispersity index and release of drugs demonstrating successful loading within the micelles. The apparent transport coefficients (Papp ) and effective permeability (Peff ) of sirolimus were increased with more amount of honokiol loaded in micelles. Cellular uptake study demonstrated that rhodamine123 uptake rate was enhanced by honokiol-loaded micelles, indicating substantial P-gp inhibition action by honokiol and mPEG-PLA-based micelles. Oral transport of sirolimus was significantly improved by coadministration with honokiol, an inhibitor of the P-gp, in polymeric micelles formulation. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of sirolimus (rapamycin) in subjects with severe hepatic impairment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, James J; Patat, Alain; Parks, Virginia; Moirand, Romain; Matschke, Kyle

    2008-03-01

    Nine subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh grade C) and 9 healthy matched control subjects were given a single 15-mg dose of sirolimus by oral solution. Increases (P < or = .002) in mean whole-blood sirolimus t(1/2) (168%), AUC(0-infinity) (210%), and MRT(oral) (261%), together with a decrease (P = .001) in CL/F (-67%), were observed in subjects with severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy matched controls. Sirolimus pharmacokinetic data in Child-Pugh grade A (n = 13, mild) and B (n = 5, moderate) subjects from a previous identically designed study were available for an inter-study comparison. Overall, mean t(1/2), weight-normalized AUC, and MRT(oral) increased steadily, whereas mean CL/F decreased steadily, with increasing degrees of hepatic impairment. CL/F showed large intersubject variabilities within subject types and extensive overlap among the subject types. The results of this study suggest that an initial sirolimus dose reduction of approximately 60% is appropriate in patients with acute severe hepatic impairment; this should be followed by further dose adjustment, based on therapeutic drug monitoring, until the trough concentrations have stabilized at sirolimus levels existing prior to the onset of acute liver failure.

  8. Enhanced bioavailability of sirolimus via preparation of solid dispersion nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Won Kyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble sirolimus via preparation of a solid dispersion of nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process. Methods First, excipients for enhancing the stability and solubility of sirolimus were screened. Second, using the SAS process, solid dispersions of sirolimus-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30 nanoparticles were prepared with or without surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), tocopheryl propylene glycol succinate, Sucroester 15, Gelucire 50/13, and Myrj 52. A mean particle size of approximately 250 nm was obtained for PVP K30-sirolimus nanoparticles. Solid state characterization, kinetic solubility, powder dissolution, stability, and pharmacokinetics were analyzed in rats. Results X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated that sirolimus existed in an anhydrous amorphous form within a solid dispersion of nanoparticles and that no degradation occurred after SAS processing. The improved supersaturation and dissolution of sirolimus as a solid dispersion of nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced bioavailability of oral sirolimus in rats. With oral administration of a solid dispersion of PVP K30-SLS-sirolimus nanoparticles, the peak concentration and AUC0→12h of sirolimus were increased by approximately 18.3-fold and 15.2-fold, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that preparation of PVP K30-sirolimus-surfactant nanoparticles using the SAS process may be a promising approach for improving the bioavailability of sirolimus. PMID:22162657

  9. Sirolimus-Induced Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Balcan, Baran; Simsek, Ergun; Ugurlu, Aylin O; Demiralay, Ebru; Sahin, Sevgi

    Sirolimus is a mammalian target of the rapamycin, a protein kinase, which is responsible for inhibition of T cell and B cell proliferation. Sirolimus has side effects on lugs, and may cause cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, lymphocytic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, radiological, histological, and pathological investigation. We report a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a 33-year-old, female renal transplant recipient. After discontinuation of sirolimus, radiological images and clinical condition of the patient got better. We also planned steroid therapy for 6 months by tapering the dosage slowly. After steroid therapy, full recovery of pulmonary functions achieved, and the patient is observed in our outpatient clinic with lack of any pulmonary symptoms.

  10. Nanomedicines in renal transplant rejection – focus on sirolimus

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Jiuan; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin

    2007-01-01

    Nanomedicine, known as the application of nanotechnology in medicine, has been applied to overcome the problems of poor bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo stability, and targeted delivery in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. Sirolimus, a water-insoluble immunosuppressant, has been formulated into an oral solid dosage form by using NanoCrystal® technology to increase the water solubility and thereby the bioavailability. The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties are not significantly different between liquid and solid formulations except that less fluctuation of sirolimus blood concentration was observed in solid dosage form. The tablet formulation offers the advantages of better palatability and more convenience for long-term use. Sirolimus tablets are not only a successful example of nanomedicine, but also a more cost-effective treatment in renal transplantation than cyclosporine and tacrolimus. PMID:17722509

  11. [Nephrotoxicity of sirolimus: experimental and clinical data].

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Thervet, Eric; Legendre, Christophe; Anglicheau, Dany

    2006-09-01

    Sirolimus (SRL, rapamycin) is a potent immunosuppressive drug that binds to and inhibits mammalian Target Of Rapamycine (mTOR) kinase activity, a central controller of cell growth. In response to amino acids, hormones and growth factors, mTOR activates the translational machinery. By inhibiting mTOR, SRL reduces the translational process and T-cell proliferation in the mid-to-late G1 phase of the cell cycle. The antiproliferative effects of SRL are not limited to activated T cells. SRL has also been shown to block the cell cycle in various cell types such as epithelial renal cells, and many types of tumor cell lines. Since the approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and by the European agency, SRL has provoked great interest, as evidenced by the exponential increase in clinical studies. However, whereas preclinical studies failed to show any nephrotoxic effect on animal models, many clinical trials raised the possibility that SRL might be associated with renal adverse events. The evidence for SRL-associated early graft nephrotoxicity emerged from these results, and subsequent experimental data gave some explanations about the involved mechanisms. The aim of this review is to summarize the various renal adverse events reported in clinical studies and to present the experimental evidence for putative mechanisms of action for this SRL-induced nephrotoxicity.

  12. Safety of posaconazole and sirolimus coadministration in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, David W; Koo, Sophia; Hammond, Sarah P; Armand, Philippe; Baden, Lindsey R; Antin, Joseph H; Marty, Francisco M

    2012-09-01

    Sirolimus is used in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) for prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Posaconazole is used in this population for invasive fungal disease (IFD) prophylaxis and treatment. As posaconazole strongly inhibits CYP3A4, concurrent administration of sirolimus, a CYP3A4 substrate, and posaconazole has been reported to increase sirolimus drug exposure substantially. Coadministration of posaconazole and sirolimus is contraindicated by the manufacturer of posaconazole. We identified 15 patients who underwent HSCTs at our institution receiving a steady-state dose of sirolimus who subsequently started posaconazole therapy from January 2006 to March 2009. We recorded baseline characteristics, drug administration details, and potential adverse effects related to either drug. All patients underwent HSCTs for treatment of hematologic malignancy. All patients were initially prescribed sirolimus for GVHD prophylaxis and continued therapy after developing GVHD. Twelve patients (80%) received posaconazole for IFD prophylaxis in the setting of GVHD and 3 (20%) for IFD treatment. Patients received sirolimus and posaconazole concurrently for a median of 78 days (interquartile range [IQR] 25-177; range, 6-503). The median daily dose of sirolimus (2 mg/day) before initiation of posaconazole was reduced 50% to a median daily dose of 1 mg/day at steady state. Six patients experienced sirolimus trough levels greater than 12 ng/mL during coadministration, but only 1 patient experienced an adverse event potentially associated with sirolimus exposure during the first month of coadministration. This patient's sirolimus dose was empirically reduced by only 30% on posaconazole initiation. Concurrent sirolimus and posaconazole use seems to be well tolerated with a 33% to 50% empiric sirolimus dose reduction and close monitoring of serum sirolimus trough levels at the time of posaconazole initiation.

  13. Tolerability of sirolimus: a decade of experience at a single cardiac transplant center.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Patel, Parag C; Kaiser, Patricia A; Ayers, Colby R; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Ring, William Steves; Peltz, Matthias; Drazner, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Sirolimus is used in cardiac transplant recipients to prevent rejection, progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and renal dysfunction. However, sirolimus has many potential side effects and its tolerability when used outside of clinical trials is not well established. We describe a decade of experience with sirolimus in cardiac transplant recipients at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed records of all adult cardiac transplant recipients living between September 1999 and February 2010 (n = 329) and identified 67 patients (20%) who received sirolimus. The indications for sirolimus were cardiac allograft vasculopathy (67%), renal dysfunction (25%), rejection (4%), and intolerability of tacrolimus (3%). One-third of patients discontinued sirolimus at a median (25th, 75th percentiles) of 0.9 (0.2, 1.6) yr of duration. Over 70% of subjects experienced an adverse event attributed to sirolimus. Adverse events were associated with higher average sirolimus levels (9.1 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ng/mL, p = 0.004). We conclude that sirolimus is frequently used in cardiac transplant recipients (20%) and commonly causes side effects, often necessitating discontinuation. Higher average sirolimus levels were associated with adverse events, suggesting that tolerability may improve if levels are maintained within the lower end of the current therapeutic range; however, the improvement in tolerability would need to be balanced with the potential for decreased efficacy.

  14. Sirolimus Pharmacokinetics in Early Postmyeloablative Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Rakesh K.; Han, Kelong; Wall, Donna A.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Bunin, Nancy; Grupp, Stephan A.; Mada, Sripal R.; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in pediatric allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients in the presence and absence of concomitant fluconazole. Forty pediatric BMT recipients received a daily oral dose of sirolimus and a continuous i.v. infusion of tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Fluconazole was administered i.v. to 19 patients and orally to 6 patients. Full pharmacokinetic profiles of sirolimus within a single dosing interval were collected. Whole-blood sirolimus concentrations were measured by HPLC/mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin. Nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic models were developed using NONMEM following standard procedures. The mean ± SD sirolimus trough level before the dose (C0) was 8.0 ± 4.6 ng/mL (range, 1.8–21.6 ng/mL). The peak concentration was 19.9 ± 11.8 ng/mL (range, 3.9–46.1 ng/mL), and the trough level 24 hours later (C24) was 9.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL (range, 1.0–19.1 ng/mL). The terminal disposition half-life (T1/2) was 24.5 ± 11.2 hours (range, 5.8–53.2 hours), and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC0–24) was 401.1 ± 316.3 ng·h/mL (range, 20.7–1332.3 ng·h/mL). In patients at steady state, C0 and C24 were closely correlated (R2 = 0.77) with a slope of 0.99, indicating the achievement of steady state. C24 was 1.7-fold greater (P = .036) and AUC0–24 was 2-fold greater (P = .012) in Caucasian patients (n = 22) compared with Hispanic patients (n = 9). The average apparent oral clearance was 3-fold greater (P = .001) and the apparent oral volume of distribution was 2-fold greater (P = .018) in patients age ≤12 years compared with those age >12 years. C24 was significantly lower in patients (n = 10) who developed grade III–IV aGVHD (n = 10) than in those with grade 0-II aGVHD (n = 22) (6.1 ± 2.9 ng/mL versus 9.4 ± 5.5 ng/mL; P = .044). Dose-normalized sirolimus trough concentrations were significantly

  15. Sirolimus effects on cancer incidence after kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Siddiqui, Kulsoom; Engels, Eric A

    2015-09-01

    Sirolimus, an immunosuppressant option for kidney transplant recipients, may reduce cancer risk by interrupting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. However, studies of sirolimus and cancer incidence in kidney recipients have not been definitive, and have had limited ability to examine specific cancer types. The literature was systematically reviewed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of kidney recipients that compared sirolimus users to sirolimus nonusers. Meta-analytic methods were used to obtain pooled estimates of the association between sirolimus use and incidence of total cancer and specific cancer types. Estimates were stratified by study type (RCT vs. observational) and use of cyclosporine (an immunosuppressant that affects DNA repair). Twenty RCTs and two observational studies were eligible for meta-analysis, including 39,039 kidney recipients overall. Sirolimus use was associated with lower overall cancer incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90), driven by a reduction in incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, IRR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.76). The protective effect of sirolimus on NMSC risk was most notable in studies comparing sirolimus against cyclosporine (IRR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04-0.84). After excluding NMSCs, there was no overall association between sirolimus and incidence of other cancers (IRR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.69-1.63). However, sirolimus use had associations with lower kidney cancer incidence (IRR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.20-0.81), and higher prostate cancer incidence (IRR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.17-2.91). Among kidney recipients, sirolimus users have lower NMSC risk, which may be partly due to removal of cyclosporine. Sirolimus may also reduce kidney cancer risk but did not appear protective for other cancers, and it may actually increase prostate cancer risk. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Practical recommendations for the early use of m-TOR inhibitors (sirolimus) in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Campistol, Josep M; Cockwell, Paul; Diekmann, Fritz; Donati, Donato; Guirado, Luis; Herlenius, Gustaf; Mousa, Dujanah; Pratschke, Johann; San Millán, Juan Carlos Ruiz

    2009-07-01

    m-TOR inhibitors (e.g. sirolimus) are well-tolerated immunosuppressants used in renal transplantation for prophylaxis of organ rejection, and are associated with long-term graft survival. Early use of sirolimus is often advocated by clinicians, but this may be associated with a number of side-effects including impaired wound-healing, lymphoceles and delayed graft function. As transplant clinicians with experience in the use of sirolimus, we believe such side-effects can be limited by tailored clinical management. We present recommendations based on published literature and our clinical experience. Furthermore, guidance is provided on sirolimus use during surgery, both at transplantation and for subsequent operations.

  17. Sirolimus use and incidence of venous thromboembolism in cardiac transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Patel, Parag C; Kaiser, Patricia A; Ayers, Colby R; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Ring, W Steves; Peltz, Matthias; Drazner, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosuppressive agent increasingly used in cardiac transplant recipients in the setting of allograft vasculopathy or worsening renal function. Recently, sirolimus has been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in lung transplant recipients. To investigate whether this association is also present in cardiac transplant recipients, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 67 cardiac transplant recipients whose immunosuppressive regimen included sirolimus and 134 matched cardiac transplant recipients whose regimen did not include sirolimus. Rates of VTE were compared. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models tested the association of sirolimus use with VTE. A higher incidence of VTE was seen in patients treated with vs. without sirolimus (8/67 [12%] vs. 9/134 [7%], log-rank statistic: 4.66, p=0.03). Lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol levels were also associated with VTE (p<0.05). The association of sirolimus with VTE persisted when adjusting for BMI (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.96 [1.13, 7.75], p=0.03) but not when adjusting for total cholesterol (p=0.08). These data suggest that sirolimus is associated with an increased risk of VTE in cardiac transplant recipients, a risk possibly mediated through comorbid conditions. Larger, more conclusive studies are needed. Until such studies are completed, a heightened level of awareness for VTE in cardiac transplant recipients treated with sirolimus appears warranted.

  18. Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with sirolimus levels following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with tacrolimus/sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Shayani, Sepideh; Palmer, Joycelynne; Stiller, Tracey; Liu, Xueli; Thomas, Sandra H.; Khuu, Tam; Parker, Pablo M.; Khaled, Samer K.; Forman, Stephen J.; Nakamura, Ryotaro

    2013-01-01

    Post-transplant thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a multi-factorial complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) whose incidence is increased when using a sirolimus plus tacrolimus regimen for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) prophylaxis. We evaluated the incidence and possible risk factors for TMA in a case series of 177 patients who received allo-HCT using SIR/TAC-based GVHD prophylaxis. Donors were either sibling (n=82) or matched unrelated (n=95). Within the first 100 days post-HCT, 30 (17%) patients were diagnosed with TMA, and an additional nine patients (5%) were classified as probable TMA cases. The median time to TMA onset was 4.6 weeks (range: 1.6-10.6). Thirty-four patients developed both TMA and aGVHD, with the majority of patients (81%) developing aGVHD first. By multivariable analysis, the following factors were found to be associated with increased risk of TMA: day 14 serum sirolimus: ≥9.9 ng/ml (HR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.13-4.27, p=0.02), presence of prior aGVHD grades II-IV (HR: 3.04, 95% CI: 1.38-6.71, p<0.01), and fully myeloablative conditioning (HR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.60-7.53, p<0.01). The risk factors for TMA suggest that when using sirolimus/tacrolimus for GVHD prophylaxis, careful monitoring and adjustment of sirolimus dosages is critical, particularly in patients with active aGVHD. PMID:23078784

  19. Facial Angiofibromas of Tuberous Sclerosis Treated with Topical Sirolimus in an Indian Patient

    PubMed Central

    Vasani, Resham J

    2015-01-01

    Facial angiofibromas are the most visible and unsightly of all the cutaneous manifestations of tuberous sclerosis (TSC). A 17-year-old female, a known case of TSC, presented for the treatment of cosmetically disfiguring facial angiofibromas. She was started on twice daily application of 0.1% sirolimus ointment prepared from crushed tablets of sirolimus compounded in white soft paraffin. After 3 months of use, there was visible decrease in the erythema and the size of the angiofibromas. In an attempt to accelerate the response, the concentration was further increased to 1% sirolimus which was used for a month, resulting in a decrease not only in the size and redness but also in the number of the angiofibromas. The patient did not experience any cutaneous or systemic complications related to therapy. Sirolimus belongs to a novel class of anticancer drugs known as mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin) inhibitors. Sirolimus has been used as a targeted therapy for the renal and neurological manifestations of TSC. Topical preparation of sirolimus is not commercially available till date and hence preparations from crushed tablets or oral solution of sirolimus have been used with beneficial effects in treatment of angiofibromas especially in younger patients with flatter lesions. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to enable us to confirm the efficacy, long-term safety, the optimal dosage and possibility of reappearance once the drug is withdrawn. This is possibly the first case report of the use of topical sirolimus in India. PMID:25814705

  20. Sirolimus for the Treatment of a Massive Capillary-Lymphatico-Venous Malformation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vlahovic, Aleksandar M; Vlahovic, Natasa S; Haxhija, Emir Q

    2015-08-01

    Management of patients with complex vascular anomalies (VAs) is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality because of the lack of effective treatment modalities that may lead to significant improvement of the disease and/or healing. Recently, reports of treatment of patients with complex VAs with sirolimus revealed encouraging results. Sirolimus inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin, which acts as a master switch of numerous cellular processes. We report a successful use of sirolimus for the treatment of a patient with a complex CLVM of the trunk and the right lower extremity believed to be untreatable. Our patient had 44 hospitalizations during the 10-year period, with various unsuccessful treatments and continuous deterioration of his clinical condition, ending up in a wheelchair. His condition reversed to normal everyday activities 9 months after initiation of sirolimus therapy. We conclude that sirolimus is a very promising therapeutic option for children with complex VAs of capillary-lymphatico-venous type.

  1. Automated red blood cell exchange for acute drug removal in a patient with sirolimus toxicity.

    PubMed

    Galera, Pallavi; Martin, Hannah C; Welch, Linda; Sulmasy, Paula; Cerny, Jan; Greene, Mindy; Vauthrin, Michelle; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Weinstein, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosuppressant used to prevent graft versus host disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. It has a large volume of distribution (12 ± 7.5 l/kg) and within the intravascular space ∼95% of it is bound to red blood cells. Because of potential toxic effects at high trough levels, therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended for sirolimus. We present a case of severe hepatic dysfunction due to Hepatitis B and sirolimus toxicity, in a 51-year-old male stem cell transplant recipient. An automated red cell exchange decreased his blood sirolimus level from 22.6 to 10.3 ng/ml (55% reduction) and improved his liver enzymes. Re-equilibration of sirolimus from other compartments to the blood necessitated a series of four red cell exchanges, after which the sirolimus level was 4.7 ng/ml. Although the patient ultimately succumbed to multiorgan failure, red cell exchange may be considered for acute removal of sirolimus in selected patients.

  2. Rifampin-sirolimus-voriconazole interaction in a hematopoietic cell transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Wasko, Justin A; Westholder, James S; Jacobson, Pamala A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation are treated with multiple medications, potentially complicated by drug-drug interactions. Drug interactions with sirolimus, voriconazole, and rifampin are particularly difficult because of the complex and simultaneous enzyme inhibition and induction mechanisms. We report a hematopoietic cell transplantation patient receiving sirolimus and voriconazole who was given rifampin while being treated for presumed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. Summary A 31 year-old female received a nonmyeloablative allogeneic umbilical cord hematopoietic cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome transformed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Her graft versus host disease and antifungal prophylaxis included sirolimus and voriconazole, respectively. Therapeutic drug monitoring prior to admission revealed a stable outpatient sirolimus regimen of 0.4 mg orally daily (trough goal 3-12 mcg/L). She was admitted to the inpatient hematopoietic cell transplantation service and diagnosed with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and presumed bacterial meningitis 217 days after transplant. Intravenous rifampin and vancomycin were initiated and voriconazole was changed to micafungin. Sirolimus trough concentrations were undetectable two days after starting rifampin. Therapeutic sirolimus concentrations were achieved four days later, at a sirolimus dose of 16-18 mg orally daily. Rifampin was discontinued after nine days and the sirolimus dose was adjusted accordingly, maintaining therapeutic levels throughout follow-up. The patient suffered a flare of chronic skin graft versus host disease requiring etanercept, high-dose systemic steroids, and topical steroids. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the management of sirolimus during the transition from voriconazole inhibition to rifampin induction. Clinicians should be aware of potential drug

  3. Sirolimus therapy in a child with partially diazoxide-responsive hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Anjian, Andrew Sng; Yijuan, Yvonne Lim; Ho Wei Li, Cindy; Güemes, Maria; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH), which causes persistent neonatal hypoglycaemia, can result in neurological damage and it’s management is challenging. Diazoxide is the first-line treatment, albeit not all patients will fully respond to it, as episodes of hypoglycaemia may persist and it entails unpleasant adverse effects. Sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, has reportedly been successful in treating children with severe diffuse HH, thus obviating the need for pancreatectomy. We report a girl with HH, with a novel heterozygous ABCC8 gene missense mutation (c.4154A>T/ p.Lys1385Thr), who was initially responsive to diazoxide therapy. After 11 months of diazoxide treatment, she developed intermittent, unpredictable breakthrough episodes of hypoglycaemia, in addition to generalized hypertrichosis and weight gain from enforced feeding to avoid hypoglycaemia. Sirolimus, which was commenced at 15 months of age, gradually replaced diazoxide, with significant reduction and abolition of hypoglycaemia. The hypertrichosis resolved and there was less weight gain given the reduced need for enforced feeding. Sirolimus, which was administered over the next 15 months, was well tolerated with no significant side effects and was gradually weaned off. After stopping sirolimus, apart from hypoglycaemia developing during an episode of severe viral gastroenteritis, the capillary glucose concentrations were maintained >3.5 mmol/L, even after a 10 h fast. Sirolimus may have a role in the treatment of partially diazoxide-responsive forms of HH who experience breakthrough hypoglycaemia, but the long-term safety and efficacy of sirolimus are not established. Learning points: Conventional treatment of diffuse HH with diazoxide is not always effective in controlling hypoglycaemia and can be associated with unpleasant side effects. Sirolimus was successfully used to abolish recurrent hypoglycaemia in partially diazoxide-responsive HH, with resolution of unacceptable diazoxide

  4. Interstitial pneumonitis associated with sirolimus in liver transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M J; Martín, R O; García, D M; Rey, J M Lozano; de la Cruz Lombardo, J; Rodrigo López, J M

    2007-12-01

    Sirolimus is a powerful immunosuppressive drug initially used in kidney transplant patients but now increasingly employed in recipients of other types of solid organ transplants, such as liver, heart, lung, or pancreas. Sirolimus is indicated for rescue therapy and to reduce the toxic side effects of calcineurin inhibitors. However, its use has been associated with an uncommon but important pulmonary toxicity. Reports have described interstitial pneumonitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, organizing pneumonia, and alveolar proteinosis. We present the case of a liver transplant patient with interstitial pneumonitis associated with sirolimus.

  5. Sirolimus effects on cancer incidence after kidney transplantation: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Siddiqui, Kulsoom; Engels, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Sirolimus, an immunosuppressant option for kidney transplant recipients, may reduce cancer risk by interrupting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. However, studies of sirolimus and cancer incidence in kidney recipients have not been definitive, and have had limited ability to examine specific cancer types. The literature was systematically reviewed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of kidney recipients that compared sirolimus users to sirolimus nonusers. Meta-analytic methods were used to obtain pooled estimates of the association between sirolimus use and incidence of total cancer and specific cancer types. Estimates were stratified by study type (RCT vs. observational) and use of cyclosporine (an immunosuppressant that affects DNA repair). Twenty RCTs and two observational studies were eligible for meta-analysis, including 39,039 kidney recipients overall. Sirolimus use was associated with lower overall cancer incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56–0.90), driven by a reduction in incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, IRR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32–0.76). The protective effect of sirolimus on NMSC risk was most notable in studies comparing sirolimus against cyclosporine (IRR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04–0.84). After excluding NMSCs, there was no overall association between sirolimus and incidence of other cancers (IRR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.69–1.63). However, sirolimus use had associations with lower kidney cancer incidence (IRR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.20–0.81), and higher prostate cancer incidence (IRR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.17–2.91). Among kidney recipients, sirolimus users have lower NMSC risk, which may be partly due to removal of cyclosporine. Sirolimus may also reduce kidney cancer risk but did not appear protective for other cancers, and it may actually increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:26108799

  6. New therapeutic approach by sirolimus for enteropathy treatment in patients with LRBA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Azizi, G; Abolhassani, H; Yazdani, R; Mohammadikhajehdehi, S; Parvaneh, N; Negahdari, B; Mohammadi, J; Aghamohammadi, A

    2017-09-01

    Purpose. To report the successful use of sirolimus for management of enteropathy in four patients with LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency. Methods. Case series. Results. sirolimus therapy led to a complete improvement of symptoms including decrease in frequency and severity of diarrhea, as well as patients' weight gain. No signs of abdominal cramps and anorexia were also detected during the follow up period after treatment. Conclusions. sirolimus with its potential efficacy and immunomodulatory properties may be recommended for the treatment of severe enteropathy refractory to conventional therapy in patients with LRBA deficiency.

  7. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  8. Sirolimus on Gorham-Stout disease. Case report.

    PubMed Central

    García, Vanessa; Alonso-Claudio, Gloria; Gómez-Hernández, M-Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by vascular proliferation that produces destruction of bone matrix. Case description: This case is about 43 year old woman who begins with pain in sternum, dyspnea, abdominal mass and, serous-hematic pleural effusion. Imaging tests were performed showing lesions on 6th and 10th left ribs archs. Later, a thoracotomy was performed observed absence of the end of the 6th and lung, pleural and costal biopsy was token. The histologic features described lymphatic vascular proliferation in bone tissue of chest wall. Other pathologies were excluded and in view of the findings, GSD diagnosis was made. Treatment and outcome: treatment was initiated with sirolimus achieving remission of the disease after the first month; however, because the presence of metrorrhagia the treatment was discontinued, reappearing symptoms afterwards. For that reason the treatment was restarted getting disappearance of the symptoms again, 4 weeks later. Clinical relevance: we present the first clinical cases of EGS with pleural effusion with response to sirolimus treatment that could be an alternative to the current therapy. PMID:28348444

  9. Late stent thrombosis after implantation of a sirolimus-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Arthur; Gruberg, Luis; Kapeliovich, Michael; Grenadier, Ehud

    2003-12-01

    Late stent thrombosis in the era of routine high-pressure stent deployment and combined antiplatelet therapy with thienopyridines and aspirin has become a rare but feared complication. We describe a patient with acute myocardial infarction due to late stent thrombosis 6 weeks after deployment of a sirolimus-eluting stent and 2 weeks after the discontinuation of clopidogrel. This is the first report of late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent.

  10. Open-Label, Randomized Study of Transition From Tacrolimus to Sirolimus Immunosuppression in Renal Allograft Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco-Silva, Helio; Peddi, V. Ram; Sánchez-Fructuoso, Ana; Marder, Brad A.; Russ, Graeme R.; Diekmann, Fritz; Flynn, Alison; Hahn, Carolyn M.; Li, Huihua; Tortorici, Michael A.; Schulman, Seth L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Calcineurin inhibitor–associated nephrotoxicity and other adverse events have prompted efforts to minimize/eliminate calcineurin inhibitor use in kidney transplant recipients. Methods This open-label, randomized, multinational study evaluated the effect of planned transition from tacrolimus to sirolimus on kidney function in renal allograft recipients. Patients received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and then were randomized 3 to 5 months posttransplantation to transition to sirolimus or continue tacrolimus. The primary end point was percentage of patients with 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate from randomization to month 24. Results The on-therapy population included 195 patients (sirolimus, 86; tacrolimus, 109). No between-group difference was noted in percentage of patients with 5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater estimated glomerular filtration rate improvement (sirolimus, 34%; tacrolimus, 42%; P = 0.239) at month 24. Sirolimus patients had higher rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (8% vs 2%; P = 0.02), treatment discontinuation attributed to adverse events (21% vs 3%; P < 0.001), and lower rates of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (0% vs 5%; P = 0.012). Conclusions Our findings suggest that renal function improvement at 24 months is similar for patients with early conversion to sirolimus after kidney transplantation versus those remaining on tacrolimus. PMID:27500260

  11. Sirolimus in renal transplant recipients with tuberous sclerosis complex: clinical effectiveness and implications for innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Haidinger, Michael; Hecking, Manfred; Weichhart, Thomas; Poglitsch, Marko; Enkner, Wolfgang; Vonbank, Karin; Prayer, Daniela; Geusau, Alexandra; Oberbauer, Rainer; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Soleiman, Afschin; Hörl, Walter H; Säemann, Marcus D

    2010-08-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by constitutively activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) resulting in nonmalignant tumours of several organs and consequently renal failure. Recent reports suggest a possible beneficial role of the mTOR-inhibitor (mTOR-I) sirolimus for TSC; however, safety and efficiency of sirolimus in TSC patients after renal transplantation, both as primary immunosuppressant as well as anti-proliferative agent, are still undefined. Moreover, it is currently unknown whether the TSC mutation affects the primary immune response in these patients. In this article, we report on three TSC patients after renal transplantation who have been converted from a calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression to sirolimus. During 2 years of follow-up, renal allograft function was stable or even improved, and no significant sirolimus-associated side-effects were noted. Beneficial effects of sirolimus against TSC were detected in the skin, along with improved spirometric measurements and an arrest of astrocytoma progression. We show that the inflammatory immune response was significantly altered in TSC patients as compared with controls and sirolimus potently affected both inflammatory cytokine production and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in these patients. Larger studies are warranted to further examine the relationship between clinical parameters and the molecular response to mTOR-inhibition in TSC patients after renal transplantation.

  12. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose mediated precipitation inhibition of sirolimus: from a screening campaign to a proof-of-concept human study.

    PubMed

    Petruševska, Marija; Homar, Miha; Petek, Boštjan; Resman, Aleksander; Kocjan, Darko; Urleb, Uroš; Peternel, Luka

    2013-06-03

    The aim of this study was to develop a sirolimus (BCS class II drug substance) solid oral dosage form containing a precipitation inhibitor, which would result in an improved sirolimus absorption in humans compared to the formulation containing nanosized sirolimus without a precipitation inhibitor, i.e., Rapamune. The selection of the precipitation inhibitor was based on the results of a screening campaign that identified two "hit" excipients: HPMC 603 (i.e., Pharmacoat 603) and Poloxamer 407. However, in a confirmatory precipitation inhibitor study using biorelevant media (Fa/FeSSIF) HPMC 603 more effectively inhibited sirolimus precipitation than Poloxamer 407. In the PAMPA assay, HPMC 603, but not Poloxamer 407, significantly increased the flux of the sirolimus across the membrane lipid layer. Additionally, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an infrared (IR) spectroscopy study revealed that interactions between the sirolimus and HPMC 603 were developed that could lead to the observed precipitation inhibition effect. Based on the above data, two formulations with HPMC 603-coated sirolimus particles were developed, namely, formulation A (d (0.5) = 0.21 μm) and formulation B (d (0.5) = 1.7 μm). A human pharmacokinetic study outlined that significantly higher AUC and Cmax were obtained for formulations A and B in comparison to Rapamune. This result could be attributed to the HPMC 603 (Pharmacoat 603) mediated sirolimus precipitation inhibition resulting in improved sirolimus absorption from the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

  13. Sirolimus is associated with veno-occlusive disease of the liver after myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Corey; Stevenson, Kristen; Kim, Haesook T; Richardson, Paul; Ho, Vincent T; Linden, Erica; Revta, Carolyn; Ebert, Ruth; Warren, Diane; Choi, Sung; Koreth, John; Armand, Philippe; Alyea, Edwin; Carter, Shelly; Horowitz, Mary; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Sirolimus is an effective agent used in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after allogeneic transplantation. It also has antiproliferative effects on vascular endothelium when used to coat coronary artery stents. We noted an excess of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) in a clinical trial, and retrospectively reviewed the records of 488 patients to determine the association between sirolimus and VOD. When used with cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation (Cy/TBI) conditioning, sirolimus is associated with an increased incidence of VOD (OR 2.35, P = .005). The concomitant use of methotrexate further increased this rate (OR 3.23, P < .001), while sirolimus without methotrexate was not associated with an increased risk of VOD (OR 1.55, P = .33). Mortality after VOD diagnosis was unaffected, and overall treatment-related mortality was lowest when sirolimus was used without methotrexate. Similar findings were noted in matched, related, and unrelated as well as mismatched donor subgroups. When used with busulfan-based conditioning, sirolimus use was associated with an even higher rate of VOD (OR 8.8, P = .008). Our findings suggest that sirolimus use is associated with VOD after TBI-based transplantation when used with methotrexate after transplantation. Sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis without methotrexate is associated with the greatest overall survival. Myeloablative doses of busulfan should not be used with sirolimus-based immunosuppression.

  14. Enhanced supersaturation and oral absorption of sirolimus using an amorphous solid dispersion based on Eudragit® e.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngseok; Ha, Eun-Sol; Baek, In-Hwan; Kim, Min-Soo; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2015-05-25

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Eudragit® E/HCl (E-SD) on the degradation of sirolimus in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and to develop a new oral formulation of sirolimus using E-SD solid dispersions to enhance oral bioavailability. Sirolimus-loaded solid dispersions were fabricated by a spray drying process. A kinetic solubility test demonstrated that the sirolimus/E-SD/TPGS (1/8/1) solid dispersion had a maximum solubility of 196.7 μg/mL within 0.5 h that gradually decreased to 173.4 μg/mL after 12 h. According to the dissolution study, the most suitable formulation was the sirolimus/E-SD/TPGS (1/8/1) solid dispersion in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2), owing to enhanced stability and degree of supersaturation of E-SD and TPGS. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies in rats indicated that compared to the physical mixture and sirolimus/HPMC/TPGS (1/8/1) solid dispersion, the sirolimus/E-SD/TPGS (1/8/1) solid dispersion significantly improved oral absorption of sirolimus. E-SD significantly inhibited the degradation of sirolimus in a dose-dependent manner. E-SD also significantly inhibited the precipitation of sirolimus compared to hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC). Therefore, the results from the present study suggest that the sirolimus-loaded E-SD/TPGS solid dispersion has great potential in clinical applications.

  15. Effect of sirolimus on the regression of peritoneal sclerosis in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Ceri, Mevlut; Unverdi, Selman; Dogan, Mehmet; Unverdi, Hatice; Karaca, Gokhan; Kocak, Gulay; Kurultak, Ilhan; Akbal, Erdem; Can, Murat; Duranay, Murat

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents have recently become increasingly popular in the treatment of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of sirolimus on EPS in a rat model. We separated 32 non-uremic rats into four groups: 1 control group, 2 ml isotonic saline injected IP daily for 3 weeks; 2 chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) group, 2 ml 0,1 % CG and 15 % ethanol dissolved in saline injected IP daily for 3 weeks; 3 resting group, CG (weeks 0-3) plus peritoneal rest (weeks 3-6); 4 sirolimus group, CG (weeks 0-3), plus 0.2 ml (1 mg/ml) sirolimus (weeks 3-6). Pathological samples were examined by using hematoxylin eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome stains. Peritoneal thickness, fibrosis, vascular changes, and inflammation were evaluated by light microscopy. Finally, tissue metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay. In the CG group, there was a significant increase in peritoneal thickness, inflammatory activity, and fibrosis score compared to the control group (p < 0.05). We also observed a lower fibrosis score and less peritoneal thickening in the sirolimus group compared to the resting and CG groups (p < 0.05). There was no difference in histopathologic findings, except for the inflammatory activity in the sirolimus group, compared to the control group. Although the CG group had higher tissue MMP-2 levels than the control group, the tissue MMP-2 levels were not significantly different from the other groups. Sirolimus has a beneficial effect on peritoneal fibrosis induced by CG. This suggests that sirolimus may have therapeutic value in the management of EPS.

  16. Determination of sirolimus in rabbit arteries using liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Rodila, Ramona; Watson, Pamela; Ji, Qin; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2007-10-01

    Sirolimus, an effective immunosuppressive agent, is used for drug eluting stents. During stent development, an analytical method for the determination of sirolimus in tissue needs to be established. Normally, tissue samples are homogenized and then analyzed against the calibration standards prepared in a tissue homogenate. This approach provides insufficient control of the homogenization process. In this paper, tissue quality control samples were introduced for the optimization of the homogenization process during method development, but also allowance for the performance evaluation of the entire analytical process. In addition, a new approach using rabbit blood as a homogenization medium was developed to stabilize sirolimus in rabbit tissue homogenates. Calibration standards and quality controls were prepared by spiking different sirolimus working solutions into rabbit blood. Homogenization quality control samples were prepared by injecting other sirolimus working solutions into empty test tubes and pre-cut arteries within pre-defined masses. A high-throughput homogenization procedure was optimized based on the specific chemical properties of sirolimus. The linear dynamic range was between 49.9 pg/mL and 31.9 ng/mL to accommodate the expected artery homogenate concentrations. Additionally, quality controls in rabbit blood were also used in the extraction to support the calibration standards. The accuracy and precision of the quality controls in rabbit blood reflect the extraction performance and the accuracy and precision of the homogenization tissue quality controls reflect the overall performance of the method. The mean bias was between -4.5 and 0.2% for all levels of quality controls in the blood and between 4.8 and 14.9% for all levels of the homogenization tissue quality controls. The CVs of all concentration levels were < or =5.3% for the quality controls in blood and < or =9.2% for the homogenization tissue quality controls. The method was successfully

  17. Sirolimus as treatment for 19 patients with refractory cervicofacial lymphatic malformation.

    PubMed

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Rahbar, Reza; O'Hare, Meghan J; Irace, Alexandria L; Padua, Horacio; Trenor, Cameron C

    2017-08-07

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are challenging to manage, particularly those involving the cervicofacial region and airway. Traditional therapy is sclerotherapy and/or resection. We aim to establish the emerging therapeutic role of sirolimus. Institutional review board-approved retrospective review. All patients treated for cervicofacial LM with sirolimus at Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts, from November 2012 to October 2016 were included. Chart review included response to therapy (defined as reduction in LM bulk by clinical photographs and radiologic imaging), type of LM (microcystic, macrocystic, mixed), extent of disease, duration of therapy, patient/parent-reported quality-of-life, airway status (tracheostomy dependence), and complications (opportunistic infection, hemorrhage, other). Follow-up and clinical outcomes were included up until October 2016. Nineteen patients were treated with sirolimus for cervicofacial LM from November 2012 to October 2016 at Boston Children's Hospital. Seven patients remain on uninterrupted sirolimus. Of 12 patients who stopped therapy, seven have resumed due to recurrence of symptoms. All patients demonstrated reduction in LM bulk, ranging from modest to significant. All patients with mucosal vesicles (n = 14) resolved or improved on sirolimus. Six patients developed cellulitis, and four had bleeding within the LM during treatment. No patients developed opportunistic or systemic bacterial infection. The use of sirolimus in the management of cervicofacial LM often is efficacious, with limited adverse events. Long-term follow-up, durability of response, and coordination of sirolimus prior to procedural therapies need further study. 4. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Urine Metabolites Reflect Time-Dependent Effects of Cyclosporine and Sirolimus on Rat Kidney Function☆

    PubMed Central

    Klawitter, Jost; Bendrick-Peart, Jamie; Rudolph, Birgit; Beckey, Virginia; Klawitter, Jelena; Haschke, Manuel; Rivard, Christopher; Chan, Laurence; Leibfritz, Dieter; Christians, Uwe; Schmitz, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Background The clinical use of the immunosuppressant calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine is limited by its nephrotoxicity. This is enhanced when combined with the immunosuppressive mTOR inhibitor sirolimus. Nephrotoxicity of both drugs is not yet fully understood. Methods The goal was to gain more detailed mechanistic insights into the time-dependent effects of cyclosporine and sirolimus on the rat kidney by using a comprehensive approach including metabolic profiling in urine (1H-NMR spectroscopy), kidney histology, kidney function parameters in plasma, measurement of glomerular filtration rates, the oxidative stress marker 15-F2t-isoprostane in urine and immunosuppressant concentrations in blood and kidney. Male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (controls), cyclosporine (10/25mg/kg/d) and/or sirolimus (1mg/kg/d) by oral gavage once daily for 6 and 28 days. Results Twenty-eight day treatment led to a decrease of glomerular filtration rates (cyclosporine -59%, sirolimus -25%). These were further decreased when both drugs were combined (-86%). Histology revealed tubular damage after treatment with cyclosporine, which was enhanced when sirolimus was added. No other part of the kidney was affected. 1H-NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine (day 6) revealed time-dependent changes of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and succinate concentrations. In combination with increased urine isoprostane concentrations these changes indicated oxidative stress. After 28 days of cyclosporine treatment, urine metabonomics shifted to patterns typical for proximal tubular damage with reduction of Krebs cycle intermediates and trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations whereas acetate, lactate, trimethylamine and glucose concentrations increased. Again, sirolimus enhanced these negative effects. Conclusions Our results indicate that cyclosporine and/or sirolimus induce damage of the renal tubular system. This is reflected by urine metabolite patterns, which seem to be more sensitive than currently used

  19. Molecular activity of sirolimus and its possible application in tuberous sclerosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Jozwiak, Jaroslaw; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Oldak, Monika

    2006-03-01

    Sirolimus is one of the intensively investigated drugs with pluripotent activities. It binds to its intracellular receptor FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein 12), a member of the family of FK506-binding proteins, and inhibits the activity of mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase involved in numerous cell processes linked to cell growth control. The drug is currently registered for the prophylaxis of organ rejection and for use in coronary stents. However, unique characteristics of sirolimus make it a good candidate for anti-cancer therapy. Indeed, phase II and III clinical studies in humans with several types of neoplasms are already under way. The review describes molecular activity of sirolimus and its analogs, characteristic for specific applications, in view of very recent advances involving tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-mediated signaling pathways. Current studies with sirolimus performed in tuberous sclerosis animal models are presented. Possible application of sirolimus for treating tuberous sclerosis, disease caused by mutations of TSC proteins, is discussed.

  20. Safety and efficacy of a novel abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinzhou; Liu, Huizhu; Cui, Haipo; Tang, Zhirong; Song, Chengli; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2017-03-01

    Late stent thrombosis (LST) following drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is often associated with delayed vascular healing, resulting from vascular inflammation and hypersensitivity to durable polymers and drugs. Therefore, DES design, materials, and coatings have been technologically revolutionized. Herein, we designed a novel abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (AGF-BP-SES), with a sirolimus content of only about one-third of traditional DES. The mechanical performances of AGF-BP-SES during compression and expansion were investigated. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of sirolimus was studied in the swine model. The in vivo efficacy of AGF-BP-SES was compared with that of Xience PRIME(®) stent. The results showed that AGF-BP-SES exhibited mechanical properties similar to traditional DES, including the rebound ratio of radial contraction/direction, rebound ratio of axial contraction/direction, and inhomogeneity of compression/expansion. Despite utilizing a reduced dose of sirolimus, AGF-BP-SES delivered sirolimus to the coronary artery in a controlled and efficient manner. The stent maintained a safe and effective local drug concentration without local or systemic risks. In the swine model, histopathological indicators predicted safety and biocompatibility of AGF-BP-SES. In conclusion, AGF-BP-SES maintained similar mechanical properties as other stents while reducing the drug-loading capacity, and showed a favorable safety and efficacy profile of the targeted DES.

  1. Sirolimus Therapy Is Associated with Elevation in Circulating PCSK9 Levels in Cardiac Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Simha, Vinaya; Qin, Sisi; Shah, Pankaj; Smith, Byron H; Kremers, Walter K; Kushwaha, Sudhir; Wang, Liewei; Pereira, Naveen L

    2017-02-01

    Sirolimus used in transplantation is often associated with hypercholesterolemia. We measured serum lipid and PCSK9 levels in 51 heart transplant recipients who had their immunosuppressive therapy switched from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus. The switch resulted in a 23% increase in LDL cholesterol, and 46% increase in triglycerides and PCSK9 levels increased from 316 ± 105 ng/mL to 343 ± 107 ng/mL (p = 0.04), however the change in PCSK9 levels did not correlate with an increase in lipid levels (p = 0.2). To investigate the mechanism for the variability in the change in PCSK9 levels, lymphoblastoid cell lines were incubated with both sirolimus and everolimus, resulting in a 2-3 fold increase in PCSK9 expression and protein levels in mTOR inhibitor sensitive but not in mTOR inhibitor resistant cell lines. This first in human study demonstrates that sirolimus therapy is associated with elevation in PCSK9 levels which is not associated with sirolimus-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  2. Proteinuria and sirolimus after renal transplantation: a retrospective analysis from a large German multicenter database.

    PubMed

    Naik, Marcel G; Heller, Katharina M; Arns, Wolfgang; Budde, Klemens; Diekmann, Fritz; Eitner, Frank; Fischereder, Michael; Goßmann, Jan; Heyne, Nils; Morath, Christian; Riester, Udo; Gwinner, Wilfried; Jürgensen, Jan Steffen

    2014-01-01

    The German Sirolimus Study Group has established a database among 10 transplant centers throughout Germany to study the outcomes in 726 renal transplant patients being converted to a sirolimus-containing therapy between 2000 and 2008 with a total of more than 1500 recorded patient years on therapy. In this study, we present a detailed description of the cohort, of characteristic changes over the observation period, proteinuria and graft survival, and new-onset proteinuria after conversion. Over the study period, age, graft function at the time of conversion, and the proportion of patients switched to sirolimus because of malignancy increased, whereas the proportion of patients with significant proteinuria at conversion decreased. Already modest proteinuria (151-268 mg/L) at conversion and new-onset proteinuria (>500 mg/L) after conversion were associated with inferior graft survival. Even mild proteinuria (>71 mg/L) at conversion was associated with new-onset proteinuria (>500 mg/L) post-conversion. Serum creatinine and urinary protein excretion at conversion together with age at transplantation had a significant impact on patient and graft survival. This large data set confirms and extends previous observations that proteinuria is an important indicator for graft outcome after conversion to sirolimus. We conclude that patients without any proteinuria have the greatest benefit from conversion to sirolimus.

  3. Belatacept and Sirolimus Prolong Nonhuman Primate Islet Allograft Survival: adverse consequences of concomitant alefacept therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, MC; Badell, IR; Turner, AP; Thompson, PW; Leopardi, FV; Strobert, EA; Larsen, CP; Kirk, AD

    2012-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and steroids are known to promote insulin resistance, and their avoidance after islet transplantation is preferred from a metabolic standpoint. Belatacept, a B7-specific mediator of costimulation blockade (CoB), is clinically indicated as a CNI alternative in renal transplantation, and we have endeavored to develop a clinically translatable, belatacept-based regimen that could obviate the need for both CNIs and steroids. Based on the known synergy between CoB and mTOR inhibition, we studied rhesus monkeys undergoing MHC-mismatched islet allotransplants treated with belatacept and the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus. To extend prior work on CoB-resistant rejection, some animals also received CD2 blockade with alefacept (LFA3-Ig). Nine rhesus macaques were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin and underwent islet allotransplantation. All received belatacept and sirolimus; six also received alefacept. Belatacept and sirolimus significantly prolonged rejection-free graft survival (median 225 days compared to 8 days in controls receiving basiliximab and sirolimus; p=0.022). The addition of alefacept provided no additional survival benefit, but was associated with Cytomegalovirus reactivation in 4/6 animals. No recipients produced donor-specific alloantibodies. The combination of belatacept and sirolimus successfully prevents islet allograft survival in rhesus monkeys, but induction with alefacept provides no survival benefit and increases the risk of viral reactivation. PMID:23279640

  4. Sirolimus and tacrolimus coefficient of variation is associated with rejection, donor-specific antibodies, and nonadherence.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Helen P; Ettenger, Robert B; Gjertson, David W; Reed, Elaine F; Zhang, Jennifer; Gritsch, H Albin; Tsai, Eileen W

    2016-12-01

    Immunosuppression medication nonadherence has been associated with donor-specific antibodies and treatment-refractory rejection. Drug-level monitoring is a practical direct marker for nonadherence, as variations indicate erratic ingestion of medication. We previously reported that high variability in tacrolimus trough levels determined by the percent coefficient of variation (CV %) and standard deviation (SD) were associated with biopsy-proven rejection. We hypothesized that the CV % and SD in patients on a sirolimus/low-dose tacrolimus regimen may associate with self-reported medication nonadherence, rejection and donor-specific antibodies. In this pilot feasibility study, we studied 37 biopsies in 23 pediatric renal transplant patients on both sirolimus and tacrolimus immunosuppression; CV %, SD, de novo donor-specific antibodies, rejection, and self-reported adherence were examined. A cut-off sirolimus CV % of 25 maximized the percentage of biopsies correctly classified as rejection (32 of 37, or 86 %, p = 0.001). A cut-off tacrolimus CV % of 31 maximized the percentage of correctly classified biopsies (25 of 37, or 68 %, p = 0.09). Among patients with both high sirolimus and tacrolimus CV %, 67 % developed de novo donor-specific antibodies (p = 0.002) with a DQ predominance and 71 % reported nonadherence (p = 0.05). In pediatric renal transplantation, sirolimus and tacrolimus CV % is a potential tool for monitoring patients at risk for allograft rejection and donor-specific antibodies secondary to medication nonadherence.

  5. Conversion From Sirolimus to Everolimus in Long-Term Liver Graft Recipients.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Nina; Bilge, Nigar; Troetschler, Sven; Vermehren, Johannes; Schnitzbauer, Andreas Anton; Herrmann, Eva; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zeuzem, Stefan; Welker, Martin-Walter

    2017-07-01

    Immunosuppression by inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising approach after liver transplantation. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus was used in selected liver graft recipients despite safety concerns and lack of approval. Everolimus is another mTOR inhibitor approved after liver transplantation. It is currently unknown, whether conversion of sirolimus to everolimus is safe in long-term liver graft recipients. Long-term liver graft recipients treated with sirolimus were converted to everolimus. A systematical analysis of biochemical and clinical data before and after conversion was performed. Sixteen patients were included (female/male, 8/8). Median (range) age at conversion was 66 years (49-78 years), and patients were converted at a median (range) of 10.1 years (4.0-22.3 years) after liver transplantation. In the majority of patients, no dose adjustment was needed after conversion. No rejection and no cytomegalovirus replication episodes were observed. Furthermore, no differences were found with respect to kidney function, diabetes mellitus, or blood pressure before and after conversion. Bilirubin serum concentration was lower, whereas aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and triglycerides serum concentrations were higher after conversion to everolimus. Neither clinical- nor graft-associated significant complications were observed after conversion from sirolimus to everolimus in long-term liver graft recipients. Everolimus-based immunosuppression may be offered to patients after liver transplantation formerly treated with sirolimus. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Sirolimus in pediatric patients: results in the first 6 months post-renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Leonard C; Warshaw, Barry L

    2005-08-01

    We report our experience with sirolimus in children during the first 6 months after renal transplantation. From July 2000 to January 2004, 66 children received 33 deceased donor and 33 living donor transplants. Maintenance immunosuppression included sirolimus 3 mg/m(2) in addition to prednisone and tacrolimus or cyclosporine. Patient survival was 100% and graft survival was 65 of 66. Seven children experienced acute rejection episodes. All were reversible with increased doses of corticosteroid. One case of graft failure was caused by ischemic renal injury. Adverse events included Epstein-Barr viremia (8 patients) with three cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), cytomegalovirus viremia (4 patients), poor wound healing (4 patients), pneumonitis (3 patients), nephrotic syndrome (3 patients), perinephric abscess (1 patient) and insulin-dependant diabetes (2 patients). Sirolimus was discontinued in 13 children for adverse events predominantly for wound dehiscence and pneumonitis. Cholesterol levels >200 mg/dL were observed in 33 children. Thrombocytopenia (platelet count <140 000) was not observed. We concluded that early outcomes with sirolimus were acceptable with 98% graft survival and 11% incidence of acute rejection. Medication was discontinued in 20% for adverse events which included poor wound healing and non-infectious pneumonitis. Infections with cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, and PTLD were also significant early complications. Therefore, a sirolimus-based regimen that is combined with both an interleukin-2 receptor antibody and a calcineurin inhibitor may be excessive immunosuppression for pediatric renal transplant recipients.

  7. Use of sirolimus in the treatment of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: favorable responses in patients with different extrapulmonary manifestations*

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Araújo, Mariana Sponholz; Heiden, Glaucia Itamaro; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease that is currently considered a low-grade neoplasm with metastatic potential and variable progression. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and everolimus, have recently become a treatment option for LAM patients, especially those with extrapulmonary manifestations. The objective of the present study was to describe a case series of four patients with LAM in Brazil who showed significant improvement, particularly in their extrapulmonary manifestations, after treatment with sirolimus (at 1-4 mg/day). METHODS: We describe four cases of LAM patients with different extrapulmonary manifestations who were treated with sirolimus. RESULTS: After treatment with sirolimus for 12 months, one patient presented resolution of severe chylothorax; one had a significant reduction in renal angiomyolipoma volume; and one showed significant regression of retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomas and abdominal lymph node enlargement. After treatment with sirolimus for 6 months, the remaining patient had a significant reduction in the volume of a massive retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that mTOR inhibitors are beneficial for patients with LAM, especially those with extrapulmonary manifestations, such as renal angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomas, and chylous effusions. However, certain aspects, such as the optimal dose, duration of treatment, and long-term adverse effects, have yet to be sufficiently clarified for mTOR inhibitors to be incorporated into LAM management protocols. PMID:26176526

  8. Sirolimus (rapamycin): from the soil of Easter Island to a bright future.

    PubMed

    Paghdal, Kapila V; Schwartz, Robert A

    2007-12-01

    Discovered in fungi in the remote Easter Island, sirolimus (rapamycin) shows potential beyond its obvious antiproliferative and immunosuppressant activity. Studies have demonstrated that sirolimus acts as a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, providing prospective therapeutic benefits and possible prevention of tuberous sclerosis and Kaposi's sarcoma. Its ability to decrease keratinocyte proliferation may help patients with psoriasis. In those with tuberous sclerosis complex, it may prevent the development of hamartomas and reduce or eliminate them once grown by blocking the mammalian target of rapamycin, a critical regulatory kinase. A great advantage for this drug is in the decreased risk of malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma, associated with its use compared with other immunosuppressants, namely calcineurin inhibitors. This review will focus on the pharmacology and potential uses of sirolimus.

  9. Surveillance Registry of Sirolimus Use in Recipients of Kidney Allografts From Expanded Criteria Donors.

    PubMed

    Laham, G; Scuteri, R; Cornicelli, P; Arriola, M; Raffaele, P M; Davalos Michel, M; Imperiali, N; Fortunato, R M; Maggiora, E C; Sal, M V; Soler Pujol, G

    2016-10-01

    The use of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys has increased the overall availability of renal transplants. This study assessed the use of sirolimus in patients receiving Argentina-ECD kidneys. This observational, open-label, 1-arm, prospective, longitudinal pilot study was conducted at 8 transplant centers in Argentina. Adults receiving kidney transplants (without pancreas) from ECDs were eligible if they were converted to sirolimus 1 to 36 months' posttransplantation, with sirolimus becoming base therapy within 1 month after conversion. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcomes included reasons for conversion, acute rejection, patient and graft survival, graft status, and safety. The intention-to-treat population included 52 patients (mean age, 48.7 years). Calcineurin inhibitor nephropathy (40%) and chronic allograft nephropathy (25%) were the most frequent reasons for conversion. Two acute rejections occurred during follow-up, but no patients experienced graft loss. One patient died during follow-up, and 3 patients died within 1 month of the last sirolimus dose. Levels of serum creatinine and creatinine clearance remained stable from baseline to week 52/53. Mean proteinuria measured in a subset of patients was 0.2 ± 0.2 g/24 hours before conversion and increased to 0.6 ± 1.2 g/24 hours at week 24/25 and 0.5 ± 0.6 g/24 hours at week 52/53. Adverse events were consistent with those in previous conversion trials; the most common were infections and infestations (54%). This pilot study illustrates the potential benefits of sirolimus in recipients of ECD kidneys in Argentina. Larger, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings and to clarify the long-term benefits of sirolimus in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sirolimus early graft nephrotoxicity: clinical and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Thervet, Eric; Legendre, Christophe; Anglicheau, Dany

    2006-05-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) is a recently available immunosuppressive agent. SRL, is a macrolide isolated from Streptomyces hydroscopicus that, in complex with its cellular receptor, FK binding protein, potently inhibits downstream signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). It has been shown to reduce the incidence of acute rejection episode after renal transplantation. SRL by itself does not seem to cause significant nephrotoxicity in most animals and human studies in normal conditions. However, when combined with calcineurin inhibitors, serum creatinine levels often increase. The mechanisms for the synergism of this side-effect are still discussed. Furthermore, recent clinical data have shown that the administration of SRL immediately after renal transplant delay the recovery from delayed graft function. This effect may be secondary to the inhibition of the proliferation of the renal tubular cells which is a normal process for tubular repair. Some experimental data have confirmed this hypothesis. Finally, in the long-term, SRL use has been associated with a significant increase of proteinuria which may in the long-term increase the risk of graft loss of cardio-vascular morbio-mortality. For all these reasons, SRL nephrotoxicty has become an important issue after renal transplantation. The review will discuss the clinical and the experimental data regarding this complication, which has been underestimated.

  11. Extraction of rapamycin (sirolimus) from Streptomyces rapamycinicus using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    More, Amol S; Gadalkar, Sagar; Rathod, Virendra K

    2017-07-03

    The study was designed to investigate the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of rapamycin (sirolimus) from bacterial strain of Streptomyces rapamycinicus NRRL 5491. To achieve the maximum extraction yield, various parameters were optimized which include S. rapamycinicus (10 g) of biomass in toluene (50 mL), temperature (20°C), acoustic intensity (35.67 W/cm(2)), and duty cycle (40%) for 4 min extraction time with probe tip length of 0.5 cm dipped into extraction solvent from the surface. The maximum extraction yield 60.15 ± 0.01 mg/L was attained under the mentioned optimum parameters. The use of ultrasound for the extraction of rapamycin shows about twofold increase in the yield as compared to the conventional solid-liquid extraction (29.7 ± 0.2 mg/L). The study provides the effective UAE technique to produce potential value-added products.

  12. Effects of maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus after liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Gustafson, Sally K.; Snyder, Jon J.; Israni, Ajay K.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background For recipients of liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC recurrence after transplantation remains a major concern. Sirolimus, an immunosuppressant with anti-carcinogenic properties, may reduce HCC recurrence and improve survival. Methods The U.S. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was linked to pharmacy claims. For liver recipients transplanted for HCC, Cox regression was used to estimate associations of early sirolimus use with recurrence, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality adjusting for recipient ethnicity, calendar year of transplant, total tumor volume, alpha-fetoprotein, transplant center size, use of IL-2 induction therapy, and allocated and calculated model for end-stage liver disease score. We performed stratified analyses among recipients who met Milan criteria, among those without renal failure, among those with deceased liver donors, by age at transplantation, and by tumor size. Results Among the 3,936 included HCC liver transplants, 234 (6%) were sirolimus users. In total, there were 242 recurrences and 879 deaths, including 261 cancer-related deaths. All-cause mortality was similar in sirolimus users and non-users (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] =1.01, 95%CI=0.73–1.39). HCC recurrence and cancer-specific mortality rates appeared lower in sirolimus users, but associations were not statistically significant (recurrence HR=0.86, 95%CI=0.45–1.65; cancer-specific mortality HR=0.80, 95%CI=0.43–1.50). Among recipients >55 years old, associations were suggestive of better outcomes for sirolimus users (all-cause mortality HR=0.62, 95%CI=0.38–1.01; recurrence HR=0.52, 95%CI=0.19–1.44; cancer-specific mortality HR=0.34, 95%CI=0.11–1.09), while among recipients ≤55 years old, sirolimus users had worse outcomes (all-cause mortality HR=1.76, 95%CI=1.12–2.75; recurrence HR=1.49, 95%CI=0.62–3.61; cancer-specific mortality HR=1.54, 95%CI=0.71–3.32). Conclusions Among HCC liver recipients overall

  13. Sirolimus rescue for tacrolimus-associated post-transplant autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Rudolph P; Imam, Abubakr; Warrier, Indira; Ellis, Demetrius; Ritchey, A Kim; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Shapiro, Ron; Moritz, Michael L

    2006-05-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has been reported to occur after renal transplantation, and typically does so in the first few weeks post-transplant. We report on a 3-yr-old child who developed cold AIHA nearly 1 yr after an ABO identical, living donor renal transplant from his mother. Numerous transfusions, pulse steroids, repeat plasma exchange treatments, and IVIG were unsuccessful. Nearly 3 wk into his illness, tacrolimus was changed to cyclosporine, and then to sirolimus, and resulted in a prompt response. He currently has a normal renal function and a normal hemoglobin level on sirolimus monotherapy.

  14. A Prospective Randomised Paired Trial of Sirolimus versus Tacrolimus as Primary Immunosuppression following Non-Heart Beating Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Asher, John; Vasdev, Nikhil; Wyrley-Birch, Hugh; Wilson, Colin; Soomro, Naeem; Rix, David; Jaques, Bryon; Manas, Derek; Torpey, Nicholas; Talbot, David

    2014-10-01

    With calcineurin inhibitors potentiating damage from ischaemia-reperfusion injury in kidneys from donors after cardiac death we wanted to investigate the role of substituting sirolimus for tacrolimus in the delayed introduction of calcineurin inhibitor regime used in our centre. A prospective randomised paired open-label study was performed taking pairs of kidneys from each donor and randomising one to a tacrolimus-based regime and the other to a similar regime based on sirolimus. Graft function at one year was the primary endpoint. Total 31 pairs of kidneys were randomised to each group, with 19 pairs of recipients available for analysis after post-randomisation study exclusions. Despite a higher incidence of biopsy proven acute rejection in the sirolimus group, renal allograft function was similar in both groups at three-monthly intervals up to one year post-transplant. All episodes of acute rejection in the sirolimus group occurred in the first three months. Graft and patient survival at one year was 100% in the tacrolimus group, with one death with functioning graft in the sirolimus group (95% survival). Unfortunately, 10 of the 19 patients in the sirolimus arm required switch of medication to tacrolimus due to acute rejection or intolerable drug side effects. Graft survival and function were very similar in the two groups despite the higher rate of acute rejection in the sirolimus arm, raising the possibility that the damage done by acute rejection was adequately offset by the nephron-sparing effect of sirolimus compared to tacrolimus. Sirolimus may have a role as a longer-term maintenance immunosuppressant after initial treatment with a different agent such as tacrolimus or belatacept.

  15. Effect of Ramipril on Urinary Protein Excretion in Maintenance Renal Transplant Patients Converted to Sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, D A; Alberú, J; Barama, A; Marder, B A; Silva, H T; Flechner, S M; Flynn, A; Healy, C; Li, H; Tortorici, M A; Schulman, S L

    2015-12-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of ramipril on urinary protein excretion in renal transplant patients treated with sirolimus following conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor. Patients received ramipril or placebo for up to 6 weeks before conversion and 52 weeks thereafter. Doses were increased if patients developed proteinuria (urinary protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.5); losartan was given as rescue therapy for persistent proteinuria. The primary end point was time to losartan initiation. Of 295 patients randomized, 264 met the criteria for sirolimus conversion (ramipril, 138; placebo, 126). At 52 weeks, the cumulative rate of losartan initiation was significantly lower with ramipril (6.2%) versus placebo (23.2%) (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between ramipril and placebo for change in glomerular filtration rate from baseline (p = 0.148) or in the number of patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (13 vs. 5, respectively; p = 0.073). One patient in the placebo group died due to cerebrovascular accident. Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sirolimus and were not potentiated by ramipril co-administration. Ramipril was effective in reducing the incidence of proteinuria for up to 1 year following conversion to sirolimus in maintenance renal transplant patients.

  16. Bone metabolism in renal transplant patients treated with cyclosporine or sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Campistol, Josep M; Holt, David W; Epstein, Solomon; Gioud-Paquet, Martine; Rutault, Karine; Burke, James T

    2005-09-01

    Sirolimus is a new immunosuppressive agent used as treatment to prevent acute renal allograft rejection. One of the complications of renal transplantation and subsequent long-term immunosuppression is bone loss associated with osteoporosis and consequent fracture. Two open-label, randomized, phase 2 studies comparing sirolimus versus cyclosporine (CsA) included indices of bone metabolism as secondary end-points. Markers of bone turnover, serum osteocalcin and urinary N-telopeptides, were measured over a 1-year period in 115 patients receiving either CsA or sirolimus as a primary therapy in combination with azathioprine and glucocorticoids (study A) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and glucocorticoids (study B). Urinary excretion of N-telopeptides and the concentrations of serum osteocalcin were consistently higher in the CsA-treated patients and significantly different at week 24 for N-telopeptides and at weeks 12, 24, and 52 for osteocalcin. In conclusion, future trials are warranted to test whether a sirolimus-based regimen conserves bone mineral density compared with a CsA-based regimen.

  17. Effects of physiotherapy combined with sirolimus in a patient with vascular malformation: A case report.

    PubMed

    Akbayrak, Türkan; Orhan, Ceren; Baran, Emine; Kaya, Serap; Coskun, Gürsoy; Varan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present case report was to investigate the effects of a physiotherapy program combined with sirolimus in a child patient with upper extremity edema and joint limitation due to low-flow vascular malformation. This case report included an 11-year-old male patient (26 kg, 130 cm) diagnosed with congenital lymphovascular malformation on the left and right chest. The patient, who had edema on the upper left extremity and experienced joint limitations, was administered complete decongestive therapy (CDT) and manual therapy in combination with sirolimus. Physiotherapy included a total of 24 sessions, 3 sessions a week for 8 weeks. Following the physiotherapy, the patient was assigned to a home therapy program, and then the maintenance phase of the CDT was initiated. Evaluations were carried out at baseline, at the end of week 8, and after 12 months. Following the physiotherapy program combined with sirolimus, a decrease in extremity volume, an increase in joint movement range, and an improvement in disease-related complaints were observed. Physiotherapy methods combined with sirolimus may be an effective treatment method in patients with vascular malformations. However, further studies with larger sample size are warranted.

  18. Cholesterol-poly(ethylene) glycol nanocarriers for the transscleral delivery of sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Elsaid, Naba; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Jackson, Timothy L

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize cholesterol-poly(ethylene) glycol (chol-PEG) nanocarriers of two different molecular weights (1 and 5 kDa) and to determine their effect on the transscleral retention and permeation of a lipophilic multi-therapeutic agent, sirolimus (rapamycin), with potential application in angiogenic and immunogenic ocular diseases. Sirolimus-containing nanocarriers were prepared using the thin-film hydration method and characterized for their physicochemical properties including size, drug entrapment (EE) and loading (DL) efficiencies, stability, surface charge, morphology, critical micelle concentration (CMC) and thermal properties. Ussing chambers were used to determine the retention and permeability of sirolimus-containing nanocarriers in porcine sclera followed by ultrastructural tissue examination. Sirolimus-containing nanocarriers had an average size of 11.7 nm (chol-PEG 1 kDa) and 13.8 nm (chol-PEG 5 kDa) and zeta potentials of 0.41 and -1.05, respectively. Both nanocarriers had similar transscleral permeabilities (chol-PEG 1 kDa 6.44 × 10(-7) and 5 kDa 6.16 × 10(-7) cm2 s(-1)), and very high scleral retention compared with a free solution of sirolimus (chol-PEG 1 kDa 16.9 μg/g; chol-PEG 5 kDa 7.48 μg/g; free sirolimus 0.57 μg/g). The DL (EE) for chol-PEG 1 and 5 kDa were 2.93% (77.4%) and 3.10% (81.6%), respectively. The CMC values for the nanocarriers were similar to those previously reported in literature (3.85 × 10(-7) M for chol-PEG 1 kDa; 4.26 × 10(-7) M for chol-PEG 5 kDa). In conclusion, chol-PEG nanocarriers successfully loaded sirolimus and resulted in scleral permeation and high retention, which shows potential utility for the topical delivery of lipophilic ocular drugs.

  19. Randomized clinical trial comparing abluminal biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents with durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Xiangfei; Deng, Wei; Wang, Shenguo; Ge, Junbo; Toft, Egon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (DES) were developed to improve vascular healing. However, further data and longer-term follow-up are needed to confirm safety and efficacy of these stents. This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare safety and efficacy of 2 sirolimus-eluting stents (SES): Cordimax—a novel abluminal biodegradable polymer SES and Cypher Select—a durable polymer SES, at 9 months angiographic and 5-year clinical follow-up. Methods: We randomized 402 patients with coronary artery disease to percutaneous coronary intervention with Cordimax (n = 202) or Cypher select (n = 200). Angiographic follow-up was performed at 9 months after the index procedure and clinical follow-up annually up to 5 years. The primary endpoint was angiographic in-stent late luminal loss (LLL). Secondary endpoints included angiographic restenosis rate, target vessel revascularization (TVR), and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or TVR) at 5-year follow-up. Results: Cordimax was noninferior to Cypher select for in-stent LLL (0.25 ± 0.47 vs 0.18 ± 0.49 mm; P = 0.587) and in-stent mean diameter stenosis (22.19 ± 12.21% vs 19.89 ± 10.79%; P = 0.064) at 9 months angiographic follow-up. The MACE rates were not different at 1 year (5.9% vs 4.0%, P = 0.376); however, MACE rates from 2 to 5 years were lower in the Cordimax group (6.8% vs 13.1%; P = 0.039). Conclusion: Abluminal biodegradable polymer SES is noninferior to durable polymer SES at 9-month angiographic and 1-year clinical follow-up. However, MACE rates from 2 to 5 years were less in the abluminal biodegradable polymer group. PMID:27661023

  20. Oral sirolimus: A possible treatment for refractory angina pectoris in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mischie, Alexandru; Chanseaume, Sylvain; Gaspard, Philippe; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Sinescu, Crina; Schiariti, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Refractory angina pectoris (RAP) is a clinical problem, frequently encountered in the elderly, associated with high health-care costs. Until recently, the goal of RAP treatment aimed at improving the quality of life (QoL) because it was thought that mortality rates were not different between stable angina pectoris and RAP. Our purpose was at determining whether any mortality rate difference exists and whether any novel therapeutical solution might be translated into clinical practice. We therefore performed a literature review to assess current optimal treatment of RAP patients, including all studies involving the use of oral sirolimus and stents, although no consistent evidence was found for any specific treatment to improve survival, apart from minor QoL amelioration. A large mortality difference was seen between RAP and stable angina pectoris. On the other hand, therapeutic approaches to RAP patients showed frequent complications and several contraindications, depending on the procedure. We propose to inhibit instead of stimulating angiogenesis, by giving oral sirolimus, an immunosuppressive drug, thereby decreasing the atherosclerotic process and its evolution. Sirolimus was shown to decrease left ventricular mass (thus indirectly decreasing myocardial oxygen needs and consumption). It might stop and, in some cases, even enable regression of plaque progression. Sirolimus side effects are mild to moderate and wash-out rapidly at treatment discontinuation. Compared with current therapies sirolimus treatment is more health-care cost efficient. It should be important to design a trial in RAP patients powered to reduce mortality and QoL increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  2. A randomized phase II study to evaluate tacrolimus in combination with sirolimus or methotrexate after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Jim, Heather; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Nishihori, Taiga; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Tomblyn, Marcie; Perez, Lia; Perkins, Janelle; Xu, Mian; Janssen, William E.; Veerapathran, Anandaraman; Betts, Brian C.; Locke, Frederick L.; Ayala, Ernesto; Field, Teresa; Ochoa, Leonel; Alsina, Melissa; Anasetti, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that sirolimus, in combination with tacrolimus, is active in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease. Sirolimus-based immune suppression may suppress alloreactive T cells, while sparing the survival and function of regulatory T cells. Design and Methods We conducted a randomized trial to compare the impact of sirolimus/tacrolimus against that of methotrexate/tacrolimus on the prevention of graft-versus-host disease and regulatory T-cell reconstitution. Results Seventy-four patients were randomized 1:1 to sirolimus/tacrolimus or methotrexate/tacrolimus, stratified for type of donor (sibling or unrelated) and the patients' age. The rate of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease at 100 days was 43% (95% CI: 27-59%) in the sirolimus/tacrolimus group and 89% (95% CI: 72-96%) in the methotrexate/tacrolimus group (P<0.001). The rate of moderate/severe chronic graft-versus-host disease was 24% (95% CI: 7-47%) in the sirolimus/tacrolimus group and 64% (95% CI: 41-79%) in the methotrexate/tacrolimus group (P=0.008). Overall survival and patient-reported quality of life did not differ between the two groups. On days 30 and 90 post-transplant, sirolimus-treated patients had a significantly greater proportion of regulatory T cells among the CD4+ cells in the peripheral blood, and isolated regulatory T cells were functional. Conclusions These data demonstrate that sirolimus/tacrolimus prevents grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease and moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease more effectively than does methotrexate/tacrolimus, and supports regulatory T-cell reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Trial registration: (NCT00803010) PMID:22689677

  3. Sirolimus-loaded CaP coating on Co-Cr alloy for drug-eluting stent

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxin; Lee, In-Seop; Cui, Fuzhai

    2016-01-01

    To achieve polymer-free and controllable drug-eluting system, there have been many efforts to modify the surface composition and topography of metal stent. Recently, calcium phosphate is commonly applied to metallic implants as a coating material for fast fixation and firm-implant bone attachment on the account of its demonstrated bioactive and osteoconductive properties. In the present study, the release of sirolimus could be controllable because of immobilization of sirolimus during the process of biomimetic CaP coating forming. A completely new concept is the drug carrier of biomimetic CaP coating with sirolimus for an absorbable drug eluting system, which in turn can serve as a drug reservoir. We here describe the characteristic, mechanisms and drug release in vitro of new drug-eluting system in comparison to conventional system equivalent. Nano-structured calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was formed on the cobalt–chromium (Co-Cr) alloy substrate. By immersing coated sample in solution with sirolimus (rapamycin), the sirolimus could be immobilized in the newly formed CaP layer. The morphology, composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that a uniform CaP coating incorporated with sirolimus was observed on Co-Cr alloy. PMID:27252886

  4. Sirolimus-loaded CaP coating on Co-Cr alloy for drug-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingxin; Lee, In-Seop; Cui, Fuzhai

    2016-09-01

    To achieve polymer-free and controllable drug-eluting system, there have been many efforts to modify the surface composition and topography of metal stent. Recently, calcium phosphate is commonly applied to metallic implants as a coating material for fast fixation and firm-implant bone attachment on the account of its demonstrated bioactive and osteoconductive properties. In the present study, the release of sirolimus could be controllable because of immobilization of sirolimus during the process of biomimetic CaP coating forming. A completely new concept is the drug carrier of biomimetic CaP coating with sirolimus for an absorbable drug eluting system, which in turn can serve as a drug reservoir. We here describe the characteristic, mechanisms and drug release in vitro of new drug-eluting system in comparison to conventional system equivalent. Nano-structured calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was formed on the cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy substrate. By immersing coated sample in solution with sirolimus (rapamycin), the sirolimus could be immobilized in the newly formed CaP layer. The morphology, composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that a uniform CaP coating incorporated with sirolimus was observed on Co-Cr alloy.

  5. Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Sirolimus: Predicting Bioavailability Based on Intestinal CYP3A Content

    PubMed Central

    Emoto, C; Fukuda, T; Cox, S; Christians, U; Vinks, A A

    2013-01-01

    Sirolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and is increasingly being used in transplantation and cancer therapies. Sirolimus has low oral bioavailability and exhibits large pharmacokinetic variability. The underlying mechanisms for this variability have not been explored to a large extent. Sirolimus metabolism was characterized by in vitro intrinsic clearance estimation. Pathway contribution ranked from CYP3A4 > CYP3A5 > CYP2C8. With the well stirred and Qgut models sirolimus bioavailability was predicted at 15%. Interindividual differences in bioavailability could be attributed to variable intestinal CYP3A expression. The physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model developed in Simcyp predicted a high distribution of sirolimus into adipose tissue and another elimination pathway in addition to CYP-mediated metabolism. PBPK model predictive performance was acceptable with Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) estimates within 20% of observed data in a dose escalation study. The model also showed potential to assess the impact of hepatic impairment and drug–drug interaction (DDI) on sirolimus pharmacokinetics. PMID:23884207

  6. Reduced intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantion for MDS using tacrolimus/sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryotaro; Palmer, Joycelynne M.; O'Donnell, Margaret R.; Stiller, Tracey; Thomas, Sandra H.; Chao, Joseph; Alvarnas, Joseph; Parker, Pablo M.; Pullarkat, Vinod; Maegawa, Rodrigo; Stein, Anthony S.; Snyder, David S.; Bhatia, Ravi; Chang, Karen; Wang, Shirong; Cai, Ji-Lian; Senitzer, David; Forman, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report a consecutive series of 59 patients with MDS who underwent reduced-intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RI-HSCT) with fludarabine/melphalan conditioning and tacrolimus/sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis. Two-year OS, EFS, and relapse incidences were 75.1%, 65.2%, and 20.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 100 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 3.4%, 8.5%, and 10.5%, respectively. The incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 35.4%; grade III-IV was 18.6%. Forty of 55 evaluable patients developed chronic GVHD, 35 extensive grade. This RI-HSCT protocol produces encouraging outcomes in MDS patients, and tacrolimus/sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis may contribute to that promising result. PMID:22677229

  7. Advantages of novel BioMimeTM Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent system. Moving towards biomimicry.

    PubMed

    Upendra, K; Sanjeev, B

    2012-02-01

    Since the first reported use of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), advancements in interventional cardiology arena have been fast paced. Within the last ten years, these developments have been exponential. Developers & clinicians are fast adapting from the learning curve awarded by the time course of DES evolution. In that light BioMimeTM Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent comes as a fresh thought in taking stents towards a biomimicry concept. The stent is built on an ultra-low strut thickness (65 µm) cobalt chromium stent platform, using an intelligent hybrid of close and open cells allowing for morphology mediated expansion, employs a well known anti-proliferative - Sirolimus that elutes from a biodegradable co-polymer formulation in 30 days and ensures high coating integrity and low coating thickness of 2 µm. The resultant stent demonstrates almost 100% endothelialization at 30 days in preclinical model and zero percent MACE >18 months in the primary efficacy and safety clinical study.

  8. Preformulation Studies of a Liposomal Formulation Containing Sirolimus for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Linares-Alba, Mónica Anayántzin; Gómez-Guajardo, Magda Berenice; Fonzar, Joice Furtado; Brooks, Dennis E.; García-Sánchez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a liposomal product containing sirolimus to be administered subconjunctivally for the treatment of nonresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dry eye. Methods: Formulations were prepared using an ethanol injection method and an adaptation of the heating method in pursuance of the most suitable methodology for future industrial production. Liposomes were loaded with either a high dose of 1 mg/mL of sirolimus or a less toxic dose of 0.4 mg/mL. The effects of critical process and formulation parameters were investigated. Liposomes were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, polydispersity, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology, entrapment efficiency, phospholipid content, thermal stability, and sterility. The formulation was evaluated clinically in dogs with spontaneous KCS. Results: Sterile liposomal dispersions with sizes ranging from 140 to 211 nm, were successfully obtained. High entrapment efficiency of 93%–98% was achieved. The heating method allowed an easier production of liposomes with high entrapment efficiency, to significantly shorten production time and the elimination of the use of alcohol. The poor stability of the obtained liposomes in aqueous dispersion made the inclusion of a lyophilization step necessary to the manufacturing process. In vivo testing of the liposomal sirolimus formulations in the spontaneous KCS dog model have produced promising results, particularly with a sirolimus dose of 1 mg/mL, indicating the need for further development and study of proposed formulations in the treatment of canine KCS. Clinical improvement in tear production in dogs with spontaneous KCS treated with the 1 mg/mL dose product was observed. Conclusions: The heating method allowed easier production of high entrapment efficiency liposomes to significantly shorten production time and the elimination of the use of alcohol. Tear production was increased in dogs

  9. A current problem in cardiology: very late thrombosis after implantation of sirolimus eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Sharifkazemi, Mohammad Bagher; Zamirian, Mahmood; Aslani, Amir

    2007-01-01

    Discontinuation of antiplatelet medications has been strongly associated with coronary stent thrombosis. The first reported cases have been documented at 6 h to 6 weeks after stent implantation. This article presents a case of very late stent thrombosis 24 months after sirolimus eluting stent implantation and 18 months after clopidogrel discontinuation, despite aspirin continuation, and argues in favor of prolonging dual antiplatelet medication including clopidogrel in this setting, at least until data from randomized trials address this important issue.

  10. Treatment of Geographic Atrophy With Subconjunctival Sirolimus: Results of a Phase I/II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai T.; Dresner, Samuel; Forooghian, Farzin; Glaser, Tanya; Doss, Lauren; Zhou, Mei; Cunningham, Denise; Shimel, Katherine; Harrington, Molly; Hammel, Keri; Cukras, Catherine A.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the safety and effects of subconjunctival sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor and immunosuppressive agent, for the treatment of geographic atrophy (GA). Methods. The study was a single-center, open-label phase II trial, enrolling 11 participants with bilateral GA; eight participants completed 24 months of follow-up. Sirolimus (440 μg) was administered every 3 months as a subconjunctival injection in only one randomly assigned eye in each participant for 24 months. Fellow eyes served as untreated controls. The primary efficacy outcome measure was the change in the total GA area at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in visual acuity, macular sensitivity, central retinal thickness, and total drusen area. Results. The study drug was well tolerated with few symptoms and related adverse events. Study treatment in study eyes was not associated with structural or functional benefits relative to the control fellow eyes. At month 24, mean GA area increased by 54.5% and 39.7% in study and fellow eyes, respectively (P = 0.41), whereas mean visual acuity decreased by 21.0 letters and 3.0 letters in study and fellow eyes, respectively (P = 0.03). Substantial differences in mean changes in drusen area, central retinal thickness, and macular sensitivity were not detected for all analysis time points up to 24 months. Conclusions. Repeated subconjunctival sirolimus was well-tolerated in patients with GA, although no positive anatomic or functional effects were identified. Subconjunctival sirolimus may not be beneficial in the prevention of GA progression, and may potentially be associated with effects detrimental to visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00766649.) PMID:23548622

  11. Sirolimus Increases T-Cell Abundance in the Sun Exposed Skin of Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael Thomas; Sambira Nahum, Lauren C.; Isbel, Nicole M.; Carroll, Robert P.; Soyer, Hans Peter; Francis, Ross; Bridge, Jennifer Anne; Hawley, Carmel; Oliver, Kimberly; Staatz, Christine E.; Wells, James William

    2017-01-01

    Background Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor sirolimus may display a reduced risk of skin cancer development compared to KTRs receiving calcineurin inhibitors. Despite studies investigating the effects of these 2 drug classes on T cells in patient blood, the effect these drugs may have in patient skin is not yet known. Methods Fifteen patients with chronic kidney disease (not recipients of immunosuppressive drugs), and 30 KTRs (15 receiving a calcineurin inhibitor, and 15 receiving sirolimus) provided matched samples of blood, sun exposed (SE) and non-SE skin. The abundance of total CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells in each sample was then assessed by flow cytometry. Results Sirolimus treatment significantly increased absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, memory CD8+- and CD4+ T cells, and Treg cells in SE skin versus paired samples of non-SE skin. No differences were found in the absolute number of any T cell subset in the blood. Correlation analysis revealed that the percentage of T cell subsets in the blood does not always accurately reflect the percentage of T-cell subsets in the skin of KTRs. Furthermore, sirolimus significantly disrupts the balance of memory CD4+ T cells in the skin after chronic sun exposure. Conclusions This study demonstrated that immunosuppressive drug class and sun exposure modify the abundance of multiple T-cell subsets in the skin of KTRs. Correlation analysis revealed that the prevalence of Treg cells in KTR blood does not accurately reflect the prevalence of Treg cells in KTR skin. PMID:28706974

  12. Enhanced Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells by Codelivery and Controlled Release of Paclitaxel-loaded Sirolimus-conjugated Albumin Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Behrouz, Hossein; Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Khoeeniha, Mohammad Kazem; Amini, Mohsen; Shiri Varnamkhasti, Behrang; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2016-08-01

    Recently, it is suggested that mTOR signaling pathway is an important mediator in many cancers especially breast cancer. Therefore, effects of sirolimus as a mTOR inhibitor in breast cancer have been studied in combination with paclitaxel with or without controlled release effect. In this work, we prepared a water-soluble formulation of sirolimus-conjugated albumin nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel, to study the effects of sirolimus concentration when it releases more later than paclitaxel in comparison with sirolimus-paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles. Also effects of paclitaxel loading on cytotoxic properties of nanoparticles were studied. Sirolimus was succinylated at 42-OH with enzymatic reaction of Candida antarctica lipase B, and then its carboxylic group was activated with EDC/NHS and conjugated to the lysine residues of albumin. Paclitaxel was loaded on albumin surface by nab technique in concentration range of 0-10 μg/mL. Sirolimus-conjugated nanoparticles with 0.01 μg/mL paclitaxel showed lowest cell viability of 44% while it was 53% for non-conjugated nanoparticles in MDA-MB-468 cell lines after 48 h (p-value = 0.003). In MCF-7 cell lines, sirolimus-conjugated nanoparticles with 0.1 μg/mL paclitaxel showed lowest cell viability of 35.69% while it was 48% for non-conjugated nanoparticles after 48 h (p-value = 0.03). We guess that when cancer cell lines arrest in G2-M by anticancer drugs like paclitaxel, Akt activates mTOR to make cells continue living, then inhibiting mTOR can enhance anticancer effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. A randomized, open-label study of sirolimus versus cyclosporine in primary de novo renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Flechner, Stuart M; Gurkan, Alihan; Hartmann, Anders; Legendre, Christophe M; Russ, Graeme R; Campistol, Josep M; Schena, Francesco P; Hahn, Carolyn M; Li, Huihua; Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Tai, Sandi See; Schulman, Seth L

    2013-05-27

    Despite a decreased incidence of acute rejection and early renal allograft loss due to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in transplant recipients, nephrotoxicity associated with long-term CNI use remains an important issue. This study evaluated whether a CNI-free regimen, including sirolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction, results in improved long-term renal function. This open-label, randomized, parallel group, comparative study in primary de novo renal transplant recipients was planned for 48 months but terminated early because of high acute rejection rates in the sirolimus arm. Enrollment was stopped after ≈12 months, with 475 transplanted patients randomized (2:1) to sirolimus (n=314) or cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment (n=161). Mean length of follow-up after transplantation was 190 days; this article focuses on available data through 6 months. Mean±SD on-therapy Nankivell-calculated glomerular filtration rate was not significantly different between the sirolimus (69.1±18.7 mL/min) and CsA (66.0±15.2 mL/min) treatment groups. Occurrence and length of delayed graft function was not significantly different between groups. Patients in the sirolimus group experienced numerically lower survival rates (96.9% vs. 99.4%; P=0.14), with nine deaths reported with sirolimus and one with CsA; higher rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (21.4% vs. 6.1%; P<0.001); and higher rates of discontinuations due to adverse events (17.4% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). A sirolimus-based, CNI-free immunosuppressive regimen, when used with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction, was associated with high rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection compared with CsA-based immunosuppression and is not recommended.

  14. Eight-year results of the Spiesser study, a randomized trial comparing de novo sirolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gatault, Philippe; Bertrand, Dominique; Büchler, Matthias; Colosio, Charlotte; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Weestel, Pierre-François; Rerolle, Jean-Philippe; Thierry, Antoine; Sayegh, Johnny; Moulin, Bruno; Snanoudj, Renaud; Rivalan, Joseph; Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Sautenet, Bénédicte; Lebranchu, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    We present the results at 8 years of the Spiesser study, a randomized trial comparing de novo sirolimus and cyclosporine in kidney transplant recipients at low immunologic risk. We assessed estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR), graft, patient, and death-censored graft survival (log-rank compared), de novo DSA appearance, risk of malignancy, post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), and anemia. Intent-to-treat and on-treatment analyses were performed. Graft survival was similar in both groups (sirolimus: 73.3%, cyclosporine: 77.7, P = 0.574). No difference was observed between treatment groups concerning patient survival (P = 0.508) and death-censored graft survival (P = 0.858). In conditional intent-to-treat analysis, mean eGFR was greater in sirolimus than in cyclosporine group (62.5 ± 27.3 ml/min vs. 47.8 ± 17.1 ml/min, P = 0.004), in particular because graft function was excellent in patients maintained under sirolimus (eGFR = 74.0 ml/min). Importantly, no detrimental impact was observed in patients in whom sirolimus has been withdrawn (eGFR = 49.5 ml/min). Overall, 17 patients showed de novo DSAs, with no difference between the two groups (P = 0.520). Malignancy did not differ by treatment. An initial maintenance regimen based on sirolimus provides a long-term improvement in renal function for kidney transplant patients, especially for those maintained on sirolimus. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  15. Sirolimus Versus Tacrolimus as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Yu; Song, Ming; Guo, Min; Huang, Feng; Ma, Bing-Jun; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Gang; Li, Juan; You, Ru-Xu

    Sirolimus and tacrolimus are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of sirolimus and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane controlled trials register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection (AR), and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and QALYs gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 1189 patients from 8 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of AR and patient withdrawn. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of infection. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events after renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent, and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of AR in renal transplant recipients. However, it should be noted that such superiority was reversal when the cost of sirolimus and tacrolimus changed.

  16. Differentiating the mTOR inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus in the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    MacKeigan, Jeffrey P; Krueger, Darcy A

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tumor-like lesions, called hamartomas, in multiple organ systems, including the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, and lung. These hamartomas cause a diverse set of clinical problems based on their location and often result in epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. TSC is caused by mutations within the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that inactivate the genes' tumor-suppressive function and drive hamartomatous cell growth. In normal cells, TSC1 and TSC2 integrate growth signals and nutrient inputs to downregulate signaling to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase that controls cell growth and cell survival. The molecular connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of allosteric mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) for the treatment of TSC. Everolimus is approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC. Sirolimus, though not approved for TSC, has undergone considerable investigation to treat various aspects of the disease. Everolimus and sirolimus selectively inhibit mTOR signaling with similar molecular mechanisms, but with distinct clinical profiles. This review differentiates mTOR inhibitors in TSC while describing the molecular mechanisms, pathogenic mutations, and clinical trial outcomes for managing TSC.

  17. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus suppresses renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissue cellular respiration

    PubMed Central

    Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Saraswathiamma, Dhanya; Abdul-Kader, Hidaya Mohammed; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Alfazari, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to develop a useful biomarker (e.g., cellular respiration, or mitochondrial O2 consumption) for measuring activities of mTOR inhibitors. It measured the effects of commonly used immunosuppressants (sirolimus-rapamycin, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine) on cellular respiration in target tissues (kidney, liver, and heart) from C57BL/6 mice. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/ threonine kinase that supports nutrient-dependent cell growth and survival, is known to control energy conversion processes within the mitochondria. Consistently, inhibitors of mTOR (e.g., rapamycin, also known as sirolimus or Rapamune®) have been shown to impair mitochondrial function. Inhibitors of the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine), on the other hand, strictly prevent lymphokine production leading to a reduced T-cell function. Sirolimus (10 μM) inhibited renal (22%, P = 0.002), hepatic (39%, P < 0.001), and cardiac (42%, P = 0.005) cellular respiration. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine had no or minimum effects on cellular respiration in these tissues. Thus, these results clearly demonstrate that impaired cellular respiration (bioenergetics) is a sensitive biomarker of the immunosuppressants that target mTOR. PMID:26045804

  18. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus suppresses renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissue cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Saraswathiamma, Dhanya; Abdul-Kader, Hidaya Mohammed; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Alfazari, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to develop a useful biomarker (e.g., cellular respiration, or mitochondrial O2 consumption) for measuring activities of mTOR inhibitors. It measured the effects of commonly used immunosuppressants (sirolimus-rapamycin, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine) on cellular respiration in target tissues (kidney, liver, and heart) from C57BL/6 mice. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/ threonine kinase that supports nutrient-dependent cell growth and survival, is known to control energy conversion processes within the mitochondria. Consistently, inhibitors of mTOR (e.g., rapamycin, also known as sirolimus or Rapamune®) have been shown to impair mitochondrial function. Inhibitors of the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine), on the other hand, strictly prevent lymphokine production leading to a reduced T-cell function. Sirolimus (10 μM) inhibited renal (22%, P=0.002), hepatic (39%, P<0.001), and cardiac (42%, P=0.005) cellular respiration. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine had no or minimum effects on cellular respiration in these tissues. Thus, these results clearly demonstrate that impaired cellular respiration (bioenergetics) is a sensitive biomarker of the immunosuppressants that target mTOR.

  19. Reducing Neointima Formation in a Swine Model with IVUS and Sirolimus Microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Joseph P; Dhanaliwala, Ali H; Klibanov, Alexander L; Bowles, Douglas K; Wamhoff, Brian R; Hossack, John A

    2015-11-01

    Potent therapeutic compounds with dose dependent side effects require more efficient and selective drug delivery to reduce systemic drug doses. Here, we demonstrate a new platform that combines intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and drug-loaded microbubbles to enhance and localize drug delivery, while enabling versatility of drug type and dosing. Localization and degree of delivery with IVUS and microbubbles was assessed using fluorophore-loaded microbubbles and different IVUS parameters in ex vivo swine arteries. Using a swine model of neointimal hyperplasia, reduction of neointima formation following balloon injury was evaluated when using the combination of IVUS and sirolimus-loaded microbubbles. IVUS and microbubble enhanced fluorophore delivery was greatest when applying low amplitude pulses in the ex vivo model. In the in vivo model, neointima formation was reduced by 50% after treatment with IVUS and the sirolimus-loaded microbubbles. This reduction was achieved with a sirolimus whole blood concentration comparable to a commercial drug-eluting stent (0.999 ng/mL). We anticipate this therapy will find clinical use localizing drug delivery for numerous other diseases in addition to serving as an adjunct to stents in treating atherosclerosis.

  20. Differentiating the mTOR inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus in the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.; Krueger, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tumor-like lesions, called hamartomas, in multiple organ systems, including the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, and lung. These hamartomas cause a diverse set of clinical problems based on their location and often result in epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. TSC is caused by mutations within the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that inactivate the genes' tumor-suppressive function and drive hamartomatous cell growth. In normal cells, TSC1 and TSC2 integrate growth signals and nutrient inputs to downregulate signaling to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase that controls cell growth and cell survival. The molecular connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of allosteric mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) for the treatment of TSC. Everolimus is approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC. Sirolimus, though not approved for TSC, has undergone considerable investigation to treat various aspects of the disease. Everolimus and sirolimus selectively inhibit mTOR signaling with similar molecular mechanisms, but with distinct clinical profiles. This review differentiates mTOR inhibitors in TSC while describing the molecular mechanisms, pathogenic mutations, and clinical trial outcomes for managing TSC. PMID:26289591

  1. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Development of Sirolimus Liposomes Prepared by Thin Film Hydration Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Valizadeh, Hadi; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present investigation was aimed to optimize the formulating process of sirolimus liposomes by thin film hydration method. Methods: In this study, a 32 factorial design method was used to investigate the influence of two independent variables in the preparation of sirolimus liposomes. The dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) /Cholesterol (Chol) and dioleoyl phosphoethanolamine(DOPE) /DPPC molar ratios were selected as the independent variables. Particle size (PS) and Encapsulation Efficiency (EE %) were selected as the dependent variables. To separate the un-encapsulated drug, dialysis method was used. Drug analysis was performed with a validated RP-HPLC method. Results: Using response surface methodology and based on the coefficient values obtained for independent variables in the regression equations, it was clear that the DPPC/Chol molar ratio was the major contributing variable in particle size and EE %. The use of a statistical approach allowed us to see individual and/or interaction effects of influencing parameters in order to obtain liposomes with desired properties and to determine the optimum experimental conditions that lead to the enhancement of characteristics. In the prediction of PS and EE % values, the average percent errors are found to be as 3.59 and 4.09%. This value is sufficiently low to confirm the high predictive power of model. Conclusion: Experimental results show that the observed responses were in close agreement with the predicted values and this demonstrates the reliability of the optimization procedure in prediction of PS and EE % in sirolimus liposomes preparation. PMID:23878790

  2. The Effect of Concomitant Sirolimus and Propofol Therapy on Triglyceride Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Dube, Kevin M; Szumita, Paul M; Rocchio, Megan A; Lee, Po-Shun; Anger, Kevin E

    2016-06-23

    Sirolimus and propofol are both independently associated with the development of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) during therapy. To date, there are no published reports describing synergistic or additive drug interaction resulting in HTG with concomitant use of these medications. To identify the occurrence of HTG in patients receiving concomitant sirolimus and propofol infusion therapy. Adult patients receiving sirolimus and a continuous propofol infusion for at least 12 hours from January 2005 to August 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Data included Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, weight, length of propofol therapy, and baseline triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The major outcome was incidence of HTG (TGs ≥500 mg/dL). Minor outcomes included the change in TG concentration from therapy initiation and manifestations of propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS). Sixteen patients were included in the analysis, with 8 (50%) of the patients developing HTG. The patients in this case series had the following mean values: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 20.2 ± 5.3, weight of 76.3 ± 21.2 kg, and baseline TG concentrations of 181.3 ± 89.7 mg/dL. Indications for sirolimus therapy included hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (n = 15) and heart transplantation (n = 1). Mean length of propofol infusion was 99.8 ± 88.5 hours. The mean TG concentration during infusion was 515.6 ± 468.1 mg/dL. Fourteen (87.5%) patients had an increase of ≥100 mg/dL, 12 (75%) patients had an increase of ≥200 mg/dL, and 6 (37.5%) patients had an increase of ≥300 mg/dL in TG concentrations during therapy. Eleven patients developed one manifestation of PRIS, excluding HTG, and one patient had more than 2 new onset PRIS manifestations during propofol therapy. Coadministration of propofol and sirolimus can potentially result in HTG, which may warrant more frequent monitoring. Further analysis is needed to examine the mechanism and

  3. Sirolimus steady-state trough concentrations are not affected by bolus methylprednisolone therapy in renal allograft recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bäckman, L; Kreis, H; Morales, J M; Wilczek, H; Taylor, R; Burke, J T

    2002-01-01

    Aims To determine whether bolus doses of methylprednisolone affect the steady-state trough concentrations of sirolimus. Methods Fourteen renal transplant recipients received concentration-controlled sirolimus therapy in combination with azathioprine and steroids (n = 8) or mycophenolate mofetil and steroids (n = 6). Bolus doses of methylprednisolone (mean total dose over 1–5 days, 1694 mg; range, 500–3000 mg) were given for the treatment of acute rejection. For each patient, the sirolimus dose (mean, 24.1 mg; range, 3.3–52.5 mg) was the same before and during methylprednisolone therapy. Results Mean sirolimus whole blood trough concentrations before and after treatment with methylprednisolone were 28.8 ng ml−1 (range, 13.9–45.3 ng ml−1), and 28.5 ng ml−1 (range, 13.0–47.9 ng ml−1), respectively (P = 0.85; 95% confidence interval on the difference −3.3, 4.0 ng ml−1). Conclusions Bolus methylprednisolone treatment does not affect steady-state sirolimus trough concentrations. PMID:12100227

  4. Performance characteristics of a no-pretreatment, random access sirolimus assay for the Dimension RxL clinical chemistry system.

    PubMed

    Cervinski, Mark A; Duh, Show-Hong; Hock, Karl G; Gray, Jeffery; Wei, Tie Q; Kilgore, Daniel C; Christenson, Robert H; Scott, Mitchell G

    2009-07-01

    Current therapeutic drug monitoring methods for sirolimus require a manual pre-treatment step and batch analysis. We describe and validate a no-pretreatment, random access sirolimus assay for the Dimension RxL clinical chemistry system from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc. Whole blood samples from renal transplant patients prescribed sirolimus were analyzed by the LC-MS/MS reference method, Abbott IMx and Dimension RxL methods in accordance with CLSI recommendations. The Dimension sirolimus assay had a functional sensitivity of 2.0 ng/mL and repeatability and within-laboratory imprecision less than 12.6% at 3 ng/mL and less than 5% at 11-12 ng/mL. Least squares linear regression demonstrated the following relationships: RxL=1.20(LC-MS/MS) - 0.70, r=0.95 and RxL=1.33(IMx) - 0.75, r=0.96. The Dimension sirolimus assay correlates well with the LC-MS/MS reference and IMx immunoassay methods and has the advantage of random access analysis without a manual pre-treatment step.

  5. Safety of an immunosuppressant protocol based on sirolimus in liver transplant recipients with malignancies or high risk of tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Castroagudín, J F; Molina, E; Tomé, S; Otero, E; Rodríguez, M; Varo, E

    2009-04-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are immunosuppressive agents with antiproliferative effects and consequent potential application as anticancer agents. The safety and tolerance of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-free sirolimus-based immunosuppressant protocols in liver transplant recipients with malignancies or high risk of tumor recurrence has been scarcely evaluated. Fourteen liver transplant recipients, including 12 men, of overall mean age of 57.4 +/- 12.4 years were distributed into two groups: group I, corresponding to 11 patients with malignant neoplasia, eight de novo neoplasia, and three recurrent hepatocarcinoma and; group II, three patients with high risk of tumor recurrence due to cholangiocarcinoma. Sirolimus was initiated at 2 mg od, with target levels of 3 to 9 ng/mL. Withdrawal of CNI was performed after reaching target levels of sirolimus. Periodic examinations of weight, arterial pressure, liver function tests, serum creatinine, triglycerides, cholesterol, sirolimus blood levels, and creatinine clearance were performed at 30, 60, 90, 180, and 360 days. After a median follow-up of 221.5 days, eight group I patients (72.7%) were alive, including six with stable disease. All group II patients were alive without evidence of tumor recurrence after a median follow-up of 560 days. CNI was withdrawn in 11 patients (78.6%). Sirolimus was withdrawn in only one case due to severe symptomatic oral ulcers. No vascular complications or rejection episodes were observed. A sirolimus-based immunosuppressant protocol was well tolerated and safe in liver transplant recipients with malignancies or a high risk of recurrence of neoplastic disease.

  6. The effects of topical aqueous sirolimus on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory dry eye.

    PubMed

    Spatola, Ronald; Nadelstein, Brad; Berdoulay, Andrew; English, Robert V

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate the effect of twice daily aqueous 0.02% sirolimus drops on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Two groups of dogs were studied. Ten normal dogs with no signs of ocular disease were administered topical 0.02% sirolimus ophthalmic solution in right eye, and a vehicle control in the left eye twice daily for 4 weeks. Complete ophthalmic examinations, including Schirmer tear test were performed weekly. Eighteen dogs with refractory KCS were randomly assigned to receive 0.02% sirolumus ophthalmic solution or 0.02% tacrolimus ophthalmic solution twice daily. Complete ophthalmic examinations were was performed at 2 and 6 weeks following treatment. Tear production in the sirolimus-treated eyes of normal dogs was greater when compared to vehicle controls with a mean difference over all time points of 3.46 mm (95% CI 1.17, 5.75; P = 0.006). After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean difference was 5 mm (95% CI 1.95, 8.05; P = 0.002). In dogs with refractory dry eye, 37.5% of eyes treated with sirolimus exhibited increased tear production >4 mm/min after 6 weeks of treatment, compared to 20% of eyes receiving tacrolimus (P = 0.433). One normal dog experienced topical irritation to both sirolimus and vehicle-treatment. Side effects were not reported in any treated eyes with chronic KCS. Topical 0.02% sirolimus might be an alternative treatment for canine patients with keratoconjunctivits sicca. The drug appears safe when applied topically in an aqueous suspension for up to 6 weeks. While initial results are promising, further studies are warranted. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Use of Sirolimus (Rapamycin) for Treatment of Cytopenias and Lymphoproliferation Linked to Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS). Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Cayrol, Julie; Garrido Colino, Carmen

    2017-02-23

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis. Children present with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenias. Recent advances show efficacy of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Sirolimus, an mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, improves autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferation, with a safe profile. We present 2 patients, a 5-year-old girl and 15-year-old boy, diagnosed with ALPS with initial partial response to steroid treatment. Autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferation then became refractory to treatment, with recurrence of symptoms. In both cases, treatment with sirolimus was started, with a rapid response, complete remission of cytopenias, and resolution of lymphoproliferation, with no significant adverse effects.

  8. Effect of sirolimus on malignancy and survival after kidney transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

    PubMed Central

    Kokolo, Madzouka B; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Beck, Andrew; Buenaventura, Chieny D; Ducharme, Robin; Barsoum, Rashad; Bernasconi, Corrado; Blydt-Hansen, Tom D; Ekberg, Henrik; Felipe, Claudia R; Firth, John; Gallon, Lorenzo; Gelens, Marielle; Glotz, Denis; Gossmann, Jan; Guba, Markus; Morsy, Ahmed Ali; Salgo, Rebekka; Scheuermann, Earnst H; Tedesco-Silva, Helio; Vitko, Stefan; Watson, Christopher; Fergusson, Dean A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine risk of malignancy and death in patients with kidney transplant who receive the immunosuppressive drug sirolimus. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. Data sources Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to March 2013. Eligibility Randomized controlled trials comparing immunosuppressive regimens with and without sirolimus in recipients of kidney or combined pancreatic and renal transplant for which the author was willing to provide individual patient level data. Two reviewers independently screened titles/abstracts and full text reports of potentially eligible trials to identify studies for inclusion. All eligible trials reported data on malignancy or survival. Results The search yielded 2365 unique citations. Patient level data were available from 5876 patients from 21 randomized trials. Sirolimus was associated with a 40% reduction in the risk of malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.93) and a 56% reduction in the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (0.44, 0.30 to 0.63) compared with controls. The most pronounced effect was seen in patients who converted to sirolimus from an established immunosuppressive regimen, resulting in a reduction in risk of malignancy (0.34, 0.28 to 0.41), non-melanoma skin cancer (0.32, 0.24 to 0.42), and other cancers (0.52, 0.38 to 0.69). Sirolimus was associated with an increased risk of death (1.43, 1.21 to 1.71) compared with controls. Conclusions Sirolimus was associated with a reduction in the risk of malignancy and non-melanoma skin cancer in transplant recipients. The benefit was most pronounced in patients who converted from an established immunosuppressive regimen to sirolimus. Given the risk of mortality, however, the use of this drug does not seem warranted for most patients with kidney transplant. Further research is needed to determine if different populations, such as those at high risk of

  9. Histological spectrum of pulmonary manifestations in kidney transplant recipients on sirolimus inclusive immunosuppressive regimens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After the introduction of novel effective immunosuppressive therapies, kidney transplantation became the treatment of choice for end stage renal disease. While these new therapies lead to better graft survival, they can also cause a variety of complications. Only small series or case reports describe pulmonary pathology in renal allograft recipients on mTOR inhibitor inclusive therapies. The goal of this study was to provide a systematic review of thoracic biopsies in kidney transplant recipients for possible association between a type of immunosuppressive regimen and pulmonary complications. Methods A laboratory database search revealed 28 of 2140 renal allograft recipients (18 males and 10 females, 25 to 77 years old, mean age 53 years) who required a biopsy for respiratory symptoms. The histological features were correlated with clinical findings including immunosuppressive medications. Results The incidence of neoplasia on lung biopsy was 0.4% (9 cases), which included 3 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas, 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 1 lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and 2 post transplant B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease was identified in 0.4% (9 cases), and included 5 cases of pulmonary hemorrhage, 3 cases of organizing pneumonia and 1 case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Five (0.2%) cases showed histological features indicative of a localized infectious process. Patients on sirolimus had neoplasia less frequently than patients on other immunosuppressive combinations (12.5% vs. 58.3%, p = 0.03). Lung biopsies in 4 of 5 patients with clinically suspected sirolimus toxicity revealed pulmonary hemorrhage as the sole histological finding or in combination with other patterns. Conclusions Our study documents a spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in renal allograft recipients on current immunosuppressive therapies. Sirolimus inclusive regimens are associated with increased risk of pulmonary

  10. Co-delivery of honokiol, a constituent of Magnolia species, in a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improved oral transport of lipophilic sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weiming; Hou, Xucheng; Cong, Shuangchen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Mengmeng; Lei, Jiongxi; Meng, Yansha; Li, Xinru; Li, Guiling

    2016-09-01

    Sirolimus is recognized as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate with poor water-solubility. To improve its solubility and bioabsorption, self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing a novel P-gp inhibitor, honokiol, were prepared. The aim of this work was to evaluate the enhanced transport of sirolimus SMEDDS as well as the roles of honokiol. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vitro human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cell models were applied to study the effects of honokiol within SMEDDS on the transport of sirolimus. The results indicated that a combination of honokiol with sirolimus in SMEDDS did not significantly alter the particle size, polydispersity index and release of drugs. In addition, the absorption rate constant (Ka) as well as the effective permeability coefficients (Peff) of sirolimus in situ intestinal absorption, and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of sirolimus in caco-2 cells were significantly enhanced by cremophor EL-based SMEDDS with honokiol as compared with those of SMEDDS without honokiol. Rhodamine123 uptake rate in caco-2 cells and in vitro cytotoxicity of sirolimus were enhanced by honokiol in SMEDDS indicating a substantial P-gp inhibition of honokiol. In conclusion, coadministration of honokiol with poor soluble P-gp substrate in SMEDDS, could serve as a favorable approach for oral delivery.

  11. A case of active peri-stent inflammation after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Takafumi; Kotani, Jun-Ichi; Matsuyama, Taka-aki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue

    2015-03-01

    We report an autopsy case of a coronary aneurysm with massive adventitial inflammation post-percutaneous coronary intervention with sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) insertion in the left circumflex (LCX) coronary artery for ischemic heart disease 3 years prior to death. The internal elastic membrane was disrupted opposite the site of the eccentric LCX plaque due to injury during stenting, and the adventitia showed massive inflammatory cell infiltration, mainly consisting of eosinophils. The LCX showed aneurysmal dilatation with inflammatory cell infiltration. Inappropriate SES implantation attracted chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation can lead to the development of coronary artery aneurysms.

  12. Treatment with sirolimus ameliorates tacrolimus-induced autoimmune cytopenias after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Teachey, David T; Jubelirer, Tracey; Baluarte, H Jorge; Wade, Amanda; Manno, Catherine S

    2009-12-01

    The development of autoimmune blood cell cytopenias is a potentially life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation, resulting from T-cell dysregulation from immunosuppressive medications. Conventional treatment with corticosteroids and IVIgG is often unsuccessful as these therapies are unlikely to overcome the T-cell dysregulation. We describe two patients who developed severe autoimmune cytopenias after solid organ transplantation. They had limited response to conventional medications, but had complete resolution of autoimmunity upon transition of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to sirolimus. Altering the immunosuppressive regimen to modify T-cell dysregulation may be beneficial for patients who develop post-transplant autoimmune disease and allow continued preservation of allograft.

  13. A Novel Homozygous Mutation in the KCNJ11 Gene of a Neonate with Congenital Hyperinsulinism and Successful Management with Sirolimus

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Sevim; Gönülal, Deniz; Uçaktürk, Ahmet; Siyah Bilgin, Betül; Flanagan, Sarah E.; Gürbüz, Fatih; Tayfun, Meltem; Elmaoğulları, Selin; Araslı, Aslıhan; Demirel, Fatma; Ellard, Sian; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of neonatal persistent hypoglycemia caused by mutations in nine known genes. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent brain injury. The clinical presentation and response to pharmacological therapy may vary depending on the underlying pathology. Genetic analysis is important in the diagnosis, treatment, patient follow-up, and prediction of recurrence risk within families. Our patient had severe hypoglycemia and seizure following birth. His diagnostic evaluations including genetic testing confirmed CHI. He was treated with a high-glucose infusion, high-dose diazoxide, nifedipine, and glucagon infusion. A novel homozygous mutation (p.F315I) in the KCNJ11 gene, leading to diazoxide-unresponsive CHI, was identified. Both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. Our patient’s clinical course was complicated by severe refractory hypoglycemia; he was successfully managed with sirolimus and surgical intervention was not required. Diazoxide, nifedipine, and glucagon were discontinued gradually following sirolimus therapy. The patient was discharged at 2 months of age on low-dose octreotide and sirolimus. His outpatient clinical follow-up continues with no episodes of hypoglycemia. We present a novel homozygous p.F315I mutation in the KCNJ11 gene leading to diazoxide-unresponsive CHI in a neonate. This case illustrates the challenges associated with the diagnosis and management of CHI, as well as the successful therapy with sirolimus. PMID:27181099

  14. Belatacept and Sirolimus Prolong Nonhuman Primate Renal Allograft Survival without a Requirement for Memory T Cell Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Denise J; Anderson, Douglas J; Weaver, Timothy A; Leopardi, Frank; Song, Mingqing; Farris, Alton B; Strobert, Elizabeth A; Jenkins, Joe; Turgeon, Nicole A; Mehta, Aneesh K; Larsen, Christian P; Kirk, Allan D

    2012-01-01

    Belatacept is an inhibitor of CD28/B7 costimulation that is clinically indicated as a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) alternative in combination with mycophenolate mofetil and steroids after renal transplantation. We sought to develop a clinically translatable, non-lymphocyte depleting, belatacept-based regimen that could obviate the need for both CNIs and steroids. Thus, based on murine data showing synergy between costimulation blockade and mTOR inhibition, we studied rhesus monkeys undergoing MHC-mismatched renal allotransplants treated with belatacept and the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus. To extend prior work on costimulation blockade-resistant rejection, some animals also received CD2 blockade with alefacept (LFA3-Ig). Belatacept and sirolimus therapy successfully prevented rejection in all animals. Tolerance was not induced, as animals rejected after withdrawal of therapy. The regimen did not deplete T cells. Alefecept did not add a survival benefit to the optimized belatacept and sirolimus regimen, despite causing an intended depletion of memory T cells, and caused a marked reduction in regulatory T cells. Furthermore, alefacept treated animals had a significantly increased incidence of CMV reactivation, suggesting that this combination overly compromised protective immunity. These data support belatacept and sirolimus as a clinically translatable, non-depleting, CNI-free, steroid-sparing immunomodulatory regimen that promotes sustained rejection-free allograft survival after renal transplantation. PMID:23311611

  15. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for the Analysis of Sirolimus in Drug Products

    PubMed Central

    Islambulchilar, Ziba; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Emami, Shahram; Valizadeh, Hadi; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for quantification of sirolimus (SRL) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Methods: The chromatographic system employs isocratic elution using a Knauer- C18, 5 mm, 4.6 × 150 mm. Mobile phase consisting of acetonitril and ammonium acetate buffer set at flow rate 1.5 ml/min. The analyte was detected and quantified at 278nm using ultraviolet detector. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results: The standard curve was found to have a linear relationship (r2 > 0.99) over the analytical range of 125–2000ng/ml. For all quality control (QC) standards in intraday and interday assay, accuracy and precision range were -0.96 to 6.30 and 0.86 to 13.74 respectively, demonstrating the precision and accuracy over the analytical range. Samples were stable during preparation and analysis procedure. Conclusion: Therefore the rapid and sensitive developed method can be used for the routine analysis of sirolimus such as dissolution and stability assays of pre- and post-marketed dosage forms. PMID:24312784

  16. Lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for improved oral bioavailability of sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Hu, Xiongwei; Ma, Yuhua; Xie, Yunchang; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Xiang, Li; Li, Fengqian; Wu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of sirolimus (SRL), a poorly water-soluble immunosuppressant, by encapsulating into lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). SRL-loaded NLCs (SRL-NLCs) were prepared by a high-pressure homogenization method with glycerol distearates (PRECIROL ATO-5) as the solid lipid, oleic acid as the liquid lipids, and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. The SRL-NLCs prepared under optimum conditions was spherical in shape with a mean particle size of about 108.3 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 99.81%. In vitro release of SRL-NLCs was very slow, about 2.15% at 12 h, while in vitro lipolysis test showed fast digestion of the NLCs within 1 h. Relative oral bioavailability of SRL-NLCs in Beagle dogs was 1.81-folds that of the commercial nanocrystalline sirolimus tablets Rapamune®. In conclusion, the NLCs show potential to improve the oral bioavailability of SRL.

  17. Role of new sirolimus self-apposing stent in coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Giustino, G; Mehran, R

    2015-02-01

    Device technology in interventional cardiology is continuously evolving. Self-expandable (SE) coronary artery stents were the first device to be implanted within a human coronary artery. However, because of their initial limitations, balloon-expandable (BE) stents were predominantly developed and used in the last 30 years. Unfortunately, in challenging anatomical settings such as bifurcation lesions, large, ectatic or aneurysmal vessels, tapered vessels or vasoconstricted arteries, outcomes with BE stents are not always optimal. The Stentys (Stentys SA, Paris, France) SE nitinol stents were initially developed for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. The understanding of the underlying mechanism involved in incomplete stent apposition and subsequent stent thrombosis led to the introduction of self-apposing stents in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in order to overcome the limitations of drug-eluting stents in presence of high thrombus burden. In this regard, Stentys allows a progressive stent expansion which could reduce the rates of incomplete stent apposition by conforming to vascular remodeling. Enhancing the advantages of this technology by adding the release of an antiproliferative drug to prevent restenosis is even more attractive and potentially effective. Recently, the results of the new Stentys sirolimus-eluting stent have been reported. This article provides an overview of the pathobiological rational, device characteristics and results of the new Stentys self-expandable sirolimus-eluting stent.

  18. Sirolimus Therapy for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Leads to Loss of Chylous Ascites and Circulating LAM Cells.

    PubMed

    Harari, Sergio; Elia, Davide; Torre, Olga; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Provasi, Elena; Moss, Joel

    2016-08-01

    A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13.3, showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) only for kg8. Fat-free total parenteral nutrition in association with sirolimus (2 mg po daily) was initiated. Serum sirolimus levels were maintained at concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/mL. After 1 month, reintroduction of a low-fat oral feeding was achieved without recurrence of ascites. PFT results were stable. Interestingly, clinical improvement was associated with a reduction in the VEGF-D serum level (1,558 pg/mL). LOH at the kg8 biomarker in blood LAM cells was no longer detected. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  19. Large-volume sirolimus-induced upper limb lymphedema after renal transplantation ipsilateral to the arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Vignes, Stéphane; Brunet, Morgan; Blanchard, Marie; Smail, Amar; Arrault, Maria

    2014-09-01

    To analyze upper-limb lymphedema characteristics of renal transplant recipients taking sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor. Cross-sectional study of sirolimus-treated upper-limb lymphedema patients (01/2009-12/2013). Three men and two women, whose mean age at transplantation was 60 (range: 49-76) years, were included. Sirolimus (1-2.5 mg/day) had been taken for 27.5 ± 21 (range: 7-58) months before left (n=4) or right (n=1), whole limb (n=4), or hand and forearm (n=1) upper-limb lymphedema onset, always ipsilateral to the functional arteriovenous fistula. Ultrasonography or fistulography excluded venous thrombosis in all patients. At the time lymphedema appeared, all five arteriovenous fistulas were functional. Mean upper-limb lymphedema volume, calculated with the truncated-cone formula, was 774 ± 162 [range: 594-1035] mL, (i.e. 44%± 11% [range: 36%-64%] excess volume compared to the contralateral limb. One patient also had ipsilateral breast lymphedema. The three lymphoscintigraphies obtained showed total absence of ipsilateral axillary-region tracer uptake. Sirolimus was maintained in all cases. Upper-limb lymphedema treatment included low-stretch bandages (n=4) and elastic sleeve (20-36 mm Hg) (n=5) without fistula complications. Two patients had their fistulas closed without any impact on lymphedema volume. Sirolimus may be implicated in large-volume upper-limb lymphedema in kidney-transplant recipients, ipsilateral to the arteriovenous fistula, and requires compression-based therapy.

  20. The impact of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism on sirolimus pharmacokinetics: insights from predictions with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Chie; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Venkatasubramanian, Raja; Vinks, Alexander A

    2015-12-01

    Sirolimus is an mTOR inhibitor metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Reported effects of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on sirolimus pharmacokinetics (PK) have shown unexplained discrepancies across studies. We quantitatively assessed the effect of CYP3A5*3 status on sirolimus PK by in vitro assessment and simulation using a physiologically-based PK (PBPK) model. In addition, we explored designs for an adequately powered pharmacogenetic association study. In vitro metabolism studies were conducted to confirm individual CYP contribution to sirolimus metabolism. PK profiles were simulated in CYP3A5 expressers and non-expressers with a PBPK model. The pre-dose concentration predictions were used as the outcome parameter to estimate the required sample size for a pharmacogenetic association study. Sirolimus metabolism was inhibited by over 90% by ketoconazole, a CYP3A specific inhibitor. The PBPK model developed based on CL(int) of recombinant CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2C8 predicted a small CYP3A5*3 effect on simulated sirolimus PK profiles. A subsequent power analysis based on these findings indicated that at least 80 subjects in an enrichment design, 40 CYP3A5 expressers and 40 non-expressers, would be required to detect a significant difference in the predicted trough concentrations at 1 month of therapy (P < 0.05, 80% power). This study suggests that CYP3A5 contribution to sirolimus metabolism is much smaller than that of CYP3A4. Observed discrepancies across studies could be explained as the result of inadequate sample size. PBPK model simulations allowed mechanism-based evaluation of the effects of CYP3A5 genotype on sirolimus PK and provided preliminary data for the design of a future prospective study. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. High-Dose Sirolimus And Immune Selective Pentostatin Plus Cyclophosphamide Conditioning Yields Stable Mixed Chimerism and Insufficient Graft-Versus-Tumor Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mossoba, Miriam E.; Halverson, David C.; Kurlander, Roger; Schuver, Bazetta Blacklock; Carpenter, Ashley; Hansen, Brenna; Steinberg, Seth M.; Ali, Syed Abbas; Tageja, Nishant; Hakim, Frances T.; Gea-Banacloche, Juan; Sportes, Claude; Hardy, Nancy M.; Hickstein, Dennis D.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Khuu, Hanh; Sabatini, Marianna; Stroncek, David; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Mariotti, Jacopo; Rixe, Olivier; Fojo, Antonio Tito; Bishop, Michael R.; Gress, Ronald. E.; Fowler, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We hypothesized that lymphoid-selective host conditioning and subsequent adoptive transfer of sirolimus-resistant allogeneic T cells (T-Rapa), when combined with high-dose sirolimus drug therapy in vivo, would safely achieve anti-tumor effects while avoiding GVHD. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Patients (n=10) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were accrued because this disease is relatively refractory to high-dose conditioning yet may respond to high-dose sirolimus. A 21-day outpatient regimen of weekly pentostatin (P; 4 mg/m2/dose) combined with daily, dose-adjusted cyclophosphamide (C; ≤ 200 mg/day) was designed to deplete and suppress host T cells. After PC conditioning, patients received matched sibling, T cell-replete peripheral blood stem cell allografts and high-dose sirolimus (serum trough target, 20–30 ng/ml). To augment graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects, multiple T-Rapa donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) were administered (days 0, 14, and 45 post-transplant) and sirolimus was discontinued early (day 60 post-transplant). RESULTS PC conditioning depleted host T cells without neutropenia or infection and facilitated donor engraftment (10/10 cases). High-dose sirolimus therapy inhibited multiple T-Rapa DLI, as evidenced by stable mixed donor/host chimerism. No anti-tumor responses were detected by RECIST criteria and no significant classical acute GVHD was observed. CONCLUSIONS Immune-selective PC conditioning represents a new approach to safely achieve alloengraftment without neutropenia. However, allogeneic T cells generated ex vivo in sirolimus are not resistant to the tolerance-inducing effects of in vivo sirolimus drug therapy, thereby cautioning against use of this intervention in patients with refractory cancer. PMID:26071480

  2. Phase I study and preclinical efficacy evaluation of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Liberal, J; Gil-Martín, M; Sáinz-Jaspeado, M; Gonzalo, N; Rigo, R; Colom, H; Muñoz, C; Tirado, O M; García del Muro, X

    2014-01-01

    Background: We conducted a phase I study in patients with advanced solid tumours to identify the recommended dose, assess pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamic activity and preclinical antitumour efficacy of the combination of sirolimus and gemcitabine. Methods: Nineteen patients were treated with sirolimus 2 or 5 mg daily and gemcitabine 800 or 1000 mg m−2 on days 1 and 8. Dose escalation depended on dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate during the first 3-week period. Paired skin biopsies were evaluated for phosphorylated S6 (pS6) as marker of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibition. Pharmacokinetics and preclinical evaluation of efficacy using two different sarcoma cell lines and leiomyosarcoma xenografts were also conducted. Results: Three DLTs were observed: grade 3 transaminitis, grade 3 thrombocytopenia and grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Common treatment-related adverse events included anaemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and transaminitis. Pharmacodynamic analyses demonstrated mTOR inhibition with sirolimus 5 mg and PK showed no influence of sirolimus concentrations on gemcitabine clearance. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested mTOR pathway hyperactivation by gemcitabine that was reversed by sirolimus. Tumour growth in leiomyosarcoma xenografts was dramatically inhibited by the treatment. Conclusions: Recommended dose was sirolimus 5 mg per 24 h plus gemcitabine 800 mg m−2. Antitumour activity in preclinical sarcoma models and mTOR signalling inhibition were observed. A phase II study is currently ongoing. PMID:25003665

  3. The addition of sirolimus to the graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimen in reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma: a multicentre randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Armand, Philippe; Kim, Haesook T; Sainvil, Marie-Michele; Lange, Paulina B; Giardino, Angela A; Bachanova, Veronika; Devine, Steven M; Waller, Edmund K; Jagirdar, Neera; Herrera, Alex F; Cutler, Corey; Ho, Vincent T; Koreth, John; Alyea, Edwin P; McAfee, Steven L; Soiffer, Robert J; Chen, Yi-Bin; Antin, Joseph H

    2016-04-01

    Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has clinical activity in lymphoma. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus has been used in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A retrospective study suggested that patients with lymphoma undergoing reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT who received sirolimus as part of their GVHD prophylaxis regimen had a lower rate of relapse. We therefore performed a multicentre randomized trial comparing tacrolimus, sirolimus and methotrexate to standard regimens in adult patients undergoing RIC HSCT for lymphoma in order to assess the possible benefit of sirolimus on HSCT outcome. 139 patients were randomized. There was no difference overall in 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse, non-relapse mortality or chronic GVHD. However, the sirolimus-containing arm had a significantly lower incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (9% vs. 25%, P = 0·015), which was more marked for unrelated donor grafts. In conclusion, the addition of sirolimus for GVHD prophylaxis in RIC HSCT is associated with no increased overall toxicity and a lower risk of acute GVHD, although it does not improve survival; this regimen is an acceptable option for GVHD prevention in RIC HSCT. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00928018).

  4. Phase I study and preclinical efficacy evaluation of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Martin-Liberal, J; Gil-Martín, M; Sáinz-Jaspeado, M; Gonzalo, N; Rigo, R; Colom, H; Muñoz, C; Tirado, O M; García del Muro, X

    2014-08-26

    We conducted a phase I study in patients with advanced solid tumours to identify the recommended dose, assess pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamic activity and preclinical antitumour efficacy of the combination of sirolimus and gemcitabine. Nineteen patients were treated with sirolimus 2 or 5 mg daily and gemcitabine 800 or 1000 mg m(-2) on days 1 and 8. Dose escalation depended on dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate during the first 3-week period. Paired skin biopsies were evaluated for phosphorylated S6 (pS6) as marker of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibition. Pharmacokinetics and preclinical evaluation of efficacy using two different sarcoma cell lines and leiomyosarcoma xenografts were also conducted. Three DLTs were observed: grade 3 transaminitis, grade 3 thrombocytopenia and grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Common treatment-related adverse events included anaemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and transaminitis. Pharmacodynamic analyses demonstrated mTOR inhibition with sirolimus 5 mg and PK showed no influence of sirolimus concentrations on gemcitabine clearance. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested mTOR pathway hyperactivation by gemcitabine that was reversed by sirolimus. Tumour growth in leiomyosarcoma xenografts was dramatically inhibited by the treatment. Recommended dose was sirolimus 5 mg per 24 h plus gemcitabine 800 mg m(-2). Antitumour activity in preclinical sarcoma models and mTOR signalling inhibition were observed. A phase II study is currently ongoing.

  5. Treatment with Tacrolimus and Sirolimus Reveals No Additional Adverse Effects on Human Islets In Vitro Compared to Each Drug Alone but They Are Reduced by Adding Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kloster-Jensen, Kristine; Sahraoui, Afaf; Vethe, Nils Tore; Korsgren, Olle; Bergan, Stein; Foss, Aksel; Scholz, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus and sirolimus are important immunosuppressive drugs used in human islet transplantation; however, they are linked to detrimental effects on islets and reduction of long-term graft function. Few studies investigate the direct effects of these drugs combined in parallel with single drug exposure. Human islets were treated with or without tacrolimus (30 μg/L), sirolimus (30 μg/L), or a combination thereof for 24 hrs. Islet function as well as apoptosis was assessed by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and Cell Death ELISA. Proinflammatory cytokines were analysed by qRT-PCR and Bio-Plex. Islets exposed to the combination of sirolimus and tacrolimus were treated with or without methylprednisolone (1000 μg/L) and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines was investigated. We found the following: (i) No additive reduction in function and viability in islets existed when tacrolimus and sirolimus were combined compared to the single drug. (ii) Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines mRNA and protein levels in islets took place. (iii) Methylprednisolone significantly decreased the proinflammatory response in islets induced by the drug combination. Although human islets are prone to direct toxic effect of tacrolimus and sirolimus, we found no additive effects of the drug combination. Short-term exposure of glucocorticoids could effectively reduce the proinflammatory response in human islets induced by the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus. PMID:26885529

  6. Preclinical Study of a Biodegradable Polymer-based Stent with Abluminal Sirolimus Release

    PubMed Central

    Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Campos, Carlos Augusto Homem M.; Melo, Pedro Henrique Magualhães Craveiro; Campos, Julliana Carvalho; Gutierrez, Paulo Sampaio; Borges, Thiago Francisco Costa; Curado, Luciano; Morato, Spero Penha; Laurindo, Francisco Rafael Martins; Lemos, Pedro Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioabsorbable polymer stents with drug elution only on the abluminal surface may be safer than durable polymer drug-eluting stents. Objective To report the experimental findings with the InspironTM stent - a bioabsorbable polymer-coated stent with sirolimus release from the abluminal surface only, recently approved for clinical use. Methods 45 stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 15 pigs. On day 28 after implantation, angiographic, intracoronary ultrasonographic and histomorphological data were collected. Five groups were analyzed: Group I (nine bare-metal stents); Group II (nine coated with bioabsorbable polymer on the luminal and abluminal surfaces); Group III (eight stents coated with bioabsorbable polymer on the abluminal surface); Group IV (nine stents with bioabsorbable polymer and sirolimus on the luminal and abluminal surfaces); and Group V (ten stents with bioabsorbable polymer and sirolimus only on the abluminal surface). Results The following results were observed for Groups I, II, III, IV and V, respectively: percentage stenosis of 29 ± 20; 36 ± 14; 33 ± 19; 22 ± 13 and 26 ± 15 (p = 0.443); late lumen loss (in mm) of 1.02 ± 0.60; 1.24 ± 0.48; 1.11 ± 0.54; 0.72 ± 0.44 and 0.78 ± 0.39 (p = 0.253); neointimal area (in mm2) of 2.60 ± 1.99; 2.74 ± 1.51; 2.74 ± 1.30; 1.30 ± 1.14 and 0.97 ± 0.84 (p = 0.001; Groups IV and V versus Groups I, II and III); and percentage neointimal area of 35 ± 25; 38 ± 18; 39 ± 19; 19 ± 18 and 15 ± 12 (p = 0.001; Groups IV and V versus Groups I, II and III). Injury and inflammation scores were low and with no differences between the groups. Conclusion The InspironTM stent proved to be safe and was able to significantly inhibit the neointimal hyperplasia observed on day 28 after implantation in porcine coronary arteries. PMID:24759951

  7. The Ultimaster Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent: An Updated Review of Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chisari, Alberto; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Piccolo, Raffaele; La Manna, Alessio; Danzi, Gian Battista

    2016-01-01

    The Ultimaster coronary stent system (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) represents a new iteration in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology that has recently received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark approval for clinical use. The Ultimaster is a thin-strut, cobalt chromium, biodegradable-polymer, sirolimus-eluting coronary stent. The high elasticity of the biodegradable-polymer (PDLLA-PCL) and the abluminal gradient coating technology are additional novel features of this coronary device. The Ultimaster DES has undergone extensive clinical evaluation in two studies: The CENTURY I and II trials. Results from these two landmark studies suggested an excellent efficacy and safety profile of the Ultimaster DES across several lesion and patient subsets, with similar clinical outcomes to contemporary, new-generation DES. The aim of this review is to summarize the rationale behind this novel DES technology and to provide an update of available evidence about the clinical performance of the Ultimaster DES. PMID:27608017

  8. The Ultimaster Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent: An Updated Review of Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Chisari, Alberto; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Piccolo, Raffaele; La Manna, Alessio; Danzi, Gian Battista

    2016-09-06

    The Ultimaster coronary stent system (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) represents a new iteration in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology that has recently received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark approval for clinical use. The Ultimaster is a thin-strut, cobalt chromium, biodegradable-polymer, sirolimus-eluting coronary stent. The high elasticity of the biodegradable-polymer (PDLLA-PCL) and the abluminal gradient coating technology are additional novel features of this coronary device. The Ultimaster DES has undergone extensive clinical evaluation in two studies: The CENTURY I and II trials. Results from these two landmark studies suggested an excellent efficacy and safety profile of the Ultimaster DES across several lesion and patient subsets, with similar clinical outcomes to contemporary, new-generation DES. The aim of this review is to summarize the rationale behind this novel DES technology and to provide an update of available evidence about the clinical performance of the Ultimaster DES.

  9. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in a renal transplant recipient due to drug fever from sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Sairah; Kong, May W; Drakakis, James; Cunha, Burke A

    2016-08-01

    A variety of medications may cause drug fever. Drug fevers may persist for days to weeks until diagnosis is considered. The diagnosis of drug fever is confirmed when there is resolution of fever within 3 days after the medication is discontinued. Only rarely do undiagnosed drug fevers persist for over 3 weeks to meet fever of unknown origin (FUO) criteria. FUOs due to drug fever are uncommon, and drug fevers due to immunosuppressive drugs are very rare. This is a case of a 58-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with FUO that remained undiagnosed for over 8 weeks. We believe this is the first reported case of an FUO due to drug fever from sirolimus in a renal transplant recipient.

  10. Everolimus and Sirolimus in Combination with Cyclosporine Have Different Effects on Renal Metabolism in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Nina; Schmitz, Volker; Shokati, Touraj; Lawrence, Ryan; Arbelaez, Maria Fernanda; Schniedewind, Björn; Christians, Uwe; Klawitter, Jost

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity by sirolimus (SRL) is limiting the clinical use of this drug combination. We compared the dose-dependent effects of the structurally related everolimus (EVL) and sirolimus (SRL) alone, and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA), on the rat kidney. Lewis rats were treated by oral gavage for 28 days using a checkerboard dosing format (0, 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 CsA and 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg/day SRL or EVL, n = 4/dose combination). After 28 days, oxidative stress, energy charge, kidney histologies, glomerular filtration rates, and concentrations of the immunosuppressants were measured along with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry profiles of cellular metabolites in urine. The combination of CsA with SRL led to higher urinary glucose concentrations and decreased levels of urinary Krebs cycle metabolites when compared to controls, suggesting that CsA+SRL negatively impacted proximal tubule metabolism. Unsupervised principal component analysis of MRS spectra distinguished unique urine metabolite patterns of rats treated with CsA+SRL from those treated with CsA+EVL and the controls. SRL, but not EVL blood concentrations were inversely correlated with urine Krebs cycle metabolite concentrations. Interestingly, the higher the EVL concentration, the closer urine metabolite patterns resembled those of controls, while in contrast, the combination of the highest doses of CsA+SRL showed the most significant differences in metabolite patterns. Surprisingly in this rat model, EVL and SRL in combination with CsA had different effects on kidney biochemistry, suggesting that further exploration of EVL in combination with low dose calcineurin inhibitors may be of potential benefit. PMID:23118926

  11. Proptosis Reduction Using Sirolimus in a Child With an Orbital Vascular Malformation and Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gildener-Leapman, Juliana R; Rosenberg, Jamie B; Barmettler, Anne

    A 15-month-old boy with left congenital proptosis presented to the emergency department with melena. Upper GI endoscopy and magnetic resonance angiography revealed vascular lesions, consistent with gastrointestinal tract manifestations of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. MRI revealed vascular malformations in both orbits, with mass effect on the left side. The patient was started on a trial of the antiangiogenic agent sirolimus (also known as rapamycin), and after 6 months of treatment showed clinical improvement in proptosis supported by radiologic evidence of regression in the larger, left orbital mass, with stability of the smaller, right orbital mass. There are 11 published cases of orbital blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in the English literature. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful, long-term treatment with sirolimus causing a reduction in the size of an orbital vascular malformation.

  12. Successful use of posaconazole to treat invasive cutaneous fungal infection in a liver transplant patient on sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, Randah; Patel, Ameen; Haider, Shariq

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are an important and common cause of cutaneous infections affecting solid organ transplant recipients. These infections can represent a primary site of infection with the potential for dissemination, or a manifestation of metastatic infection. The high morbidity and mortality associated with these infections necessitates urgent therapy with antifungal drugs; however, the interaction between these drugs and immunosuppressive therapies can be a major limitation because of drug toxicity. A case of soft tissue infection of the toe caused by Fusarium chlamydosporum and Candida guilliermondii in a liver transplant patient on sirolimus, who was successfully treated with the new antifungal agent posaconazole, is described. The pharmacokinetic interactions of sirolimus and the new triazoles, and their impact on treatment choices are briefly discussed.

  13. Effects of Tacrolimus or Sirolimus on the adhesion of vascular wall cells: Controlled in-vitro comparison study.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Genge, A; Hiebl, B; Franke, R P; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2017-08-28

    In drug eluting stents the cytostatic drugs Sirolimus or Tacrolimus are used to inhibit blood vessel restenosis by limiting the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. However, the cytostatic activity of both drugs was shown to be not cell specific and could also affect the stent endothelialisation, respectively. Currently, only limited in vitro data are available about the impact of Sirolimus and Tacrolimus on endothelial cell proliferation over a broad concentration range. To answer this question the following study was performed.Commercially obtained HUVEC were expanded with DMEM cell culture medium (GIBCO, Germany) supplemented with 5 vol% fetal calf serum on non-coated regular polystyrene-based 24-multiwell plates. For drug testings 2×104 cells/cm2 were seeded and grown for 24 h until 30-40% of the multiwell surfaces were covered and then exposed to Sirolimus (1.0×10-11-1.0×10-5 mol/l) or Tacrolimus (2.0×10-8-6.2×10-5 mol/l), both dissolved in DMSO. 12, 24 and 48 h after adding the drugs cell numbers per area were quantified by counting the cells in six wells with four fields of view per well, representing 0.6 mm2, using a confocal laser microscope.After 48 h of cell growth in the drug-free cell culture medium, the HUVEC number increased from 2.0×104 to 3.55×104 cells/cm2 (mean cell doubling time: 53.6 h, n = 6). At lower concentrations (≤2.0×10-6 mol/l) Tacrolimus reduced the number of adherent HUVEC significantly less than Sirolimus (p < 0.05). However, at higher concentrations (≥2.07×10-5 mol/l) the effect of Tacrolimus on the number of adherent endothelial cells was significantly greater than that of Sirolimus (p < 0.05). At the highest concentration applied (6.22×10-5 mol/l), Tacrolimus induced detachment of all HUVECs within 12 h after drug application. The number of adherent HUVEC decreased only slightly (about 9%) after Sirolimus application at the highest concentration (1.09×10-5 mol/l).These data show

  14. Sirolimus as maintenance treatment in an infant with life-threatening multiresistant pure red cell anemia/autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Miano, Maurizio; Poggi, Vincenzo; Banov, Laura; Fioredda, Francesca; Micalizzi, Concetta; Svahn, Johanna; Montobbio, Giovanni; Gallicola, Federica; Molinari, Angelo C; Parasole, Rosanna; Petruzziello, Fara; Fischer, Alain; Calvillo, Michaela; Dufour, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    A 9-month-old boy with life-threatening multiresistant pure red cell anemia/autoimmune hemolytic anemia within the frame of a possible, undiagnosed immune-mediated disease was initially treated with prednisone. Further-line therapies of the following 7 relapses included immunoglobulins, rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and alentuzumab followed by other maintenance treatments as cyclosporine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate. After all the administered therapies failed, the patient was successfully treated by splenectomy followed by fludarabine and then sirolimus as maintenance treatment. Relapses might have been caused by the lack of a complete debulking of triggering cells and/or ineffective maintenance therapy. Splenectomy and sirolimus may have played a complementary role in the management of both situations.

  15. Low-dose oral sirolimus reduces atherogenesis, vascular inflammation and modulates plaque composition in mice lacking the LDL receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, L; Ding, T; Cyrus, T; Cheng, Y; Tian, H; Ma, M; Falotico, R; Praticò, D

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chronic proliferative responses of different vascular cell types have been involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, their functional role remains to be established. Sirolimus reduces neointimal proliferation after balloon angioplasty and chronic graft vessel disease. These studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of this anti-proliferative drug on atherogenesis. Experimental approach: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL r-KO) mice on a cholesterol-rich diet were randomized to receive placebo or sirolimus (0.1; 0.3; or 1 mg·kg−1) in their diet for 8 or 16 weeks. Results: In both studies, plasma levels of the drug increased in a dose-dependent fashion, animals gained weight normally and, among groups, plasma lipids levels did not differ significantly. Compared with placebo, plasma levels of interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon γ, tumour necrosis factor α and CD40, and their mRNA levels in aortic tissue were significantly reduced in sirolimus-treated mice. This effect resulted in a significant and dose-dependent reduction in atherosclerotic lesions, in both the root and aortic tree. Also these lesions contained less monocyte/macrophages and smooth muscle cells, but more collagen. Conclusions and implications: The present results demonstrated that at low doses, sirolimus was an effective and safe anti-atherogenic agent in the LDL r-KO mice. It attenuated the progression of atherosclerosis and modulated the plaque phenotype by reducing the pro-inflammatory vascular responses typical of the disease. British Journal of Pharmacology (2009) doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00080.x PMID:19220291

  16. Sirolimus-Versus Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents in Acute Coronary Syndromes With C Type Left Anterior Descending Artery Lesions: A Three-Year Clinical Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Seher; Cicek, Davran; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents have improved the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention and made it the preferred therapy in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases including acute coronary syndromes. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stent with that of zotarolimus-eluting stent following percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome patients with C-type left anterior descending stenosis. Methods A total of 154 acute coronary syndrome patients with C-type lesions in the left anterior descending artery, requiring a stent > 28 mm in length, were randomized into two groups to receive either sirolimus- (n = 74) or zotarolimus-eluting stent (n = 80). The follow-up period after stent implantation was approximately 36 months. The primary endpoint was a major cardiac event (a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-related target vessel revascularization), and the secondary endpoint included these individual end points plus stent thrombosis. Results After 3 years follow-up, the rate of the primary end point (major cardiac event: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-related target vessel revascularization) was 16% in the sirolimus group (n = 12) versus 11.2% in the zotarolimus group (n = 9) (P = 0.2). Although there were four cases of stent thrombosis with sirolimus-eluting stent and one with zotarolimus-eluting stent (4.0% sirolimus vs. 1.25% zotarolimus; P = 0.2), neither non-Q myocardial infarction (4.0%sirolimus vs. 1.25% zotarolimus; P = 0.2) nor stent thrombosis, differed significantly. Conclusions Although zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation showed more favorable results with respect to stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiac event rates compared to sirolimus-eluting stent implantation, statistically, both stent groups have nearly similar clinical safety and efficacy in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes with C-type lesions in the left

  17. Interfering with the reconsolidation of traumatic memory: sirolimus as a novel agent for treating veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Surís, Alina; Smith, Julia; Powell, Craig; North, Carol S

    2013-02-01

    Development of novel treatment approaches for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critical, given the increasing prevalence of PTSD in veterans returning from war zone deployment. Established preclinical research using protein synthesis inhibitors (such as sirolimus) to interfere with fear memory reconsolidation provides a compelling rationale for investigation in humans. This double-blind, placebo-controlled translational pilot study examined the effects of pairing reactivation of a trauma memory with a single administration of sirolimus on the frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms in male combat veterans. Primary analyses found no significant differences between treatment groups on any of the clinical or physiologic outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis of a subsample of post-Vietnam-era veterans who had more recent combat trauma, PTSD symptom scores fell significantly more in these veterans than in controls. The post-Vietnam-era veteran findings suggest that further investigation of this pairing of sirolimus with traumatic memory reactivation may be warranted. Theoretically, interference with the reconsolidation of fear memories could ameliorate military-related psychological trauma symptoms. Future research should focus on veterans of more recent eras whose traumatic memories may be less entrenched and more amenable to pharmacologic modification within this procedure.

  18. Alemtuzumab and sirolimus in renal transplantation: six-year results of a single-arm prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, A I; Akhtar, M Z; Zilvetti, M; Brockmann, J; Ruse, S; Fuggle, S V; Sinha, S; Harden, P; Friend, P J

    2014-03-01

    mTOR inhibitors avoid calcineurin nephrotoxicity, but sirolimus de novo is associated with unacceptable side effects and higher rejection rates. We have investigated a modified strategy: alemtuzumab induction with tacrolimus and mycophenolate maintenance, switching from tacrolimus to sirolimus at 6 months and stopping mycophenolate at 12 months. Here, we report the 6-year follow-up of 30 patients prospectively recruited to this single-arm pilot study and compare outcomes to a matched contemporaneous control group of 30 patients who received standard induction and calcineurin-inhibitor-based immunosuppression.Six-year patient and graft survival were 83% and 80%(alemtuzumab) versus 77% and 70% (control). Rejection rates in the first 6 months were similar in alemtuzumab (6.6%) and control groups (10%). A higher than expected incidence of rejection in the alemtuzumab group following cessation of mycophenolate at 1 year (17%) was mitigated in later patients by retaining low dose mycophenolate. Mean eGFR was higher in the alemtuzumab group at all time points but not significantly (p¼0.16). Tacrolimus levels in the first 6 months were significantly higher in the contemporaneous control group (p<0.001). Alemtuzumab induction with initial treatment with tacrolimus enables conversion to sirolimus without the side effects and incidence of acute rejection seen in earlier protocols.

  19. Safety and efficacy of the Yukon Choice Flex sirolimus-eluting coronary stent in an all-comers population cohort

    PubMed Central

    Xhepa, E.; Tada, T.; Cassese, S.; King, L.; Ott, I.; Fusaro, M.; Kastrati, A.; Byrne, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The use of biodegradable-polymer drug-eluting stents has been shown to provide favorable results when compared with durable polymer drug-eluting stents and long-term follow up data have recently shown significant reductions in terms of very late stent thrombosis. Aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy profile of a novel biodegradable polymer DES, the Yukon Choice Flex sirolimus-eluting stent. Methods We report here the one-year clinical outcomes associated with the use of the Yukon Choice Flex sirolimus-eluting stent in an all-comers patient population. The present stent represents a further refinement of the stent platform tested in the ISAR TEST 3 and 4 randomized clinical trials. A total of 778 consecutive patients undergoing implantation of this stent were enrolled in the present observational study and prospectively followed for one year. Results The use of the Yukon Choice Flex stent in a patient population with complex coronary lesion morphology was associated with optimal immediate angiographic results. At one year follow up the rates of death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization were respectively 2.4%, 1.9%, 0.3% and 11.3%. Conclusions The use of the sirolimus-eluting biodegradable polymer Yukon Choice Flex stent in an all-comers population of patients with complex coronary artery disease is associated with a favorable safety and efficacy profile up to one year follow up. PMID:24973842

  20. Randomized clinical trial comparing abluminal biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents with durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents: Nine months angiographic and 5-year clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Xiangfei; Deng, Wei; Wang, Shenguo; Ge, Junbo; Toft, Egon

    2016-09-01

    The biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (DES) were developed to improve vascular healing. However, further data and longer-term follow-up are needed to confirm safety and efficacy of these stents. This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare safety and efficacy of 2 sirolimus-eluting stents (SES): Cordimax-a novel abluminal biodegradable polymer SES and Cypher Select-a durable polymer SES, at 9 months angiographic and 5-year clinical follow-up. We randomized 402 patients with coronary artery disease to percutaneous coronary intervention with Cordimax (n = 202) or Cypher select (n = 200). Angiographic follow-up was performed at 9 months after the index procedure and clinical follow-up annually up to 5 years. The primary endpoint was angiographic in-stent late luminal loss (LLL). Secondary endpoints included angiographic restenosis rate, target vessel revascularization (TVR), and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or TVR) at 5-year follow-up. Cordimax was noninferior to Cypher select for in-stent LLL (0.25 ± 0.47 vs 0.18 ± 0.49 mm; P = 0.587) and in-stent mean diameter stenosis (22.19 ± 12.21% vs 19.89 ± 10.79%; P = 0.064) at 9 months angiographic follow-up. The MACE rates were not different at 1 year (5.9% vs 4.0%, P = 0.376); however, MACE rates from 2 to 5 years were lower in the Cordimax group (6.8% vs 13.1%; P = 0.039). Abluminal biodegradable polymer SES is noninferior to durable polymer SES at 9-month angiographic and 1-year clinical follow-up. However, MACE rates from 2 to 5 years were less in the abluminal biodegradable polymer group.

  1. Biodegradable Polymer-Based Sirolimus-Eluting Stents With Differing Elution and Absorption Kinetics: The PANDA III Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Gao, Runlin; Yang, Yuejin; Cao, Xuebin; Qin, Lei; Li, Yi; Li, Zhanquan; Li, Xueqi; Lin, Hailong; Guo, Yong; Ma, Yitong; Wang, Jian'an; Nie, Shaoping; Xu, Liang; Cao, Eric; Guan, Changdong; Stone, Gregg W

    2016-05-17

    Whether the rate of drug elution and polymer absorption affects clinical outcomes of biodegradable polymer-based drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown. The widely used polylactide polymer-based Excel stent (JW Medical, Weihai, China) elutes sirolimus within 180 days, and the polylactide polymer is completely absorbed within 6 to 9 months. In contrast, the poly-lactide-co-glycolide polymer-based BuMA stent (Sino Medical, Tianjin, China) elutes sirolimus within 30 days, and the poly-lactide-co-glycolide polymer is completely absorbed within 3 months. Thus, both metallic DES elute sirolimus, isolating major differences to the polymer and elution kinetics. The goal of this study was to compare the safety and effectiveness between the BuMA sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and Excel SES in an "all-comers" population. PANDA III was a multicenter trial with few exclusion criteria, powered for sequential noninferiority and superiority testing. The primary endpoint was 1-year target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization. Between December 2013 and August 2014, 2,348 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with BuMA (n = 1,174) or Excel SES (n = 1,174). The 1-year primary endpoint of TLF occurred in 6.4% of patients in each group (difference: 0.06%; 95% confidence interval: 1.93% to 2.04%; pnoninferiority = 0.0003; psuperiority = 0.95). There were no significant between-group differences in any of the secondary endpoints other than the incidence of definite/probable stent thrombosis, which occurred less frequently with the BuMA stent (0.5% vs. 1.3%; log-rank p = 0.048). The BuMA SES was demonstrated to be noninferior to the Excel SES for 1-year TLF, with a lower incidence of stent thrombosis. (Comparison of BuMA eG Based BioDegradable Polymer Stent With EXCEL Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-eluting Stent in "Real-World" Practice [PANDA-III]; NCT02017275). Copyright

  2. Sirolimus Use in Liver Transplant Recipients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Randomized, Multicenter, Open-Label Phase 3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Edward K.; Schnitzbauer, Andreas A.; Zülke, Carl; Lamby, Philipp E.; Proneth, Andrea; Duvoux, Christophe; Burra, Patrizia; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Rentsch, Markus; Ganten, Tom M.; Schmidt, Jan; Settmacher, Utz; Heise, Michael; Rossi, Giorgio; Cillo, Umberto; Kneteman, Norman; Adam, René; van Hoek, Bart; Bachellier, Philippe; Wolf, Philippe; Rostaing, Lionel; Bechstein, Wolf O.; Rizell, Magnus; Powell, James; Hidalgo, Ernest; Gugenheim, Jean; Wolters, Heiner; Brockmann, Jens; Roy, André; Mutzbauer, Ingrid; Schlitt, Angela; Beckebaum, Susanne; Graeb, Christian; Nadalin, Silvio; Valente, Umberto; Turrión, Victor Sánchez; Jamieson, Neville; Scholz, Tim; Colledan, Michele; Fändrich, Fred; Becker, Thomas; Söderdahl, Gunnar; Chazouillères, Olivier; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe; Steininger, Rudolf; Soliman, Thomas; de Jong, Koert P.; Pirenne, Jacques; Margreiter, Raimund; Pratschke, Johann; Pinna, Antonio D.; Hauss, Johann; Schreiber, Stefan; Strasser, Simone; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Troisi, Roberto I.; Bhoori, Sherrie; Lerut, Jan; Bilbao, Itxarone; Klein, Christian G.; Königsrainer, Alfred; Mirza, Darius F.; Otto, Gerd; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Neuhaus, Peter; Schlitt, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether sirolimus-based immunosuppression improves outcomes in liver transplantation (LTx) candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods In a prospective-randomized open-label international trial, 525 LTx recipients with HCC initially receiving mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor–free immunosuppression were randomized 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation into a group on mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor–free immunosuppression (group A: 264 patients) or a group incorporating sirolimus (group B: 261). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS); intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was conducted after 8 years. Overall survival (OS) was a secondary endpoint. Results Recurrence-free survival was 64.5% in group A and 70.2% in group B at study end, this difference was not significant (P = 0.28; hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.62; 1.15). In a planned analysis of RFS rates at yearly intervals, group B showed better outcomes 3 years after transplantation (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.48-1.00). Similarly, OS (P = 0.21; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.58-1.13) was not statistically better in group B at study end, but yearly analyses showed improvement out to 5 years (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.49-1.00). Interestingly, subgroup (Milan Criteria-based) analyses revealed that low-risk, rather than high-risk, patients benefited most from sirolimus; furthermore, younger recipients (age ≤60) also benefited, as well sirolimus monotherapy patients. Serious adverse event numbers were alike in groups A (860) and B (874). Conclusions Sirolimus in LTx recipients with HCC does not improve long-term RFS beyond 5 years. However, a RFS and OS benefit is evident in the first 3 to 5 years, especially in low-risk patients. This trial provides the first high-level evidence base for selecting immunosuppression in LTx recipients with HCC. PMID:26555945

  3. Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Drug‐Drug Interactions of Isavuconazole With the Immunosuppressants Cyclosporine, Mycophenolic Acid, Prednisolone, Sirolimus, and Tacrolimus in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Groll, Andreas H.; Desai, Amit; Han, David; Howieson, Corrie; Kato, Kota; Akhtar, Shahzad; Kowalski, Donna; Lademacher, Christopher; Lewis, William; Pearlman, Helene; Mandarino, Debra; Yamazaki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report summarizes phase 1 studies that evaluated pharmacokinetic interactions between the novel triazole antifungal agent isavuconazole and the immunosuppressants cyclosporine, mycophenolic acid, prednisolone, sirolimus, and tacrolimus in healthy adults. Healthy subjects received single oral doses of cyclosporine (300 mg; n = 24), mycophenolate mofetil (1000 mg; n = 24), prednisone (20 mg; n = 21), sirolimus (2 mg; n = 22), and tacrolimus (5 mg; n = 24) in the presence and absence of clinical doses of oral isavuconazole (200 mg 3 times daily for 2 days; 200 mg once daily thereafter). Coadministration with isavuconazole increased the area under the concentration‐time curves (AUC0–∞) of tacrolimus, sirolimus, and cyclosporine by 125%, 84%, and 29%, respectively, and the AUCs of mycophenolic acid and prednisolone by 35% and 8%, respectively. Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of tacrolimus, sirolimus, and cyclosporine were 42%, 65%, and 6% higher, respectively; Cmax of mycophenolic acid and prednisolone were 11% and 4% lower, respectively. Isavuconazole pharmacokinetics were mostly unaffected by the immunosuppressants. Two subjects experienced elevated creatinine levels in the cyclosporine study; most adverse events were not considered to be of clinical concern. These results indicate that isavuconazole is an inhibitor of cyclosporine, mycophenolic acid, sirolimus, and tacrolimus metabolism. PMID:27273343

  4. A 12-month single arm pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sirolimus in combination with tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients at high immunologic risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhan; Lee, Jung Jun; Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Jae Geun; Huh, Kyu Ha; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Yu Seun

    2015-06-01

    The optimal immunosuppressive strategy for renal transplant recipients at high immunologic risk remains a topic of investigation. This prospective single arm pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a combined tacrolimus and sirolimus regimen in recipients at immunological high risk and to compare outcomes with a contemporaneous control group received tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Patients that received a renal allograft between 2010 and 2011 at high risk (defined as panel reactive antibodies > 50%, 4 or more human leukocyte antigen mismatches, or retransplantation) were enrolled. All patients received basiliximab induction and corticosteroids. A total of 28 recipients treated with tacrolimus and sirolimus were enrolled in this study and 69 recipients were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. The sirolimus group showed a higher, but not statistically significant, incidence of biopsy proven acute rejection and a lower glomerular filtration rate than the control group. Furthermore, sirolimus group was associated with significant increases in BKV infection (P = 0.031), dyslipidemia (P = 0.004), and lymphocele (P = 0.020). The study was terminated prematurely due to a high incidence of adverse events. A de novo tacrolimus/sirolimus combination regimen may not be an ideal choice for recipients at high immunological risk.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of a novel abluminal surface coated sirolimus eluting stent with biodegradable polymer matrix

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Manish; Galloni, Marco; Vignolini, Christina; Vyas, Ashwin; Chevli, Bhavesh; Sheiban, Imad

    2015-01-01

    Background Second generation of drug eluting stents (DES) has attempted to improve safety using abluminal sirolimus drug delivery with biodegradable polymers matrix. The present preclinical study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy profile of Abluminus™ stents (SES). This is a new coronary stent with sirolimus and biodegradable polymer matrix coated on abluminal stent and balloon surface. Methods SES were compared with two controls: bare metal stent (BMS) and BMS + polymer coated stents (PC). All devices (40 stents) were implanted in porcine coronary arteries with primary endpoint of endothelialization at 7 days and subsequent histological and morphometric evaluations at 7, 30 and 90 days. Results Early endothelialization at seven days was complete in all stents. Histology at 30 days revealed minimum inflammation in all groups and increased at 90 days in PC group while it was absent at 180 days. Thirty day morphometry showed significantly reduction of neointimal area in Abluminus™ (SES 0.96±0.48 mm2; BMS 1.83±0.34 mm2; PC 1.76±0.55 mm2; P<0.05); after 90 days neointimal area was 1.10±0.54 mm2 for SES; 1.92±0.36 mm2 for BMS; and 1.94±0.48 mm2 for PC; P<0.05). Neointimal thickness at 30 and 90 days respectively was 0.15±0.07 and 0.18±0.10 mm for SES, 0.57±0.08 and 0.61±0.09 mm for BMS and 0.52±0.09 and 0.59±0.08 mm, P<0.001 for PC group. Conclusions The most significant experimental evidence appears to be earlier endothelialization at 7 days for SES which led to safety of the device. Efficacy of the device was also observed by a reduced neointimal thickness and minimized inflammatory score at all follow-ups. Termination of antiplatelet at 30 days has not shown any further complications. Polymer thickness was almost in negligible amount at 180 days with no inflammation. PMID:26331109

  6. Quantitation of sirolimus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

    PubMed

    Korecka, Magdalena; Shaw, Leslie M

    2010-01-01

    A multiple reaction monitoring positive ion HPLC method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS-MS) for determination of sirolimus in human blood samples is described. This method utilizes an online cleanup step that provides simple and rapid sample preparation with a switching valve technique. This procedure includes: instrumentation, API 3000 triple quadrupole with turbo-ion spray (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA); HPLC system (Agilent Technologies series 1100, Wilmington, DE); two position switching valve (Valco, Houston, TX); 10 mm guard cartridge (C(18)) used as an extraction column (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT); analytical column (Nova-Pak C(18) column, 2.1 x 150 mm I.D., 4 microm, Waters Corp, Milford, MA) maintained at 65 degrees C; extraction solution, ammonium acetate (30 mM, pH 5.2), flow rate 1.0 mL/min; eluting solution, methanol:30 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.2, 97:3 v/v), flow rate 0.8 mL/min with 1/3 of the flow split post-column into the MS-MS; total run-time 3.5 min. Sample preparation is based on simple protein precipitation with a mixture of methanol and zinc sulfate (7:3, v/v) followed by online sample cleanup. This procedure provides a decreased sample preparation time by a factor of four compared to a method that uses an SPE column. The first and third quadrupoles were set to detect the ammonium adduct ion and a high mass fragment of sirolimus (m/z 931.8-->864.6), and of an internal standard (ascomycin) (m/z 809.5-->756.5). The lower limit of quantification of this method is 2.5 microg/L. The quantification of drug is made from standard curve using peak-area ratio of analyte vs. internal standard. Calibration curve is constructed using non-weighted linear through zero regression.

  7. Association of Sirolimus Use With Risk for Skin Cancer in a Mixed-Organ Cohort of Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients With a History of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Karia, Pritesh S; Azzi, Jamil R; Heher, Eliot C; Hills, Victoria M; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2016-05-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are at an increased risk for skin cancer. Prior studies have demonstrated a reduced incidence of skin cancer in renal OTRs treated with sirolimus. However, little information exists on the use of sirolimus for the prevention of skin cancer in nonrenal OTRs or those already diagnosed as having a posttransplant cancer. To compare subsequent skin cancer formation in a mixed-organ cohort of OTRs who were or were not treated with sirolimus after developing a posttransplant index cancer of any type. A 9-year retrospective cohort study at 2 academic tertiary care centers. Electronic medical records were reviewed for OTRs diagnosed as having a posttransplant cancer of any type to determine the type of organ transplanted, pretransplant and posttransplant cancer, and immunosuppressive medications. Patients underwent transplant from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008. Data were collected from July 30, 2011, to December 31, 2012, when follow-up was completed, and analyzed from April 28, 2013, to October 4, 2014. Factors associated with subsequent skin cancer development were evaluated via multivariate Cox regression analysis. Of 329 OTRs with an index posttransplant cancer (100 women and 229 men; mean [SD] age, 56 [19] years), 177 (53.8%) underwent renal transplant; 58 (17.6%), heart transplant; 54 (16.4%), lung transplant; 34 (10.3%), liver transplant; and 6 (1.8%), mixed-organ transplant. Ninety-seven OTRs (29.5%) underwent conversion to sirolimus therapy after diagnosis. One hundred thirty OTRs (39.5%) developed second posttransplant cancers, of which 115 cases (88.5%) were skin cancers. An 11.6% reduction in skin cancer risk was observed in the sirolimus-treated vs non-sirolimus-treated groups overall (26 of 97 [26.8%] vs 89 of 232 [38.4%]; P = .045) and among nonrenal OTRs only (8 of 34 [23.5%] vs 44 of 112 [39.3%], respectively), although the latter difference was not significant (P = .09). Independent predictors of

  8. Three-year follow-up of patients with bifurcation lesions treated with sirolimus- or everolimus-eluting stents: SEAside and CORpal cooperative study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Manuel; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Medina, Alfonso; Suárez de Lezo, Jose; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Romero, Miguel; Porto, Italo; Mazuelos, Francisco; Leone, Antonio Maria; Martín, Pedro; Coluccia, Valentina; Suárez de Lezo, Javier; Ojeda, Soledad; Crea, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the 3-year incidence of major events in patients with bifurcation lesions treated with provisional sirolimus-eluting stents vs everolimus-eluting stents. A pooled analysis of 2 prospective randomized trials with similar methodology (SEAside and CORpal) was performed. In these trials, 443 patients with bifurcation lesions were randomly assigned to treatment with either sirolimus-eluting stents or everolimus-eluting stents. The clinical follow-up was extended up to 3 years to assess major adverse cardiovascular events (death or acute myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularization). At 3 years, survival free of major adverse cardiovascular events was 93.2% vs 91.3% in the everolimus-eluting stent group vs the sirolimus-eluting stent group (P = .16). Exploratory land-mark analysis for late events (occurring after 12 months) showed significantly fewer major adverse cardiovascular events in the everolimus-eluting stent group: 1.4% vs 5.4% in the sirolimus-eluting stent group (P = .02). Provisional stenting with either sirolimus-eluting stents or everolimus-eluting stents in bifurcation lesions is associated with low rates of major adverse events at 3-years' follow-up. The results of a subanalysis of events beyond 1 year, showing a lower event rate with everolimus-eluting stents than with sirolimus-eluting stents, suggest that studies exploring the long-term clinical benefit of the latest generation of drug-eluting stents are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Response of human renal tubular cells to cyclosporine and sirolimus: a toxicogenomic study.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Rabant, Marion; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; Lecorre, Delphine; Mucchielli, Marie-Hélène; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Agier, Nicolas; Hertig, Alexandre; Thervet, Eric; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Anglicheau, Dany

    2008-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the potentially nephrotoxic response of tubular cells to immunosuppressive drugs remain poorly understood. Transcriptional profiles of human proximal tubular cells exposed to cyclosporine A (CsA), sirolimus (SRL) or their combination, were established using oligonucleotide microarrays. Hierarchical clustering of genes implicated in fibrotic processes showed a clear distinction between expression profiles with CsA and CsA+SRL treatments on the one hand and SRL treatment on the other. Functional analysis found that CsA and CsA+SRL treatments preferentially alter biological processes located at the cell membrane, such as ion transport or signal transduction, whereas SRL modifies biological processes within the nucleus and related to transcriptional activity. Genome wide expression analysis suggested that CsA may induce an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tubular cells in vitro. Moreover we found that CsA exposure in vivo is associated with the upregulation of the ER stress marker BIP in kidney transplant biopsies. In conclusion, this toxicogenomic study highlights the molecular interaction networks that may contribute to the tubular response to CsA and SRL. These results may also offer a new working hypothesis for future research in the field of CsA nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to evaluate if ER stress detection in tubular cells in human biopsies can predict CsA nephrotoxicity.

  10. Comparison of cyclosporine and sirolimus effects on serum creatinine level over five years after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, A R; Kamkar, I; Nikoueinejad, H; Moraweji, A R

    2013-05-01

    Conversion from cyclosporine to sirolimus (SRL) after organ transplantation may improve renal function. The current study considers the effects of conversion during a 5-year period. Among 98 primary kidney recipients, 88 completed the study on cyclosporine (n = 59) or SRL (n = 29) treatment. Conversion to SRL was performed between 3 and 6 months post-transplantation. The serum creatinine level was tested on 1 day as well as 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after transplantation. The data were analyzed using student t test, chi square, repeated measures, and a mixed model for multivariate analysis. The mean serum creatinine levels in the cyclosporine and SRL groups were 1.78 ± 0.68 and 1.62 ± 1.01, respectively (P = .04). Using repeated measure analysis, there was an interaction between time and the drug (P = .039). A separate comparison showed that serum creatinine levels were significantly different between the 2 groups at time points 11 and 12. Using multivariate analysis to control the possible effect of demographic or clinical features, we confirmed that conversion was the most significant explanation for the renal function improvement. Compared with cyclosporine, we observed a preference for SRL as the maintenance immunosuppressant after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sirolimus conversion regimen versus continued calcineurin inhibitors in liver allograft recipients: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, M F; Humar, A; Stickel, F; Andreone, P; Pascher, A; Barroso, E; Neff, G W; Ranjan, D; Toselli, L T; Gane, E J; Scarola, J; Alberts, R G; Maller, E S; Lo, C-M

    2012-03-01

    A large prospective, open-label, randomized trial evaluated conversion from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)- to sirolimus (SRL)-based immunosuppression for preservation of renal function in liver transplantation patients. Eligible patients received liver allografts 6-144 months previously and maintenance immunosuppression with CNI (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) since early posttransplantation. In total, 607 patients were randomized (2:1) to abrupt conversion (<24 h) from CNI to SRL (n = 393) or CNI continuation for up to 6 years (n = 214). Between-group changes in baseline-adjusted mean Cockcroft-Gault GFR at month 12 (primary efficacy end point) were not significant. The primary safety end point, noninferiority of cumulative rate of graft loss or death at 12 months, was not met (6.6% vs. 5.6% in the SRL and CNI groups, respectively). Rates of death at 12 months were not significantly different, and no true graft losses (e.g. liver transplantation) were observed during the 12-month period. At 52 weeks, SRL conversion was associated with higher rates of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (p = 0.02) and discontinuations (p < 0.001), primarily for adverse events. Adverse events were consistent with known safety profiles. In conclusion, liver transplantation patients showed no demonstrable benefit 1 year after conversion from CNI- to SRL-based immunosuppression.

  12. Cell phenotype evaluation at various sites after skin transplantation and FTY720 plus sirolimus therapy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C T; Rosin, F C P; Cordeiro, J A; Bueno, V

    2010-03-01

    Cell phenotype evaluation enables better understanding of the rejection process in experimental transplantation. We studied allograft survival and the mechanisms associated with rejection in a murine model of skin transplantation in the absence of immunosuppression or after FTY720 or sirolimus (SRL) administration for 21 days. Leukocyte phenotype was evaluated in the peripheral blood, spleen, axillary lymph nodes, thymus gland, and skin graft using flow cytometry at 5 days posttransplantation. Treatment with FTY720 plus SRL increased skin allograft survival in association with lymphopenia, reduced CD11b+ and CD3+CD4+ cell percentages in the graft, decreased CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, and CD11b+ cell counts in lymphoid organs, and decreased CD4+CD8+ cell count in the thymus. These results suggest that increased allograft survival in animals treated with FTY720 plus SRL is due to possible impairment of antigen presentation or recognition in the graft and secondary lymphoid organs, and decreased emigration of mature thymocytes to the periphery. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of human renal tubular cells to cyclosporine and sirolimus: A toxicogenomic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pallet, Nicolas Rabant, Marion; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; LeCorre, Delphine; Mucchielli, Marie-Helene; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Agier, Nicolas; Thervet, Eric; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Anglicheau, Dany

    2008-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the potentially nephrotoxic response of tubular cells to immunosuppressive drugs remain poorly understood. Transcriptional profiles of human proximal tubular cells exposed to cyclosporine A (CsA), sirolimus (SRL) or their combination, were established using oligonucleotide microarrays. Hierarchical clustering of genes implicated in fibrotic processes showed a clear distinction between expression profiles with CsA and CsA + SRL treatments on the one hand and SRL treatment on the other. Functional analysis found that CsA and CsA + SRL treatments preferentially alter biological processes located at the cell membrane, such as ion transport or signal transduction, whereas SRL modifies biological processes within the nucleus and related to transcriptional activity. Genome wide expression analysis suggested that CsA may induce an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tubular cells in vitro. Moreover we found that CsA exposure in vivo is associated with the upregulation of the ER stress marker BIP in kidney transplant biopsies. In conclusion, this toxicogenomic study highlights the molecular interaction networks that may contribute to the tubular response to CsA and SRL. These results may also offer a new working hypothesis for future research in the field of CsA nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to evaluate if ER stress detection in tubular cells in human biopsies can predict CsA nephrotoxicity.

  14. Sirolimus and Everolimus Pathway: Reviewing Candidate Genes Influencing Their Intracellular Effects

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Simona; Dalla Gassa, Alessandra; Carraro, Amedeo; Brunelli, Matteo; Stallone, Giovanni; Lupo, Antonio; Zaza, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) and everolimus (EVR) are mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) largely employed in renal transplantation and oncology as immunosuppressive/antiproliferative agents. SRL was the first mTOR-I produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus and approved for several medical purposes. EVR, derived from SRL, contains a 2-hydroxy-ethyl chain in the 40th position that makes the drug more hydrophilic than SRL and increases oral bioavailability. Their main mechanism of action is the inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 and the regulation of factors involved in a several crucial cellular functions including: protein synthesis, regulation of angiogenesis, lipid biosynthesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and function, cell cycle, and autophagy. Most of the proteins/enzymes belonging to the aforementioned biological processes are encoded by numerous and tightly regulated genes. However, at the moment, the polygenic influence on SRL/EVR cellular effects is still not completely defined, and its comprehension represents a key challenge for researchers. Therefore, to obtain a complete picture of the cellular network connected to SRL/EVR, we decided to review major evidences available in the literature regarding the genetic influence on mTOR-I biology/pharmacology and to build, for the first time, a useful and specific “SRL/EVR genes-focused pathway”, possibly employable as a starting point for future in-depth research projects. PMID:27187382

  15. Late spontaneous decapsulation of the kidney graft in a patient with hepatitis C and treated with sirolimus: possible pathophysiological association in a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rita; Pinto, Helena; Alves, Rui; Figueiredo, Arnaldo

    2017-01-18

    Late decapsulation with fluid collection is a rare complication of renal transplantation with deleterious effects on kidney function. Its physiopathology is unclear but there might be an association with mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitors, especially in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We report a case of late spontaneous decapsulation 12 years after kidney transplant in a patient infected with hepatitis C under treatment with sirolimus. He underwent marsupialisation of the collection, sirolimus was converted to cyclosporine and hepatitis C treatment was performed with success. This is the first successful case report of late spontaneous decapsulation of the kidney graft in a patient with hepatitis C.

  16. Early cyclosporine a withdrawal in kidney-transplant recipients receiving sirolimus prevents progression of chronic pathologic allograft lesions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Juan C; Campistol, Josep M; Grinyó, Josep M; Mota, Alfredo; Prats, Dolores; Gutiérrez, Jose A; Henriques, Antonio C; Pinto, Jose R; García, Javier; Morales, Jose M; Gómez, Jose M; Arias, Manuel

    2004-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is partially responsible for the development of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Sirolimus has demonstrated its potential to substitute for CNIs because it lacks significant nephrotoxicity and shows a short-term immunosuppressive capacity comparable with that of cyclosporine. This results in the maintenance of better renal function when cyclosporine is eliminated, but it has not been demonstrated whether this benefit is associated with an improvement in the pathologic substrate and a reduction in CAN. We analyzed pretransplant and 1-year renal-allograft biopsies from 64 patients enrolled in a multicenter trial. Patients received cyclosporine and sirolimus during the first 3 months after transplant and were then randomly assigned to continue with cyclosporine or have it withdrawn. Histologic chronic allograft lesions were compared between groups. The percentage of patients in whom chronic pathologic lesions progressed was lower in the group of cyclosporine elimination. Significant differences were observed in chronic interstitial and tubular lesions (70% vs. 40.9% [P<0.05] and 70% vs. 47.8% [P<0.05], respectively), whereas no differences were observed in acute lesions (subclinical rejection). Prevalence of CAN at 1 year was lower in this group, as was the severity and incidence of new cases (P<0.05). Early cyclosporine withdrawal associated with sirolimus administration is followed by an improvement in renal function, a reduction in the progression of chronic pathologic allograft lesions, and a lower incidence of new cases and severity of CAN during the first year after transplantation. This benefit may result in better long-term graft outcome.

  17. Histopathological comparison of biodegradable polymer and permanent polymer based sirolimus eluting stents in a porcine model of coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Koppara, Tobias; Joner, Michael; Bayer, Gerd; Steigerwald, Kristin; Diener, Tobias; Wittchow, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Biodegradable stent coatings were recently introduced as a potential solution to overcome sustained inflammatory responses observed with permanent polymer-based drug-eluting stents. In a preliminary study, selected biodegradable or permanent polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) formulations were screened for effectiveness in comparison to bare metal stents (BMS) at 28 days. Subsequently, the most favourable SES formulation was compared to commercially available SES (Cypher™) at 28, 90 and 180 days to investigate the histopathologic response as well as tissue, blood and organ pharmacokinetics. Overlapping SES implantation was conducted to evaluate vascular healing at 28 days in this particular setting. SES with biodegradable poly (L-lactide) polymer (PLLA) or poly(lactide-co-glycolide) showed the most favourable outcome with regards to reductions in neointimal area in comparison to BMS at 28 days. The PLLA SES showed a similar reduction in neointimal area compared to Cypher™ at 28 days, with significant greater reductions at 90 and 180 days (1.7 ± 0.7 mm² vs. 3.1 ± 1.5 mm², p=0.03 and 1.8 ± 1.2 mm² vs. 3.0 ± 1.5 mm², p=0.01, respectively). Sirolimus vascular tissue concentrations were detectable up to 90 days following implantation. Overlapping stented segments showed favourable histopathologic results with respect to fibrin deposition and endothelialisation at 28 days. In conclusion, the use of PLLA as drug-eluting matrix resulted in mild inflammatory responses in the presence of effective sirolimus tissue concentrations. The greater efficacy observed at long-term follow-up in PLLA SES compared to Cypher™ may be a multifactorial result of stent design, polymer biocompatibility and improved release kinetics.

  18. Tacrolimus/sirolimus vs tacrolimus/methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis after matched, related donor allogeneic HCT

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Brent; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Johnston, Laura; Choi, Sung; Porter, David; Hogan, William J.; Pasquini, Marcelo; MacMillan, Margaret L.; Hsu, Jack W.; Waller, Edmund K.; Grupp, Stephan; McCarthy, Philip; Wu, Juan; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Carter, Shelly L.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Antin, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in approximately 35% of matched, related donor (MRD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. We sought to determine if the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus (Tac/Sir) was more effective than tacrolimus and methotrexate (Tac/Mtx) in preventing acute GVHD and early mortality after allogeneic MRD HCT in a phase 3, multicenter trial. The primary end point of the trial was to compare 114-day grades 2-4 acute GVHD-free survival using an intention-to-treat analysis of 304 randomized subjects. There was no difference in the probability of day 114 grades 2-4 acute GVHD-free survival (67% vs 62%, P = .38). Grades 2-4 GVHD was similar in the Tac/Sir and Tac/Mtx arms (26% vs 34%, P = .48). Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were more rapid in the Tac/Sir arm (14 vs 16 days, P < .001; 16 vs 19 days, P = .03). Oropharyngeal mucositis was less severe in the Tac/Sir arm (peak Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale score 0.70 vs 0.96, P < .001), but otherwise toxicity was similar. Chronic GVHD, relapse-free survival, and overall survival at 2 years were no different between study arms (53% vs 45%, P = .06; 53% vs 54%, P = .77; and 59% vs 63%, P = .36). Based on similar long-term outcomes, more rapid engraftment, and less oropharyngeal mucositis, the combination of Tac/Sir is an acceptable alternative to Tac/Mtx after MRD HCT. This study was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute; and the trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00406393. PMID:24982504

  19. Polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stents in a large-scale all-comers population

    PubMed Central

    Krackhardt, Florian; Kočka, Viktor; Waliszewski, Matthias W.; Utech, Andreas; Lustermann, Meik; Hudec, Martin; Studenčan, Martin; Schwefer, Markus; Yu, Jiangtao; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Taehoon; Wan Ahmad, Wan Azman; Boxberger, Michael; Schneider, André; Leschke, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a polymer-free sirolimus coated, ultrathin strut drug-eluting stent (PF-SES) in an unselected patient population with a focus on acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, stable coronary artery disease (CAD) with short (≤6 months) versus long (>6 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were also studied. Methods Patients who received PF-SES were investigated in an unselected large-scale international, single-armed, multicenter, ‘all comers’ observational study. The primary endpoint was the 9-month target lesion revascularisation (TLR) rate, whereas secondary endpoints included the 9-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and procedural success rates. A priori defined subgroups such as patients with ACS, diabetes, lesion subsets and procedural characteristics relative to DAPT were investigated. Results A total of 2877 patients of whom 1084 had ACS were treated with PF-SES (1.31±0.75 stents per patient). At 9 months, the accumulated overall TLR rate was 2.3% (58/2513). There was no significant difference between ACS and stable CAD (2.6% vs 2.1%, p=0.389). However, the overall MACE rate was 4.3% (108/2513) with a higher rate in patients with ACS when compared with the stable CAD subgroup (6.1%, 58/947 vs 3.2%, 50/1566, p<0.001). Conclusions PF-SES angioplasty is safe and effective in the daily clinical routine with low rates of TLR and MACE in an unselected patient population. Our data are in agreement with prior clinical findings that extended DAPT duration beyond 6 months do not improve clinical outcomes in patients with stable CAD (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02629575). Trial registration number NCT02629575. PMID:28761678

  20. A Prospective, Multinational Pharmacoepidemiological Study of Clinical Conversion to Sirolimus Immunosuppression after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Nashan, Bjorn; Del Carmen Rial, Maria; Raffaele, Pablo; Russ, Graeme; Campistol, Josep; Pescovitz, Mark D.; Keown, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This prospective pharmacoepidemiological study examined treatment and outcomes in patients converted to sirolimus (SRL) after renal transplantation. 484 subjects in 36 centres in 7 countries were followed for up to 5 years. Principal reasons for conversion were declining graft function (146/484, 30%) and side effects of prior therapy (144/484, 30%) and the major treatment combinations after conversion were SRL ± MMF (62%), SRL + TAC (21.5%), SRL + CSA (16.5%). The cumulative probability of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) was 5% (n = 22), death-censored graft loss 12% (n = 56) and death 6% (n = 22), and there was no significant relationship to the treatment combination employed. Median calculated creatinine clearance was 48.4 (29.3, 64.5) mL/min at conversion, rising to 54.1 (41.2, 69.0) mL/min at month 1, 55.7 (39.0, 73.0) mL/min at month 12, 58.6 (39.7, 75.2) mL/min at two years and 60.9 (36.0, 77.0) mL/min at three years post-conversion. The most common adverse events were hypertension (47%), hyperlipidemia (26%), urinary tract infections (25%), anaemia (24%) and diarrhea (14%), and cardiac events, hyperlipemia and CMV infection were more common in patients converted during the first year. SRL was most frequently combined with MMF after conversion, but principal clinical outcomes were not significantly influenced by the treatment combination employed in normal practice. PMID:22934151

  1. Polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stents in a large-scale all-comers population.

    PubMed

    Krackhardt, Florian; Kočka, Viktor; Waliszewski, Matthias W; Utech, Andreas; Lustermann, Meik; Hudec, Martin; Studenčan, Martin; Schwefer, Markus; Yu, Jiangtao; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Taehoon; Wan Ahmad, Wan Azman; Boxberger, Michael; Schneider, André; Leschke, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a polymer-free sirolimus coated, ultrathin strut drug-eluting stent (PF-SES) in an unselected patient population with a focus on acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, stable coronary artery disease (CAD) with short (≤6 months) versus long (>6 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were also studied. Patients who received PF-SES were investigated in an unselected large-scale international, single-armed, multicenter, 'all comers' observational study. The primary endpoint was the 9-month target lesion revascularisation (TLR) rate, whereas secondary endpoints included the 9-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and procedural success rates. A priori defined subgroups such as patients with ACS, diabetes, lesion subsets and procedural characteristics relative to DAPT were investigated. A total of 2877 patients of whom 1084 had ACS were treated with PF-SES (1.31±0.75 stents per patient). At 9 months, the accumulated overall TLR rate was 2.3% (58/2513). There was no significant difference between ACS and stable CAD (2.6% vs 2.1%, p=0.389). However, the overall MACE rate was 4.3% (108/2513) with a higher rate in patients with ACS when compared with the stable CAD subgroup (6.1%, 58/947 vs 3.2%, 50/1566, p<0.001). PF-SES angioplasty is safe and effective in the daily clinical routine with low rates of TLR and MACE in an unselected patient population. Our data are in agreement with prior clinical findings that extended DAPT duration beyond 6 months do not improve clinical outcomes in patients with stable CAD (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02629575). NCT02629575.

  2. Sirolimus for below the knee lesions: mid-term results of SiroBTK study.

    PubMed

    Commeau, Philippe; Barragan, Paul; Roquebert, Pierre O

    2006-11-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) in the treatment of severe intermittent claudication and critical limb ischaemia with "below-the-knee" lesions, unsuitable for surgery. Limited published evidence suggests that drug-eluting stents may offer significant improvements in the treatment of infrapopliteal lesions. Thirty consecutive patients with either severe intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia (CLI), category 3-6 of Rutherford classification, and multivessel disease of infrapopliteal arteries (> or = 2 vessels) were treated with SES. Sixty-two arteries were treated with 106 SES. Mean age was 73.9 years, 77% of patients were male and 36% diabetic. The primary endpoint was clinical improvement and healing of ulcers at short term (1 month) and mid term (7.7 months). The secondary endpoint was primary vessel patency rate (angiographic or duplex assessment). All patients received clopidogrel (75 mg daily) or ticlopidine (150 mg daily) for 2 months or longer. Angiographic and procedural success was achieved in all patients. At 7 months (7.7 +/- 5.8), it was necessary to amputate 1 toe in one patient and 1 mid-foot in another. Limb salvage was obtained in 100% of patients. Other events were: two cardiac deaths unrelated to CLI, one stroke with hemiparesia, one initial reperfusion syndrome, one contralateral CLI, and three recurrent homolateral claudication cases. All surviving patients had a mid-term clinical improvement with 97% of primary patency (56 patent arteries on 58 arteries). Treatment of "below-the-knee" lesions with SES may provide an alternative treatment for patients with CLI. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Safety and Efficacy of New Sirolimus-eluting Stent Models in a Preclinical Study.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Pérez de Prado, Armando; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Cuellas-Ramón, Carlos; Regueiro-Purriños, Marta; Gonzalo-Orden, José M; López-Benito, María; Molina-Crisol, María; Duocastella-Codina, Luis; Fernández-Vázquez, Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Initial preclinical studies are required during the process of improving polymers, platforms, and drug-eluting systems for new coronary stent designs. Our objective was to analyze the efficacy and safety of new drug-eluting stent models compared with a conventional stent and commercialized drug-eluting stents in an experimental model with healthy porcine coronary arteries. Sixty stents (conventional stent, new sirolimus-eluting stents: drug-eluting stents 1, 2 and 3; Cypher(®) and Xience(®)) were randomly placed in the coronary arteries of 20 Large White domestic pigs. Angiographic and histomorphometric studies were done 28 days later. The stents were implanted at a stent/artery ratio of 1.34±0.15, with no significant differences between groups. The new stents showed less late loss and angiographic restenosis than conventional stents (P=.006 and P<.001, respectively). Histologically, restenosis and neointimal area were lower with all the new platforms than with the conventional stents (P<.001 for each variable), and no differences were found vs the drug-eluting stents on the market. Safety data showed that endothelialization was lower with drug-eluting stents than with conventional stents, except for drug-eluting stent 3 (P=.084). Likewise, inflammation was lower with drug-eluting stent 3 than with other stents. The new drug-eluting stent platforms studied are associated with less restenosis than conventional stents and showed no significant differences in safety or efficacy vs commercialized drug-eluting stents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Nicorandil prevents sirolimus-induced production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Ken; Takahari, Youko; Higashijima, Naoko; Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Ishizuka, Nobuhiko; Endo, Koichi; Fukuyama, Naoto; Hirano, Katsuya; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-03-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) is widely used to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, its beneficial effect is hampered by complications of thrombosis. Several studies imply that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in endothelial dysfunction and thrombus formation. The present study investigated the protective effect of nicorandil (NIC), an anti-angina agent, on SRL-associated thrombosis. In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), SRL stimulated ROS production, which was prevented by co-treatment with NIC. The preventive effect of NIC on ROS was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate but not by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. NIC also inhibited SRL-induced up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox) mRNA. Co-treatment with NIC and SRL significantly up-regulated superoxide dismutase 2. NIC treatment significantly improved SRL-induced decrease in viability of HCAECs. The functional relevance of the preventive effects of NIC on SRL-induced ROS production and impairment of endothelial viability was investigated in a mouse model of thrombosis. Pretreatment with NIC inhibited the SRL-induced acceleration of FeCl3-initiated thrombus formation and ROS production in the testicular arteries of mice. In conclusion, NIC prevented SRL-induced thrombus formation, presumably due to the reduction of ROS and to endothelial protection. The therapeutic efficacy of NIC could represent an additional option in the prevention of SRL-related thrombosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis promotes the in vivo expansion of regulatory T cells and permits peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donors.

    PubMed

    Peccatori, J; Forcina, A; Clerici, D; Crocchiolo, R; Vago, L; Stanghellini, M T L; Noviello, M; Messina, C; Crotta, A; Assanelli, A; Marktel, S; Olek, S; Mastaglio, S; Giglio, F; Crucitti, L; Lorusso, A; Guggiari, E; Lunghi, F; Carrabba, M; Tassara, M; Battaglia, M; Ferraro, A; Carbone, M R; Oliveira, G; Roncarolo, M G; Rossini, S; Bernardi, M; Corti, C; Marcatti, M; Patriarca, F; Zecca, M; Locatelli, F; Bordignon, C; Fleischhauer, K; Bondanza, A; Bonini, C; Ciceri, F

    2015-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haploidentical family donors is a promising therapeutic option for high-risk hematologic malignancies. Here we explored in 121 patients, mostly with advanced stage diseases, a sirolimus-based, calcineurin-inhibitor-free prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) to allow the infusion of unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts from partially HLA-matched family donors (TrRaMM study, Eudract 2007-5477-54). Conditioning regimen was based on treosulfan and fludarabine, and GvHD prophylaxis on antithymocyte globulin Fresenius (ATG-F), rituximab and oral administration of sirolimus and mycophenolate. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment occurred in median at 17 and 19 days after HSCT, respectively, and full donor chimerism was documented in patients' bone marrow since the first post-transplant evaluation. T-cell immune reconstitution was rapid, and high frequencies of circulating functional T-regulatory cells (Treg) were documented during sirolimus prophylaxis. Incidence of acute GvHD grade II-IV was 35%, and occurrence and severity correlated negatively with Treg frequency. Chronic GvHD incidence was 47%. At 3 years after HSCT, transpant-related mortality was 31%, relapse incidence 48% and overall survival 25%. In conclusion, GvHD prophylaxis with sirolimus-mycophenolate-ATG-F-rituximab promotes a rapid immune reconstitution skewed toward Tregs, allowing the infusion of unmanipulated haploidentical PBSC grafts.

  6. The addition of sirolimus to tacrolimus/methotrexate GVHD prophylaxis in children with ALL: a phase 3 Children's Oncology Group/Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium trial.

    PubMed

    Pulsipher, Michael A; Langholz, Bryan; Wall, Donna A; Schultz, Kirk R; Bunin, Nancy; Carroll, William L; Raetz, Elizabeth; Gardner, Sharon; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Howrie, Denise; Goyal, Rakesh K; Douglas, James G; Borowitz, Michael; Barnes, Yvonne; Teachey, David T; Taylor, Candace; Grupp, Stephan A

    2014-03-27

    Sirolimus has activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in xenograft models and efficacy in preventing acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). We tested whether addition of sirolimus to GVHD prophylaxis of children with ALL would decrease aGVHD and relapse. Patients were randomized to tacrolimus/methotrexate (standard) or tacrolimus/methotrexate/sirolimus (experimental). The study met futility rules for survival after enrolling 146 of 259 patients. Rate of Grade 2-4 aGVHD was 31% vs 18% (standard vs experimental, P = .04), however, grade 3-4 aGVHD was not different (13% vs 10%, P = .28). Rates of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) were lower in the nonsirolimus arm (9% vs 21% VOD, P = .05; 1% vs 10% TMA, P = .06). At 2 years, event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 56% vs 46%, and 65% vs 55% (standard vs experimental), respectively (P = .28 and .23). Multivariate analysis showed increased relapse risk in children with ≥0.1% minimal residual disease (MRD) pretransplant, and decreased risk in patients with grades 1-3 aGVHD (P = .04). Grades 1-3 aGVHD were associated with improved EFS (P = .02), whereas grade 4 aGVHD and extramedullary disease at diagnosis led to inferior OS. Although addition of sirolimus decreased aGVHD, survival was not improved. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT00382109.

  7. Long-term treatment of cutaneous manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex with topical 1% sirolimus cream: A prospective study of 25 patients.

    PubMed

    Malissen, Nausicaa; Vergely, Laurence; Simon, Marguerite; Roubertie, Agathe; Malinge, Marie-Claire; Bessis, Didier

    2017-09-01

    Data on long-term topical sirolimus treatment of the cutaneous manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex are rare. To evaluate the long-term benefit and tolerance of topical 1% sirolimus in tuberous sclerosis complex. In this 18-month prospective single-center study, 1% sirolimus cream was applied daily to facial angiofibromas (FAs), fibrous cephalic plaques (FCPs), shagreen patches, hypomelanotic macules, and ungual fibromas. After complete clearance (CC) of FAs, we evaluated a maintenance protocol of 3 applications weekly. Twenty-five patients were enrolled. Fifty percent obtained CC of FAs within 9 months. Of 7 patients with CC (58%) who were following the maintenance protocol, 6 relapsed within 7 months and 1 was still responding at 1 year. Of 16 patients with FCPs, 7 (44%) remained stable at 12 months and 9 (56%) improved after 3 to 9 months of treatment. Only 1 of 5 patients treated for shagreen patches showed improvement at 12 months. Treatment was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The small number of patients was a limitation. Topical 1% sirolimus applied daily produced positive responses in treatment of FAs, FCPs, and facial hypomelanotic macules and was well tolerated. A 3-times-weekly maintenance protocol did not prevent FA relapses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase I dose-escalation study of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus and the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat in patients with advanced malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Haeseong; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Falchook, Gerald S.; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Hong, David S.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Subbiah, Vivek; Zinner, Ralph G.; Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Fanale, Michelle A.; Velez-Bravo, Vivianne M.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical models suggest that histone deacetylase (HDAC) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have synergistic anticancer activity. We designed a phase I study to determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase II dose (RP2D), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of combined mTOR inhibitor sirolimus (1 mg-5 mg PO daily) and HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (100 mg-400 mg PO daily) in patients with advanced cancer. Seventy patients were enrolled and 46 (66%) were evaluable for DLT assessment since they completed cycle 1 without dose modification unless they had DLT. DLTs comprised grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n = 6) and grade 3 mucositis (n = 1). Sirolimus 4 mg and vorinostat 300 mg was declared RP2D because MTD with sirolimus 5 mg caused significant thrombocytopenia. The grade 3 and 4 drug-related toxic effects (including DLTs) were thrombocytopenia (31%), neutropenia (8%), anemia (7%), fatigue (3%), mucositis (1%), diarrhea (1%), and hyperglycemia (1%). Of the 70 patients, 35 (50%) required dose interruption or modification and 61 were evaluable for response. Partial responses were observed in refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (−78%) and perivascular epithelioid tumor (−54%), and stable disease in hepatocellular carcinoma and fibromyxoid sarcoma. In conclusion, the combination of sirolimus and vorinostat was feasible, with thrombocytopenia as the main DLT. Preliminary anticancer activity was observed in patients with refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, perivascular epithelioid tumor, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27589687

  9. Early and Severe Radiation Toxicity Associated with Concurrent Sirolimus in an Organ Transplant Recipient with Head and Neck Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Manyam, Bindu V; Nwizu, Tobenna I; Rahe, Melissa L; Harr, Bridgett A; Koyfman, Shlomo A

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a history of liver transplantation who was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin for recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The patient was transitioned from tacrolimus to sirolimus for immunosuppression immediately prior to the start of radiation therapy, with the goal of reducing the risk for further skin cancer recurrence. The patient developed severe normal tissue toxicity, disproportionate to the dose delivered. He was diagnosed with Grade 4 esophagitis and mucositis after just 2,400 cGy in 12 fractions (planned 6,400 cGy in 32 fractions), requiring cessation of therapy. Six months later, the patient was diagnosed with local recurrence and distant metastases in the lung, and unfortunately passed away one month later. Randomized data have demonstrated the anti-neoplastic benefit of sirolimus. Pre-clinical studies and animal models have suggested that sirolimus may be a radiation sensitizer; however, the literature is limited regarding the clinical translation of these biologic findings. The case we presented reflects that concurrent radiation therapy with sirolimus may enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation therapy and contribute to dose-limiting toxicity. Certainly, further study is necessary to explore this observation.

  10. Sirolimus induces apoptosis and reverses multidrug resistance in human osteosarcoma cells in vitro via increasing microRNA-34b expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Rui-hua; Tseng, Kuo-Fu; Li, Kun-peng; Lu, Zhi-gang; Liu, Yuan; Han, Kun; Gan, Zhi-hua; Lin, Shu-chen; Hu, Hai-yan; Min, Da-liu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Multi-drug resistance poses a critical bottleneck in chemotherapy. Given the up-regulation of mTOR pathway in many chemoresistant cancers, we examined whether sirolimus (rapamycin), a first generation mTOR inhibitor, might induce human osteosarcoma (OS) cell apoptosis and increase the sensitivity of OS cells to anticancer drugs in vitro. Methods: Human OS cell line MG63/ADM was treated with sirolimus alone or in combination with doxorubicin (ADM), gemcitabine (GEM) or methotrexate (MTX). Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. MiRNAs in the cells were analyzed with miRNA microarray. The targets of miR-34b were determined based on TargetScan analysis and luciferase reporter assays. The expression of relevant mRNA and proteins was measured using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. MiR-34, PAK1 and ABCB1 levels in 40 tissue samples of OS patients were analyzed using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization assays. Results: Sirolimus (1–100 nmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed the cell proliferation (IC50=23.97 nmol/L) and induced apoptosis. Sirolimus (10 nmol/L) significantly sensitized the cells to anticancer drugs, leading to decreased IC50 values of ADM, GEM and MTX (from 25.48, 621.41 and 21.72 μmol/L to 4.93, 73.92 and 6.77 μmol/L, respectively). Treatment of with sirolimus increased miR-34b levels by a factor of 7.5 in the cells. Upregulation of miR-34b also induced apoptosis and increased the sensitivity of the cells to the anticancer drugs, whereas transfection with miR-34b-AMO, an inhibitor of miR-34b, reversed the anti-proliferation effect of sirolimus. Two key regulators of cell cycle, apoptosis and multiple drug resistance, PAK1 and ABCB1, were demonstrated to be the direct targets of miR-34b. In 40 tissue samples of OS patients, significantly higher miR-34 ISH score and lower PAK5 and ABCB1 scores were detected in the chemo-sensitive group. Conclusion: Sirolimus increases the sensitivity of human OS

  11. The combination of sirolimus plus tacrolimus improves outcome after reduced-intensity conditioning, unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation compared with cyclosporine plus mycofenolate

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Simón, Jose Antonio; Martino, Rodrigo; Parody, Rocío; Cabrero, Mónica; Lopez-Corral, Lucía; Valcarcel, David; Martinez, Carmen; Solano, Carlos; Vazquez, Lourdes; Márquez-Malaver, Francisco J.; Sierra, Jordi; Caballero, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Different types of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis have been proposed in the setting of reduced intensity and non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation. An alternative combination with sirolimus and tacrolimus has recently been tested although comparative studies against the classical combination of a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil or methotrexate are lacking. We describe the results of a prospective, multicenter trial using sirolimus + tacrolimus as immunoprophylaxis, and compare this approach with our previous experience using cyclosporine + mycophenolate in the setting of unrelated donor transplantation setting after reduced-intensity conditioning. Forty-five patients received cyclosporine + mycophenolate between 2002 and mid-2007, while the subsequent 50 patients, who were transplanted from late 2007, were given sirolimus + tacrolimus. No significant differences were observed in terms of hematopoietic recovery or acute graft-versus-host disease overall, although gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease grade ≥2 was more common in the cyclosporine + mycophenolate group (55% versus 21%, respectively, P=0.003). The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 50% versus 90% for the patients treated with the sirolimus- versus cyclosporine-based regimen, respectively (P<0.001), while the incidence of extensive chronic disease was 27% versus 49%, respectively (P=0.043). The 2-year non-relapse mortality rate was 18% versus 38% for patients receiving the sirolimus- versus the cyclosporine-based regimen, respectively (P=0.02). The event-free survival and overall survival at 2 years were 53% versus 29% (P=0.028) and 70% versus 45% (P=0.018) among patients receiving the sirolimus- versus the cyclosporine-based regimen, respectively. In conclusion, in the setting of reduced intensity transplantation from an unrelated donor, promising results can be achieved with the combination of sirolimus + tacrolimus

  12. Treatment of complex periorbital venolymphatic malformation in a neonate with a combination therapy of sirolimus and prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Benjamin, Latanya; Wysong, Ashley; Hovsepian, David; Teng, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Venolymphatic malformations (VLMs) are vascular anomalies consisting of both veins and lymph vessels. A 2-week-old newborn presented with large VLMs on the left forehead, temple, preauricular area, and orbit. Patient was at imminent risk for permanent vision loss due to a localized mass effect. Surgical excision or debulking was contraindicated due to its complexity and proximity to the left eye, and the patient failed to respond to the sildenafil treatment and sclerotherapy. Patient was subsequently started on oral sirolimus 0.8 mg/m(2) twice daily in combination with prednisolone 2 mg/kg daily. The patient had an excellent therapeutic outcome for 7 months with complete preservation of vision before treatment was discontinued. However, 2 months after the medical treatments were discontinued, her VLM rebounded. She responded to the combination therapy again after a failed treatment with the mTOR inhibitor alone. This case demonstrates that the sirolimus and prednisolone combination therapy could be beneficial for treatment of complex VLM intractable to other treatments.

  13. BK Polyomavirus Replication in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Is Inhibited by Sirolimus, but Activated by Tacrolimus Through a Pathway Involving FKBP‐12

    PubMed Central

    Yakhontova, K.; Lu, M.; Manzetti, J.

    2015-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication causes nephropathy and premature kidney transplant failure. Insufficient BKPyV‐specific T cell control is regarded as a key mechanism, but direct effects of immunosuppressive drugs on BKPyV replication might play an additional role. We compared the effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)‐ and calcineurin‐inhibitors on BKPyV replication in primary human renal tubular epithelial cells. Sirolimus impaired BKPyV replication with a 90% inhibitory concentration of 4 ng/mL by interfering with mTOR–SP6‐kinase activation. Sirolimus inhibition was rapid and effective up to 24 h postinfection during viral early gene expression, but not thereafter, during viral late gene expression. The mTORC‐1 kinase inhibitor torin‐1 showed a similar inhibition profile, supporting the notion that early steps of BKPyV replication depend on mTOR activity. Cyclosporine A also inhibited BKPyV replication, while tacrolimus activated BKPyV replication and reversed sirolimus inhibition. FK binding protein 12kda (FKBP‐12) siRNA knockdown abrogated sirolimus inhibition and increased BKPyV replication similar to adding tacrolimus. Thus, sirolimus and tacrolimus exert opposite effects on BKPyV replication in renal tubular epithelial cells by a mechanism involving FKBP‐12 as common target. Immunosuppressive drugs may therefore contribute directly to the risk of BKPyV replication and nephropathy besides suppressing T cell functions. The data provide rationales for clinical trials aiming at reducing the risk of BKPyV replication and disease in kidney transplantation. PMID:26639422

  14. BK Polyomavirus Replication in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Is Inhibited by Sirolimus, but Activated by Tacrolimus Through a Pathway Involving FKBP-12.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H H; Yakhontova, K; Lu, M; Manzetti, J

    2016-03-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication causes nephropathy and premature kidney transplant failure. Insufficient BKPyV-specific T cell control is regarded as a key mechanism, but direct effects of immunosuppressive drugs on BKPyV replication might play an additional role. We compared the effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)- and calcineurin-inhibitors on BKPyV replication in primary human renal tubular epithelial cells. Sirolimus impaired BKPyV replication with a 90% inhibitory concentration of 4 ng/mL by interfering with mTOR-SP6-kinase activation. Sirolimus inhibition was rapid and effective up to 24 h postinfection during viral early gene expression, but not thereafter, during viral late gene expression. The mTORC-1 kinase inhibitor torin-1 showed a similar inhibition profile, supporting the notion that early steps of BKPyV replication depend on mTOR activity. Cyclosporine A also inhibited BKPyV replication, while tacrolimus activated BKPyV replication and reversed sirolimus inhibition. FK binding protein 12kda (FKBP-12) siRNA knockdown abrogated sirolimus inhibition and increased BKPyV replication similar to adding tacrolimus. Thus, sirolimus and tacrolimus exert opposite effects on BKPyV replication in renal tubular epithelial cells by a mechanism involving FKBP-12 as common target. Immunosuppressive drugs may therefore contribute directly to the risk of BKPyV replication and nephropathy besides suppressing T cell functions. The data provide rationales for clinical trials aiming at reducing the risk of BKPyV replication and disease in kidney transplantation.

  15. Cell Cycle Regulation of Smooth Muscle Cells--Searching for Inhibitors of Neointima Formation: Is Combretastatin A4 an Alternative to Sirolimus and Paclitaxel?

    PubMed

    Spira, Daniel; Grözinger, Gerd; Domschke, Nicole; Bantleon, Rüdiger; Schmehl, Jörg; Wiskirchen, Jakub; Wiesinger, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    To compare the effects of sirolimus, paclitaxel, and combretastatin A4 (CA4) on regulatory proteins of the cell cycle in proliferating smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Human aortic SMCs were treated with sirolimus, paclitaxel, and CA4 at 5 × 10(-9) mol/L. After 1 day, half of the cells were harvested (DAY1 group). The treatment medium of the other half was replaced with culture medium on day 4, and those cells were harvested on day 5 (DAY5 group). Cyclins D1, D2, E, and A and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16, p21, and p27 were detected by Western blot technique. Quantification was performed by scanning densitometry of the specific bands. In the DAY1 group, treatment with sirolimus resulted in decreased intracellular levels of cyclins D2 and A (P < .05). Increased D cyclins and reduced levels of cyclins E and A (P < .05) in the DAY5 group indicated a permanent G1/S block by sirolimus. Paclitaxel led to only slight alterations of cyclin and CDK inhibitor expression (P > .05). In the DAY1 group, CA4 decreased intracellular levels of cyclins D2, E, and A (P < .05). Despite recovery effects in the DAY5 group (increase of cyclins D1, D2, and A compared with DAY1 group; P < .05), the upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p21, increased D cyclins, and decreased cyclins E and A (P < .05) are compatible with a G1 arrest. CA4 is a stronger inhibitor of the SMC cycle than sirolimus or paclitaxel and may represent an alternative for drug-eluting stents in atherosclerotic luminal stenosis. The effect of CA4 on neointima formation should be evaluated further. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neointimal hyperplasia persists at six months after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic porcine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Lin; Pu, LiJin; Zhang, RuiYan; Shen, Jie; Zhu, ZhengBing; Hu, Jian; Yang, ZhenKun; Chen, QiuJin; Shen, WeiFeng

    2007-01-01

    Background Observational clinical studies have shown that patients with diabetes have less favorable results after percutaneous coronary intervention compared with the non-diabetic counterparts, but its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation in a diabetic porcine model, and to evaluate the impact of aortic inflammation on this proliferative process. Methods Diabetic porcine model was created with an intravenous administration of a single dose of streptozotocin in 15 Chinese Guizhou minipigs (diabetic group); each of them received 2 SES (Firebird, Microport Co, China) implanted into 2 separated major epicardial coronary arteries. Fifteen non-diabetic minipigs with SES implantation served as controls (control group). At 6 months, the degree of neointimal hyperplasia was determined by repeat coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and histological examination. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein level in the aortic intima was evaluated by Western blotting, and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were assayed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Results The distribution of stented vessels, diameter of reference vessels, and post-procedural minimal lumen diameter were comparable between the two groups. At 6-month follow-up, the degree of in-stent restenosis (40.4 ± 24.0% vs. 20.2 ± 17.7%, p < 0.05), late lumen loss (0.33 ± 0.19 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.09 mm, p < 0.001) by quantitative angiography, percentage of intimal hyperplasia in the stented area (26.7 ± 19.2% vs. 7.3 ± 6.1%, p < 0.001) by IVUS, and neointimal area (1.59 ± 0.76 mm2 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18 mm2, p < 0.05) by histological examination were significantly exacerbated in the diabetic group than those in the controls. Significant increases in TNF-α protein and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were observed in aortic intima in the diabetic group

  17. Effects of maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus after liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Gustafson, Sally K; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K; Segev, Dorry L; Engels, Eric A

    2016-05-01

    For recipients of liver transplantations (LTs) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC recurrence after transplantation remains a major concern. Sirolimus (SRL), an immunosuppressant with anticarcinogenic properties, may reduce HCC recurrence and improve survival. In our study, the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was linked to pharmacy claims. For liver recipients transplanted for HCC, Cox regression was used to estimate associations of early SRL use with recurrence, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality, adjusting for recipient ethnicity, calendar year of transplant, total tumor volume, alpha-fetoprotein, transplant center size, use of interleukin 2 induction therapy, and allocated and calculated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. We performed stratified analyses among recipients who met Milan criteria, among those without renal failure, among those with deceased liver donors, by age at transplantation, and by tumor size. Among the 3936 included HCC LTs, 234 (6%) were SRL users. In total, there were 242 recurrences and 879 deaths, including 261 cancer-related deaths. All-cause mortality was similar in SRL users and nonusers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.73-1.39). HCC recurrence and cancer-specific mortality rates appeared lower in SRL users, but associations were not statistically significant (recurrence aHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.45-1.65; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.43-1.50). Among recipients >55 years old, associations were suggestive of better outcomes for SRL users (all-cause mortality aHR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.38-1.01; recurrence aHR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.19-1.44; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.11-1.09), whereas among recipients ≤55 years old, SRL users had worse outcomes (all-cause mortality aHR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.12-2.75; recurrence aHR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.62-3.61; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.71-3.32). In conclusion, among HCC liver recipients overall, SRL did not appear

  18. Therapeutic drug monitoring for sirolimus in whole blood of organ transplants by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Campanero, Miguel Angel; Cardenas, Ernesto; Sádaba, Belén; García-Quetglas, Emilio; Muñoz-Juarez, Maria Jose; Gil-Aldea, Isabel; Pazo, David; Azanza, Jose Ramón; Honorato, Jesús

    2004-03-26

    We developed and validated an accurate, sensitive, precise and rapid HPLC method with UV detection for the determination of sirolimus in blood samples from renal, cardiac and hepatic transplants. This method overcomes most of the problems related to previously published assays using a narrow-bore column with base deactivated C18 reversed phase. Whole blood samples were purified by a combination of a precipitating blood matrix with zinc sulphate and a single step liquid-liquid extraction with acetone and 1-chlorobutane. Calibration curves (range 2.5-150 ng/ml), were linear with coefficients of correlation better than 0.996. The relative standard deviation was determined to be less than 8%. The present method has also been validated by a reference laboratory (St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, UK). More of 300 clinical samples have been analysed with this method.

  19. Use of factorial design for evaluation of factors affecting the chemical stability of sirolimus (rapamycin) in solid dosage form.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Petra; Homar, Miha; Bajc, Aleksander; Kerč, Janez; Simona, Bohanec

    2012-03-01

    Effects of four process and formulation parameters (spraying rate of ethanol solution, drying and tablet hardness and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) content) were evaluated in terms of initial quality of tablets using factorial design approach. For determination of stability of final drug product, the tablets were exposed to stress testing conditions and the three most significant factors were investigated (spraying rate of ethanol solution, drying and HPMC content). Considering the chemical stability of Sirolimus, the following responses were found to be most important: total sum of degradation products, levels of impurity I and assay of isomer C. Investigated factors and their interactions most significantly affected the assay of isomer C in initial and in stressed stability testing samples. The factorial design approach is a very economic way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time, which is especially important in studies that include a variety of different factors and their interactions.

  20. A combination of corticosteroid, sirolimus, and intradialytic parenteral nutrition in encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Minetto Brabo, Alexandre; Soares Do Carmo Reis, Nayrana; Barretti, Pasqual; Ponce, Daniela

    2016-10-09

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis that carries a high morbidity and mortality. Although its pathogenesis is still not clear, the "two hit theory" suggests that long term deterioration of the peritoneum combined with intraperitoneal inflammation is needed in the pathogenesis of EPS. To date, there is no proven effective therapy with an absence of randomized controlled trials. Individual case reports and small case series have reported on the use of tamoxifen and corticosteroids for medical management of EPS. Here, we present the first case of EPS treated successfully with a combination of sirolimus, low dose corticosteroid and intradialytic parenteral nutrition. A critical review of the relevant literature on this subject is also presented to determine the best approach.

  1. A randomized phase II trial of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus after non-myeloablative unrelated donor transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kornblit, Brian; Maloney, David G; Storer, Barry E; Maris, Michael B; Vindeløv, Lars; Hari, Parameswaran; Langston, Amelia A; Pulsipher, Michael A; Bethge, Wolfgang A; Chauncey, Thomas R; Lange, Thoralf; Petersen, Finn B; Hübel, Kai; Woolfrey, Ann E; Flowers, Mary E D; Storb, Rainer; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2014-10-01

    The study is a randomized phase II trial investigating graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after non-myeloablative (90 mg/m(2) fludarabine and 2 Gy total body irradiation) human leukocyte antigen matched unrelated donor transplantation. Patients were randomized as follows: arm 1 - tacrolimus 180 days and mycophenolate mofetil 95 days (n=69); arm 2 - tacrolimus 150 days and mycophenolate mofetil 180 days (n=71); arm 3 - tacrolimus 150 days, mycophenolate mofetil 180 days and sirolimus 80 days (n=68). All patients had sustained engraftment. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease rates in the 3 arms were 64%, 48% and 47% at Day 150, respectively (arm 3 vs. arm 1 (hazard ratio 0.62; P=0.04). Owing to the decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease, systemic steroid use was lower at Day 150 in arm 3 (32% vs. 55% in arm 1 and 49% in arm 2; overall P=0.009 by hazard ratio analysis). The Day 150 incidence of cytomegalovirus reactivation was lower in arm 3 (arm 1, 54%; arm 2, 47%; arm 3, 22%; overall P=0.002 by hazard ratio analysis). Non-relapse mortality was comparable in the three arms at two years (arm 1, 26%; arm 2, 23%; arm 3, 18%). Toxicity rates and other outcome measures were similar between the three arms. The addition of sirolimus to tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil is safe and associated with lower incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus reactivation. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 00105001). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. 6-Month Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes of a Novel Radiopaque Sirolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold: The FANTOM II Study.

    PubMed

    Abizaid, Alexandre; Carrié, Didier; Frey, Norbert; Lutz, Matthias; Weber-Albers, Joachim; Dudek, Darius; Chevalier, Bernard; Weng, Shu-Chuan; Costa, Ricardo A; Anderson, Jeffrey; Stone, Gregg W

    2017-09-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the novel Fantom coronary bioresorbable scaffold at 6 months. The Fantom sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold incorporates a unique proprietary iodinated, polycarbonate copolymer of tyrosine analogs that is radiopaque, with thin struts (125 μm) that facilitate device delivery and precise target lesion treatment. The 6-month outcomes and performance of the Fantom scaffold were evaluated in 117 patients with single de novo native coronary artery lesions of length ≤20 mm and reference vessel diameter 2.5 to 3.5 mm. The primary angiographic endpoint was mean late lumen loss at 6 months measured by quantitative coronary angiography. Procedural outcomes were categorized as short-term technical success, short-term procedural success, and clinical procedural success. The primary clinical endpoint was major adverse cardiac events at 6 months, the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR). Short-term technical success, short-term procedural success, and clinical procedural success were achieved in 96.6%, 99.1%, and 99.1% of patients, respectively. Mean 6-month in-stent late lumen loss was 0.25 ± 0.40 mm (n = 100). Binary restenosis was present in 2 patients (2.0%). Major adverse cardiac events within 6 months occurred in 3 patients (2.6%), including no deaths, 2 MIs, and 2 TLRs (1 patient had both an MI and TLR). Scaffold thrombosis occurred in 1 patient (0.9%). The clinical results from 117 patients enrolled in cohort A of the multicenter FANTOM II (Safety & Performance Study of the FANTOM Sirolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Coronary Scaffold) study demonstrate favorable 6-month outcomes of this novel device in the treatment of noncomplex coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Serum VEGF-D concentration as a biomarker of lymphangioleiomyomatosis severity and treatment response: a prospective analysis of the Multicenter International Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Efficacy of Sirolimus (MILES) trial

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lisa R; Lee, Hye-Seung; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Moss, Joel; Singer, Lianne G; Strange, Charlie; Nakata, Koh; Barker, Alan F; Chapman, Jeffrey T; Brantly, Mark L; Stocks, James M; Brown, Kevin K; Lynch, Joseph P; Goldberg, Hilary J; Downey, Gregory P; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Trapnell, Bruce C; McCormack, Francis X

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background VEGF-D is a lymphangiogenic growth factor that has a key role in tumour metastasis. Serum VEGF-D concentrations are increased in most patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, a rare neoplasm associated with mTOR-activating tuberous sclerosis gene mutations, lymphadenopathy, metastatic spread, and pulmonary cyst formation. We used data from the Multicenter International Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Efficacy of Sirolimus (MILES) trial to assess the usefulness of serum VEGF-D concentration as a marker of severity and therapeutic response to sirolimus in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Methods In the MILES trial, patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis who had forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of 70% or less of predicted were randomly assigned (1:1) to 12 months masked treatment with sirolimus or placebo. Serum VEGF-D concentrations were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. We used a linear regression model to assess associations of baseline VEGF-D concentrations with markers of disease severity, and a linear mixed effects model to assess the associations of VEGF-D concentrations with between-group differences in clinical, physiological, and patient-reported outcomes. Findings We included 42 patients from the placebo group and 45 from the sirolimus group in our analysis. Baseline VEGF-D concentrations in individual patients varied from 0·34 ng/mL to 16·7 ng/mL. Baseline VEGF-D concentrations were higher in patients who needed supplemental oxygen than in those who did not need supplemental oxygen (1·7 ng/mL [IQR 0·99–3·36] vs 0·84 ng/mL [0·52–1·39]; p<0·0001) and in those who had a bronchodilator response than in those who did not (2·01 ng/mL [0·99–2·86] vs 1·00 ng/mL [0·61–2·15]; 0·0273). Median serum VEGF-D concentrations were similar at baseline in the sirolimus and placebo groups, and fell from baseline at 6 and 12 months in the sirolimus group but remained roughly stable in the placebo group. Each one

  4. In vivo evaluation of the delivery and efficacy of a sirolimus-laden polymer gel for inhibition of hyperplasia in a porcine model of arteriovenous hemodialysis graft stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Huan; Zhuplatov, Ilya; Blumenthal, Donald K.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Owen, Shawn C.; Kholmovski, Eugene G.; Fowers, Kirk D.; Rathi, Ramesh; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic arteriovenous (AV) hemodialysis grafts are plagued by hyperplasia resulting in occlusion and graft failure yet there are no clinically available preventative treatments. Here the delivery and degradation of a sirolimus-laden polymer gel was monitored in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its efficacy for inhibiting hyperplasia was evaluated in a porcine model of AV graft stenosis. Synthetic grafts were placed between the carotid artery and ipsilateral jugular vein of swine. A biodegradable polymer gel loaded with sirolimus (2.5 mg/mL) was immediately applied perivascularly to the venous anastomosis, and reapplied by ultrasound-guided injections at one, two and three weeks. Control grafts received neither sirolimus nor polymer. The lumen cross-sectional area at the graft-vein anastomosis was assessed in vivo by non-invasive MRI. The explanted tissues also underwent histological analysis. A specifically developed MRI pulse sequence provided a high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the polymer and surrounding tissue that allowed confirmation of gel location after injection. Polymer signal decreased up to 80% at three to four weeks after injection, slightly faster than its degradation kinetics in vitro. The MR image of the polymer was confirmed by visual assessment at necropsy. On histological assessment, the mean hyperplasia surface area of the treated graft was 52% lower than that of the control grafts (0.43 mm2 vs. 0.89 mm2; p < 0.003), while the minimum cross-sectional lumen area, as measured on MRI, was doubled (5.3 mm2 vs 2.5 mm2; p < 0.05). In conclusion, customized MRI allowed non-invasive monitoring of the location and degradation of drug-delivery polymer gels in vivo. Perivascular application of sirolimus-laden polymer yielded a significant decrease in hyperplasia development and an increase in lumen area at the venous anastomosis of AV grafts. PMID:22465391

  5. The efficacy and safety of cyclosporine reduction in de novo renal allograft patients receiving sirolimus and corticosteroids: results from an open-label comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Ferdinand; Neumayer, Hans-Helmut; del Castillo, Domingo; Stefoni, Sergio; Zygmunt, Anthony J; Budde, Klemens

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a sirolimus, corticosteroid, and cyclosporine reduction regimen in an open-label, 12-month trial of 420 de novo renal allograft recipients at 49 European transplant centers. One month post-transplantation, 357 patients were randomized to receive standard-dose cyclosporine (sCsA, n = 179) or reduced-dose cyclosporine (rCsA, n = 178). All patients also received sirolimus and corticosteroids. The primary end points were the rate of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) and renal function, as measured by serum creatinine. Baseline demographic and donor characteristics were similar between groups. BCAR rates at 12 months were not significantly different: 11.2% for rCsA patients and 16.2% for sCsA patients. Mean serum creatinine (±SEM) was significantly lower (1.75 ± 0.10 vs. 1.97 ± 0.07 mg/dl, P < 0.001), and creatinine clearance (±SEM; Nankivell method) was significantly higher (57.8 ± 1.78 vs. 49.5 ± 2.46 ml/min, P < 0.001) in patients receiving rCsA versus sCsA at 1 year, respectively. Patient and graft survival exceeded 98% in both groups. No significant differences in infection or malignancy were noted between groups. The rCsA with sirolimus and corticosteroid regimen resulted in excellent 12-month patient and graft survival, a low incidence of BCAR, and improved renal function in renal allograft recipients. Sirolimus administered with rCsA and corticosteroids provided adequate immunosuppression while reducing the potential for the nephrotoxic effects of cyclosporine. These findings may help to improve long-term renal allograft outcomes. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-associated stomatitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients receiving sirolimus prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Aboalela, Ali; Luskin, Katharine A; Cutler, Corey S; Sonis, Stephen T; Woo, Sook Bin; Peterson, Douglas E; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor sirolimus is effective in reducing incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Agents that inhibit the mTOR pathway are known to be associated with significant and potentially dose-limiting toxicities, including stomatitis. The objective of this study was to report the clinical features and management outcomes of sirolimus-associated oral ulcers in the context of post-HSCT prophylaxis of GVHD. Seventeen patients, from a study cohort of 967, who were treated with sirolimus as prophylaxis for GVHD after allogeneic HSCT at the Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center developed oral ulcers and were referred to the oral medicine clinic for evaluation and treatment over a period of 6 years. Clinical characteristics (appearance, anatomic site, size) and therapeutic outcomes (time to complete resolution) were documented. Median time to onset of oral ulceration was 55 days after allogeneic HSCT (range, 6 to 387 days); 92.9% of ulcers were located on nonkeratinized mucosa, with the ventrolateral tongue the most common site of involvement. Thirteen patients were treated with topical corticosteroid therapy; 12 of these patients also required intralesional corticosteroid injections. Clinical improvement (resolution of the lesions and improvement of symptoms) was noted in all cases, with no reported adverse events. Median time to complete resolution after onset of therapy was 14 days (range, 2 to 70 days). Patients receiving sirolimus for GVHD prophylaxis may develop painful oral ulcerations, which can be effectively managed with topical steroid treatment. Further prospective studies are needed to better elucidate the incidence of this complication, identify risk factors, and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.

  7. The Effect of Different Dosing Schedules of Intravitreal Sirolimus, a Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Non-Infectious Uveitis (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Do, Diana V; Sepah, Yasir J

    2016-08-01

    To determine if two different doses of intravitreal sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, can decrease inflammation and is safe in eyes with non-infectious posterior, intermediate, or panuveitis in the Sirolimus as a Therapeutic Approach UVEitis: Protocol-2 (SAVE-2) Study. SAVE-2 is a prospective randomized, phase II, open-label interventional clinical trial conducted at 4 clinical centers in the United States. Eligible subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Group 1 received 440µg of intravitreal sirolimus in study eyes on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150; group 2 received 880µg of intravitreal sirolimus on days 0, 60, and 120. Fellow eyes were also eligible to receive sirolimus (of opposite dose to that of study eye). Primary endpoint of the study was at month 6 (M6). 24 subjects have been randomized in SAVE-2 and are included in the analysis. Vitreous haze decreased by ≥2 steps in 63.6% and 50% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively at M6 (p=0.695). Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity for subjects was +3.66 and -2.91 ETDRS letters in group 1 and 2, respectively. Among subjects with macular edema at baseline (n=13), the mean change in foveal thickness was -89.42µm in group 1 and +81.5µm in group 2 at M6. Both low and high doses of intravitreal sirolimus were found to decrease vitreous haze in eyes with non-infectious uveitis. Low dose (440µg) sirolimus administered monthly may be more efficacious in reducing uveitic macular edema than high dose (880µg) administered every 2 months.

  8. Randomized evaluation of two drug-eluting stents with identical metallic platform and biodegradable polymer but different agents (paclitaxel or sirolimus) compared against bare stents: 1-year results of the PAINT trial.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Pedro A; Moulin, Bruno; Perin, Marco A; Oliveira, Ludmilla A R R; Arruda, J Airton; Lima, Valter C; Lima, Antonio A G; Caramori, Paulo R A; Medeiros, Cesar R; Barbosa, Mauricio R; Brito, Fabio S; Ribeiro, Expedito E; Martinez, Eulógio E

    2009-11-01

    We tested two novel drug-eluting stents (DES), covered with a biodegradable-polymer carrier and releasing paclitaxel or sirolimus, which were compared against a bare metal stent (primary objective). The DES differed by the drug, but were identical otherwise, allowing to compare the anti-restenosis effects of sirolimus versus paclitaxel (secondary objective). The efficacy of novel DES with biodegradable polymers should be tested in the context of randomized trials, even when using drugs known to be effective, such as sirolimus and paclitaxel. Overall, 274 patients with de novo coronary lesions in native vessels scheduled for stent implantation were randomly assigned (2:2:1 ratio) for the paclitaxel (n = 111), sirolimus (n = 106), or bare metal stent (n = 57) groups. Angiographic follow-up was obtained at 9 months and major cardiac adverse events up to 12 months. Both paclitaxel and sirolimus stents reduced the 9-month in-stent late loss (0.54-0.44 mm, 0.32-0.43 mm, vs. 0.90-0.45 mm respectively), and 1-year risk of target vessel revascularization and combined major adverse cardiac events (P < 0.05 for both, in all comparisons), compared with controls. Sirolimus stents had lower late loss than paclitaxel stents (P < 0.01), but similar 1-year clinical outcomes. There were no differences in the risk of death, infarction, or stent thrombosis among the study groups. Both novel DES were effective in reducing neointimal hyperplasia and 1-year re-intervention, compared to bare metal stents. Our findings also suggest that sirolimus is more effective than paclitaxel in reducing angiographic neointima, although this effect was not associated with better clinical outcomes. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. One year cost effectiveness of sirolimus eluting stents compared with bare metal stents in the treatment of single native de novo coronary lesions: an analysis from the RAVEL trial

    PubMed Central

    van Hout, B A; Serruys, P W; Lemos, P A; van den Brand, M J B M; Es, G-A van; Lindeboom, W K; Morice, M-C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the balance between costs and effects of the sirolimus eluting stent in the treatment of single native de novo coronary lesions in the RAVEL (randomised study with the sirolimus eluting Bx Velocity balloon expandable stent in the treatment of patients with de novo native coronary artery lesions) study. Design: Multicentre, double blind, randomised trial Setting: Percutaneous coronary intervention for single de novo coronary lesions Patients: 238 patients with stable or unstable angina. Interventions: Randomisation to sirolimus eluting stent or bare stent implantation. Main outcome measures: Patients were followed up to one year and the treatment effects were expressed as one year survival free of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Costs were estimated as the product of resource utilisation and Dutch unit costs. Results: At one year, the absolute difference in MACE-free survival was 23% in favour of the sirolimus eluting stent group. At the index procedure, sirolimus eluting stent implantation had an estimated additional procedural cost of €1286. At one year, however, the estimated additional cost difference had decreased to €54 because of the reduction in the need for repeat revascularisations in the sirolimus group (0.8% v 23.6%; p < 0.01). After adjustment of actual results for the consequences of angiographic follow up (correction based on data from the BENESTENT (Belgium Netherlands stent) II study), the difference in MACE-free survival was estimated at 11.1% and the additional one year costs at €166. Conclusions: The one year data from RAVEL suggest an attractive balance between costs and effects for sirolimus eluting stents in the treatment of single native de novo coronary lesions. The cost effectiveness of drug eluting stents in more complex lesion subsets remains to be determined. PMID:15772214

  10. The Effect of Different Dosing Schedules of Intravitreal Sirolimus, a Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Non-Infectious Uveitis (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Do, Diana V.; Sepah, Yasir J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if two different doses of intravitreal sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, can decrease inflammation and is safe in eyes with non-infectious posterior, intermediate, or panuveitis in the Sirolimus as a Therapeutic Approach UVEitis: Protocol-2 (SAVE-2) Study. Methods: SAVE-2 is a prospective randomized, phase II, open-label interventional clinical trial conducted at 4 clinical centers in the United States. Eligible subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Group 1 received 440µg of intravitreal sirolimus in study eyes on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150; group 2 received 880µg of intravitreal sirolimus on days 0, 60, and 120. Fellow eyes were also eligible to receive sirolimus (of opposite dose to that of study eye). Primary endpoint of the study was at month 6 (M6). Results: 24 subjects have been randomized in SAVE-2 and are included in the analysis. Vitreous haze decreased by ≥2 steps in 63.6% and 50% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively at M6 (p=0.695). Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity for subjects was +3.66 and −2.91 ETDRS letters in group 1 and 2, respectively. Among subjects with macular edema at baseline (n=13), the mean change in foveal thickness was −89.42µm in group 1 and +81.5µm in group 2 at M6. Conclusions: Both low and high doses of intravitreal sirolimus were found to decrease vitreous haze in eyes with non-infectious uveitis. Low dose (440µg) sirolimus administered monthly may be more efficacious in reducing uveitic macular edema than high dose (880µg) administered every 2 months. PMID:27630374

  11. Sirolimus for Refractory Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report and Literature Review of the Treatment of Post-Transplant Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong A; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Kwon, Hyun-Seop; Baik, Chung-Ryul; Song, Sae-Am; Lee, Jung Nye

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) may occur after any type of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), even ABO-matched transplantation. It tends to be refractory to standard corticosteroid treatment and requires multiple transfusions. Though, there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for post-transplant severe AIHA. We present a pediatric patient with refractory AIHA after umbilical cord blood transplantation. She developed severe AIHA at 3months after transplantation and was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and rituximab, resulting in persistent transfusion dependency. Sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, was started on day 67 after the onset of AIHA, and this patient was successfully rescued without any complications. Sirolimus induces apoptosis in autoreactive lymphocytes, increases regulatory T cells and has been reported to have a positive effect on AIHA following solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed the literature regarding post-transplant AIHA in the PubMed database and evaluated the treatment outcome of sirolimus in AIHA after SOT.

  12. Experience with Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in “Real-Life” Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: 24-Month Data from the Manipal-S Registry

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ranjan; Vivek, G.; Thakkar, Ashok; Mishra, Supriya Sunder; Joseph, Vivek; Devraj, Mithun Gopal; Tumkur, Anil; Pai, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the undeniable clinical efficacy of drug-eluting stents with durable polymers, concerns regarding their long-term safety have been raised, especially in more complex subsets. The Manipal-S Registry was designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the biodegradable polymer coated Supralimus® Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent for the treatment of coronary artery disease, across a wide range of patients who are treated in real-life clinical practice. Methods: All the consecutive 116 patients who underwent single-vessel or multiple vessel percutaneous coronary interventions with the use of Supralimus® sirolimus-eluting stents between September 2009 and December 2010, were included in this study. Patients were clinically followed-up at 1, 9, 12 and 24 months post-procedure. All clinical, procedural, and follow-up information were collected and analysed. Results: In total 116 patients, 126 lesions were implanted with 144 stents which had an average stent length of 25.8±8.0 mm. The incidences of any major adverse cardiac and cerebral events at 1, 9, 12 and 24 months were 0, 5 (4.3%), 8 (6.9%), and 10 (8.6%) respectively. Conclusion: These 24-month results clearly provide evidence for safety and effectiveness of the Supralimus® Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent system with the biodegradable polymer in real-life patients, even in those with acute myocardial infarctions. PMID:24179909

  13. Dose-dependent vascular response following delivery of sirolimus via fast releasing, biodegradable polymer stent matrix: an experimental study in the porcine coronary model of restenosis.

    PubMed

    Buszman, Piotr P; Orlik, Bartłomiej; Pająk, Jacek; Jelonek, Michał; Krauze, Agata; Janas, Adam; Legutko, Jacek; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Buszman, Paweł E; Milewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Fast releasing, rapamycin-eluting stents, although safe, showed inferior results with regard to inhibition of restenosis. Therefore, we report vascular effects of a novel, biodegradable polymer stent matrix with elevated sirolimus dose and fast release kinetics (ed-frSES, Alex, Balton) in the porcine coronary in-stent restenosis model. A total of 19 stents were implanted with 120% overstretch in the coronary arteries of seven domestic pigs: seven ed-frSES with 1.3 μg/mm2 of sirolimus, eight frSES with 1 μg/mm2 of sirolimus, and eight bare metal stents (BMS). For the following 28 days, coronary angiography was performed, animals were sacrificed, and the stented segments harvested for histopathological evaluation. In angiography at 28 days the late lumen loss was lowest in the elevated dose sirolimus eluting stent (SES) (ed-frSES: 0.20 ± 0.2 vs. frSES: 0.80 ± 0.5 vs. BMS: 0.96 ± 0.5 mm, p < 0.01). This was confirmed in the morphometric evaluation in histopathology as represented by a significant and dose-dependent decrease in the percentage area of stenosis (ed-frSES: 22.4 ± 12.7% vs. frSES: 35 ± 10.7% vs. BMS: 47.5 ± 12.5%, p < 0.01). There was no peri-strut inflammation in any of the groups. However, the endothelialisation score was numerically not meaningfully decreased in ed-frSES (ed-frSES: 2.93 vs. frSES: 3. vs. BMS: 3, p = 0.05). Signs of fibrin were also noted in ed-frSES (ed-frSES: 0.4 vs. frSES: 0 vs. BMS: 0, p = 0.05). Sirolimus dose-dependent vascular response was reported. The elevated dose, fast releasing SES shows satisfactory vascular healing, similar to regular dose, fast release SES, with improved efficacy in restenosis inhibition.

  14. Early withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitor from a sirolimus-based immunosuppression stabilizes fibrosis and the transforming growth factor-β signalling pathway in kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Rivelli, Regiane F; Gonçalves, Renato T; Leite, Maurilo; Santos, Marcos André R; Delgado, Alvimar G; Cardoso, Lucio R; Takiya, Christina M

    2015-03-01

    The focus in renal transplantation is to increase long-term allograft survival. One of the limiting factors is calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced fibrosis. This study attempted to examine the histological aspect of interstitial fibrosis and the modulation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) canonical signalling pathway following early withdrawal of CNI from sirolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy. Forty-five kidney transplant recipients with low-medium immunologic risk were randomized and underwent protocol biopsies obtained at the time of transplantation and at 3 and 12 months thereafter. The recipients were taking tacrolimus, sirolimus and prednisone. After the 3rd month, patients were randomized into two groups: sirolimus (SRL) (removed CNI and increased sirolimus) and tacrolimus (TAC) (maintained CNI). Renal biopsies were analyzed according to Banff's 2007 criteria. The sum of Banff's ct and ci constituted the chronicity index. Fibrosis was evaluated by the histomorphometrical analysis of the total collagen and myofibroblast deposition. Immunohistochemical characterization and quantification of TGF-β, TGF-β receptor 1 (TGF-β-R1), receptor 2 (TGF-β-R2) and phospho-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) were performed. Maintenance of CNI was associated with the increase of the surface density of collagen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), (P = 0.001). Furthermore, increased TGF-β (P = 0.02), TGF-β-R1 (P = 0.02), p-Smad2/3 (P = 0.03) and stabilized TGF-β-R2. On the other hand, the removal of CNI with increase in the dose of sirolimus limited the enhancement of the chronicity index at 12 m (SRL, 2.18 vs TAC, 3.12, P = 0.0007), diminished the deposition of fibrosis and promoted the stabilization of TGF-β, TGF-β-R2, p-Smad2/3 and myofibroblasts as well as the reduction of TGF-β-R1 (P = 0.01). The early withdrawal of CNI limited the fibrosis progression through the stabilization of chronicity index and of the canonical TGF

  15. Metallic Limus-Eluting Stents Abluminally Coated with Biodegradable Polymers: Angiographic and Clinical Comparison of a Novel Ultra-Thin Sirolimus Stent Versus Biolimus Stent in the DESTINY Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Pedro A; Abizaid, Alexandre A C; Meireles, George C; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Prudente, Mauricio; Cantarelli, Marcelo; Dourado, Adriano D; Mariani, Jose; Perin, Marco A; Costantini, Costantino; Costa, Ricardo A; Costa, José Ribamar; Chamie, Daniel; Campos, Carlos A; Ribeiro, Expedito

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients treated with a new drug-eluting stent formulation with low doses of sirolimus, built in an ultra-thin-strut platform coated with biodegradable abluminal coating. This study is a randomized trial that tested the main hypothesis that the angiographic late lumen loss of the novel sirolimus-eluting stent is noninferior compared with commercially available biolimus-eluting stent. A final study population comprising 170 patients with one or two de novo lesions was randomized in the ratio 2:1 for sirolimus-eluting stent or biolimus-eluting stent, respectively. The primary endpoint was 9-month angiographic in-stent late lumen loss. Adverse clinical events were prospectively collected for 1 year. After 9 months, the novel sirolimus-eluting stent was shown noninferior compared with the biolimus stent for the primary endpoint (angiographic in-stent late lumen loss: 0.20 ± 0.29 mm vs. 0.15 ± 0.20 mm, respectively; P value for noninferiority <0.001). The 1-year incidence of death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stent thrombosis remained low and not significantly different between the groups. The present randomized trial demonstrates that the tested novel sirolimus-eluting stent was angiographically noninferior in comparison with a last-generation biolimus-eluting stent. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ultrathin, bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents versus thin, durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents in patients undergoing coronary revascularisation (BIOFLOW V): a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Kandzari, David E; Mauri, Laura; Koolen, Jacques J; Massaro, Joseph M; Doros, Gheorghe; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Bennett, Johan; Roguin, Ariel; Gharib, Elie G; Cutlip, Donald E; Waksman, Ron

    2017-08-25

    The development of coronary drug-eluting stents has included use of new metal alloys, changes in stent architecture, and use of bioresorbable polymers. Whether these advancements improve clinical safety and efficacy has not been shown in previous randomised trials. We aimed to examine the clinical outcomes of a bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent compared with a durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent in a broad patient population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. BIOFLOW V was an international, randomised trial done in patients undergoing elective and urgent percutaneous coronary intervention in 90 hospitals in 13 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, and the USA). Eligible patients were those aged 18 years or older with ischaemic heart disease undergoing planned stent implantation in de-novo, native coronary lesions. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to either an ultrathin strut (60 μm) bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent or to a durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent. Randomisation was via a central web-based data capture system (mixed blocks of 3 and 6), and stratified by study site. The primary endpoint was 12-month target lesion failure. The primary non-inferiority comparison combined these data from two additional randomised trials of bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent and durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent with Bayesian methods. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02389946. Between May 8, 2015, and March 31, 2016, 4772 patients were recruited into the study. 1334 patients met inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to treatment with bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (n=884) or durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (n=450). 52 (6%) of 883 patients in the bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent group and 41 (10%) of

  17. Long-term renal allograft function on a tacrolimus-based, pred-free maintenance immunosuppression comparing sirolimus vs. MMF.

    PubMed

    Gallon, L; Perico, N; Dimitrov, B D; Winoto, J; Remuzzi, G; Leventhal, J; Gaspari, F; Kaufman, D

    2006-07-01

    It is not known how different steroid-free immunosuppressive combinations affect renal graft survival and long-term kidney transplant function. Here we sought to compare the impact on graft survival and long-term graft function of two tacrolimus (Tac)-based, prednisone-free maintenance immunosuppressive protocols: Tac/Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) vs. Tac/Sirolimus (SRL). Renal transplant patients given induction therapy with IL2-RA and methylprednisolone on days 0, 1 and 2 post-transplant were prospectively randomized to two maintenance immunosuppressive regimens with Tac/MMF (n = 45) or Tac/SRL (n = 37). During the 3-year follow-up the following data were collected: patient survival, renal allograft survival, incidence of acute rejection and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at different time-points post-transplant. Cumulative graft survival was significantly different in the two groups: one kidney loss in the Tac/MMF vs. six kidney losses in the Tac/SRL (log-rank test p = 0.04). GFR at different time-points post-transplant was consistently and statistically better in the Tac/MMF than in the Tac/SRL group. The slope of GFR decline per month was flatter in the Tac/MMF than in the Tac/SRL group. This study showed that renal graft survival and graft function were significantly lower in the combination of Tac/SRL than Tac/MMF.

  18. [Sirolimus for rescue of recurrent acute rejection and diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Roque, Jorge; Ríos, Gloria; Hepp, Juan; Humeres, Roberto; Ríos, Horacio; Herrera, José M; Rius, Montserrat

    2005-10-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) is a new immunosuppressive drug approved for renal transplantation, but is being used increasingly in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Compared with the calcineurin inhibitors, SRL has different mechanisms of action and side effects profile. Thus, this drug offers significant potential advantages over other immunosuppressive agents. SRL does not cause glucose intolerance, hypertension or renal failure, but it may cause dyslipidemia, hepatic artery thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia, oral mucosa ulcers, edema, arthralgias and wound complications. SRL inhibits the signal of interleukin 2 at a post-receptor level, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation and fibroblast proliferation. It also has antineoplastic and antifungal effects. We report a 10 years old girl who underwent OLT, experiencing a biopsy-proven recurrent acute rejection (AR) in spite of using three immunosuppressive agents (tacrolimus, mofetil micofenolate and steroids). She developed diabetes mellitus as a consequence of the immunosuppressive therapy. She was rescued with SRL, not experiencing AR again. Mofetil micofenolate, steroids and insulin could be discontinued and tacrolimus doses were reduced, without experiencing severe complications. SRL is a new and safe immunosuppressive agent for rescue in patients with OLT and recurrent AR.

  19. A new generation of biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stents for the treatment of coronary artery disease: final 5-year clinical outcomes from the CREATE study.

    PubMed

    Han, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Li-Xia; Liu, Hui-Liang; Qu, Peng; Li, Wei-Min; Jiang, Tie-Min; Li, Shu-Mei; Jing, Quan-Min; Zhang, Quan-Yu; Xu, Bo; Li, Yi; Gao, Run-Lin

    2012-11-22

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the five-year safety and efficacy of a biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent with six months dual antiplatelet therapy in daily practice. Two thousand and seventy-seven daily practice patients, exclusively treated with biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stents (EXCEL; JW Medical Systems, Weihai, China), were prospectively enrolled in the multicentre CREATE study. Clinical follow-up was completed in 1,982 patients (95.4%) at five-year follow-up. The rates of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularisation and overall major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at five-year follow-up were 3.0%, 1.5%, 3.7% and 7.4%, respectively. The rates of definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST) at five years and definite ST from one to five years were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively. Heart failure (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.324, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.729-6.391, p<0.001) and prior MI (HR: 2.664, 95% CI: 1.358-5.227, p=0.004) were independent predictors of ST. Landmark analysis of a propensity score matched patient cohort showed that patients with or without clopidogrel treatment after six months had similar clinical outcomes. The present study demonstrates satisfactory and sustained five-year clinical safety and efficacy profiles as evidenced by the low rates of MACE and ST for the EXCEL, a biodegradable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stent, when patients were treated with six months dual antiplatelet therapy in daily practice.

  20. Late-acquired stent malapposition after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation following acute coronary syndrome: angiographic, IVUS, OCT and coronary angioscopic observation.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Sudhir; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takahiko

    2009-12-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of restenosis and target lesion revascularization in a wide variety of clinical situations. DES have also been shown to significantly reduce neointimal hyperplasia as compared to bare-metal stents. However, the antiproliferative properties of DES also delay vascular healing and have been associated with stent malapposition, hypersensitivity reactions and late stent thrombosis. Stent thrombosis could result in myocardial infarction or death. We describe here a case report of late stent malapposition following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation observed by angiography, intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography and angioscopy.

  1. The SABRE Trial (Sirolimus Angioplasty Balloon for Coronary In-Stent Restenosis): Angiographic Results and 1-Year Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Verheye, Stefan; Vrolix, Mathias; Kumsars, Indulis; Erglis, Andrejs; Sondore, Dace; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Cornelis, Kristoff; Janssens, Luc; Maeng, Michael; Slagboom, Ton; Amoroso, Giovanni; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Granada, Juan F; Stella, Pieter

    2017-09-19

    The aim of this first-in-human study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the Virtue sirolimus-eluting balloon in a cohort of patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR). Angioplasty balloons coated with the cytotoxic drug paclitaxel have been widely used for ISR treatment. The Virtue angioplasty balloon (Caliber Therapeutics, New Hope, Pennsylvania) delivers sirolimus in a nanoencapsulated liquid formulation. This clinical trial is the first to examine a sirolimus-eluting balloon for ISR. In this prospective, single-arm feasibility study at 9 European centers, 50 ISR patients were treated with the Virtue balloon. Angiographic measurements at 6 months are reported, along with 12-month clinical follow-up. Procedural success in the intention-to-treat population was 100%. The primary safety endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF) (cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically driven target lesion revascularization) assessed at 30 days (0%, n = 50). The primary performance endpoint was in-segment late lumen loss (LLL) at 6 months (0.31 ± 0.52 mm; n = 47). Secondary 6-month endpoints include binary restenosis (19.1%), diameter stenosis (30.3 ± 19.9%), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (10.2%, n = 49). In the 36-patient per-protocol population (excluding major protocol violations and previously stented ISR), LLL was 0.12 ± 0.33 mm at 6 months. Clinical outcomes at 1 year for the intention-to-treat group were 12.2% TLF and 14.3% MACE and for the per-protocol population were 2.8% TLF and 2.8% MACE. This first-in-human study showed excellent procedural success for the Virtue sirolimus-eluting angioplasty balloon, 6-month LLL rates in line with current stent-free ISR treatment options, and clinical outcomes that warrant further evaluation in dedicated randomized studies. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Combination targeted therapy of VEGFR inhibitor, sorafenib, with an mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus induced a remakable response of rapid progressive Uterine PEComa.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Huang, Chengsuo; Zhang, Yiping; Sun, Ruirui; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Shu

    2016-06-02

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor is a rare tumor. To date, there is no consensus of therapy to be recommended for unresectable disease. For a low incidence and a rarely curable disease, the finding of new therapy is essential. Here we report the first case of a patient with perivascular epithelioid cell tumor whose disease had a rapid progression after surgery and had a rapid remarkable response of combination therapy of a VEGFR inhibitor, sorafenib, with an mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus. This result may have potential to deliver a new treatment option and inhibiting the mTOR pathway combined with inhibiting the VEGF pathways may be a useful strategy for malignant PEComas.

  3. Proteinuria and baseline renal function predict mortality and renal outcomes after sirolimus therapy in liver transplantation recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Lung-Chih; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lin, Chih-Che; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Chen, Ding-Wei; Lee, Chih-Hsiung; Nakano, Toshiaki; Chen, Chao-Long

    2017-04-20

    Chronic kidney disease is a significant complication after liver transplantation (LT), but the role of pre-existing renal insufficiency and proteinuria remains unclear among LT recipients receiving sirolimus. We assessed the effects of proteinuria and baseline renal function on long-term renal and survival outcomes among 576 LT recipients who received SRL in a medical center between 2005 and 2014. Renal outcomes were the incidences of >50% reduction in their baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and end stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy. Proteinuria was identified using morning dipstick results (≥30 mg/dL) at baseline and within the first year after the initiation of SRL therapy. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate time to event. Factors associated with the outcomes were determined using the Cox proportional hazards model with a significance level set at P <0.05. During the study period, renal function deteriorated in 135 (25.3%) patients and 68 (11.8%) patients died. Persistent and new onset proteinuria contributed to a high rate of mortality and the deterioration of renal function (both log-rank tests, P <0.0001). After adjustments, new onset proteinuria within the first year after the initiation of SRL therapy increased the risk of deteriorating renal function, regardless of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. Moreover, pre-existing (hazard ratio = 1.91; P <0.001) and new onset diabetes (hazard ratio = 2.34; P <0.0001) were significantly associated with new onset proteinuria among SRL users. These findings support the effective monitoring and early management of the predictable risks for proteinuria among new SRL users in order to delay the progression of renal disease.

  4. Efficacy and safety of early cyclosporine conversion to sirolimus with continued MMF-four-year results of the Postconcept study.

    PubMed

    Lebranchu, Y; Thierry, A; Thervet, E; Büchler, M; Etienne, I; Westeel, P F; Hurault de Ligny, B; Moulin, B; Rérolle, J P; Frouget, T; Girardot-Seguin, S; Toupance, O

    2011-08-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal has been used as a strategy to improve renal allograft function. We previously reported that conversion from cyclosporine A (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) 3 months after transplantation significantly improved renal function at 1 year. In the Postconcept trial, 77 patients in the SRL group and 85 in the CsA group were followed for 48 months. Renal function (Cockcroft and Gault) was significantly better at month 48 (M48) in the SRL group both in the intent-to-treat population (ITT): 62.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) versus 57.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.013) and in the on-treatment population (OT): 67.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) versus 57.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.002). Two biopsy proven acute rejection episodes occurred after M12 in each group. Graft and patient survival were comparable (graft survival: 97.4 vs. 100%; patient survival: 97.4 vs. 97.6%, respectively). The incidence of new-onset diabetes was numerically increased in the SRL group (7 vs. 2). In OT, three cancers occurred in the SRL group versus nine in the CsA group and mean proteinuria was increased in the SRL group (0.42 ± 0.44 vs. 0.26 ± 0.37; p = 0.018). In summary, the renal benefits associated with conversion of CsA to SRL, at 3 months posttransplantation, in combination with MMF were maintained for 4 years posttransplantation.

  5. Tacrolimus with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or sirolimus vs. cyclosporine with MMF in cardiac transplant patients: 1-year report.

    PubMed

    Kobashigawa, J A; Miller, L W; Russell, S D; Ewald, G A; Zucker, M J; Goldberg, L R; Eisen, H J; Salm, K; Tolzman, D; Gao, J; Fitzsimmons, W; First, R

    2006-06-01

    The most advantageous combination of immunosuppressive agents for cardiac transplant recipients has not yet been established. Between November 2001 and June 2003, 343 de novo cardiac transplant recipients were randomized to receive steroids and either tacrolimus (TAC) + sirolimus (SRL), TAC + mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or cyclosporine (CYA) + MMF. Antilymphocyte induction therapy was allowed for up to 5 days. The primary endpoint of >/=3A rejection or hemodynamic compromise rejection requiring treatment showed no significant difference at 6 months (TAC/MMF 22.4%, TAC/SRL 24.3%, CYA/MMF 31.6%, p = 0.271) and 1 year (p = 0.056), but it was significantly lower in the TAC/MMF group when compared only to the CYA/MMF group at 1 year (23.4% vs. 36.8%; p = 0.029). Differences in the incidence of any treated rejection were significant (TAC/SRL = 35%, TAC/MMF = 42%, CYA/MMF = 59%; p < 0.001), as were median levels of serum creatinine (TAC/SRL = 1.5 mg/dL, TAC/MMF = 1.3 mg/dL, CYA/MMF = 1.5 mg/dL; p = 0.032) and triglycerides (TAC/SRL = 162 mg/dL, TAC/MMF = 126 mg/dL, CYA/MMF = 154 mg/dL; p = 0.028). The TAC/SRL group encountered fewer viral infections but more fungal infections and impaired wound healing. These secondary endpoints suggest that the TAC/MMF combination appears to offer more advantages than TAC/SRL or CYA/MMF in cardiac transplant patients, including fewer >/=3A rejections or hemodynamic compromise rejections and an improved side-effect profile.

  6. Effects of interfacial layer wettability and thickness on the coating morphology and sirolimus release for drug-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Bedair, Tarek M; Yu, Seung Jung; Im, Sung Gap; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2015-12-15

    Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been used to treat coronary artery diseases by placing in the arteries. However, current DESs still suffer from polymer coating defects such as delamination and peeling-off that follows stent deployment. Such coating defects could increase the roughness of DES and might act as a source of late or very late thrombosis and might increase the incident of restenosis. In this regard, we modified the cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy surface with hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) or hydrophobic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-grafted-poly(caprolactone) (PHEMA-g-PCL) brushes. The resulting surfaces were biocompatible and biodegradable, which could act as anchoring layer for the drug-in-polymer matrix coating. The two modifications were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XPS, water contact angle measurements, SEM and AFM. On the control and modified Co-Cr samples, a sirolimus (SRL)-containing poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) were ultrasonically spray-coated, and the drug release was examined for 8weeks under physiological conditions. The results demonstrated that PHEMA as a primer coating improved the coating stability and degradation morphology, and drug release profile for short-term as compared to control Co-Cr, but fails after 7weeks in physiological buffer. On the other hand, the hydrophobic PHEMA-g-PCL brushes not only enhanced the stability and degradation morphology of the PDLLA coating layer, but also sustained SRL release for long-term. At 8-week of release test, the surface morphologies and release profiles of coated PDLLA layers verified the beneficial effect of hydrophobic PCL brushes as well as their thickness on coating stability. Our study concludes that 200nm thickness of PHEMA-g-PCL as interfacial layer affects the stability and degradation morphology of the biodegradable coating intensively to be applied for various biodegradable-based DESs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tacrolimus plus sirolimus with or without ATG as GVHD prophylaxis in HLA-mismatched unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kharfan-Dabaja, M A; Parody, R; Perkins, J; Lopez-Godino, O; Lopez-Corral, L; Vazquez, L; Caballero, D; Falantes, J; Shapiro, J; Ortí, G; Barba, P; Valcárcel, D; Esquirol, A; Martino, R; Piñana, J L; Solano, C; Tsalatsanis, A; Pidala, J; Anasetti, C; Perez-Simón, J A

    2017-03-01

    HLA-matched related or unrelated donors are not universally available. Consequently, patients can be offered hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from alternative donors, including mismatched unrelated donors (MMURD), known to cause a higher incidence of acute GVHD (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD. In vivo T-cell-depletion strategies, such as antithymocyte globulin (ATG) therapy, significantly decrease the risk of GVHD. We performed a multicenter, retrospective study comparing tacrolimus (TAC) and sirolimus (SIR) with or without ATG in 104 patients (TAC-SIR=45, TAC-SIR-ATG=59) who underwent MMURD HSCT. Use of ATG was associated with a lower incidence, albeit not statistically significant, of grades 2-4 aGVHD (46% vs 64%, P=0.09), no difference in grades 3-4 aGVHD (10% vs 15%, P=0.43), a trend for a lower incidence of moderate/severe chronic GVHD (16% vs 37%, P=0.09) and more frequent Epstein-Barr virus reactivation (54% vs 18%, P=0.0002). There were no statistically significant differences in 3-year overall survival (OS) (TAC-SIR-ATG=40% (95% confidence interval (CI)=24-56%) vs TAC-SIR=54% (95% CI=37-70%), P=0.43) or 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse/progression (TAC-SIR-ATG=40% (95% CI=28-58%) vs TAC-SIR=22% (95% CI=13-39%), P=0.92). An intermediate Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research disease risk resulted in a significantly lower non-relapse mortality and better OS at 3 years. Our study suggests that addition of ATG to TAC-SIR in MMURD HSCT does not affect OS when compared with TAC-SIR alone.

  8. Outcomes with conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus after renal transplantation in the context of steroid withdrawal or steroid continuation.

    PubMed

    Egbuna, Ogo I; Davis, Roger B; Chudinski, Robyn; Pavlakis, Martha; Rogers, Christin; Molakatalla, Phani; Johnson, Scott R; Karp, Seth; Monaco, Anthony P; Tang, Hongying; Hanto, Douglas W; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2009-09-15

    A number of studies have suggested that conversion from calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) to sirolimus (SRL) can improve graft function in renal transplant patients. None of these studies has converted patients to SRL in the absence of steroids. We describe our experience with 278 renal transplants of which 153 were converted from CNI to SRL. The majority of patients had steroids withdrawn after 6 days. Almost all patients received antithymocyte globulin induction and were maintained on mycophenolate mofetil. Six months after conversion, patients remaining on SRL therapy had a mean increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate of 6.93 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P<0.0001) compared with preconversion values. SRL-converted patients analyzed by intention-to-treat increased estimated glomerular filtration rate by 5.00 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=0.0005). Eighty-one percent of patients remaining on SRL had a successful conversion, defined as stable or improved renal function at 6 months. The only factor predictive of unsuccessful conversion was urine protein-to-creatinine ratio more than 1. The benefits of SRL conversion were seen in patients at high immunological risk as well as those at lower risk. Proteinuria increased by a mean of 0.1 (P=0.43) at 6 months. Thirty-six percent of SRL-converted patients experienced adverse effects requiring conversion back to CNI. Rates of rejection, graft loss, and patient death with SRL conversion were low. The results from our clinical practice suggest that even in the absence of steroids, SRL conversion significantly improves renal function, with acceptable rates of adverse events.

  9. Comparison of long-term clinical outcomes between sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents in real-world clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Naito, Ryo; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Shinya; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have improved the outcomes of patients with coronary artery diseases. The advent of drug-eluting stents (DES) has dramatically reduced the rate of revascularization. The first-generation DES has yielded the main role of PCI to the second-generation DES; however, many patients had been implanted with the first-generation DES, sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). Therefore, it is of importance to detect the long-term clinical outcomes in patients who underwent PCI with SES or PES. We analyzed data from our PCI cohort who underwent PCI with first-generation DES at Juntendo University Hospital between August 2004 and June 2010. The index procedure was analyzed when patients underwent multiple PCIs. Patients who were implanted with both SES and PES were excluded from this study. The study ended on December 31, 2011. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The secondary outcome was the rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR) and stent thrombosis. We analyzed data from 861 consecutive patients who underwent implantation of SES or PES. The median follow-up period was 1671 days (interquartile range 1081 and 2105). Kaplan-Meier curves for the primary endpoint did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.8). The incidence of stent thrombosis was 1.4 and 1.8 per 1,000 person-years in the SES and PES groups, respectively (p = 0.9). The rate of TLR was significantly lower in the SES, than the PES group (12.6 and 38.3 per 1,000 person-years, p = 0.03). The rate of TLR was lower in the group treated with SES than PES, but the primary outcome comprising all-cause mortality and ACS was comparable between the two groups.

  10. The effect of solvents and hydrophilic additive on stable coating and controllable sirolimus release system for drug-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Min; Park, Sung-Bin; Bedair, Tarek M; Kim, Man-Ho; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2017-09-01

    Various drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been developed to prevent restenosis after stent implantation. However, DES still needs to improve the drug-in-polymer coating stability and control of drug release for effective clinical treatment. In this study, the cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy surface was coated with biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL) mixed with hydrophilic Pluronic F127 additive by using ultrasonic spray coating system in order to achieve a stable coating surface and control SRL release. The degradation of PDLLA/SRL coating was studied under physiological solution. It was found that adding F127 reduced the degradation of PDLLA and improved the coating stability during 60days. The effects of organic solvent such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF) on the coating uniformity were also examined. It was revealed that THF produced a very smooth and uniform coating compared to chloroform. The patterns of in vitro drug release according to the type of organic solvent and hydrophilic additive proposed the possibility of controllable drug release design in DES. It was found that using F127 the drug release was sustained regardless of the organic solvent used. In addition, THF was able to get faster and controlled release profile when compared to chloroform. The structure of SRL molecules in different organic solvents was investigated using ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Furthermore, the structure of SRL is concentration-dependent in chloroform with tight nature under high concentration, but concentration-independent in THF. These results strongly demonstrated that coating stability and drug release patterns can be changed by physicochemical properties of various parameters such as organic solvents, additive, and coating strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 10-Year Clinical Outcome After Randomization to Treatment by Sirolimus- or Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stents.

    PubMed

    Galløe, Anders M; Kelbæk, Henning; Thuesen, Leif; Hansen, Henrik S; Ravkilde, Jan; Hansen, Peter R; Christiansen, Evald H; Abildgaard, Ulrik; Stephansen, Ghita; Lassen, Jens F; Engstrøm, Thomas; Jensen, Jan Skov; Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Bligaard, Niels

    2017-02-14

    First-generation drug-eluting coronary stents (DES) were introduced in 2003 to 2004, and their use resulted in a considerable reduction in the development of in-stent restenosis at the cost of an increased risk of late stent thromboses. This study followed clinical outcomes of patients included in a large randomized trial for 10 years to enable detection of late changes in annual event rates that could necessitate medical attention. A total of 2,098 unselected all-comer patients (50% with acute coronary syndrome) were randomly assigned to have a first-generation DES implanted. This study recorded the occurrence of a major adverse cardiac event (MACE) assessed as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. Stent thromboses were also assessed. Of the 2,098 unselected patients, 73.1% were still alive after 10 years. During the follow-up period, MACE occurred in 346 (32.5%) in the group receiving a sirolimus-eluting stent and in 342 (33.1%) in the group receiving a paclitaxel-eluting stent (hazard ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.83 to 1.11; p = 0.60), with a steady annual rate of 2.6% after the first year. Definite, probable, and possible stent thrombosis appeared in 279 patients (13.3%), with no difference between stent types and with a steady annual rate of 1.3% after the first year. Among the surviving patients, the long-term annual MACE rate and the stent thrombosis rate appeared constant for both stent types, with no apparent late changes. Although there is no need for extraordinary medical attention for these patients, the absence of declines in annual event rates calls for continuous surveillance. (Danish Organization on Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome II [SORT OUT II]; NCT00388934). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS analysis of docetaxel, temsirolimus and sirolimus in whole blood and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Alicia; Martínez-Alcázar, M Paz; Durán, Ignacio; Calvo, Emiliano; Valenzuela, Belén; Barbas, Coral; García, Antonia

    2013-03-15

    Docetaxel and temsirolimus are some of the most used drugs in a wide range of solid tumors. In preclinical studies, mTOR inhibitors such as temsirolimus have demonstrated synergistic cytotoxic effects with taxanes providing the rationale for combination studies. These anticancer agents exhibit a narrow therapeutic concentration range and due to their high inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variability, therapeutic dose monitoring by highly sensitive methods as LC-MS/MS are important for clinical research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive, fast and convenient method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of docetaxel, temsirolimus and its main metabolite, sirolimus, using paclitaxel, another anticancer drug, as the internal standard. These analytes were quantified by an integrated online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) system. Separation was performed on a Zorbax eclipse XDB-C8 (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm) column. The mass spectrometer tandem quadruple detector was equipped with jet stream electrospray ionization, monitored in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and operated in positive mode. A combination of protein precipitation with methanol/zinc sulphate (70:30) (v/v) and online SPE using a Zorbax eclipse plus C8 (12.5mm×4.6mm, 5μm) cartridge was used to extract the compounds. This method allows the use of the same reagents, sample treatment and analytical technique independently of whether the samples are whole blood or plasma. The method has been successfully validated and applied to real samples. It is a suitable method for dose adjustment and for evaluating potential drug interactions during combined treatments.

  13. Safety and Efficacy of New Biodegradable Polymer-based Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in a Preclinical Model.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Prado, Armando; Pérez Martínez, Claudia; Cuellas Ramón, Carlos; Regueiro Purriños, Marta; López Benito, María; Gonzalo Orden, José Manuel; Rodríguez Altónaga, José Antonio; Estévez Loureiro, Rodrigo; Benito González, Tomás; Viñuela Baragaño, David; Molina Crisol, María; Amorós Aguilar, Marc; Pérez Serranos, Isabel; Vidal Parreu, Arnau; Benavides Montegordo, Ana; Duocastella Codina, Luis; Fernández Vázquez, Felipe

    2017-06-21

    New drug-eluting stents (DES) designed to overcome the limitations of existing devices should initially be tested in preclinical studies. Our objective was to analyze the safety and efficacy of new biodegradable polymer-based DES compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) and commercially available DES in a model of normal porcine coronary arteries. We randomly implanted 101 stents (BMS and biodegradable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stents: 3 test stent iterations [BD1, BD2, and BD3], Orsiro, Biomime and Biomatrix) in the coronary arteries of 34 domestic pigs. Angiographic and histomorphometric studies were conducted 1 month (n = 83) and 3 months (n = 18) later. The stents were implanted at a stent/artery ratio of 1.31 ± 0.21, with no significant differences between groups. At 1 month, the new test stents (BD1, BD2 and BD3) showed less late loss and angiographic restenosis, as well as lower histologic restenosis and neointimal area (P < .0005), than the BMS. There were no differences in endothelialization, vascular injury, or inflammation between the new test stents and BMS, although the new stents showed higher fibrin deposition (P = .0006). At 3 months, all these differences disappeared, except for a lower neointimal area with the new BD1 stent (P = .027). No differences at any time point were observed between the new test stents and commercially available controls. In this preclinical model, the new biodegradable polymer-based DES studied showed less restenosis than BMS and no significant differences in safety or efficacy vs commercially available DES. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Five-year results of a randomized trial comparing de novo sirolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplantation: the SPIESSER study.

    PubMed

    Lebranchu, Y; Snanoudj, R; Toupance, O; Weestel, P-F; Hurault de Ligny, B; Buchler, M; Rerolle, J-P; Thierry, A; Moulin, B; Subra, J-F; Deteix, P; Le Pogamp, P; Finzi, L; Etienne, I

    2012-07-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors improve acute rejection rates and short-term graft survival in renal transplantation, but their continuous use may be deleterious. We evaluated the 5-year outcomes of sirolimus (SRL) versus cyclosporine (CsA) immunosuppressive treatment. This observational study was an extension of the SPIESSER study where deceased donor kidney transplant recipients were randomized before transplantation to a SRL- or CsA-based regimen and followed up 1 year. Data from 131 (63 SRL, 68 CsA) out of 133 patients living with a functional graft at 1 year were collected retrospectively at 5 years posttransplant. Seventy percent of CsA patients versus 54% of SRL patients were still on the allocated treatment at 5 years (p = 0.091), most discontinuations in each group being due to safety issues. In intent-to-treat, mean MDRD eGFR was higher with SRL: 54.2 versus 45.3 mL/min with CsA (p = 0.019); SRL advantage was greater in on-treatment analyses. There were no differences for patient survival (p = 0.873), graft survival (p = 0.121) and acute rejection (p = 0.284). Adverse events were more frequent with SRL (80% vs. 60%, p = 0.015). Results confirmed the high SRL discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Nevertheless, a benefit was evidenced on renal function in patients (more than 50%) still on treatment at 5 years. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Effects of metformin on hyperglycemia in an experimental model of tacrolimus- and sirolimus-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jian; Lim, Sun Woo; Jin, Long; Yu, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyun Seon; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Metformin (MET) is a first-line drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); its effect on new-onset diabetes after transplantation caused by immunosuppressant therapy is unclear. We compared the effects of MET on DM caused by tacrolimus (TAC) or sirolimus (SRL). Methods DM was induced by injection of TAC (1.5 mg/kg) or SRL (0.3 mg/kg) for 2 weeks in rats, and MET (200 mg/kg) was injected for 2 more weeks. The effects of MET on DM caused by TAC or SRL were evaluated using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and by measuring plasma insulin concentration, islet size, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The effects of MET on the expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a pharmacological target of MET, were compared between TAC- and SRL-treated islets. Results IPGTT showed that both TAC and SRL induced hyperglycemia and reduced plasma insulin concentration compared with vehicle. These changes were reversed by addition of MET to SRL but not to TAC. Pancreatic islet cell size was decreased by TAC but not by SRL, but addition of MET did not affect pancreatic islet cell size in either group. MET significantly increased GSIS in SRL- but not in TAC-treated rats. AMPK expression was not affected by TAC but was significantly decreased in SRL-treated islets. Addition of MET restored AMPK expression in SRL-treated islets but not in TAC-treated islets. Conclusions MET has different effects on hyperglycemia caused by TAC and SRL. The discrepancy between these drugs is related to their different mechanisms causing DM. PMID:27688296

  16. Randomized Comparison of Absorb Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold and Mirage Microfiber Sirolimus-Eluting Scaffold Using Multimodality Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Serruys, Patrick W; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Costa, Ricardo; Chamié, Daniel; Sotomi, Yohei; Yu, Ting-Bin; Abizaid, Alexander; Liew, Houng-Bang; Santoso, Teguh

    2017-06-12

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Mirage (Manli Cardiology, Singapore) bioresorbable microfiber sirolimus-eluting scaffold compared with the Absorb (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) bioresorbable vascular scaffold in the treatment of stenotic target lesions located in native coronary arteries, ranging from ≥2.25 to ≤4.0 mm in diameter. Secondary objectives were to establish the medium-term safety, effectiveness, and performance of the Mirage device. The current generation of bioresorbable scaffolds has several limitations, such as thick square struts with large footprints that preclude their deep embedment into the vessel wall, resulting in protrusion into the lumen with microdisturbance of flow. The Mirage sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable microfiber scaffold is designed to address these concerns. In this prospective, single-blind trial, 60 patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to treatment with a Mirage sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable microfiber scaffold or an Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold. The clinical endpoints were assessed at 30 days and at 6 and 12 months. In-device angiographic late loss at 12 months was quantified. Secondary optical coherence tomographic endpoints were assessed post-scaffold implantation at 6 and 12 months. Median angiographic post-procedural in-scaffold minimal luminal diameters of the Mirage and Absorb devices were 2.38 mm (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.06 to 2.62 mm) and 2.55 mm (IQR: 2.26 to 2.71 mm), respectively; the effect size (d) was -0.29. At 12 months, median angiographic in-scaffold minimal luminal diameters of the Mirage and Absorb devices were not statistically different (1.90 mm [IQR: 1.57 to 2.31 mm] vs. 2.29 mm [IQR: 1.74 to 2.51 mm], d = -0.36). At 12-month follow-up, median in-scaffold late luminal loss with the Mirage and Absorb devices was 0.37 mm (IQR: 0.08 to 0.72 mm) and 0.23 mm (IQR: 0.15 to 0.37 mm), respectively (d = 0

  17. Sirolimus and metformin synergistically inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and improve long-term survival in patients with HCC related to hepatitis B virus induced cirrhosis after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chuan; Peng, Chenghong; Shen, Baiyong; Zhu, Zhecheng; Xu, Ning; Li, Tao; Xie, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents used postoperatively after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) favor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, new effective immunosuppressants are needed. This retrospective study assessed combined sirolimus and metformin on survival of HCC patients after LT. In 2001-2013, 133 HCC patients with LT were divided into four groups: sirolimus and metformin combination (Sir+Met), sirolimus monotherapy (Sir), other immunosuppressants in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients without metformin (No Sir with DM), and other immunosuppressants in patients without DM (No Sir without DM). Kaplan-Meier and Log-rank tests were used to assess survival. Cell proliferation and tumor xenograft assays were performed to disclose the mechanisms underlying the sirolimus and metformin effects. The Sir+Met group showed significantly prolonged survival compared to the other groups. The most significant cytotoxicity was seen in the Sir+Met group, with significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated PI3K, AKT, AMPK, mTOR, 4EBP1 and S6K, compared with the other groups. In agreement, Sir+Met had the highest suppressive effect on tumor growth among all groups (P<0.01). In summary, Sir+Met treatment significantly prolonged survival, likely by suppressing cell proliferation. Therefore, this combination could represent a potential routine-regimen for patients post LT. PMID:27577068

  18. Comparable Renal Function at 6 Months with Tacrolimus Combined with Fixed-Dose Sirolimus or MMF: Results of a Randomized Multicenter Trial in Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Van Gurp, Eveline; Bustamante, Jesus; Franco, Antonio; Rostaing, Lionel; Becker, Thomas; Rondeau, Eric; Czajkowski, Zenon; Rydzewski, Andrzej; Alarcon, Antonio; Bachleda, Petr; Samlik, Jiri; Burmeister, Dirk; Pallardo, Luis; Moal, Marie-Christine; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Wlodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    In a multicenter trial, renal transplant recipients were randomized to tacrolimus with fixed-dose sirolimus (Tac/SRL, N = 318) or tacrolimus with MMF (Tac/MMF, N = 316). Targeted tacrolimus trough levels were lower in the Tac/SRL group after day 14. The primary endpoint was renal function at 6 months using creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault) and was comparable at 66.4 mL/min (SE 1.4) with Tac/SRL and at 65.2mL/min (SE 1.3) with Tac/MMF (completers). Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection was 15.1% (Tac/SRL) and 12.3% (Tac/MMF). In both groups, graft survival was 93% and patient survival was 99.0%. Premature withdrawal due to an adverse event was twice as high in the Tac/SRL group, 15.1% versus 6.3%. Hypercholesterolemia incidence was higher with Tac/SRL (P < .05) while CMV, leukopenia, and diarrhea incidences were higher with Tac/MMF (P < .05). The incidence of any antidiabetic treatment for >30 consecutive days in previously nondiabetic patients was 17.8%, Tac/SRL, and 24.8%, Tac/MMF. Evaluation at 6 months showed comparable renal function using tacrolimus/sirolimus and tacrolimus/MMF regimens.

  19. ISR II study: a long-term evaluation of sirolimus-eluting stent in the treatment of patients with in-stent restenotic native coronary artery lesions.

    PubMed

    Commeau, Philippe; Barragan, Paul T; Roquebert, Pierre O; Siméoni, Jean B

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine the safety and long-term efficacy of treating intrastent restenosis (ISR) with the slow-release sirolimus-eluting stent Bx Velocity (Cypher stent) without intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. Of patients who received a bare metal stent implantation and presented an ISR, 30-80% of the patients will develop a second restenosis within the stent, at the stent edges or both. To date, intravascular brachytherapy using beta- and gamma-radiation has been the only effective treatment for ISR. Twenty-three patients with ISR and evidence of ischemia were treated with Cypher stent. Clinical information was collected 1, 8, 12, and 24 months after stent implantation. During the first 8 months of the study, in-stent lumen diameter remained essentially unchanged from postprocedure in 80% of the case. The target lesion repeat revascularization (TLR) was 17%, of which 50% were oculostenotic reflexes. Only one patient presented a restenosis greater than 70%. During the 2-year study period, the TLR rate was 17%; the major adverse coronary event rate was 26%, and the non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI) rate was 9%. There were no reports of death, coronary artery bypass grafting, or Q-wave MI during the study. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using sirolimus-eluting stents without IVUS guidance for the treatment of ISR, providing long-term stability of immediate results.

  20. Use of a small particle solid-core packing for improved efficiency and rapid measurement of sirolimus and everolimus by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip; Nwafor, Magnus; Tredger, Mike

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of whole blood sirolimus and everolimus is required in order to optimize patient treatment following solid organ transplant. Assay by LC-MS/MS is increasingly preferred; however efficient use of the instrument and short turnaround times are crucial. Use of a 1.6 µm solid-core packing HPLC column (Cortecs) gave significant increases in efficiency, sensitivity and throughput compared with an existing method, following simple protein precipitation of small-volume (20 μL) whole blood samples. Sirolimus, everolimus and the stable isotopic internal standard ((13) C2 D4 - everolimus) eluted at around 0.8 min, and total analytical run time was 2.2 min, saving almost 4 min per sample compared with an existing method. Within-assay imprecision (CV) was 3.3-8.5%, and between-assay imprecision was 2.2-10.8%. Retrospective assay of external quality assurance samples and comparison of patient samples assayed in parallel showed only small differences (between +6.8 and -1.9%) in results using the Cortecs column when compared with the existing method. No significant interferences or ion suppression were observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes with Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in De Novo Coronary Artery Disease: Results of the MANIPAL-FLEX Study

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Jayesh; Pai, Umesh; Shetty, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the MANIPAL-FLEX study was to evaluate the feasibility, preliminary safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation, in de novo coronary artery disease, using clinical and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) follow-ups. Methods. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, single-arm study that enrolled 189 patients with de novo coronary artery disease who were treated with the Supraflex SES. Of 189 patients enrolled, the first 61 consecutive patients who consented to a 9-month follow-up evaluation by QCA, irrespective of presence of symptoms, were to be followed up with angiography at 9 months. The primary endpoint of the study was target lesion failure (TLF), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization during 12-month follow-up after the index procedure. Results. The mean age of the study population was 58 ± 11 years, with 51.3% (97/189) of hypertensive patients. Total of 66 lesions, analyzed by offline QCA, showed good scaffolding of the target vessel with in-stent late lumen loss at 9 months of 0.18 ± 0.23 mm. The observed TLF at 30-day, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up were 2 (1.1%), 6 (3.2%), and 10 (5.3%), respectively. Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent. PMID:27597929

  2. Early Kidney Allograft Dysfunction (Threatened Allograft): Comparative Effectiveness of Continuing Versus Discontinuation of Tacrolimus and Use of Sirolimus to Prevent Graft Failure: A Retrospective Patient-Centered Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Ravinder K.; Prentice, Heather A.; Reddivari, Venkata; Baffoe-Bonnie, Geroge; Drachenberg, Cinthia I.; Pappadimitriou, John C.; Ramos, Emilio; Cooper, Matthew; Jonsson, Johann; Bartlett, Stephen; Weir, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to lack of treatment options for early acute allograft dysfunction in the presence of tubular-interstitial injury without histological features of rejection, kidney transplant recipients are often treated with sirolimus-based therapy to prevent cumulative calcineurin inhibitor exposure and to prevent premature graft failure. Methods We analyzed transplant recipients treated with sirolimus-based (n = 220) compared with continued tacrolimus-based (n = 276) immunosuppression in recipients of early-onset graft dysfunction (threatened allograft) with the use of propensity score-based inverse probability treatment weighted models to balance for potential confounding by indication between 2 nonrandomized groups. Results Weighted odds for death-censored graft failure (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.66-2.19, P = 0.555) was similar in the 2 groups, but a trend for increased risk of greater than 50% loss in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline in sirolimus group (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.96-3.76; P = 0.067) compared with tacrolimus group. Sirloimus group compared with tacrolimus group had increased risk for death with functioning graft (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.29-3.14; P = 0.002) as well as increased risk of late death (death after graft failure while on dialysis) (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.59-3.59; P < 0.001). Analysis of subgroups based on the absence or presence of T cell–mediated rejection or tubulointerstitial inflammation in the index biopsy, or the use of different types of induction agents, and all subgroups had increased risk of death with functioning graft and late death if exposed to sirolimus-based therapy. Conclusions Use of sirolimus compared with tacrolimus in recipients with early allograft dysfunction during the first year of transplant may not prevent worsening of allograft function and could potentially lead to poor survival along with increased risk of late death. PMID:27795990

  3. Comparison of Tacrolimus and Sirolimus (Tac/Sir) versus Tacrolimus, Sirolimus, and mini-methotrexate (Tac/Sir/MTX) as acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vincent T; Aldridge, Julie; Kim, Haesook T; Cutler, Corey; Koreth, John; Armand, Philippe; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Alyea, Edwin P

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that adding sirolimus to a tacrolimus/mini-methotrexate regimen (Tac/Sir/MTX) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis produces low rates of acute GVHD (aGVHD) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). To assess whether posttransplantation methotrexate MTX can be safely eliminated altogether, we conducted a prospective clinical trial testing the combination of T and Sir alone (tac/sir) as GVHD prophylaxis after RIC SCT from matched related donors. We compared the results with patients who received (Tac/Sir/MTX) as GVHD prophylaxis after RIC SCT from matched related donors in a previous prospective study. Patients in both groups received i.v. fludarabine (Flu) 30 mg/m(2)/day and i.v. busulfan (Bu) 0.8 mg/kg/day on days -5 to -2 as conditioning, followed by transplantation of unmanipulated filgrastim-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCS). After transplantation, patients in both groups received Tac and Sir orally starting on day -3, with doses adjusted to achieve trough serum levels of 5 to 10 ng/mL and 3 to 12 ng/mL, respectively. The patients in the Tac/Sir/MTX group also received mini-MTX therapy (5 mg/m(2) i.v.) on days +1, +3, and +6. Filgrastim 5 microg/kg/day s.c. was started on day +1 and continued until neutrophil engraftment. Twenty-nine patients received the Tac/Sir regimen, and 46 patients received the Tac/Sir/MTX regimen. The 2 groups were balanced in terms of age, sex, and disease characteristics. Engraftment was brisk and donor chimerism after transplantation robust in both groups. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD was similar in the 2 groups (17% for Tac/Sir versus 11% for Tac/Sir/MTX; P = .46). There also were no differences between the 2 groups in cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD), treatment-related mortality (TRM), disease relapse, or survival. The Tac/Sir combination for GVHD prophylaxis is well tolerated and associated with a

  4. Comparison of acute and long-term results and underlying mechanisms from sirolimus-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of in-stent restenosis and recurrent in-stent restenosis in patients in whom intracoronary radiation failed as assessed by intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Thomas M; Rieber, Johannes; König, Andreas; Leibig, Marcus; Erhard, Isabelle; Theisen, Karl; Siebert, Uwe; Klauss, Volker

    2004-10-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR), especially after vascular brachytherapy, is a therapeutic challenge. Sirolimus-eluting stent implantation is a promising new option for the treatment of patients with ISR. The efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of patients with their first episodes of ISR and with recurrent ISR due to the failure of vascular brachytherapy was compared using intravascular ultrasound imaging.

  5. Distinct deleterious effects of cyclosporine and tacrolimus and combined tacrolimus-sirolimus on endothelial cells: protective effect of defibrotide.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Alba; Díaz-Ricart, Maribel; Palomo, Marta; Molina, Patricia; Pino, Marc; Rovira, Montserrat; Escolar, Ginés; Carreras, Enric

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction seems to be a key factor in the development of several complications observed early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The conditioning regimen and many other factors associated with the procedure are responsible for this endothelial damage. The effects of immunosuppressive agents on endothelial function have not been explored in detail. We evaluated the effects of 3 drugs commonly used in HSCT: 2 calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A (CSA) and tacrolimus (TAC), and an inhibitor of mTOR, sirolimus (SIR). We also evaluated the effect of the combination of TAC and SIR (TAC+SIR), which is used increasingly in clinical practice. Microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were exposed to these drugs to evaluate changes in (1) intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression on the cell surface, assessed by immunofluorescence labeling and expressed as the mean gray value (MGV); (2) reactivity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) toward platelets, upon exposure of the ECM to circulating blood; and (3) whole-blood clot formation, assessed by thromboelastometry. Studies were conducted in the absence and presence of defibrotide (DF) to assess its possible protective effect. The exposure of HMEC-1 to CSA and TAC+SIR significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1 (157.5 ± 11.6 and 153.4 ± 9.5 MGV, respectively, versus 105.7 ± 6.5 MGV in controls [both P < .05]). TAC applied alone increased ICAM-1 slightly (120.3 ± 8.2 MGV), and SIR had no effect (108.9 ± 7.4 MGV). ECM reactivity increased significantly only in response to CSA (surface covered by platelets of 41.2% ± 5.4% versus 30.1% ± 2.0%, P < .05). DF attenuated all these changes. No significant changes in the viscoelastic properties of clot formation were observed in any condition with blood samples incubated in vitro. In conclusion, CSA and TAC+SIR had a proinflammatory effect, but only CSA exhibited an additional prothrombotic effect. Interestingly, DF exerted clear

  6. Excellent outcomes can be achieved in young pancreas transplant alone recipients by addition of sirolimus to maintenance immunosuppression regimen.

    PubMed

    Porubsky, M; Gruessner, A C; Rana, A; Jie, T; Gruessner, R W G

    2014-01-01

    Pancreas transplant alone (PTA) has evolved into a viable treatment option for nonuremic patients with labile diabetes mellitus. Historically, PTA outcomes were inferior to simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant outcomes, because of the higher rate of graft loss due to rejection in PTA recipients. But with advances in immunosuppression, PTA outcomes have improved significantly--except in young PTA recipients. The more potent immune system in young recipients appears to play a key role. In this study, our objective was to investigate outcomes of PTA, by recipient age, with the use of different immunosuppressive maintenance regimens. Using information from the International Pancreas Transplant Registry and from the United Network for Organ Sharing, we analyzed outcomes of 393 technically successful enteric-drained transplants in the PTA category that were performed from January 2003 through December 2012. All PTA recipients underwent induction immunosuppression with thymoglobulin and pulse steroids and were then maintained on long-term low-dose prednisone. Excluded from our study group were patients who experienced surgical graft loss. We divided the 393 recipients into 2 age groups: <42 years (187 patients) versus ≥42 years (206 patients). For both the younger group and the older group, we compared 2 maintenance immunosuppressive regimens: (1) tacrolimus (Tac) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus (2) Tac/MMF and sirolimus (Srl). We refer to immunosuppression with Tac and MMF as the non-Srl regimen. The overall 3-year graft survival rate, across both age groups, was significantly better with the Srl regimen (P = .03). Regardless of the immunosuppressive regimen used, outcomes were significantly better in the older group than in the younger group (P = .05). In the older group, with both regimens, outcomes were similar (P = .55). But in the younger group, outcomes with the Srl regimen were significantly better (P = .009) than with the non-Srl regimen and, in fact

  7. Sirolimus-Eluting Stents vs Uncoated Stents for the Treatment of Proximal Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, José; Mainar, Vicente; Bordes, Pascual; Berenguer, Alberto; Ruiz-Nodar, Juan Miguel; Pineda, Javier; Gomez, Silvia; Sogorb, Francisco; Caturla, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) have demonstrated low incidence of target vessel revascularizations in several anatomic scenarios, including proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (pLAD) lesions. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of SES with bare metal stents (BMS) for the treatment of such lesions. 96 patients with severe pLAD stenosis treated with SES were included. Clinical follow-up were performed during a 24 month period. A 98 patient sample with pLAD lesions treated with BMS was taken as control group. Death, angiographic restenosis, new target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel failure (TVF) were registered. Clinical, angiographic and procedural variables were analysed to identify predictors of TVF and TLR. Angiographic procedural success was 100% in SES group vs 99% in BMS group (p=1.0). At 2.5 years, the cumulative rate of TVF was 9.4% in SES group vs 16.3% in BMS group (p=0.15), and the rate of TLR was 5.2% in SES group vs 12.2% in control group (p=0.08). The probabilities of cumulative TVF and TLR free survival were in BMS group 83.7% and 87.8%, and in SES group 90.6% and 94.8%, respectively. After multivariate analysis only SES utilization was found as independent protective factor against TVF and TLR (HR 0.38, 95%CI [0.15-0.94] p=0.037 and HR 0.21, 95%CI [0.06-0.66] p=0.008, respectively), and diabetes as independent predictor of TFV and TLR (HR 2.37, 95%CI [1.07-5.24] p=0.034 and HR 3.57, 95%CI [1.29-9.87] p=0.014, respectively). This study demonstrates that SES utilization is safe and effective in the tretament of pLAD lesions with a better clinical outcome than BMS in a long-term follow-up. PMID:23675052

  8. Impact of the clinical syntax score on 5-year clinical outcomes after sirolimus-eluting stents implantation.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hironori; Aoki, Jiro; Tanabe, Kengo; Nishi, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Nakajima, Yoshifumi; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Nakashima, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takuya; Asami, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mika; Yoshida, Eri; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2013-07-01

    The SYNTAX score stratifies risk among drug-eluting stent-treated patients and is based on lesion characteristics alone. The Clinical SYNTAX Score (CSS) combines the SYNTAX score with age, ejection fraction, and creatinine clearance. We assessed its ability to stratify long-term outcomes in sirolimus-eluting stents (SES)-treated patients. Between August 2004 and March 2005, 249 patients were treated with SES. Clinical follow-up was evaluated at more than 5 years. The CSS was available for 206 patients. More than 5-year clinical follow-up data (mean 2114 ± 107 days) and CSS (range 1-322, mean 35.3 ± 49.9, median 17.5) were available for 201 patients. We divided these scores into tertiles: CSS-LOW ≤ 9.5, 9.5 < CSS-MID ≤ 28, and CSS-HIGH > 28. CSS-HIGH was associated with a higher death rate (CSS-LOW 9.0 %, CSS-MID 11.9 %, CSS-HIGH 41.8 %; log-rank p < 0.001) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (CSS-LOW 29.8 %, CSS-MID 35.8 %, CSS-HIGH 61.2 %; log-rank p = 0.004). Independent predictors for death were hemodialysis [hazard ratio (HR) 3.82; p < 0.001], age (HR 1.67; p = 0.003), ejection fraction (HR 0.98, p = 0.012) and CSS (HR 1.73, p = 0.028), and those for MACE were hemodialysis (HR 2.53, p = 0.002) and CSS (HR 1.40, p = 0.028). Areas under the curve for the SYNTAX score and CSS for death were 0.60 and 0.78 (p < 0.001), whereas those for MACE were 0.58 and 0.68 (p < 0.001), respectively. The CSS predicts long-term outcomes among SES-treated patients better than the SYNTAX score.

  9. Improved 24-hour blood pressure control with sirolimus versus calcineurin inhibitor based immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Steigerwalt, S P; Brar, N; Dhungel, A; Butcher, D; Steigerwalt, S; El-Ghouroury, M; Provenzano, R

    2009-12-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) have brought dramatic improvements in early renal allograft survival. However, CNI are associated with posttransplant hypertension (PTHTN), a risk factor for mortality from cardiovascular disease and graft failure. Sirolimus (SRL) is emerging as an alternative to CNI. SRL effects on blood pressure (BP) in humans are unclear. We compared the prevalence of PTHTN among patients receiving SRL as maintenance immunosuppression with a group receiving CNI by using 24-hour ambulatory BP (AMBP). AMBP has been shown to predict cardiovascular events and progression of kidney disease better than casual office BP measurements in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Renal transplant recipients with office hypertension (defined as BP > 130/80 or on antihypertensive medications), receiving stable immunosuppression and displaying consistent serum creatinine values for > or =6 months were eligible. We enrolled the first 40 patients to consent. Office BP was measured twice using a BP-Tru machine. AMBP was then analyzed for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and nocturnal blood pressure fall (NF; "dipping"). Patients were placed in the SRL group (n = 18) and the CNI group (n = 20) based on their maintenance immunosuppressive protocol. Two patients were excluded because of incomplete data. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil, and 14/38, maintenance steroids. We collected, demographics as well as type and date of renal allograft, medications, comorbidities, CKD stage, proteinuria, and plasma creatinine at the time of study enrollment. Patients in the SRL group displayed lower 24-hour SBP than the CNI group (128.0 +/- 10.8 vs 137.7 +/- 14; P = .029). Nightime MAP, nightime SBP, and nighttime DBP were all lower in the SRL group. NF did not reach significance between the SRL and CNI groups (44% vs 15%; P = .074). Patient demographics and number of antihypertensive medications did not differ. The lower 24-hour SBP seen in the SRL group by AMBP may

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Everolimus- Versus Sirolimus-Eluting Stents: 5-Year Results From SORT OUT IV.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Maeng, Michael; Ravkilde, Jan; Hansen, Knud Nørregaard; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Krusell, Lars; Kaltoft, Anne; Tilsted, Hans Henrik; Berencsi, Klara; Junker, Anders; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2016-02-23

    Long-term safety and efficacy for everolimus-eluting stents (EES) versus those of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) are unknown. This study compared 5-year outcomes for EES with those for SES from the SORT OUT IV (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials with Clinical Outcome) trial. Five-year follow-up was completed for 2,771 patients (99.9%). Primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and definite stent thrombosis. At 5-years, MACE occurred in 14.0% and 17.4% in the EES and SES groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66 to 0.97; p = 0.02). The MACE rate did not differ significantly within the first year (HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.19; p = 0.79), but from years 1 through 5, the MACE rate was lower with EES (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.90; p = 0.006; p interaction = 0.12). Definite stent thrombosis was lower with EES (0.4%) than with SES (2.0%; HR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.46), with a lower risk of very late definite stent thrombosis in the EES group (0.2% vs. 1.4%, respectively; HR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.53). When censoring the patients at the time of stent thrombosis, we found no significant differences between the 2 stent groups for MACE rates (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.08; p = 0.23), target lesion revascularization (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.27; p = 0.55), and MI (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.36; p = 0.72). At 5-year follow-up, MACE rate was significantly lower with EES- than with SES-treated patients, due largely due to a lower risk of very late definite stent thrombosis. (Randomized Clinical Comparison of the Xience V and the Cypher Coronary Stents in Non-selected Patients With Coronary Heart Disease [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Angioscopy study from a large patient population comparing sirolimus-eluting stent with biodegradable versus durable polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Xu, Tian; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Ye, Fei; Hu, Zuo-Ying; Tian, Nai-Liang; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Kotani, Junichi; Zhang, Jun-Xia

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the neointimal coverage (NIC), subclinical thrombus, color of plaque underneath the stent at 9-month after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) either with durable or with biodegradable polymer (BDPM). A total of 175 patients were assigned as Cypher (n = 81, 97 stents with durable polymer) and Excel (n = 94, 112 stents with BDPM) stent at 9-month after indexed procedure. NIC was classified from grade 0-3. Color of plaque was divided into white, light-yellow, yellow, and dark yellow. Thrombus was diagnosed as white or red material with cotton-like or ragged appearance. Incomplete NIC (grade 0/1) circled by a blush was termed by "inflaming." There were significant differences in unstable angina (90.5 vs. 52.4%, P = 0.015), previous myocardial infarction (33.3 vs. 4.0%, P = 0.045) and left ventricular eject fraction (55.2 ± 7.8 vs. 62.6 ± 6.3%, P = 0.021) between the Excel and Cypher groups. The minimal- and maximal-NIC grades in the Cypher group were 0.67 ± 0.58 and 2.29 ± 0.46, respectively, when compared with 1.45 ± 0.67 (P < 0.001) and 2.64 ± 0.49 (P = 0.023) in the Excel group. The percentage of yellow plaque, thrombus, "inflaming" and NIC grade of 0 in the Excel and Cypher groups, respectively, were as follows: 8.0 vs. 26.8% (P = 0.031), 9.8 vs. 32.9% (P = 0.024), 8.0 vs. 38.1% (P = 0.017), and 38.1 vs. 0% (P < 0.001). Of the stents with "inflaming," 63.6% had thrombus when compared with 20.1% of the non-erosion stents (P < 0.001). Overlapping segments had the lowest NIC grades and more "inflaming" demonstrating a significant difference between Cypher vs. Excel stents. NIC grade was positively correlated with thrombus. SES with BDPM has improved NIC resulting in less yellow plaque, thrombus, and "inflaming." Overlapping segments had the lowest NIC grade and more "inflaming." Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Initial experience with the novel BioMime 60mm-long sirolimus-eluting tapered stent system in long coronary lesions.

    PubMed

    Valero, Ernesto; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Miñana, Gema; García-Blas, Sergio; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Moyano, Patricia; Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio

    2017-09-05

    To describe our initial experience with the novel BioMime™ 60mm-long sirolimus-eluting tapered coronary stent system in patients with long coronary lesions. We included 50 consecutive patients in whom a 60mm-long drug- eluting stent (DES) implantation was attempted due to the presence of coronary lesions longer than 48mm. The 60mm-long DES was successfully implanted in 46 (92%) patients. In 4 patients stent deployment failed due to the impossibility of crossing completely the lesions. During a median follow-up of 275 days [IQR (166-386)], no clinical adverse events (death, myocardial infarction or target lesion revascularization) were observed. The use of the novel BioMime™ 60mm-long DES for the treatment of long coronary lesions exhibits promising results in a relatively short-intermediate follow-up.

  13. Incidence of adverse cardiac events 5 years after polymer-free sirolimus eluting stent implantation: Results from the prospective Bad Berka Yukon Choice™ registry.

    PubMed

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; von Korn, Hubertus; Gunkel, Oliver; Farah, Ahmed; Fuhrmann, Joerg T; Lauer, Bernward

    2014-12-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) constitute a major achievement in preventing re-stenosis, concerns remain regarding the increased inflammatory responses associated with the polymers used. This analysis focuses on outcomes in patients receiving the polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent system YUKON-Choice (Yukon-DES, Translumina, Germany). From 01/2006-09/2008 all patients receiving Yukon-DES (≥2.5 mm diameter) were prospectively enrolled in our registry. The primary endpoint was long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE). 701 patients were included in our registry. Mean age was 65.7 ± 10 years (73% male gender, 35.5% diabetes, and 32.2% acute coronary syndrome). 76% of the lesions were of Type B2/C. Lesion length was 24.6 ± 5.2 mm and mean stent diameter was 2.8 ± 0.4 mm. A total of 511 pts (72%) underwent 6-months angiographic follow-up, target vessel revascularization was noted in 23.5%. At 5 years clinical outcomes were: cardiac death 5.8%; myocardial infarction 3.4%; and TVR 24.6%. The incidence of MACE differed significantly between "on-label" and "off-label" indications (14.8% vs. 40.8% MACE; P < 0.001). Incidence of definitive/probable stent thrombosis (ST) was 1.14% (8/701); very late (>1 year) ST occurred in 0.29%. Our data suggests that the implantation of the sirolimus-coated polymer-free YUKON-DES is safe and feasible with a very low incidence of ST in this real world patient cohort with high percentage of diabetes and small vessels. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry routine method for simultaneous determination of cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and everolimus in whole blood using deuterated internal standards for cyclosporin A and everolimus.

    PubMed

    Meinitzer, Andreas; Gartner, Gabriele; Pilz, Stefan; Stettin, Mariana

    2010-02-01

    Specific chromatographic methods for the measurement of cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and everolimus blood levels in patients with organ transplants are time consuming when large numbers of samples must be processed. The authors developed a robust and fast (1 minute) online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and everolimus. After protein precipitation of the whole blood with zinc sulphate and methanol, the supernatant was loaded on a wide pore reversed-phase column and cleansed of potential interferences with high flow for 20 seconds. After column switching, the analytes were transferred within 20 seconds in the back-flush mode to a short phenyl-hexyl column. The valve was then returned to its initial position and the chromatographic separation performed within 20 seconds. In the meantime, the loading column was prepared for the next injection. Ammoniated adducts of protonated molecules were used as precursor ions for all analytes. Multiple-reaction mode transitions for each immunosuppressant and the internal standards were used for quantification. The working range of the method was 10-1500 microg/L for cyclosporin A, 1.0-44 microg/L for tacrolimus, 1.0-48 microg/L for sirolimus, and 1.2-48 microg/L for everolimus. Within and between-run assay coefficients of variation ranged from 1.8% to 13.0%. The described liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method shows best performance using the internal standards cyclosporin A-d4 for cyclosporin A, everolimus-d4 for everolimus and ascomycin for tacrolimus and sirolimus. In conclusion, the authors present a very fast, robust, and economical analytical method for therapeutic monitoring of multiple immunosuppressants in daily clinical practice.

  15. A clinical evaluation of the ProNOVA XR polymer-free sirolimus eluting coronary stent system in the treatment of patients with de novo coronary artery lesions (EURONOVA XR I study)☆

    PubMed Central

    Legutko, Jacek; Zasada, Wojciech; Kałuża, Grzegorz L.; Heba, Grzegorz; Rzeszutko, Lukasz; Jakala, Jacek; Dragan, Jacek; Klecha, Artur; Giszterowicz, Dawid; Dobrowolski, Wojciech; Partyka, Łukasz; Jayaraman, Swaminathan; Dudek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Aims Evaluation of safety and efficacy of ProNOVA XR, a new generation of polymer-free sirolimus eluting stents (SES), utilizing a pharmaceutical excipient for timed release of sirolimus from the XR platform. Methods and results Safety and efficacy of ProNOVA XR coronary stent system was examined in EURONOVA prospective, single arm, multi-center registry of 50 patients with de novo native coronary lesions up to 28 mm in length in arteries between 2.25 and 4 mm. At 6-month, in-stent late lumen loss by QCA was 0.45 ± 0.41 mm and in-stent neointimal volume obstruction in the IVUS sub-study was 14 ± 11%. One-year clinical follow-up revealed a favorable safety profile, with 2% of in-hospital MACE and 6.4% of MACE from hospital discharge up to 12 months (including 1 cardiac death >30 days after stent implantation and 2 TLRs). According to the ARC definition, there was no definite or probable stent thrombosis and 1 possible stent thrombosis (2%) up to 12 months of clinical follow-up. Conclusions In this preliminary evaluation, ProNOVA XR polymer-free sirolimus eluting stent system appeared safe with an early promise of adequate effectiveness in the treatment of de novo coronary lesions in up to 12 months of clinical, angiographic and IVUS follow-up. PMID:23992999

  16. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  17. Ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent for percutaneous coronary revascularisation (BIOSCIENCE): a randomised, single-blind, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Thomas; Heg, Dik; Roffi, Marco; Tüller, David; Muller, Olivier; Vuilliomenet, André; Cook, Stéphane; Weilenmann, Daniel; Kaiser, Christoph; Jamshidi, Peiman; Fahrni, Therese; Moschovitis, Aris; Noble, Stéphane; Eberli, Franz R; Wenaweser, Peter; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2014-12-13

    Refinements in stent design affecting strut thickness, surface polymer, and drug release have improved clinical outcomes of drug-eluting stents. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of a novel, ultrathin strut cobalt-chromium stent releasing sirolimus from a biodegradable polymer with a thin strut durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent. We did a randomised, single-blind, non-inferiority trial with minimum exclusion criteria at nine hospitals in Switzerland. We randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years or older with chronic stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention to treatment with biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents or durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents. Randomisation was via a central web-based system and stratified by centre and presence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Patients and outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation, but treating physicians were not. The primary endpoint, target lesion failure, was a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically-indicated target lesion revascularisation at 12 months. A margin of 3·5% was defined for non-inferiority of the biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent compared with the durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01443104. Between Feb 24, 2012, and May 22, 2013, we randomly assigned 2119 patients with 3139 lesions to treatment with sirolimus-eluting stents (1063 patients, 1594 lesions) or everolimus-eluting stents (1056 patients, 1545 lesions). 407 (19%) patients presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Target lesion failure with biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (69 cases; 6·5%) was non-inferior to durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (70 cases; 6·6%) at 12 months (absolute risk difference -0·14%, upper limit of one

  18. Biolimus-eluting biodegradable polymer-coated stent versus durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent in unselected patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (SORT OUT V): a randomised non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Evald Høj; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik; Krusell, Lars Romer; Hansen, Knud Nørregaard; Kaltoft, Anne; Maeng, Michael; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Villadsen, Anton Boel; Ravkilde, Jan; Aarøe, Jens; Madsen, Morten; Thuesen, Leif; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2013-02-23

    Third-generation biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents might reduce the risk of stent thrombosis compared with first-generation permanent polymer drug-eluting stents. We aimed to further investigate the effects of a biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent compared with a durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent in a population-based setting. This randomised, multicentre, all-comer, non-inferiority trial was undertaken at three sites across western Denmark. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with chronic stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes, and at least one coronary artery lesion (>50% diameter stenosis). We randomly assigned patients (1:1) using an independently managed computer-generated allocation sequence to receive either a biolimus-eluting biodegradable polymer stent (Nobori, Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) or a sirolimus-eluting permanent polymer stent (Cypher Select Plus, Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, Warren, NJ, USA). The primary endpoint was a composite of safety (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis) and efficacy (target vessel revascularisation) at 9 months, analysed by intention to treat (non-inferiority margin of 0·02). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01254981. From July, 2009, to January, 2011, we assigned 1229 patients (1532 lesions) to receive the biolimus-eluting stent and 1239 (1555 lesions) to receive the sirolimus-eluting stent. One patient was lost to follow-up because of emigration. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 50 (4·1%) patients who were assigned the biolimus-eluting stent and 39 (3·1%) who were assigned the sirolimus-eluting stent met the primary endpoint (risk difference 0·9% [upper limit of one-sided 95% CI 2·1%]; p(non-inferiority)=0·06). Significantly more patients in the biolimus-eluting stent group had definite stent thrombosis at 12 months than did those in the sirolimus-eluting stent group (9 [0·7%] vs 2 [0·2%], risk

  19. Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable-Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization: 2-Year Results of the BIOSCIENCE Trial.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Rainer; Piccolo, Raffaele; Heg, Dik; Roffi, Marco; Kurz, David J; Muller, Olivier; Vuilliomenet, André; Cook, Stéphane; Weilenmann, Daniel; Kaiser, Christoph; Jamshidi, Peiman; Franzone, Anna; Eberli, Franz; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Pilgrim, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    No data are available on the long-term performance of ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (BP-SES). We reported 2-year clinical outcomes of the BIOSCIENCE (Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Revascularisation) trial, which compared BP-SES with durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 2119 patients with minimal exclusion criteria were assigned to treatment with BP-SES (n=1063) or DP-EES (n=1056). Follow-up at 2 years was available for 2048 patients (97%). The primary end point was target-lesion failure, a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically indicated target-lesion revascularization. At 2 years, target-lesion failure occurred in 107 patients (10.5%) in the BP-SES arm and 107 patients (10.4%) in the DP-EES arm (risk ratio [RR] 1.00, 95% CI 0.77-1.31, P=0.979). There were no significant differences between BP-SES and DP-EES with respect to cardiac death (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.62-1.63, P=0.984), target-vessel myocardial infarction (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.60-1.39, P=0.669), target-lesion revascularization (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.81-1.71, P=0.403), and definite stent thrombosis (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.56-3.44, P=0.485). There were 2 cases (0.2%) of definite very late stent thrombosis in the BP-SES arm and 4 cases (0.4%) in the DP-EES arm (P=0.423). In the prespecified subgroup of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, BP-SES was associated with a lower risk of target-lesion failure compared with DP-EES (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.99, P=0.043, Pinteraction=0.026). Comparable safety and efficacy profiles of BP-SES and DP-EES were maintained throughout 2 years of follow-up. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01443104. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by

  20. The real world experience of the biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting coronary stent system: Results From an "All-Comers" Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Rajasekhar, D; Vanajakshamma, V; Shashank, C; Srinivasakumar, M L; Sivasankara, C

    2016-09-01

    This INDOLIMUS Registry sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the biodegradable polymer coated Indolimus(®) sirolimus-eluting coronary stent for the treatment of coronary artery disease across a wide range of patients treated in routine clinical practice, including those with high-risk characteristics and complex lesions. First-generation drug-eluting stents utilize nonbiodegradable polymeric coatings, whose persistent presence in the arterial wall may negatively affect long-term outcomes. It has been hypothesized that persistent presence of polymer may compromise the safety of drug-eluting stents, and that therefore biodegradable polymer coatings might reduce late adverse events in an unselected patient population. All 530 consecutive unselected patients (415 males and 115 females) included who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention at the Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, India between August 2012 and March 2013, with an in-hospital, at 30-days and at 6-months follow-up. Retrospective analysis of those data had been done. A total of 617 lesions were treated in 530 enrolled patients (mean age 54.9 ± 10.8 years) with average stent length of 18.8 ± 6.0 mm. An average of 1.18 stents was implanted per patient. The patients' characteristics are noted as having 169 (31.9%) patients of diabetics and 215 (40.6%) hypertension. Smoking, alcoholism and tobacco chewing were found in 273 (51.5%), 130 (24.5%) and 17 (3.2%), respectively. The indications for intervention were unstable angina in 77 (14.5%) and previous myocardial infarction in 56 (10.6%) of the patients. Lesions were of type B2 in 264 (42.7%) and type C in 127 (20.6%). Stent delivery was successful in all cases and in-hospital, 30-days and 6-months follow-up of all 530 patients was obtained. The incidence of any major adverse cardiac events at in-hospital, at 30-days and at 6-months were 5 (0.94%), 8 (1.52%), and 18 (3.40%), respectively. Long term follow-up of

  1. Impact of CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine and sirolimus in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Żochowska, Dorota; Wyzgał, Janusz; Pączek, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine, CsA) and mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus, SRL) - immunosuppressants used to prevent allograft rejection after renal transplantation - have a narrow therapeutic index and show considerable inter-individual pharmacokinetic differences. Differences in expression and activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 affect these pharmacokinetics; cytochrome activity differences are associated with CYP genetic polymorphisms. This study evaluated the effects of polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 on immunosuppressive drug-dose adjusted trough blood concentrations. One hundred renal transplant recipients were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 using PCR-RFLP. Blood concentrations of CsA and SRL were determined by EMIT and HPLC/UV, respectively. The allelic frequencies of CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3 in the study group were 2.5% and 96.5%, respectively. The mean cyclosporine dose in CYP3A4*1/*1B subjects was 455.04±128.68 mg/day vs. 261.68±64.72 mg/day in CYP3A4*1/*1 subjects (p<0.001). The mean cyclosporine dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (ng/ml per mg/kg body weight) in CYP3A4*1/*1B subjects were lower than in the CYP3A4*1/*1 group (37.06±10.38 vs. 44.63±13.99; p<0.218). The mean cyclosporine dose in CYP3A5*1/*3 subjects was 400.65±164.97 mg/day vs. 263.52±64.39 mg/day in CYP3A5*3/*3 subjects (p<0.022). No association was detected between sirolimus trough blood concentration (C0) or dose requirement, and CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 genotype. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 may underlie inter-individual differences in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics after renal transplantation. Patients with at least 1 functional CYP3A5*1 or CYP3A4*1B allele require significantly higher doses of cyclosporine to reach target drug levels compared to patients with the CYP3A4*1 or CYP3A5*3 alleles.

  2. ConSCRIPT

    PubMed Central

    Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873

  3. A phase II study of sirolimus, tacrolimus, and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin as graft-versus-host prophylaxis after unrelated-donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Samer K.; Palmer, Joycelynne; StillerMS, Tracey; Senitzer, David; Maegawa, Rodrigo; Rodriguez, Roberto; Parker, Pablo M.; Nademanee, Auayporn; Cai, Ji-Lian; Snyder, David S.; Karanes, Chatchada; Osorio, Edna; Thomas, Sandra H.; Forman, Stephen J.; Nakamura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    We report on a prospective phase II trial of 32 patients who underwent unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation, with a tacrolimus, sirolimus and rabbit anti-thymoctye globulin GVHD prophylactic regimen. The primary study endpoint was incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD, with 80% power to detect a 30% decrease compared to institutional historical controls. Median age at transplant was 60 (19-71). Twenty-three patients (72%) received reduced-intensity conditioning, while the remainder received full-intensity regimens. Median follow up for surviving patients was 35 months (range: 21 - 49). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD was 37.3% and the 2-year cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 63%. We observed TMA in seven patients (21.8%), one of whom also developed sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS). Four patients of 32 (12.5%) failed to engraft, and three of these four died. As a result, enrollment to this trial was closed before the targeted accrual of 60 patients. Two-year overall survival was 65.5% and event-free survival was 61.3%. Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 12.5% and non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 15.6%. NRM and aGVHD rates were lower than historical rates; however, the unexpectedly high incidence of graft failure requires caution in the design of future studies with this regimen. PMID:23000644

  4. Angioscopic assessment of arterial repair following biodegradable polymer-coated biolimus A9-eluting stent implantation. - Comparison with durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent-.

    PubMed

    Awata, Masaki; Uematsu, Masaaki; Sera, Fusako; Ishihara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Fujita, Masashi; Onishi, Toshinari; Iida, Osamu; Ishida, Yoshio; Nanto, Shinsuke; Nagata, Seiki

    2011-01-01

    Second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) are expected to show better arterial repair than older DES. We angioscopically compared the biodegradable polymer-coated biolimus A9-eluting stent (BES) and durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) to explore differences in arterial repair. Angioscopy was performed 9 ± 1 months after 15 BES and 16 SES were implanted initially in the native coronary artery. Heterogeneity of neointimal coverage (NIC) as well as the dominant NIC grade was examined. NIC was defined as: grade 0 = fully visible struts; grade 1 = struts bulging into the lumen, but covered; grade 2 = embedded, but translucent struts; grade 3 = invisible struts. Heterogeneity was judged when the NIC grade varied ≥ 1. In-stent late loss (0.06 ± 0.23 vs. 0.07 ± 0.18 mm, P = 0.80), and dominant NIC grade (1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7, P = 0.45) were similar for BES and SES. Within the stents, NIC was more heterogeneous in SES than in BES (P = 0.035). 80% of BES showed homogeneous NIC, while 56% of SES had heterogeneous NIC. BES showed limited late loss similar to that for SES. Nonetheless, the NIC with BES was more homogeneous than that with SES. Biodegradable polymer-coated BES may have an advantage in homogeneous NIC.

  5. Sirolimus-eluting, bioabsorbable polymer-coated constant stent (Cura) in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a clinical and angiographic study (CURAMI Registry).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Hang; Lim, Jimmy; Low, Adrian; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Kyaing, Than-Than; Chan, Mark Y; Wong, Hwee-Bee; Lim, Yean-Teng; Tan, Huay-Cheem

    2007-04-01

    There are safety concerns over the current polymer-based drug-eluting stents (DES) on the possible delayed healing process and adverse reactions to the polymer when drug elution is completed. Cura (Orbus Neich) is a sirolimus-eluting, bioabsorbable, polymer-coated constant stent. From March 1 to June 30, 2005, Cura stent implantation was instituted as the default strategy for percutaneous coronary intervention in 49 consecutive ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patients (male 86%; average age 55 +/- 10 years; diabetes 31%). The angiographic success rate was 100%. In-hospital adverse events consisted of 1 in-hospital death (2% heart failure). A total of 27 patients (56%) underwent 8-month angiographic follow up. Binary restenosis occurred in 6 patients (22%), and late loss was 0.74 +/- 0.89 mm. At 9-month follow up, a total of 5 patients had 6 major adverse events (1 death, 1 reinfarction, and 4 target lesion revascularizations). There was no incidence of stent thrombosis. Cura stent implantation appears to be feasible and safe in the treatment of STEMI. However, the binary restenosis rate and late loss at angiographic follow up were similar to that of bare-metal stents, and therefore compare unfavorably with other proven benchmark DES.

  6. Gingival overgrowth in cyclosporine, tacrolimus, or sirolimus-based immunosuppressive regimens and the single nucleotide IL-6 (-174 G/C) gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Viana, Michelle Beatriz; Moreira, Paula Rocha; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Cortelli, José Roberto; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) may be involved in drug-induced gingival overgrowth (GO). The present study was conducted to assess the association between IL-6 (-174 G/C) gene polymorphism and GO in renal transplant recipients under cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (Tcr), or sirolimus (Sir)-based regimens. Within an eligible population, 45 unrelated subjects were selected for each CsA, Tcr, and Sir group, totaling a sample of 135 subjects. GO was visually assessed and subjects were assigned as controls (non-responders) or cases (responders) in a post hoc definition. IL-6 gene polymorphism was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction amplification and digestion. The distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies in responders and non-responders were compared using the Chi-squared test. The number of responders was 27 (60.0%), 13 (28.9%), and 7 (15.6%) in the CsA, Tcr, and Sir groups, respectively. No differences could be observed at frequencies of -174GG, -174CG, and -174CC genotypes when comparing responders to non-responders in the CsA, Tcr, and Sir groups. Similar to genotypes, allele frequencies showed no differences between responders and non-responders in all groups. No association between IL-6 (-174 G/C) gene polymorphism and gingival overgrowth was observed in renal transplant recipients under CsA, Tcr, or Sir-based immunosuppressive maintenance regimens. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sirolimus reduces the incidence and progression of UVB-induced skin cancer in SKH mice even with co-administration of cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Brian C; Kusewitt, Donna F; VanBuskirk, Anne M; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Duncan, F Jason; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2008-10-01

    Transplant immunosuppressants have been implicated in the increased incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in transplant recipients, most of whom harbor considerable UVB-induced DNA damage in their skin prior to transplantation. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two commonly used immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporine A (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL), on the development and progression of UVB-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to UVB alone for 15 weeks, and then were treated with CsA, SRL, or CsA+SRL for 9 weeks following cessation of UVB treatment. Compared with vehicle, CsA treatment resulted in enhanced tumor size and progression. In contrast, mice treated with SRL or CsA+SRL had decreased tumor multiplicity, size, and progression compared with vehicle-treated mice. CsA, but not SRL or combined treatment, increased dermal mast cell numbers and TGF-beta1 levels in the skin. These findings demonstrate that specific immunosuppressive agents differentially alter the cutaneous tumor microenvironment, which in turn may contribute to enhanced development of UVB-induced skin cancer in transplant recipients. Furthermore, these results suggest that CsA alone causes enhanced growth and progression of skin cancer, whereas co-administration of SRL with CsA causes the opposite effect. JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub

  8. Sirolimus vs cyclosporine after induction with basiliximab does not promote regulatory T cell expansion in de novo kidney transplantation: Results from a single-center randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Libetta, Carmelo; Esposito, Pasquale; Gregorini, Marilena; Margiotta, Elisa; Martinelli, Claudia; Borettaz, Ilaria; Canevari, Michele; Rampino, Teresa; Ticozzelli, Elena; Abelli, Massimo; Meloni, Federica; Dal Canton, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), defined as CD4+CD25+highFoxP3+CD127- cells, could promote tolerance in renal transplantation (Tx). In an open-label, randomized, controlled trial 62 de-novo Tx recipients received induction with basiliximab and cyclosporine A (CsA) for the first month after Tx and then were assigned to treatment with sirolimus (SRL) or CsA and followed up for 2 years. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the effects of induction and maintenance treatments on circulating Tregs, while the secondary endpoint was the assessment of Treg renal infiltration and the relationship between Treg count and clinical outcomes. There were no significant differences in either circulating or tissue Treg number between the two groups. At 1 month post-Tx, all patients presented a profound Treg depletion, followed by a significant increase in Tregs that resulted stable during the follow-up. The same trend was also observed for non-activated Tregs (CD69-) and for other immunocompetent cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and NK cells). Moreover, the Treg count did not correlate either with renal function or with acute rejection and graft loss. Initial immunosuppression is crucial to regulate circulating Tregs, regardless of subsequent immunosuppressive maintenance regimens. Strategies aiming to promote tolerance should consider the effects of different induction regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion to Sirolimus Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Nephropathy in the Rat: Focus on Serum, Urine, Gene, and Protein Renal Expression Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, José; Nunes, Sara; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Fernandes, João; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2014-01-01

    Protocols of conversion from cyclosporin A (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) have been widely used in immunotherapy after transplantation to prevent CsA-induced nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these protocols remain nuclear. This study aimed to identify the molecular pathways and putative biomarkers of CsA-to-SRL conversion in a rat model. Four animal groups (n = 6) were tested during 9 weeks: control, CsA, SRL, and conversion (CsA for 3 weeks followed by SRL for 6 weeks). Classical and emergent serum, urinary, and kidney tissue (gene and protein expression) markers were assessed. Renal lesions were analyzed in hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome stains. SRL-treated rats presented proteinuria and NGAL (serum and urinary) as the best markers of renal impairment. Short CsA treatment presented slight or even absent kidney lesions and TGF-β, NF-κ β, mTOR, PCNA, TP53, KIM-1, and CTGF as relevant gene and protein changes. Prolonged CsA exposure aggravated renal damage, without clear changes on the traditional markers, but with changes in serums TGF-β and IL-7, TBARs clearance, and kidney TGF-β and mTOR. Conversion to SRL prevented CsA-induced renal damage evolution (absent/mild grade lesions), while NGAL (serum versus urine) seems to be a feasible biomarker of CsA replacement to SRL. PMID:24971338

  10. The Con Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the format of the Con Test, an Australian television game show which followed the same general rules and game play as the UK show PokerFace. At the end of each round a contestant needs to decide whether or not he or she should fold. A contestant needs to know how likely it is that he or she is in last place.…

  11. Randomized comparison of a polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent versus a polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with diabetes mellitus: the LIPSIA Yukon trial.

    PubMed

    Desch, Steffen; Schloma, Denis; Möbius-Winkler, Sven; Erbs, Sandra; Gielen, Stephan; Linke, Axel; Yu, Jiangtao; Lauer, Bernward; Kleinertz, Klaus; Dänschel, Wilfried; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess noninferiority of the polymer-free sirolimus-eluting Yukon Choice stent (Translumina GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) compared with the polymer-based Taxus Liberté stent (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) with regard to the primary endpoint, in-stent late lumen loss, at 9 months in patients with diabetes mellitus. The Yukon Choice stent has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials before, albeit to date, there has been no trial that exclusively enrolled patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for clinically significant de novo coronary artery stenosis were randomized 1:1 to receive either the polymer-free sirolimus-eluting Yukon Choice stent or the polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting Taxus Liberté stent. A total of 240 patients were randomized. Quantitative coronary angiography was available for 79% of patients. Mean in-stent late lumen loss was 0.63 ± 0.62 mm for the Yukon Choice stent and 0.45 ± 0.60 mm for the Taxus Liberté stent. Based on the pre-specified margin, the Yukon Choice stent failed to show noninferiority for the primary endpoint. During follow-up, there were no significant differences between groups regarding death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization, or nontarget vessel revascularization. Compared with the Taxus Liberté stent, the polymer-free sirolimus-eluting Yukon Choice stent failed to show noninferiority with regard to the primary endpoint, in-stent late lumen loss, in patients with diabetes mellitus after 9-month follow-up. Both stents showed comparable clinical efficacy and safety. (Yukon Choice Versus Taxus Liberté in Diabetes Mellitus; NCT00368953). Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  13. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  14. Post-transplantation Cyclophosphamide and Sirolimus after Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using a Treosulfan-based Myeloablative Conditioning and Peripheral Blood Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Cieri, Nicoletta; Greco, Raffaella; Crucitti, Lara; Morelli, Mara; Giglio, Fabio; Levati, Giorgia; Assanelli, Andrea; Carrabba, Matteo G; Bellio, Laura; Milani, Raffaella; Lorentino, Francesca; Stanghellini, Maria Teresa Lupo; De Freitas, Tiago; Marktel, Sarah; Bernardi, Massimo; Corti, Consuelo; Vago, Luca; Bonini, Chiara; Ciceri, Fabio; Peccatori, Jacopo

    2015-08-01

    Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) performed using bone marrow (BM) grafts and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has gained much interest for the excellent toxicity profile after both reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning. We investigated, in a cohort of 40 high-risk hematological patients, the feasibility of peripheral blood stem cells grafts after a treosulfan-melphalan myeloablative conditioning, followed by a PTCy and sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (Sir-PTCy). Donor engraftment occurred in all patients, with full donor chimerism achieved by day 30. Post-HSCT recovery of lymphocyte subsets was broad and fast, with a median time to CD4 > 200/μL of 41 days. Cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15% and 7.5%, respectively, and were associated with a significant early increase in circulating regulatory T cells at day 15 after HSCT, with values < 5% being predictive of subsequent GVHD occurrence. The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 1 year were 12% and 17%, respectively. With a median follow-up for living patients of 15 months, the estimated 1-year overall and disease-free survival (DFS) was 56% and 48%, respectively. Outcomes were more favorable in patients who underwent transplantation in complete remission (1-year DFS 71%) versus patients who underwent transplantation with active disease (DFS, 34%; P = .01). Overall, myeloablative haploidentical HSCT with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and Sir-PTCy is a feasible treatment option: the low rates of GVHD and NRM as well as the favorable immune reconstitution profile pave the way for a prospective comparative trial comparing BM and PBSC in this specific transplantation setting.

  15. Functional comparison between BuMA Supreme biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting and durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting coronary stents using Quantitative Flow Ratio: PIONEER QFR substudy.

    PubMed

    Asano, Taku; Katagiri, Yuki; Collet, Carlos; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Sotomi, Yohei; Amoroso, Giovanni; Aminian, Adel; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Vrolix, Mathias; Hernandez-Antolín, Rosana; van de Harst, Pim; Iñiguez, Andres; Janssens, Luc; Smits, Pieter; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama; Periera, Helder; da Silva, Pedro Canas; Piek, Jan J; Reiber, Johan H C; von Birgelen, Clemens; Sabaté, Manel; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-10-10

    Quantitative Flow Ratio (QFR) based on 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) is a novel method to assess the physiological functionality after treatment with stents. The current study aimed to evaluate the difference in physiological functionality 9 months after implantation of a bioresorbable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stent with an electrografting base layer (BuMA Supreme: B-SES) versus a durable polymer-based zotarolimus-eluting stent (Resolute: R-ZES). The current post-hoc analysis was performed in the PIONEER randomized trial (1:1 randomization to B-SES [83 patients/95 lesions] and R-ZES [87 patients/101 lesions]). QFR was measured in stented vessels in both arms at pre-procedural, post-procedural and 9-month angiography without pharmacologically induced hyperemia (contrast QFR). At 9 months, both the values of QFR distal to the stent (B-SES: 0.89±0.10 vs. 0.89±0.11, p=0.97) and the numbers of the vessels with QFR ≤0.8 were not significantly different between the two groups (11.0% vs. 12.8%, p=0.72), while the in-stent binary restenosis rate was also comparable (3.7% versus 3.5%, P=1.00). QFR gradient across the device (∆QFR) at 9 months was also similar between both groups (B-SES: 0.03±0.04 vs. 0.03±0.07, p=0.95). Quantitative flow assessment 9 months after stenting did not differ between B-SES and R-ZES, despite of a significant difference in in-stent late lumen loss.

  16. First-in-man randomized comparison of BuMA Supreme biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting versus durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting coronary stents: The PIONEER trial.

    PubMed

    von Birgelen, Clemens; Asano, Taku; Amoroso, Giovanni; Aminian, Adel; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Vrolix, Mathias; Hernandez-Antolín, Rosana; van de Harst, Pim; Iñiguez, Andres; Janssens, Luc; Smits, Pieter C; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama; Periera, Helder; Canas da Silva, Pedro; Piek, Jan J; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W; Sabaté, Manel

    2017-09-19

    A second iteration of a sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) that has a biodegradable PLGA-polymer coating with electrografting base layer on a thin-strut (80µm) cobalt-chromium platform (BuMA Supreme; SINOMED, Tianjin, China) has been developed. This first-in-man trial assessed the efficacy and safety of the novel device. This randomized, multi-center, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial compared BuMA Supreme SES versus contemporary durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) in terms of angiographic in-stent late lumen loss (LLL) at 9-months follow-up as the primary endpoint. A total of 170 patients were randomly allocated to treatment with SES (n=83) or ZES (n=87). At 9-month angiographic follow-up, in-stent LLL was 0.29±0.33mm in SES and 0.14±0.37mm in ZES (Pnon-inferiority=0.45). The in-stent percent diameter stenosis and the binary restenosis rate of the two treatment arms were similar (19.2±12.0% vs. 16.1±12.6%, p=0.09, and 3.3% vs. 4.4%, P=1.00, respectively). At 12-month clinical follow-up, there was no difference between treatment arms with regard to a device-oriented composite clinical endpoint (4.9% vs. 5.7%; p=0.72). The PIONEER trial did not meet its primary endpoint in terms of in-stent LLL at 9-month follow-up. However, this result did not translate into any increase in restenosis rate or impairment in 12-month clinical outcomes.

  17. Effect of solvent on drug release and a spray-coated matrix of a sirolimus-eluting stent coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiyeon; Jang, Bu Nam; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2014-08-26

    Sirolimus (SRL) release from the biodegradable poly(l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) matrix was investigated for the application of drug-eluting stents (DES). In particular, this study focused on whether various organic solvents affect the interaction between SRL and PLGA and the formation of microstructures during ultrasonic coating. The SRL-loaded PLGA coated by tetrahydrofuran or acetone showed a significant initial burst, whereas that from acetonitrile was constantly released during a period of 21 days. On the basis of these results, the interactions at the molecular level of SRL with the polymer matrix were estimated according to various organic solvents. Although the topographies of the coated surface were obviously different, the correlation between surface roughness and SRL release was very poor. Irrespective of organic solvents, FT-IR data showed significantly weak SRL-PLGA interactions. From the result of wide-angle X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that SRL was dispersed in an amorphous state in the polymer matrix after ultrasonic coating. The glass-transition temperature was also influenced by organic solvents, resulting in a plasticizing effect. The particle size of SRL appeared to determine the release profile from the PLGA matrix, which was the combination of diffusion and polymer degradation at an SRL size of more than 800 nm and the Fickian release at that of less than 300 nm. Therefore, organic solvents can lead to a heterogeneous microstructure in the SRL-loaded PLGA matrix, which is at or near the surface, consisting of aggregated drug- and polymer-rich regions. It is expected that the drug release can be controlled by physicochemical properties of organic solvents, and this study can be used effectively for localized drug release in biomedical devices such as drug-eluting stents.

  18. Outcomes of biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting PROLIM stent in patients with coronary artery disease. Results of 12-month follow-up of prospective registry.

    PubMed

    Roleder, Tomasz; Smolka, Grzegorz; Podolecka, Ewa; Chudek, Jolanta; Dworowy, Sebastian; Żelazowska, Katarzyna; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Ochała, Andrzej

    Data from clinical trials suggested that biodegradable-polymer-based drug-eluting stents (DES) might improve long-term clinical outcomes. PROLIM (Balton, Warsaw, Poland) DES is based on a stainless steel platform with a closed cell design releasing sirolimus from biodegradable copolymer (lactic and glycolic acid) in eight weeks. In the present study the safety and the efficacy of a PROLIM stent was assessed in patients with de novo coronary lesions in 12-month clinical follow-up. It was a single-centre, observational, prospective registry to assess the safety and efficacy of a PROLIM stent implantation in all consecutive patients with de novo coronary artery lesions treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The primary study endpoint was a composite safety (cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction), and the second study endpoint was the efficacy of PROLIM implantation-clinically driven target vessel revascularisation (TVR) assessed at 12-month follow-up. One hundred patients were enrolled into the study and 118 PROLIM stents were implanted. Thirty-two (32%) patients had diabetes, 46 (46%) patients were prior PCI, and 17 (17%) patients had coronary artery bypass grafting. 67% of stented lesions were complex ones (B2/C) and 17% were bifurcations. During the 12-month follow-up primary study endpoints occurred in five (5%) patients. Two (2%) cardiac deaths were reported and three (3%) TVRs were performed, of which one was related to in-PROLIM stent restenosis. PCI with biodegradable-polymer PROLIM DES seems to be safe and effective in 12-month follow-up. A larger trial is warranted to assess clinical outcomes post PROLIM stent implantation.

  19. Stent thrombosis with biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents versus durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents: an update meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Lv, Yi Ning; Wang, Li Yu

    2015-01-01

    Durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (DP-SES) are associated with a low risk of stent thrombosis; biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) were designed to reduce these risks. However, their benefits are still variable. We undertook a meta-analysis of randomized trials identified by systematic searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database. Eleven studies (9,676 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.6 months were included. Overall, compared with DP-SES, BP-DES significantly lowered the rate of definite or probable stent thrombosis (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.97; p = 0.03; I(2) = 0.0%) due to a decreased risk of very late stent thrombosis (RR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.63; p = 0.00; I(2) = 0.0%). However, BP-DES were associated with a comparable rate of early and late stent thrombosis. Meanwhile, BP-DES were associated with a broadly equivalent risk of target vessel revascularization (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.78-1.03; p = 0.13; I(2) = 0.0%), cardiac death (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.09; p = 0.24; I(2) = 0.0%), myocardial infarction (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.84-1.26; p = 0.79; I(2) = 0.0%), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE; RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.0; p = 0.08; I(2) = 0.0%). Furthermore, angiographic data showed that in-stent and in-segment late luminal loss were similar between the two groups. Compared with DP-SES, BP-DES were associated with a lower rate of very late stent thrombosis and an equivalent risk of MACE. Larger randomized studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  20. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue gastric lymphoma regression in a renal transplant patient after conversion of the immunosuppression to sirolimus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lasmar, E P; Coelho, L G V; Lasmar, M F; Lasmar, L F; Lima, P V; Nogueira, A F

    2009-04-01

    The treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the most common posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, is not well defined. Herein we have reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with rapid, persistent, and complete remission after conversion of the immunosuppression from cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL). A 42-year-old woman underwent renal transplantation in 1992 with no major abnormalities until 2006 when a gastroscopy performed to investigate dyspeptic symptoms showed a mixed MALT gastric lymphoma (with low- and high-grade components) associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Two therapeutic interventions in a 1-week interval were performed: treatment of the H. pylori infection (omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for 14 days) and modification of the immunosuppression by substitution of CsA and azathioprine (AZA) with SRL. Control endoscopy performed 1 month later showed persistence of H. pylori infection and absence of the gastric tumor. New endoscopies performed at 2 and 7 months after therapy confirmed the absence of neoplasia and H. pylori eradication. Currently, the patient has no complaints, displaying a creatinine value of 1.8 mg/dL and a hemoglobin of 9.4 mg/dL using SRL and ibersatan. SRL has been studied extensively as an anticancer drug, acting as a mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. Accumulating data support the role of mTOR in lymphomagenesis. In conclusion, our case of gastric MALT lymphoma in a renal transplant patient displayed a complete remission after alteration of the immunosuppressive scheme with the introduction of SRL.

  1. Efficacy and safety of early tacrolimus conversion to sirolimus after kidney transplantation: Long-term results of a prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    El-Agroudy, A. E.; Alarrayed, S. M.; Al-Ghareeb, S. M.; Farid, E.; Alhelow, H.; Abdulla, S.

    2017-01-01

    We report a prospective, open-label, randomized study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of converting patients with a stable renal function from tacrolimus (Tac)-based regimen to a sirolimus (SRL)-based regimen after kidney transplantation. Fifty-eight low-risk renal allograft recipients who receiving Tac 6 months posttransplant, were randomly assigned to continue Tac (n = 29) or convert to SRL (n = 29). We evaluated the 3-year outcomes including patient and graft survival, graft function, and safety profile. Three-year patient and graft survival in SRL and Tac groups were 93.1% versus 100% (P = 0.32), and 89.7% versus 100% (P = 0.11), respectively. However, the SRL group had a significantly better renal function, from the 2nd year posttransplant until the last follow-up. Four (13.8%) patients in the SRL group and 3 (10.3%) in the Tac group (P = 0.5) developed biopsy-proven acute rejection. Mean urinary protein excretion increased significantly after SRL conversion. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower at the end of the study in patients who eliminated Tac (80.4 vs. 75.6 mmHg in Tac and SRL group, respectively) (P = 0.03). Mean hemoglobin concentrations decreased after SRL conversion and remained significantly lower from 12 months to 36 months (P = 0.01). The mean serum cholesterol (540 ± 44 mg/dl) and triglyceride (177 ± 27 mg/dl) increased significantly in the SRL group, compared to Tac group (487 ± 62 mg/dl) (P = 0.03) and (141 ± 26 mg/dl) (P = 0.04). Our experience demonstrates that conversion to SRL from calcineurin inhibitors-based therapy may result in better renal function and blood pressure control in renal transplant recipients without an increased risk of acute rejection. However, these benefits have not resulted in a growing advantage in graft or patient survival. PMID:28182044

  2. Impact of statin therapy on late target lesion revascularization after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation (from the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ono, Koh; Shizuta, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kadota, Kazushige; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Kato, Yoshihiro; Suwa, Satoru; Inada, Tsukasa; Doi, Osamu; Takizawa, Akinori; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2012-05-15

    Therapeutic strategies preventing late target lesion revascularization (TLR) after drug-eluting stent implantation have not been yet adequately investigated. In 13,087 consecutive patients undergoing first percutaneous coronary intervention in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2, we identified 10,221 patients who were discharged alive after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) only (SES stratum 5,029) or bare-metal stents (BMSs) only (BMS stratum 5,192). Impact of statin therapy at time of discharge from the index hospitalization on early (within the first year) and late (1 year to 4 years) TLR, was assessed in the SES stratum (statin group 2,735; nonstatin group 2,294) and in the BMS stratum (statin group 2,576; nonstatin group 2,616). Despite a significantly lower incidence of early TLR (7.8% vs 22.2%, p <0.0001), SES use compared to BMS use was associated with a significantly higher incidence of late TLR (7.7% vs 3.0%, p <0.0001). In the SES and BMS strata, the incidence of early TLR was similar regardless of statin use. In the SES stratum, the incidence of late TLR was significantly lower in the statin group than in the nonstatin group (6.1% vs 9.6%, p = 0.002), whereas no significant difference was found in the BMS stratum (2.6% vs 3.3%, p = 0.38). After adjusting confounders, risk for late TLR significantly favored statin use in the SES stratum (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.98, p = 0.04), whereas the risk decrease was not significant in the BMS stratum (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 1.20, p = 0.23). In conclusion, statin therapy at hospital discharge was associated with a significantly lower risk for late TLR after SES implantation.

  3. Long-term efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stent for small vessel disease--subanalysis of Cypher Stent Japan Post-Marketing Surveillance Registry.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hajime; Ikari, Yuji; Nakamura, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention for lesions with small vessel diameter may have high event rates. Although drug-eluting stents reduce the risk of restenosis, the long-term efficacy of drug-eluting stent implantation in small vessels is unclear. We reviewed the data of Cypher Stent Japan Post-Marketing Surveillance Registry including 2356 lesions of 1959 patients, and retrospectively investigated the angiographic outcomes at 8 months, and the clinical outcomes at 1800 days after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation in vessels with diameter less than 2.5mm (small vessel group) compared to that with diameter of 2.5mm or more (non-small vessel group). The rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 1800 days was slightly higher in the small vessel group than in the non-small vessel group, but not statistically significant (24.4% vs 21.0%, p=0.086). The rate of target lesion revascularization was higher in the small vessel group than in the non-small vessel group (10.2% vs 6.4%, p=0.004). The rate of stent thrombosis was almost the same in the two groups. Multivariate Cox hazard model analysis revealed that a vessel diameter less than 2.5mm was not an independent risk factor for MACE. SES implantation for vessels with diameter less than 2.5mm is safe and provides good long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical outcomes in 995 unselected real-world patients treated with an ultrathin biodegradable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent: 12-month results from the FLEX Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Pedro A; Chandwani, Prakash; Saxena, Sudheer; Ramachandran, Padma Kumar; Abhyankar, Atul; Campos, Carlos M; Marchini, Julio Flavio; Galon, Micheli Zanotti; Verma, Puneet; Sandhu, Manjinder Singh; Parikh, Nikhil; Bhupali, Ashok; Jain, Sharad; Prajapati, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate, in the FLEX Registry, clinical outcomes of an ultrathin (60 µm) biodegradable polymer-coated Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Additionally, to determine the vascular response to the Supraflex SES through optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis. Setting Multicentre, single-arm, all-comers, observational registry of patients who were treated with the Supraflex SES, between July 2013 and May 2014, at nine different centres in India. Participants 995 patients (1242 lesions) who were treated with the Supraflex SES, between July 2013 and May 2014, at nine different centres in India. A total of 47 participants underwent OCT analysis at 6 months’ follow-up. Interventions Percutaneous coronary intervention with Supraflex SES, Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary endpoint—the rate of major adverse cardiac events (defined as a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularisation (TLR))—was analysed during 12 months. Results At 12 months, the primary endpoint occurred in 36 (3.7%) of 980 patients, consisting of 18 (1.8%) cardiac deaths, 16 (1.6%) MI, 7 (0.7%) TLR and 2 (0.2%) cases of non-target lesion target vessel revascularization. In a subset of 47 patients, 1227 cross-sections (9309 struts) were analysed at 6 months by OCT. Overall, a high percentage of struts was covered (98.1%), with a mean neointimal thickness of 0.13±0.06 µm. Conclusions The FLEX Registry evaluated clinical outcomes in real-world and more complex cohorts and thus provides evidence that the Supraflex SEX can be used safely and routinely in a broader percutaneous coronary intervention population. Also, the Supraflex SES showed high percentage of stent strut coverage and good stent apposition during OCT follow-up. PMID:26888727

  5. Late-term clinical outcomes with zotarolimus- and sirolimus-eluting stents. 5-year follow-up of the ENDEAVOR III (A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Medtronic Endeavor Drug [ABT-578] Eluting Coronary Stent System Versus the Cypher Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions).

    PubMed

    Kandzari, David E; Mauri, Laura; Popma, Jeffrey J; Turco, Mark A; Gurbel, Paul A; Fitzgerald, Peter J; Leon, Martin B

    2011-05-01

    This study sought to compare late safety and efficacy outcomes following percutaneous coronary revascularization with zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). Despite higher late lumen loss and binary restenosis with ZES compared with SES, it is uncertain whether differences in early angiographic measures translate into more disparate late clinical events. Clinical outcomes were prospectively evaluated through 5 years in the ENDEAVOR III (A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Medtronic Endeavor Drug [ABT-578] Eluting Coronary Stent System Versus the Cypher Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) that randomized 436 patients of relatively low anatomic and clinical risk to treatment with ZES (n = 323) or SES (n = 113) and evaluated a primary endpoint of 8-month angiographic late lumen loss. At 5 years (completeness of follow-up: 95.2%), pre-specified endpoints of all-cause mortality (5.2% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.02), myocardial infarction (1.0% vs. 4.6%, p = 0.03), and the composite event rates of cardiac death/myocardial infarction (1.3% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.009) and major adverse cardiac events (14.0% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.05) were significantly lower among patients treated with ZES. Rates of target lesion (8.1% ZES vs. 6.5% SES, p = 0.68) and target vessel revascularization were similar between treatment groups. Stent thrombosis was infrequent and similar in both groups (0.7% ZES vs. 0.9% SES, p = 1.0). Between 9 months and 5 years, progression of major adverse cardiac events was significantly more common with SES than with ZES (16.7% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.015). Despite initially higher angiographic late lumen loss, rates of clinical restenosis beyond the protocol-specified angiographic follow-up period remain stable with ZES compared with the rates for SES, resulting in similar late-term efficacy. Over 5 years, significant differences in death, myocardial infarction, and composite endpoints favored treatment with ZES

  6. A new polymer-free drug-eluting stent with nanocarriers eluting sirolimus from stent-plus-balloon compared with bare-metal stent and with biolimus A9 eluting stent in porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Galon, Micheli Z.; Gutierrez, Paulo S.; Sojitra, Prakash; Vyas, Ashwin; Doshi, Manish; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Permanent polymers in first generation drug-eluting stent (DES) have been imputed to be a possible cause of persistent inflammation, remodeling, malapposition and late stent thrombosis. We aim to describe the in vivo experimental result of a new polymer-free DES eluting sirolimus from stent-plus-balloon (Focus np stent, Envision Scientific) compared with a bare-metal stent (BMS) (Amazonia CroCo, Minvasys) and with a biolimus A9 eluting stent (Biomatrix, Biosensors). Methods In 10 juvenile pigs, 23 coronary stents were implanted in the coronary arteries (8 Amazonia CroCo, 8 Focus np, and 7 Biomatrix). At 28-day follow-up, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histology were used to evaluate neointimal hyperplasia and healing response. Results According to OCT analysis, Focus np stents had a greater lumen area and less neointimal hyperplasia response than BMS and Biomatrix had. Histomorphometry results showed less neointimal hyperplasia in Focus np than in BMS. Histology showed a higher fibrin deposition in Biomatrix stent compared to Focus np and BMS. Conclusions The new polymer-free DES with sirolimus eluted from stent-plus-balloon demonstrated safety and reduced neointimal proliferation compared with the BMS and Biomatrix stents at 28-day follow-up in this porcine coronary model. This new polymer-free DES is promising and warrants further clinical studies. PMID:25984451

  7. Very thin strut biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents in allcomers with coronary artery disease (BIO-RESORT): a three-arm, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    von Birgelen, Clemens; Kok, Marlies M; van der Heijden, Liefke C; Danse, Peter W; Schotborgh, Carl E; Scholte, Martijn; Gin, R Melvyn Tjon Joe; Somi, Samer; van Houwelingen, K G; Stoel, M G; de Man, Frits H A F; Louwerenburg, J Hans W; Hartmann, Marc; Zocca, Paolo; Linssen, Gerard C M; van der Palen, Job; Doggen, Carine J M; Löwik, Marije M

    2016-11-26

    In patients with coronary artery disease, treated with durable polymer-coated drug-eluting stents, the life-long presence of the polymer might delay arterial healing. Novel very thin strut biodegradable polymer stents, which leave only a bare metal stent after polymer resorption, might improve long-term outcome. We investigated in allcomers the safety and efficacy of three stents eluting either everolimus, sirolimus, or zotarolimus, often clinically used but never compared, of which the biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting stent was never before assessed in allcomers. The large-scale, investigator-initiated, multicentre, assessor and patient blinded, three-arm, randomised, BIO-RESORT non-inferiority trial was done at four clinical sites in the Netherlands. All-comer patients were aged 18 years or older, capable of providing informed consent, and required a percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stent implantation according to clinical guidelines or the operators' judgment. Exclusion criteria were: participation in another randomised drug or device study before reaching the primary endpoint of that study; planned surgery necessitating interruption of dual antiplatelet therapy within the first 6 months; known intolerance to components of the investigational product or medication required; uncertainty about the adherence to follow-up procedures or an assumed life expectancy of less than 1 year; or known pregnancy. Web-based computer-generated allocation sequences randomly assigned patients (1:1:1) to treatment with very thin strut biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting or sirolimus-eluting stents (which differ substantially in type, amount, distribution, and resorption speed of their respective coating), or thin strut durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents. The primary endpoint was a composite of safety (cardiac death or target vessel-related myocardial infarction) and efficacy (target vessel revascularisation) at 12 months of follow up with a

  8. Antiplatelet therapy discontinuation and stent thrombosis after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: five-year outcome of the j-Cypher Registry.

    PubMed

    Yano, Mariko; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kawai, Kazuya; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Shiode, Nobuo; Namura, Masanobu; Sone, Takahito; Oshima, Shigeru; Nishikawa, Hideo; Hiasa, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    The influence of antiplatelet therapy discontinuation on the incidence of stent thrombosis, especially very late stent thrombosis, after drug-eluting stent implantation has not been yet fully addressed. Relationship between antiplatelet therapy discontinuation and stent thrombosis up to 5years was evaluated in 12,812 consecutive patients undergoing sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) implantation in the j-Cypher registry. Data on status of antiplatelet therapy during follow-up were collected prospectively. Median follow-up interval was 1699days (interquartile range, 1184-1928days). Incidences of definite stent thrombosis were 0.34% at 30days, 0.55% at 1year, and 1.6% at 5years. Dual antiplatelet therapy was maintained in 97.4%, 63%, and 43.9% of patients at 30days, 1year, and 5years, respectively. The rates of stent thrombosis in patients who discontinued both thienopyridine and aspirin were significantly higher in the time intervals of 31-365days, 2-3years and 3-4years, and tended to be higher in the time intervals of 1-2years and 4-5years than those in patients who continued both (31-365days: 1.26% versus 0.2%, P<0.001; 1-2years: 0.59% versus 0.15%, P=0.06; 2-3years: 1.35% versus 0.2%, P=0.004; 3-4years: 1.09% versus 0.25%, P=0.0496; 4-5years: 1.35% versus 0.43%, P=0.17). Patients who discontinued either thienopyridine or aspirin only did not have an excess of stent thrombosis in any time intervals. In conclusion, discontinuation of both thienopyridine and aspirin, but not discontinuation of thienopyridine or aspirin only, was associated with an increased incidence of late and very late stent thrombosis up to 5years after SES implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stent thrombosis and major clinical events at 3 years after zotarolimus-eluting or sirolimus-eluting coronary stent implantation: a randomised, multicentre, open-label, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Camenzind, Edoardo; Wijns, William; Mauri, Laura; Kurowski, Volkhard; Parikh, Keyur; Gao, Runlin; Bode, Christoph; Greenwood, John P; Boersma, Eric; Vranckx, Pascal; McFadden, Eugene; Serruys, Patrick W; O'Neil, William W; Jorissen, Brenda; Van Leeuwen, Frank; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2012-10-20

    We sought to compare the long-term safety of two devices with different antiproliferative properties: the Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent (E-ZES; Medtronic, Inc) and the Cypher sirolimus-eluting stent (C-SES; Cordis, Johnson & Johnson) in a broad group of patients and lesions. Between May 21, 2007 and Dec 22, 2008, we recruited 8791 patients from 36 recruiting countries to participate in this open-label, multicentre, randomised, superiority trial. Eligible patients were those aged 18 years or older undergoing elective, unplanned, or emergency procedures in native coronary arteries. Patients were randomly assigned to either receive E-ZES and C-SES (ratio 1:1). Randomisation was stratified per centre with varying block sizes of four, six, or eight patients, and concealed with a central telephone-based or web-based allocation service. The primary outcome was definite or probable stent thrombosis at 3 years and was analysed by intention to treat. Patients and investigators were aware of treatment assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00476957. PROTECT randomised 8791 patients, of whom 8709 provided consent to participate and were eligible: 4357 were allocated to the E-ZES group and 4352 patients to the C-SES group. At 3 years, rates of definite or probable stent thrombosis did not differ between groups (1·4% for E-ZES [predicted: 1·5%] vs 1·8% [predicted: 2·5%] for C-SES; hazard ratio [HR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·58-1·14, p=0·22). Dual antiplatelet therapy was used in 8402 (96%) patients at discharge, 7456 (88%) at 1 year, 3041 (37%) at 2 years, and 2364 (30%) at 3 years. No evidence of superiority of E-ZES compared with C-SES in definite or probable stent thrombosis rates was noted at 3 years. Time analysis suggests a difference in definite or probable stent thrombosis between groups is emerging over time, and a longer follow-up is therefore needed given the clinical relevance of stent thrombosis. Medtronic, Inc. Copyright © 2012

  10. Intra-individual head-to-head comparison of Sirolimus®- and Paclitaxel®-eluting stents for coronary revascularization. A randomized, multi-center trial.

    PubMed

    Kollum, M; Heitzer, T; Schmoor, C; Brunner, M; Witzenbichler, B; Wiemer, M; Hoffmann, R; Gutleben, K J; Schultheiss, H P; Horstkotte, D; Brachmann, J; Meinertz, T; Bode, Ch; Zehender, M

    2013-08-20

    Despite the known effects of drug-eluting stents (DES), other cofactors attributed to patient characteristics affect their success. Interest focused on designing a study minimizing these factors to answer continuing concerns on the heterogeneity of response to different DESs. The study's aim was to investigate the feasibility and impact of an intra-individual comparison design in patients (pts) with two coronary artery stenosis treated with a Sirolimus- (SES) and a Paclitaxel- (PES) eluting stent. The study was conducted as a prospective, randomized, multi-center trial in 112 pts who consented to treatment with a SES and a PES. Pts were eligible if they suffered from the presence of two single primary target lesions in two different native coronary arteries. Lesions were randomized to either SES or PES treatment. The primary endpoint was in-stent luminal late loss (LLL), as determined by quantitative angiography at 8 months; clinical follow up was obtained at 1, 8, and 12 months additionally. The LLL (0.13 ± 0.28 mm SES vs. 0.26 ± 0.35 mm PES, p=0.011) showed less neointima in SES. With a predefined cut-off criterion of 0.2mm difference in LLL, 53/87 pts SES and PES were similar effective. 34/87 pts had a divergent result, 26 pts had greater benefit from SES while 8 pts had greater benefit from PES. Overall, MACE (MI, TLR, and death) occurred in 19 (17%) pts. Based on lesion analysis of 108 lesions treated with SES and 110 lesions treated with PES, 5 (4.6%) lesions with SES and 3 (2.7%) lesions with PES required repeated TLR. An intra-individual comparison design to assess differences in efficacy of different DESs is feasible, safe and achieves similar results to inter-individual studies. This study is among the first to show that failure of one DES does not necessarily implicate failure of another DES and vice versa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determining renal resistive and pulsatility indexes long-term after kidney transplantation in kidney transplant recipients on cyclosporine a-, tacrolimus-, or sirolimus-based regimens.

    PubMed

    Boran, M; Tola, M; Boran, M; Boran, E; Gönenç, F

    2014-06-01

    Renal Doppler ultrasound intrarenal resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) are 2 noninvasive Doppler ultrasonographic markers to determine kidney allograft function, and have been used mainly for diagnosing allograft dysfunction during early posttransplantation periods. Little is known about the stability of RI and PI in allograft recipients receiving cyclosporine A (CyA)-, tacrolimus (TAC)-, or sirolimus (SRL)-based immunosuppressive regimens long-term after kidney transplantation. This study assessed RI and PI by Doppler ultrasonography in 155 kidney allograft recipients between July 2012 and March 2013. The period from kidney transplantation to performance of allograft Doppler ultrasound was between 23 and 231 months in the TAC group (n = 75), 21 and 261 months in the CyA group (n = 25), and 21 and 210 months in the SRL group (n = 55). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed no correlation between resistance indexes and estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, cholesterol, triglyceride, graft and patient survival, human leukocyte antigen mismatches, and creatinine. There was no significant difference among the TAC, CyA, and SRL treatment groups in terms of resistance indexes (RI and PI) (P = .193 and P = .216, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that RI and PI values correlated significantly with the recipients' ages (R = 0.375, P < .001), but not with donor age. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis also revealed statistically the strongest correlation between recipients' ages and RI (95% confidence interval = 0.002, R(2) = 20.5%, P < .001) and PI (95% confidence interval = 0.008, R(2) = 16.2%, P < .001) values. Intrarenal RI and PI remained stable over time in allograft recipients after transplantation, and there was no significant difference between calcineurin inhibitor-based and calcineurin inhibitor-free immunosuppressive treatment groups. Only recipients' ages showed a positive

  12. Five-year clinical follow-up of a randomized comparison of a polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent versus a polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with diabetes mellitus (LIPSIA Yukon trial).

    PubMed

    Stiermaier, Thomas; Heinz, Anja; Schloma, Denis; Kleinertz, Klaus; Dänschel, Wilfried; Erbs, Sandra; Linke, Axel; Boudriot, Enno; Lauer, Bernward; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger; Desch, Steffen

    2014-02-15

    The long-term performance of polymer-free stent systems in patients with diabetes mellitus has not been investigated extensively. This study reports long-term results of the LIPSIA Yukon trial which compared the polymer-free sirolimus-eluting Yukon Choice stent with the polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting Taxus Liberté stent in this subpopulation. At 9 months, the Yukon Choice stent failed to show non-inferiority in terms of the primary end point late lumen loss, while no significant difference in clinical outcome was detected. The LIPSIA Yukon trial randomized 240 patients with diabetes mellitus to a polymer-free sirolimus eluting stent (Yukon Choice, Translumina) versus a polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting stent (Taxus Liberté, Boston Scientific). Clinical follow-up was conducted with a standardized telephone follow-up and all events were centrally adjudicated. Follow-up was available for 98.3% of patients after a median of 5.0 years. The incidence of all-cause death (16.9% versus 14.0%, P = 0.67), respectively definite or presumed cardiovascular death (7.6% versus 8.8%, P = 0.94) were similar in the Yukon Choice and the Taxus Liberté group. There were no significant differences in the rates of myocardial infarction (9.3% versus 7.9%, P = 0.88), definite stent thrombosis (0.8% versus 0.9%, P = 1.0), target lesion revascularization (15.3% versus 15.8%, P = 1.0), target vessel revascularization (18.6% versus 23.7%, P = 0.44), non-target vessel revascularization (18.6% versus 26.3%, P = 0.21), and stroke (3.4% versus 4.4%, P = 0.96) between patients assigned to the Yukon Choice and the Taxus Liberté stent. At 5 years of follow-up, clinical outcome was similar between the polymer-free sirolimus-eluting Yukon Choice stent and the polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting Taxus Liberté stent. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Increased Foxp3(+)Helios(+) Regulatory T Cells and Decreased Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Patients Receiving Sirolimus and RGI-2001, an Activator of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Bin; Efebera, Yvonne A; Johnston, Laura; Ball, Edward D; Avigan, David; Lekakis, Lazaros J; Bachier, Carlos R; Martin, Paul; Duramad, Omar; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Han, Semi; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Dana; Kunkel, Lori; Negrin, Robert S; Bui, Jack D

    2017-04-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a central role in immune tolerance and prevention of aberrant immune responses. Several studies have suggested that the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can be ameliorated by increasing Tregs. We have developed an approach of in vivo expansion of Tregs with RGI-2001, a novel liposomal formulation of a synthetic derivative of alpha-galactosylceramide, a naturally occurring ligand that binds to CD1 and activates and expands invariant natural killer cells. In preclinical studies, a single intravenous infusion of RGI-2001 expanded Treg and could ameliorate GVHD in a mouse model of allogeneic HCT. To explore the role of RGI-2001 in clinical HCT, we initiated a phase 2A clinical trial (n = 29), testing 2 different doses of RGI-2001 administered as a single infusion on day 0 of allogeneic HCT. RGI-2001 was well tolerated and without infusion reactions or cytokine release syndrome. A subset of patients (8 of 29, 28%) responded to RGI-2001 by inducing a markedly increased number of cells with a Treg phenotype. The Treg had a high Ki-67 index and were almost exclusively Helios(+) and Foxp3(+), indicating that their accumulation was due to expansion of natural Treg. Notably, the incidence of grade 2 to 4 GVHD in the 8 patients who responded to RGI-2001 was 12.5%, compared with 52.4% in the 21 patients who did not respond. No grade 3 or 4 GVHD was observed in the responder group, compared with a 9.5% incidence among nonresponders. Immunosuppression with sirolimus was also associated with a low incidence of GVHD, suggesting that RGI-2001 may have synergized with sirolimus to promote Treg expansion.

  14. Sustained clinical safety and efficacy of a biodegradable-polymer coated sirolimus-eluting stent in "real-world" practice: three-year outcomes of the CREATE (Multi-Center Registry of EXCEL Biodegradable Polymer Drug Eluting Stents) study.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaling; Jing, Quanmin; Li, Yi; Yang, Lixia; Liu, Huiliang; Shang, Xiaoming; Jiang, Tiemin; Li, Zhanquan; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Gaoliang

    2012-02-01

    The CREATE is a post-marketing surveillance multicenter registry that demonstrated satisfactory angiographic and clinical (at 18 months) outcomes of a biodegradable polymer based sirolimus-eluting stent (EXCEL, JW Medical System, Weihai, China) for the treatment of patients in routine clinical practice. To evaluate the three-year clinical safety and efficacy outcomes in patients enrolled in the CREATE study. A total of 2077 all comers have been enrolled in the CREATE study at 59 centers from four countries. Recommended antiplatelet regimen was clopidogrel and aspirin for six months followed by chronic aspirin therapy. The prespecified primary outcome was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12, 18, and 36 months. Clinical follow-up was completed in 2025 (97.5%) patients at three years. The average duration of clopidogrel treatment was 199.8 ± 52.7 days and 80.5% of discharged patients discontinued clopidogrel at six months. The cumulative rate of MACE was 4.5% and the rate of stent thrombosis was 1.53% at three years. At six months to three years, prolonged clopidogrel therapy (>6 months) was not beneficial in reducing cumulative hazards of MACE (3.4% vs. 3.1%, log rank P = 0.725) or stent thrombosis (1.5% vs. 0.6%, log rank P = 0.053). This study demonstrates sustained three-year clinical safety and efficacy of biodegradable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stents when used with six months of dual antiplatelet therapy in a "real-world" setting. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparison of the Absorbable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent (MiStent) to the Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent (Xience) (from the DESSOLVE I/II and ISAR-TEST-4 Studies).

    PubMed

    Lansky, Alexandra J; Kastrati, Adnan; Edelman, Elazer R; Parise, Helen; Ng, Vivian G; Ormiston, John; Wijns, William; Byrne, Robert A

    2016-02-15

    We compared the outcomes of a novel, thin-strut, cobalt-chromium, absorbable, polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (APSES; MiStent) to the durable polymer cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (EES; Xience). A propensity-matched analysis was performed comparing data from the DES With Sirolimus and a Bioabsorbable Polymer for the Treatment of Patients With De Novo Lesions in the Native Coronary Arteries (DESSOLVE) I and II studies, evaluating the APSES to the EES arm of the Intracoronary Stenting and Angiographic Results: Test Efficacy of 3 Limus-Eluting Stents-4 study. Target lesion failure (TLF) and its components were evaluated at 12 months and annually to 3 years; 805 patients (APSES = 153; EES = 652) were included with propensity matching in 204 patients (APSES = 102; EES = 102). APSES compared with EES had lower TLF at 1 year (3.0% vs 8.0%, p = 0.12) driven by a difference in target lesion revascularization (TLR; 1% vs 6%, p = 0.05), with no difference in target vessel myocardial infarction (p = 0.56) or stent thrombosis (p = 0.31). At 3 years, TLF (5.0% vs 12.5%, p = 0.07) and TLR (2.0% vs 8.4%, p = 0.04) remained lower with APSES. By landmark analysis, there was no significant difference in TLF between 1 and 3 years (p = 0.36). In conclusion, in a propensity-matched analysis, the APSES demonstrated reduced clinically indicated TLR rates at 1 and 3 years compared with the durable polymer EES, with minimal accrual of events between 1 and 3 years.

  16. Increased Foxp3+Helios+ regulatory T cells and decreased acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients receiving sirolimus and RGI-2001, an activator of invariant natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Bin; Efebera, Yvonne A.; Johnston, Laura; Ball, Edward D.; Avigan, David; Lekakis, Lazaros J.; Bachier, Carlos R.; Martin, Paul; Duramad, Omar; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Han, Semi; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Dana; Kunkel, Lori; Negrin, Robert S.; Bui, Jack D.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a central role in immune tolerance and prevention of aberrant immune responses. Several studies have suggested that the risk of GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can be ameliorated by increasing Tregs. We have developed an approach of in vivo expansion of Tregs with RGI-2001, a novel liposomal formulation of a synthetic derivative of alpha-galactosylceramide, a naturally occurring ligand that binds to CD1 and activates and expands invariant natural killer cells. In preclinical studies, a single intravenous infusion of RGI-2001 expanded Treg and could ameliorate GVHD in a mouse model of allogeneic HCT. To explore the role of RGI-2001 in clinical HCT, we initiated a Phase IIa clinical trial (n=29), testing two different doses of RGI-2001 administered as a single infusion on day 0 of allogeneic HCT. RGI-2001 was well tolerated and without infusion reactions or cytokine release syndrome. A subset of patients (8/29, 28%) responded to RGI-2001 by inducing a markedly increased number of cells with a Treg phenotype. The Treg had a high Ki-67 index and were almost exclusively Helios+ and Foxp3+, indicating that their accumulation was due to expansion of natural Treg. Notably, the incidence of grade 2–4 GVHD in the eight patients who responded to RGI-2001 was 12.5%, compared to 52.4% in the 21 patients who did not respond. No grade 3–4 GVHD was observed in the responder group, compared to a 9.5% incidence among nonresponders. Immunosuppression with sirolimus was also associated with a low incidence of GVHD, suggesting that RGI-2001 may have synergized with sirolimus to promote Treg expansion. PMID:28104514

  17. First-in-man randomised comparison of a novel sirolimus-eluting stent with abluminal biodegradable polymer and thin-strut cobalt-chromium alloy: INSPIRON-I trial.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Expedito E; Campos, Carlos M; Ribeiro, Henrique B; Lopes, Augusto C; Esper, Rodrigo B; Meirelles, George X; Perin, Marco A; Abizaid, Alexandre; Lemos, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    The INSPIRON-I trial is a first-in-man evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the Inspiron drug-eluting stent, a sirolimus-eluting stent with abluminal biodegradable polymer coating and thin cobalt-chromium alloy. This is a randomised, multicentre comparison between Inspiron and a stent with the same metallic structure but without polymer coating or drug elution (Cronus). The primary objective was to evaluate the in-segment late loss (LLL) at six months. Secondary endpoints included percent in-stent obstruction as measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) at six months and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Fifty-eight patients were enrolled (60 lesions), 39 for Inspiron and 19 for Cronus. Baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of both groups were similar. At six months, the in-segment LLL was reduced in the Inspiron group compared to the control group (0.19±0.16 mm vs. 0.58±0.4 mm, respectively; p<0.001), as well as the percent neointimal obstruction (7.8±7.1% vs. 26.5±11.4%; p<0.001). At two-year follow-up, incidence of MACE was similar between groups (7.9 vs. 21.1%, respectively; p=0.20), with lower target lesion revascularisation for Inspiron (0 vs. 21.1%, respectively; p=0.01) and no stent thrombosis. Sirolimus eluted from an abluminal biodegradable polymer on a cobalt-chromium alloy proved effective in reducing restenosis at six months.

  18. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  19. [Effectiveness and safety of conversion therapy with the combination of sirolimus with low dose cyclosporine in renal transplantation recipients: a five-year clinical observation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Ding, T; Wang, X X; Lin, Z B; Chen, G

    2016-05-31

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of the conversion therapy from traditional cyclosporine (CsA) triple immunosuppression therapy to sirolimus (SRL) combined with low dose CsA and prednisone (Pred) in renal transplantation recipients in a five-year follow-up period. A prospective, open-label non-randomized study was performed with 46 renal allograft recipients who visited Tongji Hospital regularly for follow-up visits between January 2007 and May 2011 and were taking CsA+ mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)+ Pred. Conversion therapy to SRL+ low dose CsA+ Pred was initiated after renal transplantation. The recipients were allocated to 2 groups according to their renal function and proteinuria before the conversion: active conversion group [n=27, serum creatinine (SCr) ≤ 140 μmol/L with no or minimal proteinuria] and passive conversion group [n=19, SCr>140 μmol/L with less than moderate proteinuria]. After conversion, dosages of SRL and CsA were adjusted for trough levels of 5-7 μg/L and 20-60 μg/L, respectively. SCr and urine protein were compared before and after the conversion in five-year follow-up. Incidence of acute rejection, renal graft survival and SRL-related adverse effects of the immunosuppressive regimen were also observed. After conversion, an average 63% dose reduction of CsA was achieved in all the patients. In the active conversion group, the mean SCr level was (110±19) μmol/L at the time of conversion. Eight patients in this group withdrew from the study during the follow-up period for the following reasons: arthralgia (1 case), deteriorated proteinuria (2 cases), chronic diarrhea (2 cases), mild or suspicious acute rejection (2 cases), and recurrent fever (1 case). The rest patients (19/27) with a mean follow-up time of 5 years had a stable SCr level [(103±12) μmol/L] and a 100% 5-year graft survival. In the passive conversion group, the mean SCr level was (205±45) μmol/L at the time of conversion. There were 4 patients quitting the study

  20. Abundancias químicas de estrellas de Mercurio-Manganeso obtenidas con espectros EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de estrellas de HgMn usando espectros obtenidos con EBASIM en CASLEO en un rango de longitud de onda comprendido entre los 400 y 890 nm. Los valores iniciales de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial se calculan con la fotometría uvbyβ. Las abundancias se calculan usando WIDTH9 y SYNTHE. Los resultados se comparan análisis realizados por los autores usando espectros obtenidos con el espectrógrado REOSC del CASLEO, el espectrógrafo echelle del Telescopio Anglo-Australiano y el espectrógrafo Coudé del Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.

  1. Clinical outcomes according to diabetic status in patients treated with biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents: prespecified subgroup analysis of the BIOSCIENCE trial.

    PubMed

    Franzone, Anna; Pilgrim, Thomas; Heg, Dik; Roffi, Marco; Tüller, David; Vuilliomenet, André; Muller, Olivier; Cook, Stéphane; Weilenmann, Daniel; Kaiser, Christoph; Jamshidi, Peiman; Räber, Lorenz; Stortecky, Stefan; Wenaweser, Peter; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (BP-SES) proved noninferior to durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES) for a composite clinical end point in a population with minimal exclusion criteria. We performed a prespecified subgroup analysis of the Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Revascularisation (BIOSCIENCE) trial to compare the performance of BP-SES and DP-EES in patients with diabetes mellitus. BIOSCIENCE trial was an investigator-initiated, single-blind, multicentre, randomized, noninferiority trial comparing BP-SES versus DP-EES. The primary end point, target lesion failure, was a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization within 12 months. Among a total of 2119 patients enrolled between February 2012 and May 2013, 486 (22.9%) had diabetes mellitus. Overall diabetic patients experienced a significantly higher risk of target lesion failure compared with patients without diabetes mellitus (10.1% versus 5.7%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.56; P=0.001). At 1 year, there were no differences between BP-SES versus DP-EES in terms of the primary end point in both diabetic (10.9% versus 9.3%; HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.67-2.10; P=0.56) and nondiabetic patients (5.3% versus 6.0%; HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.58-1.33; P=0.55). Similarly, no significant differences in the risk of definite or probable stent thrombosis were recorded according to treatment arm in both study groups (4.0% versus 3.1%; HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.49-3.41; P=0.60 for diabetic patients and 2.4% versus 3.4%; HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.39-1.25; P=0.23, in nondiabetics). In the prespecified subgroup analysis of the BIOSCIENCE trial, clinical outcomes among diabetic patients treated with BP-SES or DP-EES were comparable at 1 year. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier

  2. Long-term effectiveness and safety of the sirolimus-eluting BiOSS LIM® dedicated bifurcation stent in the treatment of distal left main stenosis: an international registry.

    PubMed

    Gil, Robert J; Bil, Jacek; Grundeken, Maik J; Iñigo Garcia, Luis A; Vassilev, Dobrin; Kern, Adam; Pawłowski, Tomasz; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Serruys, Patrick W

    2016-11-20

    The aim of this study was to assess prospectively the effectiveness and safety of a new version of the dedicated bifurcation BiOSS stent, the sirolimus-eluting BiOSS LIM, for the treatment of distal left main (LM) stenosis. This was a prospective international registry which enrolled patients with NSTE-ACS or stable angina. Provisional T-stenting was the mandated strategy. The primary endpoint was the cumulative rate of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and target lesion revascularisation (TLR) at 12 months. Twelve-month quantitative coronary angiography endpoints included late lumen loss and percent diameter stenosis. A total of 74 patients with distal LM stenosis were enrolled. Seventy-three of the 74 patients (aged 67±9 years, 23% women, 20.3% NSTE-ACS, SYNTAX score 22.4±4.4) were successfully treated with the BiOSS LIM stent, with additional side branch placement of regular DES in 11 patients (14.9%). Periprocedural MI occurred in one (1.4%) patient. The 12-month MACE rate was 9.5% without cardiac death or definite stent thrombosis. TLR and MI rates were 6.8% (n=5) and 2.7% (n=2), respectively. The use of the BiOSS LIM dedicated bifurcation stent for the treatment of distal LM stenosis was feasible and safe, with promising long-term clinical effectiveness.

  3. Peri-stent contrast staining and very late stent thrombosis after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: an observation from the RESTART (REgistry of Stent Thrombosis for review And Re-evaluaTion) angiographic substudy.

    PubMed

    Kozuma, Ken; Kimura, Takeshi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Miyazawa, Akiyoshi; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Honda, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsu; Isshiki, Takaaki

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the angiographic characteristics of stent thrombosis (ST) in relation to sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). RESTART is a Japanese registry of SES-associated ST. As an angiographic substudy, coronary angiograms at baseline, at six to 12 months and at the time of ST were analysed. Angiograms of 313 patients (early ST [EST] 169 patients, late ST [LST] 59 patients, and very late ST [VLST] 85 patients) were investigated. Residual dissection post procedure was more frequently seen in the EST group. Stent fracture was more frequently seen in the VLST group than in the EST and LST groups (16.5%, 3.0%, and 3.4%, respectively; p<0.001). Peri-stent contrast staining (PSS), defined as contrast staining outside the stent contour extending to ≥20% of the stent diameter, was remarkably more prevalent in the VLST group than in the EST and LST groups (34.1%, 4.7%, and 6.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Abnormal angiographic findings such as PSS and stent fracture were found significantly more frequently in lesions with VLST than in lesions with EST and LST.

  4. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  5. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  7. Long-term outcome of the unrestricted use of everolimus-eluting stents compared to sirolimus-eluting stents and paclitaxel-eluting stents in diabetic patients: the Bern-Rotterdam diabetes cohort study.

    PubMed

    Simsek, C; Räber, L; Magro, M; Boersma, E; Onuma, Y; Stefanini, G G; Zanchin, T; Kalesan, B; Wenaweser, P; Jüni, P; van Geuns, R J; van Domburg, R T; Windecker, S; Serruys, P W J C

    2013-12-05

    Newer generation everolimus-eluting stents (EES) improve clinical outcome compared to early generation sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). We investigated whether the advantage in safety and efficacy also holds among the high-risk population of diabetic patients during long-term follow-up. Between 2002 and 2009, a total of 1963 consecutive diabetic patients treated with the unrestricted use of EES (n=804), SES (n=612) and PES (n=547) were followed throughout three years for the occurrence of cardiac events at two academic institutions. The primary end point was the occurrence of definite stent thrombosis. The primary outcome occurred in 1.0% of EES, 3.7% of SES and 3.8% of PES treated patients ([EES vs. SES] adjusted HR=0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.88; [EES vs. PES] adjusted HR=0.29, 95% CI 0.13-0.67). Similarly, patients treated with EES had a lower risk of target-lesion revascularization (TLR) compared to patients treated with SES and PES ([EES vs. SES], 5.6% vs. 11.5%, adjusted HR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.55-0.83; [EES vs. PES], 5.6% vs. 11.3%, adjusted HR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.33-0.77). There were no differences in other safety end points, such as all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and MACE. In diabetic patients, the unrestricted use of EES appears to be associated with improved outcomes, specifically a significant decrease in the need for TLR and ST compared to early generation SES and PES throughout 3-year follow-up. © 2013.

  8. Comparison of long-term in-stent vascular response between abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent and durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent: 3-year OCT follow-up from the TARGET I trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Sun, Zhong-Wei; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Chen, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Rui-Yan; Pan, Dao-Rong; Pang, Si; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Liang; Yang, Yue-Jin; Leon, Martin B; Gao, Run-Lin

    2015-12-01

    The study sought to compare long-term optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based in-stent vascular response between the abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and the durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in the TARGET I trial. The TARGET I trial was a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial which enrolled 458 patients with single de novo lesions treated by abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer SES and EES. A subset of 43 patients underwent angiography and OCT examinations at 3 years. All OCT images were analyzed at 0.4 mm intervals. A similar increase in angiographic late lumen loss was observed in SES and EES (from 0.05 ± 0.05 vs. 0.05 ± 0.05 mm [p = 0.84] at 9 months to 0.25 ± 0.37 vs. 0.26 ± 0.19 mm [p = 0.99] at 3 years, respectively), without significant differences at 3 years in mean neointimal thickness of stent struts (SES: 0.13 ± 0.02 mm vs. EES: 0.13 ± 0.02 mm, p = 0.80); mean percentage of covered struts (SES: 99.2 % vs. EES: 99.3 %, p = 0.53), or malapposed strut rates (SES: 0.08 % vs. EES: 0.06 %, p = 0.15). The OCT-based in-stent vascular response evaluation found similar vascular healing for the two studied devices, indicating that the luminal loss in EES from 9 months to 3 years cannot be imputed on its coated biocompatible polymer.

  9. Long-term coronary arterial response to biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents in comparison with durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents and bare-metal stents: five-year follow-up optical coherence tomography study.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Shoichi; Sonoda, Shinjo; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Domei, Takenori; Hyodo, Makoto; Inoue, Katsumi; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo

    2014-11-01

    The long-term coronary arterial response of biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents (BES) remains unclear. We sought to evaluate the coronary arterial response of biodegradable polymer BES at 5 years after stent implantation using optical coherence tomography (OCT) as compared with that of durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and bare-metal stents (BMS). Five-year follow-up OCT was performed in 30 patients with 33 stents (10 with 12 BES; 10 with 11 SES; 10 with 10 BMS). Quantitative parameters and qualitative characteristics of the neointima were evaluated. A total of 5178 struts (BES, n = 2056; SES, n = 1410; BMS, n = 1712) were analyzed. Uncovered struts were found in 15 out of 2055 struts in the BES (weighted estimate 0.01%, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.00-0.33%) and 54 out of 1410 struts in the SES (0.11%, 95% CI: 0.00-3.33%) (odds ratio [OR] 0.12, 95% CI: 0.01-1.95, p = 0.13). None of 1712 struts were uncovered in the BMS. Cross-sectional qualitative analysis of neointimal tissue showed that the frequency of lipid-laden neointima tended to be lower in the BES (2.26%, 95% CI: 0.38-12.3%) compared with the SES (9.90%, 95% CI: 4.37-20.9%; OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.03-1.16, p = 0.07), and was similar to the BMS (2.23%, 95% CI: 0.54-8.74%; OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.13-7.14, p = 0.98). Biodegradable polymer BES shows a favorable coronary arterial response compared with SES, but different response with BMS at 5 years follow-up. The observed frequency of in-stent neoatherosclerosis within BES was similar to BMS and tended to be lower than SES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term performance of the second-generation cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stents in real-world clinical practice: 3-year clinical outcomes from the prospective multicenter FOCUS registry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Yang, Ji’e; Qian, Juying; Ge, Lei; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background The short- and mid-term outcomes of the second-generation cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-SES) in real-world patients had been reported previously, but the long-term performance remained unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the second-generation CoCr-SES from the FOCUS registry. Methods The FOCUS registry (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00868829) enrolled all-comers eligible to receive Firebird-2 CoCr-SES. Follow-up was continued to 3 years to evaluate long-term safety and effectiveness of the second-generation CoCr-SES in real-world practice. Results of the extended-use group and standard-use group are compared to explore performance of CoCr-SES in more severe patients with more complex lesions. Results The rate of 3-year MACE was 7.37%, consisting of 84 cases (1.78%) of cardiac death, 166 cases (3.52%) of MI and 98 cases (2.08%) of TVR. ARC definite/probable stent thrombosis happened in 34 (0.72%) patients, only 3 new cases (<0.1%) of very late stent thrombosis was reported in the third year. Meanwhile, the difference of MACE (7.77% vs. 6.06%; P=0.058), TLF (4.71% vs. 3.49%; P=0.085) and ARC definite/probable stent thrombosis (0.83% vs. 0.37%; P=0.116) between extended-use group and standard-use group showed no significance. Conclusions The second-generation CoCr-SES was associated with continued low rates of 3-year MACE, TLF and stent thrombosis in a broad spectrum of patients. PMID:27499948

  11. Four-year clinical follow-up of the first-in-man randomized comparison of a novel sirolimus eluting stent with abluminal biodegradable polymer and ultra-thin strut cobalt-chromium alloy: the INSPIRON-I trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcos Danillo Peixoto; Ribeiro, Expedito E.; Campos, Carlos M.; Ribeiro, Henrique B.; Faillace, Bruno L. R.; Lopes, Augusto C.; Esper, Rodrigo B.; Meirelles, George X.; Perin, Marco A.; Abizaid, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Background The Inspiron™ sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) is a low-dose, ultra-thin-strut cobalt-chromium stent abluminally coated with biodegradable polymers (BP). Previous results from the INSPIRON-I trial, a first-in-man study, have proven the efficacy of the novel stent in reducing neointimal proliferation. The present report aims at evaluating the long-term clinical outcomes of patients enrolled into the INSPIRON-I trial (Clinical Trials Gov. identifier: NCT01093391). Methods A total of 57 patients (60 lesions) were randomly allocated in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with the Inspiron™ SES vs. its equivalent Cronus™ bare metal stent (BMS, both by Scitech Medical™, Aparecida de Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil), in four tertiary centers. The primary endpoint of the present analysis was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) [death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR) and/or target lesion revascularization (TLR)] at 4 years. Results Baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of both groups were similar. After 4 years, the primary endpoint occurred in 7.9% vs. 23.5% of patients in Inspiron and control groups respectively (P=0.11). The rate of death/MI was similar between the groups, but there was a significant decrease in the risk of repeat revascularization in the Inspiron group compared to the control arm TLR (0.0% vs. 23.5% respectively, P=0.02). There were no stent thromboses in the study population. Conclusions The novel Inspiron™ SES showed a sustained safe and effective clinical profile after 4-year of follow-up, with very low adverse events and null stent thrombosis (ST) occurrence. PMID:26331110

  12. Efficacy and safety of a biodegradable polymer Cobalt-Chromium sirolimus-eluting stent (EXCEL2) in treating de novo coronary artery disease: A pooled analysis of the CREDIT II and CREDIT III trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Geng; Wang, Heyang; Xu, Bo; Yang, Yuejin; Yang, Zhiming; Li, Hui; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Haichang; Yang, Lixia; Han, Yaling

    2017-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of the second-generation biodegradable polymer Cobalt-Chromium sirolimus-eluting stent (EXCEL2) in daily clinical practice remains unknown. Additionally, to meet the China Food and Drug Administration requirements, we conducted an objective performance criterion study from the CREDIT II and CREDIT III trials. CREDIT II was a randomized trial comparing the EXCEL2 versus EXCEL stent in patients with up to 2 de novo coronary lesions. CREDIT III was a prospective, single-arm study evaluating the efficacy and safety of EXCEL2 in broad types of de novo coronary artery lesions. This pooled analysis included patients in the CREDIT III and EXCEL2 arm of the CREDIT II trial. The primary outcome was 12-month target lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI), and clinical indicated target lesion revascularization (CI-TLR). The patient-oriented composite endpoint (PoCE) of all-cause death, all MI, or any revascularization was also analyzed. A total of 833 patients were included, consisting of 625 in the CREDIT III trial and 208 in the EXCEL2 arm of the CREDIT II trial. Twelve-month TLF occurred in 6.1% patients, cardiac death in 0.4%, TV-MI in 5%, and CI-TLR in 1.1%. Additionally, 64 (7.7%) PoCE and 3 probable late stent thromboses (0.4%) were recorded. EXCEL2 stent met the objective performance criterion on efficacy and safety with a low level of 12-month TLF as well as stent thrombosis when treating patients with de novo coronary lesions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  14. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  15. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  16. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. A Time-to-Event Model for Acute Kidney Injury after Reduced Intensity Conditioning Stem Cell Transplantation Using a Tacrolimus and Sirolimus-Based Graft-Versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Piñana, Jose Luis; Perez-Pitarch, Alejandro; Garcia-Cadenas, Irene; Barba, Pere; Hernandez-Boluda, Juan Carlos; Esquirol, Albert; Fox, María Laura; Terol, María José; Queraltó, Josep M; Vima, Jaume; Valcarcel, David; Ferriols-Lisart, Rafael; Sierra, Jorge; Solano, Carlos; Martino, Rodrigo

    2017-04-07

    There is a paucity of data evaluating acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence and its relationship with the tacrolimus-sirolimus (Tac-Sir) concentrations in the setting of reduced intensity conditioning after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RIC-allo-HSCT). This multicenter retrospective study evaluated risk factors of AKI defined by two classification systems (KDIGO score and "Grade 0-3 staging") in 186 consecutive RIC-allo-HSCT recipients with Tac-Sir as graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Conditioning regimens consisted of fludarabine and busulfan (n=53), or melphalan (n=83), or a combination of thiotepa, fludarabine and busulfan (n=50). A parametric model, with detailed Tac-Sir consecutive blood levels, describing time to AKI was developed using the NONMEM software version 7.4. Overall, 81 (44%) out of 186 RIC-allo-HSCT recipients developed AKI with a cumulative incidence of 42% at a median follow-up of 25 months. Time to AKI was best described using a piecewise-function. AKI-predicting factors were: melphalan-based conditioning regimen (HR=1.96, p<0.01), unrelated donor (HR 1.79, p=0.04) and tacrolimus concentration: the risk of AKI increased 2.3% per each 1 ng/ml increase in tacrolimus whole blood concentration (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, AKI grade 2 and 3 according to KDIGO staging were independent risk factors for 2-year non-relapse mortality (HR 2.8, p=0.05 and HR 6.6, p<0.0001, respectively). According to the KDIGO score, overall survival decreased with the increase in severity of AKI; 78% for patients without AKI versus 68%, 50% and 30% for grade 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p< 0.0001). In conclusion, AKI is frequent after Tac-Sir based RIC-allo-HSCT and has a negative impact on outcome. This study presents the first predictive model describing time to AKI as a function of tacrolimus drug concentration.

  18. Stent thrombosis and bleeding complications after implantation of sirolimus-eluting coronary stents in an unselected worldwide population: a report from the e-SELECT (Multi-Center Post-Market Surveillance) registry.

    PubMed

    Urban, Philip; Abizaid, Alexandre; Banning, Adrian; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Baux, Ana Cebrian; Džavík, Vladimír; Ellis, Stephen; Gao, Runlin; Holmes, David; Jeong, Myung Ho; Legrand, Victor; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Nyakern, Maria; Spaulding, Christian; Worthley, Stephen

    2011-03-29

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the 1-year incidence of stent thrombosis (ST) and major bleeding (MB) in a large, unselected population treated with sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). Stent thrombosis and MB are major potential complications of drug-eluting stent implantation. Their relative incidence and predisposing factors among large populations treated worldwide are unclear. The SES were implanted in 15,147 patients who were entered in a multinational registry. We analyzed the incidence of: 1) definite and probable ST as defined by the Academic Research Consortium; and 2) MB, with the STEEPLE (Safety and efficacy of Enoxaparin in PCI) definition, together with their relation to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and to 1-year clinical outcomes. The mean age of the sample was 62 ± 11 years, 30.4% were diabetic, 10% had a Charlson comorbidity index ≥3, and 44% presented with acute coronary syndrome or myocardial infarction. At 1 year, the reported compliance with DAPT as recommended by the European Society of Cardiology guidelines was 86.3%. Adverse event rates were: ST 1.0%, MB 1.0%, mortality 1.7%, myocardial infarction 1.9%, and target lesion revascularization 2.3%. Multivariate analysis identified 9 correlates of ST and 4 correlates of MB. Advanced age and a high Charlson index were associated with an increased risk of both ST and MB. After ST, the 7-day and 1-year all-cause mortality was 30% and 35%, respectively, versus 1.5% and 10% after MB. Only 2 of 13,749 patients (0.015%) experienced both MB and ST during the entire 1-year follow-up period. In this worldwide population treated with ≥1 SES, the reported compliance with DAPT was good, and the incidence of ST and MB was low. Stent thrombosis and MB very rarely occurred in the same patient. (The e-SELECT Registry: a Multicenter Post-Market Surveillance; NCT00438919). Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The sirolimus-eluting Cypher Select coronary stent for the treatment of bare-metal and drug-eluting stent restenosis: insights from the e-SELECT (Multicenter Post-Market Surveillance) registry.

    PubMed

    Abizaid, Alexandre; Costa, J Ribamar; Banning, Adrian; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Dzavik, Vladimir; Ellis, Stephen; Gao, Runlin; Holmes, David R; Jeong, Muyng Ho; Legrand, Victor; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Nyakern, Maria; Orlick, Amy; Spaulding, Christian; Worthley, Stephen; Urban, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare the 1-year safety and efficacy of Cypher Select or Cypher Select Plus (Cordis Corporation, Bridgewater, New Jersey) sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) with the treatment of bare-metal stents (BMS) and drug-eluting stent (DES) in-stent restenosis (ISR) in nonselected, real-world patients. There is paucity of consistent data on DES for the treatment of ISR, especially, DES ISR. The e-SELECT (Multicenter Post-Market Surveillance) registry is a Web-based, multicenter and international registry encompassing virtually all subsets of patients and lesions treated with at least 1 SES during the period from 2006 to 2008. We enrolled in this pre-specified subanalysis all patients with at least 1 clinically relevant BMS or DES ISR treated with SES. Primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events and stent thrombosis rate at 1 year. Of 15,147 patients enrolled, 1,590 (10.5%) presented at least 1 ISR (BMS group, n = 1,235, DES group, n = 355). Patients with DES ISR had higher incidence of diabetes (39.4% vs. 26.9%, p < 0.001), renal insufficiency (5.8% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.003), and prior coronary artery bypass graft (20.5% vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001). At 1 year, death (1.4% for BMS vs. 2.1% for DES, p = 0.3) and myocardial infarction (2.4% for BMS and 3.3% for DES, p = 0.3) rates were similar, whereas ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization and definite/probable late stent thrombosis were higher in patients with DES ISR (6.9% vs. 3.1%, p = 0.003, and 1.8% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.04, respectively). Use of SES for either BMS or DES ISR treatment is safe and associated with low target lesion revascularization recurrence and no apparent safety concern. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.

  1. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  2. Seguridad del paciente en Radioterapia Intraoperatoria: Impacto de los elementos controlados por el Radiofisico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjuelo, Juan Lopez

    Introduccion: En la administracion de la radioterapia intervienen profesionales y equipos de tratamiento, por lo que existe el riesgo de error y se precisa que dicho equipamiento funcione conforme a lo esperado. A los radiofisicos les corresponde participar en las actividades de garantia o aseguramiento de la calidad, incluyendo el control de calidad de los equipos, y en la evaluacion de los riesgos asociados. La radioterapia intraoperatoria (RIO) es una tecnica radioterapica de intensificacion de dosis, altamente selectiva, dirigida a volumenes anatomicos restringidos durante el tratamiento quirurgico oncologico, basada en la administracion de una dosis absorbida alta por medio de un haz de electrones tras el examen visual directo del lecho tumoral. Como incorporar los ultimos avances en el refuerzo de la seguridad en radioterapia es una tarea ambiciosa y compleja, resulta mas concreta y de inmediata aplicacion su introduccion en la RIO. El objetivo es analizar los elementos que reducen los riesgos y aumentan la seguridad en la RIO y su dosimetria, y valorar la funcion del radiofisico en esta labor. Material y metodos: Se emplearon el planificador Radiance de GMV y el acelerador lineal de los tratamientos de RIO Elekta Precise, controlado con el verificador diario de haces Daily QA Check 1090 y medido con las camaras de ionizacion PPC 40, FC65-G y FC65-P de PTW-Freiburg, a su vez verificadas con fuentes radiactivas adecuadas de estroncio-90 modelos CDP y CDC de IBA Dosimetry. Se realizo un analisis de modos de fallo y efectos (failure mode and effect analysis, FMEA) con el fin de identificar los elementos que forman la RIO y aplicar las herramientas necesarias para la minimizacion de los riesgos y la mejora de la seguridad en la tecnica. Se estudiaron las verificaciones diarias de dicho acelerador Precise con el control estadistico de procesos (statistical process control, SPC) y se simularon intervenciones para devolverlo al estado llamado en control. El SPC

  3. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  4. GeConT: gene context analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciria, R; Abreu-Goodger, C; Morett, E; Merino, E

    2004-09-22

    The fact that adjacent genes in bacteria are often functionally related is widely known. GeConT (Gene Context Tool) is a web interface designed to visualize genome context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologs in all the completely sequenced genomes. The graphical information of GeConT can be used to analyze genome annotation, functional ortholog identification or to verify the genomic context congruence of any set of genes that share a common property. http://www.ibt.unam.mx/biocomputo/gecont.html

  5. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  6. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  7. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  8. Formación estelar en NGC 6357: viendo a través del polvo con Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, G.; Morrell, N.; Barbá, R.

    Presentamos aquí los primeros resultados de fotometría JHKs obtenidos con Flamingos I en el telescopio Gemini Sur. El mosaico comprendido por tres posiciones adyacentes tomadas a lo largo de varios semestres nos permite caracterizar la población estelar en la zona que presenta una interacción más importante entre las estrellas masivas y la nube molecular que les dió origen. Los diagramas color-magnitud nos permiten identificar numerosas fuentes con exceso infrarrojo, la mayoría de ellas imposible de detectarse en el rango óptico debido a la fuerte absorción del polvo presente en la región. Es altamente probable que la mayoría de estas fuentes con exceso sean protoestrellas, aunque es necesario realizar espectroscopía infrarroja de las mismas para confirmar su naturaleza.

  9. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  10. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  11. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-16

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  12. Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos por interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.

    2015-11-29

    El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, por un lado, interactuan por medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, por el otro, no son acertadamente descritos por el Modelo Estandar. Por medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon por medio del estudio de

  13. Conserva a Puerto Rico con bosques maderables

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Wadsworth

    2009-01-01

    [article in Spanish] Puerto Rico consume muchos productos forestales costosos de importar. También tiene bosques extensos con maderas explotables. Además, existen condiciones físicas favorables para la producción de madera útil. No obstante, hoy día no se utiliza la madera de los bosques actuales ocurre la deforestación para cualquier fin. Los Bosques productivos de...

  14. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  15. Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

    El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

  16. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  17. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  18. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  19. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  20. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of meat...

  1. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  2. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  3. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  4. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  5. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  6. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial.

  7. Energy Star program benefits Con Edison

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.

  8. Angio-OCT de la zona avascular foveal en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina.

    PubMed

    Wons, Juliana; Pfau, Maximilian; Wirth, Magdalena A; Freiberg, Florentina J; Becker, Matthias D; Michels, Stephan

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio comprendía visualizar y cuantificar las alteraciones patológicas de la zona avascular foveal (ZAF) mediante angio-OCT en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina (OVR) en comparación con el ojo contralateral sano. Procedimientos: La angio-OCT se llevó a cabo mediante el sistema Avanti® RTVue 100 XR (Optovue Inc., Fremont, Calif., EE. UU.). Los bordes de la capa vascular superficial (CVS) se definieron como 3 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y 15 μm por debajo de la capa plexiforme interna y, para la capa vascular profunda (CVP), como 15 y 70 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y de la capa plexiforme interna, respectivamente. La longitud de la ZAF horizontal, vertical y máxima de la CVS y la CVP en cada ojo se midió de forma manual. Además, se midió el ángulo entre el diámetro máximo de la ZAF y el plano papilomacular. Resultados: La angio-OCT representó los defectos dentro de la vasculatura en el área perifoveal en ojos con oclusión de rama venosa de la retina (ORVR; n = 11) y con oclusión de la vena central de la retina (OVCR; n = 8). Esto resultó en un crecimiento del diámetro máximo de la ZAF en ojos con OVR (n = 19) en comparación con el ojo contralateral (n = 19; 921 ± 213 frente a 724 ± 145 µm; p = 0,008). Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF en la CVP (ρ de Spearman = -0,423, p < 0,01). Por último, en los ojos con OVR, el ángulo entre el plano papilomacular y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF se dio tan solo en el 21,05% (CVS) y en el 15,79% (CVP) de los casos a 0 ± 15 ó 90 ± 15°, respectivamente. En ojos sanos, estos ángulos (que supuestamente representan una configuración de la ZAF regular) fueron más prevalentes (CVS 68,42 frente a 21,05%, p = 0,003; CVP 73,68 frente a 15,79%, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La angio-OCT muestra alteraciones morfológicas de la ZAF en ojos con

  9. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  10. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  11. Impact of insulin-treated diabetes and hemodialysis on long-term clinical outcomes following sirolimus-eluting stent deployment. Insights from a sub-study of the Cypher Stent Japan Post-Marketing Surveillance(Cypher J-PMS) Registry.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masato; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Hamazaki, Yuji; Watarai, Masato; Kijima, Mikihiro; Mitsudo, Kazuaki

    2010-11-01

    Long-term clinical outcomes of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients who underwent drug-eluting stent deployment has not well investigated. A total of 2,050 cases were enrolled consecutively from 50 sites in Japan into the Cypher stent Japan Post-Marketing Surveillance (Cypher J-PMS) registry, and the 3-year outcomes of DM patients were analyzed. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the treatment of DM (insulin-treated diabetes (IT) group, n=207; and non insulin-treated diabetes (NIT) group, n=682). Major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates in the IT group and the NIT group were 26.0% and 14.5% at 3 years, respectively (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in stent thrombosis rates (definite and probable by Academic Research Consortium (ARC) definition) (0% and 1.08%, respectively). Multivariate analysis suggested that hemodialysis and insulin-treated DM were independent predictors for MACE, and insulin-treated DM, hemodialysis and long lesions were strong independent predictors for target-lesion revascularization (TLR). Hemodialysis and insulin-treated DM were strong independent predictors of mortality and TLR in DM patients. These results might suggest that special attention to patients with hemodialysis and insulin-treated DM is warranted in the setting of sirolimus-eluting stent deployment for DM patients.

  12. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  13. Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  14. Hydrogen-atom transfer in reactions of organic radicals with [Co(II)(por)]* (por = porphyrinato) and in subsequent addition of [Co(H)(por)] to olefins.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Bas; Dzik, Wojciech I; Li, Shan; Wayland, Bradford B

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for hydrogen-atom transfer from the cyanoisopropyl radical (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) (yielding [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))(CN); por = porphyrinato) and the insertion of vinyl acetate (CH(2)=CHOAc) into the Co-H bond of [Co(H)(por)] (giving [Co(III){CH(OAc)CH(3)}(por)]) were investigated by DFT calculations. The results are compared with experimental data. These reactions are relevant to catalytic chain transfer (CCT) in radical polymerization of olefins mediated by [Co(II)(por)](*), the formation and homolysis of organo-cobalt complexes that mediate living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, and cobalt-mediated hydrogenation of olefins. Hydrogen transfer from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) proceeds via a single transition state that has structural features resembling the products [Co(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. The separated radicals approach to form a close-contact radical pair and then pass through the transition state for hydrogen-atom transfer to form [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. This process provides a very low overall barrier for the hydrogen-atom transfer reaction (DeltaG(double dagger) = +3.8 kcal mol(-1)). The reverse reaction corresponding to the addition of [Co(H)(por)] to CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN has a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +8.9 kcal mol(-1)) as well. Insertion of vinyl acetate into the Co-H bond of [Co(III)(H)(por)] also proceeds over a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +11.4 kcal mol(-1)) hydrogen-transfer step from [Co(III)(H)(por)] to a carbon atom of the alkene to produce a close-contact radical pair. Dissociation of the radical pair, reorientation, and radical-radical coupling to form an organo-cobalt complex are the culminating steps in the net insertion of an olefin into the Co-H bond. The computed energies obtained for the hydrogen-atom transfer reactions from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) and from [Co(H)(por)] to olefins, as well as the organo-cobalt bond homolysis

  15. Pros and cons of phage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867

  16. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  17. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  18. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  19. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  20. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  1. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  2. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  3. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  4. Outcomes of the largest multi-center trial stratified by the presence of diabetes mellitus comparing sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in patients with coronary artery disease. The Japan drug-eluting stents evaluation: a randomized trial (J-DESsERT).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masato; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Hisayuki; Ochiai, Masahiko; Suwa, Satoru; Hozawa, Hidenari; Kawai, Kazuya; Awata, Masaki; Mukawa, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Shiode, Nobuo; Asano, Ryuta; Tsukamoto, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Takahisa; Yasumura, Yoshio; Ohira, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Akira; Takashima, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Nanto, Shinsuke

    2015-04-01

    The Japan drug-eluting stents evaluation: a randomized trial (J-DESsERT) was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 2 different drug-eluting stents (DES). It remains uncertain which is more efficacious in diabetic patients, sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) or paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). In this trial, the largest of its kind, 3,533 patients including 1,724 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were randomized to either SES or PES. Stratification was based on the presence or absence of DM. PES target vessel failure (TVF) non-inferiority at 8 months (primary endpoint) was not demonstrated when compared to SES (SES 4.5 % vs. PES 6.4 %, p = 0.23). In addition, PES TVF superiority at 8 months in the DM subset (secondary endpoint) was not shown (SES 5.6 % vs. PES 7.6 %, p = 0.10). Insulin treatment was associated with increased TVF rates, however, this was less pronounced in the PES group. At 8 months, the similar TVF rates for SES and PES up to that point diverged significantly, favoring SES out to 12 months. Patients undergoing routine angiographic follow-up demonstrated lower TVF prior to the 8-month point, and higher TVF after 8 months, as compared to those followed clinically. In conclusion, the current study failed to demonstrate the proposed superiority of PES for DM patients. In addition, the diversion of TVF at 8 months may reflect an "oculo-stenotic reflex" bias (the tendency to treat lesions found during routine, rather than clinically driven, angiographic follow-up), which could constitute an obstacle for evaluating the true clinical effect of new devices.

  5. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  6. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  7. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  8. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives.

  9. Trombosis primaria de la descendente anterior en un paciente con síndrome de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Valerio, Jorge; Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Contreras-Villaseñor, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    El síndrome de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos es una situación clínica y bioquímica heterogénea. Presentamos el caso de un varón joven con antecedente de tromboembolia venosa que se presentó en esta ocasión por dolor precordial, con elevación del ST en el electrocardiograma. Fue llevado a sala de angiografía para realizar angioplastia primaria y se observó una oclusión total ostial de la descendente anterior. Se realizó aspiración manual del trombo. No se realizó angioplastia con balón ni stent. En la angiografía de control a las 48 horas se observó ausencia de trombo y de placas aterosclerosas, lo cual se corroboró mediante ultrasonido intracoronario. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a heterogeneous clinical and biochemical entity. We present the case of a young male with history of venous thromboembolism. This time he presents because of chest ischemic pain associated with ST segment elevation. He was taken to the cath lab to perform a primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery was noted. Successful thrombus aspiration was performed. No stent was deployed. He was taken to the cath lab for a second look angiography and no atherosclerotic lesions were observed, which was confirmed by intravascular ultrasound.

  10. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  11. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  12. Improved safety and reduction in stent thrombosis associated with biodegradable polymer-based biolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease: final 5-year report of the LEADERS (Limus Eluted From A Durable Versus ERodable Stent Coating) randomized, noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Serruys, Patrick W; Farooq, Vasim; Kalesan, Bindu; de Vries, Ton; Buszman, Pawel; Linke, Axel; Ischinger, Thomas; Klauss, Volker; Eberli, Franz; Wijns, William; Morice, Marie Claude; Di Mario, Carlo; Corti, Roberto; Antoni, Diethmar; Sohn, Hae Y; Eerdmans, Pedro; Rademaker-Havinga, Tessa; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Meier, Bernhard; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to report the final 5 years follow-up of the landmark LEADERS (Limus Eluted From A Durable Versus ERodable Stent Coating) trial. The LEADERS trial is the first randomized study to evaluate biodegradable polymer-based drug-eluting stents (DES) against durable polymer DES. The LEADERS trial was a 10-center, assessor-blind, noninferiority, "all-comers" trial (N = 1,707). All patients were centrally randomized to treatment with either biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents (BES) (n = 857) or durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) (n = 850). The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or clinically indicated target vessel revascularization within 9 months. Secondary endpoints included extending the primary endpoint to 5 years and stent thrombosis (ST) (Academic Research Consortium definition). Analysis was by intention to treat. At 5 years, the BES was noninferior to SES for the primary endpoint (186 [22.3%] vs. 216 [26.1%], rate ratio [RR]: 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68 to 1.02], p for noninferiority <0.0001, p for superiority = 0.069). The BES was associated with a significant reduction in the more comprehensive patient-orientated composite endpoint of all-cause death, any MI, and all-cause revascularization (297 [35.1%] vs. 339 [40.4%], RR: 0.84 [95% CI: 0.71 to 0.98], p for superiority = 0.023). A significant reduction in very late definite ST from 1 to 5 years was evident with the BES (n = 5 [0.7%] vs. n = 19 [2.5%], RR: 0.26 [95% CI: 0.10 to 0.68], p = 0.003), corresponding to a significant reduction in ST-associated clinical events (primary endpoint) over the same time period (n = 3 of 749 vs. n = 14 of 738, RR: 0.20 [95% CI: 0.06 to 0.71], p = 0.005). The safety benefit of the biodegradable polymer BES, compared with the durable polymer SES, was related to a significant reduction in very late ST (>1 year) and associated composite clinical outcomes. (Limus Eluted From

  13. Five-year clinical outcomes of a polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent versus a permanent polymer paclitaxel-eluting stent: final results of the intracoronary stenting and angiographic restenosis - test equivalence between two drug-eluting stents (ISAR-TEST) trial.

    PubMed

    King, Lamin; Byrne, Robert A; Mehilli, Julinda; Schömig, Albert; Kastrati, Adnan; Pache, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Limited evidence exists regarding the long-term performance of polymer-free (PF) drug-eluting stents (DES) in comparison to permanent polymer DES. This study investigated the 5-year efficacy and safety of a PF sirolimus-eluting stent (PF-SES) versus a permanent polymer paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) in the setting of the Intracoronary Stenting and Angiographic Restenosis-Test Equivalence Between Two Drug-Eluting Stents (ISAR-TEST) randomized trial. A total of 450 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to receive either PF-SES (Yukon, Translumina; n = 225) or PES (Taxus, Boston Scientific; n = 225). Clinical follow-up was performed to 5 years after enrollment. The endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), target lesion revascularization (TLR), the composite of death or any myocardial infarction (MI) and stent thrombosis (ST). The incidence of MACE at 5 years was 27.3% (57 patients) in the PF-SES group and 31.7% (65 patients) in the PES group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.61-1.24]; P = 0.40]. The combined incidence of death or MI was 16.6% (34 patients) in the PF-SES group and 20.0% (39 patients) in the PES group (HR = 0.86 [95% CI = 0.54-1.36]; P = 0.52). The incidence of TLR was 16.5% (34 patients) in the PF-SES group and 16.4% (33 patients) in the PES group (HR = 1.03 [95% CI = 0.64-1.66]; P = 0.89). ST occurred in 0.5% (one patient) in the PF-SES group and 1.6% (three patients) in the PES group (HR = 0.33 [95% CI = 0.03-3.14]; P = 0.32). Overall there was no significant difference in clinical outcomes between PF-SES and PES to 5 years. Extended follow-up supports the durability of efficacy and safety of PF-SES. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  15. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  16. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  17. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  19. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Canceling Some d-CON Mouse and Rat Control Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-CON products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.

  1. Providers debate pros and cons of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and cons of each.

  2. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, C.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  3. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  4. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  5. Opioid analgesics in the substance abuser: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Ineck, Joseph R; Rule, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The pros and cons of using opioid analgesics to help manage pain in patient with a history of substance abuse are presented. Topics discussed include ethical constructs, efficacy, and safety relating to the use of opioids in patients with substance abuse histories.

  6. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  7. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  8. LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

  9. 'Carbene radicals' in Co(II)(por)-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Reek, Joost N H; de Bruin, Bas

    2010-08-11

    The mechanism of cobalt(II)-porphyrin-mediated cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoesters was studied. The first step--reaction of cobalt(II)-porphyrin with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA)--was examined using EPR and ESI-MS techniques. EDA reacts with cobalt(II)-porphyrin to form a 1:1 Co(por)(CHCOOEt) adduct that exists as two isomers: the 'bridging carbene' C' in which the 'carbene' is bound to the metal and the pyrrolic nitrogen of the porphyrin that has a d(7) configuration on the metal, and the 'terminal carbene' C in which the 'carbene' behaves as a redox noninnocent ligand having a d(6) cobalt center and the unpaired electron residing on the 'carbene' carbon atom. The subsequent reactivities of the thus formed 'cobalt carbene radical' with propene, styrene, and methyl acrylate were studied using DFT calculations. The calculations suggest that the formation of the carbene is the rate-limiting step for the unfunctionalized Co(II)(por) and that the cyclopropane ring formation proceeds via a stepwise radical process: Radical addition of the 'carbene radical' C to the C=C double bonds of the olefins results in formation of the gamma-alkyl radical intermediates D. Species D then easily collapse in almost barrierless ring-closure reactions (TS3) to form the cyclopropanes. This radical mechanism readily explains the high activity of Co(II)(por) species in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins such as methyl acrylate.

  10. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  11. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development.

  12. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics.

  13. Randomized Multicenter Trial Investigating Angiographic Outcomes of Hybrid Sirolimus-Eluting Stents With Biodegradable Polymer Compared With Everolimus-Eluting Stents With Durable Polymer in Chronic Total Occlusions: The PRISON IV Trial.

    PubMed

    Teeuwen, Koen; van der Schaaf, René J; Adriaenssens, Tom; Koolen, Jacques J; Smits, Pieter C; Henriques, José P S; Vermeersch, Paul H M J; Tjon Joe Gin, R Melvyn; Schölzel, Bastiaan E; Kelder, Johannes C; Tijssen, Jan G P; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Suttorp, Maarten J

    2017-01-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the hybrid ultrathin-strut sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) with biodegradable polymer compared with the thin-strut everolimus-eluting stent (EES) with durable polymer in successfully recanalized chronic total occlusions (CTOs). The introduction of drug-eluting stents revolutionized the treatment of CTOs. However, limited data are available on new-generation drug-eluting stents with biodegradable polymer in CTOs. In this multicenter trial, patients were randomized, after successful CTO recanalization, to either SES or EES. The primary noninferiority endpoint was in-segment late lumen loss (noninferiority margin 0.2 mm). Secondary endpoints included in-stent late lumen loss and clinical endpoints. Overall, 330 patients were included. At 9 months, angiography was available in 281 patients (85%). Duration of occlusion ≥3 months was 92.5%, with mean stent length of 52.4 ± 28.1 mm versus 52.3 ± 26.5 mm in the SES and EES groups. The primary noninferiority endpoint, in-segment late lumen loss, was not met for SES versus EES (0.13 ± 0.63 mm vs. 0.02 ± 0.47 mm; p = 0.08, 2-sided; difference 0.11 mm; 95% confidence interval: -0.01 to 0.25 mm; pnoninferiority = 0.11, 1-sided). In-stent late lumen loss was comparable between SES and EES (0.12 ± 0.59 mm vs. 0.07 ± 0.46 mm; p = 0.52). The incidence of in-stent and in-segment binary restenosis was significantly higher with SES compared with EES (8.0% vs. 2.1%; p = 0.028), with comparable rates of reocclusions (2.2% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.68). Clinically indicated target lesion and target vessel revascularization (9.2% vs. 4.0% [p = 0.08] and 9.2% vs. 6.0% [p = 0.33]), target vessel failure (9.9% vs. 6.6%; p = 0.35), and definite or probable stent thrombosis (0.7% vs. 0.7%; p = 1.00) were comparable between the SES and EES groups. This randomized trial failed to show noninferiority of hybrid SES relative to EES in terms of in-segment late lumen loss

  14. Tailoring a ConOps for NASA LSP Integrated Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Skip Clark V., III

    2017-01-01

    An integral part of the Systems Engineering process is the creation of a Concept of Operations (ConOps) for a given system, with the ConOps initially established early in the system design process and evolved as the system definition and design matures. As Integration Engineers in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), our job is to manage the interface requirements for all the robotic space missions that come to our Program for a Launch Service. LSP procures and manages a launch service from one of our many commercial Launch Vehicle Contractors (LVCs) and these commercial companies are then responsible for developing the Interface Control Document (ICD), the verification of the requirements in that document, and all the services pertaining to integrating the spacecraft and launching it into orbit. However, one of the systems engineering tools that have not been employed within LSP to date is a Concept of Operations. The goal of this paper is to research the format and content that goes into these various aerospace industry ConOps and tailor the format and content into template form, so the template may be used as an engineering tool for spacecraft integration with future LSP procured launch services. This tailoring effort was performed as the authors final Masters Project in the Spring of 2016 for the Stevens Institute of Technology and modified for publication with INCOSE (Owens, 2016).

  15. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  16. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  17. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  18. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  19. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  20. A complex photoreceptor system mediates the regulation by light of the conidiation genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, María; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Luque, Eva M; Corrochano, Luis M

    2010-04-01

    Genes con-10 and con-6 in Neurospora crassa are activated during conidiation or after illumination of vegetative mycelia. Light activation requires the white-collar complex (WCC), a transcription factor complex composed of the photoreceptor WC-1 and its partner WC-2. We have characterized the photoactivation of con-10 and con-6, and we have identified 300bp required for photoactivation in the con-10 promoter. A complex stimulus-response relationship for con-10 and con-6 photoactivation suggested the activity of a complex photoreceptor system. The WCC is the key element for con-10 activation by light, but we suggest that other photoreceptors, the cryptochrome CRY-1, the rhodopsin NOP-1, and the phytochrome PHY-2, modify the activity of the WCC for con-10 photoactivation, presumably through a repressor. In addition we show that the regulatory protein VE-1 is required for full photocarotenogenesis. We propose that these proteins may modulate the WCC in a gene-specific way.

  1. Relación Entre el Tamaño Condilar y la Asimetría Facial Transversal en Individuos con Hiperplasia Condilar

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Alister, Juan Pablo; Uribe, Francisca; Navarro, Pablo; Olate, Gabriela; de Moraes, Márcio

    2016-01-01

    La asimetría facial es una patología de compromiso funcional y estético que puede estar generado por hiperplasia condilar; el objetivo de esta investigación es determinar la influencia del tamaño condilar en la asimetría facial. Doce sujetos fueron estudiados mediante el análisis de tomografía computadorizada cone beam; todos los pacientes presentaron cintigrama óseo que determino la presencia de hiperplasia condilar activa; el análisis se realizo en un software del sistema de captura modelo Pax Zenith, marca Vatech (Korea 2011), utilizando 90 kV y 120 mA; se obtuvo mediciones de la distancia antero-posterior, superior-inferior y medio-lateral de la cabeza del cóndilo, relacionándose con la posición del cóndilo con la línea mediana facial y la posición de puntos faciales entre incisivos centrales superior e inferior así como con el mentón. Los resultados mostraron un promedio de desvío de mentón de 6,5 mm considerando un cóndilo hiperplásico con un tamaño de 2,7 mm mas que los cóndilos normales. El desvío de incisivo central inferior determinó que por cada 1 mm de desvío dentario existe 2,2 mm de desvío de mentón. El cóndilo hiperplásico fue de mayor tamaño y se posiciono casi 2 mm mas hacia lateral que los cóndilos no hiperplásicos. Es posible concluir que el cóndilo hiperplásico presenta clara influencia en la asimetría facial transversa y es posible estimar una relación de tamaño condilar con grado de asimetría facial. PMID:28066127

  2. Safety and Efficacy Study of Sirolimus in Complicated Vascular Anomalies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Kaposiform Hemangioendotheliomas; Tufted Angioma; Capillary Venous Lymphatic Malformation; Venous Lymphatic Malformation; Microcystic Lymphatic Malformation; Mucocutaneous Lymphangiomatosis and Thrombocytopenia; Capillary Lymphatic Arterial Venous Malformations; PTEN Overgrowth Syndrome With Vascular Anomaly; Lymphangiectasia Syndromes

  3. Linear growth in pediatric renal transplant recipients receiving sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Leonard C; Warshaw, Barry L

    2011-09-01

    SRL is a potent macrolide immunosuppressive agent that can be used as maintenance therapy for prevention of rejection and avoidance of CNI nephrotoxicity. However, animal studies indicate that SRL may inhibit skeletal and muscle growth. We analyzed linear growth in 25 children, age 1-15 yr old, maintained on SRL to determine whether SRL is detrimental to linear growth. Height z-scores at baseline were compared with those at 24 months. We also compared linear growth in children receiving SRL to patients maintained on TAC. Height z-scores over 24 months did not significantly change in the SRL group as a whole. Z-scores improved in 13 of 25 patients (52%). Children with improved z-scores were significantly younger than patents who did not display improved growth: 6 ± 5 yr vs. 11 ± 4 yr (p < 0.05). Height z-scores in SRL and TAC-based patients were no different initially and at 24 months, and a similar number of patients in each group displayed improved height scores. Height z-scores improved in 52% of patients on SRL and occurred predominantly in younger patients for the initial 24 months of treatment. Linear growth in SRL patients was also similar to the results in TAC-based patients. Therefore, our data did not identify a significant adverse effect of SRL on growth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  5. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  6. Molecular diagnostics: Molecular Med Tri-Con 2013.

    PubMed

    Klein, Roger D

    2013-07-01

    The 20th annual Molecular Med Tri-Con conference, sponsored by Cambridge Health Institute (MA, USA), consisted of over 250 presentations within five parallel 'channels': 'Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Clinical, Informatics and Cancer', along with five preliminary symposia, 15 short courses, a plenary keynote session entitled 'Personalized Oncology - Fulfilling the Promise for Today's Patients' and a keynote panel entitled, 'Emerging Technologies and Industry Perspectives'. Over 3000 individuals from academia, clinical laboratories and industry were in attendance. This article will focus on the Keynote Session of 'Molecular Diagnostics' track within the Diagnostics Channel.

  7. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs.

  8. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  9. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  10. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  11. Conning the conmen: Intelligence and female desire in Dedh Ishqiya.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar

    2017-04-11

    This article investigates the ostensibly paradoxical relationship that exists between the theme of excessive love, as suggested by the title of Abhishek Chaubey's film Dedh Ishqiya (2014), and the actual representation of it in the movie, which is not only restrained and disproportionate, but is also looked at with suspicion and contempt. It examines the logic of this seeming contradiction through the other two related themes that Chaubey's chef-d'œuvre foregrounds, namely that of intelligence and female desire. The quest for financial autonomy that the female protagonists of the movie are involved in-a necessary pre-condition for leading independent lives-is so inextricably intertwined with manipulation, dexterity, and subterfuge, that any overt expression of homoerotic female desire can only jeopardize their existing possibilities of self-aggrandizement. The heteronormative arrangements of Begum Para's palace thus constitute the elaborate mise en scène, behind which female desire is enacted through a politics of intelligence, resourcefulness, discretion, and anonymity. Through this strategic negotiation, which is also a tactical necessity, the female protagonists are not only able to con the con men in the movie, but also imagine alternative subject positions that recognize the need for both pragmatism and expediency as well as deconstructing heteropatriarchal economies of desire.

  12. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  13. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  14. Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) Expression in Hepatoma Cells Replicates the Hepatic Lipidosis Observed in Hepatic POR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Zou, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis. PMID:21368239

  15. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called ‘endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:16501583

  16. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-07-01

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  17. Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.

  18. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  19. RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Warwick, J.; Fung, M.; Chemel, B.; Blackwell, M.

    1996-12-31

    Carnegie Mellon U. and ORNL`s Robotics and Process Systems Division are developing a state-of-the-art robot operator control station (RoboCon) with standardized hardware and software control interfaces to be adaptable to a variety of remote and robotic equipment currently funded by DOE`s Office of Science & Technology Robotics Technology Development Program. The human operation and telerobotic and supervisory control of sophisticated and remote and robotic systems is a complex, tiring, and non-intuitive activity. Since decontamination & decommissioning, selective equipment removal, mixed waste operations, and in-tank cleanup are going to be a major future activity in DOE environmental restoration and waste management cleanup agenda, it seems necessary to utilize an operator control station and interface which maximizes operator comfort and productivity.

  20. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  1. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.

  2. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-05-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called 'endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy.

  3. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  4. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  5. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-12-16

    Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment.

  7. Modulation of ConA-induced inflammatory ascites by histamine - short communication.

    PubMed

    Baintner, Károly

    2015-03-01

    The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

  8. Cardiac CON Regulations and the Availability and Use of Revascularization Services

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vivian; Ross, Joseph S.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Many states enforce Certificate of Need (CON) regulations for cardiac procedures, but little is known about how CON affects utilization. We assessed the association between cardiac CON regulations, availability of revascularization facilities, and revascularization rates. Methods We determined when state cardiac CON regulations were active and obtained data for Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 and older who received coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 1989 and 2002. We compared the number of hospitals performing revascularization and patient utilization in states with and without CON regulations, and in states which discontinued CON regulations during 1989-2002. Results Each year, the per capita number of hospitals performing CABG and PCI was higher in states without CON (3.7 per 100,000 elderly for CABG, 4.5 for PCI in 2002), compared with CON states (2.5 for CABG, 3.0 for PCI in 2002). Multivariate regressions that adjusted for market and population characteristics found no difference in CABG utilization rates between states with and without CON (p=.7). However, CON was associated with 19.2 percent fewer PCIs per 1,000 elderly (p=.01), equivalent to 322,526 fewer PCIs for 1989-2002. Among most states that discontinued CON, the number of hospitals performing PCI rose in the mid 1990s, but there were no consistent trends in the number of hospitals performing CABG or in PCIs or CABGs per capita. Conclusions CON restricts the number of cardiac facilities, but its effect on utilization rates may vary by procedure. PMID:17893007

  9. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  10. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  11. Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, T C; Wexner, S D

    1998-04-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and cons of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.

  12. Pros and cons of circumcision: an evidence-based overview.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Khoury, J; Petersiel, N; Yahalomi, T; Paul, M; Neuberger, A

    2016-09-01

    Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse. When the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function and satisfaction of men are examined, high-quality evidence strongly supports lack of harm. Whether circumcision alters sexual satisfaction of female partners is not known as fewer and smaller studies reported conflicting results. Circumcision rarely causes serious complications if practiced by trained practitioners, in a sterile setting, and with a proper follow-up. These conclusions are limited by the lack of high-quality data from areas outside of Africa. RCTs have not been conducted to assess the effects of circumcising infants or MSM. Circumcision has well-proven benefits for people residing in areas with high prevalence of STIs, including HIV, and is not unethical for those who choose to be circumcised or have their children circumcised on religious, social, or cultural grounds. For many others, a definite pro or con recommendation, based on a risk-benefit ratio, cannot be made.

  13. Percutaneous coronary intervention in nonagenarians: pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Abbate, Antonio; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Presutti, Davide; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Cavarretta, Elena; Marullo, Antonino G.M.; Lotrionte, Marzia; Frati, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is a mainstay in the management of symptomatic or high-risk coronary artery disease. The bulk of clinical evidence and experience underlying this fact relies, however, on relatively young patients. Indeed, few data of very limited quality are available which adequately define the risk-benefit and cost-benefit profile of coronary angioplasty and stenting in very old subjects, such as those of 90 years of age or older (i.e., nonagenarians). The aim of this review is to provide a concise, yet practical, synthesis of the available evidence on percutaneous coronary revascularization in the very elderly. The main arguments elaborated upon are to what extent we can extrapolate findings from studies including younger patients to nonagenarians, whether we should provide higher priority to prognosis or quality of life in such patients, and whether we can afford to allocate vast resources to care for such subjects in an era of financial constraints. Our review of 18 studies and 1082 patients suggest that percutaneous coronary intervention is feasible and associated with acceptable short- and long-term results in this population, which is nonetheless fraught with a high mortality risk irrespective of the revascularization procedure. Accordingly, the pros and cons of percutaneous coronary intervention should be carefully weighed when considering this treatment in nonagenarians. PMID:23610578

  14. Immune cascades in human intervertebral disc: the pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Xu-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Gao, Yang; Samartzis, Dino; Wang, Hai-Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2013-01-01

    The unique structural hallmark of the intervertebral disc has made its central composition, the nucleus pulposus (NP), excluded from the immunologic tolerance. Consequently, the intervertebral disc is identified as an immune-privileged organ. Traditionally, local detrimental immune activities caused by NP at the lesion sites of the disc are noted as a significant factor contributing to disc degeneration. However, given the beneficial activities of immune cells in other immune-privileged sites on basis of current evidence, the degenerate disc might need the assistance of a subpopulation of immune cells to restore its structure and lessen inflammation. In addition, the beneficial impact of immune cells can be seen in the absorption of the herniated NP, which is an important factor causes the mechanical compression of nerve roots. Consequently, a modulated immune network in degenerate disc is essential for the restoration of this immune-privileged organ. Until now, the understandings of immune response in disc degeneration still rest on the harmful aspect. Further studies are needed to explore its beneficial influence. Accordingly, there are no absolutely the pros and cons in terms of immune reactions caused by NP. PMID:23696917

  15. Immune cascades in human intervertebral disc: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Xu-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Gao, Yang; Samartzis, Dino; Wang, Hai-Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2013-01-01

    The unique structural hallmark of the intervertebral disc has made its central composition, the nucleus pulposus (NP), excluded from the immunologic tolerance. Consequently, the intervertebral disc is identified as an immune-privileged organ. Traditionally, local detrimental immune activities caused by NP at the lesion sites of the disc are noted as a significant factor contributing to disc degeneration. However, given the beneficial activities of immune cells in other immune-privileged sites on basis of current evidence, the degenerate disc might need the assistance of a subpopulation of immune cells to restore its structure and lessen inflammation. In addition, the beneficial impact of immune cells can be seen in the absorption of the herniated NP, which is an important factor causes the mechanical compression of nerve roots. Consequently, a modulated immune network in degenerate disc is essential for the restoration of this immune-privileged organ. Until now, the understandings of immune response in disc degeneration still rest on the harmful aspect. Further studies are needed to explore its beneficial influence. Accordingly, there are no absolutely the pros and cons in terms of immune reactions caused by NP.

  16. Pros and cons of screening for occult Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tabarin, Antoine; Perez, Paul

    2011-03-22

    Systematic screening studies performed mainly in patients with diabetes mellitus have revealed an unexpectedly high prevalence of occult Cushing syndrome. Such studies may provide a rationale for systematically screening obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, a screening strategy is only justified if it is supported by enough evidence of its efficacy and if the benefits will outweigh drawbacks. To date, the natural history of occult Cushing syndrome and its possible effect on long-term morbidity are unknown. The clinical spectrum of occult Cushing syndrome and its relatively low prevalence may potentially negatively affect the performance of endocrine tests used to diagnose overt Cushing syndrome and generate false positives. Whether the cure of occult Cushing syndrome favorably influences clinical outcomes and is more beneficial than treatment of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors with currently available pharmacological tools remains to be demonstrated. Last, the acceptability of a screening program by professionals and the health-care system in terms of workload and costs is highly questionable. Thus, an assessment of the indications for and against screening for occult Cushing syndrome on the basis of currently available data suggests that, to date, the cons surpass the pros.

  17. Pros and Cons of Medical Management of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon and rectum. Although a complete medical cure may not be possible, UC can be treated with medications that induce and maintain remission. The medical management of this disease continues to evolve with a goal to avoid colectomy and ultimately alter the natural history of UC. Emergence of antitumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) agents has expanded the medical armamentarium. 5-Aminosalicylates continue to be used in mild to moderate UC and corticosteroids are mainly used for induction of remission with immunomodulators (6-mercaptopurine/azathiopurine/methotrexate) being applied as steroid-sparing agents for maintenance therapy. Infliximab has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and used in the treatment of moderate to severe UC; nevertheless, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects and have a negative impact on the postoperative course should the patients undergo restorative proctocolectomy. In addition, there is always a concern about patients' compliance to medical therapy, cost of medications, and risk for UC-associated dysplasia. The authors discuss the pros and cons of medications used in the treatment of UC. PMID:22131893

  18. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  19. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Han

    2011-07-01

    To construct a fused expression vector of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, express the fusion protein in the prokaryotic system, and obtain a gene recombination protein, for the purpose of preparing the ground for further research on the pathopoiesis and immune protective response of PorB. A pair of primers were designed according to the known sequence of the PorB gene, and the PorB gene was amplified by PCR from the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae 29403 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-4T-1 to generate pGEX-4T-PorB recombinants. The recombinant plasmid pGEX4T-PorB was transferred into competent cells E. coli BL21. After confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, the recombinant protein was induced to express by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the PorB gene of 1 047 bp was amplified from Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA, and the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and highly expressed in E. coli. The prokaryotic expression vector of pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and efficiently expressed in the prokaryotic system, which has provided a basis for further study on the biological activity of the PorB protein, as well as animal immune experiment and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and its application as a mucosal immune vaccine.

  20. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations.

  1. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  2. Gestational surrogacy: could be a way to be a way to reproduction? Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Clementina, Peris

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article was to address pros and cons of gestational surrogacy, the social and psychological issues involved in surrogate motherhood triads. Pros and cons of surrogacy, the possible insurgence of a hematologic disease in the fetus, hemolytic disease of the newborn, naturally acquired microchimerism in surrogacy cases, ethical, medical, psychologic, legal and religious issues of a problem are discussed.

  3. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  4. ConSearch: An Electronic Document Research and Retrieval Utility for Windows from Management Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews ConSearch 3.0, a product that provides flexible searching of electronic files, allowing the location of related meanings as well as exact matches. ConSearch 3.0 differs from other file retrieval approaches by relating words in search phrases of questions to the "meaning" of the words, which are stored in a "conceptual…

  5. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  6. Self-Exfoliated Guanidinium-Based Ionic Covalent Organic Nanosheets (iCONs).

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Kandambeth, Sharath; Biswal, Bishnu P; Khayum M, Abdul; Choudhury, Chandan K; Mehta, Mihir; Kaur, Gagandeep; Banerjee, Subhrashis; Prabhune, Asmita; Verma, Sandeep; Roy, Sudip; Kharul, Ulhas K; Banerjee, Rahul

    2016-03-02

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as functional two-dimensional materials for versatile applications. Although π-π stacking between layers, hydrolytic instability, possible restacking prevents their exfoliation on to few thin layered CONs from crystalline porous polymers. We anticipated rational designing of a structure by intrinsic ionic linker could be the solution to produce self-exfoliated CONs without external stimuli. In an attempt to address this issue, we have synthesized three self-exfoliated guanidinium halide based ionic covalent organic nanosheets (iCONs) with antimicrobial property. Self-exfoliation phenomenon has been supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as well. Intrinsic ionic guanidinium unit plays the pivotal role for both self-exfoliation and antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using such iCONs, we have devised a mixed matrix membrane which could be useful for antimicrobial coatings with plausible medical benefits.

  7. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.

  8. Synergistic hemolysins of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Różalska, Małgorzata; Derczyńska, Anna; Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    A total of 104 coagulase negative staphylococci, belonging to S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus and S. warneri, originating from the collection of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology (ZMF), Medical University of Lodz, Poland, were tested for their synergistic hemolytic activity. 83% of strains produced δ-hemolysin, however, the percentage of positive strains of S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. capitis and S. hominis was different - 98%, 78%, 75% and 68%, respectively. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained from culture supernatants by protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate (0-70% of saturation) and extraction by using a mixture of organic solvents. The purity and molecular mass of hemolysins was determined by TRIS/Tricine PAGE. All CoNS hemolysins were small peptides with a molar mass of about 3.5 kDa; they possessed cytotoxic activity against the line of human foreskin fibroblasts ATCC Hs27 and lysed red cells from different mammalian species, however, the highest activity was observed when guinea pig, dog and human red blood cells were used. The cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts occurred within 30 minutes. The S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain was used as a control. The antimicrobial activity was examined using hemolysins of S. capitis, S. hominis, S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Hemolysins of the two S. cohnii subspecies did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. Cytolysins of S. capitis and S. hominis had a very narrow spectrum of action; out of 37 examined strains, the growth of only Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pasteurella multocida was inhibited.

  9. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS): emergence of teicoplanin-non-susceptible CoNS strains with inducible resistance to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Wang, En Hua; Liu, Yong; Luo, En Jie

    2011-11-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become increasingly recognized as important agents of nosocomial infection. One of the characteristics of CoNS is their resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. CoNS strains (n = 745) isolated from a university teaching hospital in China between 2004 and 2009 were tested for antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics were placed into three categories based on resistance levels of the CoNS strains to these antibiotics: high resistance (resistance rate >70 %), including penicillin G, oxacillin and erythromycin; medium resistance (resistance rate between 30 and 70 %), including tetracycline, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol; and low resistance (resistance rate <30 %), including rifampicin, ceftizoxime and gentamicin. We also found that the prevalence of strains non-susceptible to teicoplanin increased from 4.5 to 6.7 % between 2008 and 2009. A one-step vancomycin agar selection experiment and subsequent population analysis revealed potentially vancomycin-resistant subpopulations that have been selected from the teicoplanin-non-susceptible strains. Vigilant surveillance of nosocomial isolates of CoNS is needed to determine their resistance to glycopeptides.

  11. Impact of POR*28 on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Hesselink, Dennis A; Bouamar, Rachida; Budde, Klemens; de Fijter, Johannes W; De Meyer, Martine; Mourad, Michel; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2014-02-01

    The P450 oxidoreductase (POR)*28 variant allele has been associated with altered cytochrome P450 3A enzyme activities. Both CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of calcineurin inhibitors and recent data show that POR*28 may explain part of the variability observed in tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the POR*28 allele on Tac and cyclosporine A (CsA) immunosuppressive therapies. Kidney transplant recipients receiving either Tac (n = 184) or CsA (n = 174), participating in a prospective multicenter trial, were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3. CYP3A5 expressers that were carriers of at least 1 POR*28 allele had a 16.9% decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations when compared CYP3A5 expressers that carried the POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.03), indicating an increased CYP3A5 activity for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5, nonexpressers carrying 2 POR*28 alleles, a 24.1% (confidence interval95% = -39.4% to -4.9%; P = 0.02) decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations was observed for Tac, suggesting higher CYP3A4 activity. For CsA, POR*28/*28 patients not expressing CYP3A5 and not carrying the CYP3A4*22 decrease-of-function allele showed 15% lower CsA dose-adjusted predose concentrations (P = 0.01), indicating also increased CYP3A4 activity. In both cohorts (ie, Tac and CsA), the POR*28 allele was neither associated with the incidence of delayed graft function nor with biopsy-proven acute rejection. These results were further confirmed in 2 independent cohorts. Our results show that the POR*28 allele is associated with increased in vivo CYP3A5 activity for Tac in CYP3A5 expressers, whereas POR*28 homozygosity was associated with a significant higher CYP3A4 activity in CYP3A5 nonexpressers for both Tac and CsA.

  12. Project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Susanna; Richter, Alexandra; Kunz, Michael; Ruck, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Convectively-driven strong winds usually associated with thunderstorms frequently cause substantial damage to buildings and other structures in many parts of the world. Decisive for the high damage potential are the short-term wind speed maxima with duration of a few seconds, termed as gusts. Several studies have shown that convectively-driven gusts can reach even higher wind speeds compared to turbulent gusts associated with synoptic-scale weather systems. Due to the small-scale and non-stationary nature of convective wind gusts, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding their characteristics and statistics. Furthermore, their interaction with urban structures and their influence on buildings is not yet fully understood. For these two reasons, convective wind events are not included in the present wind load standards of buildings and structures, which so far have been based solely on the characteristics of synoptically-driven wind gusts in the near-surface boundary layer (e. g., DIN EN 1991-1-4:2010-12; ASCE7). However, convective and turbulent gusts differ considerably, e.g. concerning vertical wind-speed profiles, gust factors (i.e., maximum to mean wind speed), or exceedance probability curves. In an effort to remedy this situation, the overarching objective of the DFG-project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG) is to investigate the characteristics and statistics of convective gusts as well as their interaction with urban structures. Based on a set of 110 climate stations of the German Weather Service (DWD) between 1992 and 2014, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution, intensity, and occurrence probability of convective gusts. Similar to thunderstorm activity, the frequency of convective gusts decreases gradually from South to North Germany. A relation between gust intensity/probability to orography or climate conditions cannot be identified. Rather, high wind speeds, e.g., above 30 m/s, can be expected everywhere in Germany with almost

  13. Targeted Drug Delivery in Covalent Organic Nanosheets (CONs) via Sequential Postsynthetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Sasmal, Himadri Sekhar; Kundu, Tanay; Kandambeth, Sharath; Illath, Kavya; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2017-03-29

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as a new class of functional two-dimensional (2D) porous organic polymeric materials with a high accessible surface, diverse functionality, and chemical stability. They could become versatile candidates for targeted drug delivery. Despite their many advantages, there are limitations to their use for target specific drug delivery. We anticipated that these drawbacks could be overturned by judicious postsynthetic modification steps to use CONs for targeted drug delivery. The postsynthetic modification would not only produce the desired functionality, it would also help to exfoliate to CONs as well. In order to meet this requirement, we have developed a facile, salt-mediated synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). The COFs were subjected to sequential postsynthetic modifications to yield functionalized targeted CONs for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to breast cancer cells. This postsynthetic modification resulted in simultaneous chemical delamination and functionalization to targeted CONs. Targeted CONs showed sustained release of the drug to the cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, which led to cancer cell death via apoptosis. Considering the easy and facile COF synthesis, functionality based postsynthetic modifications, and chemical delamination to CONs for potential advantageous targeted drug delivery, this process can have a significant impact in biomedical applications.

  14. Analyses of muscular dystrophy and Con A deficiency traits in testcross progeny of chickens.

    PubMed

    Kline, K; Sanders, B G

    1984-01-01

    Hereditary muscular dystrophic chickens of the Storrs strain possess two genetic disorders, muscular dystrophy (MD) and a deficient concanavalin A (Con A), a T-cell mitogen, mediated splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response. A possible amelioration of the MD phenotype in MD chickens expressing normal Con A was postulated on the basis of progeny segregating for these two traits in F2 genetic analyses. To test this possibility, testcross progeny were examined for segregation of MD and Con A deficiency traits, and for the degree of muscle destruction and Con A deficiency. The data show both traits to be inherited independently as autosomal recessive traits, and do not support any phenotypic modifications occurring in chickens expressing MD with normal Con A. In the testcross progeny, the Con A deficiency disorder is equally deficient in normal and MD progeny, and the degree of muscle destruction as measured by serum creatine phosphokinase levels is equally great in MD chickens with or without the Con A deficiency trait. The reduced numbers of MD chickens in the testcross progeny can be accounted for by chance and probably reflect losses during in ovo development.

  15. Actividad física y su asociación con enfermedades crónicas en ancianos de 11 ciudades del Perú.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Christian R; Verastegui-Díaz, Araseli; Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante M; Aranzabal-Alegría, Germán; Failoc-Rojas, Virgilio E

    2017-01-01

    Determinar la frecuencia de actividad física y su asociación con enfermedades crónicas en ancianos de 11 ciudades del Perú. Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico de datos secundarios. La variable dependiente fue la no realización de actividad física, y las independientes fueron las enfermedades crónicas y otras variables fisioantropométricas. Para el análisis bivariado y multivariado se usaron los modelos lineales generalizados. Se consideró un nivel de confianza del 95% y un valor de p < 0.05 como estadísticamente significativo. De los 1030 ancianos, el 68% (698) no realizaba actividad física. Con el modelo multivariado se obtuvo que, por cada año de edad, aumentaba un 1.5% la frecuencia no hacer actividad física (razón de prevalencia ajustada [RPa]: 1.015; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%]: 1.006-1.024; p = 0.001); por cada centímetro de cintura adicional, disminuía un 0.6% la realización de actividad física (RPa: 0.994; IC 95%: 0.992-0.997; p < 0.001); y aquellos que padecían otra enfermedad cardiaca crónica (RPa: 1.15; IC 95%:1.02-1.30; p = 0.019) tenían mayores frecuencias de no realizar actividad física, ajustado por el sexo y por la ciudad de residencia. El no realizar actividad física se asoció con padecer alguna enfermedad cardiaca, mayor edad y el perímetro de cintura. Es necesario tener en cuenta estos resultados para promover la actividad física en esta población. To determine the frequency of physical activity and its association with chronic diseases in the elderly in eleven cities of Peru. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was conducted; the dependent variable was not the realization of physical activity, chronic disease and other physio-anthropometric variables were independent variables. For bivariate and multivariate analysis generalized linear models were used. A confidence level of 95% and p < 0.05 as statistically significant was considered. Of the 1030 elderly 68% (698) did not perform physical

  16. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  17. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  18. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory study of ConO- (n = 1-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ren-Zhong; Liang, Jun; Xu, Xi-Ling; Xu, Hong-Guang; Zheng, Wei-Jun

    2013-06-01

    ConO- (n = 1-3) clusters were investigated with photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of ConO- (n = 1-3) were measured to be 1.54 ± 0.04, 1.43 ± 0.08, and 1.42 ± 0.08 eV respectively from their photoelectron spectra. The electron affinity and term energy of CoO were determined to be 1.54 ± 0.04 eV and 0.31 ± 0.04 eV respectively based on the vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectrum of CoO- and theoretical calculations. The structures of ConO- (n = 1-3) were determined by comparison of photoelectron experiments and calculations. The analysis of molecular orbitals shows that the HOMOs of ConO- (n = 1-3) cluster anions are mainly localized on the Co atoms.

  20. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  1. iCon-TMA for control and quantitation of immunohistochemistry and in situ molecular pathology analysis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Iver; Blind, Christiane; Koepenik, Axel; Dietel, Manfred; Krenn, Veit

    2007-01-01

    Reliable assessment of in situ pathology analyses like immunohistochemistry, RNA in situ hybridization, and FISH are critically important in diagnosis and treatment decisions. We describe the development of small tissue microarrays (TMA) for the internal control and quantitation of these techniques, the iCon-TMA. In its simple variant, these iCon-TMA (abbreviated from internal control TMA) consist of 2 tissue cylinders, one being clearly positive and the other clearly negative for a specific marker. In its more elaborate format, the iCon-TMAs carry additional tissue spots providing a scale for quantitatively assessable markers, e.g. representing scores of negative, weak, moderate, or strong positivity. The specimen with the yet unknown reactivity is then applied to the iCon-TMA section, and both are simultaneously processed and analyzed, thus providing a convenient measure for in situ quality control and quantitation.

  2. Characterization of the effector cells in Con A-induced cytotoxicity against HEp 2 tumour targets.

    PubMed

    Pócsik, E; González-Cabello, R; Benedek, K; Perl, A; Láng, I; Gergely, P

    1983-01-01

    Con A-induced cytotoxic activity of human lymphocyte subpopulations obtained by cell fractionation procedures was studied in a test system using human epipharynx carcinoma cells (HEp 2) as targets. Only T lymphocytes were cytotoxic, non-T cells exerted no cytotoxic activity, but enhanced the adherence of the tumour cells. Tnon-G lymphocytes (Fc-receptor negative T cells) were more active than TG cells (Fc-receptor-positive T cells) in mediating the Con A-induced cytotoxic reaction.

  3. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciTech Connect

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  4. Sport Concussion Management Using Facebook: A Feasibility Study of an Innovative Adjunct "iCon".

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Schneiders, Anthony G; McCrory, Paul R; Sullivan, S John

    2017-04-01

      Sport concussion is currently the focus of much international attention. Innovative methods to assist athletic trainers in facilitating management after this injury need to be investigated.   To investigate the feasibility of using a Facebook concussion-management program termed iCon (interactive concussion management) to facilitate the safe return to play (RTP) of young persons after sport concussion.   Observational study.   Facebook group containing interactive elements, with moderation and support from trained health care professionals.   Eleven participants (n = 9 men, n = 2 women; range, 18 to 28 years old) completed the study.   The study was conducted over a 3-month period, with participant questionnaires administered preintervention and postintervention. The primary focus was on the qualitative experiences of the participants and the effect of iCon on their RTP. Usage data were also collected.   At the completion of the study, all participants (100%) stated that they would recommend an intervention such as iCon to others. Their supporting quotes all indicated that iCon has the potential to improve the management of concussion among this cohort. Most participants (n = 9, 82%) stated they were better informed with regard to their RTP due to participating in iCon.   This interactive adjunct to traditional concussion management was appreciated among this participant group, which indicates the feasibility of a future, larger study of iCon. Athletic trainers should consider the role that multimedia technologies may play in assisting with the management of sport concussion.

  5. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    en que vive es el planeta Tierra y que, probablemente por ese motivo, distingue con precisión, dentro de los limites de comprensión de la edad y madurez asociada, la tierra y la Tierra. O presente artigo analisa uma entrevista livre enquanto uma menina de quatro anos e quatro meses, matriculada na educação infantil, desenhava a Terra. A entrevista se realizou fora do ambiente escolar e sem qualquer outra pessoa por perto que pudesse interferir. De acordo com Ferreira & Silva (2004), para que o pesquisador conheça realmente o que uma criança põe no papel através de grafismos e/ou desenhos, é necessário ouvi-la durante o processo de criação do desenho. A menina apresenta, em relação à Terra, o tradicional desenho plano com o 'céu' paralelo ao solo, conforme já apresentaram Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Mas quando solicitada a desenhar o Mundo - palavra empregada em um trabalho por Butterworth et al. (2002), com intenção de não provocar 'confusões' desnecessárias para seus pesquisados - o representa de forma circular, colocando-se sobre sua superfície. Seus desenhos levaram à conclusão que esta criança ainda não tem conhecimento de que o Mundo em que vive é o Planeta Terra e que, provavelmente por este motivo, diferencia com precisão, dentro dos limites impostos por sua idade e consequente maturidade, a terra e a Terra.

  6. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  7. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  8. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el

  9. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  10. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  11. Pros and cons: prospective predictors of marijuana use on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B

    2013-03-01

    Marijuana use on college campuses is prevalent and associated with high rates of abuse and dependence. The Marijuana Decisional Balance (MDB) scales measure perceived pros and cons toward marijuana use. Evidence supports reliability and concurrent validity of these scales, but the predictive validity has not yet been assessed. The current study evaluated the prospective predictive validity of pros and cons scales for marijuana use, as well as explored predictive validity for marijuana problem indicators. Secondary analyses included test-retest reliability and internal consistency, to provide additional evidence of psychometric properties. A total of 149 college students (57% recent marijuana users, 77% lifetime users) participated in a baseline survey, then completed a second survey one month later. All provided data on marijuana pros and cons, as well as use status in the past month. Users at each time point reported on use frequency, problems, and disorder symptoms. In the month between assessments, 55% of the students used marijuana. Both pros and cons subscales prospectively predicted use status in the subsequent month, but not use frequency. Pros prospectively predicted marijuana problems and dependence symptoms at follow-up, and remained a significant predictor of later dependence symptoms even after controlling for baseline dependence symptoms. In contrast, pros only marginally predicted abuse. Cons did not predict problems, abuse, or dependence symptoms. Pros and cons showed strong test-retest reliability (rs = 0.80-0.85) and internal consistency (alphas = 0.92-0.95). In a college sample, pros and cons of marijuana use demonstrated stability over one month, and prospectively predicted use. Pros may also have utility in predicting problems and dependence potential on college campuses.

  12. Impact of POR*28 on the clinical pharmacokinetics of CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Clarke, Stephen J; Charles, Kellie A; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; va