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Sample records for con tumores malignos

  1. Pros and cons of current brain tumor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Wen, Patrick Y.; van den Bent, Martin J.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, very few agents have been approved for the treatment of brain tumors. Recent studies have highlighted some of the challenges in assessing activity in novel agents for the treatment of brain tumors. This paper reviews some of the key challenges related to assessment of tumor response to therapy in adult high-grade gliomas and discusses the strengths and limitations of imaging-based endpoints. Although overall survival is considered the “gold standard” endpoint in the field of oncology, progression-free survival and response rate are endpoints that hold great value in neuro-oncology. Particular focus is given to advancements made since the January 2006 Brain Tumor Endpoints Workshop, including the development of Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria, the value of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, use of objective response rates and progression-free survival in clinical trials, and the evaluation of pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and inflammatory response in radiographic images. PMID:25313235

  2. Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.

    2009-04-01

    Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (ɛbg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

  3. [An exceptional mimicker of ovarian tumors: cancer in a pelvic horseshoe kidney].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: aunque el riñón en herradura es una anomalía congénita frecuente, hasta el momento no se había informado que produjera un tumor maligno que pareciera una neoplasia de ovario. Caso clínico: mujer de 53 años de edad con un tumor pélvico, que tenía el antecedente de una histerectomía simple debida a miomatosis. Mediante la exploración abdominal se detectó una masa en hipogastrio, edondeada, de 20 cm, firme y fija. En el tacto vaginal, la lesión era palpable a través del fondo de saco. Con el diagnóstico de una probable neoplasia por síndrome de ovario residual, la paciente fue remitida al servicio de ginecología para su estudio y atención. Una tomografía computarizada demostró que la masa se originaba del lado derecho de un riñón pélvico malformado. Por lo anterior, la paciente fue enviada al servicio de oncología quirúrgica, donde se corroboró el hallazgo. Al analizar los estudios de imagen se emitió el diagnóstico de una probable neoplasia de un riñón pélvico en herradura. La paciente fue sometida a una laparotomía exploradora, en la que se extirpó un tumor de 19 cm del riñón malformado, cuyo polo inferior ocupaba la pelvis verdadera. Mediante el examen histopalógico se determinó que se trataba de un carcinoma de células cromófobas. Conclusiones: en las mujeres, los tumores del riñón pélvico en herradura pueden simular un tumor de ovario.

  4. MicroRNA Signatures as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Target for CNS Embryonal Tumors: The Pros and the Cons

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Tarek; Fiaschetti, Giulio; Baumgartner, Martin; Grotzer, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system represent a heterogeneous group of childhood cancers with an unknown pathogenesis; diagnosis, on the basis of histological appearance alone, is controversial and patients’ response to therapy is difficult to predict. They encompass medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and a group of primitive neuroectodermal tumors. All are aggressive tumors with the tendency to disseminate throughout the central nervous system. The large amount of genomic and molecular data generated over the last 5–10 years encourages optimism that new molecular targets will soon improve outcomes. Recent neurobiological studies have uncovered the key role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in embryonal tumors biology and their potential use as biomarkers is increasingly being recognized and investigated. However the successful use of microRNAs as reliable biomarkers for the detection and management of pediatric brain tumors represents a substantial challenge. This review debates the importance of miRNAs in the biology of central nervous systemembryonal tumors focusing on medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and highlights the advantages as well as the limitations of their prospective application as biomarkers and candidates for molecular therapeutic targets. PMID:25421247

  5. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatitis B and hepatitis C ...

  6. The Dichotomy of Tumor Exosomes (TEX) in Cancer Immunity: Is It All in the ConTEXt?

    PubMed Central

    Kunigelis, Katherine E.; Graner, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are virus-sized nanoparticles (30–130 nm) formed intracellularly as intravesicular bodies/intralumenal vesicles within maturing endosomes (“multivesicular bodies”, MVBs). If MVBs fuse with the cell’s plasma membrane, the interior vesicles may be released extracellularly, and are termed “exosomes”. The protein cargo of exosomes consists of cytosolic, membrane, and extracellular proteins, along with membrane-derived lipids, and an extraordinary variety of nucleic acids. As such, exosomes reflect the status and identity of the parent cell, and are considered as tiny cellular surrogates. Because of this closely entwined relationship between exosome content and the source/status of the parental cell, conceivably exosomes could be used as vaccines against various pathologies, as they contain antigens associated with a given disease, e.g., cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) have been shown to be potent anticancer vaccines in animal models, driving antigen-specific T and B cell responses, but much recent literature concerning TEX strongly places the vesicles as powerfully immunosuppressive. This dichotomy suggests that the context in which the immune system encounters TEX is critical in determining immune stimulation versus immunosuppression. Here, we review literature on both sides of this immune coin, and suggest that it may be time to revisit the concept of TEX as anticancer vaccines in clinical settings. PMID:26694473

  7. The Dichotomy of Tumor Exosomes (TEX) in Cancer Immunity: Is It All in the ConTEXt?

    PubMed

    Kunigelis, Katherine E; Graner, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are virus-sized nanoparticles (30-130 nm) formed intracellularly as intravesicular bodies/intralumenal vesicles within maturing endosomes ("multivesicular bodies", MVBs). If MVBs fuse with the cell's plasma membrane, the interior vesicles may be released extracellularly, and are termed "exosomes". The protein cargo of exosomes consists of cytosolic, membrane, and extracellular proteins, along with membrane-derived lipids, and an extraordinary variety of nucleic acids. As such, exosomes reflect the status and identity of the parent cell, and are considered as tiny cellular surrogates. Because of this closely entwined relationship between exosome content and the source/status of the parental cell, conceivably exosomes could be used as vaccines against various pathologies, as they contain antigens associated with a given disease, e.g., cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) have been shown to be potent anticancer vaccines in animal models, driving antigen-specific T and B cell responses, but much recent literature concerning TEX strongly places the vesicles as powerfully immunosuppressive. This dichotomy suggests that the context in which the immune system encounters TEX is critical in determining immune stimulation versus immunosuppression. Here, we review literature on both sides of this immune coin, and suggest that it may be time to revisit the concept of TEX as anticancer vaccines in clinical settings.

  8. [Malignant mesothelioma risk factors: experience in the General Hospital of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Solís, Alejandro; Garcia-Hernández, Cyntia; Reding-Bernal, Arturo; Cruz-Ortiz, Humberto; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: el mesotelioma maligno es un tumor de mal pronóstico relacionado con el contacto con asbesto; sin embargo, existen numerosos casos sin este antecedente. Objetivo: describir la relación entre la exposición al asbesto y otros factores con el mesotelioma maligno. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles pareado 1: 1-3 por edad y sexo de pacientes con diagnóstico de mesotelioma maligno. Se registraron: la exposición al asbesto, tabaco, humo de leña y antecedentes familiares de cáncer. Se empleó regresión logística para razones de momios (ORs). Resultados: se estudiaron 61 casos con mesotelioma maligno, 41 hombres y 20 mujeres. La edad promedio fue 56 ± 13 años; 56 casos fueron mesotelioma maligno epitelial (91.8%), tres sarcomatosos (4.9%), uno desmoplásico y uno bifásico. Sólo en 8 (13.1%) se identificó exposición al asbesto. En el modelo de regresión logística el asbesto tuvo una razón de momios de 3.083 p > 0.05. Ninguna otra variable resultó ser un factor de riesgo para mesotelioma maligno. Conclusiones: la exposición al asbesto es un factor de riesgo para mesotelioma maligno, lo que se confirma en este estudio; sin embargo, es importante ampliar la investigación de otros posibles factores causales de esta enfermedad.

  9. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Nasal Deformities Choanal Atresia Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Sinus Tumors Abtin Tabaee, MD Introduction Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ...

  10. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  11. The pros and cons of split-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone rather than a single high dose for hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization in small children (< 15 kg) with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Etienne; Piguet, Christophe; Auvrignon, Anne; Rubie, Hervé; Deméocq, François; Kanold, Justyna

    2006-07-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells were mobilized in 34 children with solid tumors weighing < or = 15 kg using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone at the doses of 10, 20 or 2 x 12 microg/kg/day. The mobilization with 2 x 12 microg/kg/day was more efficient than that with 10 mg/kg/day. Although the superiority of the split-dose compared to the single, high daily dose (20 microg/kg/day) was not statistically significant, our results suggest that the 2 x 12 microg/kg/day regimen is interesting.

  12. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  13. Tumor Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... acoustic neuroma is also known as a schwannoma, vestibular schwannoma, or neurilemmoma. Characteristics Arises from cells that ... multiple CNS tumors, including neurofibromas, multiple meningiomas, bilateral vestibular schwannomas, optic nerve gliomas, and spinal cord tumors. ...

  14. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  15. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  17. Pindborg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  18. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur at any age. They are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  19. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. Pituitary tumors are common, but often they don't cause health ... tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your ...

  20. Malignant Small Bowel Tumors: Diagnosis, Management and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hélder; Rodrigues, João Tiago; Marques, Margarida; Ribeiro, Armando; Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Santos-Antunes, João; Rodrigues-Pinto, Eduardo; Silva, Marco; Maia, José Costa; Macedo, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Apesar de entidades raras, a incidência dos tumores malignos do intestino delgado parece estar a aumentar. O desenvolvimento da cápsula endoscópica e da enteroscopia assistida por balão permitiram um avanço na avaliação das lesões do intestino delgado. Temos como objetivo descrever as características clínicas e patológicas dos doentes com cancro do intestino delgado e averiguar o papel que estas técnicas endoscópicas assumem atualmente. Material e Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospetivo dos doentes diagnosticados com cancro do intestino delgado, desde janeiro de 2010 até outubro de 2014. Os dados foram submetidos a análise estatística. Resultados: Dos 28 doentes diagnosticados, 54% eram do sexo feminino. A idade média ao diagnóstico foi de 61 anos. O tumor mais frequente foi o adenocarcinoma (n = 11), seguido do sarcoma (n = 6), linfoma (n = 6) e tumores neuroendócrinos (n = 3). A principal forma de apresentação esteve relacionada com perdas hemáticas ou obstrução intestinal. Ao diagnóstico, 46% dos doentes tinhammetástases distantes/tumor irressecável. A maioria dos tumores foi diagnosticada por técnicas endoscópicas (41%) ou imagiológicas (35%). No primeiro ano após o diagnóstico, 29% dos doentes faleceram. Na análise multivariada, o adenocarcinoma permaneceu fator independente para pior sobrevida. Discussão: Os doentes com adenocarcinoma apresentaram-se em estádios tardios e com tumores irressecáveis, contribuindo para um pior prognóstico. Ã necessário um elevado grau de suspeita clínica para o diagnóstico de cancro do intestino delgado. Conclusão: As características dos doentes foram globalmente consistentes com o descrito na literatura. A cápsula endoscópica e a enteroscopia assistida por balão são úteis no diagnóstico, gestão e vigilância do cancro do intestino delgado.

  1. [Adipocytic tumors].

    PubMed

    Stock, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Adipocytic tumors are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms, liposarcoma accounting for approximately 20% of soft tissue sarcomas. The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumors is often problematic and represents a significant proportion of consultation cases. The goal of this article is to review liposarcoma subtypes, the main benign adipocytic neoplasms: lipoblastoma, hibernoma, spindle/pleomorphic cell lipoma, chondroid lipoma, as well as non adipocytic neoplasms with a lipomatous component such as lipomatous solitary fibrous tumor, emphasizing on practical differential diagnosis issues, and immunohistochemical and molecular tools allowing their resolution.

  2. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, and the condition, or histology , of the cancer cells when observed under a microscope. "Favorable" histology is associated with a good chance of a cure; tumors with "unfavorable" histology are more aggressive and ...

  3. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  4. Retrorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Bullard Dunn, Kelli

    2010-02-01

    Retrorectal or presacral tumors are rare and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Because the retrorectal space contains multiple embryologic remnants derived from various tissues, the tumors that develop in this space are heterogeneous. Most lesions are benign, but malignant neoplasms are not uncommon. Lesions are classified as congenital, neurogenic, osseous, inflammatory, or miscellaneous. Although treatment depends on diagnosis and anatomic location, most retrorectal lesions will require surgical resection.

  5. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  6. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    PubMed

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  7. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    PubMed

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  8. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  9. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  10. Brain tumor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  11. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  12. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  13. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding ...

  14. [Tumor surgery].

    PubMed

    Hausamen, J E

    2000-05-01

    Surgery is still the primary therapeutic approach in treatment of tumors in the head and neck area, dating back to the early nineteenth century. More than 150 years ago, hemimaxillectomies and mandibular resections as well as hemiglossectomies were already performed by leading surgeons. The block principle we are now following dates back to Crile, who also established the principle of cervical lymph node dissection. Ablative oncologic surgery has always been closely linked with plastic and reconstructive surgery, rendering radical surgical interventions possible without disfiguring patients. The development of facial reconstructive surgery proceeded in stages, in the first instance as secondary reconstruction using tube pedicled flaps. The change to the concept of primary reconstruction occurred via arterialized skin flaps and myocutaneous flaps to the widely accepted and performed free tissue transfer. Free bone grafting, inaugurated earlier and still representing the majority of bone grafting, has been supplemented for certain reconstructive purposes by free vascularized bone transfer from various donor sites. Although the five-year-survival rate of carcinoma of the oral cavity has remained unchanged in the past 30 years, distinctive improvements in tumor surgery can be recorded. This is primarily based on improved diagnostics such as modern imaging techniques and the refinement of surgical techniques. The DOSAK has worked out distinctive guidelines for effective ablative oncologic surgery. Surgical approaches offering wide exposure and carrying low morbidity play a decisive role in radical resections. For this reason, midfacial degloving offers an essential improvement for the resection of midface tumors, especially from an aesthetic point of view. Tumors situated deep behind the viscerocranium at the skull base can be clearly exposed either through a lateral approach following a temporary osteotomy of the mandibular ramus or a transmandibular, transmaxillar, or

  15. Secondary optic nerve tumors.

    PubMed

    Christmas, N J; Mead, M D; Richardson, E P; Albert, D M

    1991-01-01

    Secondary tumors of the optic nerve are more common than primary optic nerve tumors. The involvement of the optic nerve may arise from direct invasion from intraocular malignancies, from hematopoietic malignancy, from meningeal carcinomatosis, or from distant primary tumors. Orbital tumors rarely invade the optic nerve, and brain tumors involve it only in their late stages.

  16. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  17. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  18. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  19. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Complications of these tumors include: Diabetes Hormone crises (if the tumor releases certain types of hormones) Severe low blood sugar (from insulinomas) Severe ulcers in the stomach and small intestine (from gastrinomas) Spread of the tumor to the liver

  20. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  1. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  2. [Tumor formation in plants].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, T V; Lutova, L A; Nester, Iu

    2001-09-01

    The data on genetic tumors in plant species and interspecific hybrids, as well as the problems of Agrobacterium-induced tumors are reviewed. The role of the horizontal gene transfer in the induction of genetic tumors is discussed. PMID:11642121

  3. Pathology of eyelid tumors.

    PubMed

    Pe'er, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  4. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  5. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  6. [Presacral tumor as a differential diagnosis of recurrent pilonidal sinus].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Ballester, Mónica; Pellicer-Franco, Enrique; Valero-Navarro, Graciela; Alcaraz-Mateos, Eduardo; Soria-Aledo, Victoriano; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: durante el desarrollo embriológico, el espacio retrorrectal o presacro está ocupado por células pluripotenciales y, por tanto, puede contener un grupo heterogéneo de tumores. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, intervenido de sinus pilonidal recidivado. Con estudios de tomografía computada de pelvis y resonancia magnética nuclear se sospechó la existencia de un tumor quístico presacro compatible con tumor germinal; la lesión se extirpó quirúrgicamente por vía abdominal y se estableció el diagnóstico definitivo de teratoma quístico. Conclusiones: los tumores retrorrectales son lesiones poco habituales que es necesario descartar en caso de sinus recidivantes.

  7. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma.

  8. Tumor heterogeneity and circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chufeng; Guan, Yan; Sun, Yulan; Ai, Dan; Guo, Qisen

    2016-05-01

    In patients with cancer, individualized treatment strategies are generally guided by an analysis of molecular biomarkers. However, genetic instability allows tumor cells to lose monoclonality and acquire genetic heterogeneity, an important characteristic of tumors, during disease progression. Researchers have found that there is tumor heterogeneity between the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, between different metastatic lesions, and even within a single tumor (either primary or metastatic). Tumor heterogeneity is associated with heterogeneous protein functions, which lowers diagnostic precision and consequently becomes an obstacle to determining the appropriate therapeutic strategies for individual cancer patients. With the development of novel testing technologies, an increasing number of studies have attempted to explore tumor heterogeneity by examining circulating tumor cells (CTCs), with the expectation that CTCs may comprehensively represent the full spectrum of mutations and/or protein expression alterations present in the cancer. In addition, this strategy represents a minimally invasive approach compared to traditional tissue biopsies that can be used to dynamically monitor tumor evolution. The present article reviews the potential efficacy of using CTCs to identify both spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity. This review also highlights current issues in this field and provides an outlook toward future applications of CTCs.

  9. Pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Run; Melmed, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common and mostly benign neoplasia which cause excess or deficiency of pituitary hormones and compressive damage to adjacent organs. Oncogene activation [e.g. PTTG (pituitary tumor-transforming gene) and HMGA2], tumor suppressor gene inactivation (e.g. MEN1 and PRKAR1A), epigenetic changes (e.g. methylation) and humoral factors (e.g. ectopic production of stimulating hormones) are all possible pituitary tumor initiators; the micro-environment of pituitary tumors including steroid milieu, angiogenesis and abnormal cell adhesion further promote tumor growth. Senescence, a cellular defence mechanism against malignant transformation, may explain the benign nature of at least some pituitary tumors. We suggest that future research on pituitary tumor pathogenesis should incorporate systems approaches, and address regulatory mechanisms for pituitary cell proliferation, development of new animal models of pituitary tumor and isolation of functional human pituitary tumor cell lines. PMID:20541667

  10. [Experience of off-label use of Eltrombopag in the treatment of thrombocytopenia associated with solid tumors].

    PubMed

    García Lagunar, María Henar; Cerezuela Fuentes, Pablo; Martínez Penella, Mónica; Gutiérrez-Meca Maestre, Dolores Paula; García Coronel, María; Martínez Ortiz, María José

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Describir los resultados del uso fuera de indicación de eltrombopag en pacientes con trombocitopenia limitante de tratamiento quimioterápico y tumores sólidos. Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes con tumores sólidos tratados con eltrombopag por trombocitopenia durante el tratamiento con quimioterapia entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2014. Resultados: Seis pacientes, con tumores sólidos y trombocitopenia limitante de tratamiento, recibieron eltrombopag durante el periodo de estudio con una disminución en el retraso de ciclos de quimioterapia (4,83 ± 4,79 ciclos retrasados antes del inicio de eltrombopag vs 2,50 ± 4,32 ciclos durante el tratamiento con eltrombopag, p=0,492) y un aumento en el porcentaje de dosis real administrada (89,29 ± 13,36% vs 91,43 ± 10,69%, p=0,682). Así mismo, se produjo un aumento en el nadir de plaquetas (55,29 ± 16,45x109/L vs 76,14 ± 36,38x109/L, p=0,248) sin requerir en ningún paciente soporte transfusional con plaquetas durante el tratamiento con eltrombopag. Conclusiones: eltrombopag ha resultado ser una alternativa de tratamiento para pacientes con trombocitopenia limitante de tratamiento con quimioterapia, siendo necesarios ensayos clínicos con mayor número de pacientes que confirmen estos resultados.

  11. [Tumor-induced immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Paul, S; Calmels, B; Régulier, E

    2002-01-01

    Tumor immunology is based on two essential concepts: immune surveillance, which implicate the host immune reactions against tumor cells, and tumor immune escape, which refers to the tumor-cell evasion process against the host immune system. The notion that a deficit in immune cell functions permits tumor growth has received experimental support with the discovery of several different biochemical defects in T lymphocytes that infiltrate cancers. Furthermore, expression of self-antigens on the tumor surface impose potential barriers to the development of effective immune response. Tumors are able to overcome immune surveillance by changing the polarity of effectors cells, thus down-regulating the proliferation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells, or altering the effector compositions of immune cells within the tumor milieu, or both. Understanding the interaction between cancer cells and host immune cells is of importance for clinical applications or immunotherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:11937439

  12. Salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, P J; Black, K M

    1985-10-01

    A retrospective review of 643 patients with salivary gland tumors seen between 1958-72 is reported. There were 328 malignant and 375 benign tumors. All patients with malignant tumors were assessed in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic. The median age for developing malignant tumors was 58 and there was a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. For benign tumors the median age was 46 years and the male to female ratio 0.8:1. Overall the primary tumor was controlled by the first planned treatment in 145 (44%) malignant tumors and in 253 (80%) benign tumors. The five and 10 year actuarial survival for malignant tumors was 59.4% and 45.6% respectively.

  13. Añadir quimioterapia después de la radioterapia mejora la supervivencia de adultos con un tipo de tu

    Cancer.gov

    Adultos con gliomas de grado bajo, una forma de tumor cerebral, que recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia después de la radioterapia vivieron más tiempo que pacientes que recibieron solo radioterapia, según los resultados de seguimiento a largo plazo d

  14. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  15. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  16. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  17. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... facts and statistics here include brain and central nervous system tumors (including spinal cord, pituitary and pineal gland ... U.S. living with a primary brain and central nervous system tumor. This year, nearly 17,000 people will ...

  18. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... stress. Growth hormone helps control body growth and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do ...

  19. Tumor suppressor ARF

    PubMed Central

    Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses. PMID:23162766

  20. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  1. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Cancer Foundation joins the PBTF Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  2. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Ear Canals Read More ABTA News October 5, 2016 Largest American Brain Tumor Association Team Running in Bank of America Chicago Marathon Sunday, October 9 September 21, 2016 American Brain Tumor Association Awards 16 Grants to Support ...

  3. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  4. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  5. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT.

  6. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT. PMID:26329708

  7. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor): In these tumors, the look of the cancer cells varies widely, and the cells’ nuclei (the central parts that contain the DNA) tend to be very large and distorted. This is called anaplasia . The more anaplasia a tumor has, the harder it is to cure. Other types of kidney cancers in children Most ...

  8. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  9. Recurrent mixed tumor.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1986-01-01

    Recurrence of benign neoplasms can usually be attributed to incomplete excision. Such is the case with benign mixed tumors of salivary glands. Certain histopathologic features of mixed tumors, however, appear to facilitate recurrences. These are: a predominantly myxoid composition, and transcapsular extension by the tumor. Multicentric origin is possible, but it must be regarded as a much lower order of probability.

  10. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  11. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Bournazou, Eirini; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Persistent JAK-STAT3 signaling is implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis. Apart from its tumor-intrinsic effects, STAT3 also exerts tumor-extrinsic effects, supporting tumor survival and metastasis. These involve the regulation of paracrine cytokine signaling, alterations in metastatic sites rendering these permissive for the growth of cancer cells and subversion of host immune responses to create an immunosuppressive environment. Targeting this signaling pathway is considered a novel promising therapeutic approach, especially in the context of tumor immunity. In this article, we will review to what extent JAK-STAT3-targeted therapies affect the tumor microenvironment and whether the observed effects underlie responsiveness to therapy. PMID:24058812

  12. Neuroimaging of Spinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Merhemic, Zulejha; Stosic-Opincal, Tatjana; Thurnher, Majda M

    2016-08-01

    Intradural tumors are relatively rare neoplasms; however, when unrecognized in a timely manner, they can result in serious deficits and disability. These tumors lack obvious clinical symptoms until compression of the cord or neurologic deficits occur. The most common intramedullary lesions are ependymomas, astrocytomas, and hemangioblastomas. Meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors (schwannomas and neurofibromas) comprise most intradural-extramedullary tumors. Less common tumors are hemangiopericytoma, paraganglioma, melanocytoma, melanoma, metastases, and lymphoma. MR imaging is the imaging method of choice, helpful for localization and characterization of these lesions before treatment and for follow-up after treatment. PMID:27417401

  13. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  14. Tumors of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  15. [Pediatric retroperitoneal tumors].

    PubMed

    Benicio dos Santos, I; Benicio dos Santos, M

    1980-01-01

    The author has based his work "Retroperitoneals tumors in infancy and childhood" in 65 cases observed at "Hospital Martagao Gesteira", Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. 32 of the retroperitoneals tumors, either intrarenals or extrarenals, observed in infancy and childhood were Wilm's tumor, 22 neuroblastoma, 5 hydronephrosis, 2 multicystic kidney, 1 policystic kidney, 2 pancreatic cyst and 1 biliar cyst. Wilm's tumor had the highest incidence - 32 cases (49,2%); neuroblastoma was in the second place in incidence - 22 (33,8%) of the 65 cases of retroperitoneals tumors studied, were neuroblastoma. As registered by the author in previous paper, the neuroblastoma, on contrary of what is established in the specialized literature, not was: the most frequent abdominal tumors, in infancy and childhood, neither it was also the abdominal pediatric tumor which could match Wilm's tumor in incidence. The plain X ray film of the abdomen, the Excretory Urography, the Cavography and Arteriography, the Radiological Examination of the Stomach and Duodenum, of the Small Intestine and the Colons, contribute in a very important way to establish the topography (retro or intraperitoneal) of the pediatric abdominal tumors. The author emphasizes that the plain X ray film of the abdomen supply important elements for the conclusion concerning the localization of abdominal tumors, from the observation of a simple criterion - the retroperitoneals tumors obliterate the border of kidney, because they are placed in the same plan of the kidney, data which is not pointed out sufficiently by the authors who have studied the subject.

  16. Cartilage-forming tumors.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Shadi A; DeYoung, Barry R

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage-forming tumors as a group are the most common primary bone tumors; this is largely due to the common occurrence of asymptomatic benign lesions such as osteochondroma and enchondroma. The common feature of these tumors is the presence of chondrocytic cells and the formation of cartilaginous tumor matrix. Some of these tumors are true neoplasms while others are hamartomas or developmental abnormalities. The morphologic heterogeneity of these tumors may be explained by a common multipotent mesenchymal cell differentiating along the lines of fetal-adult cartilage maturation. Recently mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have been detected in a variety of benign and malignant cartilaginous tumors.(1-4.) PMID:24680178

  17. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  18. Primary polyoma virus-induced murine thymic epithelial tumors. A tumor model of thymus physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hoot, G. P.; Kettman, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Thymic tumors were induced in C3'/Bittner mice by neonatal inoculation with polyoma virus. The objective of this study was to identify the phenotypes of the cells within the tumors and to attempt to determine the origin of the neoplastic cell population(s). At the ultrastructural level, the neoplastic cells resembled normal thymic epithelium with tonofilaments and desmosomes. Immunoperoxidase staining demonstrated the presence of cytokeratin, Iak, -beta 2-microglobulin, -asialo-GM1, the thymic cortical epithelial marker ER-TR4, and the medullary epithelial marker ER-TR5. Islands of normal cortical thymocytes supported by residual normal cortical epithelium and acid phosphatase-positive cortical macrophages were interspersed in the tumors. Residual islands of normal medullary architecture with nonspecific esterase-positive IDCs were rarely identified in tumors. Most lymphocytes in the tumors were normal immature cortical thymocytes with the phenotype Tdt+, PNA+, Thy 1.2bright, Ly-1dull, H-2Kkdull, ThB+, J11d+, and Lyt-2+L3T4+. Lymphocytes in the tumors were steroid-sensitive like normal thymocytes. The proportions of Lyt-2+L3T4- and Lyt-2-L3T4+ cells were generally larger in the tumors than in normal thymus and reflected the higher frequency of lymphocytes in the tumors capable of proliferating in vitro in response to Con A plus IL-2. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that the neoplasia originates from thymic epithelium that is interspersed with normal, developing thymic lymphocytes. Images Figure 4 p[688]-a Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 p687-a Figure 7 PMID:2552813

  19. Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Costanza; Hayes, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) are shed from primary or secondary tumors. Prior studies have demonstrated that enumeration of CTC is a robust independent prognostic factor of progression free and overall survival in patients with early and metastatic breast cancer. CTC, as well as other circulating tumor markers, have the appealing advantages over tissue biopsy of (1) ease of collection, (2) serial evaluation, and (3) interrogation of the entire tumor burden instead of just a limited part of the tumor. Advances have been recently made in phenotyping and genotyping of CTC, which should provide insights into the predictive role of CTC for sensitivity or resistance to therapies. In addition, CTC phenotypic marker changes during the course of treatment may serve as pharmacodynamic monitoring tools. Therefore, CTC may be considered "liquid biopsies," providing prognostic and predictive clinical information as well as additional understanding of tumor heterogeneity.

  20. Tumor cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  1. [Retroperitoneal germ cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Borrell Palanca, A; García Garzón, J; Villamón Fort, R; Domenech Pérez, C; Martínez Lorente, A; Gunthner, S; García Sisamón, F

    1999-03-01

    We report a case of retroperitoneal extragonadal germ-cell tumor in an 17 years old patient who presented with aedema and pain in left inferior extremity asociated with hemopthysis caused by pulmonar metastasis, who was treated with chemotherapy and resection of residual mass and pulmonary nodes. Dyagnosis was stableshed by fine neadle aspiration biopsy of the wass. We comment on the difficult of stableshing differential dyagnosis between retroperitoneal extragonadal germ-cell tumor and metastasis of a testicular tumor. Dyagnosis is stableshed by the finding of a histologically malignant germ-cell tumor with normal testis. We considered physical examination and ecographyc exploration enough for a correct dyagnosis.

  2. Radioresistance of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kevin; Knisely, Jonathan; Symons, Marc; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as part of the standard of care treatment of the majority of brain tumors. The efficacy of RT is limited by radioresistance and by normal tissue radiation tolerance. This is highlighted in pediatric brain tumors where the use of radiation is limited by the excessive toxicity to the developing brain. For these reasons, radiosensitization of tumor cells would be beneficial. In this review, we focus on radioresistance mechanisms intrinsic to tumor cells. We also evaluate existing approaches to induce radiosensitization and explore future avenues of investigation. PMID:27043632

  3. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  4. Hyperandrogenism produced by ovarian tumors in women at different life stages.

    PubMed

    Fux-Otta, Carolina; Szafryk de Mereshian, Paula; López de Corominas, Mónica; Fuster, Margarita; López, Carlos R

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las diferentes manifestaciones del hiperandrogenismo tumoral de origen ovárico en distintos grupos etarios. Diseño: reporte de casos.Lugar de trabajo: centros académicos.Pacientes: son reportadas tres pacientes con exceso de andrógenos. Resultados: describimos una paciente de 10 años con hiperandrogenemia y signos de masculinización secundarios a un tumor de células de Leydig; otra paciente, en edad fértil, con un tumor carcinoide de ovario asociado a hiperplasia estromal que se manifestó con signos de masa abdominal y de virilización. El tercer caso una mujer, en etapa postmenopáusica con alopecia severa, tenía un tumor de células esteroideas, raro en este grupo etario. onclusión: la evaluación de una mujer con signos y síntomas de virilización debe incluir una detallada historia clínica, examen físico y apropiados dosajes hormonales, especialmente si existe dificultad en establecer su origen cuando los estudios imagenológicos son normales.

  5. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un

  6. Tumor-Targeted Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    ElBayoumi, Tamer A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of drug delivery systems can be enhanced by making them target-specific via the attachment of various ligands. We attempted to enhance tumor accumulation and therapeutic effect of doxorubicin-loaded long-circulating PEGylated liposomes (Doxil®, ALZA Corp.) by coupling to their surface the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody 2C5 (mAb 2C5) with nuclesome (NS)-restricted activity, that can recognize the surface of various tumor but not normal cells and specifically targets pharmaceutical carriers to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Following earlier in vitro results with various cancer cell lines, the mAb 2C5-liposomes were studied in vivo vs. plain and non-specific IgG-liposomes. Experimental design Antibody coupling to Doxil® was performed via the “post-insertion” technique. Using 111In-labeled liposomes, the tissue biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile were studied, as well as their accumulation in tumors in mice was followed by the whole-body γ-scintigraphic imaging. Therapeutic efficacy of mAb 2C5-targeted Doxil® vs. non-specific IgG-modified and original Doxil® controls was followed by registering live tumor growth and determining tumor weights upon mice sacrifice. Results mAb2C5 antibody-targeted liposomes demonstrate enhanced accumulation in tumors, and the in vivo therapeutic activity of the mAb 2C5-Doxil® treatment was found to be significantly superior, resulting in final tumor weights of only 25-40% compared to all Doxil® control treatments, when tested against the subcutaneous primary murine tumors of 4T1 and C26 and human PC3 tumor in nude mice. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the remarkable capability of 2C5-targeted Doxil® to specifically deliver its cargo into various tumors significantly increasing the efficacy of therapy. PMID:19276264

  7. Benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Steffner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Benign bone lesions are a broad category that demonstrates a spectrum of activities from latent to aggressive. Differentiating the various tumors is important in order to properly determine necessary intervention. This chapter focuses on the presentation, imaging, diagnostic features, and treatment of the most common benign bone tumors in order to help guide diagnosis and management. PMID:25070230

  8. Metastatic pleural tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... persons. Alternative Names Tumor - metastatic pleural Images Pleural space References Arenberg D, Pickens A. Metastatic malignant tumors. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  9. Skull Base Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  10. [Metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor].

    PubMed

    Mambié Meléndez, M; Guibelalde Del Castillo, M; Nieto Del Rincón, N; Rodrigo Jiménez, D; Femenia Reus, A; Román Piñana, J M

    2002-03-01

    Wilms' tumor occurs in 5-10 % of all cases of nephroblastoma. The metachronous form represents 2-3 % of cases. Most (96.2 %) metachronous tumors appear within the first 5 years of the primary tumor. Associated malformations are more common in bilateral cases. Metachronous tumors are a therapeutic challenge. We describe the case of an 11-year-old girl with left hemihypertrophy. The diagnosis was metachronous relapse of Wilms' tumor 7 years after the first diagnosis. The patient received five courses of preoperative chemotherapy and tumorectomy was performed. Because of post-surgical complications, nephrectomy was performed on her only kidney. Since she is anephric, the patient is in chronic renal failure and is dependent on dialysis. Treatment with carboplatin and etoposide was continued after surgery and the patient is currently in complete remission. The appearance of a metachronous Wilms' tumor 5 years after that of the primary tumor is rare. When a contralateral tumour develops, chemotherapy must be given until the size of the tumor is reduced in order to preserve renal function and avoid dialysis. In patients with chronic renal failure caused by bilateral nephrectomy, ongoing treatment with dialysis support can be achieved through the choice of effective drugs and knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

  11. [Circulating "tumor markers" in gastrointestinal tumors].

    PubMed

    Borlinghaus, P; Lamerz, R

    1991-09-01

    Tumor markers (TM) of the neoplastic cell can be divided into non-shedded substances and antigens shedded in blood, urine or other body fluids. For clinicians circulating TM are more important. All relevant circulating TM are not useful in screening of asymptomatic patients because of insufficient sensitivity and specificity. With caution they are useful in the observation of risk groups. Circulating TM have their main significance as additional parameters in monitoring symptomatic patients with malignancies. Several follow up determinations are more important than one single measurement. During follow up of tumor patients TM should not be checked automatically if there are no diagnostic or therapeutical consequences. The clinically most important circulating TM in non-hormone secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the oncofetal antigens CEA and AFP and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies e. g. CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. AFP is the primary TM in hepatocellular carcinoma, often elevated in hepatoblastoma and always normal in cholangiocellular carcinoma. CEA is the TM of first choice in patients with colorectal carcinomas and liver metastasis. CA 19-9 is TM of first choice in pancreatic carcinoma and additionally of diagnostic value in cholangiocellular carcinoma and tumors of the bile ducts. In cancer of the stomach CA 19-9 and CEA are secondary TM in combination with CA 72-4 as primary TM. Care should be taken that slight and moderate elevations of TM can be observed in benign diseases of liver, pancreas and bowel.

  12. General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Go ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  13. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  14. Pediatric genetic ocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Behnaz; Ramasubramanian, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric genetic ocular tumors include malignancies like retinoblastoma and phakomatosis like neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is important to screen for ocular tumors both for visual prognosis and also for systemic implications. The phakomatosis comprise of multitude of benign tumors that are aysmptomatic but their detection can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumor in childhood and with current treatment modalities, the survival is more than 95%. It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant fashion and hence the offsprings of all patients with the germline retinoblastoma need to be screened from birth. This review discusses the various pediatric genetic ocular tumors discussing the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Nanotechnology and tumor microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kano, Mitsunobu R

    2014-07-01

    Though much progress has been made in the development of anti-tumor chemotherapeutic agents, refractoriness is still a major clinical difficulty because little is known about the non-autonomous mechanisms involved. Abnormal capillary structures in tumors, for example, are well documented, but a thorough characterization of microcirculation, including functional consequences with particular regard to drug delivery and intratumor accumulation, is still required for many kinds of tumor. In this review, we highlight how use of synthesized nanoparticles, themselves a product of emerging nanotechnology, are beginning to open up new perspectives in understanding the functional and therapeutic consequences of capillary structure within tumors. Furthermore, nanoparticles promise exciting new clinical applications. I also stress the urgent necessity of developing clinically relevant tumor models, both in vivo and in vitro.

  16. Zebrafish Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are malignant cancers that arise from embryonic precursors known as Primordial Germ Cells. GCTs occur in neonates, children, adolescents and young adults and can occur in the testis, the ovary or extragonadal sites. Because GCTs arise from pluripotent cells, the tumors can exhibit a wide range of different histologies. Current cisplatin-based combination therapies cures most patients, however at the cost of significant toxicity to normal tissues. While GWAS studies and genomic analysis of human GCTs have uncovered somatic mutations and loci that might confer tumor susceptibility, little is still known about the exact mechanisms that drive tumor development, and animal models that faithfully recapitulate all the different GCT subtypes are lacking. Here, we summarize current understanding of germline development in humans and zebrafish, describe the biology of human germ cell tumors, and discuss progress and prospects for zebrafish GCT models that may contribute to better understanding of human GCTs. PMID:27165367

  17. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  18. Pediatric genetic ocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Behnaz; Ramasubramanian, Aparna

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric genetic ocular tumors include malignancies like retinoblastoma and phakomatosis like neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is important to screen for ocular tumors both for visual prognosis and also for systemic implications. The phakomatosis comprise of multitude of benign tumors that are aysmptomatic but their detection can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumor in childhood and with current treatment modalities, the survival is more than 95%. It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant fashion and hence the offsprings of all patients with the germline retinoblastoma need to be screened from birth. This review discusses the various pediatric genetic ocular tumors discussing the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27625882

  19. Acetate dependence of tumors.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

    2014-12-18

    Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors.

  20. Parotid tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Jaques, D A; Krolls, S O; Chambers, R G

    1976-10-01

    Most salivary gland tumors, both benign and malignant, develop within the parotid glands. Although an overwhelming majority of tumors are reported in the adult population, the parotid glands are also the most frequently involved salivary glands in the pediatric age group. This study represents a combination of case material from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and our personal experiences. Of approximately 10,000 salivary gland lesions accessioned in all ages, only 124 tumors occurred in the parotid gland in children less than fifteen years old. There were ninety benign and thirty-four malignant lesions. The two most common benign masses were mixed tumors and vascular lesions. The most common malignancies were the mucoepidermoid and acinic cell carcinomas. We recommended that all solid tumors be removed by parotidectomy.

  1. Critical role of interleukin-17/interleukin-17 receptor axis in mediating Con A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shu; Wang, Luman; Liu, Nan; Wang, Ying; Chu, Yiwei

    2012-04-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis is thought to be a T-cell-mediated disease with active destruction of liver cells. Interleukin (IL)-17 is a cytokine produced principally by CD4(+) T cells. However, whether IL-17/IL-17 receptor (IL-17/IL-17R)-mediated responses are involved in T-cell-mediated Con A-induced liver injury remains unclear. In this study, we found that IL-17 expression was highly elevated in liver tissues during Con A-induced hepatitis. The increased levels of IL-17 were paralleled with the severity of liver injury reflected by Alanine aminotransaminase and histological assay as well as the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6. Blockage of IL-17 significantly ameliorated Con A-induced hepatitis, while overexpression of IL-17 systemically resulted in massive hepatocyte necrosis in mice. Furthermore, overexpression of an IL-17R immunoglobulin G1 fusion protein significantly attenuated liver inflammation after acute Con A treatment. High expression of IL-17R on Kupffer cells was also observed along with the production of cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6. Inhibition of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride completely prevented Con A-induced liver injury and cytokine release. Finally, IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T and natural killer T cells were greatly increased in Con A-injected mice compared with that in controls. Overall, our results indicate that IL-17R signaling is critically involved in the pathogenesis in Con A-induced hepatitis, and blockade of IL-17/IL-17R signaling pathway may represent a novel therapeutic intervention in human autoimmune-related hepatitis.

  2. THE TUMOR MACROENVIRONMENT: CANCER-PROMOTING NETWORKS BEYOND TUMOR BEDS

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Puchalt, Alfredo Perales; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, and myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. PMID:26216635

  3. Radiology of the spine: Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanmart, L.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with tumors of the spinal cord and various aspects of primary and secondary osseous tumors of the spine. Included in discussion are tumors, chordoma hemangioma, vascular malformation and the terms angioma and hemangiomas.

  4. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  5. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  6. Multiple granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Jones, J K; Kuo, T T; Griffiths, C M; Itharat, S

    1980-10-01

    Eleven cases of granular cell tumor were reviewed. In two of the cases multiple sites of involvement were seen. The tumor occurred in the oral cavity in both of these cases and each was initially wrongly diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. The most common site was the subcutaneous tissue (nine patients) and the tongue was involved in three cases. In one patient the parotid gland was involved. Eight of the patients were females and three were males; seven were black and four were white. The importance of differentiating between squamous cell carcinoma and granular cell tumor is stressed, as is the need for a simple wide surgical excision. PMID:7421377

  7. Myoepithelial Tumors: An Update.

    PubMed

    Jo, Vickie Y

    2015-09-01

    Primary myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue are uncommon, and have been increasingly characterized by clinicopathologic and genetic means. Tumors are classified as mixed tumor/chondroid syringoma, myoepithelioma, and myoepithelial carcinoma, and they share morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features with their salivary gland counterparts. However, soft tissue myoepithelial tumors are classified as malignant based on the presence of cytologic atypia, in contrast to the criterion of invasive growth in salivary gland sites. This review discusses the clinicopathologic and morphologic characteristics, distinct variants, and currently known genetic alterations of myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue, skin, and bone.

  8. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-04

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1

  9. Children's Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Children’s Tumor Foundation and Vice President Biden’s National Cancer Moonshot Initiative Oct 26, 2016, Posted in Collaborations , Latest News , Press Release , Science Foundation President Annette Bakker Participates in Key Meetings Dedicated ...

  10. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor, relieve symptoms, and improve brain function or comfort. Surgery is often needed for most primary brain ... and pressure Anticonvulsants to reduce seizures Pain medicines Comfort measures, safety measures, physical therapy, and occupational therapy ...

  11. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms, and improve brain function or the child's comfort. Surgery is needed for most primary brain tumors. ... Anticonvulsants to reduce or prevent seizures Pain medicines Comfort measures, safety measures, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and ...

  12. Solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cem; Kabatas, Serdar; Ozen, Ozlem Isiksacan; Gulsen, Salih; Caner, Hakan; Altinors, Nur

    2009-12-01

    Intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are typically dural based, CD34-positive neoplasms of mesenchymal origin. Since they were first described in 1996 at the meninges, fewer than 100 SFT had been reported in both cranial and spinal compartments of the central nervous system. SFT can resemble other spindle cell tumors both radiologically and histopathologically, and differentiation can be best achieved through viewing their ultrastructure and using immunohistochemical techniques. In this report, we present four patients with SFT. Upon diagnosing two patients with SFT located in the cerebellopontine angle and parasagittal areas, we reviewed our pathological files and found two more patients; one having a parasagittal tumor and the other having a convexity tumor, that had been diagnosed with hemangiopericytoma. These tumours proved to be SFT after an immunohistochemical re-examination.

  13. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  14. Dinosaurs Got Tumors, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Tumors, Too Benign facial growth discovered in fossil dating back about 69 million years To use ... discovery is the first ever described in the fossil record and the first to be thoroughly documented ...

  15. Genetics of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Opocher, G; Schiavi, F; Cicala, M V; Patalano, A; Mariniello, B; Boaretto, F; Zovato, S; Pignataro, V; Macino, B; Negro, I; Mantero, F

    2009-06-01

    The impact of genetics and genomics on clinical medicine is becoming more and more important. Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field. Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. The identification of mutations in one of the several pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma susceptibility genes may indicate a specific clinical management drive. Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease. There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors. PMID:19471236

  16. [Regression grading in gastrointestinal tumors].

    PubMed

    Tischoff, I; Tannapfel, A

    2012-02-01

    Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy is a well-established and essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. Neoadjuvant treatment leads to regressive changes in tumors. To evaluate the histological tumor response different scoring systems describing regressive changes are used and known as tumor regression grading. Tumor regression grading is usually based on the presence of residual vital tumor cells in proportion to the total tumor size. Currently, no nationally or internationally accepted grading systems exist. In general, common guidelines should be used in the pathohistological diagnostics of tumors after neoadjuvant therapy. In particularly, the standard tumor grading will be replaced by tumor regression grading. Furthermore, tumors after neoadjuvant treatment are marked with the prefix "y" in the TNM classification. PMID:22293790

  17. Waking up dormant tumors.

    PubMed

    Tse, Joyce C; Kalluri, Raghu

    2011-06-10

    As appreciation grows for the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to the progression of cancer, new evidence accumulates to support that the participation of stromal cells can extend beyond the local environment. Recently, Elkabets and colleagues demonstrated a systemic interaction between cancer cells and distant bone marrow cells to support the growth of otherwise indolent tumor cells at a secondary site, raising thought-provoking questions regarding the involvement of stromal cells in maintaining metastatic dormancy.

  18. Antibody tumor penetration

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  19. Towards tumor immunodiagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kotoula, Vassiliki

    2016-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic markers applicable on tissue or cytologic material may be prognostic or predictive of response to immunomodulatory drugs and may also be classified according to whether they are cell-specific or tumor-tissue-specific. Cell-specific markers are evaluated under the microscope as (I) morphological, corresponding to the assessment of tumor infiltrating immune cells on routine hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) sections; and (II) immunophenotypic, including the immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of markers characteristic for tumor infiltrating immune cells. Tumor-tissue-specific markers are assessed in tissue extracts that may be enriched in neoplastic cells but almost inevitably also contain stromal and immune cells infiltrating the tumor. Such markers include (I) immune-response-related gene expression profiles, and (II) tumor genotype characteristics, as recently assessed with large-scale genotyping methods, usually next generation sequencing (NGS) applications. Herein, we discuss the biological nature of immunodiagnostic markers, their potential clinical relevance and the shortcomings that have, as yet, prevented their clinical application. PMID:27563650

  20. Towards tumor immunodiagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kourea, Helen; Kotoula, Vassiliki

    2016-07-01

    Immunodiagnostic markers applicable on tissue or cytologic material may be prognostic or predictive of response to immunomodulatory drugs and may also be classified according to whether they are cell-specific or tumor-tissue-specific. Cell-specific markers are evaluated under the microscope as (I) morphological, corresponding to the assessment of tumor infiltrating immune cells on routine hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) sections; and (II) immunophenotypic, including the immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of markers characteristic for tumor infiltrating immune cells. Tumor-tissue-specific markers are assessed in tissue extracts that may be enriched in neoplastic cells but almost inevitably also contain stromal and immune cells infiltrating the tumor. Such markers include (I) immune-response-related gene expression profiles, and (II) tumor genotype characteristics, as recently assessed with large-scale genotyping methods, usually next generation sequencing (NGS) applications. Herein, we discuss the biological nature of immunodiagnostic markers, their potential clinical relevance and the shortcomings that have, as yet, prevented their clinical application. PMID:27563650

  1. Accessory parotid gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches. PMID:23483721

  2. [Endosonography of stomach tumors].

    PubMed

    Nattermann, C; Dancygier, H

    1992-11-01

    Based on own experience and on the published literature we report about indications and efficiency of endosonography (EUS) in gastric tumors. The following conclusions can be drawn at the present time. Submucous tumors can be clearly differentiated from extragastric compressions. Although the endosonographic aspect does not allow to formulate an etiologic diagnosis, EUS findings can give hints regarding the nature of the submucous tumor (e.g. leiomyoma, lipoma, cyst). In 75% of cases malignant submucous tumors can be visualized and a correct preoperative staging can be performed. EUS is of special importance in the description of gastric carcinoma. The pT stage can be correctly determined preoperatively in about 80% (69-92%) of cases. Accompanying inflammation in early gastric cancer can lead to overstaging. The sensitivity for local lymph node metastases reaches about 77% (50-88%). Gastric non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be excellently visualized with EUS. The sensitivity amounts to 90-100% and in about 90% of cases the extent of the tumor can be correctly determined preoperatively. The response to radio-chemotherapy of gastric non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be monitored easily with the method. At the present time EUS is the most sensitive imaging tool in visualizing and staging of gastric tumors. Its main advantage is the exact demonstration of intramural and paragastric alterations. However, despite the use of high ultrasonic frequencies and the excellent demonstration of even tiny details with EUS, biopsies for histologic evaluation are still mandatory, especially when dealing with gastric ulcer.

  3. [Grading of neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W; Schnabel, P A; Komminoth, P

    2016-07-01

    The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carcinomas (high grade NET) according to the prognosis. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas are graded in an identical way. Together with the TNM system this enables a preoperative estimation of the prognosis in biopsies and fine needle aspirates. Well-differentiated tumors are graded into G1 tumors by the number of mitoses, <2 per 10 high-power fields (HPF) and the Ki-67 (index <3 %) and G2 tumors (2-20 mitoses/10 HPF, Ki-67 3-20 %). Discrepancies between the number of mitoses and the Ki-67 index are not uncommon and in these cases the higher value of the two should be applied. The more differentiated tumors of the G3 type have to be differentiated from undifferentiated carcinomas of the small cell type and large cell type with a much poorer prognosis. Prognosis relevant grading of thyroid cancers is achieved by special subtyping so that the G1-G3 system is not applicable. The rare cancers of the parathyroid gland and of the pituitary gland are not graded. Adrenal tumors also have no grading system. The prognosis is dependent on the Ki-67 index and with some reservations on the established scoring systems. PMID:27379621

  4. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    PubMed

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  5. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  6. Neurologic complications of cardiac tumors.

    PubMed

    Roeltgen, David; Kidwell, Chelsea S

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are an uncommon cause for neurologic disease, but if undiagnosed can be associated with devastating neurologic consequences. Primary cardiac tumors, both benign and neoplastic, and metastatic tumors occur. Primary cardiac tumors are more likely to be associated with neurologic embolic complications. Metastatic cardiac tumors are more likely to be associated with valvular distraction, arrhythmia, diminished cardiac output and indirect neurological dysfunction. Primary and metastatic cardiac tumors may result in cerebral metastatic disease. Atrial myxoma, a benign primary cardiac tumor, is the most common cardiac tumor associated with neurologic disease, and most commonly causes cerebral embolization and stroke. The use of thrombolytic therapy for these strokes is controversial. Additionally, delayed manifestations, including aneurysm formation and intracranial hemorrhage, are possible. Aneurysm formation has been described as occurring after removal of the primary tumor. The availability of noninvasive cardiac imaging has significantly helped decrease the neurologic morbidity of cardiac tumors and has led to frequent successful intervention. PMID:24365298

  7. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  8. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation.

  9. Chemoimmunotherapy: reengineering tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Emens, Leisha A

    2013-02-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drugs have long been considered immune suppressive. However, more recent data indicate that some cytotoxic drugs effectively treat cancer in part by facilitating an immune response to the tumor when given at the standard dose and schedule. These drugs induce a form of tumor cell death that is immunologically active, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response specific for the tumor. In addition, cancer chemotherapy drugs can promote tumor immunity through ancillary and largely unappreciated immunologic effects on both the malignant and normal host cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These more subtle immunomodulatory effects are dependent on the drug itself, its dose, and its schedule in relation to an immune-based intervention. The recent approvals of two new immune-based therapies for prostate cancer and melanoma herald a new era in cancer treatment and have led to heightened interest in immunotherapy as a valid approach to cancer treatment. A detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of interactions between chemotherapy drugs and the immune system is essential for devising the optimal strategy for integrating new immune-based therapies into the standard of care for various cancers, resulting in the greatest long-term clinical benefit for cancer patients. PMID:23389507

  10. Neuroimaging of spine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Nandor K; Pfiffner, Thomas J; Mechtler, Laszlo L

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary, intradural/extramedullary, and extradural spine tumors comprise a wide range of neoplasms with an even wider range of clinical symptoms and prognostic features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), commonly used to evaluate the spine in patients presenting with pain, can further characterize lesions that may be encountered on other imaging studies, such as bone scintigraphy or computed tomography (CT). The advantage of the MRI is its multiplane capabilities, superior contrast agent resolution, and flexible protocols that play an important role in assessing tumor location, extent in directing biopsy, in planning proper therapy, and in evaluating therapeutic results. A multimodality approach can be used to fully characterize the lesion and the combination of information obtained from the different modalities usually narrows the diagnostic possibilities significantly. The diagnosis of spinal tumors is based on patient age, topographic features of the tumor, and lesion pattern, as seen at CT and MRI. The shift to high-end imaging incorporating diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, whole-body short tau inversion recovery, positron emission tomography, intraoperative and high-field MRI as part of the mainstream clinical imaging protocol has provided neurologists, neuro-oncologists, and neurosurgeons a window of opportunity to assess the biologic behavior of spine neoplasms. This chapter reviews neuroimaging of spine tumors, primary and secondary, discussing routine and newer modalities that can reduce the significant morbidity associated with these neoplasms. PMID:27430436

  11. Damselfish with neurofibromatosis exhibit cytotoxicity toward tumor targets.

    PubMed

    McKinney, E C; Schmale, M C

    1994-01-01

    Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a malignant transmissible disease affecting Schwann cells, and is the only naturally occurring animal model of human neurofibromatosis type 1. The current study was designed to determine whether fish in the early stages of disease have measurable immune responses toward DNF tumor cells. Three DNF tumor cell lines were used as targets in standard 51Cr cytotoxic assays. In addition, Lutjanus griseus erythrocytes served as nonspecific targets, and concanavalon A (Con A) blasts from healthy animals served as normal target cells. Results of this study show that tumor-bearing damselfish have cells capable of destroying tumor targets but healthy animals display minimal, if any, reactivity toward the DNF tumor lines. The majority of antitumor activity resides in the spleen; the pronephros appears to contain the majority of nonspecific activity. Data also show that some of the effector cells are analogous to the nonspecific cytotoxic cells of catfish. No lysis of healthy damselfish targets was observed. Thus damselfish have cytotoxic cells capable of interacting with tumor targets, but in the majority of animals this response is not adequate to circumvent the process of tumorigenesis.

  12. [Hepatic tumors and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Mornex, F; Peiffert, D; Huertas, A

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological developments led to develop the concept of focused liver radiation therapy. We must distinguish primary and secondary tumors as the indications are restricted and must be discussed as an alternative to surgical or medical treatments. For hepatocellular carcinoma 5 to 10cm (or more), a conformational radiation with or without intensity modulation is performed. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being evaluated and is increasingly proposed as an alternative to radiofrequency ablative treatment for primary or secondary tumors (typically less than 5cm). Tumor (and liver) movements induced by respiratory motions must be taken into account. Strict dosimetric criteria must be met with particular attention to the dose-volume histograms to liver and the hollow organs, including cases of SBRT. PMID:27521035

  13. Subcutaneous solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Kubota, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2004-12-01

    We describe a unique case of subcutaneous solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in a 56-year-old female patient. The patient had been aware of a painless soft mass in her back for ten years. The lesion was surgically excised. Histological examination revealed that the well-defined mass was composed of a proliferation of spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells and polygonal cells embedded in a fibrous matrix corresponding to the so-called "patternless pattern". A prominent pericytomatous pattern (hemangiopericytoma-like structures), focal myxoid changes, and thick hyalinized collagen fibers were also observed. Immunohistochemical stainings for CD34 and bcl-2 were positive in the tumor cells. These features are compatible with SFT. We suggest that SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous spindle cell tumors.

  14. Decay Dynamics of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. We investigate the mathematical function that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic lymphocytes. We do it in the context of enzyme kinetics, using geometrical and analytical arguments. We derive the equations governing the decay of a tumor in the limit in which it is plainly surrounded by immune cells. A cellular automaton is used to test such decay, confirming its validity. Finally, we introduce a modification in the fractional cell kill so that the expected dynamics is attained in the mentioned limit. We also discuss the potential of this new function for non-solid and solid tumors which are infiltrated with lymphocytes. PMID:27310010

  15. [Familial pituitary tumors].

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, K; Saito, S

    1995-11-01

    Familial pituitary tumors are relatively rare. Most commonly, they occur as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). However, familial pituitary adenomas unrelated MEN 1 (familial pituitary adenomas) are extremely rare. In review of MEN 1 in Japan, 60% of the patients with MEN 1 had pituitary tumors. Only 45 cases of familial pituitary adenomas have been reported from 20 families. In our review of familial pituitary adenomas, 30 (67%) of 45 reported cases are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than 28% in MEN 1 patients with pituitary tumors. Allelic deletions at 11q13 were identified in MEN 1 associated pituitary adenomas and familial pituitary adenomas in two gigantism brothers. PMID:8538028

  16. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Changjun

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor has received a lot of attention over the last 10 years due to its unique biologic behavior, clinicopathological features, molecular mechanisms, and treatment implications. GIST is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and has emerged from a poorly understood and treatment resistant neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity since the discovery of particular molecular abnormalities, KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations. The understanding of GIST biology at the molecular level promised the development of novel treatment modalities. Diagnosis of GIST depends on the integrity of histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The risk assessment of the tumor behavior relies heavily on pathological evaluation and significantly impacts clinical management. In this review, historic review, epidemiology, pathogenesis and genetics, diagnosis, role of molecular analysis, prognostic factor and treatment strategies have been discussed. PMID:22943011

  17. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chorti, Angeliki; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is a benign lesion characterized by its specific histological findings and is found as solitary or multiple lesions in several locations of the human body. The aim of the present systematic review is to give a detailed account of all reported cases of CFT in the literature and to analyze the available data, to completely characterize the entity from epidemiological, medical, and surgical aspects. A bibliographic research was performed from 1988 until 2015. A database with the patients’ characteristics was made, including sex, age, location of the tumor, symptoms, symptoms duration, size of the tumor, diagnostic methods, treatment, metastasis, and follow-up. A total of 104 articles were identified, reporting 157 cases of CFT. Mean age of patients was 33.58 years and the ratio between men and women was 1:1.27. The most common locations of CFT were stomach (18%), small intestine (8.7%), pleura (9.9%), mesentery (5%), and peritoneum (6.8%). Mean diameter of the tumor was estimated 4.6 cm. The correlations proceeded showed that as age increases, size decreases (P = 0.001) and that the tumor is larger in females (P = 0.027). Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the larger tumors appear in the neck and adrenal gland (P = 0.001). The percentage of asymptomatic patients was 30.57%. Computed tomography and biopsy were the most common tests for the diagnosis of CFT. Open surgical procedure was performed in the majority of cases. The median hospitalization was 6.06 days and the mean follow-up period was 29.97 months. Recurrences were mentioned in 10 of 96 patients with available data. No deaths owing to CFT were mentioned in the literature. CFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarging mass revealed by clinical or imaging examination either incidentally or after specific acute or chronic symptomatology. PMID:27196478

  18. Intramasseteric solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ersoy; Erdag, Taner Kemal; Ikiz, Ahmet Omer; Guneri, Ataman; Sarioglu, Sulen

    2013-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. SFTs occurring within the head and neck region are uncommon. Recently, it has been described in various head and neck sites such as oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, thyroid, buccal space, and larynx. Here, we report a case of SFT originating in the masseter muscle of a 27-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a SFT of the head and neck region, arising within the masseter muscle. We present the clinical history, radiologic and histopathologic findings as well as immunoreactivity of this tumor.

  19. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  20. Extradigital Glomus Tumor of Thigh

    PubMed Central

    Beksaç, Kemal; Dogan, Lutfi; Bozdogan, Nazan; Dilek, Gulay; Akgul, Gokhan Giray; Ozaslan, Cihangir

    2015-01-01

    Glomus tumors are benign neoplasms that arise from neuromyoarterial glomus bodies. They represent around 1–5% of all soft-tissue tumors. High temperature, sensitivity, and pain and localized tenderness are the classical triad of symptoms. Most glomus tumors represent in the subungual area of digits. Extradigital glomus tumors are a very rare entity. There are rare cases of these tumors reported to be in shoulder, elbow, knee, wrist, even stomach, colon, and larynx. We are reporting a case of a glomus tumor on thigh and discuss the histological and immunohistochemical features. PMID:26236537

  1. [Benign bone forming tumors].

    PubMed

    Caufourier, C; Leprovost, N; Guillou-Jamard, M-R; Compère, J-F; Bénateau, H

    2009-09-01

    Benign bone forming tumors typically produce dense bone (osteoma, enostosis) or osteoid tissue (osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma). Even though these four lesions have distinct characteristics, it is sometimes difficult to tell them apart and to rule out malignant bone forming lesions such as osteosarcoma. The first line treatment is surgical exeresis.

  2. Tumor Treated by Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young; Kwak, Jae Man; Chung, So Hak; Jung, Gu Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the clinical usefulness and efficacy of endoscopic curettage on benign bone tumor. Methods Thirty-two patients (20 men and 12 women) with benign bone tumor were included in the study. The patients were aged between five and 76 years; the mean follow-up period was 27.05 months (range, 9.6 to 39.9 months). The primary sites include simple bone cyst (9 cases), fibrous dysplasia (6 cases), enchondroma (5 cases), non-ossifying fibroma (4 cases), bone infarct (3 cases), aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case), chondroblastoma (1 case), osteoblastoma (1 case), intraosseous lipoma (1 case), and Brodie abscess (1 case). A plain radiography was performed to assess the radiological recovery. Radiological outcomes, including local recurrence and bone union, were evaluated as excellent, good, poor, and recurred. Results In our series, there were 27 cases (84.4%) of good or better outcomes, six cases (18.8%) of complications (4 local recurrence, 1 wound infection, and 1 pathologic fracture). Conclusions Our results showed that endoscopic curettage and bone graft had a lower rate of recurrence and a higher cure rate in cases of benign bone tumor. It can, therefore, be concluded that endoscopic curettage and bone graft might be good treatment modalities for benign bone tumors. PMID:24605192

  3. Benign small bowel tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Melvin, D B; Gray, G; Thorbjarnarson, B

    1975-01-01

    The clinical record and histologic sections of 84 cases of benign small bowel tumor are reviewed. Manifestations of systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, and lesions of either the ileocecal valve or periampullary region were excluded. In the same time span there were 96 small bowel malignancies. Clinical presentation, pathologic findings, management and result are compared to the collected published experience of about 2000 cases. There were 36 leiomyomas, 22 lipomas, 9 angiomas, 6 neurofibromas and 4 fibromas. Thirty-six men and 48 women were affected; the majority in their fifth and sixth decade. Seventy-eight were operative and 6 autopsy diagnoses. The most common symptom was obstruction (42%) followed by hemorrhage (34%) and pain (22%), relative frequency differing for the various specific tumors. There were rarely significant physical findings. A diagnosis of small bowel tumor was made radiologically in 30 patients. Because of the nonspecificity of other signs and symptoms, an acute awareness of the possibility of small bowel tumor is mandatory for preoperative anticipation of the diagnosis. Local resection was performed in all with no deaths or significant postoperative complications. PMID:1078626

  4. [Mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Bremmer, F; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is among the most frequent anatomic region in which germ cell tumors (GCT) arise, second only to the gonads. Mediastinal GCT (mGCT) account for 16 % of all mediastinal neoplasms. Although the morphology and (according to all available data) the molecular genetics of mediastinal and gonadal GCT are identical, a number of unique aspects exist. There is a highly relevant bi-modal age distribution. In pre-pubertal children of both sexes, mGCT consist exclusively of teratomas and yolk sac tumors. The prognosis is generally favorable with modern treatment. In post-pubertal adults, virtually all patients with malignant mGCT are males; the prognosis is more guarded and depends (among other factors) on the histological GCT components and is similar to GCT in other organs. So-called somatic type malignancies (i. e. clonally related, non-germ cell neoplasias arising in a GCT) are much more frequent in mGCT than in other organs, and the association between mediastinal yolk sac tumors and hematological malignancies, such as myelodysplasias and leukemias, is unique to mediastinal tumors. The prognosis of GCT with somatic type malignancies is generally dismal. PMID:27491549

  5. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  6. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  7. Benign tumors

    Cancer.gov

    In human pulmonary pathology, benign tumors are rare and almost never progress to malignancy. The situation is quite different in mouse pathology, where a significant number of adenomas, especially after some chemical induction schemes and genetic modifications, may progress to carcinomas.

  8. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

    1960-01-01

    In a review of a series of 248 salivary gland tumors, seen over a 28-year period, all pathologic material was brought up to date by reclassification according to more recent criteria and nomenclature. In parotid tumors, a probable lowered recurrence rate and a definite decrease in incidence of permanent facial nerve paralysis was found in the more recent cases in which the “Y” incision was used, with identification of the seventh nerve as it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The five-year recurrence rate for primary mixed tumor was 8.3 per cent, and in recurrent cases it was found to be 18.1 per cent. Of 44 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors in all sites who were observed for five years or more, 32 or 72.7 per cent survived five years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:18732337

  9. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  10. Brain tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2010-06-01

    Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural stem cells became candidate cells being at the origin of brain tumors. In fact, it has been demonstrated that molecular mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation are shared between brain tumor stem cells and neural stem cells and that corruption of genes implicated in these pathways can direct tumor growth. In this regard, future anticancer approaches could be inspired by uncovering such redundancies and setting up treatments leading to exhaustion of the cancer stem cell pool. However, deleterious effects on (normal) neural stem cells should be minimized. Such therapeutic models underline the importance to study the cellular mechanisms implicated in fate decisions of neural stem cells and the oncogenic derivation of adult brain cells. In this review, we discuss the putative origins of brain tumor stem cells and their possible implications on future therapies.

  11. Pros and Cons of Antigen-Presenting Cell Targeted Tumor Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Goyvaerts, Cleo; Breckpot, Karine

    2015-01-01

    In therapeutic antitumor vaccination, dendritic cells play the leading role since they decide if, how, when, and where a potent antitumor immune response will take place. Since the disentanglement of the complexity and merit of different antigen-presenting cell subtypes, antitumor immunotherapeutic research started to investigate the potential benefit of targeting these subtypes in situ. This review will discuss which antigen-presenting cell subtypes are at play and how they have been targeted and finally question the true meaning of targeting antitumor-based vaccines. PMID:26583156

  12. Imaging hypoxia in tumors.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, J R

    2001-10-01

    For many years, it has been known that hypoxia affects the response to radiotherapy in human cancers. Hypoxic regions can develop as a tumor grows beyond the ability of its blood supply to deliver oxygen to the full extent of the tumor, exacerbated by vascular spasm or compression caused by increased interstitial fluid pressure. However, hypoxia is heterogeneous, and tumors that appear identical by clinical and radiographic criteria can vary greatly in their extent of hypoxia. Several invasive procedures to measure hypoxia in tumors have been developed and are predictive of response to therapy, but none of these is in routine clinical use because of technical complexity, inconvenience, and inability to obtain repeated measures. Noninvasive imaging with a hypoxia-directed radiopharmaceutical could be of great clinical utility. Most such radiopharmaceuticals under development use 2-nitroimidazole as the targeting moiety. 2-Nitroimidazole, which is selectively reduced and bound in hypoxic tissues, has been labeled with F-18, Cu-64/67, I-123, and Tc-99m. Of these, F-18-fluoromisonidazole and I-123-iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) have been most widely studied clinically. Non-nitro-containing bioreductive complexes, such as the Cu-60/62/64 thiosemicarbazone ATSM and Tc-99m butylene amineoxime (BnAO or HL91), have also been evaluated. In particular, 1-123-IAZA and Cu-60-ATSM have shown correlation with response to radiotherapy in preliminary clinical studies. However, more preclinical studies comparing imaging with validated invasive methods and clinical studies with outcome measures are required. Nuclear medicine is poised to play an important role in optimizing the therapy of patients with hypoxic tumors.

  13. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  14. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Pituitary Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  16. Stages of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ... Treatment of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  18. Pituitary: Non-Secretory Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... categories—tumor mass effects and hyposecretion effects. Tumor mass effects Visual field disturbances, most commonly loss of ... surgery. The goal is to completely remove the mass or cyst and preserve normal pituitary, brain, and ...

  19. [Osseous tumors of the jaw].

    PubMed

    Reychler, H

    1988-01-01

    The osseous tumors of the jaw bones are relatively rare but very oft malignant. This work analyses the different epidemiological, clinical, radiological, histological and therapeutic features of the benign and malignant osseous tumors of the jaw bones, with regard to the most recent literature. The described benign tumors are the osteoma and osteomatosis, the osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma, the desmo-osteoblastoma and the exostosis. The osteosarcoma is the unique malignant osseous tumor encountered.

  20. [Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Halimi, P; Gardner, M; Petit, F

    2005-06-01

    Tumors of salivary glands arise mainly from the parotid gland. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is mandatory not only to localize precisely the tumor within the gland but also to differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms, in competition with cytology in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Tumors without risk of transformation, such as adenolymphoma, are not systematically operated on. Indications of roentgenotherapy and irradiation volumes depend on histologic type, localisation and size of the tumor.

  1. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity.

  2. Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Schultheiss, T E; Milas, L; Meyn, R E

    1991-09-01

    Early radiation responses of transplantable murine ovarian (OCaI) and hepatocellular (HCaI) carcinomas were examined at 6, 24, 48, 96, and 144 h after single photon doses of 25, 35, or 45 Gy. Previous studies using tumor growth delay and tumor radiocurability assays had shown OCaI tumors to be relatively radiosensitive and HCaI tumors to be radioresistant. At 6 h, approximately 20% of nuclei in OCaI tumors showed aberrations characteristic of cell death by apoptosis. This contrasted to an incidence of 3% in HCaI tumors. Mitotic activity was eliminated in OCaI tumors but was only transiently suppressed in HCaI tumors. At 24-96 h, OCaI tumors continued to display apoptosis and progressive necrosis, whereas HCaI tumors responded by exhibiting marked pleomorphism. Factors other than mitotic activity may influence tumor radiosensitivity, and one of these may be susceptibility to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), because this was a prominent early radiation response by the radiosensitive OCaI tumors.

  3. Nonodontogenic Tumors of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Dyalram, Donita; Aslam-Pervez, Nawaf; Lubek, Joshua E

    2016-02-01

    Nonodontogenic tumors of the jaws are common in the pediatric population, accounting for approximately 70% of pediatric jaw tumors. This article focuses on the clinical characteristics and management of the benign nonodontogenic tumors (nonaggressive and aggressive) of the jaws most commonly encountered in children.

  4. Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Schultheiss, T E; Milas, L; Meyn, R E

    1991-09-01

    Early radiation responses of transplantable murine ovarian (OCaI) and hepatocellular (HCaI) carcinomas were examined at 6, 24, 48, 96, and 144 h after single photon doses of 25, 35, or 45 Gy. Previous studies using tumor growth delay and tumor radiocurability assays had shown OCaI tumors to be relatively radiosensitive and HCaI tumors to be radioresistant. At 6 h, approximately 20% of nuclei in OCaI tumors showed aberrations characteristic of cell death by apoptosis. This contrasted to an incidence of 3% in HCaI tumors. Mitotic activity was eliminated in OCaI tumors but was only transiently suppressed in HCaI tumors. At 24-96 h, OCaI tumors continued to display apoptosis and progressive necrosis, whereas HCaI tumors responded by exhibiting marked pleomorphism. Factors other than mitotic activity may influence tumor radiosensitivity, and one of these may be susceptibility to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), because this was a prominent early radiation response by the radiosensitive OCaI tumors. PMID:1886987

  5. The controversy of Warthin's tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Chapnik, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    Warthin's tumor is controversial. This controversy is multifaceted and relates to all aspects of the tumor from its historical beginnings to its pathogenesis, investigations, and treatments. In this paper, an in depth study of Warthin's tumor has been made to help clarify these controversies.

  6. Tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Madani, Gitta; Beale, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the role of imaging in the management of tumors of the salivary glands, discussing tumor localization, extent, and, where possible, characterization. The relative benefits of the different modalities and the typical features of benign and malignant lesions are discussed for each modality. Characteristic appearances of specific tumors are highlighted.

  7. Emotions and their cognitive control in children with cerebellar tumors.

    PubMed

    Hopyan, Talar; Laughlin, Suzanne; Dennis, Maureen

    2010-11-01

    A constellation of deficits, termed the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS), has been reported following acquired cerebellar lesions. We studied emotion identification and the cognitive control of emotion in children treated for acquired tumors of the cerebellum. Participants were 37 children (7-16 years) treated for cerebellar tumors (19 benign astrocytomas (AST), 18 malignant medulloblastomas (MB), and 37 matched controls (CON). The Emotion Identification Task investigated recognition of happy and sad emotions in music. In two cognitive control tasks, we investigated whether children could identify emotion in situations in which the emotion in the music and the emotion in the lyrics was either congruent or incongruent. Children with cerebellar tumors identified emotion as accurately and quickly as controls (p > .05), although there was a significant interaction of emotions and group (p < .01), with the MB group performing less accurately identifying sad emotions, and both cerebellar tumor groups were impaired in the cognitive control of emotions (p < .01). The fact that childhood acquired cerebellar tumors disrupt cognitive control of emotion rather than emotion identification provides some support for a model of the CCAS as a disorder, not so much of emotion as of the regulation of emotion by cognition. PMID:20887648

  8. Hyperdiploid tumor cells increase phenotypic heterogeneity within Glioblastoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Prudence; Cato, Kathleen; Legaie, Roxane; Jayalath, Rumal; Olsson, Gemma; Hall, Bruce; Olson, Sarah; Boros, Samuel; Reynolds, Brent A; Harding, Angus

    2014-04-01

    Here we report the identification of a proliferative, viable, and hyperdiploid tumor cell subpopulation present within Glioblastoma (GB) patient tumors. Using xenograft tumor models, we demonstrate that hyperdiploid cell populations are maintained in xenograft tumors and that clonally expanded hyperdiploid cells support tumor formation and progression in vivo. In some patient tumorsphere lines, hyperdiploidy is maintained during long-term culture and in vivo within xenograft tumor models, suggesting that hyperdiploidy can be a stable cell state. In other patient lines hyperdiploid cells display genetic drift in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that in these patients hyperdiploidy is a transient cell state that generates novel phenotypes, potentially facilitating rapid tumor evolution. We show that the hyperdiploid cells are resistant to conventional therapy, in part due to infrequent cell division due to a delay in the G₀/G₁ phase of the cell cycle. Hyperdiploid tumor cells are significantly larger and more metabolically active than euploid cancer cells, and this correlates to an increased sensitivity to the effects of glycolysis inhibition. Together these data identify GB hyperdiploid tumor cells as a potentially important subpopulation of cells that are well positioned to contribute to tumor evolution and disease recurrence in adult brain cancer patients, and suggest tumor metabolism as a promising point of therapeutic intervention against this subpopulation. PMID:24448662

  9. Tumor-Induced Hyperlipidemia Contributes to Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianfeng; Li, Lena; Lian, Jihong; Schauer, Silvia; Vesely, Paul W.; Kratky, Dagmar; Hoefler, Gerald; Lehner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Summary The known link between obesity and cancer suggests an important interaction between the host lipid metabolism and tumorigenesis. Here, we used a syngeneic tumor graft model to demonstrate that tumor development influences the host lipid metabolism. BCR-Abl-transformed precursor B cell tumors induced hyperlipidemia by stimulating very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and blunting VLDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) turnover. To assess whether tumor progression was dependent on tumor-induced hyperlipidemia, we utilized the VLDL production-deficient mouse model, carboxylesterase3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH) knockout mice. In Ces3/Tgh–/– tumor-bearing mice, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were attenuated. Importantly tumor weight was reduced in Ces3/Tgh–/– mice. Mechanistically, reduced tumor growth in Ces3/Tgh–/– mice was attributed to reversal of tumor-induced PCSK9-mediated degradation of hepatic LDLR and decrease of LDL turnover. Our data demonstrate that tumor-induced hyperlipidemia encompasses a feed-forward loop that reprograms hepatic lipoprotein homeostasis in part by providing LDL cholesterol to support tumor growth. PMID:27050512

  10. Tumor endothelial marker 1-specific DNA vaccination targets tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Facciponte, John G; Ugel, Stefano; De Sanctis, Francesco; Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Liping; Nair, Gautham; Sehgal, Sandy; Raj, Arjun; Matthaiou, Efthymia; Coukos, George; Facciabene, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1; also known as endosialin or CD248) is a protein found on tumor vasculature and in tumor stroma. Here, we tested whether TEM1 has potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy by immunizing immunocompetent mice with Tem1 cDNA fused to the minimal domain of the C fragment of tetanus toxoid (referred to herein as Tem1-TT vaccine). Tem1-TT vaccination elicited CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cell responses against immunodominant TEM1 protein sequences. Prophylactic immunization of animals with Tem1-TT prevented or delayed tumor formation in several murine tumor models. Therapeutic vaccination of tumor-bearing mice reduced tumor vascularity, increased infiltration of CD3+ T cells into the tumor, and controlled progression of established tumors. Tem1-TT vaccination also elicited CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses against murine tumor-specific antigens. Effective Tem1-TT vaccination did not affect angiogenesis-dependent physiological processes, including wound healing and reproduction. Based on these data and the widespread expression of TEM1 on the vasculature of different tumor types, we conclude that targeting TEM1 has therapeutic potential in cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  12. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue. PMID:27665563

  13. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Palaskar, Sangeeta; Koshti, Supriya; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Bartake, Anirudha

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior. PMID:22346151

  14. Immunotherapy and tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haidong; Qiao, Jian; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Recent exciting progress in cancer immunotherapy has ushered in a new era of cancer treatment. Immunotherapy can elicit unprecedented durable responses in advanced cancer patients that are much greater than conventional chemotherapy. However, such responses only occur in a relatively small fraction of patients. A positive response to immunotherapy usually relies on dynamic interactions between tumor cells and immunomodulators inside the tumor microenvironment (TME). Depending on the context of these interactions, the TME may play important roles to either dampen or enhance immune responses. Understanding the interactions between immunotherapy and the TME is not only critical to dissect the mechanisms of action but also important to provide new approaches in improving the efficiency of current immunotherapies. In this review, we will highlight recent work on how the TME can influence the efficacy of immunotherapy as well as how manipulating the TME can improve current immunotherapy regimens in some cases.

  15. Treatment of Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Rajiv; Gibbs, C. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis In this article, the authors summarize the state of the art and future potential in the management of Osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and Chondrosarcoma. They cover systemic therapy, surgical therapy, and radiotherapy, along with targeted therapies to inhibit signal transduction pathways. They discuss staging and the role of imaging evaluation to provide an overview of bone tumor treatment. Images presenting pathologic-radiologic correlations are included. PMID:22328909

  16. [Chemotherapy of brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Kuratsu, J; Ushio, Y

    1994-10-01

    Despite recent attempts to improve chemotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of malignant gliomas, results remain limited and palliative. The development of effective chemotherapy for tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is complicated in that the blood-brain barrier (B.B.B.) hampers the penetration of most drugs into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. The factors governing delivery in the brain are the drug's molecular weight, lipophilicity and degree of ionization. Now the standard therapy for malignant glioma is maximal tumor resection followed by combination radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. Nitrosoureas are representative drugs which easily cross the B.B.B.. It has been shown that nitrosourea compounds have an additive effect to radiotherapy. The toxicity profile of nitrosoureas is leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia as a dose-limiting factor. Furthermore, the great heterogeneity of malignant glioma tissues offered a rationale for the use of multiple drugs. Many studies were reported to show a substantial advantage for the multidrug regimen over control series utilizing single drugs alone. Despite clear examples of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, we are still far from improving the cure rate for the vast majority of patients with primary malignancies of the CNS. Further improvement in patient survival may depend upon understanding and manipulating the pathways that regulate aberrant growth in these tumors. The development of new anticancer agents, which are sensitive to malignant glioma and can reach a high concentration in glioma tissue, is warranted. PMID:7986118

  17. Familial pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Alband, Neda; Korbonits, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern due to hormone overproduction and/or tumor mass effects. The majority of pituitary adenomas occur sporadically; however, familial cases are increasingly being recognized, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). Familial pituitary tumors appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts both in their genetic basis and in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, tumors are more aggressive and affect patients at a younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis, while in Carney complex pituitary hyperplasia is common. The genetic alterations responsible for the formation of familial pituitary syndromes include the MEN1 gene, responsible for about 80% of MEN1 cases, the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A, PRKAR1A, responsible for about 70% of Carney complex cases, and AIP, the gene coding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein, responsible for about 20% of FIPA cases. Rarely other genes have also been found responsible for familial pituitary adenoma cases. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) also has a genetic origin due to mosaic mutations in the G protein-coupled α subunit coded by the GNAS1 gene. In this chapter, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary syndromes and MAS. PMID:25248598

  18. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  19. Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

  20. Mucoepidermoid tumors of the lung.

    PubMed

    Yousem, S A; Hochholzer, L

    1987-09-15

    Mucoepidermoid tumors of lung (MET) are rare tumors derived from the minor salivary gland tissue of the proximal tracheobronchial tree. The authors studied 58 cases of MET confined to the lung and used criteria derived from similar tumors of the salivary glands to separate them into low-grade and high-grade variants. The overwhelming majority of low-grade tumors behaved in a benign fashion, whereas 23% of high-grade tumors resulted in patient death. Prognostic factors which appeared to predict future aggressive behavior included high-grade classification, advanced stage at presentation, and perhaps lymph node metastases.

  1. Signs and Symptoms of Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... early? Next Topic How are Wilms tumors diagnosed? Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor Wilms tumors can ... the abdomen (belly): This is often the first sign of a Wilms tumor. Parents may notice this ...

  2. Can Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems. Carcinoid tumors often are found incidentally (by accident). These tumors aren’t causing any symptoms but ... Carcinoid Tumors? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Talking ...

  3. Laser therapy in intraocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  4. [Tumors of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Tresserra, L; Tresserra, F

    1997-09-01

    Tumors of the parotid are the most frequently encountered salivary gland tumors. Knowledge of the histology and anatomy of the salivary gland is important when considering the histiogenesis of salivary gland tumors, requiring close cooperation between the pathologist and the surgeon. Most tumors are benign epithelial formations. Pleomorphous adenomas predominate. Superficial lobectomy is adequate treatment. When the tumor involves a deep lobe, total parotidectomy is indicated. Treatment of malignant tumors depends on the histology, its TNM stage and other factors. Total parotidectomy with lymphadectomy and radiotherapy are needed in case of high grade malignancy. In children, vascular neoplasias are the most frequent, followed by malignant tumors. Their histological features and treatment are the same as for adults.

  5. Collecting Tumor Samples From Patients With Gynecological Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Borderline Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Borderline Ovarian Serous Tumor; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Childhood Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Endometrioid Stromal Sarcoma; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Malignant Mesothelioma; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Melanoma; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Paget Disease of the Vulva; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Vaginal Carcinoma; Recurrent Vulvar Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell

  6. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods. PMID:20232594

  7. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  8. Tumor size: effect on monoclonal antibody uptake in tumor models

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, P.L.; Halpern, S.E.; Dillman, R.O.; Shawler, D.L.; Johnson, D.E.; Chen, A.; Krishnan, L.; Frincke, J.; Bartholomew, R.M.; David, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of tumor size on the incorporation of radiolabeled monoclonal antitumor antibodies (MoAbs) into human tumors growing in nude mice. The colon tumors ranged in size from 0.03-1.6 g, the melanoma from 0.1 to 6.7 g, and the lymphoma from 0.06 to 10.2 g. Indium-111 was primarily used as the radiolabel, however, both 125I and 111In were used as tracers for the MoAb in one experiment. The per g radiopharmaceutical uptake by tumors was inversely proportional to tumor size when tumor specific MoAb was administered. This finding was independent of the radiolabel and was demonstrable when the mice bore two tumors of differing size. When the MoAb was not specific for the tumor, the data were less well defined and a statistically significant correlation with size did not occur. These data are strong evidence for a decrease in per g uptake of labeled tumor specific antibodies as tumors increase in size.

  9. Wnt5a Suppresses Tumor Formation and Redirects Tumor Phenotype in MMTV-Wnt1 Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Stephanie L.; Mitchell, Elizabeth H.; Baxley, Sarah E.; Desmond, Renee; Frost, Andra R.; Serra, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt that has been implicated in tumor suppression. We previously showed that loss of Wnt5a in MMTV-PyVmT tumors resulted in a switch in tumor phenotype resulting in tumors with increased basal phenotype and high Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that Wnt5a can act to inhibit tumors formed by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To this end, we characterized tumor and non-tumor mammary tissue from MMTV-Wnt1 and double transgenic MMTV-Wnt1;MMTV-Wnt5a mice. Wnt5a containing mice demonstrated fewer tumors with increased latency when compared to MMTV-Wnt1 controls. Expression of markers for basal-like tumors was down-regulated in the tumors that formed in the presence of Wnt5a indicating a phenotypic switch. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling was detected in double transgenic tumors as a decrease in active β-catenin protein and a decrease in Axin2 mRNA transcript levels. In non-tumor tissues, over-expression of Wnt5a in MMTV-Wnt1 mammary glands resulted in attenuation of phenotypes normally observed in MMTV-Wnt1 glands including hyperbranching and increased progenitor and basal cell populations. Even though Wnt5a could antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in primary mammary epithelial cells in culture, reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling was not detected in non-tumor MMTV-Wnt1;Wnt5a tissue in vivo. The data demonstrate that Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and promotes a phenotypic shift in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors. PMID:25401739

  10. Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and redirects tumor phenotype in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors.

    PubMed

    Easter, Stephanie L; Mitchell, Elizabeth H; Baxley, Sarah E; Desmond, Renee; Frost, Andra R; Serra, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt that has been implicated in tumor suppression. We previously showed that loss of Wnt5a in MMTV-PyVmT tumors resulted in a switch in tumor phenotype resulting in tumors with increased basal phenotype and high Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that Wnt5a can act to inhibit tumors formed by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To this end, we characterized tumor and non-tumor mammary tissue from MMTV-Wnt1 and double transgenic MMTV-Wnt1;MMTV-Wnt5a mice. Wnt5a containing mice demonstrated fewer tumors with increased latency when compared to MMTV-Wnt1 controls. Expression of markers for basal-like tumors was down-regulated in the tumors that formed in the presence of Wnt5a indicating a phenotypic switch. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling was detected in double transgenic tumors as a decrease in active β-catenin protein and a decrease in Axin2 mRNA transcript levels. In non-tumor tissues, over-expression of Wnt5a in MMTV-Wnt1 mammary glands resulted in attenuation of phenotypes normally observed in MMTV-Wnt1 glands including hyperbranching and increased progenitor and basal cell populations. Even though Wnt5a could antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in primary mammary epithelial cells in culture, reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling was not detected in non-tumor MMTV-Wnt1;Wnt5a tissue in vivo. The data demonstrate that Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and promotes a phenotypic shift in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors.

  11. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  12. [Proctocolectomy with ileoanal anastomoses and desmoid tumor treated with resection. One case of familial adenomatous polyposis].

    PubMed

    Villalón-López, José Sebastián; Souto-del Bosque, Rosalía; Méndez-Sashida, Pedro Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la poliposis adenomatosa familiar (PAF) es una rara enfermedad causada por una mutación en el gen de la poliposis adenomatosa coli (APC). Caso clínico: mujer de 32 años, con dolor y aumento del perímetro abdominal además de evacuaciones melénicas y pérdida de peso. La paciente presentó un tumor de 12 cm de diámetro en la fosa iliaca derecha. Tras la administración de medio de contraste, en una tomografía se apreció el tumor abdominal con reforzamiento compatible con sarcoma frente a tumor desmoide. Se realizó colonoscopia, por medio de la que se encontraron pólipos en el recto y el colon. La biopsia reportó adenomas túbulo-vellosos. Una panendoscopía demostró pólipos en fondo y cuerpo gástrico; el duodeno se encontraba en estado normal. Se realizó resección del tumor en pared abdominal y reconstrucción con malla además de proctocolectomía restaurativa con un reservorio íleo-anal con una ileostomía temporal. Se reportó tumor desmoide en la pared abdominal y se identificaron 152 pólipos túbulo-vellosos que afectaban todas las porciones del colon y el recto. Conclusiones: la PAF es una enfermedad autosómica dominante causada por una mutación en el gen APC que da como resultado el desarrollo de múltiples pólipos tanto en el colon como en el recto. Descrito en 1991, el gen APC se localiza en el cromosoma 5q21. Sin cirugía profiláctica, todos los pacientes desarrollarán cáncer colorrectal en la tercera década de la vida. Los tumores desmoides y los pólipos duodenales son ahora la causa de muerte en los pacientes con PAF.

  13. [Pineal region tumors in children: is gross-total resection necessary? A single-center experience].

    PubMed

    López-Aguilar, Enrique; Garza-González, María del Carmen; Ortiz-Azpilcueta, Mariana; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Rioscovian-Soto, Ana; de la Cruz-Yañez, Hermilo; Betanzos-Cabrera, Yadira

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la supervivencia de los niños con tumores de la región pineal se ha incrementado en la última década; estos tienen una evolución insidiosa asociada con los desórdenes endocrinológicos y una alta morbilidad y mortalidad, sobre todo después de la resección. El objetivo es reportar la supervivencia, la morbilidad y mortalidad según el tipo de cirugía, la histología y el tratamiento en un grupo de niños con tumores de la región pineal. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que incluyó a todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor de la región pineal menores de 17 años de edad que acudieron en un periodo de 10 años a un hospital de pediatría. Se realizó una revisión histopatológica, se determinó la extensión de la resección y se estimó la supervivencia. Resultados: se incluyeron 46 pacientes, 36 de los cuales tenían expediente completo y material de patología adecuado. La resección total se realizó en 24 (66.6 %) y biopsia en 12 (33.3 %); fallecieron 23 pacientes (88 %) y fue el desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico la causa de 14 defunciones (60 %) y la progresión tumoral la causa de las 9 defunciones restantes (39.1 %). La sobrevida a 10 años de los pacientes tratados con resección total y biopsia fue del 52 y 75 %, respectivamente, con una p = 0.7; se presentaron alteraciones endocrinológicas en 13 (36.1%) pacientes de los cuales a 10 (76.9 %) se les realizó la resección de la tumoración. Conclusión: los tumores de la región pineal en niños se pueden tratar con biopsia diagnóstica seguida de tratamiento adyuvante con quimioterapia y radioterapia.

  14. Membrane-bound p35 Subunit of IL-12 on Tumor Cells is Functionally Equivalent to Membrane-bound Heterodimeric Single Chain IL-12 for Induction of Anti-tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared two different tumor cell vaccines for their induction of anti-tumor immunity; one was a tumor cell clone expressing a membrane-bound form of IL-12 p35 subunit (mbIL-12 p35 tumor clone), and the other was a tumor clone expressing heterodimeric IL-12 as a single chain (mb-scIL-12 tumor clone). The stimulatory effect of mb-scIL-12 on the proliferation of ConA-activated splenocytes was higher than that of mbIL-12 p35 in vitro. However, the stimulatory effect of mbIL-12 p35 was equivalent to that of recombinant soluble IL-12 (3 ng/ml). Interestingly, both tumor clones (mbIL-12 p35 and mb-scIL-12) showed similar tumorigenicity and induction of systemic anti-tumor immunity in vivo, suggesting that tumor cell expression of the membrane-bound p35 subunit is sufficient to induce anti-tumor immunity in our tumor vaccine model. PMID:27799876

  15. Tumor-colonizing bacteria: a potential tumor targeting therapy.

    PubMed

    Zu, Chao; Wang, Jiansheng

    2014-08-01

    In 1813, Vautier published his observation of tumor regression in patients who had suffered from gas gangrene. Since then, many publications have described the use of bacteria as antitumor therapy. For example, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium have been shown to selectively colonize tumors and to reduce tumor size. In addition, recent studies have focused on the use of genetic engineering to induce the expression of pro-drug converting enzymes, cytokines, specific antibodies, or suicide genes in tumor-colonizing bacteria. Moreover, some animal experiments have reported the treatment of tumors with engineered bacteria, and few side effects were observed. Therefore, based on these advances in tumor targeting therapy, bacteria may represent the next generation of cancer therapy.

  16. Cerebral malignant nerve sheath tumor, triton tumor variant: case report.

    PubMed

    Bornstein-Quevedo, Leticia; Peralta-Olvera, Fabiola; Marhx-Bracho, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Jurado, Rodolfo; De Leon-Bojorge, Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    A case of a cerebral malignant triton tumor in a 3-year-old boy with a 2-month history of frontal headache and no clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis is reported. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large, irregular tumor in the right parietooccipital lobe. A partial surgical resection was performed. Histologically, the tumor was highly cellular and consisted of spindle cells with hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei. Focally, neoplastic cells with rhabdomyoblastic features were found. The immunohistochemical study showed that tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein and CD57, and the rhabdomyoblasts expressed desmin, Myo-D1, and myoglobin. During the postoperative period, a massive intraparenchymal hemorrhage was identified and surgical drainage was performed. The patient worsened and died 10 days after the first surgery. Postmortem study was not authorized. Six cases of cerebral malignant nerve sheath tumor have been described; however, primary intraparenchymal malignant triton tumor has not been previously described.

  17. Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Öberg, Kjell; Sundin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies with a very variable clinical expression and progression. They present unique properties that are important to consider for radiological and nuclear imaging, such as APUD-characteristics (amine precursor uptake and dearboxylation), as well as the expression of somatostatin receptors. The most common localizations are the lungs, gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The only curative treatment is surgery, but more than 50% present metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. The systemic treatment includes chemotherapy and targeted agents, as well as peptide receptor radiotherapy. The diagnosis and follow-up of these tumors necessitate a large number of different imaging methods, such as CT, MRI, US, SRS and PET. Ultrasonography offers the possibility to take guided biopsies from different lesions. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy was developed in the 1990s and nowadays presents the standard of care for NETs in most countries. The procedure offers a total body examination and a better staging of the disease. However, it has been replaced in most centers by PET/CT with 68Ga-DOTA-somatostatin analogues with a superior spatial resolution and faster imaging (one-stop procedure). Another tracer used for PET/CT is 18FDG, particularly for high-grade tumors. Other more specific tracers are 18F-L-DOPA, 11C-L-DOPA and 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan, which have demonstrated excellent imaging results. The new targeted agents present a challenge in the evaluation procedure of treatment and, therefore, new imaging techniques and an improvement of currently available techniques are mandatory. PMID:27002535

  18. Fusion genes in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Aman, P

    1999-08-01

    Tumor development in different cell types and tissue locations involves many pathways, distinct genes and exogenous factors. Tumor type-specific chromosome rearrangements resulting in fusion genes or promoter swapping are believed to be involved in the early development of many tumor types. They are present in almost all cases of a particular tumor type and cases have been described that carry only tumor type-specific translocations without any signs of other cytogenetic changes. The mechanisms behind chromosome rearrangements in solid tumors are largely unknown. Radiation is an important factor in thyroid carcinomas but no com-$bmon sequence motifs are made out in the break points of solid tumors. The fusion genes found in sarcomas are dominated by the transcription factor type of genes with the TLS/FUS and EWS series of fusion genes as the largest group. More than 50% of papillary thyroid carcinomas carry fusion proteins with tyrosine kinase activity. Rearrangements involving HMGIC, HMGIY, and PLAG1 are common in benign mesenchymal tumors and salivary gland adenomas. Many recurrent tumor translocations show a strict specificity for tumor type. This specificity can most likely be explained by the specific sets of target genes that are deregulated by the fusion gene products. Identification of the downstream target genes is currently the object of intense research and may provide us with information that will help design better diagnostic tools and eventually find a cure for these diseases.

  19. Targeting thapsigargin towards tumors.

    PubMed

    Doan, Nhu Thi Quynh; Paulsen, Eleonora Sandholdt; Sehgal, Pankaj; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul; Denmeade, Samuel R; Isaacs, John T; Dionne, Craig A; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2015-05-01

    The skin irritating principle from Thapsia garganica was isolated, named thapsigargin and the structure elucidated. By inhibiting the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) thapsigargin provokes apoptosis in almost all cells. By conjugating thapsigargin to peptides, which are only substrates for either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) prodrugs were created, which selectively affect prostate cancer cells or neovascular tissue in tumors. One of the prodrug is currently tested in clinical phase II. The prodrug under clinical trial has been named mipsagargin. PMID:25065587

  20. Targeting thapsigargin towards tumors

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Nhu Thi Quynh; Paulsen, Eleonora Sandholdt; Sehgal, Pankaj; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.; Dionne, Craig A.; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    The skin irritating principle from Thapsia garganica was isolated, named thapsigargin and the structure elucidated. By inhibiting the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) thapsigargin provokes apoptosis in almost all cells. By conjugating thapsigargin to peptides, which are only substrates for either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) prodrugs were created, which selectively affect prostate cancer cells or neovascular tissue in tumors. One of the prodrug is currently tested in clinical phase II. The prodrug under clinical trial has been named mipsagargin. PMID:25065587

  1. Modeling Tumor Invasion: Effects of Native Vascularity and Tumor Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlinski, Edward

    2001-03-01

    A hybrid cellular automaton model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth and examine the roles of host tissue vascular density and tumor metabolism in the ability of a small number of monoclonal transformed cells to develop into an invasive tumor. The model incorporates normal cells, tumor cells, necrotic or empty space, and a random network of native microvessels as components of a cellular automaton state vector. Diffusion of glucose and lactic acid (the latter resulting from the tumor's excessive reliance on anaerobic metabolism) to and from the microvessels, and their utilization or production by cells, is modeled through the solution of differential equations. In this way, the cells and microvessels affect the extracellular concentrations of glucose and acid which, in turn, affect the rules governing the evolution of the automaton's state vector. Simulations of the model demonstrate that: (i) high tumor acid production is favorable for tumor growth and invasion, however for every acid production rate, there exists a range of optimal microvessel densities (leading to a local pH favorable to tumor but not to normal cells) for which growth and invasion is most effective, (ii) at vascular densities below this range, both tumor and normal cells die due to excessively low pH, (iii) for vascular densities above the optimal range the microvessel network is highly efficient at removing acid and therefore the tumor cells lose their advantage over normal cells gained by high local acid concentration. While significant spatial gradients of glucose formed, no regions of detrimentally poor glucose perfusion (for either cell type) were observed, regardless of microvessel density. Depending on metabolic phenotype, a variety of tumor morphologies similar to those clinically observed were realized in the simulations. Lastly, a sharp transition (analogous to that of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence) between states of initial tumor confinement and efficient

  2. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update.

    PubMed

    Czernobilsky, Bernard

    2008-04-01

    Tumors of the uterus resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were reported by Clement and Scully in 1976 and were divided in 2 groups: group 1, endometrial stromal tumors, and group 2, mural uterine tumors-both with elements resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements. An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors. In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm. Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential. In recent years, the histological features in group 2 were found to be much more varied than those in group 1 and consisted among others of retiform areas, glomeruloid structures, and Leydig-like cells. In group 1 tumors, the sex cord elements remained limited to cords, trabeculae, nests, and tubules. Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors. The most significant information in recently conducted studies concerns the immunophenotype of these lesions especially of UTROSCT. Out of the plethora of the immunohistochemical stains, a panel of 4 including calretinin, inhibin, CD99, and Melan A has emerged which seemed to be the most characteristic sex cord markers. Positivity for calretinin and at least for 1 of the other above-mentioned markers may thus confirm the diagnosis of UTROSCT. Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, on the other hand, usually

  3. Improving drug delivery to solid tumors: priming the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Khawar, Iftikhar Ali; Kim, Jung Ho; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2015-03-10

    Malignant transformation and growth of the tumor mass tend to induce changes in the surrounding microenvironment. Abnormality of the tumor microenvironment provides a driving force leading not only to tumor progression, including invasion and metastasis, but also to acquisition of drug resistance, including pharmacokinetic (drug delivery-related) and pharmacodynamic (sensitivity-related) resistance. Drug delivery systems exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and active targeting moieties were expected to be able to cope with delivery-related drug resistance. However, recent evidence supports a considerable barrier role of tumors via various mechanisms, which results in imperfect or inefficient EPR and/or targeting effect. The components of the tumor microenvironment such as abnormal tumor vascular system, deregulated composition of the extracellular matrix, and interstitial hypertension (elevated interstitial fluid pressure) collectively or cooperatively hinder the drug distribution, which is prerequisite to the efficacy of nanoparticles and small-molecule drugs used in cancer medicine. Hence, the abnormal tumor microenvironment has recently been suggested to be a promising target for the improvement of drug delivery to improve therapeutic efficacy. Strategies to modulate the abnormal tumor microenvironment, referred to here as "solid tumor priming" (vascular normalization and/or solid stress alleviation leading to improvement in blood perfusion and convective molecular movement), have shown promising results in the enhancement of drug delivery and anticancer efficacy. These strategies may provide a novel avenue for the development of new chemotherapeutics and combination chemotherapeutic regimens as well as reassessment of previously ineffective agents. PMID:25526702

  4. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rare Tumor in the Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Yucel Ekici, Nur; Bayindir, Tuba; Kizilay, Ahmet; Aydin, Nasuhi Engin

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is composed of myofibroblast and inflammatory cell infiltration of the tissue. Malign transformation and recurrence rate of this tumor is rare and accepted as benign fibroinflammatory disease. The main etiology is unclear, but infection, trauma, and immunologic event are accused. In this study, we presented a 75-year-old man with a mass on his tongue, which was diagnosed as “inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.” This type of tumor is rarely seen in the tongue and might be difficult to diagnose. Complete mass excision was provided for an adaquete treatment. PMID:23607022

  5. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients

  6. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  7. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  8. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  9. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  10. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  11. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of...

  12. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  13. Vasculogenic mimicry and tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Qiao, Lili; Liang, Ning; Xie, Jian; Luo, Hui; Deng, Guodong; Zhang, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a microvascular channel made up of nonendothelial cells, has been accepted as a new model of neovascularization in aggressive tumors, owning to the specific capacity of malignant cells to form vessel-like networks which provide sufficient blood supply for tumor growth. Multiple molecular mechanisms, especially vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a, have been reported to participate in VM formation which is associated with tumor migration and invasion. In addition, hypoxia, cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenehymal transition (EMT) are regarded as significant factors in VM formation and tumor metastasis. Due to the important effects of VM on tumor progression, a review was carried out in the present study, to synthetically analyze the relationship between VM and tumor metastasis. PMID:27569069

  14. Pediatric brain tumors and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wells, Elizabeth M; Gaillard, William D; Packer, Roger J

    2012-03-01

    Seizures are a common complication of pediatric brain tumors and their treatment. This article reviews the epidemiology, evaluation, and treatment of seizures in children with brain tumors. Seizures in known brain tumor patients may signify tumor progression or recurrence, or treatment-related brain damage, as well as other causes, including low drug levels and metabolic disturbances. Careful selection of antiepileptic medications is needed in this population. There are advantages to nonenzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs including valproic acid, which has potential antitumoral properties as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Tumor surgery cures many cases of pediatric tumor-associated seizures, and some children are controlled with anti-epileptic medication, however additional epilepsy surgery may be needed for refractory cases.

  15. Tumors of the parapharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Shoss, S M; Donovan, D T; Alford, B R

    1985-11-01

    We retrospectively studied tumors of the parapharyngeal space treated at the Baylor College of Medicine Affiliated Hospital System, Houston, from 1972 to 1985. Of the 42 lesions, 30 (71.4%) were benign and 12 (28.6%) were malignant. Tumors of neurogenic origin were present in 17 (40.5%). Tumors of salivary gland origin were present in 16 (38.1%): ten were benign, six were malignant. Nine (21.4%) of the patients presented with miscellaneous lesions, six of which proved to be malignant. We have found that a preoperative arteriogram is no longer routinely indicated. High-resolution computed tomography is now the best initial diagnostic study because it helps determine the size and extent of the tumor, differentiate tumors of parotid and extraparotid origin, demonstrate degree of tumor vascularity, and separate benign from malignant lesions.

  16. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  17. Pancreatic endocrine tumors: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R T

    1999-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET's) can be divided on a clinical and pathologic basis into ten classes [insulinomas, gastrinomas (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), VIPomas (Verner-Morrison syndrome, WDHA, pancreatic cholera), glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, ACTH-releasing tumors (ACTHomas), growth hormone-releasing factor secreting tumors (GRFomas), nonfunctioning or pancreatic polypeptide secreting tumors (non-functioning PET), PET's causing carcinoid syndrome and PET's causing hypercalcemia)]. Recent reports suggest calcitonin-secreting PET's also rarely occur but whether they cause a distinct clinical syndrome is unclear. PET's resemble carcinoid tumors histologically; in their ability to synthesize and frequently secrete multiple peptides such as neuroendocrine cell markers (chromogranins); their biologic behavior and their tumor growth patterns. Both groups of tumors are highly vascular, have high densities of somatostatin receptors and similar tumor localization studies including somatostatin receptor scintigraphy are used for both. PET's, similar to carcinoids causing the carcinoid syndrome, require two separate treatment options be considered: treatment directed against the hormone-excess state and treatment directed against the tumor per se because of their malignant nature. In the last few years there have been advances in tumor diagnosis, localization methods, treatment approaches particularly related to the use of synthetic somatostatin analogues, and the definition of the role of surgical procedures in these diseases. Important other advances include insights into the long-term natural history of PET's particularly from studies of gastrinomas, which allow prognostic factors to be identified and the timing of treatment options to better planned, as well as insights into the molecular basis of these disorders. The latter includes both a description of the molecular basis of the genetic inherited syndromes associated with PET's or carcinoid tumors, as well as

  18. Equine testicular interstitial cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, H B; McEntee, K

    1987-05-01

    Interstitial cell tumors from nine stallions were described. In all but one horse the tumors were found in undescended testes. Five animals had bilateral tumors. Two animals showed increased aggression. Tumors contained two cell types. The first type were large distinctly bordered eosinophilic cells interpreted to be hyperplastic and hypertrophic interstitial cells. They blended with pleomorphic often spindloid neoplastic cells which had fibrillar, vacuolated cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. This latter cell population was arranged in nodules or broad sheets as endocrine-like packets or interweaving fascicles. Biologic behavior of the neoplasms could not be ascertained from histologic examination. PMID:2885961

  19. Primary tumors of the patella.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingzhi; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Kai; Lu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The patella is an uncommon location for cancerous occurrence and development. The majority of tumors of the patella are benign, with a significant incidence of giant cell tumors and chondroblastoma. With the development of modern diagnostic technologies, there appear however many other histological types which raise challenges of diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we review the reported histological types of primary patellar tumors. Specifically, epidemiology, symptomatology, imageology, histopathology, and treatment options for these histological lesions will be discussed, respectively. As there is an increasing focus on the diagnosis and the treatment of these lesions, the availability of the integrated information about primary patellar tumors becomes more significant. PMID:25906772

  20. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity. PMID:27167480

  1. Intra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Rapalino, Otto; Batchelor, Tracy; González, R Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide variety of intra-axial primary and secondary brain neoplasms. Many of them have characteristic imaging features while other tumors can present in a similar fashion. There are peculiar posttreatment imaging phenomena that can present as intra-axial mass-like lesions (such as pseudoprogression or radiation necrosis), further complicating the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with intracerebral tumors. The purpose of this chapter is to present a general overview of the most common intra-axial brain tumors and peculiar posttreatment changes that are very important in the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with brain tumors. PMID:27432670

  2. Radiosurgery for Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin S; Chao, Samuel T; Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Barnett, Gene; Jung, Edward; Recinos, Violette R; Mohammadi, Alireza; Suh, John H

    2016-03-01

    The utility of radiosurgery for pediatric brain tumors is not well known. For children, radiosurgery may have an important role for treating unresectable tumors, residual disease, or tumors in the recurrent setting that have received prior radiotherapy. The available evidence demonstrates utility for some children with primary brain tumors resulting in good local control. Radiosurgery can be considered for limited residual disease or focal recurrences. However, the potential toxicities are unique and not insignificant. Therefore, prospective studies need to be performed to develop guidelines for indications and treatment for children and reduce toxicity in this population. PMID:26536284

  3. Detection of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; van Dalum, Guus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas has created an accompanying need for methods to determine if the tumor will be responsive to the intended therapy and to monitor its effectiveness. Ideally, these methods would be noninvasive and provide quantitative real-time analysis of tumor activity in a variety of carcinomas. Assessment of circulating tumor cells shed into the blood during metastasis may satisfy this need. Here we review the CellSearch technology used for the detection of circulating tumor cells and discuss potential future directions for improvements.

  4. Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas has created an accompanying need for methods to determine if the tumor will be responsive to the intended therapy and to monitor its effectiveness. Ideally, these methods would be noninvasive and provide quantitative real-time analysis of tumor activity in a variety of carcinomas. Assessment of circulating tumor cells shed into the blood during metastasis may satisfy this need. Here we review the CellSearch technology used for the detection of circulating tumor cells and discuss potential future directions for improvements. PMID:25133014

  5. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  6. [Prognostic implications of folliculo-stellate cells in pituitary adenomas: relationship with tumoral behavior].

    PubMed

    Tortosa, F; Pires, M; Ortiz, S

    2016-10-01

    Introduccion. A pesar del progreso en la comprension de su patogenia, no se ha encontrado ningun marcador predictivo independiente del comportamiento agresivo de los adenomas hipofisarios que facilite el tratamiento y seguimiento de pacientes afectados. Objetivo. Analizar la expresion de celulas foliculo-estrelladas, mediante inmunomarcacion con proteina S-100, en una serie de pacientes con adenomas hipofisarios seguidos durante al menos siete años. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 51 pacientes diagnosticados de adenoma hipofisario entre 2006 y 2008, segun los criterios vigentes de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud. Se evaluo inmunohistoquimicamente la expresion de S-100 en celulas foliculo-estrelladas, y se correlaciono con parametros clinicorradiologicos e histopatologicos del tumor y la progresion/recurrencia postoperatoria. Resultados. De 51 tumores, 40 se clasificaron como adenomas hipofisarios tipicos y 11 como atipicos. La mayoria de los tipicos mostro celulas foliculo-estrelladas positivas para S-100 (media: 3,93%); los atipicos tenian pocas o ninguna celula S-100 positivas (media: 0,83%). No hubo diferencias significativas en la expresion de S-100 con respecto a la edad o sexo del paciente, tamaño, invasividad o recidiva tumoral posquirurgica. Conclusiones. En el grupo de estudio, a excepcion de los adenomas no funcionantes inmunopositivos para prolactina, con la media mas baja y mas alta de todos los subtipos en ambos grupos (tipicos, 0,25%, frente a atipicos, 9,24%; p = 0,0028), el factor predictivo de agresividad tumoral para los adenomas hipofisarios no esta representado por un bajo valor de S-100 en las celulas foliculo-estrelladas, lo que no permite seleccionar a pacientes para un tratamiento postoperatorio intensivo.

  7. Combination of intermittent calorie restriction and eicosapentaenoic acid for inhibition of mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Nancy K.; Rogozina, Olga P.; Seppanen, Christine M.; Liao, D. Joshua; Cleary, Margot P.; Grossmann, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of dietary interventions capable of inhibiting mammary tumorigenesis however the effectiveness of dietary combinations is largely unexplored. Here we combined two interventions previously shown individually to inhibit mammary tumor development. The first was the use of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and the second was the implementation of calorie restriction. MMTV-Her2/neu mice were used as a model for human breast cancers which over express Her2/neu. Six groups of mice were enrolled. Half were fed a control (Con) diet with 10.1% fat calories from soy oil, while the other half consumed a diet with 72% fat calories from EPA. Within each diet mice were further divided into ad libitum (AL), chronic calorie restricted (CCR) or intermittent calorie restricted (ICR) groups. Mammary tumor incidence was lowest in ICR-EPA (15%) and highest in AL-Con mice (87%) while AL-EPA, CCR-Con, CCR-EPA and ICR-Con groups had mammary tumor incidence rates of 63%, 47%, 40% and 59% respectively. Survival was effected similarly by the interventions. Consumption of EPA dramatically reduced serum leptin (P<0.02) and increased serum adiponectin in the AL-EPA mice compared to AL-Con mice (P<0.001). Both CCR and ICR decreased serum leptin and IGF-I compared to AL mice but not compared to each other. These results illustrate that mammary tumor inhibition is significantly increased when ICR and EPA are combined as compared to either intervention alone. This response may be related to alterations in the balance of serum growth factors and adipokines. PMID:23550153

  8. Diagnosis of esophagogastric tumors.

    PubMed

    Moretó, M

    2005-01-01

    With regard to esophageal tumors, important reports on several topics have been published recently. 1) The place of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) as the best locoregional staging technique for cancer of the esophagus has been further consolidated. The addition of fine-needle aspiration makes EUS more sensitive than computed tomography (CT) and more accurate than CT or EUS alone for nodal staging. 2) High-resolution endoscopy with chromoendoscopy has been found to be very effective for mucosal lesions, but not for submucosal lesions. In combination with EUS, the sensitivity for submucosal tumors increases up to 60 %. 3) Autofluorescence-guided biopsy has been reported to be a good tool for detecting high-grade dysplasia. A narrow-band imaging system improved the overall accuracy for depth of invasion. 4) The incidence of hypopharyngeal cancer increases after resection for esophageal carcinoma. Patients with a scattered staining pattern after application of Lugol's solution are more prone to develop upper lesions. 5) Fluorescence imaging makes it possible to detect low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett's mucosa, with fewer biopsies. 6) Patients with Barrett's esophagus with a length of over 3 cm had a significantly greater prevalence of dysplasia in comparison with those in the whom the Barrett's segment was shorter than 3 cm (23 % vs. 9 %, P = 0.0001). With regard to gastric tumors, 1) Helicobacter pylori eradication can significantly reduce the development of gastric cancer, but only in patients without precancerous lesions. 2) Intestinal metaplasia types II and III have been shown to have a higher rate of progression to low-grade dysplasia than type I. 3) With regard to screening in asymptomatic individuals, serum pepsinogen may represent an alternative to conventional fluoroscopy methods. 4) In patients who have undergone esophagectomy for esophageal cancer, annual follow-up endoscopies are vital for detecting early secondary gastric cancer and

  9. Pediatric Mediastinal Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Achint K; Sargar, Kiran; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the imaging findings of pediatric mediastinal tumors and tumor-like lesions. The classification of the mediastinum is discussed with normal imaging appearance of the thymus in pediatric age group followed by a discussion on multiple mediastinal lesions in different compartments with emphasis on their imaging characteristics.

  10. [Intracranial tumor behavior of plasma cell neoplasms. Report of 2 cases and literature review].

    PubMed

    López-Elizalde, Ramiro; Lemus-Rodríguez, Yazmín; Godínez-Rubí, Marisol; Madrigal-Saray, Arturo; Muñoz-Serrano, José Antonio; Velásquez-Santana, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: el mieloma múltiple es una neoplasia de células plasmáticas caracterizada por destrucción ósea, insuficiencia renal, anemia e hipercalcemia. Los plasmacitomas de los huesos del cráneo representan menos de 1% de los tumores de cabeza y cuello. Se manifiestan como lesión primaria o secundaria a mieloma múltiple en 20-30%, incluso pueden aparecer varios años después del diagnóstico. Los autores comunicamos dos casos de pacientes mexicanas con lesiones plasmocíticas intracraneales, asociadas con mieloma múltiple.Casos clínicos: el primer caso es el de una paciente de 24 años de edad, con diagnóstico de mieloma múltiple e infiltración ósea que fue extirpado en 90%. Experimentó una recidiva local que requirió otra intervención para su remoción. El segundo caso es el de una mujer de 62 años de edad con un tumor intracraneal de células plasmáticas que se resecó en su totalidad. Ambas recibieron terapia adyuvante con quimio y radioterapia con resultados favorables. Las pacientes fallecieron a los 5 y 1.5 años, respectivamente, por insuficiencia renal como consecuencia de la enfermedad sistémica. Conclusiones: se propone a la quimioterapia y radioterapia como parte esencial del tratamiento de este tumor porque su comportamiento natural agresivo puede complicar la evolución, a pesar de ser accesibles quirúrgicamente.

  11. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  12. Intraoperative tumor lysis syndrome in a child with Wilms' tumor.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Mridul; Prakash, Shashi; Pandey, Vaibhav; Pai, Vishal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome in an onco-metabolic emergency resulting from massive lysis of rapidly proliferating malignant cells seen commonly in patients with hematological malignancies such as acute lymphocytic leukemia and Burkitt's lymphoma and is quite rare in solid tumors. Spontaneous development of tumor lysis has been described among other trigger factors such as corticosteroid therapy, anesthesia, tumor manipulation during surgery and pyrexia. We describe such a case in a 5-year-old boy posted for excision and staging of a massive Wilms' tumor who developed a hyperkalemic cardiac arrest during the procedure and its subsequent intraoperative and postoperative management. Intraoperative cardiac arrest is a stressful situation for both the anesthesiologist and the surgeon, more so when it involves a child. The aim of this report is to make the anesthesiologist aware of the possibility and occurrence of such a phenomenon in children and be adequately prepared for such an emergency. PMID:26957712

  13. Nonlinear simulation of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John; Nie, Qing

    2003-03-01

    We study solid tumor ( carcinoma) growth in the nonlinear regime using boundary-integral simulations. The tumor core is nonnecrotic and no inhibitor chemical species are present. A new formulation of the classical models [18,24,8,3] is developed and it is demonstrated that tumor evolution is described by a reduced set of two dimensionless parameters and is qualitatively unaffected by the number of spatial dimensions. One parameter describes the relative rate of mitosis to the relaxation mechanisms (cell mobility and cell-to-cell adhesion). The other describes the balance between apoptosis (programmed cell-death) and mitosis. Both parameters also include the effect of vascularization. Our analysis and nonlinear simulations reveal that the two new dimensionless groups uniquely subdivide tumor growth into three regimes associated with increasing degrees of vascularization: low (diffusion dominated, e.g., in vitro), moderate and high vascularization, that correspond to the regimes observed in vivo. We demonstrate that critical conditions exist for which the tumor evolves to nontrivial dormant states or grows self-similarly (i.e., shape invariant) in the first two regimes. This leads to the possibility of shape control and of controlling the release of tumor angiogenic factors by restricting the tumor volume-to-surface-area ratio. Away from these critical conditions, evolution may be unstable leading to invasive fingering into the external tissues and to topological transitions such as tumor breakup and reconnection. Interestingly we find that for highly vascularized tumors, while they grow unbounded, their shape always stays compact and invasive fingering does not occur. This is in agreement with recent experimental observations [30] of in vivo tumor growth, and suggests that the invasive growth of highly-vascularized tumors is associated to vascular and elastic anisotropies, which are not included in the model studied here.

  14. Image Guided Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Parrish-Novak, Julia; Holland, Eric C.; Olson, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Each year, millions of individuals undergo cancer surgery that is intended to be curative or at least a necessary component of a curative regimen. Particularly for those patients whose cancer harbors cells that are resistant to chemotherapy or radiation, the extent of surgery often defines whether they will be a survivor or casualty of the disease. For many solid tumor types, the difference in survival between patients who undergo gross total resection and those who have residual bulky disease is often profound. With surgery being central to cancer survivorship, it is stunning how few resources have been invested in improving surgical outcomes, particularly in comparison to chemotherapeutic research and discovery. This article reviews recent advances related to developing targeted fluorescent agents to guide surgeons during cancer removal. The goal of these drugs and devices is to clearly distinguish cancer from normal tissue to improve surgical outcome for cancer patients. PMID:26049700

  15. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Andrea; Varaldo, Marco; Ferrarazzo, Claudia; Tunesi, Gianni; Mencoboni, Manlio

    2010-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which may be found everywhere in the body. It is now distinguished into two forms, pleural and extrapleural, which morphologically resemble each other. Abdominal localizations are quite rare, with 10 cases only reported in bladder; rarely they can be source of paraneoplastic syndromes (i.e., hypoglycemia secondary to insulin-like growth factor). In April 2006 a 74-year-old white male presented with chills, diaphoresis and acute abdominal pain with hematuria. At admission in emergency he underwent an abdominal Xray (no pathological findings) and an ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, which revealed a pelvic hyperechogenic neoformation measuring approximately 10×8×7 cm, compressing the bladder. Blood chemistry at admission revealed only a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis (WBC 16600, N 80%, L 11%), elevated fibrinogen and ESR, and hypoglycemia (38 mg/dL). Macro scopic hematuria was evident, while urinocolture was negative. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvic region revealed a large round neoformation dislocating the bladder, with an evident contrast-enhanced periphery and a central necrotic area. Continuous infusion of glucose 5% solution was necessary in order to maintain blood glucose levels above 50 mg/dL. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of an ovoidal mass coated by adipose tissue, with well delimited margins; histological findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Hypoglycemia resolved completely with removal of the growth. In this case report we describe a SFT growing in the bladder, a quite rare localization, which presented a unique hypoglycemia. In contrast to the majority of cases reported in the literature, the behavior of this SFT was not aggressive, and, since the patient is still alive, surgical resection was considered conclusive.

  17. Primary Cardiac Solitary Fibrous Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Primary cardiac solitary fibrous tumors were reviewed. They are classified as pericardial tumors. Their incidences are very rare. Only 16 cases were reported in the literature. Basically, surgical treatments are performed. Their prognoses are generally good, although malignant cases are also reported. PMID:26156195

  18. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  19. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target, an excitement in developing the anti-angiogenic agents was resulted in tailoring a humanized monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a key factor in recruiting angiogenesis. The past three decades' research in the area of angiogenesis also invented a series of novel and effective anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF signaling axis. Despite the demonstrable clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic therapy, the preclinical and clinical data of the current therapeutic settings clearly indicate the transient efficacy, restoration of tumor progression and aggressive recurrence of tumor invasion after the withdrawal of anti-angiogenic therapy. Therefore, the impact of this therapeutic regime on improving overall survival of patients has been disappointing in clinic. The recent advances in pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis and related molecular and cellular underpinnings attributed the conspiracy of compensatory angiogenic pathways in conferring evasive and intrinsic tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. The understandings of how these pathways functionally cross-talk for sustaining tumor angiogenesis during VEGF blockade is essential and perhaps may act as a basic prerequisite for designing novel therapeutic strategies to combat the growing arrogance of tumors toward anti-angiogenic agents. The present review offers a discourse on major compensatory angiogenic pathways operating at cellular and molecular levels and their attributes with resistance to anti-angiogenic agents along with strategic opinions on future setting in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26029827

  20. Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID:16457646

  1. Tumors STING adaptive antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo

    2014-11-20

    Immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment of cancer patients, but the molecular basis for tumor immunogenicity is unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Deng et al. (2014) and Woo et al. (2014) provide evidence suggesting that dendritic cells detect DNA from tumor cells via the STING-mediated, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway.

  2. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  3. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects. PMID:27523417

  4. Tumors of the cerebral aqueduct.

    PubMed

    Ho, K L

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of tumor of the cerebral aqueduct are described. Case 1 is a pilocytic astrocytoma in a 16-year-old girl with a two-year history of intermittent increase of intracranial pressure. The tumor was completely confined within the lumen of the aqueduct. Case 2 is a subependymoma of a 68-year-old man. The tumor extended beyond the aqueduct to the periaqueductal gray matter and produced signs and symptoms suggesting normal pressure hydrocephalus. The literature contains 18 other cases of tumor of the aqueduct: 13 gliomas and five vascular malformations. All, except one, produced clinical manifestations of generalized hydrocephalus lasting from 20 days to six years. The result generally did not correspond to the histologic type of the tumor. Like gliomas of the brainstem in general, those in the aqueduct tend to occur in childhood and adolescence and affect male more than female patients.

  5. [Radiological evaluation of congenital tumors].

    PubMed

    Aguado del Hoyo, A; Ruiz Martín, Y; Lancharro Zapata, Á; Marín Rodríguez, C; Gordillo Gutiérrez, I

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider tumors that are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first three months of life. This is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with special biological and epidemiological characteristics that differentiate them from tumors arising in children or adults. In the last two decades, the prenatal detection of congenital tumors has increased due to the generalized use of prenatal sonographic screening. Advances in imaging techniques, especially in fetal magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled improvements in the diagnosis, follow-up, clinical management, and perinatal treatment of these tumors. This image-based review of the most common congenital tumors describes their histologic types, locations, and characteristics on the different imaging techniques used.

  6. Advances in understanding pituitary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Ulrich; Karl Stalla, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common in the general population. Since neuroimaging techniques have improved, pituitary tumors are more often diagnosed incidentally. About 16.7% of the general population show changes in the pituitary gland. Predominantly, pituitary tumors are benign pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinomas or aggressive pituitary tumors are extremely rare. They might develop from benign adenomas. New genetic and epigenetic abnormalities help us to understand pituitary tumorigenesis and might lead to therapeutical targeting drugs in the future. Macroadenomas (>1 cm) can lead to visual field disturbances, compression of cranial nerves, hypopituitarism, and infiltration of the cavernous sinuses. The functional status of the pituitary tumor is important. About half to one third of all pituitary tumors are non-functioning pituitary adenomas. The other pituitary tumors show a specific pattern of hormone secretion. About 25% to 41% of all pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, acromegaly with production of growth hormone represents 10% to 15% of adenomas, Cushing's disease with production of adrenocorticotropic hormone accounts for 10%, and other hormonal characteristics are less common. Transsphenoidal resection and total adenomectomy are desirable. Radiosurgery has enriched the surgical treatment options. Surgical treatment is the intervention of choice except for prolactinomas, where pharmaceutical treatment is recommended. Pharmaceutical treatment consists of dopamine agonists such as cabergoline and somatostatin analogues that include octreotide and pasireotide; retinoic acid is of theoretical interest while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-ligands are not clinically useful. In acromegaly, pegvisomant is a further treatment option. Temozolomide should be considered in aggressive pituitary tumors. In general, pharmaceutical options developed recently have extended the repertoire of treatment possibilities of pituitary tumors. PMID:24592317

  7. The history of tumor virology.

    PubMed

    Javier, Ronald T; Butel, Janet S

    2008-10-01

    In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses--EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses--human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century.

  8. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

  9. Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-29

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma

  10. ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-14

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenal tumor - Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the ... or cancerous (malignant). Noncancerous tumors that can cause ... Adrenal adenomas Micronodular hyperplasia Cancerous tumors that ...

  12. Tumor-associated macrophages (not tumor cells) are the determinants of photosensitizer tumor localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd

    1995-03-01

    The distribution of Photofrin and several other photosensitizers among major cellular populations contained in solid mouse tumors was examined using flow cytometry. Seven tumor models were included in the analysis: sarcomas EMT6, KHT, RIF, FsaR and FsaN, Lewis lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII. In all these tumors, the highest photosensitizer levels were found in a subpopulation of tumor associated macrophages consisting of activated cells (as suggested by their increased size, granularity, and the number of interleukin 2 receptors). There was no evidence of selective photosensitizer accumulation in malignant tumor cells. Results consistent with these observations were also obtained with the carcinogen induced squamous cell carcinoma growing in hamster cheek pouch.

  13. Microparticles in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Falanga, Anna; Tartari, Carmen Julia; Marchetti, Marina

    2012-04-01

    Microparticles (MP) are shed from the surface of activated or apoptotic blood cells and their levels in plasma reflect a balance between cell stimulation, proliferation, and death. MP production occurs through vesiculation of cell membranes, and involves cytoskeletal changes and a shift in the normal phospholipid asymmetry. The expression on the majority of MP of the anionic phosphatidylserine (PS) is responsible for the capacity of MP to support blood coagulation activation. In some cases, PS expression is also associated, in the same MP, with the presence of active Tissue Factor, the main activator of blood coagulation. Elevation in plasma levels of MP have been described in numerous clinical conditions, most of which also associated with an increased thrombotic risk. Particularly, MP have been found to be increased in both solid and hematological malignancies, including myeloproliferative neoplasms. A role of MP in tumor progression has been suggested by both in vitro and in vivo studies. Evidence exists that MP of platelet origin are the main players in this process, being rich in pro-angiogenic factors. The utility of measuring MP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker is currently a subject of intense investigation. The possibility to inhibit MP production by pharmacological interventions represents a future challenge. PMID:22682124

  14. Epidemiology of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Merav; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Valk, Gerlof D

    2015-01-01

    Formerly named carcinoids, neuroendocrine tumors originate from diffuse endocrine cells, can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas and bronchopulmonary (BP) tree, and have a wide range of malignant potential. This chapter summarizes the data available on the epidemiology of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) from around the world, including the relative frequency according to organ of origin, annual incidence rates (IR) and trends in IR at the various anatomic sites, age and stage at presentation, racial and gender differences in IR and 5-year survival rates. Over time, changes have been made in the classification and registration of NEN, both in the same registry and across the globe, thus confounding the possibility to draw conclusions as to the true rise in IR of NEN that is observed all over the world. BP NEN has become the most common site in many western countries, while NEN of the rectum is more common in the Far East. In some countries, appendiceal NEN is the most common site in females. When compared to adenocarcinoma of the same location, the prognosis of NEN patients is better. Five-year survival rates are highest for NEN originating in the rectum and appendix, but lower in small intestinal and pancreatic NEN. Future research is needed to understand the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to NEN epidemiology. PMID:26303701

  15. Chemopreventive agents targeting tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sharada H; Thulasingam, Senthilkumar; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that tumor development and progression depend not only on the perturbed genes that govern cell proliferation, but is also highly determined by the non-tumor cells of the stromal compartment surrounding the tumor called tumor microenvironment (TME). These findings highlight the importance of targeting the microenvironment in combination with therapies aimed at tumor cells as a valuable approach. The innate and adaptive immune cells in the TME interact among themselves and also with the endothelial cells, pericytes and mast cells of the stromal compartment through various autocrine and paracrine manner to regulate abnormal cell proliferation. Direct cytotoxic killing of cancer cells and/or reversion of the immunosuppressive TME are to be considered as better strategies for chemoprevention and chemotherapy. With a growing emphasis on a "hallmark targeting" strategy for cancer therapy, the TME now appears as a promising target for cancer prevention using natural products. Clarification on the nontumor stromal cells, the mediators involved, interactions with immune response cells, and immune-evasive mechanisms are needed in order to manipulate the characteristics of the TME by natural pharmacological agents to design effective therapies. This review will provide a glimpse on the roles played by various non-tumor cells in tumor progression and their intervention by pharmacological agents. PMID:26679106

  16. Two Hundred Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Lewis, Jonathan J.; Leung, Denis; Mudan, Satvinder S.; Woodruff, James M.; Brennan, Murray F.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To analyze the outcome of 200 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) who were treated at a single institution and followed up prospectively. Summary Background Data A GIST is a visceral sarcoma that arises from the gastrointestinal tract. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment because adjuvant therapy is unproven. Methods Two hundred patients with malignant GIST were admitted and treated at Memorial Hospital during the past 16 years. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables were analyzed to identify patterns of tumor recurrence and factors that predict survival. Results Of the 200 patients, 46% had primary disease without metastasis, 47% had metastasis, and 7% had isolated local recurrence. In patients with primary disease who underwent complete resection of gross disease (n = 80), the 5-year actuarial survival rate was 54%, and survival was predicted by tumor size but not microscopic margins of resection. Recurrence of disease after resection was predominantly intraabdominal and involved the original tumor site, peritoneum, and liver. Conclusions GISTs are uncommon sarcomas. Tumor size predicts disease-specific survival in patients with primary disease who undergo complete gross resection. Tumor recurrence tends to be intraabdominal. Investigational protocols are indicated to reduce the rate of recurrence after resection and to improve the outcome for patients with GIST. PMID:10636102

  17. Laser therapy in ocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia; Ionita, Marcel A.; Moroseanu, A.; Dascalu, Traian; Lupei, Voicu; Ionita-Manzatu, V.

    1998-07-01

    The medical laser equipments made at NILPRP have been exploited intensively for more than 10 years at CMH. The availability and reliability of the first like-on equipment have increased, following improvements in optical delivery system and cooling circuit. This paper shows the impact of technical advances on the development of ophthalmologic laser therapy. Intraocular tumors pose special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include addition to systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, ancillary examinations, such as transillumination, fluorescence angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake tests, radiology, computerized tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. The enucleation of the involved eye used to be a generally accepted management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutic alternatives. This study covers 31 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed either by Argon Laser photocoagulation and/or by Nd:YAG laser surgical treatment. Four cases were intraocular metastasse and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for intraocular metastasse but very adequate therapy for primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body or iris tumors) using Nd:YAG laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  18. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Herazo, Fernando; Gil, Monica; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Borrero, Mauricio; Madrid, Jorge; Jaramillo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs). Objective: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center. Methods: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%. Discussion: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population. PMID:26600624

  19. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  20. Concepts in solid tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Sidow, Arend; Spies, Noah

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary mechanisms in cancer progression give tumors their individuality. Cancer evolution is different from organismal evolution, however, and we discuss where concepts from evolutionary genetics are useful or limited in facilitating an understanding of cancer. Based on these concepts we construct and apply the simplest plausible model of tumor growth and progression. Simulations using this simple model illustrate the importance of stochastic events early in tumorigenesis, highlight the dominance of exponential growth over linear growth and differentiation, and explain the clonal substructure of tumors.

  1. [Unclassified sex cord testis tumor].

    PubMed

    Grenha, Vânia; Serra, Paula; Coelho, Hugo; Retroz, Edson; Temido, Paulo; Mota, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Unclassified sex cord testis tumor is an extremely rare tumor, especially in the adult. It is characterized histologically for a nonspecific combination of testis stromal and epithelial elements, with varying degree of differentiation. Treatment usually consists of radical orchiectomy followed by clinical and imaging surveillance. The available literature about this pathology relies almost exclusively on clinical cases. It's our aim to describe the case of a 37 years old man with an unclassified sex cord testis tumor, the first case described in Portugal, and to review the literature about this issue.

  2. Management of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.

    PubMed

    von Mehren, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors had the reputation for poor outcomes because of their lack of response to nonsurgical interventions. The discovery of gain-of-function mutations involving receptor tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors altered the biological understanding and management. Beginning in 2000, management of these tumors has changed dramatically because of the availability of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The role of surgery continues to be refined. This article reviews how surgery and systemic therapy are being used, incorporating definitions of risk. Decisions on how to treat a patient is based on the risk of progression, pathologic characteristics, and tumor location. PMID:27542643

  3. Concepts in solid tumor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sidow, Arend; Spies, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary mechanisms in cancer progression give tumors their individuality. Cancer evolution is different from organismal evolution, however, and here we discuss where concepts from evolutionary genetics are useful or limited in facilitating an understanding of cancer. Based on these concepts we construct and apply the simplest plausible model of tumor growth and progression. Simulations using this simple model illustrate the importance of stochastic events early in tumorigenesis, highlight the dominance of exponential growth over linear growth and differentiation, and explain the clonal substructure of tumors. PMID:25733351

  4. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Shurell, Elizabeth; Singh, Arun; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C

    2016-10-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is the sixth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma. Most MPNSTs arise in association with a peripheral nerve or preexisting neurofibroma. Neurofibromatosis type is the most important risk factor for MPNST. Tumor size and fludeoxyglucose F 18 avidity are among the most helpful parameters to distinguish MPNST from a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The histopathologic diagnosis is predominantly a diagnosis of light microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains are most helpful to distinguish high-grade MPNST from its histologic mimics. Current surgical management of high-grade MPNST is similar to that of other high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27591499

  5. [Granulosa cell tumor of Abrikossof].

    PubMed

    Alberti, P; Bianchi, P; Pruneri, U; Pasini, M; Corsetti, V; Pasini, G F

    1993-01-01

    The authors report a case of Abrikossof's tumor that came under their observation. The reappraisal of the literature permits to review on this disorder that was unknown until few years ago. Electronic microscope and immunohistochemical study allowed to recognize the real origin of this tumor. It arises from peripheric nervous tissue particularly from Schwann's cells. This neoplasm must be considered as benign, especially when of small dimensions. In case of rapidly growing or larger than 8 cm forms a widely exeretic surgery and a careful follow-up, because of the possibility of finding tumors in other district of the body.

  6. Postirradiation malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Rice, D H; Batsakis, J G; McClatchey, K D

    1976-11-01

    Information concerning the relationship between salivary gland tumors and prior exposure to radiation for benign conditions or by accident is slowly being gathered. As yet, no statistical confidence can be established in this relationship. Very likely, this confidence will require studies akin to those done on the problem of thyroid cancer and irradiation. Including the case reported here, 50 tumors of the salivary glands have been reported to have followed prior radiation exposure. Twenty-three of these tumors have been malignant, with the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most frequent histological type. The latent period in salivary tissues is 20 or more years.

  7. Salivary gland tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; el-Naggar, A K

    1991-10-01

    Fewer than 5% of all primary salivary gland neoplasms occur in children, but if benign supporting tissue tumors are excluded, a higher proportion than in adults are malignant. The first decade of life, and particularly the first 2 years of life, has a preponderance of benign neoplasms. Commencing with the second decade, carcinomas rise in incidence and are most often mucoepidermoid and acinic cell carcinomas. The pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial salivary tumor throughout childhood. The embryoma may be a uniquely childhood epithelial salivary gland tumor.

  8. [Retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor: a case report].

    PubMed

    Nukui, Akinori; Ochi, Masanori; Suzuki, Kazumi; Yuzawa, Masayuki; Morita, Tatsuo

    2009-08-01

    A 63-year-old man with a retroperitoneal tumor found incidentally was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a tumor ventrally adjacent to urinary bladder and prostate. Pathological examination of retroperitoneal tumor specimens obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy revealed hypercellularity of spindle cells positive for CD 34. Under the suspicion of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) or stromal tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), we performed en bloc resection of tumor, urinary bladder and prostate because tumor was firmly fixed to urinary bladder and prostate. The final diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor was SFT because pathological findings of the surgical specimen were the same as those of the biopsy specimens.

  9. [Splenoportography in pancreatic tumors and retroperitoneal neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Roshchektaev, N V

    1975-01-01

    Along with other methods of investigation splenoportography was performed in 29 patients with tumors and in 2 patients with cystic affection of the pancreas. Moreover, in 5 cases splenoportography was performed due to a suspicion to pancreatic tumor, and also in 6 patients with retroperitoneal tumors and in 7-with renal tumors. In all these patients with pancreatic tumors splenoportograms have shown changes on the part of a splenoportal trunk, which corresponded to the localization and degree of spread of a tumor in most cases. Splenoportography is felt to be rational in retroperitoneal tumors. In such cases splenoportography would contribute to a detailed determination of tumor localization and its relation with the liver.

  10. Modification of tumor response by manipulation of tumor oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    1999-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires tissue oxygenation during light irradiation. Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or induced by PDT during light irradiation, can severely hamper the effectiveness of a PDT treatment. Lowering the light irradiation does rate or fractionating a light dose may improve cell kill of PDT induced hypoxic cells, but will have no effects on pre-existing hypoxic cells. In the current study, we used hyper-oxygenation during PDT to overcome cell hypoxia in PDT. C3H mice with transplanted mammary carcinoma tumor were injected with 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin and irradiated with 630 nm laser light 24 hours later. Tumor oxygenation was manipulated by subjecting the animals to 3 a.t.p. hyperbaric oxygen or normobaric oxygen during PDT light irradiation. The results show a significant improvement in tumor response when PDT was delivered during hyper-oxygenation. With hyper-oxygenation, up to 80% of treated tumors showed no re-growth after 60 days. In comparison, only 20% of tumors treated while animals breathed normal room air, did not re-grow. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of manipulating tumor oxygenation, tumor p02 was measured with microelectrodes positioned in pre-existing hypoxic regions before and during the PDT light irradiation. The results show that hyper-oxygenation may oxygenate pre-existing hypoxic cells and compensate oxygen depletion induced by PDT light irradiation. In conclusion, hyper-oxygenation may provide effective ways to improve PDT treatment efficiency by oxygenating both pre-existing and treatment induced cell hypoxia.

  11. [Unusual diagnosis of an intrathoracic tumor, cavernosum lymphangioma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Chirino-Romo, Jorge; Bertrand-Noriega, Federico; Benita-Bordes, Antonio; Orozco-Olguín, Pamela; Paz-Martínez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el linfangioma torácico es una enfermedad benigna, rara, que sólo ocupa 0.7-4.5% de todos los tumores mediastinales. Se desconoce la etiología actual. La mayor parte son asintomáticos y su aparición es común en pacientes pediátricos. Se comunica un caso con el propósito de documentar esta rara afección y describir lo que existe en la bibliografía. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de cinco años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, a quien en la consulta rutinaria se le encontró un soplo cardiaco. En las radiografías de tórax se encontró un tumor de localización aparente intratorácica. La tomografía de tórax confirmó que se trataba de un tumor en el mediastino anterior de 13 × 11 cm. Los estudios de laboratorio se encontraron dentro de parámetros normales. Se realizó una resección quirúrgica completa y se confirmó el diagnóstico histopatológico de linfangioma cavernoso. La paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente, hasta el momento de enviar a publicación este reporte, sin evidencia de recidiva. Conclusiones: las características del caso expuesto son compatibles con lo reportado en la bibliografía. El establecimiento del diagnóstico y el plan quirúrgico fueron exitosos, sin morbilidad agregada.

  12. [Sexual profile of women with cervical cytology in a first level unit].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Palacios-Rodríguez, Raúl Gabriel; Guzmán-Solorio, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el perfil sexual de las mujeres conforma un conjunto de componentes que juega un papel fundamental en la aparición del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) o del cáncer cervicouterino (CACU). Se buscó determinar el perfil sexual de un grupo de mujeres con citología cervical en una unidad de primer nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social del Estado de México. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron mujeres que acudieron para detección citológica de tumor maligno del cuello uterino. Se les entrevistó para obtener características sociodemográficas y ginecoobstétricas. El análisis estadístico se hizo con prueba exacta de Fisher, chi cuadrada de Mantel-Haenszel, y correlación de Spearman.

  13. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  14. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... voice Enlarged clitoris Facial hair Loss in breast size Stopping of menstrual periods Pain in the lower belly (pelvic area) is another symptom. It is usually due to the tumor pressing on nearby structures

  15. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. [Mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Rieker, R J; Marx, A; Agaimy, A; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the thymus and mediastinum account for only 2 % of neoplasms of the mediastinum and are therefore very rare. With very few exceptions the histology, immunohistochemistry and (based on current knowledge) molecular biology of mediastinal soft tissue tumors are not different from their counterparts in other organs. Characteristic features are more concerned with clinical epidemiological and therapeutic aspects as well as the multitude of possible differential diagnoses. With the exception of organ-specific tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), virtually all entities encountered in peripheral soft tissues can also arise in the mediastinum. Primary mediastinal soft tissue sarcomas (STS) must be distinguished from secondary radiation-induced STS after irradiation, e. g. for breast cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma and from STS arising as somatic type malignancies in mediastinal germ cell tumors. PMID:27488616

  17. Markers of bile duct tumors

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Paladina, Isabella; Rando, Alessandra; Uccello, Mario; Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Carnazzo, Santo; Alessandria, Innocenza; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract carcinomas are relatively rare, representing less than 1% of cancers. However, their incidence has increased in Japan and in industrialized countries like the USA. Biliary tract tumors have a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because they are usually detected late in the course of the disease; therapeutic treatment options are often limited and of minimal utility. Recent studies have shown the importance of serum and molecular markers in the diagnosis and follow up of biliary tract tumors. This review aims to introduce the main features of the most important serum and molecular markers of biliary tree tumors. Some considerable tumor markers are cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A, mucin 1, mucin 5, alpha-fetoprotein, claudins and cytokeratins. PMID:21528090

  18. Genetics Home Reference: desmoid tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition aggressive fibromatosis deep fibromatosis desmoid fibromatosis familial infiltrative fibromatosis ... catenin protein and somatic APC mutations in sporadic aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors). Am J Pathol. 1997 Aug; ...

  19. Cytogenetics of human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkernagel, S.W.; Kletz, T.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome studies of 55 brain tumors, including meningiomas, gliomas, astrocyomas and pituatary adenomas, were performed. Primary and first passage cultures were successfully obtained in 75% of these samples with an average of 18 G-banded metaphases analyzed per tumor. 44% of all the brain tumors showed numerical and or structural abnormalities. 46% of the primary and 38% of the first passage cultures showed similar numerical gains/losses and complex karyotypic changes. The most frequent numerical abnormalities (n {ge} 5) included loss of chromosomes 10, 22, and Y. The structural abnormalities most often seen involved 1p, 2, 5, 7, 17q and 19. This is an ongoing study which will attempt to correlate tumor type with specific karyotypic changes and to see if any of the observed chromosomal abnormalities provide prognostic indicators.

  20. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  1. Beet Tumor or Crown Wart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet tumor or crown wart has been reported from most beet growing areas, but is not considered an economic problem. This chapter describes the disease and the chytrid pathogen, Physoderma leproides....

  2. Desmoid tumors and deep fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Marcus

    2005-06-01

    Desmoid tumors (also called deep fibromatoses) are rare benign tumors associated with pregnancy and Gardner syndrome. These tumors are characterized by bland-appearing fibroblasts, indistinct margins, and an ability to cause pathology by local invasion and recurrence. They arise in the abdominal cavity, in the abdominal wall, or in the extremities/trunk, each with a slightly different biologic behavior. Though they are not cancer and do not metastasize, desmoids can cause significant morbidity and occasionally death through local/regional invasion of critical structures. Treatment primarily is surgical, although radiation or systemic therapy can be beneficial to the patient when surgery is not feasible. This article highlights the biology and clinical features of desmoid tumors.

  3. Nanoparticles: heating tumors to death?

    PubMed

    Vauthier, Christine; Tsapis, Nicolas; Couvreur, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Thermotherapy consisting of heating tumors to death appears to be a suitable method to achieve tumor ablation in a noninvasive manner with minimal side effects but developments were hampered because of the lack of specificity of the heating method. New interests have emerged by introducing nanoparticles as energy absorbent agents in tumor tissue to locally enhance the action of irradiation, hence increasing the specificity of the method. Mechanisms of tumor death depend on the nature of the nanoparticles and irradiation modalities. They can be induced either by heat-dependent or by heat-independent phenomena. As discussed in this article, it can reasonably be expected that the recent methods of thermotherapy developed with nanoparticles have a tremendous potential for cancer treatments. However, overcoming challenging milestones is now required before the method will be ready for the treatment of a wide range of cancers.

  4. [A case of multiple tumors].

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, H; Shibata, J; Murata, H; Yoshida, K; Fujiyama, S; Satoh, T; Kako, H; Takano, S; Misumi, A; Akagi, M

    1990-05-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for a further examination of rectal and liver tumors, after which a rectal cancer, a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a hemangioma of the liver a retroperitoneal cyst, and a submucosal tumor of the stomach (SMT) were diagnosed by means of a colonoscopy, a gastroscopy, and US, CT, and angiography, these tests also revealing elevated CEA and AFP levels. A hepatic subsegmentectomy and a Miles's operation, as well as an enucleation of other liver tumors and an SMT, were performed and a retroperitoneal cyst was removed. The histopathological finding of the rectal cancer was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, while the liver tumors were determined as being an HCC of the trabecular type, adenomatas revealing hyperplasia, a hemangioma, and the SMT showing a benign leiomyoblastoma.

  5. Primary tracheobronchial tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Varela, Patricio; Pio, Luca; Torre, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Primary tracheobronchial tumors are rare lesions that can be benign or malignant, with different location along the airway tree. Symptoms may include wheezing, chronic pneumonia, asthma, chest pain, recurrent cough, atelectasis, haemoptysis, and weight loss. Due to the heterogeneity of symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult and the airway involvement can lead progressively to a bronchial or tracheal obstruction. Due to the rarity of primary tracheobronchial tumors in children, there are not any oncological guidelines on pre-operative work-up, treatment, and follow-up. Only few reports and multicentric studies are reported. In most cases, surgical resection seems to be the treatment of choice. Brachytherapy, endoscopic treatment, and chemotherapy are rarely described. In this article we present an overview on these rare tumors, including pathological aspects, clinical presentation, imaging assessment, and endoscopic or open surgical treatments. We discuss different surgical approaches, according with tumor location. PMID:27301601

  6. Tracking Tumor Evolution through Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Mitch

    2016-04-01

    A recent study suggests that many cancers undergo neutral evolution, with all key mutations present at the start of malignancy. New mutations acquired along the way don't confer any advantages on tumor cells.

  7. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  8. Tumor suppression by stromal TIMPs.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Jackson, Hartland W; Khokha, Rama

    2016-05-01

    The tumor stroma has the capacity to drive cancer progression, although the mechanisms governing these effects are incompletely understood. Recently, we reported that deletion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (Timps) in fibroblasts unleashes the function of cancer-associated fibroblasts and identifies a novel mode of stromal-tumor communication that activates key oncogenic pathways invoving Notch and ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) via stromal exosomes. PMID:27314104

  9. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor during Pregnacy.

    PubMed

    Gözükara, Ilay; Dilek, T U Kutlu; Durukan, Hüseyin; Düsmez Apa, Duygu; Kabil Kucur, Suna; Dilek, Saffet

    2012-01-01

    Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms without connection to the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and EGIST are similar according to their clinicopathologic and histomorphologic features. Both of them most often express immunoreactivity for CD-117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein. The coexistence of GIST and pregnancy is very rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we presented the first EGIST case during pregnancy in the literature.

  10. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor during Pregnacy

    PubMed Central

    Gözükara, Ilay; Dilek, T. U. Kutlu; Durukan, Hüseyin; Düsmez Apa, Duygu; Kabil Kucur, Suna; Dilek, Saffet

    2012-01-01

    Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms without connection to the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and EGIST are similar according to their clinicopathologic and histomorphologic features. Both of them most often express immunoreactivity for CD-117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein. The coexistence of GIST and pregnancy is very rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we presented the first EGIST case during pregnancy in the literature. PMID:23119199

  11. Tumors of the submaxillary gland.

    PubMed

    Spiro, R H; Hajdu, S I; Strong, E W

    1976-10-01

    This study reviews a thirty year experience with 217 patients who had a tumor of the submaxillary gland, comprising about 9 per cent of all patients with salivary neoplasms seen during the same period. Most of the tumors were malignant (56 per cent), with adenoid cystic carcinoma predominating, but the histologic type most frequently encountered was benign mixed tumor (43 per cent). Median age was fifty-four years in patients with malignant tumors compared with forty-six years in those with benign tumors, and 58 per cent were women. Asymptomatic swelling was the usual presenting complaint, and the clinical findings are summarized using a staging system recently proposed for patients with parotid tumors. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in at least 50 per cent of patients who had an adenocarcinoma or epidermoid, mucoepidermoid, or anaplastic carcinoma. Treatment was surgical and complete gland excision proved adequate in those with benign tumors. Radical neck dissection was performed in conjunction with submaxillary resection in most patients with malignant lesions, but radical en bloc resection was reserved for those few who had extensive or fixed disease. Net determinate "cure" rates at five and ten years (30 and 20 per cent, respectively) are distressingly low and compare unfavorably with those previously reported in patients treated for carcinoma of the parotid. The high local recurrence rate and the greater incidence in the submaxillary gland of more aggressive tumor types which metastasize readily suggest that current treatment should be more radical. It seems reasonable to expect that results might be improved if en bloc resections were more often performed in patients with less advanced disease, possibly in conjuction with intensive postoperative irradiation in selected cases.

  12. [Undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma/ malignant fibrous histiocytoma associated a gouty tophus. a case report].

    PubMed

    Szlabi, Susana; Flores, Jorge O; Diller, Ana L de; Cabrera, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: La gota es una enfermedad metabólica por depósito de cristales de ácido úrico, que compromete articulaciones y tejidos blandos tanto en sus etapas agudas como crónicas. Constituye un suceso poco común la aparición de un tumor en el sitio propio de la lesión. Objetivo: presentar un caso de asociación infrecuente entre tofo gotoso y sarcoma. Material y métodos: hombre de 83 años que consultó por tumoración en codo izquierdo de aproximadamente 40 años de evolución, que comenzó a doler espontáneamente. Con la presunción diagnóstica de tofo gotoso se trató quirúrgicamente. La lesión recidivó a los 60 días, se realizó reintervención y radioterapia por diagnóstico de tumor mesenquimal maligno asociado a tofo gotoso. A los 10 meses desarrolló metástasis ganglionar homolateral, falleció antes de los 2 años de la consulta inicial. Resultados: El diagnóstico de la primer biopsia fue tofo gotoso. En el material de reintervención se diagnosticó tofo gotoso asociado a neoplasia mesenquimal fusocelular de alto grado; la inmunohistoquímica reveló: vimentina +/+, MYO D1 -/-, ASMA -/-, FVIII -/-, A1ATT -/-, CD68-/-, S100-/- con resultado diagnóstico final de sarcoma pleomórfico indiferenciado de alto grado. Conclusión: Es infrecuente que los tofos gotosos se asocien a otras enfermedades y menos que lo hagan a tumores. En la bibliografía se han reportado tres casos previos concurrentes con neoplasias, las cuales fueron angiosarcoma, tumor de células gigantes y fibrohistiocitoma maligno. Estos últimos tienen una alta tendencia a recidivar y poseen capacidad de dar metástasis, especialmente a pulmones y ganglios regionales. Palabras clave: tofo gotoso, fibrohistiocitoma maligno, sarcoma pleomórfico indiferenciado.

  13. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  14. Tumor formations in scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Y.; Bull, G.; Pichon, M.

    1984-03-01

    A highly localized incidence of skeletal malformations (tumors) in the scleractinian corals Platygyra pini and P. sinensis on an inshore fringing reef at Cockle Bay, Magnetic Island within the Great Barrier Reef province is reported. These tumors are typified by a localized area of increased growth rate resulting in roughly circular protuberances extending up to 4.5 cm above the colony's surface. In both species, similar proportions of their populations carried tumors (24.1 % in P. pini and 18.7 % in P. sinensis). Larger colonies (>80 cm in diameter) are at least 7 times more likely to possess tumors than smaller colonies (<40 cm in diameter). X-radiographs of the skeletal malformations indicate a point of origin, presumably from a single budded polyp with subsequent, localized, accelerated growth. The mean radial growth rate of the tumorous area was 29 % greater than that of the surrounding normal regions. In contrast to the normal tissue, the tumorous tissue exhibited proliferation of cells, atrophied gastrodermal cells and mesenterial filaments which were larger and disordered in structure. The environmental conditions at Cockle Bay are relatively extreme with high turbidity, periodic exposure of the reef flat, abrupt changes in salinity during the wet season and mechanical damage to corals caused by unpredictable cyclonic storms. It is suggested that a combination of environmental stresses coupled with an injury inflicted on the corals are possible stimuli that initiate the development of these abnormal growth through either bacterial attack or the development of an aberrant polyp during tissue repair.

  15. Adenomatoid tumor of the pleura.

    PubMed

    Minato, Hiroshi; Nojima, Takayuki; Kurose, Nozomu; Kinoshita, Eriko

    2009-08-01

    A case of adenomatoid tumor of the pleura is reported, and its differential diagnosis from benign and malignant pleural lesions is discussed. A small pleural nodule was incidentally found during a thoracic operation in a 54-year-old woman with esophageal cancer. The patient had no history of exposure to asbestos, and was well with no sign of recurrence 14 months after the operation. A 7 mm, circumscribed tumor had characteristic features of adenomatoid tumor. The tumor was composed of an aggregation of irregularly shaped tubulocystic spaces with fibrous stoma. The spaces were lined by flattened and occasional cuboidal epithelioid cells with cytoplasmic vacuolization, and several spaces contained pale blue mucinous fluid. On immunohistochemistry the tumor cells were positive for AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, vimentin, cytokeratin 5/6, D2-40, calretinin, thrombomodulin, and WT-1, but negative for CEA, Leu M1 (CD15), thyroid transcription factor-1, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), CD31, and CD34. The MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index was 1-2%, indicating low proliferative activity. Adenomatoid tumor of the pleura is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Recognition of these benign mesothelial lesions in the pleura is important to avoid misdiagnosis. The immunohistochemistry in the present case supports its mesothelial origin.

  16. Unraveling tumor grading and genomic landscape in lung neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Rindi, Guido; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-06-01

    Currently, grading in lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is inherently defined by the histological classification based on cell features, mitosis count, and necrosis, for which typical carcinoids (TC) are low-grade malignant tumors with long life expectation, atypical carcinoids (AC) intermediate-grade malignant tumors with more aggressive clinical behavior, and large cell NE carcinomas (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) high-grade malignant tumors with dismal prognosis. While Ki-67 antigen labeling index, highlighting the proportion of proliferating tumor cells, has largely been used in digestive NETs for assessing prognosis and assisting therapy decisions, the same marker does not play an established role in the diagnosis, grading, and prognosis of lung NETs. Next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), thanks to their astonishing ability to process in a shorter timeframe up to billions of DNA strands, are radically revolutionizing our approach to diagnosis and therapy of tumors, including lung cancer. When applied to single genes, panels of genes, exome, or the whole genome by using either frozen or paraffin tissues, NGS techniques increase our understanding of cancer, thus realizing the bases of precision medicine. Data are emerging that TC and AC are mainly altered in chromatin remodeling genes, whereas LCNEC and SCLC are also mutated in cell cycle checkpoint and cell differentiation regulators. A common denominator to all lung NETs is a deregulation of cell proliferation, which represents a biological rationale for morphologic (mitoses and necrosis) and molecular (Ki-67 antigen) parameters to successfully serve as predictors of tumor behavior (i.e., identification of pathological entities with clinical correlation). It is envisaged that a novel grading system in lung NETs based on the combined assessment of mitoses, necrosis, and Ki-67 LI may offer a better stratification of prognostic classes, realizing a bridge between molecular alterations

  17. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  18. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  19. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Schempf, H.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  20. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  1. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Shen, Shanxiang; Smith, Prudence; Khalil, Farah K.

    2016-01-01

    Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing.

  2. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Shen, Shanxiang; Smith, Prudence; Khalil, Farah K.

    2016-01-01

    Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing. PMID:27597976

  3. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dahui; Zheng, Zhong; Shen, Shanxiang; Smith, Prudence; Khalil, Farah K

    2016-01-01

    Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing. PMID:27597976

  4. Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.

    2004-09-07

    The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

  5. Pecking order among tumor-specific antigens.

    PubMed

    Urban, J L; Van Waes, C; Schreiber, H

    1984-02-01

    The ultraviolet light-induced fibrosarcoma 1591 is regularly rejected upon transplantation into young syngeneic mice; in rare instances, however, this tumor grows progressively and the tumors that develop are then heritably stable variant progressor tumors (1591-PRO tumors). In this study, we have induced transplantation resistance to 1591-PRO tumors and determined which antigens were recognized by mice that rejected these progressor tumors. We found that cytolytic T cells of such mice recognized a 1591-specific antigen that was present not only on all the independently derived 1591-PRO tumors but also on the parental regressor tumor (1591-RE). However, the cytolytic immune response of mice that rejected 1591-RE lysed 1591-RE tumor cells but not 1591-PRO tumor cells. Thus, the 1591-RE tumor seemed to express two antigens that were specific for tumors of the 1591 lineage, one that was lost and a second that was retained by 1591-PRO tumor cells. Mice challenged with 1591-R# tumor cells mounted a response to only one of the tumor-specific antigens which was therefore "immunodominant" over the other "immunorecessive" antigen. This immunorecessive antigen became the target of the immune response once the immunodominant antigen was lost. This "pecking order" interfered with the simultaneous recognition of two tumor-specific antigens and this mechanism may favor immune escape.

  6. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  7. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned....

  8. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned....

  9. Protective Effects of Dracocephalum heterophyllum in ConA-Induced Acute Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qilan; Lu, Xiaohua; Shi, Qiangqiang; Zou, Junhui

    2016-01-01

    Dracocephalum heterophyllum (DH) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in treating hepatitis. However, the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of DH in hepatitis are unknown. In this study, we found that pretreatment with DH extract significantly ameliorated liver injury and suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in Concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced hepatitis (CIH). DH recruited more CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the liver and suppressed infiltration of macrophages (Kupffer cells) in the liver. The present work explores DH as an effective hepatoprotective medicine to inhibit inflammation and liver injury caused by hepatitis. PMID:27524863

  10. Estudio de NIH señala relación de la TC en la infancia con leucemia y cáncer de cerebro más tarde

    Cancer.gov

    Niños y adultos jóvenes a quienes se les hicieron exploraciones muchas veces con tomografía computarizada (TC), una herramienta de diagnóstico de uso frecuente, tienen un riesgo ligeramente mayor de padecer leucemia y tumores cerebrales en la década poste

  11. Can We Negotiate with a Tumor?

    PubMed Central

    Deschatrette, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in deciphering the molecular portraits of tumors promises an era of more personalized drug choices. However, current protocols still follow standard fixed-time schedules, which is not entirely coherent with the common observation that most tumors do not grow continuously. This unpredictability of the increases in tumor mass is not necessarily an obstacle to therapeutic efficiency, particularly if tumor dynamics could be exploited. We propose a model of tumor mass evolution as the integrated result of the dynamics of two linked complex systems, tumor cell population and tumor microenvironment, and show the practical relevance of this nonlinear approach. PMID:25084359

  12. Imaging tumors of the minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, T; Minami, M; Ozawa, K; Akimoto, Y; Okada, M; Yamamoto, H; Suzuki, H; Sasaki, Y

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging evaluations of nine histopathologically confirmed minor salivary gland tumors were made retrospectively and compared with evaluations of images obtained by computed tomography. All tumors had low-to-intermediate T1 signal intensities and intermediate-to-high T2 signal intensities. Malignant tumors had an irregular margin in all but one case. Benign tumors invariably had well-defined margins. In terms of tumor margination, the magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated well with the histopathologic findings. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the internal architecture of the minor salivary gland tumors multidirectionally and was superior to computed tomography in this respect and in the ability to locate the tumors.

  13. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid Bousquet, Guilhem; Marsiglia, Hugo; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Magne, Nicolas; Malard, Yann; Lacroix, Magalie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Senkus, Elzbieta; Christie, David; Drumea, Karen; Lagneau, Edouard; Kadish, Sidney P.; Scandolaro, Luciano; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

  14. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  15. Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaer, David A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2014-01-01

    With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

  16. Combinación de radioterapia con quimioterapia mejora la supervivencia con raro cáncer cerebral

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de dos estudios clínicos de seguimiento a largo plazo confirman que ciertos pacientes viven substancialmente más si se les trata con una combinación de quimioterapia y radioterapia en comparación con radioterapia solamente.

  17. [Pituitary tumors: 10 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Cecenarro, Laura Anahi; Rodrigo Fanton, Elica Tatiana; Estario, Paula; Papalini, Roque Francisco; Estario, María Éugenia

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Los tumores hipofisarios comprenden la cuarta parte de las neoplasias intracraneales y los adenomas son el mayor porcentaje de ellos. Son de naturaleza benigna, pero pueden ser invasivos y producir impacto en la morbi-mortalidad. Objetivo: analizar las características clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de adenomas hipofisarios y crear un registro computarizado para mejorar las estrategias de diagnóstico y seguimiento de estos pacientes. Metodología: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo, descriptivo, de 102 historias clínicas sobre un total de 191 pacientes que concurrieron al servicio de endocrinología desde el año 2003 al 2014 . Las variables fueron analizadas mediante las correspondientes estadísticas descriptivas. Se utilizó el programa SPSS 11.5. Resultados: El 63% fueron mujeres, y el mayor porcentaje etario entre 25-60 años (74.4%). El 54% correspondió a adenomas no funcionantes, el 28% a prolactinomas, el 11.8% somatotropinomas y el 6.2% corticotropinomas. En todos los tipos el grupo femenino fue mayoritario, excepto en los no funcionantes. De los adenomas no funcionantes el 79% fueron macroadenomas, los prolactinomas el 52% fueron microadenomas y se realizó cirugía en el 37% de ellos. Los somatotropinomas, en el 80% fueron macroadenomas, se operó el 80% de los pacientes y radioterapia al 40%. En los corticotropinomas, tanto micro como macroadenomas se presentaron en igual porcentaje (50%) y todos ellos recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico. Conclusión: Los hallazgos coinciden con la literatura en cuanto a frecuencia y edad de presentación de los adenomas. Consideramos valioso la elaboración de un registro que nos permita optimizar el seguimiento y tratamiento de los pacientes, la investigación y divulgación científica.

  18. Scintigraphic differentiation of intrahepatic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Creutzig, H.; Brolsch, C.; Gratz, K.; Neuhaus, P.; Muller, St.; Schober, O.; Lang, W.; Hundeshagen, H.; Pichlmayr, R.

    1984-01-01

    Intrahepatic tumors in asymptomatic patients are seen with increasing frequency. Treatment is dependent of the histology; while follicular nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hemangiomas need no further treatment, all other tumors should be resected. In a prospective study we investigated the usefulness of two-stage scintigraphy (TSS) for the differentiation. The cholescintigraphy was started with a perfusion study, followed by a scan in the parenchymal phase and in the excretion phase. There is a typical scintigraphic pattern for FNH (hyperperfusion, normal parenchymal uptake delayed excretion) and hemangioma (hypoperfusion, no uptake), while all other tumors may have a mixed pattern. Therefore a blood pool is added to look for a hemangioma, if there is no typical pattern for FNH in the cholescintigraphy. The TSS classified correct 21 of 23 patients with FNH, 17 of 18 with hemangiomas, all 3 with adenoma and 36 of 37 with primary malignant intrahepatic tumors. The TSS is more accurate than CT or sonography, safe and inexpensive and therefore the method of first choice in the differentiation of intrahepatic tumors.

  19. The exosomes in tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanfang; Gu, Yan; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are a kind of nanometric membrane vesicles and can be released by almost all kinds of cells, including cancer cells. As the important mediators in intercellular communications, exosomes mediate exchange of protein and genetic material derived from parental cells. Emerging evidences show that exosomes secreted by either host cells or cancer cells are involved in tumor initiation, growth, invasion and metastasis. Moreover, communications between immune cells and cancer cells via exosomes play dual roles in modulating tumor immunity. In this review, we focus on exosome-mediated immunosuppression via inhibition of antitumor responses elicited by immune cells (DCs, NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, etc.) and induction of immunosuppressive or regulatory cell populations (MDSCs, Tregs and Bregs). Transfer of cytokines, microRNAs (miRNAs) and functional mRNAs by tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) is crucial in the immune escape. Furthermore, exosomes secreted from several kinds of immune cells (DCs, CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs) also participate in immunosuppression. On the other hand, we summarize the current application of DC-derived and modified tumor-derived exosomes as tumor vaccines. The potential challenges about exosome-based vaccines for clinical application are also discussed. PMID:26405598

  20. [Cartilage tumors : Pathology and radiomorphology].

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Herget, G; Kurz, P

    2016-06-01

    Primary cartilage-forming tumors of the bone are frequent entities in the daily work of skeletal radiologists. This article describes the correlation of pathology and radiology in cartilage-forming skeletal tumors, in particular, enchondroma, osteochondroma, periosteal chondromas, chondroblastoma and various forms of chondrosarcoma. After reading, the radiologist should be able to deduce the different patterns of cartilage tumors on radiographs, CT, and MRI from the pathological aspects. Differentiation of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Some imaging parameters, e. g., deep cortical scalloping (more than two thirds of the cortical thickness), cortical destruction, or a soft-tissue mass, are features of a sarcoma. Osteochondromas are bony protrusions with a continuous extension of bone marrow from the parent bone, the host cortical bone runs continuously from the osseous surface of the tumor into the shaft of the osteochondroma and the osteochondroma has a cartilage cap. Chondromyxoid fibromas are well-defined lytic and eccentric lesions of the metaphysis of the long bones, with nonspecific MRI findings. Chondroblastomas have a strong predilection for the epiphysis of long tubular bones and develop an intense perifocal bone marrow edema. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are bimorphic lesions with a low-grade chondrogenic component and a high-grade noncartilaginous component. Most chondrogenic tumors have a predilection with regard to site and age at manifestation. PMID:27233920

  1. Radiolabeled antibodies in gynecologic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.G.; Perkins, A.C.; Symonds, E.M.; Wastie, M.L.; Pimm, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been raised against an osteogenic sarcoma cell line and radiolabeled with iodine-131. The antibody was administered to 12 patients with suspected ovarian tumors, two with recurrent carcinoma of the cervix and one with carcinoma of the body of the uterus. Each patient received an intravenous dose of 70 MBq I-131-labeled antibody and was imaged either 24 or 48 hours later. Image enhancement was achieved by subtraction of background activity using Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells and pertechnetate. In eleven patients with ovarian malignancies antibody uptake was detected at the suspected tumor sites, and agreed with the operative findings in the eight patients who subsequently underwent surgery. The patient in whom the antibody failed to localize was found to have a benign lesion. Uptake of antibody was seen at the tumor sites in the patients with carcinoma of the cervix and body of the uterus. The localization of tumor sites using I-131-labeled antibodies is difficult due to background activity, particularly from radioiodine in the bladder. In only five cases could the abnormal antibody concentration be identified on the iodine images alone. This problem was overcome by the use of background subtraction techniques. Immunoscintigraphy is proving useful for the assessment of tumor recurrence and as an aid to radiotherapy treatment planning.

  2. Metastasis and Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    van Dalum, Guus; Holland, Linda; Terstappen, Leon Wmm

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be found in venous blood. These circulating tumor cells are part of the metastatic cascade. Clinical studies have shown that these cells can be used to predict treatment response and their presence is strongly associated with poor survival prospects. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs is important as this can help clinicians make more informed decisions when choosing or evaluating treatment. CTC counts are being included in an increasing number of studies and thus are becoming a bigger part of disease diagnosis and therapy management. We present an overview of the most prominent CTC enumeration and characterization methods and discuss the assumptions made about the CTC phenotype. Extensive CTC characterization of for example the DNA, RNA and antigen expression may lead to more understanding of the metastatic process.

  3. Metastasis and Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dalum, Guus; Holland, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be found in venous blood. These circulating tumor cells are part of the metastatic cascade. Clinical studies have shown that these cells can be used to predict treatment response and their presence is strongly associated with poor survival prospects. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs is important as this can help clinicians make more informed decisions when choosing or evaluating treatment. CTC counts are being included in an increasing number of studies and thus are becoming a bigger part of disease diagnosis and therapy management. We present an overview of the most prominent CTC enumeration and characterization methods and discuss the assumptions made about the CTC phenotype. Extensive CTC characterization of for example the DNA, RNA and antigen expression may lead to more understanding of the metastatic process. PMID:27683421

  4. Metastasis and Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dalum, Guus; Holland, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be found in venous blood. These circulating tumor cells are part of the metastatic cascade. Clinical studies have shown that these cells can be used to predict treatment response and their presence is strongly associated with poor survival prospects. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs is important as this can help clinicians make more informed decisions when choosing or evaluating treatment. CTC counts are being included in an increasing number of studies and thus are becoming a bigger part of disease diagnosis and therapy management. We present an overview of the most prominent CTC enumeration and characterization methods and discuss the assumptions made about the CTC phenotype. Extensive CTC characterization of for example the DNA, RNA and antigen expression may lead to more understanding of the metastatic process.

  5. The relationship between nuclear DNA content in salivary gland tumors and prognosis. Comparison of mucoepidermoid tumors and acinic cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Hamper, K; Caselitz, J; Arps, H; Askensten, U; Auer, G; Seifert, G

    1989-01-01

    Differences in prognosis between salivary gland mucoepidermoid tumors and acinic cell tumors were compared by means of conventional histopathological grading and nuclear DNA content which was assessed cytochemically by a scanning cytophotometric procedure. The mucoepidermoid tumors were found to show a stronger correlation between histopathological grading and prognosis than did the acinic cell tumors. By using DNA quantification, valuable additional information could be obtained for predicting the behavior of the mucoepidermoid tumors, whereas there was no correlation between DNA content and prognosis for the acinic cell tumors. Regarding the relatively "benign" clinical course of most mucoepidermoid tumors, the term "tumor"--as proposed by the World Health Organization's classification--seems appropriate. In contrast, the more severe clinical courses of the acinic cell tumors justify the use of the term "carcinoma" instead.

  6. Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  7. Loci controlling lymphocyte production of interferon c after alloantigen stimulation in vitro and their co-localization with genes controlling lymphocyte infiltration of tumors and tumor susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Lipoldová, Marie; Havelková, Helena; Badalova, Jana; Vojtísková, Jarmila; Quan, Lei; Krulova, Magdaléna; Sohrabi, Yahya; Stassen, Alphons P; Demant, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Low infiltration of lymphocytes into cancers is associated with poor prognosis, but the reasons why some patients exhibit a low and others a high infiltration of tumors are unknown. Previously we mapped four loci (Lynf1–Lynf4) controlling lymphocyte infiltration of mouse lung tumors. These loci do not encode any of the molecules that are involved in traffic of lymphocytes. Here we report a genetic relationship between these loci and the control of production of IFNγ in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). We found that IFNγ production by lymphocytes of O20/A mice is lower than by lymphocytes of OcB-9/Dem mice (both H2pz) stimulated in MLC by irradiated splenocytes of C57BL/10SnPh (H2b) or BALB/ cHeA (H2d) mice, or by ConA. IFNγ production in MLCs of individual (O20 9 OcB-9)F2mice stimulated by irradiated C57BL/10 splenocytes and genotyped for microsatellite markers revealed four IFNγ-controlling loci (Cypr4-Cypr7), each of which is closely linked with one of the four Lynf loci and with a cluster of susceptibility genes for different tumors. This suggests that inherited differences in certain lymphocyte responses may modify their propensity to infiltrate tumors and their capacity to affect tumor growth.

  8. Reliability of nutritional assessment in patients with gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Fruchtenicht, Ana Valeria Gonçalves; Kabke, Georgia Brum; Volkweis, Bernardo Silveira; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal cancer and malnutrition are less likely to tolerate major surgical procedures, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. In general, they display a higher incidence of complications such as infection, dehiscence and sepsis, which increases the length of stay and risk of death, and reduces quality of life. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of different points of view to assess nutritional risk in patients with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumors and their viability, considering the current understanding and screening approaches in the field. A better combination of anthropometric, laboratory and subjective evaluations is needed in patients with GIT cancer, since malnutrition in these patients is usually much more severe than in those patients with tumors at sites other than the GIT. RESUMO Pacientes com neoplasia gastrointestinal e desnutridos são menos propensos a tolerar procedimentos cirúrgicos de grande porte, radioterapia ou quimioterapia. Em geral, apresentam maior incidência de complicações, como infecção, deiscência e sepse, o que aumenta o tempo de internação e o risco de morte, e reduz a qualidade de vida. O objetivo desta revisão é abordar os prós e contras de diferentes pontos de vista que avaliam risco nutricional em pacientes com tumores do Trato Gastrointestinal (TGI) e sua viabilidade, considerando o atual entendimento e abordagens de triagem neste campo. Melhor combinação de avaliações antropométricas, laboratoriais e subjetivas se faz necessária em pacientes com câncer do TGI, uma vez que a desnutrição nestes pacientes costuma ser muito mais grave do que naqueles indivíduos com tumores em outros sítios que não o TGI. PMID:27556544

  9. Tumor Suppressor Analysis in CML.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Oliver; Schemionek, Mirle

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral models have tremendously contributed to our understanding of CML development and have been indispensable for preclinical drug testing which facilitated the implementation of a targeted therapy. The retroviral insertion of Bcr-Abl into mice that are genetically depleted for a potential tumor suppressor is a tool to test for a specific gene function in Bcr-Abl disease. Here we describe how to generate a Bcr-Abl retrovirus that is subsequently used for infection of primary murine BM cells, which are genetically depleted for a potential tumor suppressor gene. We will suggest control experiments and outline further methods that are required to allow for assessment of disease development upon tumor suppressor knockout in CML. PMID:27581141

  10. Notch Signaling in Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Judy S.; Singleton, Ciera S.; Miele, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoids and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract, endocrine pancreas, and the respiratory system. NETs remain significantly understudied with respect to molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, particularly the role of cell fate signaling systems such as Notch. The abundance of literature on the Notch pathway is a testament to its complexity in different cellular environments. Notch receptors can function as oncogenes in some contexts and tumor suppressors in others. The genetic heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the roles and the potential therapeutic implications of Notch signaling in NETs, a comprehensive analysis of Notch expression patterns and potential roles across all NET subtypes is required. PMID:27148486

  11. Update on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Logan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are relatively rare tumors comprising 1-2% of all pancreas neoplasms. In the last 10 years our understanding of this disease has increased dramatically allowing for advancements in the treatment of pNETs. Surgical excision remains the primary therapy for localized tumors and only potential for cure. New surgical techniques using laparoscopic approaches to complex pancreatic resections are a major advancement in surgical therapy and increasingly possible. With early detection being less common, most patients present with metastatic disease. Management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care combining the best of surgery, chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. In addition to surgical advances, recently, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy and targeted molecular therapy. PMID:25493258

  12. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  13. Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YAN-JIE; JU, QIANG; LI, GUAN-CHENG

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. HCC affects approximately one million individuals annually worldwide, with the incidence equal to the mortality rate. In 2008, HCC was listed as the third most lethal cancer. Thus, early diagnosis is crucial for improving the survival rate for patients. α-fetoprotein (AFP) together with iconography and pathology detection are commonly used in the clinical early diagnosis of liver cancer. However, the specificity and sensitivity of AFP used in screening for liver cancer are not satisfactory. Athough the development of molecular biology has led to the identification of new tumor markers, including proteantigens, cytokines, enzymes and isoenzymes, as well as related genes that can be used in the treatment and prognosis of liver cancer, more tumor markers are required for effective early diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the curative effect. PMID:24649215

  14. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  15. An unusual retroperitoneal cystic tumor.

    PubMed

    Salinas Sánchez, A S; Lorenzo Romero, J G; Segura Martín, M; Hernández Millán, I R; Pastor Guzmán, J M; Virseda Rodríguez, J A

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a case of textiloma (term given to an inflammatory swelling caused by a retained textile foreign body) in a 60-year-old patient who had undergone surgery for a perforated gastroduodenal ulcer 17 years earlier. On examination the presence of a large mass was detected on the left hypochondria. A CT scan confirmed a cystic tumor with images suggesting detritus or necrosis in its lower part, as well as calcifications. Transperitoneal midline laparotomy was performed with extension by thoracophrenolaparotomy. Splenectomy was necessary. Macroscopic examination showed a spherical mass. After opening the tumor, retained surgical gauze was found. The histopathological diagnosis was granulomatosis reaction to a foreign body.

  16. Maintaining Tumor Heterogeneity in Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, John W; Caldas, Carlos; Bruna, Alejandra

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical models often fail to capture the diverse heterogeneity of human malignancies and as such lack clinical predictive power. Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX) have emerged as a powerful technology: capable of retaining the molecular heterogeneity of their originating sample. However, heterogeneity within a tumor is governed by both cell-autonomous (e.g., genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity) and non-cell-autonomous (e.g., stromal heterogeneity) drivers. Although PDXs can largely recapitulate the polygenomic architecture of human tumors, they do not fully account for heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment. Hence, these models have substantial utility in basic and translational research in cancer biology; however, study of stromal or immune drivers of malignant progression may be limited. Similarly, PDX models offer the ability to conduct patient-specific in vivo and ex vivo drug screens, but stromal contributions to treatment responses may be under-represented. This review discusses the sources and consequences of intratumor heterogeneity and how these are recapitulated in the PDX model. Limitations of the current generation of PDXs are discussed and strategies to improve several aspects of the model with respect to preserving heterogeneity are proposed.

  17. Role of mast cells in tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Conti, Pio; Castellani, Maria L; Kempuraj, Durasamy; Salini, Vincenzo; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Tetè, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Perrella, Alessandro; De Lutiis, Maria Anna; Tagen, Michael; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2007-01-01

    The growth of malignant tumors is determined in large part by the proliferative capacity of the tumor cells. Clinical observations and animal experiments have established that tumor cells elicit immune responses. Histopathologic studies show that many tumors are surrounded by mononuclear cell and mast cell infiltrates. Mast cells are ubiquitous in the body and are critical for allergic reactions. Increasing evidence indicates that mast cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines and are involved in neuro-inflammatory processes and cancer. Mast cells accumulate in the stroma surrounding certain tumors, especially mammary adenocarcinoma, and the molecules they secrete can benefit the tumor. However, mast cells can also increase at the site of tumor growth and participate in tumor rejection. Mast cells may be recruited by tumor-derived chemoattractants and selectively secrete molecules such as growth factors, histamine, heparin, VEGF, and IL-8, as well as proteases that permit the formation of new blood vessels and metastases. Tumor mast cell intersections play regulatory and modulatory roles affecting various aspects of tumor growth. Discovery of these new roles of mast cells further complicates the understanding of tumor growth. This review focuses on the strategic importance of mast cells to the progression of tumors, and proposes a revised immune effector mechanism of mast cell involvement in tumor growth. PMID:18000287

  18. [Subconjunctival chemotherapy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Experimental study of 3 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Melgares-Ramos, María de los Ángeles; Carnesoltas-Lázaro, Deyanira; Silveira-Melgares, Yiliam Suyen; Domínguez-Odio, Aníbal

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el carcinoma escamoso de la conjuntiva (CEC) es un tumor maligno epitelial de la mucosa conjuntival, de etiología multifactorial. Existen varias alternativas de tratamiento para el control de esta enfermedad con diferentes resultados terapéuticos. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta antitumoral de la preparación de una formulación de cisplatino en 3 pacientes con HIV y CEC recidivante, candidatos a tratamiento de enucleación y exenteración orbitaria, y evaluar los efectos adversos que se presentaron con la administración de la formulación aplicada. Métodos: fueron tratados 3 pacientes masculinos, caucásicos, con media de edad 37 años, a los que se les realizó cirugía exerética y se les administraron 3 ciclos de quimioterapia subconjuntival, con duración de 3 meses. Resultados: todos los pacientes conservaron sus ojos y la visión. No hubo persistencia ni aparecieron recidivas tumorales durante el periodo evaluado. Un paciente falleció por progresión del HIV 2 años después de finalizado el tratamiento, mantuvo visión conservada y sin actividad tumoral. Conclusión: el tratamiento con quimioterapia subconjuntival adyuvante a la cirugía resulta eficaz y es tolerable en la población de pacientes tratados.

  19. Ceramide Kinase Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Mammary Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ania W.; Pant, Dhruv K.; Pan, Tien-chi; Chodosh, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that Ceramide Kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously up-regulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly up-regulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu down-regulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu down-regulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from over 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. Additionally, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are ER–, HER2+, basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathological variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this pro-survival pathway. PMID:25164007

  20. Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction Tumor: A Treatment Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Noman; Hoffe, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) has been increasing in developed countries. Although complete surgical resection remains the cornerstone of treatment for resectable disease, long-term outcomes are poor and recurrence rates are high with surgery alone in patients presenting with locally advanced disease. Multimodal therapy has been shown to improve survival; however, the optimal therapeutic approach remains controversial, and practices vary across the world. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is generally used in the U.S., whereas perioperative chemotherapy without radiation is favored in most European countries. In this review, we discuss why the treatment of locally advanced GEJ tumors remains controversial, examine the evidence for various multimodal approaches, discuss their respective pros and cons, evaluate the role of radiation therapy, highlight some ongoing and planned clinical trials, and suggest areas that need further research. PMID:25561508

  1. Adaptive (TINT) Changes in the Tumor Bearing Organ Are Related to Prostate Tumor Size and Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Hanibal Hani; Strömvall, Kerstin; Nilsson, Maria; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to grow, tumors need to induce supportive alterations in the tumor-bearing organ, by us named tumor instructed normal tissue (TINT) changes. We now examined if the nature and magnitude of these responses were related to tumor size and aggressiveness. Three different Dunning rat prostate tumor cells were implanted into the prostate of immune-competent rats; 1) fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu tumor cells 2) fast growing and poorly metastatic AT-1 tumor cells, and 3) slow growing and non-metastatic G tumor cells. All tumor types induced increases in macrophage, mast cell and vascular densities and in vascular cell-proliferation in the tumor-bearing prostate lobe compared to controls. These increases occurred in parallel with tumor growth. The most pronounced and rapid responses were seen in the prostate tissue surrounding MatLyLu tumors. They were, also when small, particularly effective in attracting macrophages and stimulating growth of not only micro-vessels but also small arteries and veins compared to the less aggressive AT-1 and G tumors. The nature and magnitude of tumor-induced changes in the tumor-bearing organ are related to tumor size but also to tumor aggressiveness. These findings, supported by previous observation in patient samples, suggest that one additional way to evaluate prostate tumor aggressiveness could be to monitor its effect on adjacent tissues. PMID:26536349

  2. Interfractional Variations of Tumor Centroid Position and Tumor Regression during Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Yufei; Cheng, Siguo; Guo, Wei; Ye, Ke; Zhao, Huiyun; Zheng, Xiaoli; Li, Dingjie; Wang, Shujuan; Yang, Chengliang; Ge, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine interfractional changes of lung tumor centroid position and tumor regression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials. 34 patients were treated by SBRT in 4-5 fractions to a median dose of 50 Gy. The CT scans acquired for verification were registered with simulation CT scans. The gross target volume (GTV) was contoured on all verification CT scans and compared to the initial GTV in treatment plan system. Results. The mean (±standard deviation, SD) three-dimension vector shift was 5.2 ± 3.1 mm. The mean (±SD) interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were −0.7 ± 4.5 mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction, 0.2 ± 3.1 mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction, and 0.4 ± 2.4 mm in right-left (RL) direction. Large interfractional variations (≥5 mm) were observed in 5 fractions (3.3%) in RL direction, 16 fractions (10.5%) in SI direction, and 36 fractions (23.5%) in AP direction. Tumor volume did not decrease significantly during lung SBRT. Conclusions. Small but insignificant tumor volume regression was observed during lung SBRT. While the mean interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were minimal in three directions, variations more than 5 mm account for approximately a third of all, indicating additional margin for PTV, especially in AP direction. PMID:25548770

  3. [Ultrasonographic study of rectal carcinoid tumors].

    PubMed

    Nomura, M; Fujita, N; Matsunaga, A; Ando, M; Tominaga, G; Noda, Y; Kobayashi, G; Kimura, K; Yuki, T; Ishida, K; Yago, A; Mochizuki, F; Chonan, A

    1996-11-01

    To compare intraluminal ultrasonographic (ILUS) findings with histological findings of rectal carcinoid tumors, 35 patients with rectal carcinoid tumors were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1) The rectal wall was visualized as a seven- or nine-layer structure by means of ILUS in 81% of the patients. 2) The possibility that the thin hyperechoic third layer above the tumor on ILUS corresponds to the muscularis mucosae and fibrointerstitium above the tumor histologically. 3) In cases with relatively high internal echoes, the amount of fibrointerstitium exceeded that of tumor cells histologically. 4) In cases with nonuniform internal echo patterns, tumor cells were separated by thick fibrointerstitium forming nodular nests.

  4. [Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Allory, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

  5. Therapeutic Targeting of Tumor Suppressor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Luc G. T.; Chan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process attributable to both gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Currently, most molecular targeted therapies are inhibitors of oncogenes, because inactivated tumor suppressor genes have proven harder to “drug.” Nevertheless, in cancers, tumor suppressor genes undergo alteration more frequently than do oncogenes. In recent years, several promising strategies directed at tumor suppressor genes, or the pathways controlled by these genes, have emerged. Here, we describe advances in a number of different methodologies aimed at therapeutically targeting tumors driven by inactivated tumor suppressor genes. PMID:25557041

  6. H-2 restriction of the T cell response to chemically induced tumors: evidence from F/sub 1/. -->. parent chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Lannin, D.R.; Yu, S.; McKhann, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    It has been well established that T cells that react to tumor antigen on virus-induced tumors must share H-2D or H-2K specificities with the tumor. It has been impossible to perform similar studies with chemically induced tumors because each chemically induced tumor expresses a unique tumor antigen that cannot be studied in association with other H-2 types. This study provies evidence that H-2 recognition is also necessary for recognition of chemically induced tumors. We have found that F/sub 1/ ..-->.. parent chimeras preferentially recognize chemically induced tumors of parental H-2 type. C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6 mice were lethally irradiated and restored with (C3H x C57BL/6) F/sub 1/ hybrid bone marrow. The F/sub 1/ ..-->.. C3H chimera but not the F/sub 1/ ..-->.. C57BL/6 chimera was able to respond to a C3H fibrosarcoma in mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell culture and also to neutralize the tumor in an in vivo tumor neutralization assay. On the other hand, the F/sub 1/ ..-->.. C57BL/6 chimera but not the F/sub 1/ ..-->.. C3H chimera was able to kill the C57BL/6 lymphoma EL4 in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Both chimeras were tolerant to C3H and C57BL/6 alloantigens but could respond normally to Con A and to BALB/c spleen cells in mixed lymphocyte cultures and cytotoxicity assay.

  7. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  8. [Endometriosis-related ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, D; Ulrich, U

    2014-07-01

    Endometriosis is a frequent gynecological disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It affects the gynecological organs and the peritoneum with varying frequency and can lead to severe symptoms, mainly pain and to infertility. Despite the fact that causal therapy is not feasible diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are necessary in many cases. In a small percentage of cases endometriosis is associated with neoplastic disease and in some cases it might develop into a neoplasm via the stage of atypical endometriosis, notably in the ovaries. Tumors which are most frequently associated with endometriosis are endometrioid carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and low grade serous carcinoma. According to some authors tumors associated with endometriosis have a better prognosis than those without. Other tumors are Mullerian adenosarcoma, endometrioid stromal sarcoma, and seromucinous borderline tumor. In addition to the morphological findings more recent molecular findings serve to demonstrate the origin of the different types of carcinoma from endometriosis. In both endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) can be found in different gene loci. Mutations in CTNNB1 (beta catenin), PTEN, KRAS and ARID1a genes have been demonstrated in endometrioid carcinoma. Cases of clear cell carcinoma have been characterized by mutations of ARID1a gene, PIK3CA and less frequently PPP2R1A and KRAS.

  9. Heme Oxygenase-1 in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    JOZKOWICZ, ALICJA; WAS, HALINA; DULAK, JOZEF

    2007-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the oxidation of heme to biologically active products: carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and ferrous iron. It participates in maintaining cellular homeostasis and plays an important protective role in the tissues by reducing oxidative injury, attenuating the inflammatory response, inhibiting cell apoptosis, and regulating cell proliferation. HO-1 is also an important proangiogenic mediator. Most studies have focused on the role of HO-1 in cardiovascular diseases, in which its significant, beneficial activity is well recognized. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that HO-1 activation may play a role in carcinogenesis and can potently influence the growth and metastasis of tumors. HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. Although the exact effect can be tissue specific, HO-1 can be regarded as an enzyme facilitating tumor progression. Accordingly, inhibition of HO-1 can be suggested as a potential therapeutic approach sensitizing tumors to radiation, chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. PMID:17822372

  10. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  11. [Surgery for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Chikashi; Egawa, Shin-Ichi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Morikawa, Takanori; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasaki, Iwao

    2012-11-01

    Approximately half of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are nonfunctioning, and insulinoma and gastrinoma are frequent forms of functioning tumors. The treatment of patients with PNETs should be based on the consideration that more than half are malignant except for insulinomas. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is often complicated with gastrinoma. Endoscopic ultrasound and somatostain receptor scintigraphy are useful in diagnosing PNETs, and the selective arterial secretagogue injection test is performed if necessary. WHO2010 is available as a histopathologic grading system of malignancy. Although surgical resection should first be considered as a treatment for PNETs, liver metastasis is a major factor hindering resection. In Japan, the choices of drugs to treat liver metastases are too few. In patients with MEN1 in whom PNETS are frequently multiple, we should perform procedures that preserve pancreatic function, although some patients may require total pancreatectomy for the complete resection of tumors. The indications for total pancreatectomy should be determined individually based on the tumor status and patient age. PMID:23330458

  12. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  13. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Adam D; Ki, Dong Hyuk; He, Shuning; Look, A Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are tumors derived from Schwann cells or Schwann cell precursors. Although rare overall, the incidence of MPNST has increased with improved clinical management of patients with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor predisposition syndrome. Unfortunately, current treatment modalities for MPNST are limited, with no targeted therapies available and poor efficacy of conventional radiation and chemotherapeutic regimens. Many murine and zebrafish models of MPNST have been developed, which have helped to elucidate the genes and pathways that are dysregulated in MPNST tumorigenesis, including the p53, and the RB1, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, RAS-ERK and Wnt signaling pathways. Preclinical results have suggested that new therapies, including mTOR and ERK inhibitors, may synergize with conventional chemotherapy in human tumors. The discovery of new genome editing technologies, like CRISPR-cas9, and their successful application to the zebrafish model will enable rapid progress in the faithful modeling of MPNST molecular pathogenesis. The zebrafish model is especially suited for high throughput screening of new targeted therapeutics as well as drugs approved for other purposes, which may help to bring enhanced treatment modalities into human clinical trials for this devastating disease. PMID:27165368

  14. Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

    2000-01-01

    Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

  15. [CA 125--a tumor marker?].

    PubMed

    Pabst, T; Ludwig, C

    1995-06-17

    Tumor markers are useful tools in monitoring malignancies postoperatively or under hormone-/chemotherapy. In contrast, they usually lack diagnostic relevance and uncritical use may result in confusing situations. We describe three cases of diagnostic determinations of the tumor marker CA 125 resulting in subsequent partially invasive procedures. Based on these three cases, serum CA 125 levels were examined in 49 patients with abdominal diseases. We found CA 125 to be less a tumor product than an unspecific expression of stimulated mesothelial cells of the peritoneum. CA 125 was a marker for ascites (16 of 16 patients) and an indicator of infra-diaphragmatic involvement in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (11 of 12 patients). Furthermore, 5 of 6 patients with inflammatory abdominal diseases showed elevated CA 125 levels, as did 13 of 15 patients with solid abdominal tumors of different histology (all non-ovarian cancer, no ascites). In conclusion, CA 125 remains a good marker for follow-up of ovarian cancer, but should not be used for diagnosis of abdominal processes.

  16. Neurocutaneous syndromes and retroperitoneal tumors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, R; Libertino, J A; Dowd, J B; Braasch, J W

    1979-03-01

    A patient with multiple basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a symptom complex characteristized by nevoid basal cell carcinomas of the skin, jaw cysts, skeletal abnormalities, and hyporesponsiveness to parathormone is presented. In addition, the patient had a retroperitoneal lymphagiomyoma, a hamartomatous lesion, causing ureteral obstruction. The association of neuroectodermic syndromes and retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal tumors is reviewed.

  17. [The systematization of APUD tumors].

    PubMed

    Liubenov, T; Terziev, I

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in neuroendocrine transmission of peptides, underlying the so-called classification of multiple endocrine neoplasms (MEN), are described. Three cases from the clinical practice are followed up where facilitation of the diagnosis and the results of treatment are related to the tumor markers' values.

  18. Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-11

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  19. View forward of interior of conning tower and steering station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward of interior of conning tower and steering station; helmsman or observer viewed action through narrow opening at top of photo. (p57) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives. PMID:27514827

  1. Real-time elastography in the diagnosis of prostate tumor.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F S; Scorzelli, A; Megliola, A; Drudi, F M; Trovarelli, S; Ponchietti, R

    2009-03-01

    Sommario SCOPO: Verificare il guadagno diagnostico dell'elastosonografia transrettale real-time (RTE) rispetto alla ecografia transrettale B-mode nel rilievo del tumore prostatico in una popolazione di pazienti con sospetto di neoplasia. MATERIALI E METODI: Ottantaquattro pazienti con sospetto clinico-laboratoristico di tumore prostatico sono stati valutati mediante ecografia transrettale, elastosonografia e biopsia transperineale. RISULTATI: L'esame bioptico è stato considerato lo standard di riferimento. Nella valutazione per paziente, la sensibilità dell'ecografia B-mode è stata del 56%; la specificità dell'80%; il valore predittivo positivo (VPP) del 70%, il valore predittivo negativo (VPN) del 67%. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici la sensibilità è stata del 33%, la specificità del 92%, il VPP del 69%, il VPN del 73%. La RTE ha ottenuto i seguenti risultati nella valutazione per paziente: sensibilità 51%, specificità 75%, VPP 64% e VPN 64%. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici: sensibilità 36%, specificità 93%, VPP 72%, VPN 74%. Confrontando i valori di accuratezza dell'ecografia B-mode e della RTE per i tumori della zona periferica, è stata trovata una differenza significativa. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici della zona periferica la sensibilità dell'ecografia B-mode è stata del 48%, la specificità dell'81%, il VPP del 75%, il VPN del 58%. La RTE ha ottenuto i seguenti valori: sensibilità 66%, specificità 78%, VPP 77%, VPN 67%. CONCLUSIONI: La RTE rappresenta un valore aggiunto all'ecografia B-mode. Ha presentato un'accuratezza superiore rispetto all'esame B-mode nella valutazione della prostata periferica e nella possibilità di indirizzare i prelievi bioptici.

  2. Rapid decrease in tumor perfusion following VEGF blockade predicts long-term tumor growth inhibition in preclinical tumor models.

    PubMed

    Eichten, Alexandra; Adler, Alexander P; Cooper, Blerta; Griffith, Jennifer; Wei, Yi; Yancopoulos, George D; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Thurston, Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key upstream mediator of tumor angiogenesis, and blockade of VEGF can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and decrease tumor growth. However, not all tumors respond well to anti-VEGF therapy. Despite much effort, identification of early response biomarkers that correlate with long-term efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy has been difficult. These difficulties arise in part because the functional effects of VEGF inhibition on tumor vessels are still unclear. We therefore assessed rapid molecular, morphologic and functional vascular responses following treatment with aflibercept (also known as VEGF Trap or ziv-aflibercept in the United States) in preclinical tumor models with a range of responses to anti-VEGF therapy, including Colo205 human colorectal carcinoma (highly sensitive), C6 rat glioblastoma (moderately sensitive), and HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (resistant), and correlated these changes to long-term tumor growth inhibition. We found that an overall decrease in tumor vessel perfusion, assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US), and increases in tumor hypoxia correlated well with long-term tumor growth inhibition, whereas changes in vascular gene expression and microvessel density did not. Our findings support previous clinical studies showing that decreased tumor perfusion after anti-VEGF therapy (measured by DCE-US) correlated with response. Thus, measuring tumor perfusion changes shortly after treatment with VEGF inhibitors, or possibly other anti-angiogenic therapies, may be useful to predict treatment efficacy. PMID:23238831

  3. TUMOR CONTAMINATION IN THE BIOPSY PATH OF PRIMARY MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study factors possibly associated with tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors. Method: Thirty-five patients who underwent surgical treatment with diagnoses of osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor and chondrosarcoma were studied retrospectively. The sample was analyzed to characterize the biopsy technique used, histological type of the tumor, neoadjuvant chemotherapy used, local recurrences and tumor contamination in the biopsy path. Results: Among the 35 patients studied, four cases of contamination occurred (11.43%): one from osteosarcoma, two from Ewing's tumor and one from chondrosarcoma. There was no association between the type of tumor and presence of tumor contamination in the biopsy path (p = 0.65). There was also no association between the presence of tumor contamination and the biopsy technique (p = 0.06). On the other hand, there were associations between the presence of tumor contamination and local recurrence (p = 0.01) and between tumor contamination and absence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors was associated with local recurrence. On the other hand, the histological type of the tumor and the type of biopsy did not have an influence on tumor contamination. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a protective effect against this complication. Despite these findings, tumor contamination is a complication that should always be taken into consideration, and removal of the biopsy path is recommended in tumor resection surgery. PMID:27047877

  4. [Pineal anlage tumor in a 8-month-old boy. The first case reported in Spanish language].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Ramírez-Reyes, Alma Griselda

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el tumor pineal anlage es una neoplasia maligna muy poco frecuente. Aunque ya ha sido informado en la literatura, aún no se encuentra listado en la última clasificación de los tumores del sistema nervioso central de la Organización Mundial de la Salud publicada en 2007. Es un tumor primario de la pineal con diferenciación neuroepitelial y ectomesenquimal. Debido a su poca frecuencia, el entendimiento de su comportamiento biológico y su tratamiento apropiado son incompletos. En una búsqueda realizada en PubMed como pineal anlage tumor solo se identificaron siete casos informados entre 1989 y 2011. CASO CLÍNICO: niño de ocho meses de edad que fue llevado a consulta por aumento progresivo del perímetro cefálico y estrabismo convergente de dos meses de evolución. Se identificó tumor pineal conformado por glia, células ganglionares, neuroepitelio pigmentado y células musculares estriadas. Se realizó derivación ventrículo-peritoneal para mitigar la hidrocefalia y resección quirúrgica completa. El paciente recibió dos cursos de quimioterapia con carboplatino, ifosfamida y mesna. Al año permanecía asintomático.

  5. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  6. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

  7. Key roles of aquaporins in tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Marios C; Saadoun, Samira

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are protein channels that facilitate the flow of water across plasma cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. This review summarizes the evidence that aquaporins play key roles in tumor biology including tumor-associated edema, tumor cell migration, tumor proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Aquaporin inhibitors may thus be a novel class of anti-tumor agents. However, attempts to produce small molecule aquaporin inhibitors have been largely unsuccessful. Recently, monoclonal human IgG antibodies against extracellular aquaporin-4 domains have become available and could be engineered to kill aquaporin-4 over-expressing cells in the malignant brain tumor glioblastoma. We conclude this review by discussing future directions in aquaporin tumor research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25204262

  8. CT and MR of pineal region tumors.

    PubMed

    Gouliamos, A D; Kalovidouris, A E; Kotoulas, G K; Athanasopoulou, A K; Kouvaris, J R; Trakadas, S J; Vlahos, L J; Papavasiliou, C G

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features of pineal region tumors were analyzed in 14 oncologic cases. The tumors were classified as germ-cell tumors, glial tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, meningiomas, and cysts. They demonstrated different MR signal characteristics on precontrast scans and nodular or ring type enhancement with occasional central lucencies, except for benign cysts, which have not shown enhancement. MR images were useful in defining the relationship of the tumor to the posterior third ventricle, sylvian aqueduct, vein of Galen, and tentorium. Although CT can demonstrate in more evident fashion displacement of the original pineal calcification as well as tumor calcifications, MR imaging demonstrates different signal characteristics in germinomas and pineoblastomas which can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:8295504

  9. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. General Information about Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor of the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Suehisa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Motohiro; Komori, Eisaku; Sawada, Shigeki; Teramoto, Norihiro

    2010-04-01

    An 18-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of a right anterior mediastinal tumor that measured 6 cm in diameter. Computed tomography-guided transcutaneous aspiration biopsy was performed, but no definitive diagnosis could be obtained. Because the tumor did not appear to be a high-grade malignant tumor, we undertook resection of the tumor to obtain a definitive diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment. Total thymectomy with tumor resection was performed through a median sternotomy. The tumor was solid, measuring 5.2 x 4.2 x 3.5 cm. The histological diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising from the mediastinum. Most extrathoracic SFTs appear to pursue a benign course, although careful long-term follow-up of these patients is necessary because the tumors have been reported to recur or metastasize in some cases.

  12. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  13. How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » How are lung carcinoid tumors diagnosed? Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  14. Dendritic cells are stressed out in tumor.

    PubMed

    Maj, Tomasz; Zou, Weiping

    2015-09-01

    A recently paper published in Cell reports that dendritic cells (DCs) are dysfunctional in the tumor environment. Tumor impairs DC function through induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress response and subsequent disruption of lipid metabolic homeostasis.

  15. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic? Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... turn Javascript on. Dr. Cynthia Morton is seeking women who have fibroid tumors for a "sister study" ...

  16. Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J; Čančer, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment-resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

  17. Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ... Treatment of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ...

  18. General Information about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ... Treatment of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ... Treatment of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ...

  20. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  1. How Are Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... as symptoms that might be caused by a mass (tumor) in the stomach, intestines, or rectum. Some ... attention to the abdomen, looking for a tumor mass or enlarged liver. If your medical history and ...

  2. Syndrome-Associated Tumors by Organ System.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Riddle, Nicole D

    2016-06-01

    Certain tumors suggest the possibility of a patient harboring a genetic syndrome, particularly in children. Syndrome-associated tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, gynecologic tract, heart, lungs, brain, eye, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic system will be briefly discussed.

  3. Interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in tumor biology have revealed that a detailed analysis of the complex interactions of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma) is mandatory in order to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and the development of metastasis. The mutual interactions between tumor cells and cellular and non-cellular components (extracellular matrix = ECM) of the tumor microenvironment will eventually lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and promote tumor development and progression. Thus, interactions of genetically altered tumor cells and the ECM on the one hand and reactive non-neoplastic cells on the other hand essentially control most aspects of tumorigenesis such as epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), migration, invasion (i.e. migration through connective tissue), metastasis formation, neovascularisation, apoptosis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In this mini-review we will focus on these issues that were recently raised by two review articles in CCS. PMID:21914164

  4. Salivary gland tumors of the lip.

    PubMed

    Owens, O T; Calcaterra, T C

    1982-01-01

    The UCLA experience with minor salivary gland tumors of the lip is presented and contrasted with that of the literature. The incidence of benign to malignant tumors of the lip does not follow the inverse relationship stated in the axiom that the smaller the salivary gland the greater the probability that a developing tumor will be malignant. Benign tumors represent over 80% of all salivary gland tumors of the lip. There is no preponderant malignant tumor for the lip. Adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma occur with almost equal frequency. Because of the indolent nature of these tumors, excellent survival rates can be achieved with wide local excision with few recurrences, if the tumors are adequately treated when first seen.

  5. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-12-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen.

  6. Solitary fibrous tumor of filum terminale.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanping; Huang, Biao; Liang, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly arises from the visceral or parietal pleura. Solitary fibrous tumor with a primary site in the filum terminale has not been reported previously in the literature. Here we report a case of SFT occurring in the filum terminale. The characteristic imaging feature of this tumor is hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Even though rare, SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors occurring intraspinally, even in the filum terminale.

  7. Cytologic study of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, T; Kanamaru, T; Shingaki, S; Mizutani, H; Nakajima, T

    1980-02-01

    Cytologic examination was performed on 22 known oral tumors of glandular origin. Cytologically, the cells of benign pleomorphic adenomas and an adenolymphoma could easily be identified as of benign tumor origin, but cytologic determination of malignancy was difficult in 11 of 14 malignant tumors due to lack of malignant features. A precise and comparative study of the morphologic details of the tumor cells with the histologic findings, however, seemed to suggest a possibility of determining the histologic type even in smear preparations.

  8. Benign mixed tumor of the trachea.

    PubMed

    Ma, C K; Fine, G; Lewis, J; Lee, M W

    1979-12-01

    A case of mixed tumor, salivary gland type, removed by segmental resection of the trachea is reported. Only thirteen acceptable and five probable tracheal mixed tumors have been found in the world literature. The behavior of this variety of tumor in the trachea appears to be similar to its counterpart in other sites and distinctly different from the more frequently encountered epithelial tumors: squamous cell carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  9. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Provenzi, Valentina Oliveira; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso Manique; Roehe, Adriana Vial; dos Santos, Pedro Paulo Albino; Faulhaber, Fabrízia Rennó Sodero; de Oliveira, Ceres Andréia Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. PMID:25623730

  10. A highly tumor-targeted nanoparticle of podophyllotoxin penetrated tumor core and regressed multidrug resistant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Aniruddha; Ernsting, Mark J.; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) exhibited significant activity against P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cell lines; however, due to its poor solubility and high toxicity, PPT cannot be dosed systemically, preventing its clinical use for MDR cancer. We developed a nanoparticle dosage form of PPT by covalently conjugating PPT and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with acetylated carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Ac) using one-pot esterification chemistry. The polymer conjugates self-assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) of variable sizes (20–120 nm) depending on the PPT-to-PEG molar ratio (2–20). The conjugate with a low PPT/PEG molar ratio of 2 yielded NPs with a mean diameter of 20 nm and released PPT at ~5%/day in serum, while conjugates with increased PPT/PEG ratios (5 and 20) produced bigger particles (30 nm and 120 nm respectively) that displayed slower drug release (~2.5%/day and ~1%/day respectively). The 20 nm particles exhibited 2- to 5-fold enhanced cell killing potency and 5- to 20-fold increased tumor delivery compared to the larger NPs. The biodistribution of the 20 nm PPT-NPs was highly selective to the tumor with 8-fold higher accumulation than all other examined tissues, while the larger PPT-NPs (30 and 100 nm) exhibited increased liver uptake. Within the tumor, >90% of the 20 nm PPT-NPs penetrated to the hypovascular core, while the larger particles were largely restricted in the hypervascular periphery. The 20 nm PPT-NPs displayed significantly improved efficacy against MDR tumors in mice compared to the larger PPT-NPs, native PPT and the standard taxane chemotherapies, with minimal toxicity. PMID:25818440

  11. Extracorporeal Irradiation in Malignant Bone Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, R B; Jha, A K; Neupane, P; Chaurasia, P P; Sigdel, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) is relatively a rare method used in the management of malignant bone tumors (MBT). It consists of en block removal of the tumor bearing bone segment, removal of the tumor from the bone, irradiation and re implantation back in the body. PMID:27549504

  12. [Neuroepithelial tumors in the pediatric population].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Romero, M; Alenga, J G; Frutos, R; de las Matas, I S; Fraile, E; Romero, J; Bartolomé, A

    1991-12-01

    We have studied the neuroepithelial tumors in childhood, about their epidemiological, clinical and histological aspects, the macroscopic tumoral structure and the findings obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. We stress the differential diagnosis features among the various tumoral types, based on bibliography and our own clinical experience.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hCG and LDH may be at any level. Poor prognosis A nonseminoma extragonadal germ cell tumor is in the poor prognosis group if: the tumor is in the ... extragonadal germ cell tumor does not have a poor prognosis group. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There ...

  14. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view.

  15. Targeted immunotherapy for pediatric solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Lisa M.; Katsanis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metastatic and refractory pediatric solid tumor malignancies continue to have a poor outcome despite the > 80% cure rates appreciated in many pediatric cancers. Targeted immunotherapy is impacting treatment and survival in these aggressive tumors. We review current promising immunotherapeutic approaches in the pediatric oncology solid tumor setting. PMID:27141344

  16. Malignant tumor emboli to the peripheral vessels.

    PubMed

    Vo, N M; Sakurai, H; Gambarini, A J

    1981-01-01

    The first case of tumor emboli trapped in a popliteal aneurysm and the longest survivor for this condition are reported. The characteristics of 25 cases reported in the literature since 1940 and the mechanism of tumor spread are reviewed. Tumor emboli represent the late stage of a malignancy and treatment does not seem to affect long-term survival. PMID:7017284

  17. Sonographic patterns of ribs with tumor involvement.

    PubMed

    Yang, G G; Wu, H D; Yang, P C; Kuo, S H; Luh, K T

    1991-02-01

    We analyzed the sonographic appearance of the ribs when there was tumor involvement in 16 patients (12 men and 4 women). The tumors included 11 carcinomas, 3 nonepithelial malignancies and 2 benign tumors. Three sonographic patterns on the cross section of abnormal ribs were identified. Pattern I was an eccentrical hyperechoic plate-like shadow inside a hypoechoic tumor. Pattern II was a round hyperechoic shadow or ring in the center of a hypoechoic tumor. Pattern III was a hypoechoic tumor only. The Pancoast tumor manifested pattern I. Metastatic cancer, mostly squamous cell carcinoma, manifested pattern II, and both malignant and benign tumors could manifest pattern III. In sonography, the margin and shape of the tumors, the change in the acoustic shadow of the rib and the pleural line did not differentiate the malignant tumors from benign tumors. When we routinely took a biopsy of these tumors under sonar guidance, the diagnostic yield was 100% without any complications. We conclude that the rib should be evaluated in chest sonography, and that pattern recognition and biopsy under sonar guidance are most useful.

  18. Overview of Pediatric Testicular Tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare compared with postpubertal testicular tumors. The incidence of prepubertal testicular tumors peaks at 2 years of age, tapers off after 4 years of age, and then begins to rise again at puberty. Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors show many differences, including the typical tumor histology, molecular biological differences, and the malignant potential of tumors at different ages. Pediatric testicular tumors are classified as benign or malignant on the basis of their clinical behavior and histologically are divided into germ cell and gonadal stromal (nongerm cell) tumors. Many histological and biological studies have further confirmed the distinct nature of prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors. These differences have led to various management strategies for prepubertal and postpubertal tumors. Because overall about 75% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign, a testis-sparing approach is becoming more common in children. Orchiectomy and observation with very selective use of chemotherapy has become the standard approach when a malignant tumor is identified. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radiation therapy play very limited roles. PMID:25512812

  19. [Lymphangioadenography in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumors].

    PubMed

    Galaĭko, G M

    1975-10-01

    A method of direct lymphangioadenography was employed in 18 patients with abdominal tumors of obscure origin. These were as follows: lymphogranuloma, splenic lymphosarcoma, tumors of the stomach, kidney, pancreas both benign and malignant, retroperitoneal cysts, fibroma, malignant periganglioma. Roentgenological symptoms of abdominal tumors of various localization are reported.

  20. Deep-lobe parotid gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1984-01-01

    Fewer than 10% of all parotid gland tumors arise from the deep portion of the gland. The great majority are benign and are mixed tumors. Their clinical presentation in the parapharyngeal space is uncommon, but in the event, the principal differential diagnosis is the elimination of an oropharyngeal primary salivary gland tumor.

  1. Epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Filiz; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Erkan, Alper Nabi; Cagici, Can Alper; Bal, Nebil; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is a well-defined salivary gland neoplasm consisting of benign epithelial and lymphoid components. However, malignant transformation is extremely rare and the differential diagnosis of metastasis from an epidermoid carcinoma in Warthin's tumor is important. We present a case with epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of parotid gland in a 48-year-old woman, and differential diagnosis is discussed.

  2. Genetic mechanisms of tumor-specific loss of 11p DNA sequences in Wilms tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Dao, D D; Schroeder, W T; Chao, L Y; Kikuchi, H; Strong, L C; Riccardi, V M; Pathak, S; Nichols, W W; Lewis, W H; Saunders, G F

    1987-01-01

    Wilms tumor, a common childhood renal tumor, occurs in both a heritable and a nonheritable form. The heritable form may occasionally be attributed to a chromosome deletion at 11p13, and tumors from patients with normal constitutional chromosomes often show deletion or rearrangement of 11p13. It has been suggested that a germinal or somatic mutation may occur on one chromosome 11 and predispose to Wilms tumor and that a subsequent somatic genetic event on the normal homologue at 11p13 may permit tumor development. To study the frequency and mechanism of such tumor-specific genetic events, we have examined the karyotype and chromosome 11 genotype of normal and tumor tissues from 13 childhood renal tumor patients with different histologic tumor types and associated clinical conditions. Tumors of eight of the 12 Wilms tumor patients, including all viable tumors examined directly, show molecular evidence of loss of 11p DNA sequences by somatic recombination (four cases), chromosome loss (two cases), and recombination (two cases) or chromosome loss and duplication. One malignant rhabdoid tumor in a patient heterozygous for multiple 11p markers did not show any tumor-specific 11p alteration. These findings confirm the critical role of 11p sequences in Wilms tumor development and reveal that mitotic recombination may be the most frequent mechanism by which tumors develop. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3039839

  3. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Liver: A Rare Tumor in a Rarer Location

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Biswajit; Gochhait, Debasis; Kaushal, Gourav; Barwad, Adarsh; Pottakkat, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm. Liver is a rare location of this tumor. We report a case of hepatic solitary fibrous tumor in a 56-year-old female, who presented with right upper abdominal pain. An extended right hepatectomy was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed solitary fibrous tumor of the liver. PMID:27746883

  4. Warthin tumor of the upper lip: an unusual location of a benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Almeida, Aroldo; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Tostes Oliveira, Denise

    2011-06-01

    Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is a benign salivary gland tumor involving almost exclusively the parotid gland. The lip is a very unusual location for this type of tumor, which develops only rarely in minor salivary glands. The case of 42-year-old woman with Warthin tumor arising in minor salivary glands of the upper lip is reported.

  5. Molecular subtypes of serous borderline ovarian tumor show distinct expression patterns of benign tumor and malignant tumor-associated signatures.

    PubMed

    Curry, Edward W J; Stronach, Euan A; Rama, Nona R; Wang, Yuepeng Y P; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona A

    2014-03-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors show heterogeneity in clinical behavior. Most have excellent prognosis, although a small percentage show recurrence or progressive disease, usually to low-grade serous carcinoma. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular relationship between these entities and identify potential markers of tumor progression and therapeutic targets. We studied gene expression using Affymetrix HGU133plus2 GeneChip microarrays in 3 low-grade serous carcinomas, 13 serous borderline tumors and 8 serous cystadenomas. An independent data set of 18 serous borderline tumors and 3 low-grade serous carcinomas was used for validation. Unsupervised clustering revealed clear separation of benign and malignant tumors, whereas borderline tumors showed two distinct groups, one clustering with benign and the other with malignant tumors. The segregation into benign- and malignant-like borderline molecular subtypes was reproducible on applying the same analysis to an independent publicly available data set. We identified 50 genes that separate borderline tumors into their subgroups. Functional enrichment analysis of genes that separate borderline tumors to the two subgroups highlights a cell adhesion signature for the malignant-like subset, with Claudins particularly prominent. This is the first report of molecular subtypes of borderline tumors based on gene expression profiling. Our results provide the basis for identification of biomarkers for the malignant potential of borderline ovarian tumor and potential therapeutic targets for low-grade serous carcinoma.

  6. Tumor sialylation impedes T cell mediated anti-tumor responses while promoting tumor associated-regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Perdicchio, Maurizio; Cornelissen, Lenneke A M; Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Engels, Steef; Verstege, Marleen I; Boon, Louis; Geerts, Dirk; van Kooyk, Yvette; Unger, Wendy W J

    2016-02-23

    The increased presence of sialylated glycans on the tumor surface has been linked to poor prognosis, yet the effects on tumor-specific T cell immunity are hardly studied. We here show that hypersialylation of B16 melanoma substantially influences tumor growth by preventing the formation of effector T cells and facilitating the presence of high regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies. Knock-down of the sialic acid transporter created "sialic acid low" tumors, that grew slower in-vivo than hypersialylated tumors, altered the Treg/Teffector balance, favoring immunological tumor control. The enhanced effector T cell response in developing "sialic acid low" tumors was preceded by and dependent on an increased influx and activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Thus, tumor hypersialylation orchestrates immune escape at the level of NK and Teff/Treg balance within the tumor microenvironment, herewith dampening tumor-specific T cell control. Reducing sialylation provides a therapeutic option to render tumors permissive to immune attack. PMID:26741508

  7. Tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Piovan, E; Beltramello, A

    1996-01-01

    The role played by neuroradiologic examinations in the diagnosis of neoformations of the pineal region is considered. Results of reports of literature are compared with the personal experience (40 patients) to draw possible significant conclusions for the diagnosis of the oncological type. First, intrinsic pineal lesions should be separated from those of adjacent structures. Reliable discriminating parameters useful in the differential diagnosis are represented by sex and age. Diagnosis based on biochemistry with markers was shown not to be univocal. A further separation can be based on CT and MRI findings. In particular, teratomas appear as solid tumors with calcification and fat. The latter is depicted on MRI even if minimal. To the contrary, germinomas do not contain fat and are markedly enhancing. Microcysts seem to be more common in tumors originating from parenchymal pineal cells. A reliable differential diagnosis is however possible only for small-sized lesions where identification of the anatomical structure of origin is easier. PMID:8677341

  8. Infratemporal approaches to nasopharyngeal tumors.

    PubMed

    Suárez, C; Garćia, L A; Fernández de Leon, R; Rodrigo, J P; Ruiz, B

    1997-01-01

    Twenty patients with neoplasms originating in the nasopharynx were operated using the infratemporal fossa approach with facial translocation (15 cases), the subtemporal-preauricular infratemporal approach (2 cases), and the transmandibular approach (3 cases). A craniectomy was also required in 14 cases. Fifteen tumors were malignant, while 5 were juvenile angiofibromas with infratemporal and intracranial extensions. Most of the lesions were large and involved multiple areas of the skull base. Tumor excision was total in all but 3 patients. Local flaps were utilized in all patients to seal the operative cavity and consisted of temporalis muscle flaps. The most frequent postoperative complications were wound infections and cerebrospinal leaks. Two patients died as a result of postoperative complications. To date, 1 patient has died from disease and 3 are alive with local or distant disease.

  9. Autophagy Genes as Tumor Suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U.

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy, originally described as a universal lysosome-dependent bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components upon nutrient deprivation, has since been shown to influence diverse aspects of homeostasis and is implicated in a wide variety of pathological conditions, including cancer. The list of autophagy-related (Atg) genes associated with the initiation and progression of human cancer as well as with responses to cancer therapy continues to grow as these genes are being discovered. However, whether Atg genes work through their expected mechanisms of autophagy regulation and/or through as-yet-undefined functions in the development of cancer remains to be further clarified. Here we review recent advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis of autophagy genes and their biological outputs during tumor development. A better understanding of the mechanistic link between cellular autophagy and tumor growth control may ultimately better human cancer treatments. PMID:19945837

  10. Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma

  11. [Rare tumors and tumor-like lesions of the testis and paratesticular structures].

    PubMed

    Schweyer, S

    2014-05-01

    Tumors and tumor-like lesions of the testes and paratesticular structures are rare neoplasms often documented solely in case reports but are morphologically similar to their counterparts in other organ systems. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, miscellaneous tumors of the testis, tumors of collecting ducts and rete testis, tumors of paratesticular structures are differentiated from mesenchymal tumors of the spermatic cord and testicular adnexa. In the differential diagnostics of a space-occupying mass in the testis or paratesticular region, tumor-like lesions should be considered because these lesions represent a large collection pot and occur more often than was originally assumed.

  12. Direct visualization of macrophage-assisted tumor cell intravasation in mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Wang, Yarong; Lin, Elaine Y; Li, Jiu-feng; Goswami, Sumanta; Stanley, E Richard; Segall, Jeffrey E; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Condeelis, John

    2007-03-15

    Although the presence of macrophages in tumors has been correlated with poor prognosis, until now there was no direct observation of how macrophages are involved in hematogenous metastasis. In this study, we use multiphoton microscopy to show, for the first time, that tumor cell intravasation occurs in association with perivascular macrophages in mammary tumors. Furthermore, we show that perivascular macrophages of the mammary tumor are associated with tumor cell intravasation in the absence of local angiogenesis. These results show that the interaction between macrophages and tumor cells lying in close proximity defines a microenvironment that is directly involved in the intravasation of cancer cells in mammary tumors.

  13. Paraganglioma: a potentially challenging tumor.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Mark; Silverman, Jan; Colonias, Athanasios; Lee, Vincent; Mohanty, Alok; Parda, David

    2008-03-01

    Paragangliomas are usually low-grade neoplasms with a benign natural history. While the treatment of paraganglioma has historically been controversial, surgery and radiotherapy have become standardized as therapies of choice for primary therapy. More recently, stereotactic radiosurgery has been used effectively against this rare tumor. The development of metastatic disease in patients with paraganglioma is an unusual and challenging event. This case report and review describes the specific features of this disease and the multiple therapeutic options.

  14. The immunological identity of tumor

    PubMed Central

    Miska, Jason; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    By means of well-characterized autoimmunity models, we comparatively probed the “selfness” of malignant cells and their normal counterparts. We found that tumors activate self-tolerance mechanisms much more efficiently than normal tissues, reflecting a status of immunoprivileged “self.” Our findings indicate that potent autoimmune responses can eradicate established malignancies, yet the collateral destruction of healthy tissues may prove difficult to circumvent. PMID:23734327

  15. Colorectal tumors: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Giovanni; Messerini, Luca; Gafà, Roberta; Risio, Mauro

    2011-03-01

    Epithelial colorectal tumors are common pathologic entities. Their histology report should be comprehensive of a series of pathologic parameters essential for the correct clinical management of the patients. Diagnostic histologic criteria of adenomatous, serrated, inflammatory, and hamartomatous polyps and of polyposis syndromes are discussed. In addition, the pathologic features of early and advanced colorectal cancer are described and a checklist is given. Finally, molecular prognostic and predictive factors currently employed in the treatment of colorectal cancer are discussed.

  16. Temperature control in deep tumor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sang w.; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2003-10-01

    Tumor cells are more sensitive to temperature increase than normal tissue. Hyperthermia has been used as a potential modality for cancer treatment. Another benefit from the thermal interruption of tumor cells is the immunological reactions, caused by inflammation and other mechanisms, and more interestingly caused by antigen(s) release. The temperature control is crucial both in direct tumor destruction through acute thermal effect and in immune reactions. Low temperature may not achieve the desired tumor cell killing. High temperature could result in over heating of the tumor, hence introducing undesirable damage to surrounding normal tissue. High temperature could completely denature the cell proteins, hence rendering tumor antigen(s) useless in immunological stimulation. A combination of an 805-nm laser and in-situ indocyanine green (ICG) solutions were used in treating rat tumors. Temperature measured at different locations showed that the effective photothermal interaction could reach as deep as 1 cm below the treatment surface and the temperature inside the tumor can be controlled by the laser and dye parameters. Multiple beams were also used to irradiate the tumor. When the tumor is free of ICG, the temperature increase of the tumor was less significant under the laser irradiation with a power density of 0.33 W/cm2; tumor tissue at a depth of 1 cm only experienced a 7°C-temperature increase. However, when the tumor contained ICG solution, the temperature at 1-cm depth experienced more than 15°C-temperature increase. Multiple-fiber irradiation further enhanced the photothermal selectivity. Furthermore, when one fiber was used, the edge of the tumor experienced less impact by the laser beam, while multiple beams resulted in an almost uniform temperature increase over the entire tumor.

  17. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

  18. Tumor Mechanics and Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jason C.; Barnes, J. Matthew; Desai, Shraddha R.; Sistrunk, Christopher; Conklin, Matthew; Schedin, Pepper; Keely, Patricia J.; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosplasia is a characteristic of most solid tumors and leads to fibrosis through abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, remodeling and post translational modifications. The resulting stiff tumor stroma not only compromises vascular integrity to induce hypoxia and impede drug delivery, but also promotes aggressiveness by potentiating the activity of key growth, invasion, and survival pathways. Intriguingly, many of the pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways which are mechanically activated by ECM stiffness also promote glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, and an altered metabolism is a recognized hallmark of cancer. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that metabolic alterations and an abnormal ECM may cooperatively drive cancer cell aggression and treatment resistance. Accordingly, improved methods to monitor tissue mechanics and metabolism promise to improve diagnostics and treatments to ameliorate ECM stiffening and elevated mechanosignaling may improve patient outcome. Here we discuss the interplay between ECM mechanics and metabolism in tumor biology and suggest that monitoring these processes and targeting their regulatory pathways may improve diagnostics, therapy, and the prevention of malignant transformation. PMID:25532934

  19. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-01-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88–95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  20. Tumor pathology of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Héran, F; Bergès, O; Blustajn, J; Boucenna, M; Charbonneau, F; Koskas, P; Lafitte, F; Nau, E; Roux, P; Sadik, J C; Savatovsky, J; Williams, M

    2014-10-01

    The term orbital tumor covers a wide range of benign and malignant diseases affecting specific component of the orbit or developing in contact with them. They are found incidentally or may be investigated as part of the assessment of a systemic disorder or because of orbital signs (exophthalmos, pain, etc.). Computed tomography, MRI and Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU), play a varying role depending on the clinical presentation and the disease being investigated. This article reflects long experience in a reference center but does not claim to be exhaustive. We have chosen to consider these tumors from the perspective of their usual presentation, emphasizing the most common causes and suggestive radiological and clinical presentations (progressive or sudden-onset exophthalmos, children or adults, lacrimal gland lesions, periorbital lesions and enophthalmos). We will describe in particular muscle involvement (thyrotoxicosis and tumors), vascular lesions (cavernous sinus hemangioma, orbital varix, cystic lymphangioma), childhood lesions and orbital hematomas. We offer straightforward useful protocols for simple investigation and differential diagnosis. Readers who wish to go further to extend their knowledge in this fascinating area can refer to the references in the bibliography.

  1. Microwave Therapy for Bone Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuda, Kazuo; Inaoka, Shuken; Saito, Hirokazu; Hassan, Moinuddin; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    In vivo microwave treatments for bone tumor are designed, which enable us to conserve the activity and functionality of the matrix of living tissues. This treatment is composed of two steps. In the first step, the tumor was coagulated by the application of microwaves emitted from the antenna inserted into the tumor tissue, and then removed. In the second step, the surrounding tissue suspected to be invaded with transformed cells was covered with hydro gels and heated similarly. The tissue itself was heated by the conduction from the gels. The tissue temperature should be kept at 60°C for 30 minutes. This treatment should kill the whole cells within the tissues, but the mechanical strength and the biochemical activity of the matrix should be left intact. The matrix preserves the mechanical functions and ensures the maximum regeneration ability of the tissue. In this study, various hydro gels were examined and the most promising one was selected. Animal experiments were carried out and successful heating verified the applicability of the treatment.

  2. MR imaging of cardiac tumors.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Patrick J; Kurian, John B; Jones, Tim R; Sivananthan, Mohan U

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an important tool in the evaluation of cardiac neoplasms. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced sequences are used for anatomic definition and tissue characterization, whereas cine gradient-echo imaging is used to assess functional effects. Recent improvements in pulse sequences for cardiac MR imaging have led to superior image quality, with reduced motion artifact and improved signal-to-noise ratio and tissue contrast. Although there is some overlap in the MR imaging appearances of cardiac tumors, particularly of primary malignancies, differences in characteristic locations and features should allow confident differentiation between benign and malignant tumors. Indicators of malignancy at MR imaging are invasive behavior, involvement of the right side of the heart or the pericardium, tissue inhomogeneity, diameter greater than 5 cm, and enhancement after administration of gadolinium contrast material (as a result of higher tissue vascularity). Concomitant pericardial or pleural effusions are rare in benign processes but occur in about 50% of cases of malignant tumors. MR imaging offers improved resolution, a larger field of view, and superior soft-tissue contrast compared with those of echocardiography, suggesting that knowledge of the MR imaging features of cardiac neoplasms is important for accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:16160110

  3. Atypical solitary fibrous tumor of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M

    2000-04-01

    An atypical solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) was encountered as a slow-growing, 15-cm, well-demarcated, vulvar tumor in a 70-year-old woman. The tumor was highly cellular and composed predominantly of hemangiopericytomatous and capillary hemangioma-like proliferations and short fascicular arrangements of spindled cells. Multinucleated giant cells and tumor necrosis also were present. The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, CD34, progesterone receptors, and bcl-2 and were diploid by flow cytometry. The patient was well without disease 9 months after surgery. Awareness of the occurrence of atypical SFT in the vulva is important so that confusion with other neoplasms can be avoided.

  4. Myoglobin tames tumor growth and spread.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Ulrich; Dang, Chi V

    2009-04-01

    Tumor growth is accompanied by tissue hypoxia, but does this reduced oxygen availability promote further tumor expansion, resulting in a vicious cycle? In this issue of the JCI, Galluzzo et al. report that increasing oxygen tension in tumor cells by ectopically expressing the oxygen-binding hemoprotein myoglobin indeed affects tumorigenesis (see the related article beginning on page 865). Tumors derived from cells transfected with myoglobin grew more slowly, were less hypoxic, and were less metastatic. These results will spur further mechanistic inquiry into the role of hypoxia in tumor expansion. PMID:19348046

  5. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors.

  6. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

  7. Desmoid Tumors in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Honeyman, Joshua N.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are benign soft tissue tumors associated with locally aggressive growth and high rates of morbidity, but they do not metastasize via lymphatic or hematogenous routes. While most of the data on desmoid tumors originates in the adult literature, many of the findings have been applied to the management of pediatric patients. This article discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment of this rare tumor in the pediatric population and includes a literature review of the most recent large series of pediatric patients with desmoid tumors. PMID:24213241

  8. Myoglobin tames tumor growth and spread.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Ulrich; Dang, Chi V

    2009-04-01

    Tumor growth is accompanied by tissue hypoxia, but does this reduced oxygen availability promote further tumor expansion, resulting in a vicious cycle? In this issue of the JCI, Galluzzo et al. report that increasing oxygen tension in tumor cells by ectopically expressing the oxygen-binding hemoprotein myoglobin indeed affects tumorigenesis (see the related article beginning on page 865). Tumors derived from cells transfected with myoglobin grew more slowly, were less hypoxic, and were less metastatic. These results will spur further mechanistic inquiry into the role of hypoxia in tumor expansion.

  9. Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  10. "CON-CON" assignment strategy for highly flexible intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Piai, Alessandro; Hošek, Tomáš; Gonnelli, Leonardo; Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Brutscher, Bernhard; Bermel, Wolfgang; Pierattelli, Roberta; Felli, Isabella C

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of highly flexible proteins whose characterization by NMR spectroscopy is complicated by severe spectral overlaps. The development of experiments designed to facilitate the sequence-specific assignment procedure is thus very important to improve the tools for the characterization of IDPs and thus to be able to focus on IDPs of increasing size and complexity. Here, we present and describe the implementation of a set of novel ¹H-detected 5D experiments, (HACA)CON(CACO)NCO(CA)HA, BT-(H)NCO(CAN)CONNH and BT-HN(COCAN)CONNH, optimized for the study of highly flexible IDPs that exploit the best resolved correlations, those involving the carbonyl and nitrogen nuclei of neighboring amino acids, to achieve sequence-specific resonance assignment. Together with the analogous recently proposed pulse schemes based on ¹³C detection, they form a complete set of experiments for sequence-specific assignment of highly flexible IDPs. Depending on the particular sample conditions (concentration, lifetime, pH, temperature, etc.), these experiments present certain advantages and disadvantages that will be discussed. Needless to say, that the availability of a variety of complementary experiments will be important for accurate determination of resonance frequencies in complex IDPs.

  11. [Mesectodermal leiomyoma. Unusual tumor of the ciliary body].

    PubMed

    Rentería-Ruiz, Nancy Paulina; de Wit-Carter, Guillermo; Villaseñor-Diez, Jaime; Flores-Estrada, José Javier; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el leiomioma mesoectodérmico es un tumor benigno excepcional que se origina en el músculo liso del cuerpo ciliar y deriva de la cresta neural. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una mujer de 35 años, con disminución de la agudeza visual y visión borrosa de 2 meses de evolución en el ojo derecho. El diagnóstico presuncional clínico e imagenológico fue: adenoma del epitelio no pigmentado del cuerpo ciliar, por lo que se resecó quirúrgicamente. Microscópicamente, el tumor estaba formado por células de núcleos redondos de escaso citoplasma sin atipia ni mitosis, dispuestas en una matriz fibrilar. Los inmunomarcadores para vimentina, actina músculo específica, actina de músculo liso y calponina fueron todos positivos en el citoplasma de las células neoplásicas, excepto de los inmunomarcadores para la proteína ácida gliofibrilar y la proteína S-100 que resultaron negativos en la misma población celular. Conclusiones: el leiomioma mesoectodérmico del cuerpo ciliar es un tumor benigno de músculo liso extremadamente raro en esta localización. Hasta el momento, sólo hay 25 casos informados en la bibliografía médica y su principal diagnóstico diferencial es melanoma uveal, motivo por el que algunos ojos se enuclearon. Los estudios de ultrabiomicroscopia y ecografía modos A y B son útiles en la evaluación; sin embargo, es obligado el estudio microscópico con tinciones de rutina, y el uso de marcadores inmunohistoquímicos, como los utilizados en este caso para establecer la naturaleza del músculo liso de esta neoplasia y descartar algunas otras, como el melanoma.

  12. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-10-22

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  13. Genomic landscapes of breast fibroepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Ley Moy; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Thangaraju, Saranya; Dey, Sucharita; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; Wijaya, Giovani Claresta; Lim, Jing Quan; Huang, Dachuan; Li, Zhimei; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Chan, Jason Yong Sheng; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Tan, Wai Jin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Ahmad, Buhari Shaik; Iau, Philip; Chan, Ching Wan; Tang, Anthony P H; Yong, Wei Sean; Madhukumar, Preetha; Ho, Gay Hui; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Wong, Chow Yin; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Teh, Bin Tean

    2015-11-01

    Breast fibroepithelial tumors comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of pathological entities, from benign fibroadenomas to malignant phyllodes tumors. Although MED12 mutations have been frequently found in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, the landscapes of genetic alterations across the fibroepithelial tumor spectrum remain unclear. Here, by performing exome sequencing of 22 phyllodes tumors followed by targeted sequencing of 100 breast fibroepithelial tumors, we observed three distinct somatic mutation patterns. First, we frequently observed MED12 and RARA mutations in both fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, emphasizing the importance of these mutations in fibroepithelial tumorigenesis. Second, phyllodes tumors exhibited mutations in FLNA, SETD2 and KMT2D, suggesting a role in driving phyllodes tumor development. Third, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors harbored additional mutations in cancer-associated genes. RARA mutations exhibited clustering in the portion of the gene encoding the ligand-binding domain, functionally suppressed RARA-mediated transcriptional activation and enhanced RARA interactions with transcriptional co-repressors. This study provides insights into the molecular pathogenesis of breast fibroepithelial tumors, with potential clinical implications. PMID:26437033

  14. Nonlymphoid mesenchymal tumors of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Ademar; León, Jorge Esquiche; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2008-10-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and most of them are of epithelial origin. Mesenchymal tumors affecting the parotid are extremely rare, and we present a series of 19 cases. All parotid tumors (600 cases) treated at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery from A.C. Camargo Hospital, Brazil from 1953 to 2003 were reviewed and 19 cases of nonlymphoid mesenchymal origin were selected. The histological characteristics were reviewed and clinical features were obtained from the medical charts. 15 out of 19 were benign tumors, including 5 lymphangiomas, 5 neurofibromas, and one case each of schwannoma, lipoma, solitary fibrous tumor, meningioma and giant cell tumor. Four malignant tumors were classified as rhabdomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and endodermal sinus tumor. From the malignant cases, only the patient with fibrosarcoma died due the tumor, the other three are alive with no signs of recurrence. In our series of 600 cases of parotid gland tumors, nonlymphoid mesenchymal tumors corresponded to 3.16% (19 cases; 15 benign and 4 malignant). All cases were treated by surgery with no recurrences, except one case of fibrosarcoma whose patient died of distant metastasis.

  15. Parasagittal solitary fibrous tumor resembling hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Shidoh, Satoka; Yoshida, Kazunari; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mikami, Shuji; Mukai, Makio; Kawase, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the central nervous system, and the clinical behavior of this tumor is similar to that of meningioma. We report the case of a Japanese woman with parasagittal SFT that resembled hemangiopericytoma (HPC). Histological examination revealed that the tumor was highly cellular, with cells containing oval- or spindle-shaped nuclei arranged in sheets or a pattern-less growth mode. Focal vascular proliferation was also observed. Some areas showed intercellular stroma containing remarkable eosinophilic collagens. Tumor cells showed a strong immunoreactivity for CD34 but were negative for S-100 protein and epithelial membrane antigen. MIB-1 labeling index of the tumor was 6.6%. Owing to the high cellularity, high MIB-1 labeling index, and focal vascular proliferation, it was difficult to distinguish this lesion from HPC. However, the tumor was finally diagnosed as SFT on the basis of the strong immunostaining for CD34 and absence of pericellular reticulin.

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor in the mental region.

    PubMed

    Hirano, M; Tanuma, J; Shimoda, T; Sugihara, K; Tsuneyoshi, M; Kitano, M

    2001-11-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare, benign, soft tissue tumor that most commonly occurs in the pleura; however, it has recently been described in other sites of the body. To date, eight examples of oral SFT have been reported. This paper is a description of the first case of an SFT occurring as a soft tissue tumor in the mental region. Histologically, the tumor was composed predominantly of rather uniform spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells arranged in vague fascicles or in a haphazard fashion, intermingled with abundant collagen fibers. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD34 and vimentin, and weakly positive for muscle actin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The diagnosis of SFT may be difficult as this tumor shares a number of histological features with other soft tissue tumors. Awareness of its occurrence in the oral cavity is important so that confusion with other spindle cell neoplasms can be avoided.

  17. Image based modeling of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Meghdadi, N; Soltani, M; Niroomand-Oscuii, H; Ghalichi, F

    2016-09-01

    Tumors are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the efforts of the clinical and research communities, little has been achieved in the past decades in terms of improving the treatment of aggressive tumors. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor growth and evaluating the effects of different therapies are valuable steps in predicting the survival time and improving the patients' quality of life. Several studies have been devoted to tumor growth modeling at different levels to improve the clinical outcome by predicting the results of specific treatments. Recent studies have proposed patient-specific models using clinical data usually obtained from clinical images and evaluating the effects of various therapies. The aim of this review is to highlight the imaging role in tumor growth modeling and provide a worthwhile reference for biomedical and mathematical researchers with respect to tumor modeling using the clinical data to develop personalized models of tumor growth and evaluating the effect of different therapies.

  18. Image based modeling of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Meghdadi, N; Soltani, M; Niroomand-Oscuii, H; Ghalichi, F

    2016-09-01

    Tumors are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the efforts of the clinical and research communities, little has been achieved in the past decades in terms of improving the treatment of aggressive tumors. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor growth and evaluating the effects of different therapies are valuable steps in predicting the survival time and improving the patients' quality of life. Several studies have been devoted to tumor growth modeling at different levels to improve the clinical outcome by predicting the results of specific treatments. Recent studies have proposed patient-specific models using clinical data usually obtained from clinical images and evaluating the effects of various therapies. The aim of this review is to highlight the imaging role in tumor growth modeling and provide a worthwhile reference for biomedical and mathematical researchers with respect to tumor modeling using the clinical data to develop personalized models of tumor growth and evaluating the effect of different therapies. PMID:27596102

  19. Calcification of multipotent prostate tumor endothelium.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Andrew C; Khan, Zia A; Shih, Shou-Ching; Kang, Soo-Young; Zwaans, Bernadette M M; Bischoff, Joyce; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Solid tumors require new blood vessels for growth and metastasis, yet the biology of tumor-specific endothelial cells is poorly understood. We have isolated tumor endothelial cells from mice that spontaneously develop prostate tumors. Clonal populations of tumor endothelial cells expressed hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell markers and differentiated to form cartilage- and bone-like tissues. Chondrogenic differentiation was accompanied by an upregulation of cartilage-specific col2a1 and sox9, whereas osteocalcin and the metastasis marker osteopontin were upregulated during osteogenic differentiation. In human and mouse prostate tumors, ectopic vascular calcification was predominately luminal and colocalized with the endothelial marker CD31. Thus, prostate tumor endothelial cells are atypically multipotent and can undergo a mesenchymal-like transition.

  20. Interaction of MSC with tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Catharina; Yang, Yuanyuan; Hass, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Tumor development and tumor progression is not only determined by the corresponding tumor cells but also by the tumor microenvironment. This includes an orchestrated network of interacting cell types (e.g. immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC)) via the extracellular matrix and soluble factors such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and various metabolites. Cell populations of the tumor microenvironment can interact directly and indirectly with cancer cells by mutually altering properties and functions of the involved partners. Particularly, mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC) play an important role during carcinogenesis exhibiting different types of intercellular communication. Accordingly, this work focusses on diverse mechanisms of interaction between MSC and cancer cells. Moreover, some functional changes and consequences for both cell types are summarized which can eventually result in the establishment of a carcinoma stem cell niche (CSCN) or the generation of new tumor cell populations by MSC-tumor cell fusion. PMID:27608835

  1. Tumor angiogenesis in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Alani, Rhoda M; Silverthorn, Courtney F; Orosz, Kate

    2004-06-01

    Over the past decade much research has focused on understanding the molecular pathways that regulate the development of a tumor-associated vasculature. In 1999, Lyden and colleagues showed that mice deficient in one to three Id1 or Id3 alleles could not support the growth of tumor xenografts due to defects in tumor-associated angiogenesis. Three recently published manuscripts have now re-examined the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature using more clinically relevant tumor model systems. Remarkably, all three studies have found strikingly different results compared to the original xenograft data published in 1999. Below we review the current understanding of the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature given the most recent data and suggest ways in which animal tumor model systems might be put to better use to provide more clinically relevant information.

  2. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Evandro; Aubert, Sébastien; Wavreille, Guillaume; Gheno, Ramon; Canella, Clarissa; Cotten, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible.

  3. [Ovarian tumor markers of presumed benign ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Lahlou, N; Brun, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) and Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) are the most studied ovarian tumor markers. Their diagnostic performance for identification of ovarian cancer are superior to CA19-9, CA72-4, and carcinoembryonic antigen, which are no more recommended for the diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumor. HE4 (>140 pmol/L) is superior to CA125 (>30 U/mL) in terms of specificity and positive likelihood ratio. CA125 and HE4 can be combined into an algorithm ROMA, or associated to clinical information (composite index), biological data (OVA1) or imaging (Risk for Malignancy Index (RMI), LR2). ROMA algorithm is an exponential equation combining plasmatic concentrations of HE4 and CA125. ROMA is more sensitive and less specific than HE4 in predicting epithelial ovarian cancer. ROMA is more accurate in post-menopausal women. The performance of ROMA is lower than the ultrasound model LR2 in differentiating malignant from benign ovarian tumors, whatever the hormonal status. The composite index combining CA125 with a symptoms index (pain, abdominal distension, bloating, difficulty eating) has a good sensitivity in a screening program, but because of a 12% false positive rate, ultrasound is required before management. The RMI algorithm is based on serum CA125, ultrasound findings (septation, solid zones, metastases, ascite, bilaterality) and menopausal status. RMI is less sensitive, but more specific than ROMA or OVA1 for the classification of ovarian masses. The addition of HE4 to RMI seems to be the most accurate. The subjective evaluation of ovarian cysts by sonography and color Doppler is better than ROMA and RMI algorithms, and not affected by the hormonal status.

  4. Autophagy sensitivity of neuroendocrine lung tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2013-12-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) phenotypes characterize a spectrum of lung tumors, including low-grade typical and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid, high-grade large-cell NE carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Currently, no effective treatments are available to cure NE lung tumors, demanding identification of biological features specific to these tumors. Here, we report that autophagy has an important role for NE lung tumor cell proliferation and survival. We found that the expression levels of the autophagy marker LC3 are relatively high in a panel of lung tumor cell lines expressing high levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a key NE marker in lung tumors. In response to bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine, NE lung tumor cells exhibited cytotoxicity whereas non-NE lung tumor cells exhibited cytostasis, indicating a distinct role of autophagy for NE lung tumor cell survival. Intriguingly, in certain NE lung tumor cell lines, the levels of processed LC3 (LC3-II) were inversely correlated with AKT activity. When AKT activity was inhibited using AKTi or MK2206, the levels of LC3-II and SQSTM1/p62 were increased. In contrast, torin 1, rapamycin or mTOR knockdown increased p62 levels, suggesting that these two pathways have opposing effects on autophagy in certain NE lung tumors. Moreover, inhibition of one pathway resulted in reduced activity of the other, suggesting that these two pathways crosstalk in the tumors. These results suggest that NE lung tumor cells share a common feature of autophagy and are more sensitive to autophagy inhibition than non-NE lung tumor cells. PMID:24126619

  5. [Papillary and cystic tumor of pancreas--Frantz's tumor].

    PubMed

    Iarŭmov, N; Shtŭrbanov, I; Terziev, I; Evtimov, R; Gegova, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the authors is to introduce one rare known pathology which the Frantz's tumor is, his clinical characteristic, clinical signs, diagnostic and treatment. We have observed two separate cases of this illness in Clinic of Surgery (University Hospital "Queen Yoanna") in comparison with evidence of famous world surgeons. We have made an attempt to introduce one disease, which even though not often observed is significant by the fact that affect young women (girls) and only surgical resection is a treatment of choice.

  6. Paramagnetic-to-Ferromagnetic Transition in Con Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Pickett, Warren

    2004-03-01

    Motivated by reports of synthesis of zincblende (ZB) structure CrAs in thin film form, strong interest has developed in understanding transition metal pnictides and their tendencies toward magnetic order.Literature on the experimental analysis of the structure of CoN is varied, with reports of both magnetically ordered NaCl structure CoN and non-magnetic ZB CoN. We present results of first principles analysis of electronic structure, magnetism and Murnaghan equation of state for both structures. The non-magnetic ZB structure, stable at ambient pressure transforms to a collapsed ferromagnetic NaCl phase at 10GPa (ΔV = -15%). These results will be compared to data and similarities/differences with other transition metal nitrides will be discussed.

  7. ProbCons: Probabilistic consistency-based multiple sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Do, Chuong B; Mahabhashyam, Mahathi S P; Brudno, Michael; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2005-02-01

    To study gene evolution across a wide range of organisms, biologists need accurate tools for multiple sequence alignment of protein families. Obtaining accurate alignments, however, is a difficult computational problem because of not only the high computational cost but also the lack of proper objective functions for measuring alignment quality. In this paper, we introduce probabilistic consistency, a novel scoring function for multiple sequence comparisons. We present ProbCons, a practical tool for progressive protein multiple sequence alignment based on probabilistic consistency, and evaluate its performance on several standard alignment benchmark data sets. On the BAliBASE, SABmark, and PREFAB benchmark alignment databases, ProbCons achieves statistically significant improvement over other leading methods while maintaining practical speed. ProbCons is publicly available as a Web resource.

  8. Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-18

    Solid Tumors; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Fumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors; Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST); Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations; Tumors Harboring Amplifications in the cMyc Gene

  10. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  12. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  13. Enucleation and the appearance of second primary tumors in cats bearing virally induced intraocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Niederkorn, J Y; Shadduck, J A; Albert, D

    1982-12-01

    The effect of enucleation of an eye containing a malignant intraocular neoplasm on the occurrence of secondary tumors was studied in cats with tumors, mainly melanomas, induced by Gardner feline fibrosarcoma virus. Enucleation of eyes containing progressively growing tumors was followed by a sharp increase in the frequency of secondary tumors. Secondary tumors were detected in 13 of 14 (92.8%) cats subjected to enucleation but in only seven of 21 (33.3%) untreated cats. The data suggest that the secondary tumors were not metastases but rather second primary tumors induced by local transformation of fibrosarcoma virus shed from the intraocular neoplasms. The increased incidence of these second primary tumors in cats subjected to enucleation was associated with depressed antibody titers to a tumor-specific transplantation antigen, the feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen.

  14. Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuri; Lin, Qun; Glazer, Peter M.; Yun, Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia or oxygen deficiency is a salient feature of solid tumors. Hypoxic tumors are often resistant to conventional cancer therapies, and tumor hypoxia correlates with advanced stages of malignancy. Hypoxic tumors appear to be poorly differentiated. Increasing evidence suggests that hypoxia has the potential to inhibit tumor cell differentiation and thus plays a direct role in the maintenance of cancer stem cells. Studies have also shown that hypoxia blocks differentiation of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells, a potential source of tumor-associated stromal cells. It is therefore likely that hypoxia may have a profound impact on the evolution of the tumor stromal microenvironment. These observations have led to the emergence of a novel paradigm for a role of hypoxia in facilitating tumor progression. Hypoxia may help create a microenvironment enriched in poorly differentiated tumor cells and undifferentiated stromal cells. Such an undifferentiated hypoxic microenvironment may provide essential cellular interactions and environmental signals for the preferential maintenance of cancer stem cells. This hypothesis suggests that effectively targeting hypoxic cancer stem cells is a key to successful tumor control. PMID:19519400

  15. Tumor Associated Macrophages in Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleva, Olga V.; Samoilova, Daria V.; Shitova, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are an important element of tumor stroma. They originate from blood monocytes attracted by chemokines and cytokines produced by tumor cells and, being instructed by tumor microenvironment, develop into potent tumor-supporting cell population. TAMs were demonstrated to directly stimulate tumor cell proliferation and to promote angiogenesis. Further TAMs provide for efficient immune escape by producing immunosuppressive cytokines and facilitate tumor dissemination by producing extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), numerous studies were performed for elucidation of the role of TAM in tumor progression. Using pan-macrophages marker CD68 and type 2 macrophage (M2) markers CD163 and CD206, it was demonstrated that increased density of TAMs is associated with poor survival of patients. Although most of the studies are focused on M2 population in RCC, several markers rather typical for type 1 macrophages (M1) were also characterized. Macrophages isolated from RCC tumors were shown to produce proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and CCL2. It can be concluded that RCC is an excellent example of a tumor with hybrid phenotype of TAMs that share both M1 and M2 properties. Moreover, TAMs seem to be an attractive therapeutic target as well. Further investigations are needed for identification of RCC-specific TAM markers with high predictive capacity and/or suitable for therapeutic targeting. PMID:27807511

  16. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  17. ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN TUMOR GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Baugher, Paige J.; Thu, Yee Mon; Richmond, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. In harsh acidic and hypoxic microenvironmental conditions tumor cells up-regulate their expression of CXCR4, which equips them to migrate up a gradient of CXCL12 elaborated by carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to a normoxic microenvironment. The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis facilitates metastasis to distant organs and the CCL21-CCR7 chemokine ligand-receptor pair favors metastasis to lymph nodes. These two chemokine ligand-receptor systems are common key mediators of tumor cell metastasis for several malignancies and as such provide key targets for chemotherapy. In this paper, the role of specific chemokines/chemokine receptor interactions in tumor progression, growth and metastasis and the role of chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in the stromal compartment as related to angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune response to the tumor are reviewed. PMID:17629396

  18. Androgen receptor expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors in a large series of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clinical and pathologic data were reviewed in 427 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the expression of such hormone receptors was investigated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray technique. All tumors were negative for estrogen receptor expression. Progesterone and androgen receptors expression was observed in 5.4% and 17.6% of tumors, respectively. We found the higher average age at diagnosis, the lower frequency of tumors located in the small intestine, and the higher frequency of extragastrointestinal tumors to be statistically significant in the group of tumors with androgen receptor expression in contrast to the group showing no androgen receptor expression. There was no statistic difference between such groups regarding sex, tumor size, mitotic count, cell morphology, and risk of aggressive behavior. Considering that the expression of androgen receptors in gastrointestinal stromal tumors is not negligible, further studies are encouraged to establish the role of androgen deprivation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  19. Tumor size and effectiveness of electrochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Barbara; Miklavcic, Damijan; Campana, Luca G.; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor; Snoj, Marko; Jarm, Tomaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is an effective and safe method for local treatment of tumors. However, relatively large variability in effectiveness of ECT has been observed, which likely results from different treatment conditions and tumor characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and effectiveness of a single-session ECT. Materials and methods A systematic search of various bibliographic databases was performed and nine studies eligible for this study were extracted. Different statistical methods including meta-analysis were applied to analyze the data. Results The results of analysis based on data from 1466 tumors of any histotype show significantly lower effectiveness of ECT on tumors with maximal diameter equal to or larger than 3 cm (complete response (CR) of 33.3%, objective response (OR) of 68.2%) in comparison to smaller tumors (CR% of 59.5%, OR% of 85.7%). The results of meta-analysis indicated that ECT performed on tumors smaller than 3 cm statistically significantly increases the probability of CR by 31.0% and OR by 24.9% on average in comparison to larger tumors. The analysis of raw data about the size and response of tumors showed statistically significant decrease in effectiveness of ECT progressively with increasing tumor diameter. The biggest drop in CR% was detected at tumor diameters as small as 2 cm. Conclusions The standard operating procedures for ECT should be reexamined and refined for the treatment of large tumors. We propose that future clinical trials should include accurate ECT treatment planning and/or multiple ECT cycles, besides a prolonged observation for tumor response evaluation. PMID:23450195

  20. Surgical Treatment of Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and is most frequently developed in the stomach in the form of submucosal tumor. The incidence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is estimated to be as high as 25% of the population when all small and asymptomatic tumors are included. Because gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not completely distinguished from other submucosal tumors, a surgical excisional biopsy is recommended for tumors >2 cm. The surgical principles of gastrointestinal stromal tumor are composed of an R0 resection with a normal mucosa margin, no systemic lymph node dissection, and avoidance of perforation, which results in peritoneal seeding even in cases with otherwise low risk profiles. Laparoscopic surgery has been indicated for gastrointestinal stromal tumors <5 cm, and the indication for laparoscopic surgery is expanded to larger tumors if the above mentioned surgical principles can be maintained. A simple exogastric resection and various transgastric resection techniques are used for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in favorable locations (the fundus, body, greater curvature side). For a lesion at the gastroesophageal junction in the posterior wall of the stomach, enucleation techniques have been tried preserve the organ's function. Those methods have a theoretical risk of seeding a ruptured tumor, but this risk has not been evaluated by well-designed clinical trials. While some clinical trials are still on-going, neoadjuvant imatinib is suggested when marginally unresectable or multiorgan resection is anticipated to reduce the extent of surgery and the chance of incomplete resection, rupture or bleeding. PMID:23610714

  1. Parotid gland tumors in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Man; Choi, Hwan Jun; Kim, Joo Won; Kim, Jun Hyuk

    2012-05-01

    Salivary gland tumors occur in about 3% of the head and neck tumors, and among the salivary gland tumors, parotid gland tumor occurs in about 80%. Because of its low frequency and small cases, it is hard to establish the epidemiologic characteristics of the tumors. This study was performed retrospectively from February 1987 to August 2010. There were 95 male, and 76 female patients. Most of the patients complained of the painless and progressively enlarged mass in the preauricular area. Peak incidence of benign parotid gland tumor was at the fifth decade of life. In the malignant tumors, peak age in males was the eighth decade, and peak age in females was from the third to the fifth decade of life, which was relatively younger and has a broad range of spectrum. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor of the 93 cases (61.6%) followed by Warthin tumor, occurring in 20 cases (13.2%). Squamous cell carcinoma, reported in 6 cases (30%), is the most frequent. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the second leading tumor. In conclusion, parotid gland tumor incidence was found to be higher in males. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most commonly encountered type of parotid gland neoplasms, which is in agreement with findings from all of the published literature from all over world. In contrast to most of the previous studies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor found. Based on the data in this study, it has significant clinical respect and is helpful in the management of parotid gland tumors in Orientals.

  2. Tumor necrosis by controlled ebullism.

    PubMed

    Babich, A

    2005-01-01

    In the early days of manned space flight, experiments were done in which dogs and chimpanzees were exposed to near vacuum in anticipation of possible manned space flight accidents. These specimens experienced what was termed "ebullism". This syndrome involved boiling of body fluids resulting in extreme dehydration and circulatory failure. Whereas malignant tumors are typically warmer than normal tissue, it should be possible to destroy them while sparing normal tissue through this phenomenon by subjecting patients to low pressure slightly greater than that which would produce systemic ebullism.

  3. Tumors: too sweet to remember?

    PubMed

    Vollmers, H Peter; Brändlein, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Immunity, based on a natural and an educated system, is responsible for recognition and elimination of infectious particles, cellular waste, modified self and transformed cells. This dual system guarantees that dangerous particles are removed immediately after appearance and that a memory with maturated weapons exists, if the organism is re-infected by the same particle. For malignant cells, however, the immune response seems to be restricted to innate immunity, because at least for the humoral response, all so far detected tumor-specific antibodies belong to the natural immunity. In this review we try to explain why malignant cells might be "too sweet" to induce a memory. PMID:18053197

  4. [Pregnancy gingivitis and tumor gravidarum].

    PubMed

    Bilińska, Maria; Sokalski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy periodontal tissues may become more susceptible to internal and external factors promoting inflammation. Changes in hormone levels, alterations in the periodontal tissue structure and a predisposition to dilating blood vessels during pregnancy may lead to a painful inflammation as a response to a slightest amount of biofilm. Tumor gravidarum emerges in 5% of pregnant women during the first or second trimester - it may recede and fade completely right after the labour when hormone levels normalize. This paper explains the aetiology and potential risk factors of pregnancy gingivitis. PMID:27321105

  5. Esophageal Lipoma: A Rare Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jeremy; Tejerina, Manfred; Hallowell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal lipomas are rare tumors, making up 0.4% of all digestive tract benign neoplasms. Most of these lesions are clinically silent as a result of their small size, however, the majority of lesions over 4 cm have been reported to cause dysphagia, regurgitation and/or epigastralgia. We report a case of a 53 year-old African American female who presented with dysphagia. Computed tomography of the chest and esophagram confirmed esophageal lipoma as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. Accurately diagnosing an esophageal lipoma is crucial in order to rule out potential malignant lesions, relieve patient symptoms and plan the appropriate treatment. PMID:23365708

  6. Cancer immunotherapy using tumor cryoablation.

    PubMed

    Sidana, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    Cryoablation is increasingly being used as a primary treatment for localized cancers and as a salvage therapy for metastatic cancers. Anecdotal clinical reports and animal experiments have confirmed an induction of systemic antitumor immune response by tumor cryoablation. To capitalize on the stimulatory effects of cryoablation for cancer immunotherapy, this response must be intensified using other immunomodulatory agents. This article reviews the preclinical and clinical evidence and discusses the mechanism of the antitumor immune response generated by cryoablation. The rationale and evidence behind several immunotherapy approaches that can be combined with cryoablation to devise a cryoimmunotherapeutic strategy with a potential to impact the progression of metastatic disease are described.

  7. Ablative therapies for renal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajan; Leveillee, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to an increased use of diagnostic imaging for evaluating patients with other abdominal conditions, incidentally discovered kidney masses now account for a majority of renal tumors. Renal ablative therapy is assuming a more important role in patients with borderline renal impairment. Renal ablation uses heat or cold to bring about cell death. Radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are two such procedures, and 5-year results are now emerging from both modalities. Renal biopsy at the time of ablation is extremely important in order to establish tissue diagnosis. Real-time temperature monitoring at the time of radiofrequency ablation is very useful to ensure adequacy of ablation. PMID:21789083

  8. Tumors: Too sweet to remember?

    PubMed Central

    Vollmers, H Peter; Brändlein, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Immunity, based on a natural and an educated system, is responsible for recognition and elimination of infectious particles, cellular waste, modified self and transformed cells. This dual system guarantees that dangerous particles are removed immediately after appearance and that a memory with maturated weapons exists, if the organism is re-infected by the same particle. For malignant cells, however, the immune response seems to be restricted to innate immunity, because at least for the humoral response, all so far detected tumor-specific antibodies belong to the natural immunity. In this review we try to explain why malignant cells might be "too sweet" to induce a memory. PMID:18053197

  9. Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts Are Susceptible to Formation of Human Lymphocytic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Gennadiy; Ugolkov, Andrey; Rohan, Stephen; Kulesza, Piotr; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Gursel, Demirkan; Mathews, Jeremy; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Wei, Jian J; Mazar, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have emerged as a new approach to evaluate the effects of cancer drugs on patients' personalized tumor grafts enabling to select the best treatment for the cancer patient and providing a new tool for oncology drug developers. Here, we report that human tumors engrafted in immunodeficient mice are susceptible to formation of B-and T-cell PDX tumors. We xenografted human primary and metastatic tumor samples into immunodeficient mice and found that a fraction of PDX tumors generated from patients' samples of breast, colon, pancreatic, bladder and renal cancer were histologically similar to lymphocytic neoplasms. Moreover, we found that the first passage of breast and pancreatic cancer PDX tumors after initial transplantation of the tumor pieces from the same human tumor graft could grow as a lymphocytic tumor in one mouse and as an adenocarcinoma in another mouse. Whereas subcutaneous PDX tumors resembling human adenocarcinoma histology were slow growing and non-metastatic, we found that subcutaneous PDX lymphocytic tumors were fast growing and formed large metastatic lesions in mouse lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen. PDX lymphocytic tumors were comprised of B-cells which were Epstein-Barr virus positive and expressed CD45 and CD20. Because B-cells are typically present in malignant solid tumors, formation of B-cell tumor may evolve in a wide range of PDX tumor models. Although PDX tumor models show great promise in the development of personalized therapy for cancer patients, our results suggest that confidence in any given PDX tumor model requires careful screening of lymphocytic markers. PMID:26476081

  10. Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts Are Susceptible to Formation of Human Lymphocytic Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Gennadiy; Ugolkov, Andrey; Rohan, Stephen; Kulesza, Piotr; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Gursel, Demirkan; Mathews, Jeremy; O’Halloran, Thomas V.; Wei, Jian J.; Mazar, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have emerged as a new approach to evaluate the effects of cancer drugs on patients’ personalized tumor grafts enabling to select the best treatment for the cancer patient and providing a new tool for oncology drug developers. Here, we report that human tumors engrafted in immunodeficient mice are susceptible to formation of B-and T-cell PDX tumors. We xenografted human primary and metastatic tumor samples into immunodeficient mice and found that a fraction of PDX tumors generated from patients’ samples of breast, colon, pancreatic, bladder and renal cancer were histologically similar to lymphocytic neoplasms. Moreover, we found that the first passage of breast and pancreatic cancer PDX tumors after initial transplantation of the tumor pieces from the same human tumor graft could grow as a lymphocytic tumor in one mouse and as an adenocarcinoma in another mouse. Whereas subcutaneous PDX tumors resembling human adenocarcinoma histology were slow growing and non-metastatic, we found that subcutaneous PDX lymphocytic tumors were fast growing and formed large metastatic lesions in mouse lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen. PDX lymphocytic tumors were comprised of B-cells which were Epstein-Barr virus positive and expressed CD45 and CD20. Because B-cells are typically present in malignant solid tumors, formation of B-cell tumor may evolve in a wide range of PDX tumor models. Although PDX tumor models show great promise in the development of personalized therapy for cancer patients, our results suggest that confidence in any given PDX tumor model requires careful screening of lymphocytic markers. PMID:26476081

  11. Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts Are Susceptible to Formation of Human Lymphocytic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Gennadiy; Ugolkov, Andrey; Rohan, Stephen; Kulesza, Piotr; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Gursel, Demirkan; Mathews, Jeremy; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Wei, Jian J; Mazar, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have emerged as a new approach to evaluate the effects of cancer drugs on patients' personalized tumor grafts enabling to select the best treatment for the cancer patient and providing a new tool for oncology drug developers. Here, we report that human tumors engrafted in immunodeficient mice are susceptible to formation of B-and T-cell PDX tumors. We xenografted human primary and metastatic tumor samples into immunodeficient mice and found that a fraction of PDX tumors generated from patients' samples of breast, colon, pancreatic, bladder and renal cancer were histologically similar to lymphocytic neoplasms. Moreover, we found that the first passage of breast and pancreatic cancer PDX tumors after initial transplantation of the tumor pieces from the same human tumor graft could grow as a lymphocytic tumor in one mouse and as an adenocarcinoma in another mouse. Whereas subcutaneous PDX tumors resembling human adenocarcinoma histology were slow growing and non-metastatic, we found that subcutaneous PDX lymphocytic tumors were fast growing and formed large metastatic lesions in mouse lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen. PDX lymphocytic tumors were comprised of B-cells which were Epstein-Barr virus positive and expressed CD45 and CD20. Because B-cells are typically present in malignant solid tumors, formation of B-cell tumor may evolve in a wide range of PDX tumor models. Although PDX tumor models show great promise in the development of personalized therapy for cancer patients, our results suggest that confidence in any given PDX tumor model requires careful screening of lymphocytic markers.

  12. Integrated proteomic platforms for the comparative characterization of medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma pediatric brain tumors: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Claudia; Iavarone, Federica; D'Angelo, Luca; Arba, Morena; Vincenzoni, Federica; Inserra, Ilaria; Delfino, Daniela; Rossetti, Diana Valeria; Caretto, Marta; Massimi, Luca; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Di Rocco, Concezio; Caldarelli, Massimo; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Desiderio, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    A top-down/bottom-up integrated proteomic approach based on LC-MS and 2-DE analysis was applied for comparative characterization of medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma posterior cranial fossa pediatric brain tumor tissues. Although rare, primary brain tumors are the most frequent solid tumors in the pediatric age. Among them the medulloblastoma is the prevalent malignant tumor in childhood while pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common, rarely showing a malignant progression. Due to the limited availability of this kind of sample, the study was applied to pooled tumor tissues for a preliminary investigation. The results showed different proteomic profiles of the two tumors and evidenced interesting differential expression of several proteins and peptides. Top-down proteomics of acid-soluble fractions of brain tumor homogenates ascribed a potential biomarker role of malignancy to β- and α-thymosins and their truncated proteoforms and to C-terminal truncated (des-GG) ubiquitin, resulting exclusively detected or over-expressed in the highly malignant medulloblastoma. The bottom-up proteomics of the acid-soluble fraction identified several proteins, some of them in common with 2-DE analysis of acid-insoluble pellets. Peroxiredoxin-1, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, triosephosphate isomerase, pyruvate kinase PKM, tubulin beta and alpha chains, heat shock protein HSP-90-beta and different histones characterized the medulloblastoma while the Ig kappa chain C region, serotransferrin, tubulin beta 2A chain and vimentin the pilocytic astrocytoma. The two proteomic strategies, with their pros and cons, well complemented each other in characterizing the proteome of brain tumor tissues and in disclosing potential disease biomarkers to be validated in a future study on individual samples of both tumor histotypes. PMID:25909245

  13. Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Promote Tumor Metastasis by Chaperoning Circulating Tumor Cells and Protecting Them from Anoikis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arti; Kumar, Bhavna; Yu, Jun-Ge; Old, Matthew; Teknos, Theodoros N; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a highly inefficient biological process as millions of tumor cells are released in circulation each day and only a few of them are able to successfully form distal metastatic nodules. This could be due to the fact that most of the epithelial origin cancer cells are anchorage-dependent and undergo rapid anoikis in harsh circulating conditions. A number of studies have shown that in addition to tumor cells, activated endothelial cells are also released into the blood circulation from the primary tumors. However, the precise role of these activated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in tumor metastasis process is not known. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to examine if CECs promoted tumor metastasis by chaperoning the tumor cells to distal sites. Our results demonstrate that blood samples from head and neck cancer patients contain significantly higher Bcl-2-positive CECs as compared to healthy volunteers. Technically, it is challenging to know the origin of CECs in patient blood samples, therefore we used an orthotopic SCID mouse model and co-implanted GFP-labeled endothelial cells along with tumor cells. Our results suggest that activated CECs (Bcl-2-positive) were released from primary tumors and they co-migrated with tumor cells to distal sites. Bcl-2 overexpression in endothelial cells (EC-Bcl-2) significantly enhanced adhesion molecule expression and tumor cell binding that was predominantly mediated by E-selectin. In addition, tumor cells bound to EC-Bcl-2 showed a significantly higher anoikis resistance via the activation of Src-FAK pathway. In our in vivo experiments, we observed significantly higher lung metastasis when tumor cells were co-injected with EC-Bcl-2 as compared to EC-VC. E-selectin knockdown in EC-Bcl-2 cells or FAK/FUT3 knockdown in tumor cells significantly reversed EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CECs in protecting the tumor cells in circulation and

  14. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: an unusual case of breast cancer metastatic to a solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O; Gabordi, Robert C; Smith, Prudence V; Toloza, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the visceral or parietal pleura, but that has also been described arising from virtually all organs. This neoplasm exhibits rich vascularity, a characteristic it shares with renal cell carcinoma, making these tumors especially suitable for harboring metastases. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with history of right breast cancer treated six years previously and who presents with a left pulmonary SFT containing metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma as well as a synchronous contralateral primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. The literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis is then reviewed.

  15. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: an unusual case of breast cancer metastatic to a solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O; Gabordi, Robert C; Smith, Prudence V; Toloza, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the visceral or parietal pleura, but that has also been described arising from virtually all organs. This neoplasm exhibits rich vascularity, a characteristic it shares with renal cell carcinoma, making these tumors especially suitable for harboring metastases. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with history of right breast cancer treated six years previously and who presents with a left pulmonary SFT containing metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma as well as a synchronous contralateral primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. The literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis is then reviewed. PMID:27293861

  16. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: an unusual case of breast cancer metastatic to a solitary fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O.; Gabordi, Robert C.; Smith, Prudence V.

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the visceral or parietal pleura, but that has also been described arising from virtually all organs. This neoplasm exhibits rich vascularity, a characteristic it shares with renal cell carcinoma, making these tumors especially suitable for harboring metastases. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with history of right breast cancer treated six years previously and who presents with a left pulmonary SFT containing metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma as well as a synchronous contralateral primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. The literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis is then reviewed. PMID:27293861

  17. Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Promote Tumor Metastasis by Chaperoning Circulating Tumor Cells and Protecting Them from Anoikis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arti; Kumar, Bhavna; Yu, Jun-Ge; Old, Matthew; Teknos, Theodoros N; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a highly inefficient biological process as millions of tumor cells are released in circulation each day and only a few of them are able to successfully form distal metastatic nodules. This could be due to the fact that most of the epithelial origin cancer cells are anchorage-dependent and undergo rapid anoikis in harsh circulating conditions. A number of studies have shown that in addition to tumor cells, activated endothelial cells are also released into the blood circulation from the primary tumors. However, the precise role of these activated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in tumor metastasis process is not known. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to examine if CECs promoted tumor metastasis by chaperoning the tumor cells to distal sites. Our results demonstrate that blood samples from head and neck cancer patients contain significantly higher Bcl-2-positive CECs as compared to healthy volunteers. Technically, it is challenging to know the origin of CECs in patient blood samples, therefore we used an orthotopic SCID mouse model and co-implanted GFP-labeled endothelial cells along with tumor cells. Our results suggest that activated CECs (Bcl-2-positive) were released from primary tumors and they co-migrated with tumor cells to distal sites. Bcl-2 overexpression in endothelial cells (EC-Bcl-2) significantly enhanced adhesion molecule expression and tumor cell binding that was predominantly mediated by E-selectin. In addition, tumor cells bound to EC-Bcl-2 showed a significantly higher anoikis resistance via the activation of Src-FAK pathway. In our in vivo experiments, we observed significantly higher lung metastasis when tumor cells were co-injected with EC-Bcl-2 as compared to EC-VC. E-selectin knockdown in EC-Bcl-2 cells or FAK/FUT3 knockdown in tumor cells significantly reversed EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CECs in protecting the tumor cells in circulation and

  18. A paracrine loop between tumor cells and macrophages is required for tumor cell migration in mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Wang, Weigang; Lin, Elaine Y; Wang, Yarong; Pixley, Fiona; Stanley, E Richard; Graf, Thomas; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2004-10-01

    Invasion of tumor cells into the surrounding connective tissue and blood vessels is a key step in the metastatic spread of breast tumors. Although the presence of macrophages in primary tumors is associated with increased metastatic potential, the mechanistic basis for this observation is unknown. Using a chemotaxis-based in vivo invasion assay and multiphoton-based intravital imaging, we show that the interaction between macrophages and tumor cells facilitates the migration of carcinoma cells in the primary tumor. Gradients of either epidermal growth factor (EGF) or colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) stimulate collection into microneedles of tumor cells and macrophages even though tumor cells express only EGF receptor and macrophages express only CSF-1 receptor. Intravital imaging shows that macrophages and tumor cells migrate toward microneedles containing either EGF or CSF-1. Inhibition of either CSF-1- or EGF-stimulated signaling reduces the migration of both cell types. This work provides the first direct evidence for a synergistic interaction between macrophages and tumor cells during cell migration in vivo and indicates a mechanism for how macrophages may contribute to metastasis.

  19. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  1. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, C.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  2. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  6. Endocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Meko, J B; Norton, J A

    1994-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare, yet can cause significant morbidity due to excessive secretion of hormones. Octreotide is effective in reducing the plasma concentrations of many of these hormones. The availability of potent H2-receptor antagonists and omeprazole has altered the emphasis in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome away from total gastrectomy and towards resection of the gastrinoma for potential cure. Fifty percent of insulinomas and gastrinomas are not evident on preoperative imaging studies, despite their sophistication. Calcium angiography, endoscopic ultrasonography, isotope-labeled octreotide scanning, and injection of methylene blue during secretin angiography are recent imaging modalities that have shown promise in the localization of these tumors. Intraoperative ultrasound has emerged as the best method for operative detection of insulinomas. Duodenotomy and intraoperative endoscopic transillumination are especially important in the surgical management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome because 30% to 40% of gastrinomas are located in the duodenum. The management of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome continues to be controversial. Some advocate an aggressive surgical approach, whereas others have had little success in rendering patients eugastrinemic.

  7. Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, S; Kleinberg, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of under production or overproduction of one pituitary hormone. Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel syndrome is very common in patients with acromegaly. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has indirect effects via the action of glucocorticoid on bones, muscles, and the immune system. Proximal muscle weakness is a characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome. Patients with Cushing's syndrome commonly have osteopenia and osteoporosis that lead to an increase in bone fractures. Avascular necrosis is associated with exogenous steroid administration. The effects of too much glucocorticoid or too rapid withdrawal can be severe. Gonadotropins act via the gonadal steroids and protect bone mass from loss. Prolactin is less involved in rheumatologic disease; the data for which are limited in humans. Pituitary tumors can have manifestations similar to rheumatologic disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  8. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  9. Tumor-induced immune dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, R; Wasserman, K; Horiguchi, S; Kono, K; Sjöberg, J; Pisa, P; Petersson, M

    1999-10-01

    Immune system-based approaches for the treatment of malignant disease over the past decades have often focused on cytolytic effector cells such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and natural killer (NK) cells. It has also been demonstrated that tumor-bearing mice can be cured using a wide variety of approaches, some of which involve cytokine-mediated enhancement of CTL and NK cell activity. However, the apparent success in mice stands in contrast to the current situation in the clinic, wherein only a minority of patients have thus far benefited from CTL- or NK cell-based antitumor approaches. The underlying causes of tumor-associated immune suppression of CTL and NK cell activity are discussed, and features of interest shared with HIV infection, leprosy, and rheumatoid arthritis are also be mentioned. Remarkable and very recent observations have shed more light upon the causes of dysfunctional alterations in CTL and NK cells often associated with these diseases, that in turn have suggested new immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer and infectious disease. PMID:10501847

  10. Temperature uniformity in hyperthermal tumor therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. H.; Robinson, J. E.; Samaras, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumors heated by water bath or by microwave-induced hyperthermia exhibit a response that varies sharply with treatment temperature; therefore, uniform heating of the tumor is essential to quantitate the biological response as a function of temperature. C3H tumors implanted on the mouse flank were easily heated to uniformities within 0.1 C by using water baths. Cold spots up to 1 C below the desired treatment temperature were observed in the same tumors implanted on the hind leg. These cold spots were attributed to cooling by major blood vessels near the tumor. In this case temperature uniformity was achieved by the deposition of 2450 MHz microwave energy into the tumor volume by using parallel-opposed applicators.

  11. Tumor Bioengineering Using a Transglutaminase Crosslinked Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Josephine Y.; Tan, Shih-Jye; Yang, Zhi; Tayag, Charisse; Han, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel) to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25133673

  12. Tumor initiating cells in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2009-01-01

    A rare subpopulation of cells within malignant gliomas, which shares canonical properties with neural stem cells (NSCs), may be integral to glial tumor development and perpetuation. These cells, also known as tumor initiating cells (TICs), have the ability to self-renew, develop into any cell in the overall tumor population (multipotency), and proliferate. A defining property of TICs is their ability to initiate new tumors in immunocompromised mice with high efficiency. Mounting evidence suggests that TICs originate from the transformation of NSCs and their progenitors. New findings show that TICs may be more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation than the bulk of tumor cells, thereby permitting recurrent tumor formation and accounting for the failure of conventional therapies. The development of new therapeutic strategies selectively targeting TICs while sparing NSCs may provide for more effective treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:19189072

  13. Primary bone tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Cañete, A Navas; Bloem, H L; Kroon, H M

    2016-04-01

    Primary bone tumors of the spine are less common than metastases or multiple myeloma. Based on the patient's age and the radiologic pattern and topography of the tumor, a very approximate differential diagnosis can be established for an osseous vertebral lesion. This article shows the radiologic manifestations of the principal primary bone tumors of the spine from a practical point of view, based on our personal experience and a review of the literature. If bone metastases, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, hemangiomas, and enostoses are excluded, only eight types of tumors account for 80% of all vertebral tumors. These are chordomas, osteoblastomas, chondrosarcomas, giant-cell tumors, osteoid osteomas, Ewing's sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts. PMID:26917429

  14. Case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shinichi; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Sadafumi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Tateno, Hiroo; Kuwahara, Masaaki

    2007-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the retroperitoneal space is rare. We report a case of retroperitoneal tumor, diagnosed as SFT. A 69-year-old woman presented with right lower abdominal swelling, and was referred to our hospital with suspicion of right renal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography (CT) showed a mass (about 15 x 14 x 10 cm) in the right abdomen. The tumor was thought to be right renal rumor, and right radical nephrectomy was performed. In the excised specimen the tumor was not connected to gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, or right kidney. The histological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimen revealed SFT. The tumor has malignant potential with partially increased mitotic activity and cellularity in the histological examination. The patient is healthy and without evidence of recurrence or metastasis 26 months from surgery.

  15. Autocrine effects of tumor-derived complement.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Soon; Vasquez, Hernan G; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pradeep, Sunila; Wu, Sherry; Zand, Behrouz; Han, Hee-Dong; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Huang, Jie; Miyake, Takahito; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Dalton, Heather J; Ivan, Cristina; Baggerly, Keith; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid

    2014-03-27

    We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.

  16. Primary bone tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Cañete, A Navas; Bloem, H L; Kroon, H M

    2016-04-01

    Primary bone tumors of the spine are less common than metastases or multiple myeloma. Based on the patient's age and the radiologic pattern and topography of the tumor, a very approximate differential diagnosis can be established for an osseous vertebral lesion. This article shows the radiologic manifestations of the principal primary bone tumors of the spine from a practical point of view, based on our personal experience and a review of the literature. If bone metastases, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, hemangiomas, and enostoses are excluded, only eight types of tumors account for 80% of all vertebral tumors. These are chordomas, osteoblastomas, chondrosarcomas, giant-cell tumors, osteoid osteomas, Ewing's sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts.

  17. [Typical tumors of the petrous bone].

    PubMed

    Ahlhelm, F; Müller, U; Ulmer, S

    2014-04-01

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. PMID:24692010

  18. Tumors and mitochondrial respiration: a neglected connection.

    PubMed

    Viale, Andrea; Corti, Denise; Draetta, Giulio F

    2015-09-15

    For decades, tumor cells have been considered defective in mitochondrial respiration due to their dominant glycolytic metabolism. However, a growing body of evidence is now challenging this assumption, and also implying that tumors are metabolically less homogeneous than previously supposed. A small subpopulation of slow-cycling cells endowed with tumorigenic potential and multidrug resistance has been isolated from different tumors. Deep metabolic characterization of these tumorigenic cells revealed their dependency on mitochondrial respiration versus glycolysis, suggesting the existence of a common metabolic program active in slow-cycling cells across different tumors. These findings change our understanding of tumor metabolism and also highlight new vulnerabilities that can be exploited to eradicate cancer cells responsible for tumor relapse.

  19. Cryosurgical treatment of glomus juglare tumor.

    PubMed

    Izumikawa, F; Yanagihara, N; Matsuoka, I

    1978-09-28

    A 35 year-old Japanese female complained of a right-sided pulsation tinnitis, hearing disturbance, and facial weakness. Extensive radiographic studies including angiograms and retrograde juglar venography provided a diagnosis and localization of a tumor. Radical mastoidectomy was performed and a red grape-like glomus juglare tumor along the facial nerve was extirpated as there was a profuse hemorrhage from the tumor mass. Cryosurgery was then performed. Complete surgical removal is possible when the tumor is small, however, when the tumor involves the middle ear and mastoid area, complete extirpation cannot always be done. Radical mastoidectomy plus cryosurgery appears to be the most feasible management in the surgical treatment of glomus juglare tumor. PMID:220945

  20. Tumor lysis syndrome: A clinical review.

    PubMed

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Voore, Prakruthi; Khan, Maliha; Ali, Alaa M

    2015-05-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncometabolic emergency resulting from rapid cell death. Tumor lysis syndrome can occur as a consequence of tumor targeted therapy or spontaneously. Clinicians should stratify every hospitalized cancer patient and especially those receiving chemotherapy for the risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Several aspects of prevention include adequate hydration, use of uric acid lowering therapies, use of phosphate binders and minimization of potassium intake. Patients at high risk for the development of tumor lysis syndrome should be monitored in the intensive care unit. Established tumor lysis syndrome should be treated in the intensive care unit by aggressive hydration, possible use of loop diuretics, possible use of phosphate binders, use of uric acid lowering agents and dialysis in refractory cases. PMID:25938028