Science.gov

Sample records for concentration boundary layers

  1. Dense gas boundary layer experiments: Visualization, pressure measurements, concentration evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Neuwald, P.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1992-11-01

    This technical report describes methods that were applied to investigate turbulent boundary layers generated by inviscid, baroclinic effects. The Cranz-Schardin 24-sparks camera was used to visualize the interactions of a planar shock wave with a Freon R12-layer. The shock propagates more slowly in the Freon layer than in air because of its smaller sound speed. This causes the shock front to be curved and to be reflected between the wall and the layer interface. As a consequence of the reflection process, a series of compression and expansion waves radiate from the layer. Large fluctuations in the streamwise velocity and in pressure develop for about 1 ms. These waves strongly perturb the interface shear layer, which rapidly transitions to a turbulent boundary flow. Pressure measurements showed that the fluctuations in the Freon layer reach a peak pressure 4 times higher than in the turbulent boundary flow. To characterize the preshock Freon boundary layer, concentration measurements were performed with a differential interferometry technique. The refraction index of Freon R12 is so high that Mach-Zehnder interferometry was not successful in these experiments. The evaluation of the concentration profile is described here in detail. Method and results of corresponding LDV measurements under the same conditions are presented in a different report, EMI Report T 9/92. The authors plan to continue the dense gas layer investigations with the gas combination helium/Freon.

  2. Vertical distribution of HOx concentrations driven by boundary layer dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomm, Sebastian; Broch, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Li, Xin; Lu, Keding; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Wolfe, Glenn; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key compounds for the degradation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Therefore, accurate and precise measurements of HOx radicals (= OH + HO2) at different altitudes and in different regions are necessary to test our understanding of atmospheric chemical processes. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is of special interest as it is chemically the most active part of the atmosphere. Until today, there is a general lack of measurements investigating the distribution of radicals, trace gases, and aerosols in the PBL with high spatial resolution. Here, we present results of measurements performed in June/July 2012 in the Po valley region in Italy as part of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS). A Zeppelin NT was used as an airborne platform for measurements of HOx radical concentrations and total OH reactivity (kOH) applying a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument. In addition a comprehensive set of other trace gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO, VOCs), photolysis frequencies, particle number concentration, and meteorological parameters were measured. During the morning hours, a layered atmospheric structure with vertical gradients in trace gas concentrations was observed. In altitudes larger than 600 m above ground, air masses with low trace gas concentrations (NOx < 500 ppt, kOH < 3 s-1) were probed, whereas air masses in altitudes below 100 m above ground were influenced by ground emissions resulting in higher trace gas concentrations (NOx > 6 ppb, kOH > 6 s-1). The airship Zeppelin NT was used to perform localized height profiles between 75 and 900 m above ground in order to investigate the influence of these trace gas gradients on HOx radical concentrations. Due to changing chemical conditions, the measured OH concentration shows a variability with height up to a factor of 2.5 and for the measured HO2 concentration up to a factor of 5. Additionally, we present

  3. Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loitsianskii. L. G.

    1956-01-01

    The fundamental, practically the most important branch of the modern mechanics of a viscous fluid or a gas, is that branch which concerns itself with the study of the boundary layer. The presence of a boundary layer accounts for the origin of the resistance and lift force, the breakdown of the smooth flow about bodies, and other phenomena that are associated with the motion of a body in a real fluid. The concept of boundary layer was clearly formulated by the founder of aerodynamics, N. E. Joukowsky, in his well-known work "On the Form of Ships" published as early as 1890. In his book "Theoretical Foundations of Air Navigation," Joukowsky gave an account of the most important properties of the boundary layer and pointed out the part played by it in the production of the resistance of bodies to motion. The fundamental differential equations of the motion of a fluid in a laminar boundary layer were given by Prandtl in 1904; the first solutions of these equations date from 1907 to 1910. As regards the turbulent boundary layer, there does not exist even to this day any rigorous formulation of this problem because there is no closed system of equations for the turbulent motion of a fluid. Soviet scientists have done much toward developing a general theory of the boundary layer, and in that branch of the theory which is of greatest practical importance at the present time, namely the study of the boundary layer at large velocities of the body in a compressed gas, the efforts of the scientists of our country have borne fruit in the creation of a new theory which leaves far behind all that has been done previously in this direction. We shall herein enumerate the most important results by Soviet scientists in the development of the theory of the boundary layer.

  4. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  5. [Analysis on concentration variety characteristics of atmospheric ozone under the boundary layer in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zong, Xue-Mei; Wang, Geng-Chen; Chen, Hong-Bin; Wang, Pu-Cai; Xuan, Yue-Jian

    2007-11-01

    Based on the atmospheric ozone sounding data, the average monthly and seasonal variety principles of atmospheric ozone concentration during six years are analyzed under the boundary layer in Beijing. The results show that the monthly variation of atmospheric ozone are obvious that the minimum values appear in January from less than 10 x 10(-9) on ground to less than 50 x 10(-9) on upper layer (2 km), but the maximum values appear in June from 85 x 10(-9) on ground to more than 90 x 10(-9) on upper layer. The seasonal variation is also clear that the least atmospheric ozone concentration is in winter and the most is in summer, but variety from ground to upper layer is largest in winter and least in summer. According to the type of outline, the outline of ozone concentration is composite of three types which are winter type, summer type and spring-autumn type. The monthly ozone concentration in different heights is quite different. After analyzing the relationship between ozone concentration and meteorological factors, such as temperature and humidity, we find ozone concentration on ground is linear with temperature and the correlation coefficient is more than 85 percent.

  6. Numerical Computation of Mass Transport in Low Reynolds Number Flows and the Concentration Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas A.; Fuller, Nathaniel J.

    Understanding the physical mechanisms by which an individual cell interacts with its environment often requires detailed information about the fluid in which the cell is immersed. Mass transport between the interior of the cell and the external environment is influenced by the flow of the extracellular fluid and the molecular diffusivity. Analytical calculations of the flow field are challenging in simple geometries, and not generally available in more realistic cases with irregular domain boundaries. Motivated by these problems, we discuss the numerical solution of Stokes equation by implementing a Gauss-Seidel algorithm on a staggered computational grid. The computed velocity profile is used as input to numerically solve the advection-diffusion equation for mass transport. Special attention is paid to the case of two-dimensional flows at large Péclet number. The numerical results are compared with a perturbative analytical treatment of the concentration boundary layer.

  7. Analysis of modified MYJ and YSU boundary layer schemes in WRF-Chem with respect to simulated boundary layer heights and pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Renate; Foreman, Richard; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    To improve the performance of boundary layer schemes currently applied within WRF-Chem (Grell et al., 2005), the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) model (Mellor and Yamada 1982) and the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme (Hong et al. 2006) have been updated using data from a 100 m high offshore measurement tower called FINO1. The turbulence intensity in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic model has been enhanced as described in Foreman and Emeis (2012). An alternative to the exchange coefficient for stable stratification in the YSU scheme is described in Foreman et al. (2014). These modifications to the two schemes have been applied and are compared with the existing schemes. For example, the updated MYJ scheme results in an improved representation of the turbulent kinetic energy throughout the boundary layer as compared with the measurements at FINO1. The modified MYJ and YSU schemes, which have been originally developed for wind energy applications, have been implemented into version 3.5 of the WRF model. Simulations with WRF-Chem were carried out for Europe and the region of Augsburg in order to evaluate the effect of the modified PBL schemes on simulated PBL heights, gas phase pollutant and aerosol concentrations. Foreman, R.J. and S. Emeis, 2012. A method for increasing the turbulent kinetic energy in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary layer parametrization. Boundary Layer Meteorology 145:329-349. Foreman, R.J. S. Emeis and B. Canadillas, 2014. Stable boundary layer parametrization without eddy viscosity or turbulent kinetic energy equation approaches. Submitted to Boundary Layer Meteorology 2014. Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock,W. C., and Eder, B., 2005. Fully Coupled Online Chemistry within the WRF Model. Atmospheric Environment 39, 6957-6975. Hong S, Noh Y, Dudhia J 2006. Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon Wea Rev 124:2322-2339. Mellor GL, Yamada T 1982. Development of a turbulence

  8. The Influence of High Aerosol Concentration on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Khaykin, M.N.; Kadygrove, E.N.; Golitsyn, G.S.

    2005-03-18

    Investigations of the changing in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) radiation balance as cased by natural and anthropogenic reasons is an important topic of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The influence of aerosol on temperature stratification of ABL while its concentration was extremely high within a long period of time was studied experimentally. The case was observed in Moscow region (Russia) with the transport of combustion products from peat-bog and forest fires in July-September, 2002. At this time the visibility was some times at about 100-300 m. Aerosol concentration measured by Moscow University Observatory and A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics field station in Zvenigorod (55.7 N; 36.6 E) for several days was in 50-100 times more than background one (Gorchakov at al 2003). The high aerosol concentration can change the radiation balance at ABL, and so to change thermal stratification in ABL above the mega lopolis. For the analysis the data were used of synchronous measurements by MTP-5 (Microwave Temperature Profiler operating at wavelength 5 mm) in two locations, namely: downtown Moscow and country-side which is 50 km apart to the West (Zvenigorod station). (Kadygrov and Pick 1998; Westwater at al 1999; Kadygrov at al 2002). Zvenigorod station is located in strongly continental climate zone which is in between of the climates of ARM sites (NSANorth Slope of Alaska and SGP-Southern Great Plains). The town of Zvenigorod has little industry, small traffic volume and topography conductive to a good air ventilation of the town. For these reasons Zvenigorod can be considered as an undisturbed rural site. For the analysis some days were chosen with close meteorological parameters (average temperature, humidity, wind, pressure and cloud form) but strongly differing in aerosol concentration level.

  9. Black carbon concentrations and sources in the marine boundary layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean using four methodologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion-derived aerosols in the marine boundary layer have been poorly studied, especially in remote environments such as the open Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic has the potential to contain a high concentration of aerosols, such as black carbon, due to the African emis...

  10. Boundary Layer and Synoptic Effects on NO Concentrations at the South Pole: A Multiyear Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, William; Davis, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    A series of experiments have explored the behavior of NO concentrations at the South Pole as part of the ISCAT (1998, 2000) and ANTCI (2003, 2005, 2006-7) field programs [Davis et al., 2008]. The relationship between NO and boundary layer depth (BLD) proposed by [Davis et al., 2004] was verified by [Neff et al., 2008] using direct sodar measurements of BLD during the period November-December 2003. A longer time series of NOx was generated in the ANTCI program from sunrise in 2006 into summer 2007. However, no direct BLD measurements were available. To address this deficiency, we used multiple linear regression on data from 2003 where both directly observed BLD and meteorological variables were recorded. This analysis showed that the three most important variables were wind speed (r2=0.56), Delta T2-22m (r2=0.32), and wind direction (r2=0.10). The strong dependence on wind speed is consistent with the results of [Neff et al., 2008] showing the dependence of BLD on surface stress (representing turbulent mixing of momentum to the surface). The dependence on wind direction may be unique to the South Pole because of the constancy of surface winds from the northeast that are weakly perturbed by synoptic weather systems: winds from grid east tend to be light, colder, and with shallower BLD whereas those from grid north are stronger, warmer, and have greater BLD. To further test these regression results, we used lower resolution sodar data from the austral spring of 1993(e.g., October/ November). From these data we found that applying the 2003 regression analysis results to 1993 data, ~32% of the variance could be accounted for, despite the coarseness of the 1993 observations. The latter result provided the justification for applying the 2003 BLD regression analysis to our estimating BLDs on the 2006-7 NOx data set. As found in the 2003 data set, the general trend in the 2006-7 data showed that predicted shallow BLDs consistently correlated with higher concentrations of

  11. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennekes, Hendrik

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

  12. Black carbon concentrations across the tropical Atlantic boundary layer using three methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, K.; Lohmann, R.; Cantwell, M.; Herckes, P.

    2012-12-01

    . The detected EC comprised between 1-22% of the OC pool (with one possible outlier detecting >50% of the OC pool) where the highest EC/OC ratios occurred near the US coast. The PFL method complements the other two approaches by measuring the entire proposed BC continuum (soot, charcoal, char, and partially charred biomass) rather than being biased to soot, such as in the CTO-375 method. BC values ranged between 0.07-2.49μg/m3 where the highest values were found within the African plume and off the coast of the Caribbean islands. BC/TOC values were between 4.2%-74% and agreed most closely to the CTO-375 values suggesting that soot is the main form of BC. The Sunset Method predicted the lowest concentration of EC in all samples, with the highest concentration of 0.32μg/m3. This method was the only technique to not detect EC in every sample, suggesting that our samples may require a longer sampling time. Although CTO-375 and PFL methods resulted in comparable results, the PFL-based results suggested elevated BC concentrations in the African plume as we had expected. Since BC/EC is an operational definition, multiple methods offer the greatest opportunity to evaluate true concentrations which are required for proper model verification. In conclusion, BC is present in high concentration in the remote Eq-Atlantic Ocean boundary layer, suggesting a strong climate forcing capability in this study area.

  13. Boundary Layer Relaminarization Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, Theodore R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Relamination of a boundary layer formed in supersonic flow over the leading edge of a swept airfoil is accomplished using at least one band, especially a quadrangular band, and most preferably a square band. Each band conforms to the leading edge and the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil as an integral part thereof and extends perpendicularly from the leading edge. Each band has a height of about two times the thickness of the maximum expected boundary layer.

  14. The atmospheric boundary layer and its effect on NO concentrations during ANTCI-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, W.; Helmig, D.; Davis, D.; Buhr, M.; Gottas, D.; Grachev, A.; Oncley, S.; Warshawsky, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic Tropospheric Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI) field program, during November and December 2003 at the South Pole, deployed a number of measurement systems to document the behavior of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the associated chemical processes that lead to high values of NO. These measurements included an acoustic sounder to provide continuous measurements of the ABL through the entire experimental period. During a special observing period from December 13 to 30, a sonic anemometer was used to measure the surface fluxes of momentum and heat together with a tethered balloon that profiled NO, O3 and meteorological variables (see Helmig et al., this conference). Our analysis has focused on developing a comprehensive picture of the ABL and the meteorological processes that control its behavior. We used both meteorological and chemical data to trace the evolution of the ABL through transitions between well-mixed states (deeper than 200m) and ones with very shallow mixing layers (20 to 30 m) characterized by strongly suppressed turbulence and low-level jets (30 to 40 m above the surface).

  15. Sudden changes in aerosol and gas concentrations in the central Arctic marine boundary layer: Causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, E. Keith; Leck, Caroline; Nilsson, E. Douglas

    2001-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol number size distributions and concentrations of the precursor gases dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia were made within the pack ice region of the central Arctic Ocean during July and August 1996 from the icebreaker Oden. Changes in concentration, sometimes exceeding the entire seasonal variation, often occurred within an hour and attempts to find the reasons for them are described. Vertical profiles of aerosol concentration in Aitken and accumulation mode particles obtained on helicopter flights revealed intense concentration gradients in the lowest 1000 m. Those below 100 m were common. Concentrations of accumulation mode particles were usually greater near the surface than at 100 m. Four representative case studies for which vertical aerosol profiles were obtained are presented. Observations of rapid large changes in near-surface concentration of aerosols in different size ranges are compared with the vertical profiles, meteorological information, and acoustic or optical remote sensing to infer processes causing the changes. Comparison of simultaneous variations in aerosols and precursor gas concentrations are used to define the vertical profiles of the gases. It was found that dimethyl sulfide and ammonia concentrations usually must have been strongly depleted near the surface relative to concentrations at about 100 m. Sulfur dioxide profiles appeared to be more complex. Turbulence or vertical air motions initiated by atmospheric wave motions trapped within the stable boundary layer appeared to be directly responsible for many of the sudden concentration changes, through interaction with concentration gradients close to the surface. The presence of low-level jets also had direct or indirect influences on mixing in the lowest few hundred meters. The extent to which aerosols measured near the surface can determine the microphysics of central Arctic marine boundary layer clouds is examined.

  16. Black carbon concentrations and sources in the marine boundary layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean using four methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, K.; Cantwell, M.; Herckes, P.; Lohmann, R.

    2014-07-01

    Combustion-derived aerosols in the marine boundary layer have been poorly studied, especially in remote environments such as the open Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic has the potential to contain a high concentration of aerosols, such as black carbon, due to the African emission plume of biomass and agricultural burning products. Atmospheric particulate matter samples across the tropical Atlantic boundary layer were collected in the summer of 2010 during the southern hemispheric dry season when open fire events were frequent in Africa and South America. The highest black carbon concentrations were detected in the Caribbean Sea and within the African plume, with a regional average of 0.6 μg m-3 for both. The lowest average concentrations were measured off the coast of South America at 0.2 to 0.3 μg m-3. Samples were quantified for black carbon using multiple methods to provide insights into the form and stability of the carbonaceous aerosols (i.e., thermally unstable organic carbon, soot like, and charcoal like). Soot-like aerosols composed up to 45% of the carbonaceous aerosols in the Caribbean Sea to as little as 4% within the African plume. Charcoal-like aerosols composed up to 29% of the carbonaceous aerosols over the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea, suggesting that non-soot-like particles could be present in significant concentrations in remote environments. To better apportion concentrations and forms of black carbon, multiple detection methods should be used, particularly in regions impacted by biomass burning emissions.

  17. Boundary layer simulator improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous boundary layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick boundary layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.

  18. Boundary-Layer & health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  19. Latex paint as a delivery vehicle for diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate: predictable boundary layer concentrations and emission rates.

    PubMed

    Schripp, Tobias; Salthammer, Tunga; Fauck, Christian; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J

    2014-10-01

    The description of emission processes of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) from building products requires a detailed understanding of the material and the air flow conditions at the surface boundary. The mass flux between the surface of the material and air depends on the mass transfer coefficient (hm) through the boundary layer, the gas phase concentration of the target compound immediately adjacent to the material (y0), and the gas-phase concentration in bulk air (y(t)). In the present study emission experiments were performed in two chambers of quite different sizes (0.25 m(3) and 55 m(3)), and, in the larger chamber, at two different temperatures (23°C and 30°C). The emitting material was latex wall paint that had been doped with two plasticizers, diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP). The phthalate content in the paint was varied in the small chamber experiment to evaluate the impact of the initial concentration in the bulk material (C0) on the emission rate. Boundary layer theory was applied to calculate hm for the specific phthalates from the Sherwood number (Sh) and the diffusion coefficient (Dair). Then y0 was determined based on the bulk gas-phase concentration at steady state (y¯). For both, DEP and DnBP, the y0 obtained was lower than the respective saturation vapor pressure (Ps). Furthermore, for both phthalates in latex paint, the material/air partition coefficient (C0/y0) was close in value to the octanol/air partition coefficient (KOA). This study provides a basis for designing phthalate emitting reference materials that mimic the emission behavior of common building materials.

  20. Boundary layer simulator improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C.; Frost, C.; Engel, C. D.; Fuller, C. E.; Bender, R. L.; Pond, J.

    1984-01-01

    High chamber pressure expander cycles proposed for orbit transfer vehicles depend primarily on the heat energy transmitted from the combustion products through the thrust wall chamber wall. The heat transfer to the nozzle wall is affected by such variables as wall roughness, relamarization, and the presence of particles in the flow. Motor performance loss for these nozzles with thick boundary layers is inaccurate using the existing procedure coded BLIMPJ. Modifications and innovations to the code are examined. Updated routines are listed.

  1. Boundary layer transition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

  2. Turbulent boundary layer heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finson, M. L.; Clarke, A. S.; Wu, P. K. S.

    1981-01-01

    A Reynolds stress model for turbulent boundary layers is used to study surface roughness effects on skin friction and heat transfer. The issues of primary interest are the influence of roughness character (element shape and spacing) and the nature of roughness effects at high Mach numbers. Computations based on the model compare satisfactorily with measurements from experiments involving variations in roughness character, in low speed and modestly supersonic conditions. The more limited data base at hypersonic Mach numbers is also examined with reasonable success, although no quantitative explanation is offered for the reduction of heat transfer with increasing roughness observed by Holden at Me -9.4. The present calculations indicate that the mean velocity is approximately uniform over much of the height range below the tops of the elements, y less than or equal to k. With this constant (roughness velocity,) it is simple to estimate the form drag on the elements. This roughness velocity has been investigated by systematically exercising the present model over ranges of potential parameters. The roughness velocity is found to be primarily a function of the projected element frontal area per unit surface area, thus providing a new and simple method for predicting roughness character effects. The model further suggests that increased boundary layer temperatures should be generated by roughness at high edge Mach numbers, which would tend to reduce skin friction and heat transfer, perhaps below smooth wall levels.

  3. The Boundary Layer Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, Ranah; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Hurley, J.

    2010-10-01

    The Boundary Layer Radiometer is a small, low mass (<1kg) radiometer with only a single moving part - a scan/calibration mirror. The instrument consists of a three mirror telescope system incorporating an intermediate focus for use with miniature infrared and visible filters. It also has an integrated low power blackbody calibration target to provide long-term calibration stability The instrument may be used as an upward looking boundary layer radiometer for both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres with appropriate filters for the mid-infrared carbon dioxide band, as well as a visible channel for the detection of aerosol components such as dust. The scan mirror may be used to step through different positions from the local horizon to the zenith, allowing the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere to be retrieved. The radiometer uses miniature infrared filter assemblies developed for previous space-based instruments by Oxford, Cardiff and Reading Universities. The intermediate focus allows for the use of upstream blocking filters and baffles, which not only simplifies the design of the filters and focal plane assembly, but also reduces the risk of problems due to stray light. Combined with the calibration target this means it has significant advantages over previous generations of small radiometers.

  4. Modeling the urban boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.

  5. Boundary-layer stability and airfoil design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeffrey K.

    1986-01-01

    Several different natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils have been analyzed for stability of the laminar boundary layer using linear stability codes. The NLF airfoils analyzed come from three different design conditions: incompressible; compressible with no sweep; and compressible with sweep. Some of the design problems are discussed, concentrating on those problems associated with keeping the boundary layer laminar. Also, there is a discussion on how a linear stability analysis was effectively used to improve the design for some of the airfoils.

  6. Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

  7. Ellipsometry characterization of polycrystalline ZnO layers with the modeling of carrier concentration gradient: Effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture

    SciTech Connect

    Sago, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kuramochi, Hideto; Iigusa, Hitoshi; Utsumi, Kentaro

    2014-04-07

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied to study the effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture on the carrier transport properties of Al-doped ZnO layers fabricated by dc and rf magnetron sputtering. In the SE analysis, the variation in the free carrier absorption toward the growth direction, induced by the ZnO grain growth on foreign substrates, has been modeled explicitly by adopting a multilayer model in which the optical carrier concentration (N{sub opt}) varies continuously with a constant optical mobility (μ{sub opt}). The effect of the grain boundary has been studied by comparing μ{sub opt} with Hall mobility (μ{sub Hall}). The change in μ{sub Hall}/μ{sub opt} indicates a sharp structural transition of the ZnO polycrystalline layer at a thickness of d ∼ 500 nm, which correlates very well with the structure confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In particular, below the transition thickness, the formation of the high density grain boundary leads to the reduction in the μ{sub Hall}/μ{sub opt} ratio as well as N{sub opt}. As a result, we find that the thickness dependence of the carrier transport properties is almost completely governed by the grain boundary formation. On the other hand, when the ZnO layer is exposed to wet air at 85 °C, μ{sub Hall} reduces drastically with a minor variation of μ{sub opt} due to the enhanced grain boundary scattering. We have also characterized textured ZnO:Al layers prepared by HCl wet etching by SE. The analysis revealed that the near-surface carrier concentration increases slightly after the etching. We demonstrate that the SE technique can be applied to distinguish various rough textured structures (size ∼ 1 μm) of the ZnO layers prepared by the HCl etching.

  8. Removing Boundary Layer by Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J

    1927-01-01

    Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.

  9. Seasonal variation in concentration, size, and settling velocity of muddy marine flocs in the benthic boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentration profiles of the lowest 2 m of the water column and particle size distribution at 2 m above the bed were measured in a coastal turbidity maximum area (southern North Sea) during more than 700 days between 2006 and 2013. The long-term data series of SPM concentration, floc size, and settling velocity have been ensemble averaged according to tidal range, alongshore residual flow direction, and season, in order to investigate the seasonal SPM dynamics and its relation with physical and biological processes. The data show that the SPM is more concentrated in the near-bed layer in summer, whereas in winter, the SPM is better mixed throughout the water column. The decrease of the SPM concentration in the water column during summer is compensated by a higher near-bed concentration indicating that a significant part of the SPM remains in the area during summer rather than being advected out of it. The opposite seasonality between near-bed layer and water column has to our knowledge not yet been presented in literature. Physical effects such as wave heights, wind climate, or storms have a weak correlation with the observed seasonality. The argument to favor microbial activity as main driver of the seasonality lies in the observed variations in floc size and settling velocity. On average, the flocs are larger and thus settling velocities higher in summer than winter.

  10. Boundary layer halogens in coastal Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S; Salmon, Rhian A; Bauguitte, Stephane J-B; Jones, Anna E; Roscoe, Howard K; Plane, John M C

    2007-07-20

    Halogens influence the oxidizing capacity of Earth's troposphere, and iodine oxides form ultrafine aerosols, which may have an impact on climate. We report year-round measurements of boundary layer iodine oxide and bromine oxide at the near-coastal site of Halley Station, Antarctica. Surprisingly, both species are present throughout the sunlit period and exhibit similar seasonal cycles and concentrations. The springtime peak of iodine oxide (20 parts per trillion) is the highest concentration recorded anywhere in the atmosphere. These levels of halogens cause substantial ozone depletion, as well as the rapid oxidation of dimethyl sulfide and mercury in the Antarctic boundary layer.

  11. Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.

  12. Unsteady turbulent boundary layer analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleton, R. E.; Nash, J. F.; Carl, L. W.; Patel, V. C.

    1973-01-01

    The governing equations for an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a swept infinite cylinder, composed of a continuity equation, a pair of momentum equations and a pair of turbulent energy equations which include upstream history efforts, are solved numerically. An explicit finite difference analog to the partial differential equations is formulated and developed into a computer program. Calculations were made for a variety of unsteady flows in both two and three dimensions but primarily for two dimensional flow fields in order to first understand some of the fundamental physical aspects of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. Oscillating free stream flows without pressure gradient, oscillating retarded free stream flows and monotonically time-varying flows have all been studied for a wide frequency range. It was found that to the lowest frequency considered, the lower frequency bound being determined by economic considerations (machine time), there were significant unsteady effects on the turbulent boundary layer.

  13. Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1993-01-01

    The central ideas of this grant are that the magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere together, and the global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding the linking mechanisms. Accordingly the present grant includes simultaneous research on the global, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers. These boundary layers include the bow shock, magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical and simulation projects have been performed on these subjects, as well as comparison of theoretical results with observational data. Very good progress has been made, with four papers published or in press and two additional papers submitted for publication during the six month period 1 June - 30 November 1993. At least two projects are currently being written up. In addition, members of the group have given papers at scientific meetings. The further structure of this report is as follows: section two contains brief accounts of research completed during the last six months, while section three describes the research projects intended for the grant's final period.

  14. Turbulent boundary layers over nonstationary plane boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, A. T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of predicting integral parameters and skin-friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers developing over moving-ground-planes are evaluated using test information from three different wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These data include test information from the VSTOL tunnel which is presented for the first time. The three methods evaluated were: (1) relative integral parameter method, (2) relative power law method, and (3) modified law of the wall method. Methods (1) and (2) can be used to predict moving-ground-plane shape factors with an expected accuracy of + or - 10%. They may also be used to predict moving-ground-plane displacement and momentum thicknesses with lower expected accuracy. This decrease in accuracy can be traced to the failure of approximations upon which these methods are based to prove universal when compared with VSTOL tunnel test results.

  15. A study of boundary layer behavior associated with high NO concentrations at the South Pole using a minisodar, tethered balloon, and sonic anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, W.; Helmig, D.; Grachev, A.; Davis, D.

    This paper focuses on the use of an acoustic sounder, or sodar, during the 2003 Antarctic Tropospheric Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI), to document the behavior of very shallow (<50 m) stable boundary layers thought to be one of the critical factors for explaining the very high levels of nitric oxide (NO) found in past field experiments at the South Pole. The use of a tethered balloon, profiling wind, temperature, NO, and ozone provided for a detailed interpretation of sodar data for the period 12-30 December 2003. For the same period, sonic anemometer 2-m turbulence measurements, averaged to 0.5 h, linked surface processes to the evolution of the boundary layer in response to changing radiative balance and synoptic weather changes. A mixing-layer detection method was developed and applied to half-hour average sodar amplitude profiles for the period 23 November-30 December 2003. These data also allowed for testing of simple diagnostic equations for the mixing-layer depth as well as estimates of vertical diffusion rates under stable conditions, the latter being important for the effective depth of the mixing layer vis-à-vis the nonlinear NO chemistry postulated from earlier analyses. With the extended sampling period, two sub-seasonal regimes were examined: (1) a late-December period, with the full suite of supporting measurements, where the earlier results that shallow mixing layers associated with light winds and strong surface stability can be among the dominant factors leading to high NO levels were repeated and (2) a late November period that revealed additional complexities with very high NO concentrations appearing at times in concert with higher winds, weaker surface stability, and deeper mixing layers. The latter results are only consistent with a more complicated picture of how NO can build to very high levels that involves invoking the previously expressed dependence of elevated NO levels on nonlinear NO x (NO x=NO+NO 2) chemistry, greater fluxes of NO x

  16. Measurements to understand the role of the sub Arctic environment on boundary layer ozone, gaseous mercury and bromine oxide concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netcheva, S.; Bottenheim, J.; Staebler, R.; Steffen, A.; Bobrowski, N.; Moores, J.

    2009-04-01

    Marine Boundary Layer spring time ozone (O3) and Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) depletion episodes in Polar Regions and the role played by reactive halogen species have been studied for several years. Understanding of the photochemistry involved has improved significantly in the last few years, but many questions remain. The key in filling many gaps of information is in conducting systematic measurements over freezing and thawing surfaces of big water basins in Polar Regions where depletion episodes are thought to originate. Regardless of extensive research in the field, data sets collected over the ice are limited due to logistics and engineering challenges. The fast changing Arctic environment with its potential implications for climate change and human and ecosystem health demand urgent development of a predictive capability that could only be achieved by complete quantitative understanding of these phenomena. The Out On The Ice (OOTI) mini atmospheric chemistry laboratory was developed in 2004 specifically to permit collecting data at remote locations in an autonomous way. The system is battery powered, easily transported by snowmobile and quickly deployed at a target location. The equipment has undergone multiple engineering and instrumentation improvements. In its current version, it conducts fully automated measurements of O3, GEM and carbon dioxide (CO2) simultaneously at two levels: right above a surface of interest and at 2.5 meters. This is accomplished by utilizing two identical sets of instruments (2B for O3 and Gardis for GEM), or by continuous valve switching (CO2). A vertical profile of bromine oxide is determined by scanning the collecting optics of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer through different elevation angles. Furthermore a full set of meteorological data is acquired in parallel with the chemical measurements in order to evaluate environmental and air mass transport contributions. We will present results from data collected

  17. Concentric layer ramjet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burdette, G.W.; Francis, J.P.

    1988-03-08

    This patent describes a solid fuel ramjet grain comprising concentric layers of solid ramjet fuel having a perforation therethrough along the center axis of the grain. The performation is connected to a combustion after-chamber. The solid ramjet fuel layers comprises a pure hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hydrocarbon fuel or a mixture of a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hydrocarbon fuel and from about 5 to about 60 percent by weight of an additive to increase the fuel regression rate selected from the group consisting of magnesium, boron carbide, aluminum, and zirconium such that, when buried in the operation of the ramjet, each fuel layer produces a different level of thrust.

  18. Fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export by aquatic microorganisms: A first-passage perspective on microvilli and the concentration boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas A.; Clark, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for organisms during development is determining a means to efficiently export toxic molecules from inside the developing embryo. For aquatic microorganisms, the strategies employed should be robust with respect to the variable ocean environment and limit the chances that exported toxins are reabsorbed. As a result, the problem of toxin export is closely related to the physics of mass transport in a fluid. In this paper, we consider a model first-passage problem for the uptake of exported toxins by a spherical embryo. By considering how macroscale fluid turbulence manifests itself on the microscale of the embryo, we determine that fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export as compared to the case of diffusion-limited transport. In the regime of a large Péclet number, a perturbative solution of the advection-diffusion equation reveals that a concentration boundary layer forms at the surface of the embryo. The model results suggest a functional role for cell surface roughness in the export process, with the thickness of the concentration boundary layer setting the length scale for cell membrane protrusions known as microvilli. We highlight connections between the model results and experiments on the development of sea urchin embryos.

  19. Fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export by aquatic microorganisms: a first-passage perspective on microvilli and the concentration boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Licata, Nicholas A; Clark, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for organisms during development is determining a means to efficiently export toxic molecules from inside the developing embryo. For aquatic microorganisms, the strategies employed should be robust with respect to the variable ocean environment and limit the chances that exported toxins are reabsorbed. As a result, the problem of toxin export is closely related to the physics of mass transport in a fluid. In this paper, we consider a model first-passage problem for the uptake of exported toxins by a spherical embryo. By considering how macroscale fluid turbulence manifests itself on the microscale of the embryo, we determine that fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export as compared to the case of diffusion-limited transport. In the regime of a large Péclet number, a perturbative solution of the advection-diffusion equation reveals that a concentration boundary layer forms at the surface of the embryo. The model results suggest a functional role for cell surface roughness in the export process, with the thickness of the concentration boundary layer setting the length scale for cell membrane protrusions known as microvilli. We highlight connections between the model results and experiments on the development of sea urchin embryos.

  20. Jupiter's deep magnetotail boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, G.; McComas, D. J.; Bagenal, F.; Elliott, H. A.; Ebert, R. W.

    2015-06-01

    In 2007 the New Horizons (NH) spacecraft flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist en route to Pluto. After closest approach on day of year (DOY) 58, 2007, NH followed a tailward trajectory that provided a unique opportunity to explore the deep jovian magnetotail and the surrounding magnetosheath. After DOY 132, 16 magnetopause crossings were observed between 1654 and 2429 Jupiter radii (Rj) along the dusk flank tailward of the planet. In some cases the crossings were identified as rapid transitions from the magnetotail to the magnetosheath and vice versa. In other cases a boundary layer was observed just inside the magnetopause. Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) is an instrument on board NH that obtained spectra of low energy ions during the flyby period. We use a forward model including the SWAP instrument response to derive plasma parameters (density, temperature and velocity) which best reproduce the observations. We also vary the plasma parameters in our model in order to fit the observations more accurately on occasions where the measurements exhibit significant variability. We compare the properties of the plasma in the boundary layer with those of the magnetosheath plasma derived in our earlier work. We attempt to estimate the magnetic field in the boundary layer assuming pressure balance between it and the magnetosheath. Finally, we investigate several possible scenarios to assess if magnetopause movement and structure could cause the variations seen in the data.

  1. Impact of atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and wind reversal on the diurnal variability of aerosol concentration at a valley site.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Lee, T R; Phelps, S; De Wekker, S F J

    2014-10-15

    The development of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in affecting the variability of atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, greenhouse gases, water vapor, and ozone. In general, the concentration of any tracers within the ABL varies due to the changes in the mixing volume (i.e. ABL depth). In this study, we investigate the impact on the near-surface aerosol concentration in a valley site of 1) the boundary layer dilution due to vertical mixing and 2) changes in the wind patterns. We use a data set obtained during a 10-day field campaign in which a number of remote sensing and in-situ instruments were deployed, including a ground-based aerosol lidar system for monitoring of the ABL top height (zi), a particle counter to determine the number concentration of aerosol particles at eight different size ranges, and tower-based standard meteorological instruments. Results show a clearly visible decreasing trend of the mean daytime zi from 2900 m AGL (above ground level) to 2200 m AGL during a three-day period which resulted in increased near-surface pollutant concentrations. An inverse relationship exists between the zi and the fine fraction (0.3-0.7 μm) accumulation mode particles (AMP) on some days due to the dilution effect in a well-mixed ABL. These days are characterized by the absence of daytime upvalley winds and the presence of northwesterly synoptic-driven winds. In contrast, on the days with an onset of an upvalley wind circulation after the morning transition, the wind-driven local transport mechanism outweighs the ABL-dilution effect in determining the variability of AMP concentration. The interplay between the ABL depth evolution and the onset of the upvalley wind during the morning transition period significantly governs the air quality in a valley and could be an important component in the studies of mountain meteorology and air quality.

  2. Impact of atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and wind reversal on the diurnal variability of aerosol concentration at a valley site.

    PubMed

    Pal, S; Lee, T R; Phelps, S; De Wekker, S F J

    2014-10-15

    The development of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in affecting the variability of atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, greenhouse gases, water vapor, and ozone. In general, the concentration of any tracers within the ABL varies due to the changes in the mixing volume (i.e. ABL depth). In this study, we investigate the impact on the near-surface aerosol concentration in a valley site of 1) the boundary layer dilution due to vertical mixing and 2) changes in the wind patterns. We use a data set obtained during a 10-day field campaign in which a number of remote sensing and in-situ instruments were deployed, including a ground-based aerosol lidar system for monitoring of the ABL top height (zi), a particle counter to determine the number concentration of aerosol particles at eight different size ranges, and tower-based standard meteorological instruments. Results show a clearly visible decreasing trend of the mean daytime zi from 2900 m AGL (above ground level) to 2200 m AGL during a three-day period which resulted in increased near-surface pollutant concentrations. An inverse relationship exists between the zi and the fine fraction (0.3-0.7 μm) accumulation mode particles (AMP) on some days due to the dilution effect in a well-mixed ABL. These days are characterized by the absence of daytime upvalley winds and the presence of northwesterly synoptic-driven winds. In contrast, on the days with an onset of an upvalley wind circulation after the morning transition, the wind-driven local transport mechanism outweighs the ABL-dilution effect in determining the variability of AMP concentration. The interplay between the ABL depth evolution and the onset of the upvalley wind during the morning transition period significantly governs the air quality in a valley and could be an important component in the studies of mountain meteorology and air quality. PMID:25105753

  3. The effects of donor dopant concentration on the grain boundary layer characteristics in n-doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Allak, H. M.; Illingsworth, J.; Brinkman, A. W.; Russell, G. J.; Woods, J.

    1988-12-01

    Positive temperature coefficient of resistance BaTiO3 specimens containing different donor dopant concentrations of Ho ranging from 0.05 to 1.8 at. % were investigated. The intergranular barrier layer capacitance per unit area, C'L, measured at a constant frequency of 30 kHz at both 40 and 160 °C was found to be proportional to the donor concentration up to 0.55 at. %, but then began to decrease as the donor concentration was increased beyond this. This indicated that both the density of acceptor states at the grain surfaces, Ns, and the relative permittivity ɛL of the material within the barrier layer were not affected by donor impurity concentrations below 0.55 at. % Ho. However, above this level of Ho concentration, the decrease in C'L appears to be related mainly to an increase in the value of Ns although it is possible that there were changes in ɛL. Initially both the maximum resistance and the room-temperature resistance (normalized per grain boundary per unit area), ρ'max and ρcold, respectively, were found to decrease sharply with donor concentration towards a broad minimum between ˜0.5 and ˜1.5 at. %, followed thereafter by a gradual increase. The temperature Tmax at which ρ'max occurred was also affected by the donor concentration; initially Tmax was found to increase with donor concentration followed by a reduction forming a broad maximum between about the same donor concentration limits corresponding to the minima in ρcold and ρ'max. These results are interpreted in terms of the well-established Heywang model.

  4. Boundary layer receptivity and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    Receptivity processes initiate natural instabilities in a boundary layer. The instabilities grow and eventually break down to turbulence. Consequently, receptivity questions are a critical element of the analysis of the transition process. Success in modeling the physics of receptivity processes thus has a direct bearing on technological issues of drag reduction. The means by which transitional flows can be controlled is also a major concern: questions of control are tied inevitably to those of receptivity. Adjoint systems provide a highly effective mathematical method for approaching many of the questions associated with both receptivity and control. The long term objective is to develop adjoint methods to handle increasingly complex receptivity questions, and to find systematic procedures for deducing effective control strategies. The most elementary receptivity problem is that in which a parallel boundary layer is forced by time-harmonic sources of various types. The characteristics of the response to such forcing form the building blocks for more complex receptivity mechanisms. The first objective of this year's research effort was to investigate how a parallel Blasius boundary layer responds to general direct forcing. Acoustic disturbances in the freestream can be scattered by flow non-uniformities to produce Tollmien-Schlichting waves. For example, scattering by surface roughness is known to provide an efficient receptivity path. The present effort is directed towards finding a solution by a simple adjoint analysis, because adjoint methods can be extended to more complex problems. In practice, flows are non-parallel and often three-dimensional. Compressibility may also be significant in some cases. Recent developments in the use of Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) offer a promising possibility. By formulating and solving a set of adjoint parabolized equations, a method for mapping the efficiency with which external forcing excites the three

  5. Outline of research on oscillating boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cousteix, J.

    1979-01-01

    The state of the art in the field of unsteady boundary layers is outlined with emphasis on turbulent boundary layers. The unsteady flows considered are mainly periodic with the external velocity varying around a zero or nonzero mean time value. The principal results obtained on laminar boundary layers are also presented.

  6. Turbulent boundary layer of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fediaevsky, K

    1937-01-01

    A need has arisen for a new determination of the velocity profiles in the boundary layer. Assuming that the character of the velocity distribution depends to a large extent on the character of the shear distribution across the boundary layer, we shall consider the nature of the shear distribution for a boundary layer with a pressure gradient.

  7. Compressible turbulent boundary layer interaction experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.; Bogdonoff, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Four phases of research results are reported: (1) experiments on the compressible turbulent boundary layer flow in a streamwise corner; (2) the two dimensional (2D) interaction of incident shock waves with a compressible turbulent boundary layer; (3) three dimensional (3D) shock/boundary layer interactions; and (4) cooperative experiments at Princeton and numerical computations at NASA-Ames.

  8. Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Virginia

    2014-02-13

    The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.

  9. Estimating convective boundary layer parameters for diffusion applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, J.

    1983-04-01

    Simple methods are presented for estimating those boundary layer parameters most important in controlling turbulence and diffusion within the convective boundary layer (CBL). These parameters include: surface heat flux, friction velocity, mean wind speed, and boundary layer height. Emphasis is on estimation methods requiring only routinely available data such as may exist at local airports. We focus on the CBL because the main diffusion application of interest is tall stacks, which generally produce their highest ground-level concentrations during convective conditions.

  10. Analysis of vertical dispersion and relative concentration of an elevated plume in the tropical boundary layer using video digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeman, B.; Raman, S.; Templeman, S.; Nigam, S.; Singh, M. P.

    Digital analysis of smoke plume imagery is applied to video and photographs of a smoke plume taken on 22 June 1987 at the Badrapur Power Plant in New Delhi, India. Using a medium resolution video digitizer, these photographs and video are digitized and analyzed to produce a composite averaged plume that corresponds to a sampling interval of 2 min. These estimates are then used to estimate parameters of vertical dispersion and relative centerline concentration. Estimates of vertical dispersion are compared with Briggs' recommended values for stability class C (slightly unstable conditions). The digital technique produces values of σz that compare well with those estimated using Briggs' formulations. The values obtained using the digital method did not vary by more than 5 per cent from those formulated by Briggs. Estimates of relative concentration, which are values normalized by the concentration associated with a travel distance of 100 m, are compared with relative concentrations obtained using the Gaussian diffusion equation. The digital method produces estimates of relative concentration that compare well with the Gaussian diffusion equation, the differences encountered varying by less than 10 per cent throughout the calculated travel distance.

  11. Dispersion of a Passive Scalar Fluctuating Plume in a Turbulent Boundary Layer. Part I: Velocity and Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nironi, Chiara; Salizzoni, Pietro; Marro, Massimo; Mejean, Patrick; Grosjean, Nathalie; Soulhac, Lionel

    2015-09-01

    The prediction of the probability density function (PDF) of a pollutant concentration within atmospheric flows is of primary importance in estimating the hazard related to accidental releases of toxic or flammable substances and their effects on human health. This need motivates studies devoted to the characterization of concentration statistics of pollutants dispersion in the lower atmosphere, and their dependence on the parameters controlling their emissions. As is known from previous experimental results, concentration fluctuations are significantly influenced by the diameter of the source and its elevation. In this study, we aim to further investigate the dependence of the dispersion process on the source configuration, including source size, elevation and emission velocity. To that end we study experimentally the influence of these parameters on the statistics of the concentration of a passive scalar, measured at several distances downwind of the source. We analyze the spatial distribution of the first four moments of the concentration PDFs, with a focus on the variance, its dissipation and production and its spectral density. The information provided by the dataset, completed by estimates of the intermittency factors, allow us to discuss the role of the main mechanisms controlling the scalar dispersion and their link to the form of the PDF. The latter is shown to be very well approximated by a Gamma distribution, irrespective of the emission conditions and the distance from the source. Concentration measurements are complemented by a detailed description of the velocity statistics, including direct estimates of the Eulerian integral length scales from two-point correlations, a measurement that has been rarely presented to date.

  12. Modelling the transitional boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimha, R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.

  13. Black carbon concentrations and sources in the marine boundary layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean using four methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, K.; Cantwell, M.; Herckes, P.; Lohmann, R.

    2013-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the highly carbonaceous byproduct of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion with a composition ranging from thermally stable soot to less recalcitrant charcoal. Atmospheric particulate matter samples across the tropical Atlantic Ocean were quantified for BC using four different methods: chemothermal oxidation at 375 °C (CTO-375), pyrene fluorescence loss, thermal optical transmittance, and optical transmission attenuation. The highest BC concentrations were detected in the Caribbean Sea and off the African coast, with a regional average of 0.6 μg m-3 for both. The lowest average concentrations were measured off the coast of South America at 0.2 to 0.3 μg m-3. The thermally-based CTO-375 method generally detected lower BC concentrations than the other three methods. The ratio of soot-like BC, as defined by the CTO-375 method, relative to the broader BC combustion continuum, as defined by the pyrene fluorescence loss, was <1 for all regions except for the Caribbean, supporting that charcoal was an important fraction of the aerosol BC. Regions impacted by biomass burning emissions should utilize multiple methods to better apportion the BC concentrations and sources.

  14. Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

  15. Vortex boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, P.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric studies to identify a vortex generator were completed. Data acquisition in the first chosen configuration, in which a longitudinal vortex pair generated by an isolated delta wing starts to merge with a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate fairly close to the leading edge is nearly completed. Work on a delta-wing/flat-plate combination, consisting of a flow visualization and hot wire measurements taken with a computer controlled traverse gear and data logging system were completed. Data taking and analysis have continued, and sample results for another cross stream plane are presented. Available data include all mean velocity components, second order mean products of turbulent fluctuations, and third order mean products. Implementation of a faster data logging system was accomplished.

  16. Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.

  17. Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

  18. Turbulent boundary layers with secondary flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grushwitz, E.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental analysis of the boundary layer on a plane wall, along which the flow occurs, whose potential flow lines are curved in plane parallel to the wall is discussed. According to the equation frequently applied to boundary layers in a plane flow, which is usually obtained by using the pulse law, a generalization is derived which is valid for boundary layers with spatial flow. The wall shear stresses were calculated with this equation.

  19. Structure of the low latitude boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Bame, S. J.; Forbes, T. G.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Observations at high temporal resolution of the frontside magnetopause and plasma boundary layer, made with the LASL/MPE fast plasma analyzer onboard the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft, revealed a complex quasiperiodic structure of some of the observed boundary layers. A cool tailward streaming boundary layer plasma was seen intermittently, with intervening periods of hot tenuous plasma which has properties similar to the magnetospheric population. While individual encounters with the boundary layer plasma last only a few minutes, the total observation time may extend over one hour or more.

  20. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  1. Control of Separated Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shao-Ching; Kim, John

    2003-11-01

    The control of separated boundary layers are numerically investigated. Two types of flow geometry are considered. The first case is flow separation on a flat plate caused by an imposed adverse pressure gradient. The second case is flow separation downstream of a curved leading edge. These cases represent laminar separation with turbulent reattachment with and without curvature effects. Open-loop control, with distributed surface blowing and suction as control input, is first applied to establish base-line cases. We then use a system identification approach to construct approximate system models for design of closed-loop control. The models are based on the input-output relationship obtained from numerical simulations. The linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control synthesis is applied to the models to produce feedback control laws. The distributed sensors and actuators are confined to the walls. The efficacy of the controllers are quantified by pressure distribution, separation bubble size and Reynolds stresses. Visualization of the controlled and uncontrolled flow fields will also be presented.

  2. Modeling cathode boundary layer discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Serrano, E.; Boeuf, J. P.; Pitchford, L. C.

    2009-10-01

    A Cathode Boundary Layer Discharge or CBL (Schoenbach, et al Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 13, 177,2004) is an electrode/dielectric/electrode sandwich with a central hole pierced through the dielectric and one of the electrodes (the anode). Thus, the cathode surface area available to the discharge is limited by the annular dielectric, and the discharge operates in an abnormal glow mode with a positive V-I characteristic at higher current. Using a two-dimensional fluid model, we have studied the electrical properties of CBLs in argon at 100 and 400 torr pressure. The spatial profiles of charged particle and metastable densities, potential, and gas temperature, as well as calculated V-I characteristics will be shown for a range of conditions for a 800 micron hole diameter. One interesting result (anticipated in the work of Belostotskiy, et al, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol 17, 045018, 2008) is that there is a sharp increase in the slope of the V-I characteristic when gas heating is taken into account. This current limiting effect is not observed when the discharge is able to expand on the outer surface of the cathode as in the case of the MicroHollow Cathode Discharge (MHCD) configuration, for example.

  3. Halogen chemistry in the trosopheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, John M. C.; Mahajan, Anoop; Oetjen, Hilke

    Iodine and bromine chemistry can affect the lower troposphere in several important ways: (1), change the oxidizing capacity by destroying ozone and affecting the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), react efficiently with dimethyl sulphide (in the marine boundary layer) and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), form ultra-fine particles (iodine oxides are highly condensable), which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei and hence affect climate. This paper will report measurements of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 , made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), in several contrasting environments: equatorial clean mid-ocean (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar boundary layer (Halley Bay, Antarctica and Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. The concentrations of IO in coastal Antarctica, and coastlines rich in certain species of macro-algae, are large enough (> 10 pptv) to promote ultra-fine particle formation. Recently, the first satellite measurements of IO, using the SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT, have been reported by two groups; their results will be compared with the ground-based measurements.

  4. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  5. Structure of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh

    2014-11-01

    Relaminarization of a turbulent boundary layer in a strongly accelerated flow has received a great attention in recent times. It has been found that such relaminarization is a general and regularly occurring phenomenon in the leading-edge region of a swept wing of an airplane (van Dam et al., 1993). In this work, we investigate the effect of initial Reynolds number on the process of relaminarization in turbulent boundary layers. The experimental and numerical investigation of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers undergoing same history reveals that the boundary layer with higher initial Reynolds number relaminarizes at a lower pressure gradient value compared to the one with lower Reynolds number. This effect can be explained on the inviscid theory proposed earlier in the literature. Further, various parameter criteria proposed to predict relaminarization, are assessed and the structure of relaminarizing boundary layers is investigated. A mechanism for stabilization of near-wall low speed streaks is proposed.

  6. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  7. Instabilities in Time Dependent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Stephen Robert

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work in this thesis is concerned with instabilities known to occur in boundary layers. The boundary layers considered herein are of a temporal nature; that is they are time dependent. In Chapter 1 a general overview of the subject is given. In Chapter 2, we consider two Stokes layers found to occur on a sphere. Firstly, the case where the sphere oscillates along a radius, referred to as transverse oscillations, and secondly where the sphere oscillates about its axis, referred to as torsional oscillations. We also consider the oscillations to be of such an amplitude and frequency so that the resulting boundary layer is thin compared to the sphere's radius. Chapter 3, is concerned with the development of vortices in a temporally growing boundary layer occurring on an infinite flat plate, the fluid above which is started to move impulsively. Here we take account of the fact that the boundary layer is growing with time, in a similar manner as has been used for the Blasius layer to grow with a downstream coordinate. In Chapter 4, we consider a boundary layer found to occur outside a cylinder, which at a certain instant has a torsional velocity imparted to it, this layer grows with time. The development of vortices in considered in this layer, and certain parameter regimes are investigated namely those appropriate to the right hand branch of the neutral curve, and those appropriate to the development of inviscid Gortler modes.

  8. LDV measurements of turbulent baroclinic boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Neuwald, P.; Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-07-01

    Described here are shock tube experiments of nonsteady, turbulent boundary layers with large density variations. A dense-gas layer was created by injecting Freon through the porous floor of the shock tube. As the shock front propagated along the layer, vorticity was created at the air-Freon interface by an inviscid, baroclinic mechanism. Shadow-schlieren photography was used to visualize the turbulent mixing in this baroclinic boundary layer. Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry (LDV) was used to measure the streamwise velocity histories at 14 heights. After transition, the boundary layer profiles may be approximated by a power-law function u {approximately} u{sup {alpha}} where {alpha} {approx_equal} 3/8. This value lies between the clean flat plate value ({alpha} = 1/7) and the dusty boundary layer value ({alpha} {approx_equal} 0.7), and is controlled by the gas density near the wall.

  9. Flow Quality and Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H; Tobak, M.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The widely held view is that transition to turbulence in the Blasius boundary layer occurs via amplification and eventual nonlinear breakdown of initially small amplitude instabilities i.e. Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. However this scenario is only observed for low amplitude free-stream turbulence levels, i.e. u/U < 0.1%. Bypass of linear TS instability mechanism occurs for higher EST levels, yet considerable differences exist between the few experiments carefully designed to assess the effect of EST on transition. The consensus is that EST leads to longitudinal streaks that form near the leading edge in the boundary layer . These streaks appeal to be regions of concentrated streamwise vorticity and they are often referred to as Klebanoff modes. The importance of mean flow free-stream nonuniformity (FSN) is not as widely appreciated as EST for characterizing wind tunnel flow quality. Here it is shown that, although the v like generated by a d=50micron wire located upstream of the contraction (Re(sub d)=6.6, x/d=45,000) is immeasurably small by the time it interacts with the leading edge in the test section, it is responsible for generation of a pair of weak streamwise vortices in the boundary layer downstream. The characteristics of these wake-induced vortices and their effect on TS waves are demonstrated. Small remnant FSN variations are also shown to exist downstream of a turbulence grid. The question arises Are the adverse effects introduced by the turbulence grid caused by FST or by small remnant FSN variations?

  10. Planetary Boundary Layer Simulation Using TASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowalter, David G.; DeCroix, David S.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Boundary conditions to an existing large-eddy simulation model have been changed in order to simulate turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Several options are now available, including the use of a surface energy balance. In addition, we compare convective boundary layer simulations with the Wangara and Minnesota field experiments as well as with other model results. We find excellent agreement of modelled mean profiles of wind and temperature with observations and good agreement for velocity variances. Neutral boundary simulation results are compared with theory and with previously used models. Agreement with theory is reasonable, while agreement with previous models is excellent.

  11. Open-path TDL-Spectrometry for a Tomographic Reconstruction of 2D H2O-Concentration Fields in the Soil-Air-Boundary-Layer of Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Anne; Wagner, Steven; Dreizler, Andreas; Ebert, Volker

    2013-04-01

    The melting of permafrost soils in arctic regions is one of the effects of climate change. It is recognized that climatically relevant gases are emitted during the thawing process, and that they may lead to a positive atmospheric feedback [1]. For a better understanding of these developments, a quantification of the gases emitted from the soil would be required. Extractive sensors with local point-wise gas sampling are currently used for this task, but are hampered due to the complex spatial structure of the soil surface, which complicates the situation due to the essential need for finding a representative gas sampling point. For this situation it would be much preferred if a sensor for detecting 2D-concentration fields of e.g. water vapor, (and in the mid-term also for methane or carbon dioxide) directly in the soil-atmosphere-boundary layer of permafrost soils would be available. However, it also has to be kept in mind that field measurements over long time periods in such a harsh environment require very sturdy instrumentation preferably without the need for sensor calibration. Therefore we are currently developing a new, robust TDLAS (tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy)-spectrometer based on cheap reflective foils [2]. The spectrometer is easily transportable, requires hardly any alignment and consists of industrially available, very stable components (e.g. diode lasers and glass fibers). Our measurement technique, open path TDLAS, allows for calibration-free measurements of absolute H2O concentrations. The static instrument for sampling open-path H2O concentrations consists of a joint sending and receiving optics at one side of the measurement path and a reflective element at the other side. The latter is very easy to align, since it is a foil usually applied for traffic purposes that retro-reflects the light to its origin even for large angles of misalignment (up to 60°). With this instrument, we achieved normalized detection limits of up to 0

  12. Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.

  13. Energy transport using natural convection boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R

    1986-04-01

    Natural convection is one of the major modes of energy transport in passive solar buildings. There are two primary mechanisms for natural convection heat transport through an aperture between building zones: (1) bulk density differences created by temperature differences between zones; and (2) thermosyphon pumping created by natural convection boundary layers. The primary objective of the present study is to compare the characteristics of bulk density driven and boundary layer driven flow, and discuss some of the advantages associated with the use of natural convection boundary layers to transport energy in solar building applications.

  14. Boundary-layer linear stability theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Most fluid flows are turbulent rather than laminar and the reason for this was studied. One of the earliest explanations was that laminar flow is unstable, and the linear instability theory was first developed to explore this possibility. A series of early papers by Rayleigh produced many notable results concerning the instability of inviscid flows, such as the discovery of inflectional instability. Viscosity was commonly thought to act only to stabilize the flow, and flows with convex velocity profiles appeared to be stable. The investigations that led to a viscous theory of boundary layer instability was reported. The earliest application of linear stability theory to transition prediction calculated the amplitude ratio of the most amplified frequency as a function of Reynolds number for a Blasius boundary layer, and found that this quantity had values between five and nine at the observed Ret. The experiment of Schubauer and Skramstad (1947) completely reversed the prevailing option and fully vindicated the Gottingen proponents of the theory. This experiment demonstrated the existence of instability waves in a boundary layer, their connection with transition, and the quantitative description of their behavior by the theory of Tollmien and Schlichting. It is generally accepted that flow parameters such as pressure gradient, suction and heat transfer qualitatively affect transition in the manner predicted by the linear theory, and in particular that a flow predicted to be stable by the theory should remain laminar. The linear theory, in the form of the e9, or N-factor is today in routine use in engineering studies of laminar flow. The stability theory to boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction was applied. The only large body of numerical results for exact boundary layer solutions before the advent of the computer age by calculating the stability characteristics of the Falkner-Skan family of velocity profiles are given. When the digital computer

  15. Boundary-layer linear stability theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, L. M.

    1984-06-01

    Most fluid flows are turbulent rather than laminar and the reason for this was studied. One of the earliest explanations was that laminar flow is unstable, and the linear instability theory was first developed to explore this possibility. A series of early papers by Rayleigh produced many notable results concerning the instability of inviscid flows, such as the discovery of inflectional instability. Viscosity was commonly thought to act only to stabilize the flow, and flows with convex velocity profiles appeared to be stable. The investigations that led to a viscous theory of boundary layer instability was reported. The earliest application of linear stability theory to transition prediction calculated the amplitude ratio of the most amplified frequency as a function of Reynolds number for a Blasius boundary layer, and found that this quantity had values between five and nine at the observed Ret. The experiment of Schubauer and Skramstad (1947) completely reversed the prevailing option and fully vindicated the Gottingen proponents of the theory. This experiment demonstrated the existence of instability waves in a boundary layer, their connection with transition, and the quantitative description of their behavior by the theory of Tollmien and Schlichting. It is generally accepted that flow parameters such as pressure gradient, suction and heat transfer qualitatively affect transition in the manner predicted by the linear theory, and in particular that a flow predicted to be stable by the theory should remain laminar. The linear theory, in the form of the e9, or N-factor is today in routine use in engineering studies of laminar flow. The stability theory to boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction was applied. The only large body of numerical results for exact boundary layer solutions before the advent of the computer age by calculating the stability characteristics of the Falkner-Skan family of velocity profiles are given. When the digital computer

  16. Soot profiles in boundary-layer flames

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, R.A.; Pagni, P.J.

    1981-12-01

    Carbon particulate volume fractions and approximate particle size distributions are measured in a free laminar combusting boundary layer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, toluene) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and the total particle concentration, which are two parameters in an assumed form for the size distribution. In the combusting boundary layer, a sooting region exists between the pyrolyzing fuel surface and the flame zone. The liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v approx. 10/sup -5/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 X 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. The soot volume fractions increase with height; convection of carbon particles downstream widens the soot region with height. For all fuels tested, the most probable radius is between 20 nm and 50 nm, and it changes only slightly with height and distance from the fuel surface.

  17. Boundary Layers in Laminar Vortex Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Glenn Leslie

    A detailed experimental study of the flow in an intense, laminar, axisymmetric vortex has been conducted in the Purdue Tornado Vortex Simulator. The complicated nature of the flow in the boundary layer of laboratory vortices and presumably on that encountered in full-scale tornadoes has been examined. After completing a number of modifications to the existing facility to improve the quality of the flow in the simulator, hot-film anemometry was employed for making velocity-component and turbulence-intensity measurements of both the free-stream and boundary layer portions of the flow. The measurements represent the first experimental boundary layer investigation of a well-defined vortex flow to appear in the literature. These results were compared with recent theoretical work by Burggraf, Stewartson and Belcher (1971) and with an exact similarity solution for line-sink boundary layers developed by the author. A comparison is also made with the numerical simulation of Wilson (1981) in which the boundary conditions were matched to those of the present experimental investigation. Expressions for the vortex core radius, the maximum tangential velocity and the maximum pressure drop are given in terms of dimensionless modeling parameters. References. Burggraf, O. R., K. Stewartson and R. Belcher, Boundary layer. induced by a potential vortex. Phys. Fluids 14, 1821-1833 (1971). Wilson, T., M. S. thesis, Vortex Boundary Layer Dynamics, Univ. Calif. Davis (1981).

  18. Boundary-layer control for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, William D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the number of possible applications of boundary-layer control is large, a discussion is given only of those that have received the most attention recently at NASA Langley Research Center to improve airfoil drag characteristics. This research concerns stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (natural laminar flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (laminar flow control, LFC) either through discrete slots or a perforated surface. At low Reynolds numbers, a combination of shaping and forced transition has been used to achieve the desired run of laminar flow and control of laminar separation. In the design of both natural laminar flow and laminar flow control airfoils and wings, boundary layer stability codes play an important role. A discussion of some recent stability calculations using both incompressible and compressible codes is given.

  19. Halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. S.; Oetjen, H.; Saunders, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    Important atmospheric sources of iodine include the air-sea exchange of biogenic iodocarbons, and the emission of I2 from macro-algae. The major source of bromine is the release of bromide ions from sea-salt aerosol. The subsequent atmospheric chemistry of these halogens (1), changes the oxidizing capacity of the marine boundary layer by destroying ozone and changing the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), reacts efficiently with dimethyl sulphide and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), leads to the formation of ultra-fine particles which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence affect climate. This paper will report observations of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy, in several contrasting marine environments: the equatorial mid-Atlantic (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar marine boundary layer (Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at significant concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. To complement the field campaigns we have also carried out wide-ranging laboratory investigation. A new study of OIO photochemistry shows that absorption in the visible bands between 490 and 630 nm leads to I atom production with a quantum yield of unity, which now means that iodine is a particularly powerful ozone-depleting agent. We have also studied the formation and growth kinetics of iodine oxide nano-particles, and their uptake of water, sulphuric acid and di-carboxylic organic acids, in order to model their growth to a size where they can act as CCN. Their ice-nucleating properties will also be reported.

  20. Characterization of internal boundary layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H. D.; Payne, D. A.

    1980-05-01

    Internal boundary layer capacitors were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy and by microscale electrical measurements. Data are given for the chemical and physical characteristics of the individual grains and boundaries, and their associated electric and dielectric properties. Segregated internal boundary layers were identified with resistivities of 10/sup 12/-10/sup 13/ ..cap omega..-cm. Bulk apparent dielectric constants were 10,000-60,000. A model is proposed to explain the dielectric behavior in terms of an equivalent n-c-i-c-n representation of ceramic microstructure, which is substantiated by capacitance-voltage analysis.

  1. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O.; McInnes, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.

  2. Ground observations of magnetospheric boundary layer phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, Mark A.; Clauer, C. Robert; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Newell, Patrick T.; Kelly, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Several classes of traveling vortices in the dayside ionosphere convection have been detected and tracked using the Greenland magnetometer chain (Friis-Christensen et al., 1988, McHenry et al., 1989). One class observed during quiet times consists of a continuous series of vortices moving generally antisunward for several hours at a time. The vortices' strength is seen to be approximately steady and neighboring vortices rotate in opposite directions. Sondrestrom radar observations show that the vortices are located at the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. Low altitude DMSP observations indicate the vortices are on field lines which map to the inner edge of the low latitude boundary layer. Because the vortices are conjugate to the boundary layer, repeat in a regular fashion and travel antisunward, it is argued that this class of vortices is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the inner edge of the magnetospheric boundary layer.

  3. Lear jet boundary layer/shear layer laser propagation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, K.

    1980-01-01

    Optical degradations of aircraft turbulent boundary layers with shear layers generated by aerodynamic fences are analyzed. A collimated 2.5 cm diameter helium-neon laser (0.63 microns) traversed the approximate 5 cm thick natural aircraft boundary layer in double pass via a reflective airfoil. In addition, several flights examined shear layer-induced optical degradation. Flight altitudes ranged from 1.5 to 12 km, while Mach numbers were varied from 0.3 to 0.8. Average line spread function (LSF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) data were obtained by averaging a large number of tilt-removed curves. Fourier transforming the resulting average MTF yields an LSF, thus affording a direct comparison of the two optical measurements. Agreement was good for the aerodynamic fence arrangement, but only fair in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Values of phase variance inferred from the LSF instrument for a single pass through the random flow and corrected for a large aperture ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 waves (lambda = .63 microns) for the boundary layer. Corresponding values for the fence vary from 0.08 to 0.16 waves. Extrapolation of these values to 10.6 microns suggests negligible degradation for a CO2 laser transmitted through a 5 cm thick, subsonic turbulent boundary layer.

  4. Soot and radiation in combusting boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    In most fires thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer. Carbon particles within the fire are responsible for most of this emitted radiation and hence warrant quantification. As a first step toward understanding thermal radiation in full scale fires, an experimental and theoretical study is presented for a laminar combusting boundary layer. Carbon particulate volume fraction profiles and approximate particle size distributions are experimentally determined in both free and forced flow for several hydrocarbon fuels and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and a total particle concentration which are two unknown parameters in an assumed Gauss size distribution. A sooting region is observed on the fuel rich side of the main reaction zone. For free flow, all the flames are in air, but the free stream ambient oxygen mass fraction is a variable in forced flow. To study the effects of radiation heat transfer, a model is developed for a laminar combusting boundary layer over a pyrolyzing fuel surface. An optically thin approximation simplifies the calculation of the radiant energy flux at the fuel surface. For the free flames in air, the liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA soot volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 x 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. Soot volume fraction increases monotonically with ambient oxygen mass fraction in the forced flow flames. For all fuels tested, a most probable radius between 20 nm and 80 nm is obtained which varies only slightly with oxygen mass fraction, streamwise position, or distance normal to the fuel surface. The theoretical analysis yields nine dimensionless parameters, which control the mass flux rate at the pyrolyzing fuel surface.

  5. High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanow, G.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of an ionizing laminar boundary layer formed by a very high enthalpy flow (in excess of 12 eV per atom or 7000 cal/gm) with allowance for the presence of helium driver gas is described. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal. The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made. Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows.

  6. The Kinematics of Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Stephen Kern

    1991-01-01

    The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.

  7. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

  8. Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Albrecht

    2004-09-15

    This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

  9. Mechanics of Boundary Layer Transition. Part 5: Boundary Layer Stability theory in incompressible and compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    The fundamentals of stability theory, its chief results, and the physical mechanisms at work are presented. The stability theory of the laminar boundary determines whether a small disturbance introduced into the boundary layer will amplify or damp. If the disturbance damps, the boundary layer remains laminar. If the disturbance amplifies, and by a sufficient amount, then transition to turbulence eventually takes place. The stability theory establishes those states of the boundary layer which are most likely to lead to transition, identifys those frequencies which are the most dangerous, and indicates how the external parameters can best be changed to avoid transition.

  10. Boundary layer emission in luminous LMXBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfanov, M.; Revnivtsev, M.

    We show that aperiodic and quasiperiodic variability of bright LMXBs -- atoll and Z- sources on sim sec -- msec time scales is caused primarily by variations of the luminosity of the boundary layer The kHz QPOs have the same origin as variability at lower frequencies i e independent of the nature of the clock the actual luminosity modulation takes place on the neutron star surface The boundary layer spectrum remains nearly constant in the course of the luminosity variations and is represented to certain accuracy by the Fourier frequency resolved spectrum In the investigated range of dot M sim 0 1-1 dot MEdd it depends weakly on the global mass accretion rate and in the limit dot M sim dot MEdd is close to Wien spectrum with kT sim 2 4 keV Its independence on the global value of dot M lends support to the theoretical suggestion by Inogamov Sunyaev 1999 that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported Based on the knowledge of the boundary layer spectrum we attempt to relate the motion along the Z-track to changes of physically meaningful parameters Our results suggest that the contribution of the boundary layer to the observed emission decreases along the Z-track from conventional sim 50 on the horizontal branch to a rather small number on the normal branch This decrease can be caused for example by obscuration of the boundary layer by the geometrically thickened accretion disk at dot M sim dot MEdd Alternatively this can indicate significant change of

  11. Temperature structure in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi

    2010-05-01

    Temperature structure in the atmospheric boundary layer It is well established from experimental and theoretical studies that the temperature structure in the atmospheric boundary layer is depends on stability. During free convection conditions the flow is dominated by circular thermals but when stratification is becoming slightly unstable longitudinal roll structures that extend vertically throughout the entire boundary layer will be present. In close to neutral conditions on the unstable side (the UVCN regime) when the Obukhov length is much greater than the surface layer depth, it is observed that the structure of the surface layer turbulence does not accord with standard similarity theory. In particular the efficiency of the turbulent exchange of sensible and latent heat is observed to be more strongly enhanced than is consistent with the standard model. Also the profiles of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and temperature fluctuation variance are found to depend on the structure of the whole boundary layer (i.e. are non-local), indicating that a large-scale transport process is at work. At the same time, co-spectral analysis shows how the large scale eddy motions that determine the heat transport process near the surface are typically 1/5 of the surface layer depth. All these features are found to be similar in measurements at two marine sites, in the Baltic Sea and in Lake Ontario respectively and at several flat land sites ( around Uppsala and at the Island of Gotland), indicating that they are determined by the dynamics of the whole boundary layer rather than being simply dependent on the surface boundary conditions. The observed structures can also be interpreted as possible manifestations of a bifurcation of the large scale eddy structure towards a state in which there are quasi-steady longitudinal rolls and, on a smaller scale, unsteady detached eddies. Our interpretation of the results from the measurements is that, in the UVCN regime, the latter

  12. Boundary-layer theory for blast waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. B.; Berger, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Korobeinikov, V. P.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    It is profitable to consider the blast wave as a flow field consisting of two regions: the outer, which retains the properties of the inviscid solution, and the inner, which is governed by flow equations including terms expressing the effects of heat transfer and, concomitantly, viscosity. The latter region thus plays the role of a boundary layer. Reported here is an analytical method developed for the study of such layers, based on the matched asymptotic expansion technique combined with patched solutions.

  13. Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.

  14. Boundary Layer Transition on X-43A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wurster, Kathryn; Bittner, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the first fully integrated scramjet propulsion systems by the Hyper-X (X-43A) program have provided the means with which to verify the original design methodologies and assumptions. As part of Hyper-X s propulsion-airframe integration, the forebody was designed to include a spanwise array of vortex generators to promote boundary layer transition ahead of the engine. Turbulence at the inlet is thought to provide the most reliable engine design and allows direct scaling of flight results to groundbased data. Pre-flight estimations of boundary layer transition, for both Mach 7 and 10 flight conditions, suggested that forebody boundary layer trips were required to ensure fully turbulent conditions upstream of the inlet. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the thermocouple measurements used to infer the dynamics of the transition process during the trajectories for both flights, on both the lower surface (to assess trip performance) and the upper surface (to assess natural transition). The approach used in the analysis of the thermocouple data is outlined, along with a discussion of the calculated local flow properties that correspond to the transition events as identified in the flight data. The present analysis has confirmed that the boundary layer trips performed as expected for both flights, providing turbulent flow ahead of the inlet during critical portions of the trajectory, while the upper surface was laminar as predicted by the pre-flight analysis.

  15. Flow visualization of turbulent boundary layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, M. R.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    1980-01-01

    The results from flow visualization experiments performed using an argon-ion laser to illuminate longitudinal and transverse sections of the smoke filled boundary layer in zero pressure gradient are discussed. Most of the experiments were confined to the range 600 Re sub theta 10,000. Results indicate that the boundary layer consists almost exclusively of vortex loops or hairpins, some of which may extend through the complete boundary layer thickness and all of which are inclined at a more or less constant characteristic angle of approximately 45 deg to the wall. Since the cross-stream dimensions of the hairpins appear to scale roughly with the wall variables U sub tau and nu, while their length is limited only by the boundary layer thickness, there are very large scale effects on the turbulence structure. At high Reynolds numbers (Re sub theta = 10,000) there is little evidence of large-scale coherent motions, other than a slow overturning of random agglomerations of the hairpins just mentioned.

  16. Boundary layer control device for duct silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.

  17. Astrophysical Boundary Layers: A New Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Mikhail; Rafikov, Roman R.; Mclellan Stone, James

    2016-04-01

    Accretion is a ubiquitous process in astrophysics. In cases when the magnetic field is not too strong and a disk is formed, accretion can proceed through the mid plane all the way to the surface of the central compact object. Unless that compact object is a black hole, a boundary layer will be formed where the accretion disk touches its surfaces. The boundary layer is both dynamically and observationally significant as up to half of the accretion energy is dissipated there.Using a combination of analytical theory and computer simulations we show that angular momentum transport and accretion in the boundary layer is mediated by waves. This breaks with the standard astrophysical paradigm of an anomalous turbulent viscosity that drives accretion. However, wave-mediated angular momentum transport is a natural consequence of "sonic instability." The sonic instability, which we describe analytically and observe in our simulations, is a close cousin of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. However, it is very vigorous in the boundary layer due to the immense radial velocity shear present at the equator.Our results are applicable to accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs, protostars, and protoplanets.

  18. Nonlinear Transient Growth and Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used in a variational approach to study the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in a Mach 3 at plate boundary layer and a Mach 6 circular cone boundary layer. As noted in previous works, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of streamwise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The nonlinear evolution of the linearly optimal stationary perturbations is computed using the nonlinear plane-marching PSE for stationary perturbations. A fully implicit marching technique is used to facilitate the computation of nonlinear streaks with large amplitudes. To assess the effect of the finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane- marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of bypass transition is estimated by using an N- factor criterion based on the amplification of the streak instabilities. Results show that, for both flow configurations of interest, streaks of sufficiently large amplitude can lead to significantly earlier onset of transition than that in an unperturbed boundary layer without any streaks.

  19. Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wood, William A.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Updates to an analytic tool developed for Shuttle support to predict the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from thermal protection system damage or repair are presented. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the local aerothermodynamic environment to enable informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each d agmea site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) of transition onset is predicted to help define proper environments for use in subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized within the tool were updated based on new local boundary layer properties obtained from high fidelity computational solutions. Also, new ground-based measurements were obtained to allow for a wider parametric variation with both protuberances and cavities and then the resulting correlations were calibrated against updated flight data. The end result is to provide correlations that allow increased confidence with the resulting transition predictions. Recently, a new approach was adopted to remove conservatism in terms of sustained turbulence along the wing leading edge. Finally, some of the newer flight data are also discussed in terms of how these results reflect back on the updated correlations.

  20. Flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Sreedhara V.

    1989-01-01

    The development of boundary layers at high subsonic speeds in the presence of either mass flux fluctuations or acoustic disturbances (the two most important parameters in the unsteadiness environment affecting the aerodynamics of a flight vehicle) was investigated. A high quality database for generating detailed information concerning free-stream flow unsteadiness effects on boundary layer growth and transition in high subsonic and transonic speeds is described. The database will be generated with a two-pronged approach: (1) from a detailed review of existing literature on research and wind tunnel calibration database, and (2) from detailed tests in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). Special instrumentation, including hot wire anemometry, the buried wire gage technique, and laser velocimetry were used to obtain skin friction and turbulent shear stress data along the entire boundary layer for various free stream noise levels, turbulence content, and pressure gradients. This database will be useful for improving the correction methodology of applying wind tunnel test data to flight predictions and will be helpful for making improvements in turbulence modeling laws.

  1. Boundary layer emission in luminous LMXBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfanov, M.; Revnivtsev, M.

    2005-11-01

    We show that aperiodic and quasiperiodic variability of bright LMXBs - atoll and Z-sources - on ˜ sec-msec time scales is caused primarily by variations of the luminosity of the boundary layer. The emission of the accretion disk is less variable on these time scales and its power density spectrum follows P_disk(f)∝ f-1 law, contributing to observed flux variation at low frequencies and low energies only. The kHz QPOs have the same origin as variability at lower frequencies, i.e. independent of the nature of the "clock", the actual luminosity modulation takes place on the neutron star surface. The boundary layer spectrum remains nearly constant in the course of the luminosity variations and is represented to certain accuracy by the Fourier frequency resolved spectrum. In the investigated range of \\dot{M}˜ (0.1-1) \\dot{M}_Edd it depends weakly on the global mass accretion rate and in the limit \\dot{M}˜ \\dot{M}_Edd is close to Wien spectrum with kT˜ 2.4 keV. Its independence on the global value of \\dot{M} lends support to the theoretical suggestion by \\citet{inogamov99} that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported. \\ Based on the knowledge of the boundary layer spectrum we attempt to relate the motion along the Z-track to changes of physically meaningful parameters. Our results suggest that the contribution of the boundary layer to the observed emission decreases along the Z-track from conventional ˜ 50% on the horizontal branch to a rather small number on the normal branch. This decrease can be caused, for example, by obscuration of the boundary layer by the geometrically thickened accretion disk at \\dot{M}˜\\dot{M}_Edd. Alternatively, this can indicate significant change of the structure of the accretion flow at \\dot{M}˜\\dot{M}_Edd and disappearance of the boundary layer as a distinct region of the significant energy release associated with the neutron star surface.

  2. Controls on boundary layer ventilation: Boundary layer processes and large-scale dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, V. A.; Gray, S. L.; Belcher, S. E.

    2010-06-01

    Midlatitude cyclones are important contributors to boundary layer ventilation. However, it is uncertain how efficient such systems are at transporting pollutants out of the boundary layer, and variations between cyclones are unexplained. In this study 15 idealized baroclinic life cycles, with a passive tracer included, are simulated to identify the relative importance of two transport processes: horizontal divergence and convergence within the boundary layer and large-scale advection by the warm conveyor belt. Results show that the amount of ventilation is insensitive to surface drag over a realistic range of values. This indicates that although boundary layer processes are necessary for ventilation they do not control the magnitude of ventilation. A diagnostic for the mass flux out of the boundary layer has been developed to identify the synoptic-scale variables controlling the strength of ascent in the warm conveyor belt. A very high level of correlation (R2 values exceeding 0.98) is found between the diagnostic and the actual mass flux computed from the simulations. This demonstrates that the large-scale dynamics control the amount of ventilation, and the efficiency of midlatitude cyclones to ventilate the boundary layer can be estimated using the new mass flux diagnostic. We conclude that meteorological analyses, such as ERA-40, are sufficient to quantify boundary layer ventilation by the large-scale dynamics.

  3. INDIVIDUAL TURBULENT CELL INTERACTION: BASIS FOR BOUNDARY LAYER ESTABLISHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boundary layers are important in determining the forces on objects in flowing fluids, mixing characteristics, and other phenomena. For example, benthic boundary layers are frequently active resuspension layers that determine bottom turbidity and transniissivity. Traditionally, bo...

  4. Benthic boundary layer - IOS modelling programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, K. J.

    1983-04-01

    Factors which control the height of the benthic boundary layer in the deep ocean and the residence time of fluid and a tracer within it, were modeled numerically. In one model, the effects of steady and unsteady currents and variations in fluid density are examined. In conditions similar to those observed in the abyssal regions of the E.N. Atlantic the model predicts an average bottom layer height close to the value observed. A second model examines the effects of spatial variations in currents. Due to convergences and divergences produced by these variations, the height of the bottom mixed layer is distorted. Where thinning is large, mixing results in warm patches flanked by benthic fronts. It is proposed that within the warm regions, the bottom mixed layer is exchanged within the ocean above. The residence time of a tracer released within the bottom mixed layer, average value 100 days, is predicted to vary between 20 and 800 days.

  5. Wind and boundary layers in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. II. Boundary layer character and scaling.

    PubMed

    van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Jonker, Harm J J; Hanjalić, Kemo

    2008-03-01

    The scaling of the kinematic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) and the friction factor C(f) at the top and bottom walls of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS). By a detailed analysis of the friction factor, a new parameterisation for C(f) and lambda(u) is proposed. The simulations were made of an L/H=4 aspect-ratio domain with periodic lateral boundary conditions at Ra=(10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8)) and Pr=1. The continuous spectrum, as well as significant forcing due to Reynolds stresses, clearly indicates a turbulent character of the boundary layer, while viscous effects cannot be neglected, judging from the scaling of classical integral boundary layer parameters with Reynolds number. Using a conceptual wind model, we find that the friction factor C(f) should scale proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness as C(f) proportional variant lambda(Theta)/H, while the kinetic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) scales inversely proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness and wind Reynolds number lambda(u)/H proportional variant (lambda(Theta)/H)(-1)Re(-1). The predicted trends for C(f) and lambda(u) are in agreement with DNS results.

  6. Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG

    2000-02-01

    The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.

  7. Logarithmic laws for compressible turbulent boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    So, R.M.C.; Zhang, H.S.; Gatski, T.B.; Speziale, C.G.

    1994-11-01

    Dimensional similarity arguments proposed by Millikan are used with the Morkovin hypothesis to deduce logarithmic laws for compressible turbulent boundary layers as an alternative to the traditional van Driest analysis. It is shown that an overlap exists between the wall layer and the defect layer, and this leads to logarithmic behavior in the overlap region. The von Karman constant is found to depend parametrically on the Mach number based on the friction velocity, the dimensionless total heat flux, and the specific heat ratio. Even though it remains constant at approximately 0.41 for a freestream Mach number range of 0 to 4.544 with adiabatic wall boundary conditions, it rises sharply as the Mach number increases significantly beyond 4.544. The intercept of the logarithmic law of the wall is found to depend on the Mach number based on the friction velocity, the dimensionless total heat flux, the Prandtl number evaluated at the wall, and the specific heat ratio. On the other hand, the intercept of the logarithmic defect law is parametric in the pressure gradient parameter and all of the aforementioned dimensionless variables except the Prandtl number. A skin friction law is also deduced for compressible boundary layers. The skin friction coefficient is shown to depend on the momentum thickness Reynolds number, the wall temperature ratio, and all of the other parameters already mentioned. 26 refs.

  8. Toward parameterization of the stable boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Wangara data is used to examine the depth of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) and the height to which surface-linked turbulence extends. It is noted that a linearity of virtual temperature profiles has been found to extend up to a significant portion of the NBL, and then diverge where the wind shear rides over the surface-induced turbulence. A series of Richardson numbers are examined for varying degrees of turbulence and the significant cooling region is observed to have greater depth than the depth of the linear relationship layer. A three-layer parameterization of the thermodynamic structure of the NBL is developed so that a system of five equations must be solved when the wind velocity profile and the temperature at the surface are known. A correlation between the bulk Richardson number and the depth of the linear layer was found to be 0.89.

  9. Boundary Layer Theory. Part 1; Laminar Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlichting, H.

    1949-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give you a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. As you know, a great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the so-called ideal fluid, that is, the frictionless incompressible fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid (potential theory) has been made possible.

  10. Shockwave-boundary layer interference heating analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, F. T.; Barnett, D. O.

    1973-01-01

    Interference heating correlations have been developed based on existing wind tunnel test data taken with simple configurations such as wedge/flat plate and compression corner models. For turbulent flow, peak interference heating was first correlated with shock strength (pressure ratio across shock wave) and then as a function of Reynolds number. The peak interference Stanton number was found to exhibit the same Reynolds number and Prandtl number characteristics as the Stanton number variation for undisturbed flow over a flat plate. Similar correlations were developed for laminar flow. Results indicated that for laminar flow at higher Reynolds number, the impinging shockwave may act as a boundary layer trip and cause boundary layer transition resulting in high interference heating. The correlations derived in this study can be used to scale wind tunnel model test data to a full-scale space vehicle at supersonic or hypersonic flight conditions.

  11. Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.

    PubMed

    King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M

    2009-01-15

    Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems.

  12. Analytic prediction for planar turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-11-01

    Analytic predictions of mean velocity profile (MVP) and streamwise ( x) development of related integral quantities are presented for flows in channel and turbulent boundary layer (TBL), based on a symmetry analysis of eddy length and total stress. Specific predictions include the relations for momentum Reynolds number ( Re θ) with friction Re τ and streamwise Re x : Re θ ≈ 3.27 Re τ, and Re x / Re θ = 4.94 [(ln Re θ + 1.88)2 + 1]; the streamwise development of the friction velocity u τ: U e / u τ ≈ 2.22ln Re x + 2.86 - 3.83ln(ln Re x ), and of the boundary layer thickness δ e : x/δ e ≈ 7.27ln Re x -5.18-12.52ln(ln Re x ), which are fully validated by recent reliable data.

  13. Boundary layer transition detection by luminescence imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Callis, J.

    1993-01-01

    In recent experiments we have demonstrated the feasibility of a new approach to boundary layer transition detection. This new approach employs the temperature dependence of certain photoluminescent materials in the form of a surface coating or 'paint' to detect the change in heat transfer characteristics that accompany boundary layer transition. The feasibility experiments were conducted for low subsonic to transonic Mach numbers on two-dimensional airfoil and flat plate configurations. Paint derived transition locations were determined and compared to those obtained from Preston pressure probe measurements. Artificial heating of the models was used to obtain transition temperature signatures suitable for the instrumentation available to us. Initial estimates show, however, that passive kinetic heating at high Mach numbers is a promising alternative.

  14. Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.

    PubMed

    King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M

    2009-01-15

    Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems. PMID:19148097

  15. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  16. The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, S.

    1981-01-01

    Some redesign of the cascade facility was necessary in order to incoporate the requirements of the LDA system into the design. Of particular importance was the intended use of a combination of suction upstream of the blade pack with diverging pack walls, as opposed to blade pack suction alone, for spanwise dimensionality control. An ARL blade was used to redo some tests using this arrangement. Preliminary testing and boundary layer measurements began on the double circular arc blades.

  17. Calculation of a separated turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B.; Hung, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    The properties of a Navier-Stokes solution of a shock-separated turbulent flow over a flat wall are investigated. Refinements of an algebraic relaxation turbulence model previously shown to be of value for the simulation of separated flows are presented. A simplified analysis applicable near an adiabatic wall is developed and used to help verify the accuracy of the numerical solution. Features of the time-dependent response of a turbulent boundary layer to shock impingement are presented.

  18. Boundary Layer Control for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive methods for tripping hypersonic boundary layers have been examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels using a Hyper-X model. This investigation assessed several concepts for forcing transition, including passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition (or blowing), in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnels. Heat transfer distributions obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the Hyper-X nominal Mach 7 flight test-point of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For passive roughness, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration, scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness, being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle. For the active blowing study, the manifold pressure was systematically varied (while monitoring the mass flow) for each configuration to determine the jet penetration height, with schlieren, and transition movement, with the phosphor system, for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested, which included various rows of sonic orifices (holes), two- and three-dimensional slots, and random porosity, provided transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model surface static pressure, which is adequate to ensure sonic jets. The present results indicate that the jet penetration height for blowing was roughly half the height required with passive roughness elements for an equivalent amount of transition movement.

  19. Shock-boundary-layer interaction in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertelrud, Arild

    1989-01-01

    A brief survey is given on the study of transonic shock/boundary layer effects in flight. Then the possibility of alleviating the adverse shock effects through passive shock control is discussed. A Swedish flight experiment on a swept wing attack aircraft is used to demonstrate how it is possible to reduce the extent of separated flow and increase the drag-rise Mach number significantly using a moderate amount of perforation of the surface.

  20. Pressure gradient influence in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Nico; Kaehler, Christian J.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding wall-bounded turbulence is still an ongoing process. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decades, many challenges still remain. Mean flow statistics are well understood in case of zero pressure gradient flows. However, almost all turbulent boundary layers in technical applications, such as aircrafts, are subjected to a streamwise pressure gradient. When subjecting turbulent boundary layers to adverse pressure gradients, significant changes in the statistical behavior of the near-wall flow have been observed in experimental studies conducted however the details dynamics and characteristics of these flows has not been fully resolved. The sensitivity to Reynolds number and the dependency on several parameters, including the dependence on the pressure gradient parameter, is still under debate and very little information exists about statistically averaged quantities such as the mean velocity profile or Reynolds stresses. In order to improve the understanding of wall-bounded turbulence, this work experimentally investigates turbulent boundary layer subjected to favorable and adverse pressure gradients by means of Particle Image Velocimetry over a wide range of Reynolds numbers, 4200

  1. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  2. The role of nonlinear critical layers in boundary layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    Asymptotic methods are used to describe the nonlinear self-interaction between pairs of oblique instability modes that eventually develops when initially linear spatially growing instability waves evolve downstream in nominally two-dimensional laminar boundary layers. The first nonlinear reaction takes place locally within a so-called 'critical layer', with the flow outside this layer consisting of a locally parallel mean flow plus a pair of oblique instability waves - which may or may not be accompanied by an associated plane wave. The amplitudes of these waves, which are completely determined by nonlinear effects within the critical layer, satisfy either a single integro-differential equation or a pair of integro-differential equations with quadratic to quartic-type nonlinearities. The physical implications of these equations are discussed.

  3. Leaky waves in boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralits, Jan

    2005-11-01

    Linear stability analysis of boundary layer flow is traditionally performed by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation (OSE), either in a temporal or a spatial framework. The mode structure of the OSE is in both cases composed of a finite number of discrete modes which decay at infinity in the wall- normal direction y, and a continuous spectrum of propagating modes behaving as (±ik y) when y->∞, with real k. A peculiarity of this structure is that the number of discrete modes changes with the Reynolds number, Re. They indeed seem to disappear behind the continuous spectrum at certain Re. This phenomenon is here investigated by studying the response of the Blasius boundary layer forced instantaneously in space and time. Since the solution of the forced and homogeneous Laplace-transformed problem both depend on the free-stream boundary conditions, it is shown here that a suitable change of variables can remove the branch cut in the Laplace plane. As a result, integration of the inverse Laplace transform along the two sides of the branch cut, which gives rise to the continuous spectrum, can be replaced by a sum of residues corresponding to an additional set of discrete eigenvalues. These new modes grow at infinity in the y direction, and are analogous to the leaky waves found in the theory of optical waveguides, i.e. optical fibers, which are attenuated in the direction of the waveguide but grow unbounded in the direction perpendicular to it.

  4. Acoustic radar investigations of boundary layer phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison is made between acoustic radar echoes and conventional meteorological data obtained from the WKY tower, for the purpose of better understanding the relationships between acoustic radar echoes and boundary layer processes. Two thunderstorm outflow cases are presented and compared to both acoustic radar data and Charba's gust front model. The acoustic radar echoes reveal the boundary between warm and cold air and other areas of mixing and strong thermal gradient quite well. The thunderstorm outflow of 27 June 1972 is found to compare with in most respects to Charba's gust front model. The major difference is the complete separation of the head from the main body of cold air, probably caused by erosion of the area behind the head by mixing with the ambient air. Two cases of nocturnal inversions caused by advection of warmer air aloft are presented. It is found that areas of turbulent mixing or strong thermal gradient can be identified quite easily in the acoustic radar record.

  5. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  6. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  7. Drizzle and Turbulence Variability in Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollias, P.; Luke, E. P.; Szyrmer, W.

    2015-12-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds frequently produce light precipitation in the form of drizzle. The drizzle rate at the cloud base (RCB) dictates the impact of drizzle on the boundary layer turbulence and cloud organization. Here, synergistic observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site located on Graciosa Island in the Azores are used to investigate the relationship between RCB, and boundary layer turbulence and dynamics. The ARM ENA site is a heavily instrumented ground-based facility that offers new measurement capabilities in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers (STBL). The RCB is retrieved using a radar-lidar algorithm. The STBL turbulent structure is characterized using the Doppler lidar and radar observations. The profiling radar/lidar/radiometer observations are used to describe the cloud fraction and morphology. Finally, surface-based aerosol number concentration measurements are used to investigate the connection between the boundary layer turbulence, cloud morphology and aerosol loading. Preliminary correlative relationships between the aforementioned variables will be shown.

  8. Boundary-layer Transition at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, George M

    1956-01-01

    Recent results of the effects of Mach number, stream turbulence, leading-edge geometry, leading-edge sweep, surface temperature, surface finish, pressure gradient, and angle of attack on boundary-layer transition are summarized. Factors that delay transition are nose blunting, surface cooling, and favorable pressure gradient. Leading-edge sweep and excessive surface roughness tend to promote early transition. The effects of leading-edge blunting on two-dimensional surfaces and surface cooling can be predicted adequately by existing theories, at least in the moderate Mach number range.

  9. Measurements of a separating turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, R. L.; Chew, Y. T.; Shivaprasad, B. G.

    1980-04-01

    The directionally sensitive laser anemometer now provides the ability to accurately measure instantaneous flow direction and magnitude. The experimental results are concerned with a nominally two dimensional separating turbulent boundary layer for an airfoil type flow in which the flow was accelerated and then decelerated until separation. Upstream of separation single and cross wire hot wire anemometer measurements are also presented. Measurements obtained in the separated zone with a directionally sensitive laser anemometer system are presented. Results lead to significant conclusions about the nature of the separated flow when the thickness of the backflow region is small as compared with the shear laer thickness. The backflow is controlled by the large scale outer region flow. The small mean backflow does not come from far downstream, but appears to be supplied intermittently by large scale structures as they pass through the separated flow. Downstream of fully developed separation, the mean backflow appears to be divided into three layers.

  10. Turbulent Plasmaspheric Boundary Layer: Observables and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Evgeny

    2014-10-01

    In situ satellite observations reveal strong lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic turbulence and broadband hiss-like VLF waves in the substorm subauroral geospace at and earthward of the electron plasmasheet boundary. These coincide with subauroral ion drifts/polarization streams (SAID/SAPS) in the plasmasphere and topside ionosphere. SAID/SAPS appear in ~10 min after the substorm onset consistent with the fast propagation of substorm injection fronts. The SAID channel follows the dispersionless cutoff of the energetic electron flux at the plasmapause. This indicates that the cold plasma maintains charge neutrality within the channel, thereby short-circuiting the injected plasma jet (injection fronts over the plasmasphere. Plasma turbulence leads to the circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion as well as significant electron heating and acceleration. As a result, a turbulent boundary layer forms between the inner edge of the electron plasmasheet and plasmasphere. The SAID/SAPS-related VLF emissions appear to constitute a distinctive subset of substorm/storm-related VLF activity in the region co-located with freshly injected energetic ions inside the plasmasphere. Significant pitch-angle diffusion coefficients suggest that substorm SAID/SAPS-related VLF waves could be responsible for the alteration of the outer radiation belt boundary during (sub)storms. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  11. Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.; Garske, Michael T.; Saucedo, Luis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Micklos, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE) Project, a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS-128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Endeavour for STS-134. Additional instrumentation was installed in order to obtain more spatially resolved measurements downstream of the protuberance. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project with emphasis on the STS-131 and STS-133 results. A high-level overview of the in-situ flight data is presented, along with a summary of the comparisons between pre- and post-flight analysis predictions and flight data. Comparisons show that empirically correlated predictions for boundary layer transition onset time closely match the flight data, while predicted surface temperatures were significantly higher than observed flight temperatures. A thermocouple anomaly observed on a number of the missions is discussed as are a number of the mitigation actions that will be taken on the final flight, STS-134, including potential alterations of the flight trajectory and changes to the flight instrumentation.

  12. X-33 Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hollis, Brian R.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hamilton, H. Harris, II

    1999-01-01

    Boundary layer and aeroheating characteristics of several X-33 configurations have been experimentally examined in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Global surface heat transfer distributions, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.013-scale models at Mach 6 in air. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 20-deg, 30-deg, and 40-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.9 to 6.6 million; and body-flap deflections of 0, 10 and 20-deg. The effects of discrete and distributed roughness elements on boundary layer transition, which included trip height, size, location, and distribution, both on and off the windward centerline, were investigated. The discrete roughness results on centerline were used to provide a transition correlation for the X-33 flight vehicle that was applicable across the range of reentry angles of attack. The attachment line discrete roughness results were shown to be consistent with the centerline results, as no increased sensitivity to roughness along the attachment line was identified. The effect of bowed panels was qualitatively shown to be less effective than the discrete trips; however, the distributed nature of the bowed panels affected a larger percent of the aft-body windward surface than a single discrete trip.

  13. Turbulent boundary layer over a chine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchapakesan, N. R.; Joubert, P. N.

    1999-11-01

    The flow over an edge aligned with the streamwise direction is studied as a representative of the turbulent boundary layers developing over hard chines found on the hulls of ships and catamarans. We present results of a traditional experimental investigation of this geometry in a wind tunnel with pitot tubes and hot-wires. The chine model consisted of two surfaces made of varnished fibre boards with leading edges of airfoil sections and a 90 degree corner. The boundary layer was tripped with wires close to the leading edge. The model was housed in a test section of length 6.5 m in a closed circuit wind tunnel. The experiments were conducted at a unit Reynolds number of 680,000 /m corresponding to a nominal free stream velocity of 10 m/s. The mean velocity field and the associated integral parameters obtained with pitot tube measurements are presented for different streamwise locations from 0.2 to 4.7 m from the trip wire. The flow at the two farthest locations were also studied with single and 'x' hot-wires. The secondary mean flow and the turbulence field in the corner region are described with these measurements.

  14. Sound Radiation from a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, J.

    1961-01-01

    If the restriction of incompressibility in the turbulence problem is relaxed, the phenomenon of energy radiation in the form of sound from the turbulent zone arises. In order to calculate this radiated energy, it is shown that new statistical quantities, such as time-space correlation tensors, have to be known within the turbulent zone in addition to the conventional quantities. For the particular case of the turbulent boundary layer, indications are that the intensity of radiation becomes significant only in supersonic flows. Under these conditions, the recent work of Phillips is examined together with some experimental findings of the author. It is shown that the qualitative features of the radiation field (intensity, directionality) as predicted by the theory are consistent with the measurements; however, even for the highest Mach number flow, some of the assumptions of the asymptotic theory are not yet satisfied in the experiments. Finally, the question of turbulence damping due to radiation is discussed, with the result that in the Mach number range covered by the experiments, the energy lost from the boundary layer due to radiation is a small percentage of the work done by the wall shearing stresses.

  15. Performance and boundary-layer evaluation of a sonic inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. F.; Ruggeri, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the boundary layer characteristics and aerodynamic performance of a radial vane sonic inlet with a length/diameter ratio of 1 for several vane configurations. The sonic inlet was designed with a slight wavy wall type of diffuser geometry, which permits operation at high inlet Mach numbers (sufficiently high for good noise suppression) without boundary layer flow separation and with good total pressure recovery. A new method for evaluating the turbulent boundary layer was developed to separate the boundary layer from the inviscid core flow, which is characterized by a total pressure variation from hub to tip, and to determine the experimental boundary layer parameters.

  16. Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervegt, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Transition to turbulence in aerospace applications usually occurs in a strongly disturbed environment. For instance, the effects of free-stream turbulence, roughness and obstacles in the boundary layer strongly influence transition. Proper understanding of the mechanisms leading to transition is crucial in the design of aircraft wings and gas turbine blades, because lift, drag and heat transfer strongly depend on the state of the boundary layer, laminar or turbulent. Unfortunately, most of the transition research, both theoretical and experimental, has focused on natural transition. Many practical flows, however, defy any theoretical analysis and are extremely difficult to measure. Morkovin introduced in his review paper the concept of bypass transition as those forms of transition which bypass the known mechanisms of linear and non-linear transition theories and are currently not understood by experiments. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to transition in a disturbed environment, experiments are conducted studying simpler cases, viz. the effects of free stream turbulence on transition on a flat plate. It turns out that these experiments are very difficult to conduct, because generation of free stream turbulence with sufficiently high fluctuation levels and reasonable homogeneity is non trivial. For a discussion see Morkovin. Serious problems also appear due to the fact that at high Reynolds numbers the boundary layers are very thin, especially in the nose region of the plate where the transition occurs, which makes the use of very small probes necessary. The effects of free-stream turbulence on transition are the subject of this research and are especially important in a gas turbine environment, where turbulence intensities are measured between 5 and 20 percent, Wang et al. Due to the fact that the Reynolds number for turbine blades is considerably lower than for aircraft wings, generally a larger portion of the blade will be in a laminar

  17. Boundary layer roll circulations during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirer, Hampton N.; Haack, Tracy

    1990-01-01

    The probable mechanism underlying the development of boundary layer roll circulations are studied using wind and temperature profiles measured by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra during the stratocumulus phase of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). The expected, or preferred, roll orientations, horizontal wavelengths, and propagation periods are determined by finding the minimum values of the dynamic and thermodynamic forcing parameters, which here are the eddy Reynolds number (Re) and moist Rayleigh number (Ra sub m). These minimum values depend on the height z sub T of the capping temperature inversion and on the values of the Fourier coefficients of the background height-dependent vector wind profile. As input to our nonlinear spectral model, descent and ascent runs by the Electra provide for initial estimates of the inversion height and the wind profiles. In the first phase of the investigation presented here, a mechanism is said to be a probable contributor to the development of roll circulations within the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer if the modeled roll orientation and wavelengths agree with their observed values. Preliminary results using the 14-coefficient model of Haack-Hirschberg (1988) are discussed for the 7 July 1987 Electra Mission 188-A (Flight 5). This mission was flown across a sharp cloud boundary that was within a LANDSAT/SPOT scene. The stratocumulus deck was relatively solid in the eastern part of the scene, while there was a rapid decrease in cloud cover to scattered cumulus clouds aligned in streets to the west. These cloud streets were oriented nearly parallel to the mean wind direction in the layer, which was approximately 340 degrees. The hypothesis that roll circulations occurred in both the relatively clear and the cloudy regions is investigated using as model input a descent profile obtained in the relatively clear air and an ascent profile obtained in the cloudy air. Initial results for the

  18. Effects of shock on the stability of hypersonic boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1990-01-01

    A set of linearized shock boundary conditions is derived, which is then imposed at the shock to account for the interaction of the shock wave with the boundary/shock layer instability wave; these boundary conditions are used to study the effect of shock on hypersonic boundary layer stability under the assumption of quasi-parallel flow. The result show that the shock has little effect on the boundary layer instability (subsonic first and second mode disturbances) when the shock is located outside the boundary layer edge. When the shock is located near the boundary layer edge, it exerts a stabilizing influence on the first and second modes. The shock also induces unstable supersonic modes with oscillatory structure in the shock layer, but these modes grow slower than the subsonic modes.

  19. Geometric invariance of compressible turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Wei-Tao; Wu, Bin; She, Zhen-Su; Hussain, Fazle

    2015-11-01

    A symmetry based approach is applied to analyze the mean velocity and temperature fields of compressible, flat plate turbulent boundary layers (CTBL). A Reynolds stress length scale and a turbulent heat flux length scale are identified to possess the same defect scaling law in the CTBL bulk, which is solely owing to the constraint of the wall to the geometry of the wall-attached eddies, but invariant to compressibility and wall heat transfer. This invariance is called the geometric invariance of CTBL eddies and is likely the origin of the Mach number invariance of Morkovin's hypothesis, as well as the similarity of energy and momentum transports. A closure for the turbulent transport by using the invariant lengths is attainted to predict the mean velocity and temperature profiles in the CTBL bulk- superior to the van Driest transformation and the Reynolds analogy based relations for its sound physics and higher accuracy. Additionally, our approach offers a new understanding of turbulent Prandtl number.

  20. Some measurements in synthetic turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, O.

    1980-01-01

    Synthetic turbulent boundary layers are examined which were constructed on a flat plate by generating systematic moving patterns of turbulent spots in a laminar flow. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number based on plate length of 1,700,000. Spots were generated periodically in space and time near the leading edge to form a regular hexagonal pattern. The disturbance mechanism was a camshaft which displaced small pins momentarily into the laminar flow at frequencies up to 80 Hz. The main instrumentation was a rake of 24 hot wires placed across the flow in a line parallel to the surface. The main measured variable was local intermittency; i.e., the probability of observing turbulent flow at a particular point in space and time. The results are reported in x-t diagrams showing the evolution of various synthetic flows along the plate. The dimensionless celerity or phase velocity of the large eddies is found to be 0.88, independent of eddy scale. All patterns with sufficiently small scales eventually showed loss of coherence as they moved downstream. A novel phenomenon called eddy transposition was observed in several flows which contained appreciable laminar regions. The large eddies shifted in formation to new positions, intermediate to their original ones, while preserving their hexagonal pattern. The present results, together with some empirical properties of a turbulent spot, are used to estimate the best choice of scales for constructing a synthetic boundary layer suitable for detailed study. The values recommended are: spanwise scale/thickness = 2.5, streamwise scale/thickness = 8.

  1. Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng

    1994-12-01

    Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

  2. Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Meng

    1994-01-01

    Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

  3. Mercury in the marine boundary layer and seawater of the South China Sea: Concentrations, sea/air flux, and implication for land outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Gan; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Yao, Hen; Liang, Peng; Li, Jun; Sommar, Jonas; Yin, Runsheng; Liu, Na

    2010-03-01

    Using R/V Shiyan 3 as a sampling platform, measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), surface seawater total mercury (THg), methyl mercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were carried out above and in the South China Sea (SCS). Measurements were collected for 2 weeks (10 to 28 August 2007) during an oceanographic expedition, which circumnavigated the northern SCS from Guangzhou (Canton), Hainan Inland, the Philippines, and back to Guangzhou. GEM concentrations over the northern SCS ranged from 1.04 to 6.75 ng m-3 (mean: 2.62 ng m-3, median: 2.24 ng m-3). The spatial distribution of GEM was characterized by elevated concentrations near the coastal sites adjacent to mainland China and lower concentrations at stations in the open sea. Trajectory analysis revealed that high concentrations of GEM were generally related to air masses from south China and the Indochina peninsula, while lower concentrations of GEM were related to air masses from the open sea area, reflecting great Hg emissions from south China and Indochina peninsula. The mean concentrations of THg, MeHg, and DGM in surface seawater were 1.2 ± 0.3 ng L-1, 0.12 ± 0.05 ng L-1, and 36.5 ± 14.9 pg L-1, respectively. In general, THg and MeHg levels in the northern SCS were higher compared to results reported from most other oceans/seas. Elevated THg levels in the study area were likely attributed to significant Hg delivery from surrounding areas of the SCS primarily via atmospheric deposition and riverine input, whereas other sources like in situ production by various biotic and abiotic processes may be important for MeHg. Average sea/air flux of Hg in the study area was estimated using a gas exchange method (4.5 ± 3.4 ng m-2 h-1). This value was comparable to those from other coastal areas and generally higher than those from open sea environments, which may be attributed to the reemission of Hg previously transported to this area.

  4. Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics over Reno, Nevada in Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liming, A.; Sumlin, B.; Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.; Arnott, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important to understand the transport behavior, mixing, and surface concentrations of air pollutants. In Reno, NV, located in complex, mountainous terrain with high desert climate, the daytime boundary layer can rise to an estimated 3km or more on a summer day due to surface heating and convection. The nocturnal boundary layer, conversely, tends to be much lower and highly stable due to radiative cooling from the surface at night and downslope flow of cool air from nearby mountains. With limited availability of radiosonde data, current estimates of the PBL height at any given time or location are potentially over or underestimated. To better quantify the height and characterize the PBL physics, we developed portable, lightweight sensors that measure CO2 concentrations, temperature, pressure, and humidity every 5 seconds. Four of these sensors are used on a tethered balloon system to monitor CO2 concentrations from the surface up to 300m. We will combine this data with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) data that measures vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from 40m to 400m. This experiment will characterize the diurnal evolution of CO2 concentrations at multiple heights in the PBL, provide insight into PBL physics during stability transition periods at sunrise and sunset, and estimate the nighttime PBL depth during August in Reno. Further, we expect to gain a better understanding of the impact of mixing volume changes (i.e., PBL height) on air quality and pollution concentrations in Reno. The custom portable sensor design will also be presented. It is expected that these instruments can be used for indoor or outdoor air quality studies, where lightness, small size, and battery operation can be of benefit.

  5. Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzijlbergh, R. A.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Heus, T.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, J.

    2009-02-01

    Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary layer (for reference), 2) a "smoke" cloud boundary layer in which the turbulence is driven by radiative cooling, 3) a stratocumulus topped boundary layer and 4) a shallow cumulus topped boundary layer. We show that the dispersion characteristics of the smoke cloud boundary layer as well as the stratocumulus situation can be well understood by borrowing concepts from previous studies of dispersion in the dry convective boundary layer. A general result is that the presence of clouds enhances mixing and dispersion - a notion that is not always reflected well in traditional parameterization models, in which clouds usually suppress dispersion by diminishing solar irradiance. The dispersion characteristics of a cumulus cloud layer turn out to be markedly different from the other three cases and the results can not be explained by only considering the well-known top-hat velocity distribution. To understand the surprising characteristics in the shallow cumulus layer, this case has been examined in more detail by 1) determining the velocity distribution conditioned on the distance to the nearest cloud and 2) accounting for the wavelike behaviour associated with the stratified dry environment.

  6. Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzijlbergh, R. A.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Heus, T.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, J.

    2008-11-01

    Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary layer (for reference), 2) a "smoke" cloud boundary layer in which the turbulence is driven by radiative cooling, 3) a stratocumulus topped boundary layer and 4) a shallow cumulus topped boundary layer. We show that the dispersion characteristics of the smoke cloud boundary layer as well as the stratocumulus situation can be well understood by borrowing concepts from previous studies of dispersion in the dry convective boundary layer. A general result is that the presence of clouds enhances mixing and dispersion a notion that is not always reflected well in traditional parameterization models, in which clouds usually suppress dispersion by diminishing solar irradiance. The dispersion characteristics of a cumulus cloud layer turn out to be markedly different from the other three cases and the results can not be explained by only considering the well-known top-hat velocity distribution. To understand the surprising characteristics in the shallow cumulus layer, this case has been examined in more detail by 1) determining the velocity distribution conditioned on the distance to the nearest cloud and 2) accounting for the wavelike behaviour associated with the stratified dry environment.

  7. Acoustic sounding in the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three case studies are presented involving data from an acoustic radar. The first two cases examine data collected during the passage of a mesoscale cold-air intrusion, probably thunderstorm outflow, and a synoptic-scale cold front. In these studies the radar data are compared to conventional meteorological data obtained from the WKY tower facility for the purpose of radar data interpretation. It is shown that the acoustic radar echoes reveal the boundary between warm and cold air and other areas of turbulent mixing, regions of strong vertical temperature gradients, and areas of weak or no wind shear. The third case study examines the relationship between the nocturnal radiation inversion and the low-level wind maximum or jet in the light of conclusions presented by Blackadar (1957). The low-level jet is seen forming well above the top of the inversion. Sudden rapid growth of the inversion occurs which brings the top of the inversion to a height equal that of the jet. Coincident with the rapid growth of the inversion is a sudden decrease in the intensity of the acoustic radar echoes in the inversion layer. It is suggested that the decrease in echo intensity reveals a decrease in turbulent mixing in the inversion layer as predicted by Blackadar. It is concluded that the acoustic radar can be a valuable tool for study in the lower atmosphere.

  8. Improved Boundary Layer Depth Retrievals from MPLNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Molod, Andrea M.; Joseph, Everette

    2013-01-01

    Continuous lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth have been made at the Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) site in Greenbelt, MD since April 2001. However, because of issues with the operational PBL depth algorithm, the data is not reliable for determining seasonal and diurnal trends. Therefore, an improved PBL depth algorithm has been developed which uses a combination of the wavelet technique and image processing. The new algorithm is less susceptible to contamination by clouds and residual layers, and in general, produces lower PBL depths. A 2010 comparison shows the operational algorithm overestimates the daily mean PBL depth when compared to the improved algorithm (1.85 and 1.07 km, respectively). The improved MPLNET PBL depths are validated using radiosonde comparisons which suggests the algorithm performs well to determine the depth of a fully developed PBL. A comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System-version 5 (GEOS-5) model suggests that the model may underestimate the maximum daytime PBL depth by 410 m during the spring and summer. The best agreement between MPLNET and GEOS-5 occurred during the fall and they diered the most in the winter.

  9. Atmospheric HCH concentrations over the Marine Boundary Layer from Shanghai, China to the Arctic Ocean: role of human activity and climate change.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoguo; Lam, James C W; Xia, Chonghuan; Kang, Hui; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2010-11-15

    From July to September 2008, air samples were collected aboard the research expedition icebreaker XueLong (Snow Dragon) as part of the 2008 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition Program. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) concentrations were analyzed in all of the samples. The average concentrations (± standard deviation) over the entire period were 33 ± 16, 5.4 ± 3.0, and 13 ± 7.5 pg m⁻³ for α-, β- and γ-HCH, respectively. Compared to previous studies in the same areas, total HCH (ΣHCH, the sum of α-, β-, and γ-HCH) levels declined by more than 10 × compared to those observed in the 1990s, but were approximately 4 × higher than those measured by the 2003 China Arctic Research Expedition, suggesting the increase of atmospheric ΣHCH recently. Because of the continuing use of lindane, ratios of α/γ-HCH showed an obvious decrease in North Pacific and Arctic region compared with those for 2003 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition. In Arctic, the level of α-HCH was found to be linked to sea ice distribution. Geographically, the average concentration of α-HCH in air samples from the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, neither of which contain sea ice, was 23 ± 4.4 pg m⁻³, while samples from the area covered by seasonal ice (∼75°N to ∼83°N), the so-called "floating sea ice region", contained the highest average levels of α-HCH at 48 ± 12 pg m⁻³, likely due to emission from sea ice and strong air-sea exchange. The lowest concentrations of α-HCH were observed in the pack ice region in the high Arctic covered by multiyear sea ice (∼83°N to ∼86°N). This phenomenon implies that the re-emission of HCH trapped in ice sheets and Arctic Ocean may accelerate during the summer as ice coverage in the Arctic Ocean decreases in response to global climate change.

  10. Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi

    2013-07-01

    Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.

  11. Wind-tunnel simulation of thick turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study aimed at revealing the possibility of simulation, in a subsonic wind tunnel, of enhanced Reynolds numbers Re** via modeling a thick flat-plate boundary layer possessing the properties of a Clauser-equilibrium shear flow is reported. We show that turbulators prepared in the form of variable-height cylinders of height h and diameter d = 3 mm and installed in two rows along the normal to the streamlined wall offer rather an efficient means for modification of turbulent boundary layer in solving the problem. In the majority of cases, mean and fluctuating characteristics of the boundary layer exhibit values typical of naturally developing turbulent boundary layers at a distance of 530 cylinder diameters. The profiles of mean velocity with artificially enhanced boundary-layer thickness can be well approximated, in the law-of-the-wall variables, with the well-known distribution of velocities for canonical boundary layer.

  12. Simulating supercell thunderstorms in a convective boundary layer: Effects on storm and boundary layer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotarski, Christopher J.

    Nearly all previous numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms have neglected surface uxes of heat, moisture, and momentum as well as horizontal inhomogeneities in the near-storm environment from resulting dry boundary layer convection. This investigation uses coupled radiation and land-surface schemes within an idealized cloud model to identify the effects of organized boundary layer convection in the form of horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) on the strength, structure, and evolution of simulated supercell thunderstorms. The in uence of HCRs and the importance of their orientation relative to storm motion is tested by comparing simulations with a convective boundary layer (CBL) against those with a horizontally homogeneous base state having the same mean environment. The impact of anvil shading on the CBL is tested by comparing simulations with and without the effects of clouds in the radiative transfer scheme. The results of these simulations indicate that HCRs provide a potentially important source of environmental vertical vorticity in the sheared, near-storm boundary layer. These vorticity perturbations are amplified both beneath the main supercell updraft and along the trailing out ow boundary, leading to the formation of occasionally intense misovortices. HCRs perpendicular to storm motion are found to have a detrimental effect on the strength and persistence of the lowlevel mesocyclone, particularly during its initial development. Though the mean environment is less supportive of low-level rotation with a wind profile conducive to HCRs oriented parallel to storm motion, such HCRs are found to often enhance the low-level mesocyclone circulation. When anvil shading is included, stabilization results in generally weaker low-level mesocyclone circulation, regardless of HCR orientation. Moreover, HCRs diminish in the near-storm environment such that the effects of HCRs on the supercell are mitigated. HCRs are also shown to be a necessary condition for the

  13. Vertical coupling of the stratocumulus boundary layer by penetrating cumulus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Lenschow, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX), small cumulus clouds that penetrate through the stratocumulus sheets were observed frequently. Radar observations show that the reflectivity cores in the penetrating cumuli are generally 1--2 km in diameter with a much larger enhanced patch of stratocumulus approximately 15--20 km across, whereas visual estimates of the diameter of the cumuli are generally in the neighborhood of several kilometers. In this study, the authors analyze measurements made on 10 June 1992 from the NCAR Electra aircraft. They are particularly interested in the role penetrating cumuli play in transporting moisture and other scalar between the sea surface and the top of the boundary layer, which is directly related to the important practical question of whether or not the penetrating cumuli tend to break up or dissipate the overlying stratocumulus cloud and aid the transition from a stratocumulus to a cumulus boundary layer. Large variations in temperature, specific humidity, and ozone are observed on both in-cloud legs. The differences between the maximum and minimum values of potential temperature, specific humidity, and ozone on these legs are around 1.1 deg, 1.4 g kg{sup {minus}1}, and 7 ppbv, respectively. To the authors` knowledge, such substantial horizontal variations of scalar variables have never been reported before in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers over the ocean. Close inspections of the time series indicate that the highest temperature and moisture and the lowest ozone concentration are found in the Cu region on both legs.

  14. Development of a laminar boundary layer behind a suction point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuest, Walter

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is made of the development of a laminar boundary layer behind a suction slot that is assumed to cut off part of the boundary layer without exerting any sink effect. The development, which is approximate, is based on the heat conduction equation. The heat conduction equation enters the analysis through a linearization of the Prandtl-Mises form of the boundary-layer equation.

  15. Computation of three-dimensional mixed convective boundary layer flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadepalli, Prashandt; Rahman, Muhammad M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the numerical solution of heat and mass transfer during cross-flow (orthogonal) mixed convection. In this class of flow, a buoyancy-driven transport in the vertical direction and a forced convective flow in the horizontal direction results in a three-dimensional boundary layer structure adjacent to the plate. The rates of heat and mass transfer are determined by a combined influence of the two transport processes. The equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and species concentration were solved along with appropriate boundary conditions to determine the distributions of velocity components, temperature, and concentration across the thickness of the boundary layer at different locations on the plate. Results were expressed in dimensionless form using Reynolds number, Richardson number for heat transfer, Richardson number for mass transfer, Prandtl number, and Schmidt number as parameters. It was found that the transport is dominated by buoyancy at smaller vertical locations and at larger distances away from the forced convection leading edge. Effects of forced convection appeared to be very strong at smaller horizontal distances from the leading edge. The cross stream forced convection enhanced the rate of heat and mass transfer by a very significant amount.

  16. Intercomparison of Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization and its Impacts on Surface Ozone Concentration in the WRF/Chem Model for a Case Study in Houston/Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuchiara, Gustavo C.; Li, Xiangshang; Carvalho, Jonas; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    With over 6 million inhabitants the Houston metropolitan area is the fourth-largest in the United States. Ozone concentration in this southeast Texas region frequently exceeds the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). For this reason our study employed the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) to quantify meteorological prediction differences produced by four widely used PBL schemes and analyzed its impact on ozone predictions. The model results were compared to observational data in order to identify one superior PBL scheme better suited for the area. The four PBL schemes include two first-order closure schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and the Asymmetric Convective Model version 2 (ACM2); as well as two turbulent kinetic energy closure schemes, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and Quasi-Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE). Four 24 h forecasts were performed, one for each PBL scheme. Simulated vertical profiles for temperature, potential temperature, relative humidity, water vapor mixing ratio, and the u-v components of the wind were compared to measurements collected during the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS-II) Radical and Aerosol Measurements Project (TRAMP) experiment in summer 2006. Simulated ozone was compared against TRAMP data, and air quality stations from Continuous Monitoring Station (CAMS). Also, the evolutions of the PBL height and vertical mixing properties within the PBL for the four simulations were explored. Although the results yielded high correlation coefficients and small biases in almost all meteorological variables, the overall results did not indicate any preferred PBL scheme for the Houston case. However, for ozone prediction the YSU scheme showed greatest agreements with observed values.

  17. Intercomparison of planetary boundary layer parameterization and its impacts on surface ozone concentration in the WRF/Chem model for a case study in Houston/Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuchiara, G. C.; Li, X.; Carvalho, J.; Rappenglück, B.

    2014-10-01

    With over 6 million inhabitants the Houston metropolitan area is the fourth-largest in the United States. Ozone concentration in this southeast Texas region frequently exceeds the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). For this reason our study employed the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) to quantify meteorological prediction differences produced by four widely used PBL schemes and analyzed its impact on ozone predictions. The model results were compared to observational data in order to identify one superior PBL scheme better suited for the area. The four PBL schemes include two first-order closure schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and the Asymmetric Convective Model version 2 (ACM2); as well as two turbulent kinetic energy closure schemes, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and Quasi-Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE). Four 24 h forecasts were performed, one for each PBL scheme. Simulated vertical profiles for temperature, potential temperature, relative humidity, water vapor mixing ratio, and the u-v components of the wind were compared to measurements collected during the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS-II) Radical and Aerosol Measurements Project (TRAMP) experiment in summer 2006. Simulated ozone was compared against TRAMP data, and air quality stations from Continuous Monitoring Station (CAMS). Also, the evolutions of the PBL height and vertical mixing properties within the PBL for the four simulations were explored. Although the results yielded high correlation coefficients and small biases in almost all meteorological variables, the overall results did not indicate any preferred PBL scheme for the Houston case. However, for ozone prediction the YSU scheme showed greatest agreements with observed values.

  18. Incorporation of the planetary boundary layer in atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Wyngaard, John; Pielke, Roger; Krueger, Steve

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: perspectives on planetary boundary layer (PBL) measurements; current problems of PBL parameterization in mesoscale models; and convective cloud-PBL interactions.

  19. Boundary layer problem on a hyperbolic system arising from chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qianqian; Wang, Zhi-An; Zhao, Kun

    2016-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the boundary layer problem for a hyperbolic system transformed via a Cole-Hopf type transformation from a repulsive chemotaxis model with logarithmic sensitivity proposed in [23,34] modeling the biological movement of reinforced random walkers which deposit a non-diffusible (or slowly moving) signal that modifies the local environment for succeeding passages. By prescribing the Dirichlet boundary conditions to the transformed hyperbolic system in an interval (0 , 1), we show that the system has the boundary layer solutions as the chemical diffusion coefficient ε → 0, and further use the formal asymptotic analysis to show that the boundary layer thickness is ε 1 / 2. Our work justifies the boundary layer phenomenon that was numerically found in the recent work [25]. However we find that the original chemotaxis system does not possess boundary layer solutions when the results are reverted to the pre-transformed system.

  20. Secondary instabilities in compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Lian; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Secondary instabilities are examined in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers M(sub infinity) = 0, 0.8, 1.6, and 4.5. It is found that there is a broad-band of highly unstable 3-d secondary disturbances whose growth rates increase with increasing primary wave amplitude. At M(sub infinity) is less than or equal to 1.6, fundamental resonance dominates at relatively high (2-d) primary disturbance amplitude, while subharmonic resonance is characterized by a low (2-d) primary amplitude. At M(sub infinity) = 4.5, the subharmonic instability which arises from the second mode disturbance is the strongest type of secondary instability. The influence of the inclination, theta, of the primary wave with respect to the mean flow direction on secondary instability is investigated at M(sub infinity) = 1.6 for small to moderate values of theta. It is found that the strongest fundamental instability occurs when the primary wave is inclined at 10 deg to the mean flow direction, although a 2-d primary mode yields the most amplified subharmonic. The subharmonic instability at a high value of theta (namely, theta = 45 deg) is also discussed. Finally, a subset of the secondary instability results are compared against direct numerical simulations.

  1. Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, William S.; Spencer, Shelly Anne

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-traveling sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2 lambda(sub TS)/pi of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations, and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modeling are observed.

  2. Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, William S. (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Shelly Anne

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-travelling, sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2(lambda)(sub TS)/pi, of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D-T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modelling are observed.

  3. Pattern Formation in Cathode Boundary Layer Microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbach, K. H.; Moselhy, M. M.

    2003-10-01

    Direct current glow discharges in xenon between a planar, 100 μm thick cathode and a ring shaped anode, separated by 250 μm, were found to be stable up to atmospheric pressure. Photographs in the visible and VUV (172 nm) range of the spectrum show the transition from a homogeneous to a structured plasma. The plasma patterns, regularly arranged filaments that are most pronounced at lower pressures (100 Torr), show discrete changes when the current is decreased by fractions of mA. This selforganization of the plasma requires the presence of a second stable branch in addition to the abnormal cathode fall in the voltage-current density characteristic of the "cathode boundary layer" (CBL) discharges. A model of the cathode fall by von Engel and Steenbeck [1], which was modified to take thermal conduction as a loss process into account, in addition to radiation, indicates the presence of stable plasma filaments at current densities in the range from 10 to 100 A/cm^2, before transition into an arc. [1] A. von Engel and M. Steenbeck, "Elektrische Gasentladungen, ihre Physik und Technik," Vol. 2, p. 121. Work supported by NSF (CTS-0078618 and INT-0001438).

  4. Excimer Emission from Cathode Boundary Layer Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moselhy, M. M.; Ansari, J.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2003-10-01

    The excimer emission from direct current glow discharges between a planar cathode and a ring shaped anode of 0.75 mm diameter, separated by only 250 μm, was studied in high-pressure xenon and argon. The thickness of the "cathode boundary layer" (CBL) plasma, approximately 150 μm, with a discharge sustaining voltage of approximately 200 V, indicates that the discharge is restricted to the cathode fall and the negative glow. For currents on the order of 1 mA, the discharge in xenon changes from an abnormal glow into a mode showing selforganization of the plasma. At this transition, maximum excimer emission (at 172 nm) with internal efficiencies of 3 to 5% is observed. The maximum radiant emittance is 4 W/cm^2 for atmospheric pressure operation. In the case of argon, selforganization of the plasma was not seen, however the emission of the excimer radiation (128 nm) again shows a maximum, in this case at the transition from abnormal to normal glow, with efficiencies of 2%. The maximum radiant emittance is 1.6 W/cm^2 for argon at 600 Torr. The positive slope of the current-voltage characteristics at maximum excimer emission indicates the possibility to generate large area flat excimer sources. Work supported by NSF (CTS-0078618 and INT-0001438).

  5. Green House Gases Flux Model in Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, Ildus

    Analytical dynamic model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the non-zero vorticity. The generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for an arbitrary number of components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers. Different types of transport mechanisms are dominant on the different levels of the layers.

  6. Fullerenes in the cretaceous-tertiary boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Heymann, D.; Chibante, L.P.F.; Smalley, R.E. ); Brooks, R.R. ); Wolbach, W.S. )

    1994-07-29

    High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis of toluene extracts of samples from two Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sites in New Zealand has revealed the presence of C[sub 60] at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 parts per million of the associated soot. This technique verified also that fullerenes are produced in similar amounts in the soots of common flames under ambient atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the C[sub 60] in the K-T boundary layer may have originated in the extensive wildfires that were associated with the cataclysmic impact event that terminated the Mezozoic era about 65 million years ago.

  7. Structural responses of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer to expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-cheng; Wang, Zhen-guo; Zhao, Yu-xin

    2016-09-01

    Structural responses of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer to the expansions induced by a convex wall and a ramp are experimentally investigated. Relaminarization of part of the turbulent boundary layer in the near wall region is clearly visualized, which has been seldom presented before. The relaminarized layers formed over two test models are different. While a thicker relaminarized layer is observed for the ramp, a longer lasting layer is noticed for the convex wall. The structure angle is found to be increased by the expansions. Increases of turbulence scale and boundary layer thickness are observed. The contribution of the bulk dilatation to the boundary layer growth is stronger than that of the centrifugal force.

  8. Symmetries in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberlack, M.

    1996-01-01

    The objective is the development of a new theory which enables the algorithmic computation of all self-similar mean velocity profiles. The theory is based on Liegroup analysis and unifies a large set of self-similar solutions for the mean velocity of stationary parallel turbulent shear flows. The results include the logarithmic law of the wall, an algebraic law, the viscous sublayer, the linear region in the middle of a Couette flow and in the middle of a rotating channel flow, and a new exponential mean velocity profile not previously reported. Experimental results taken in the outer parts of a high Reynolds number flat-plate boundary layer, strongly support the exponential profile. From experimental as well as from DNS data of a turbulent channel flow the algebraic scaling law could be confirmed in both the center region and in the near wall region. In the case of the logarithmic law of the wall, the scaling with the wall distance arises as a result of the analysis and has not been assumed in the derivation. The crucial part of the derivation of all the different mean velocity profiles is to consider the invariance of the equation for the velocity fluctuations at the same time as the invariance of the equation for the velocity product equations. The latter is the dyad product of the velocity fluctuations with the equation for the velocity fluctuations. It has been proven that all the invariant solutions are also consistent with similarity of all velocity moment equations up to any arbitrary order.

  9. Boundary Layer Control of Rotating Convection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, E. M.; Stellmach, S.; Noir, J.; Hansen, U.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Rotating convection is ubiquitous in the natural universe, and is likely responsible for planetary processes such magnetic field generation. Rapidly rotating convection is typically organized by the Coriolis force into tall, thin, coherent convection columns which are aligned with the axis of rotation. This organizational effect of rotation is thought to be responsible for the strength and structure of magnetic fields generated by convecting planetary interiors. As thermal forcing is increased, the relative influence of rotation weakens, and fully three-dimensional convection can exist. It has long been assumed that rotational effects will dominate convection dynamics when the ratio of buoyancy to the Coriolis force, the convective Rossby number, Roc, is less than unity. We investigate the influence of rotation on turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection via a suite of coupled laboratory and numerical experiments over a broad parameter range: Rayleigh number, 10310; Ekman number, 10-6≤ E ≤ ∞; and Prandtl number, 1≤ Pr ≤ 100. In particular, we measure heat transfer (as characterized by the Nusselt number, Nu) as a function of the Rayleigh number for several different Ekman and Prandtl numbers. Two distinct heat transfer scaling regimes are identified: non-rotating style heat transfer, Nu ~ Ra2/7, and quasigeostrophic style heat transfer, Nu~ Ra6/5. The transition between the non-rotating regime and the rotationally dominant regime is described as a function of the Ekman number, E. We show that the regime transition depends not on the global force balance Roc, but on the relative thicknesses of the thermal and Ekman boundary layers. The transition scaling provides a predictive criterion for the applicability of convection models to natural systems such as Earth's core.

  10. Excimer emission from cathode boundary layer discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moselhy, Mohamed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2004-02-01

    The excimer emission from direct current glow discharges between a planar cathode and a ring-shaped anode of 0.75 and 1.5 mm diameter, respectively, separated by a gap of 250 μm, was studied in xenon and argon in a pressure range from 75 to 760 Torr. The thickness of the "cathode boundary layer" plasma, in the 100 μm range, and a discharge sustaining voltage of approximately 200 V, indicates that the discharge is restricted to the cathode fall and the negative glow. The radiant excimer emittance at 172 nm increases with pressure and reaches a value of 4 W/cm2 for atmospheric pressure operation in xenon. The maximum internal efficiency, however, decreases with pressure having highest values of 5% for 75 Torr operation. When the discharge current is reduced below a critical value, the discharge in xenon changes from an abnormal glow into a mode showing self-organization of the plasma. Also, the excimer spectrum changes from one with about equal contributions from the first and second continuum to one that is dominated by the second continuum emission. The xenon excimer emission intensity peaks at this discharge mode transition. In the case of argon, self-organization of the plasma was not seen, but the emission of the excimer radiation (128 nm) again shows a maximum at the transition from abnormal to normal glow. As was observed with xenon, the radiant emittance of argon increases with pressure, and the efficiency decreases. The maximum radiant emittance is 1.6 W/cm2 for argon at 600 Torr. The maximum internal efficiency is 2.5% at 200 Torr. The positive slope of the current-voltage characteristics at maximum excimer emission in both cases indicates the possibility of generating intense, large area, flat excimer lamps.

  11. Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet boundary layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned Currents (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet boundary layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet boundary layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet boundary layer should include the ring current as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.

  12. Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P.

    1993-08-01

    Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.

  13. A top specified boundary layer (TSBL) approximation approach for the simulation of groundwater contamination processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents improvements in the 'classical boundary layer' (CBL) approximation method to obtain simple but robust initial characterization of aquifer contamination processes. Contaminants are considered to penetrate into the groundwater through the free surface of the aquifer. The improved method developed in this study is termed the 'top specified boundary layer' (TSBL) approach. It involves the specification of the contaminant concentration at the top of the contaminated 'region of interest' (ROI), which is simulated as a boundary layer. the TSBL modification significantly improves the ability of the boundary layer method to predict the development of concentration profiles over both space and time. The TSBL method can be useful for the simulation of cases in which the contaminant concentration is prescribed at the aquifer's free surface as well as for cases in which the contaminant mass flux is prescribed at the surface.

  14. Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer.

    PubMed

    Kennett, D J; Kennett, J P; West, A; Mercer, C; Hee, S S Que; Bement, L; Bunch, T E; Sellers, M; Wolbach, W S

    2009-01-01

    We report abundant nanodiamonds in sediments dating to 12.9 +/- 0.1 thousand calendar years before the present at multiple locations across North America. Selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal two diamond allotropes in this boundary layer but not above or below that interval. Cubic diamonds form under high temperature-pressure regimes, and n-diamonds also require extraordinary conditions, well outside the range of Earth's typical surficial processes but common to cosmic impacts. N-diamond concentrations range from approximately 10 to 3700 parts per billion by weight, comparable to amounts found in known impact layers. These diamonds provide strong evidence for Earth's collision with a rare swarm of carbonaceous chondrites or comets at the onset of the Younger Dryas cool interval, producing multiple airbursts and possible surface impacts, with severe repercussions for plants, animals, and humans in North America.

  15. Boundary Layer Rolls Observed Above and Below a Jet in a Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, R. C.; Emmitt, G. D.; Godwin, K.; Greco, S.

    2013-12-01

    We have flown a coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) on the Cirpas Twin Otter off the California coast near Monterey since 2003. One scientific purpose of these flights is to understand the relationship between the turbulent fluxes measured on the aircraft or on other platforms and the observed structure of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two common features are found in the MBL flow: (1) a strong jet at approximately 200 m above the sea surface; and (2) organized large eddies (OLE) in the form of roll vortices that are approximately aligned along the mean wind direction. On two flights (April 13, 2007 and September 30, 2012), the DWL data indicated that roll OLE existed simultaneously both above and below the jet. The DWL winds suggest that the OLE in these layers are sometimes independent and sometimes connected. Standard flux data are obtained on the Twin Otter at flight level, which is nominally 300 m. The 10 Hz wind and temperature data exhibit variability at spatial scales corresponding to the OLE wavelength. We have constructed a nonlinear theoretical model that includes triad wave-wave interactions to test the hypothesis that rolls could form both above and below the jet. This model shows that this is possible and that the rolls in the two layers could have unique characteristics compared to standard boundary layer rolls. The model further shows that the rolls above and below the jet are due to separate instabilities that interact. This is consistent with the observations of both connected and independent OLE above and below the jet. Contrast-enhanced DWL line-of-sight winds. Jet maximum 200 m below aircraft. Typical resonant triad solution for rolls above and below a PBL jet.

  16. On Reflection of Shock Waves from Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liepmann, H W; Roshko, A; Dhawan, S

    1952-01-01

    Measurements are presented at Mach numbers from about 1.3 to 1.5 of reflection characteristics and the relative upstream influence of shock waves impinging on a flat surface with both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The difference between impulse and step waves is discussed and their interaction with the boundary layer is compared. General considerations on the experimental production of shock waves from wedges and cones and examples of reflection of shock waves from supersonic shear layers are also presented.

  17. A Lagrangian Study of Southeast Pacific Boundary Layer Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Gallia

    concentration which extend far offshore into regions of normally very clean cloud. We use Lagrangian trajectories to investigate the source of the high droplet concentrations of the mesoscale "hooks", and evaluate whether boundary layer transport of coastal pollutants alone can account for their extent. We find that boundary layer trajectories past 85 W do not pass sufficiently close to the coastline to explain high aerosol concentrations offshore.

  18. Spherical bubble motion in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, Keith; Loth, Eric

    2001-09-01

    Monodisperse dilute suspensions of spherical air bubbles in a tap-water turbulent vertical boundary layer were experimentally studied to note their motion and distribution. Bubbles with diameters of 0.37-1.2 mm were injected at various transverse wall-positions for free-stream velocities between 0.4 and 0.9 m/s. The bubbles were released from a single injector at very low frequencies such that two-way coupling and bubble-bubble interaction were negligible. The experimental diagnostics included ensemble-averaged planar laser intensity profiles for bubble concentration distribution, as well as Cinematic Particle Image Velocimetry with bubble tracking for bubble hydrodynamic forces. A variety of void distributions within the boundary layer were found. For example, there was a tendency for bubbles to collect along the wall for higher Stokes number conditions, while the lower Stokes number conditions produced Gaussian-type profiles throughout the boundary layer. In addition, three types of bubble trajectories were observed—sliding bubbles, bouncing bubbles, and free-dispersion bubbles. Instantaneous liquid forces acting on individual bubbles in the turbulent flow were also obtained to provide the drag and lift coefficients (with notable experimental uncertainty). These results indicate that drag coefficient decreases with increasing Reynolds number as is conventionally expected but variations were observed. In general, the instantaneous drag coefficient (for constant bubble Reynolds number) tended to be reduced as the turbulence intensity increased. The averaged lift coefficient is higher than that given by inviscid theory (and sometimes even that of creeping flow theory) and tends to decrease with increasing bubble Reynolds number.

  19. On the theory of laminar boundary layers involving separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH; Millikan, C

    1934-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical discussion of the laminar boundary layer, which was developed with a view of facilitating the investigation of those boundary layers in particular for which the phenomenon of separation occurs. The treatment starts with a slight modification of the form of the boundary layer equation first published by Von Mises. Two approximate solutions of this equation are found, one of which is exact at the outer edge of the boundary layer while the other is exact at the wall. The final solution is obtained by joining these two solutions at the inflection points of the velocity profiles. The final solution is given in terms of a series of universal functions for a fairly broad class of potential velocity distributions outside of the boundary layer. Detailed calculations of the boundary layer characteristics are worked out for the case in which the potential velocity is a linear function of the distance from the upstream stagnation point. Finally, the complete separation point characteristics are determined for the boundary layer associated with a potential velocity distribution made up of two linear functions of the distance from the stagnation point. It appears that extensions of the detailed calculations to more complex potential flows can be fairly easily carried out by using the explicit formulae given in the paper. (author)

  20. Boundary Layer Ventilation Processes During a High Pressure Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, S. L.; Dacre, H. F.; Belcher, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer is weak during high pressure events. But is this always true? Here we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a high pressure event that occured on the 9 May 2005 using the UK Met Office Unifed Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include a sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing across the top of the boundary layer followed by large-scale ascent, and shallow convection. Vertical distributions of tracer are validated with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree impressively well. Budget calculations of tracers are performed in order to determine the relative importance of these ventilation processes. The sea breeze circulation was found to ventilate 26% of the boundary layer tracer by sunset of which 2% was above 2km. A combination of the sea breeze circulation and turbulent mixing ventilated 46% of the boundary layer tracer, of which 10% was above 2km. Finally, the sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing and shallow convection processes together ventilated 52% of the tracer into the free troposphere, of which 26% was above 2km. Hence this study shows that signicant ventilation of the boundary layer can occur during high pressure events; turbulent mixing and convection processes can double the amount of pollution ventilated from the boundary layer.

  1. Crosshatch roughness distortions on a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, S. J.; Humble, R. A.; Bowersox, R. D. W.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of periodic crosshatch roughness (k+ = 160) on a Mach 4.9 turbulent boundary layer (Reθ = 63 000) are examined using particle image velocimetry. The roughness elements generate a series of alternating shock and expansion waves, which span the entire boundary layer, causing significant (up to +50% and -30%) variations in the Reynolds shear stress field. Evidence of the hairpin vortex organization of incompressible flows is found in the comparative smooth-wall boundary layer case (Reθ = 47 000), and can be used to explain several observations regarding the rough-wall vortex organization. In general, the rough-wall boundary layer near-wall vortices no longer appear to be well-organized into streamwise-aligned packets that straddle relatively low-speed regions like their smooth-wall counterpart; instead, they lean farther away from the wall, become more spatially compact, and their populations become altered. In the lower half of the boundary layer, the net vortex swirling strength and outer-scaled Reynolds stresses increase relative to the smooth-wall case, and actually decrease in the outer half of the boundary layer, as ejection and entrainment processes are strengthened and weakened in these two regions, respectively. A spectral analysis of the data suggests a relative homogenizing of the most energetic scales near Λ = ˜ 0.5δ across the rough-wall boundary layer.

  2. Prediction of 3-D boundary layer in the curved inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zongwen; Wang, Jianmin

    1992-06-01

    A prediction method for 3D compressible turbulent boundary layers in curved inlets is investigated. 3D boundary layer integral equations in nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system are used and solved by lag-entrainment method with an introduced 3D entrainment coefficient equation. During numerical calculation, the prediction corrector method is employed. With the cubic spline function, the interpolation and differentiation accuracy and smoothness of discrete data is ensured. The developed program may be operated on a personal computer. The influence of cross flow on boundary layer development is clearly shown by the calculated results. The calculated pressure recovery of the inlet is in good agreement with experiment data.

  3. Formation of pre-sheath boundary layers in electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    In electronegative plasmas Coulomb scattering between positive and negative ions can lead to the formation of a pre-sheath boundary layer containing the bulk of the negative ions. The negative ion boundary layer forms when momentum transfer from positive to negative ions dominates the negative ion acceleration from the electric field. This condition is met in Inductively Coupled Plasma reactors that operate at low pressure and high plasma density. Simulations of the GEC reactor for Chlorine and Oxygen chemistries using the INDUCT95 2D model are presented showing the pre-sheath boundary layer structure as a function of applied power and neutral pressure.

  4. Blow-up and control of marginally separated boundary layers.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stefan; Kluwick, Alfred

    2005-05-15

    Interactive solutions for steady two-dimensional laminar marginally separated boundary layers are known to exist up to a critical value Gamma(c) of the controlling parameter (e.g. the angle of attack of a slender airfoil) Gamma only. Here, we investigate three-dimensional unsteady perturbations of such boundary layers, assuming that the basic flow is almost critical, i.e. in the limit Gamma(c)-Gamma-->0. It is then shown that the interactive equations governing such perturbations simplify significantly, allowing, among others, a systematic study of the blow-up phenomenon observed in earlier investigations and the optimization of devices used in boundary-layer control.

  5. The Effects of Rotation on Boundary Layers in Turbomachine Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The boundary layers in turbomachine rotors are subject to Coriolis forces which can (1) contribute directly to the development of secondary flows and (2) indirectly influence the behavior of boundary layers by augmentation and/or suppression of turbulence production in the boundary layers on blades. Both these rotation-induced phenomena are particularly important in the development of understanding of flow and loss mechanisms in centrifugal and mixed flow machines. The primary objective of this paper is to review the information available on these effects.

  6. Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.

  7. Further Improvements to Nozzle Boundary Layer Calculations in BLIMPJ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Gross, Klaus W.

    1989-01-01

    Further improvements made to advance the current Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure - Version J (BLIMPJ) containing previously modeled simplified calculation methods by accounting for condensed phase, thick boundary layer and free stream turbulence effects are discussed. The condensed phase effects were included through species composition effect considered via input to the code and through particle damping effect considered via a turbulence model. The thrust loss calculation procedure for thick boundary layer effects was improved and the optimization of net thrust with respect to nozzle length was performed. The effects of free stream turbulence were approximately modeled in the turbulence model.

  8. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H.

    1996-04-01

    Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

  9. Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, S.E.; Asper, V.L.

    1997-09-01

    The authors objective was to characterize distributions of chloropigment fluorescence in relation to physical processes in the benthic boundary layer in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Ocean Margins Program`s (OMP) goal of quantifying carbon transport across the continental shelf. Their approach involved participation in the Ocean Margins Program (OMP) field experiment on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras by conducting multi-sensor fluorescence measurements of photosynthetic pigments. Specific tasks included (1) pre- and post-deployment calibration of multiple fluorescence sensors in conjunction with Woods Hole personnel; (2) collection and analysis of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and total particulate carbon in water column samples to aid in interpretation of the fluorescence time-series during the field experiment; (3) collaboration in the analysis and interpretation of 1994 and 1996 time-series data in support of efforts to quantify pigment and particulate organic carbon transport on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras. This third component included analysis of data obtained with a multi-sensor fiber-optic fluorometer in the benthic boundary layer of the inner shelf off Cape Hatteras during summer 1994.

  10. Boundary Layer Ventilation by Convection and Coastal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacre, H.

    2008-12-01

    Several observational studies measuring aerosol in the atmosphere have found multiple aerosol layers located above the marine boundary layer. It is hypothesized that the existence of these layers is influenced by the diurnal variation in the structure of the upwind continental boundary layer. Furthermore, collision between a sea breeze and the prevailing wind can result in enhanced convection at the coast which can also lead to elevated layers of pollution. In this study we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer near the coast using the UK Met Office Unified Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include shallow convection, a sea breeze circulation and coastal outflow. Vertical distributions of tracer at the coast are validated qualitatively with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree well.

  11. The biogeochemical sulfur cycle in the marine boundary layer over the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The major components of the marine boundary layer biogeochemical sulfur cycle were measured simultaneously onshore and off the coast of Washington State, U.S.A. during May 1987. Seawater dimethysulfide (DMS) concentrations on the continental shelf were strongly influenced by coastal upwelling. Concentration further offshore were typical of summer values (2.2 nmol/l) at this latitude. Although seawater DMS concentrations were high on the biologically productive continental shelf (2-12 nmol/l), this region had no measurable effect on atmospheric DMS concentrations. Atmospheric DMS concentrations (0.1-12 nmol/l), however, were extremely dependent upon wind speed and boundary layer height. Although there appeared to be an appreciable input of nonsea-salt sulfate to the marine boundary layer from the free troposphere, the local flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere was sufficient to balance the remainder of the sulfur budget.

  12. Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in LES

    SciTech Connect

    Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J

    2004-06-15

    Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer.

  13. Observations of the magnetopause current layer: Cases with no boundary layer and tests of recent models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence for the probable existence of magnetospheric boundary layers was first presented by Hones, et al. (1972), based on VELA satellite plasma observations (no magnetic field measurements were obtained). This magnetotail boundary layer is now known to be the tailward extension of the high-latitude boundary layer or plasma mantle (first uniquely identified using HEOS 2 plasma and field observations by Rosenbauer et al., 1975) and the low-latitude boundary layer (first uniquely identified using IMP 6 plasma and field observations by Eastman et al., 1976). The magnetospheric boundary layer is the region of magnetosheath-like plasma located Earthward of, but generally contiguous with the magnetopause. This boundary layer is typically identified by comparing low-energy (less than 10 keV) ion spectra across the magnetopause. Low-energy electron measurements are also useful for identifying the boundary layer because the shocked solar wind or magnetosheath has a characteristic spectral signature for electrons as well. However, there are magnetopause crossings where low-energy electrons might suggest a depletion layer outside the magnetopause even though the traditional field-rotation signature indicates that this same region is a boundary layer Earthward of the current layer. Our analyses avoided crossings which exhibit such ambiguities. Pristine magnetopause crossings are magnetopause crossings for which the current layer is well defined and for which there is no adjoining magnetospheric boundary layer as defined above. Although most magnetopause models to date apply to such crossings, few comparisons between such theory and observations of pristine magnetopause crossings have been made because most crossings have an associated magnetospheric boundary layer which significantly affects the applicable boundary conditions for the magnetopause current layer. Furthermore, almost no observational studies of magnetopause microstructure have been done even though key

  14. Toward evaluation of heat fluxes in the convective boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbjan, Z.

    1995-05-01

    This article demonstrates that vertical profiles of the heat flux in the convective boundary layer can be diagnosed through an integration over height of the time change rates of observed potential temperature profiles. Moreover, the basic characteristics of the convective boundary layer, such as the mixed-layer height z{sub t}, the depth of the interfacial (entrainment) layer, and the heat flux zero-crossing height h{sub 0} can be uniquely evaluated based on a time evolution of potential temperature profiles in the lower atmosphere. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Further studies of unsteady boundary layers with flow reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    One set of calculations was performed using the first order, time dependent turbulent boundary layer equations, and extended earlier work by Nash and Patel to a wider range of flows. Another set of calculations was performed for laminar flow using the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The results of the calculations confirm previous conclusions concerning the existence of a regime of unseparated flow, containing an embedded region of reversal, which is accessible to first order boundary layer theory. However, certain doubts are cast on the precise nature of the events which accompany the eventual breakdown of the theory due to singularity onset. The earlier view that the singularity appears as the final event in a sequence involving rapid thickening of the boundary layer and the formation of a localized region of steep gradients is called into question by the present results. It appears that singularity onset is not necessarily preceded by rapid boundary layer thickening, or even necessarily produces immediate thickening.

  16. Experimental measurements of unsteady turbulent boundary layers near separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations conducted to document the behavior of turbulent boundary layers on flat surfaces that separate due to adverse pressure gradients are reported. Laser and hot wire anemometers measured turbulence and flow structure of a steady free stream separating turbulent boundary layer produced on the flow of a wind tunnel section. The effects of sinusoidal and unsteadiness of the free stream velocity on this separating turbulent boundary layer at a reduced frequency were determined. A friction gage and a thermal tuft were developed and used to measure the surface skin friction and the near wall fraction of time the flow moves downstream for several cases. Abstracts are provided of several articles which discuss the effects of the periodic free stream unsteadiness on the structure or separating turbulent boundary layers.

  17. The current structure of stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow

    SciTech Connect

    Myrhaug, D.; Slaattelid, O.H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents the bottom shear stress and velocity profiles in stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow by using similarity theory. For a given seabed roughness length, free stream current velocity components, frequency of tidal oscillation, Coriolis parameter and stratification parameter the maximum bottom shear stress is determined for flow conditions in the rough, smooth and transitional smooth-to-rough turbulent regime. Further, the direction of the bottom shear stress and the velocity profiles are given. Comparison is made with data from field measurements of time-independent as well as tidal planetary boundary layer flow for neutral conditions, and the agreement between the predictions and the data is generally good. Further, an example of application for stable stratification is given, and qualitatively the predictions show, as expected, that the bottom shear stress and the thickness of the boundary layer become smaller for stable than for neutral stratification. Other features of the tidal planetary boundary layer flow are also discussed.

  18. Control and Identification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, Avi; Pack-Melton, La Tunia

    2004-01-01

    Effective delay of turbulent boundary layer separation could be achieved via closed-loop control. Constructing such a system requires that sensor data be processed, real-time, and fed into the controller to determine the output. Current methods for detection of turbulent boundary layer separation are lacking the capability of localized, fast and reliable identification of the boundary layer state. A method is proposed for short-time FFT processing of time series, measured by hot-film sensors, with the purpose of identifying the alternation of the balance between small and large scales as the boundary layer separates, favoring the large scales. The method has been validated by comparison to other criteria of separation detection and over a range of baseline and controlled flow conditions on a simplified high-lift system, incorporating active flow control.

  19. Interacting turbulent boundary layer over a wavy wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    The two dimensional supersonic flow of a thick turbulent boundary layer over a train of relatively small wave-like protuberances is considered. The flow conditions and the geometry are such that there exists a strong interaction between the viscous and inviscid flow. The problem cannot be solved without inclusion of interaction effects due to the occurrence of the separation singularity in classical boundary layer methods. The interacting boundary layer equations are solved numerically using a time-like relaxation method with turbulence effects represented by the inclusion of the eddy viscosity model. Results are presented for flow over a train of up to six waves for Mach numbers of 10 and 32 million/meter, and wall temperature rations (T sub w/T sub 0) of 0.4 and 0.8. Limited comparisons with independent experimental and analytical results are also given. Detailed results on the influence of small protuberances on surface heating by boundary layers are presented.

  20. Stress Boundary layer Development in Planar flow of Viscoelastic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Nariman; Mohamadali, Meysam

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional steady planar creeping flow of the nonlinear viscoelastic Upper Convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid along a flat plate is analyzed for high Weissenberg numbers, Wi. The viscoelastic boundary layer, formed in a thin region closer to the wall in which the relaxation terms are recovered. By means of similarity transformations the non-linear momentum and constitutive equations in each layer transform into a system of highly nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The proper similarity variable is found that asymptotically matches each two adjacent layers. The numerical simulation shows that at the outer layer, the velocity profile changes linearly with the similarity variable meaning that no velocity boundary layer is developed. In general, the boundary layer is formed in all three stress components in different fashions. The stress boundary layer divides the flow into two separate regions of viscoelastic and elastic flows, in addition to the top outer flow. The viscoelastic region is completely bounded in two directions (x and y) for horizontal normal stress, Txx, and shear stress, Txy. Finally it is observed that the stress boundary layer for vertical stress, Tyy, is formed only in x direction.

  1. Classification of structures in the stable boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusic, Danijel

    2015-04-01

    Ubiquitous but generally unknown flow structures populate the stable boundary layer at scales larger than turbulence. They introduce nonstationarity, affect the generation of turbulence and induce fluxes. Classification of the structures into clusters based on a similarity measure could reduce their apparent complexity and lead to better understanding of their characteristics and mechanisms. Here we explore different approaches to detect and classify structures, the usefulness of those approaches, and their potential to provide better understanding of the stable boundary layer.

  2. Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last ice age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Alan K.; Ridgway, W.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative-convective boundary layer model is used to assess the effect of changing sea surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, and the energy export from the tropics on the boundary layer equilibrium equivalent potential temperature. It remains difficult to reconcile the observations that during the last glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP) the snowline on the tropical mountains fell 950 m, while the tropical sea surface temperatures fell only 1-2 K.

  3. Approximation theory for boundary layer suction through individual slits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walz, A.

    1979-01-01

    The basic concepts of influencing boundary layers are summarized, especially the prevention of flow detachment and the reduction of frictional resistance. A mathematical analysis of suction through a slit is presented with two parameters, for thickness and for shape of the boundary layer, being introduced to specify the flow's velocity profile behind the slit. An approximation of the shape parameter produces a useful formula, which can be used to determine the most favorable position of the slit. An aerodynamic example is given.

  4. Wake Dynamics in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey D.

    The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer processes over heterogeneous landscapes and complex terrain. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is a relatively thin (˜ 1 km) turbulent layer of air near the earth's surface, in which most human activities and engineered systems are concentrated. Its dynamics are crucially important for biosphere-atmosphere couplings and for global atmospheric dynamics, with significant implications on our ability to predict and mitigate adverse impacts of land use and climate change. In models of the ABL, land surface heterogeneity is typically represented, in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, as changes in aerodynamic roughness length and surface heat and moisture fluxes. However, many real landscapes are more complex, often leading to massive boundary layer separation and wake turbulence, for which standard models fail. Trees, building clusters, and steep topography produce extensive wake regions currently not accounted for in models of the ABL. Wind turbines and wind farms also generate wakes that combine in complex ways to modify the ABL. Wind farms are covering an increasingly significant area of the globe and the effects of large wind farms must be included in regional and global scale models. Research presented in this thesis demonstrates that wakes caused by landscape heterogeneity must be included in flux parameterizations for momentum, heat, and mass (water vapor and trace gases, e.g. CO2 and CH4) in ABL simulation and prediction models in order to accurately represent land-atmosphere interactions. Accurate representation of these processes is crucial for the predictions of weather, air quality, lake processes, and ecosystems response to climate change. Objectives of the research reported in this thesis are: 1) to investigate turbulent boundary layer adjustment, turbulent transport and scalar flux in wind farms of varying configurations and develop an improved

  5. Structure and Growth of the Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccumber, M.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT visible imagery and a one-dimensional Lagrangian boundary layer model were used to hypothesize the nature and the development of the marine boundary layer during a winter episode of strong seaward cold air advection. Over-water heating and moistening of the cold, dry continental air is estimable from linear relations involving horizontal gradients of the near-surface air temperature and humidity. A line of enhanced convection paralleling the Atlantic U.S. coast from south of New York Bay to the vicinity of Virginia Beach, VA was attributed to stronger convergence at low levels. This feature was characterized as a mesoscale front. With the assistance of a three-dimensional mesoscale boundary layer model, initialized with data obtained from the MASEX, the marine boundary layer can be mapped over the entire Atlantic coastal domain and the evolution of the boundary layer can be studied as a function of different characteristics of important surface level forcings. The effects on boundary layer growth due to the magnitude and pattern of sea surface temperature, to the shape of the coastline, and to atmospheric conditions, such as the orientation of the prevailing wind are examined.

  6. Large eddy simulation of boundary layer flow under cnoidal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yin-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Bo; Zhou, Ji-Fu; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Water waves in coastal areas are generally nonlinear, exhibiting asymmetric velocity profiles with different amplitudes of crest and trough. The behaviors of the boundary layer under asymmetric waves are of great significance for sediment transport in natural circumstances. While previous studies have mainly focused on linear or symmetric waves, asymmetric wave-induced flows remain unclear, particularly in the flow regime with high Reynolds numbers. Taking cnoidal wave as a typical example of asymmetric waves, we propose to use an infinite immersed plate oscillating cnoidally in its own plane in quiescent water to simulate asymmetric wave boundary layer. A large eddy simulation approach with Smagorinsky subgrid model is adopted to investigate the flow characteristics of the boundary layer. It is verified that the model well reproduces experimental and theoretical results. Then a series of numerical experiments are carried out to study the boundary layer beneath cnoidal waves from laminar to fully developed turbulent regimes at high Reynolds numbers, larger than ever studied before. Results of velocity profile, wall shear stress, friction coefficient, phase lead between velocity and wall shear stress, and the boundary layer thickness are obtained. The dependencies of these boundary layer properties on the asymmetric degree and Reynolds number are discussed in detail.

  7. Effects of external disturbances on turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Eda; Hanson, Ronald; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2014-11-01

    The state of a turbulent boundary layer that develops under the influence of different types of freestream turbulence is examined. The freestream turbulence conditions with different length-scale and turbulence intensity are generated using active and passive grids. Downstream of the grid, a flat plate is placed to establish a zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. The interaction between the freestream and the turbulent boundary layer is investigated using simultaneous measurements of the boundary layer and freestream using single component hot-wire anemometry and multi-camera Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Results from the hot-wire measurements of different cases show that the near-wall peak turbulence intensity increases with increasing levels of free stream turbulence indicating the level and extent of penetration by free stream turbulence into the boundary layer. It is also observed that for different level of freestream perturbations to the flow, the momentum loss in the turbulent boundary layer could be similar. The data from these cases will be investigated further using spectral analysis to examine the energetic scales of the flow. The PIV data will be analysed to elucidate the coherent structures associated with these interactions.

  8. Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabard, Gwénaël

    2016-10-01

    The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.

  9. Small particle transport across turbulent nonisothermal boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction between turbulent diffusion, Brownian diffusion, and particle thermophoresis in the limit of vanishing particle inertial effects is quantitatively modeled for applications in gas turbines. The model is initiated with consideration of the particle phase mass conservation equation for a two-dimensional boundary layer, including the thermophoretic flux term directed toward the cold wall. A formalism of a turbulent flow near a flat plate in a heat transfer problem is adopted, and variable property effects are neglected. Attention is given to the limit of very large Schmidt numbers and the particle concentration depletion outside of the Brownian sublayer. It is concluded that, in the parameter range of interest, thermophoresis augments the high Schmidt number mass-transfer coefficient by a factor equal to the product of the outer sink and the thermophoretic suction.

  10. Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendin, Gali; Toledo, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Wavy Surface Gali Hendin(1), Yaron Toledo(1) January 13, 2016 (1)School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Israel Understanding the boundary layer flow over surface gravity waves is of great importance as various atmosphere-ocean processes are essentially coupled through these waves. Nevertheless, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of this complex flow behaviour. The present work investigates the fundamentals of the boundary layer air flow over progressive, small-amplitude waves. It aims to extend the well-known Blasius solution for a boundary layer over a flat plate to one over a moving wavy surface. The current analysis pro- claims the importance of the small curvature and the time-dependency as second order effects, with a meaningful impact on the similarity pattern in the first order. The air flow over the ocean surface is modelled using an outer, inviscid half-infinite flow, overlaying the viscous boundary layer above the wavy surface. The assumption of a uniform flow in the outer layer, used in former studies, is now replaced with a precise analytical solution of the potential flow over a moving wavy surface with a known celerity, wavelength and amplitude. This results in a conceptual change from former models as it shows that the pressure variations within the boundary layer cannot be neglected. In the boundary layer, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are formulated in a curvilinear, orthogonal coordinate system. The formulation is done in an elaborate way that presents additional, formerly neglected first-order effects, resulting from the time-varying coordinate system. The suggested time-dependent curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system introduces a platform that can also support the formulation of turbulent problems for any surface shape. In order to produce a self-similar Blasius-type solution, a small wave-steepness is assumed and a perturbation method is applied. Consequently, a

  11. Observations of the Arctic boundary layer clouds during ACSE 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtert, P.; Sotiropoulou, G.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.; Persson, O. P. G.; Prytherch, J.; Salisbury, D.; Sedlar, J.; Tjernstrom, M. K. H.; Wolfe, D. E.; Shupe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary-layer structure and dynamics are intimately linked with both surface exchange processes and the properties of boundary-layer clouds, which in turn exert a strong control on the surface energy budget. Sea ice melt and formation are thus closely coupled with boundary layer clouds and turbulent exchange. Coordinated observations of boundary layer processes and cloud dynamics are sparse in over the Arctic Ocean. This holds especially for observations that extend over the entire ice melt season. Measurements with surface-based remote-sensing instruments and near-surface meteorological sensors as well as through radiosoundings were perfomed during the 3-month Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) in the East Siberian Arctic Ocean during the summer and early autumn of 2014. We will present a detailed view of cloud and fog properties in connection with boundary layer structure (e.g. inversions, stratification), vertical mixing processes, and the effect of a variety of surface conditions from open water, through marginal ice to dense pack ice on the overlaying cloud layers over. Most of the observed clouds showed a base height of 300 m or less. Strongly stable near-surface conditions with fog were often observed during the beginning of the cruise (summer season), whereas deeper surface-based mixed layers capped by mixed-phase clouds occured more frequently in autumn.

  12. High-order Finite Element Analysis of Boundary Layer Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Alvin; Sahni, Onkar

    2014-11-01

    Numerical analysis of boundary layer flows requires careful approximations, specifically the use of a mesh with layered and graded elements near the (viscous) walls. This is referred to as a boundary layer mesh, which for complex geometries is composed of triangular elements on the walls that are inflated or extruded into the volume along the wall-normal direction up to a desired height while the rest of the domain is filled with unstructured tetrahedral elements. Linear elements with C0 inter-element continuity are employed and in some situations higher order C0 elements are also used. However, these elements only enforce continuity whereas high-order smoothness is not attained as will be the case with C1 inter-element continuity and higher. As a result, C0 elements result in a poor approximation of the high-order boundary layer behavior. To achieve greater inter-element continuity in boundary layer region, we employ B-spline basis functions along the wall-normal direction (i.e., only in the layered portion of the mesh). In the rest of the fully unstructured mesh, linear or higher order C0 elements are used as appropriate. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of finite-element analysis based on such higher order and continuity basis functions for boundary layer flows.

  13. Application of a Reynolds stress model to separating boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Sung HO

    1993-01-01

    Separating turbulent boundary layers occur in many practical engineering applications. Nonetheless, the physics of separation/reattachment of flows is poorly understood. During the past decade, various turbulence models were proposed and their ability to successfully predict some types of flows was shown. However. prediction of separating/reattaching flows is still a formidable task for model developers. The present study is concerned with the process of separation from a smooth surface. Features of turbulent separating boundary layers that are relevant to modeling include the following: the occurrence of zero wall shear stress, which causes breakdown of the boundary layer approximation; the law of the wall not being satisfied in the mean back flow region; high turbulence levels in the separated region; a significant low-frequency motion in the separation bubble; and the turbulence structure of the separated shear layer being quite different from that of either the mixing layers or the boundary layers. These special characteristics of separating boundary layers make it difficult for simple turbulence models to correctly predict their behavior.

  14. Analysis and Modeling of Boundary Layer Separation Method (BLSM).

    PubMed

    Pethő, Dóra; Horváth, Géza; Liszi, János; Tóth, Imre; Paor, Dávid

    2010-09-01

    Nowadays rules of environmental protection strictly regulate pollution material emission into environment. To keep the environmental protection laws recycling is one of the useful methods of waste material treatment. We have developed a new method for the treatment of industrial waste water and named it boundary layer separation method (BLSM). We apply the phenomena that ions can be enriched in the boundary layer of the electrically charged electrode surface compared to the bulk liquid phase. The main point of the method is that the boundary layer at correctly chosen movement velocity can be taken out of the waste water without being damaged, and the ion-enriched boundary layer can be recycled. Electrosorption is a surface phenomenon. It can be used with high efficiency in case of large electrochemically active surface of electrodes. During our research work two high surface area nickel electrodes have been prepared. The value of electrochemically active surface area of electrodes has been estimated. The existence of diffusion part of the double layer has been experimentally approved. The electrical double layer capacity has been determined. Ion transport by boundary layer separation has been introduced. Finally we have tried to estimate the relative significance of physical adsorption and electrosorption. PMID:24061827

  15. Validation of High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layer and Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction Computations with the OVERFLOW Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, A. B.; Lillard, R. P.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Lyrintizis, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The capability of the OVERFLOW code to accurately compute high-speed turbulent boundary layers and turbulent shock-boundary layer interactions is being evaluated. Configurations being investigated include a Mach 2.87 flat plate to compare experimental velocity profiles and boundary layer growth, a Mach 6 flat plate to compare experimental surface heat transfer,a direct numerical simulation (DNS) at Mach 2.25 for turbulent quantities, and several Mach 3 compression ramps to compare computations of shock-boundary layer interactions to experimental laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and hot-wire data. The present paper describes outlines the study and presents preliminary results for two of the flat plate cases and two small-angle compression corner test cases.

  16. Boundary layer equations and symmetry analysis of a Carreau fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolapci, Ihsan Timuçin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, boundary layer equations of the Carreau fluid have been examined. Lie group theory is applied to the governing equations and symmetries of the equations are determined. The non-linear partial differential equations and their boundary conditions are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using the similarity transformations obtained from the symmetries. The system of ordinary differential equations are numerically solved for the boundary layer conditions. Finally, effects of non-Newtonian parameters on the solutions are investigated in detail.

  17. ON AERODYNAMIC AND BOUNDARY LAYER RESISTANCES WITHIN DRY DEPOSITION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been many empirical parameterizations for the aerodynamic and boundary layer resistances proposed in the literature, e.g. those of the Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model (MLM) used with the nation-wide dry deposition network. Many include arbitrary constants or par...

  18. Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Helen L.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.

  19. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.

  20. A numerical investigation of boundary layer quasi-equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer-Calder, K.; Randall, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite the large energy input from surface evaporation, the moist static energy (MSE) of the tropical boundary layer remains relatively constant on large spatial and temporal scales due to lifting of vapor by cloudy updrafts and the addition of dry air from the layers above. Arakawa and Schubert (1974) suggested that drying is due mainly to clear-air turbulent entrainment between cloudy updrafts, while Raymond (1995) described drying due mainly to convective downdrafts. We used cloud-resolving numerical simulations to investigate the transport of MSE into the boundary layer and found turbulent entrainment between clouds to be the dominant process.

  1. Boundary layer thermal stresses in angle-ply composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. S.; Choi, I.

    1979-01-01

    Boundary-layer thermal stress singularities and distributions of angle-ply composite laminates under uniform thermal loading are investigated through a system of sixth-order governing partial differential equations developed with the aid of the anisotropic elasticity field equations and Lekhnitskii's complex stress functions. Results are presented for cases of various angle-ply graphite/epoxy laminates, and it is shown that the boundary-layer thickness depends on the degree of anisotropy of each individual lamina, thermomechanical properties of each ply, and the relative thickness of adjacent layers.

  2. Behavior of turbulent boundary layers on curved convex walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidbauer, Hans

    1936-01-01

    The system of linear differential equations which indicated the approach of separation and the so-called "boundary-layer thickness" by Gruschwitz is extended in this report to include the case where the friction layer is subject to centrifugal forces. Evaluation of the data yields a strong functional dependence of the momentum change and wall drag on the boundary-layer thickness radius of curvature ratio for the wall. It is further shown that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs at somewhat higher Reynolds Numbers at the convex wall than at the flat plate, due to the stabilizing effect of the centrifugal forces.

  3. Shock-like structures in the tropical cyclone boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gabriel J.; Taft, Richard K.; McNoldy, Brian D.; Schubert, Wayne H.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents high horizontal resolution solutions of an axisymmetric, constant depth, slab boundary layer model designed to simulate the radial inflow and boundary layer pumping of a hurricane. Shock-like structures of increasing intensity appear for category 1-5 hurricanes. For example, in the category 3 case, the u>(∂u/∂r>) term in the radial equation of motion produces a shock-like structure in the radial wind, i.e., near the radius of maximum tangential wind the boundary layer radial inflow decreases from approximately 22 m s-1 to zero over a radial distance of a few kilometers. Associated with this large convergence is a spike in the radial distribution of boundary layer pumping, with updrafts larger than 22 m s-1 at a height of 1000 m. Based on these model results, it is argued that observed hurricane updrafts of this magnitude so close to the ocean surface are attributable to the dry dynamics of the frictional boundary layer rather than moist convective dynamics. The shock-like structure in the boundary layer radial wind also has important consequences for the evolution of the tangential wind and the vertical component of vorticity. On the inner side of the shock the tangential wind tendency is essentially zero, while on the outer side of the shock the tangential wind tendency is large due to the large radial inflow there. The result is the development of a U-shaped tangential wind profile and the development of a thin region of large vorticity. In many respects, the model solutions resemble the remarkable structures observed in the boundary layer of Hurricane Hugo (1989).

  4. Aeroelastically deflecting flaps for shock/boundary-layer interaction control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gefroh, D.; Loth, E.; Dutton, C.; Hafenrichter, E.

    2003-06-01

    An aeroelastic mesoflap system has been developed to improve the downstream flow properties of an oblique shock/boundary-layer interaction. The mesoflap system employs a set of small flaps over a cavity, whereby the flaps downstream of the interaction bend downward aeroelastically to bleed the flow and the upstream flaps bend upward to re-inject this same mass flow upstream. This recirculating system requires no net mass bleed and therefore has advantages for boundary layer control in external or mixed-compression supersonic aircraft inlets. In addition, the system may be applicable in other aerospace applications where boundary-layer control can help remedy the adverse effects of shock interactions. Several mesoflap systems have been fabricated and examined experimentally to investigate their aerodynamic and structural performance. Each mesoflap is rigidly attached to a spar on its upstream end while the remainder of the flap is free to deflect aeroelastically. The flap length is nominally a few boundary-layer thicknesses in dimension, while the flap thickness is small enough to allow tip deflections that are of the order of the boundary-layer momentum thickness. Experiments were conducted for a Mach 2.41 impinging oblique shock wave interaction with a turbulent boundary layer. Spanwise-centered laser Doppler velocimeter measurements indicate that certain mesoflap designs can show significant flow improvement as compared to the solid-wall case, including increased stagnation pressure recovery and a 7% reduction in boundary layer thickness and sonic thickness. However, one drawback of the mesoflap system is the potential for fatigue, which in some cases led to microcracking followed by flap failure. Structural design improvements to alleviate and avoid this problem included a lower profile spar design, substitution of Nitinol for aluminum as the flap material, and use of stress-relieving holes at the ends of the flap cut-outs.

  5. Feasibility study of optical boundary layer transition detection method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azzazy, M.; Modarress, D.; Trolinger, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    A high sensitivity differential interferometer was developed to locate the region where the boundary layer flow undergoes transition from laminar to turbulent. Two laboratory experimental configurations were used to evaluate the performance of the interferometer: open shear layer, and low speed wind tunnel turbulent spot configuration. In each experiment, small temperature fluctuations were introduced as the signal source. Simultaneous cold wire measurements were compared with the interferometer data. The comparison shows that the interferometer is sensitive to very weak phase variations in the order of 0.001 the laser wavelength. An attempt to detect boundary layer transition over a flat plate at NASA-Langley Unitary Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the interferometer system was performed. The phase variations during boundary layer transition in the supersonic wind tunnel were beyond the minimum signal-to-noise level of the instrument.

  6. Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.

  7. Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in

  8. The structure of a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, A. T.; Smith, F. T.; Walker, J. D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer is shown to have a self-consistent two-layer asymptotic structure in the limit of large Reynolds number. In a streamline coordinate system, the streamwise velocity distribution is similar to that in two-dimensional flows, having a defect-function form in the outer layer which is adjusted to zero at the wall through an inner wall layer. An asymptotic expansion accurate to two orders is required for the cross-stream velocity which is shown to exhibit a logarithmic form in the overlap region. The inner wall-layer flow is collateral to leading order but the influence of the pressure gradient, at large but finite Reynolds numbers, is not negligible and can cause substantial skewing of the velocity profile near the wall. Conditions under which the boundary layer achieves self-similarity and the governing set of ordinary differential equations for the outer layer are derived. The calculated solution of these equations is matched asymptotically to an inner wall-layer solution and the composite profiles so formed describe the flow throughout the entire boundary layer. The effects of Reynolds number and cross-stream pressure gradient on the crossstream velocity profile are discussed and it is shown that the location of the maximum cross-stream velocity is within the overlap region.

  9. Diamagnetic boundary layers - A kinetic theory. [for collisionless magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    A kinetic theory is presented for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma, such as those observed in the solar wind. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases are considered in which the magnetic-field intensity, direction, or both, changed across the layer. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii, and the field changed smoothly, although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. These results are consistent with observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU.

  10. Optimum forebody shaping for axisymmetric submersibles with turbulent boundary layers and BLO (Boundary Layer Control) afterbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, B. J.

    1983-07-01

    One objective of the Advanced Undersea Vehicle (AUV) program is to design a low drag vehicle. The approach in this investigation is boundary layer control by means of an annular suction slot located on the afterbody. Although wind tunnel data showed significant reduction in propulsive power over conventional shapes, an attempt was made to achieve further reduction by means of forebody shaping. Two methods were used to vary the geometric parameters for this analysis. The direct method, based on the mathematical development of the Series 58 bodies, allows the definition of a shape by a fifth-order polynomial based on the four fundamental parameters of fineness ratio, nose radius of curvature, location of maximum thickness, and prismatic coefficient. The inverse method allows various velocity distributions to define the body shape. The shapes derived by this method have flat velocity distributions and show similar trends to the polynomial shapes (about 3-percent reduction in propulsive power). The range of fineness ratios analyzed was from 1 to 10 at a volume-based Reynolds number of 3.2 million. In the range of 2.5 to 8, fineness ratio did not affect propulsive power more than 6 percent. A maximum improvement of 3 percent as shown by varying the meridian section.

  11. High resolution properties of the marine atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.; Cottingame, W.; Eichinger, W.; Forman, P.; Lebeda, C.; Poling, D.; Thorton, R.

    1994-02-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) participated in the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) by fielding a water-vapor Raman lidar on board the Research Vessel Vickers. The lidar measured water vapor concentration from the surface to lower tropospheric altitudes in order to support the CEPEX goal of evaluating a hypothesis regarding feedback mechanisms for global circulation models. This report describes some of the features observed within the marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and the lower troposphere. Data was collected continuously 24 hours per day over the equatorial Pacific from March 8th to March 2 1st of 1993 while in route between Guadalcanal and Christmas Island (the transect was at approximately 2{degree} south latitude). The lidar collected vertical transects of water vapor concentration up to 10 km during night operations and 4 km in the day. The vertical lidar profiles of water vapor were produced by summing the data over a period up to 600 seconds. The water-vapor Raman lidar measured the properties of the marine ABL as well as the lower and mid-troposphere. From the lidar water vapor profiles, ``images`` of water vapor concentration versus altitude and date or sea surface temperature will be produced along with other products such as latent heat fluxes. The Raman water vapor lidar data will be used to better understand the role of transport and exchange at the ocean-atmosphere interface and throughout the marine atmosphere.

  12. The Entrainment Interface Layer of Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, S.; Hill, S.

    2010-09-01

    The entrainment interface layer (EIL) is the layer between cloud top and the free atmosphere. It contains mixtures of air from the cloud layer and the free atmosphere. In addition to turbulent mixing, phase changes and radiative heating or ccoling also affect the thermodynamic properties of air in the EIL. Eventually, air from the EIL is entrained into the cloud layer. How do processes in the EIL affect the entrainment rate? What is the structure of the EIL? Is cloud-top an interface (a region of high gradients), or simply an iso-surface? We are using airborne measuurements taken in the EIL during POST (Physics of Stratocumulus Top), which took place during July and August 2008 near Monterey, California, USA, to address these questions. High-rate measurements of temperature and liquid water content made just 0.5 m apart allow us to perform a high-resolution analysis of a conserved variable (liquid water potential temperature). When combined with lower-rate measurements of water vapor, they also allow us to perform a mixture fraction analysis following vanZanten and Duynkerke (2002).

  13. Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2000-01-01

    An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.

  14. Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2000-01-01

    A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.

  15. Turbulent boundary-layer structure of flows over freshwater biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. M.; Sargison, J. E.; Henderson, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    The structure of the turbulent boundary-layer for flows over freshwater biofilms dominated by the diatom Tabellaria flocculosa was investigated. Biofilms were grown on large test plates under flow conditions in an Australian hydropower canal for periods up to 12 months. Velocity-profile measurements were obtained using LDV in a recirculating water tunnel for biofouled, smooth and artificially sandgrain roughened surfaces over a momentum thickness Reynolds number range of 3,000-8,000. Significant increases in skin friction coefficient of up to 160 % were measured over smooth-wall values. The effective roughnesses of the biofilms, k s, were significantly higher than their physical roughness measured using novel photogrammetry techniques and consisted of the physical roughness and a component due to the vibration of the biofilm mat. The biofilms displayed a k-type roughness function, and a logarithmic relationship was found between the roughness function and roughness Reynolds number based on the maximum peak-to-valley height of the biofilm, R t. The structure of the boundary layer adhered to Townsend's wall-similarity hypothesis even though the scale separation between the effective roughness height and the boundary-layer thickness was small. The biofouled velocity-defect profiles collapsed with smooth and sandgrain profiles in the outer region of the boundary layer. The Reynolds stresses and quadrant analysis also collapsed in the outer region of the boundary layer.

  16. 3-D Flow Visualization of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Brian; Williams, Steven; Lynch, Kyle

    2009-11-01

    A recently developed 3-D flow visualization technique is used to visualize large-scale structures in a turbulent boundary layer. The technique is based on the scanning of a laser light sheet through the flow field similar to that of Delo and Smits (1997). High-speeds are possible using a recently developed MHz rate pulse burst laser system, an ultra-high-speed camera capable of 500,000 fps and a galvanometric scanning mirror yielding a total acquisition time of 136 microseconds for a 220 x 220 x 68 voxel image. In these experiments, smoke is seeded into the boundary layer formed on the wall of a low-speed wind tunnel. The boundary layer is approximately 1.5'' thick at the imaging location with a free stream velocity of 24 ft/s yielding a Reynolds number of 18,000 based on boundary layer thickness. The 3-D image volume is approximately 4'' x 4'' x 4''. Preliminary results using 3-D iso-surface visualizations show a collection of elongated large-scale structures inclined in the streamwise direction. The spanwise width of the structures, which are located in the outer region, is on the order of 25 -- 50% of the boundary layer thickness.

  17. Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.

  18. Stabilization of boundary layer streaks by plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riherd, Mark; Roy, Subrata

    2014-03-01

    A flow's transition from laminar to turbulent leads to increased levels of skin friction. In recent years, dielectric barrier discharge actuators have been shown to be able to delay the onset of turbulence in boundary layers. While the laminar to turbulent transition process can be initiated by several different instability mechanisms, so far, only stabilization of the Tollmien-Schlichting path to transition has received significant attention, leaving the stabilization of other transition paths using these actuators less explored. To fill that void, a bi-global stability analysis is used here to examine the stabilization of boundary layer streaks in a laminar boundary layer. These streaks, which are important to both transient and by-pass instability mechanisms, are damped by the addition of a flow-wise oriented plasma body force to the boundary layer. Depending on the magnitude of the plasma actuation, this damping can be up to 25% of the perturbation's kinetic energy. The damping mechanism appears to be due to highly localized effects in the immediate vicinity of the body force, and when examined using a linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes energy balance, indicate negative production of the perturbation's kinetic energy. Parametric studies of the stabilization have also been performed, varying the magnitude of the plasma actuator's body force and the spanwise wavenumber of the actuation. Based on these parametric studies, the damping of the boundary layer streaks appears to be linear with respect to the total amount of body force applied to the flow.

  19. The inner core thermodynamics of the tropical cyclone boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gabriel J.

    2016-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the inner-core dynamics of the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL), our knowledge of the inner-core thermodynamics of the TCBL remains limited. In this study, the inner-core budgets of potential temperature (θ), specific humidity ( q), and reversible equivalent potential temperature (θ _e) are examined using a high-resolution multilevel boundary layer model. The potential temperature budgets show that the heat energy is dominated by latent heat release in the eyewall, evaporative cooling along the outer edge of the eyewall, and upward surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the underlying warm ocean. It is shown that the vertical θ advection overcompensates the sum of radial advective warming from the boundary layer outflow jet and latent heating for the development of cooling in the eyewall within the TCBL. The moisture budgets show the dominant upward transport of moisture in the eyewall updrafts, partly by the boundary-layer outflow jet from the bottom eye region, so that the eyewall remains nearly saturated. The θ _e budgets reveal that the TCBL is maintained thermodynamically by the upward surface flux of higher-θ _e air from the underlying warm ocean, the radial transport of low-θ _e air from the outer regions of the TCBL, and the dry adiabatic cooling associated by eyewall updrafts. These results underscore the significance of vertical motion and the location of the boundary layer outflow jet in maintaining the inner core thermal structure of the TCBL.

  20. Anisotropic Mesh Adaptivity for Turbulent Flows with Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitale, Kedar C.

    Turbulent flows are found everywhere in nature and are studied, analyzed and simulated using various experimental and numerical tools. For computational analysis, a variety of turbulence models are available and the accuracy of these models in capturing the phenomenon depends largely on the mesh spacings, especially near the walls, in the boundary layer region. Special semi-structured meshes called "mesh boundary layers" are widely used in the CFD community in simulations of turbulent flows, because of their graded and orthogonal layered structure. They provide an efficient way to achieve very fine and highly anisotropic mesh spacings without introducing poorly shaped elements. Since usually the required mesh spacings to accurately resolve the flow are not known a priori to the simulations, an adaptive approach based on a posteriori error indicators is used to achieve an appropriate mesh. In this study, we apply the adaptive meshing techniques to turbulent flows with a focus on boundary layers. We construct a framework to calculate the critical wall normal mesh spacings inside the boundary layers based on the flow physics and the knowledge of the turbulence model. This approach is combined with numerical error indicators to adapt the entire flow region. We illustrate the effectiveness of this hybrid approach by applying it to three aerodynamic flows and studying their superior performance in capturing the flow structures in detail. We also demonstrate the capabilities of the current developments in parallel boundary layer mesh adaptation by applying them to two internal flow problems. We also study the application of adaptive boundary layer meshes to complex geometries like multi element wings. We highlight the advantage of using such techniques for superior wake and tip region resolution by showcasing flow results. We also outline the future direction for the adaptive meshing techniques to be useful to the large scale flow computations.

  1. Interferometric data for a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Brown, James L.; Miles, John B.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of the axisymmetric shock-wave / boundary-layer strong interaction flow generated in the vicinity of a cylinder-cone intersection was conducted. The study data are useful in the documentation and understanding of compressible turbulent strong interaction flows, and are part of a more general effort to improve turbulence modeling for compressible two- and three-dimensional strong viscous/inviscid interactions. The nominal free stream Mach number was 2.85. Tunnel total pressures of 1.7 and 3.4 atm provided Reynolds number values of 18 x 10(6) and 36 x 10(6) based on model length. Three cone angles were studied giving negligible, incipient, and large scale flow separation. The initial cylinder boundary layer upstream of the interaction had a thickness of 1.0 cm. The subsonic layer of the cylinder boundary layer was quite thin, and in all cases, the shock wave penetrated a significant portion of the boundary layer. Owing to the thickness of the cylinder boundary layer, considerable structural detail was resolved for the three shock-wave / boundary-layer interaction cases considered. The primary emphasis was on the application of the holographic interferometry technique. The density field was deduced from an interferometric analysis based on the Able transform. Supporting data were obtained using a 2-D laser velocimeter, as well as mean wall pressure and oil flow measurements. The attached flow case was observed to be steady, while the separated cases exhibited shock unsteadiness. Comparisons with Navier-Stokes computations using a two-equation turbulence model are presented.

  2. Summary of experimentally determined facts concerning the behavior of the boundary layer and performance of boundary layer measurements. [considering sailing flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanness, W.

    1978-01-01

    A summary report of boundary layer studies is presented. Preliminary results of experimental measurements show that: (1) A very thin layer (approximately 0.4 mm) of the boundary layer seems to be accelerated; (2) the static pressure of the outer flow does not remain exactly constant through the boundary layer; and (3) an oncoming boundary layer which is already turbulent at the suction point can again become laminar behind this point without being completely sucked off.

  3. FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djolov, G.; Esau, I.

    2010-05-01

    One of the greatest achievements of climate science has been the establisment of the concept of climate change on a multitude of time scales. The Earth's complex climate system does not allow a straightforward interpretation of dependences between the external parameter perturbation, internal stochastic system dynamics and the long-term system response. The latter is usually referred to as climate change in a narrow sense (IPCC, 2007). The focused international conference "Planetary Boundary Layers and Climate Change" has addressed only time scales and dynamical aspects of climate change with possible links to the turbulent processes in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Although limited, the conference topic is by no means singular. One should clearly understand that the PBL is the layer where 99% of biosphere and human activity are concentrated. The PBL is the layer where the energy fluxes, which are followed by changes in cryosphere and other known feedbacks, are maximized. At the same time, the PBL processes are of a naturally small scale. What is the averaged long-term effect of the small-scale processes on the long-term climate dynamics? Can this effect be recognized in existing long-term paleo-climate data records? Can it be modeled? What is the current status of our theoretical understanding of this effect? What is the sensitivity of the climate model projections to the representation of small-scale processes? Are there significant indirect effects, e.g. through transport of chemical components, of the PBL processes on climate? These and other linked questions have been addressed during the conference. The Earth's climate has changed many times during the planet's history, with events ranging from ice ages to long periods of warmth. Historically, natural factors such as the amount of energy released from the Sun, volcanic eruptions and changes in the Earth's orbit have affected the Earth's climate. Beginning late in the 18th century, human activities

  4. Stability of the Boundary Layer and the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wygnanski, I.

    2007-01-01

    The similarity among turbulent spots observed in various transition experiments, and the rate in which they contaminate the surrounding laminar boundary layer is only cursory. The shape of the spot depends on the Reynolds number of the surrounding boundary layer and on the pressure gradient to which it and the surrounding laminar flow are exposed. The propagation speeds of the spot boundaries depend, in addition, on the location from which the spot originated and do not simply scale with the local free stream velocity. The understanding of the manner in which the turbulent manner in which the turbulent spot destabilizes the surrounding, vortical fluid is a key to the understanding of the transition process. We therefore turned to detailed observations near the spot boundaries in general and near the spanwise tip of the spot in particular.

  5. Effect of Far-Field Boundary Conditions on Boundary-Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolotti, Fabio P.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of far-field boundary conditions on the evolution of a finite-amplitude two-dimensional wave in the Blasius boundary layer is assessed. With the use of the parabolized stability equations (PSE) theory for the numerical computations, either asymptotic, Dirichlet, Neumann or mixed boundary conditions are imposed at various distances from the wall. The results indicate that asymptotic and mixed boundary conditions yield the most accurate mean-flow distortion and unsteady instability modes in comparison with the results obtained with either Dirichlet or Neumann conditions.

  6. Effect of Far-Field Boundary Conditions on Boundary-Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolotti, Fabio P.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of far-field boundary conditions on the evolution of a finite-amplitude two-dimensional wave in the Blasius boundary layer is assessed. With the use of the parabolized stability equations (PSE) theory for the numerical computations, either asymptotic, Dirichlet, Neumann or mixed boundary conditions are imposed at various distances from the wall. The results indicate that asymptotic and mixed boundary conditions yield the most accurate mean-flow distortion and unsteady instability modes in comparison with the results obtained with either Dirichlet or Neumann conditions.

  7. Diagnostic analysis of turbulent boundary layer data by a trivariate Lagrangian partitioning method

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, P.T.

    1994-12-31

    The rapid scientific and technological advances in meteorological theory and modeling predominantly have occurred on the large (or synoptic) scale flow characterized by the extratropical cyclone. Turbulent boundary layer flows, in contrast, have been slower in developing both theoretically and in accuracy for several reasons. There are many existing problems in boundary layer models, among them are limits to computational power available, the inability to handle countergradient fluxes, poor growth matching to real boundary layers, and inaccuracy in calculating the diffusion of scalar concentrations. Such transport errors exist within the boundary layer as well as into the free atmosphere above. This research uses a new method, which can provide insight into these problems, and ultimately improve boundary layer models. There are several potential applications of the insights provided by this approach, among them are estimation of cloud contamination of satellite remotely sensed surface parameters, improved flux and vertical transport calculations, and better understanding of the diurnal boundary layer growth process and its hysteresis cycle.

  8. Heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kays, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper contains a summarization of five years work on an investigation on heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer. Experimental results are presented for friction coefficient and Stanton number over a wide range of blowing and suction for the case of constant free-stream velocity, holding certain blowing parameters constant. The problem of the accelerated turbulent boundary layer with transpiration is considered, experimental data are presented and discussed, and theoretical models for solution of the momentum equation under these conditions are presented. Data on turbulent Prandtl number are presented so that solutions to the energy equation may be obtained. Some examples of boundary layer heat transfer and friction coefficient predictions are presented using one of the models discussed, employing a finite difference solution method.

  9. Optical measurements of degradation in aircraft boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsall, D.

    1980-01-01

    Visible wavelength measurements of the degradation of optical beams when transmitted through the thin aerodynamic boundary layers around an aircraft are reviewed. The measured results indicated degradation levels for the KC-135 airplanes between 0.10 to 0.13 lambda increasing to 0.18 lambda (rms wavefront distortion). For the Lear Jet, degradation with a 25 mm diameter optics was roughly 0.07 lambda. The corresponding infinite aperture degradation levels are also calculated. The corresponding measured correlation lengths of roughly 12 mm for the KC-135 aircraft and 6 mm for the Lear Jet scale to roughly 20 and 25 mm, respectively, for infinite apertures. These boundary layer correlation lengths do not appear to reflect the different boundary layer thicknesses on the two different aircraft.

  10. Influence of wall permeability on turbulent boundary-layer properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental boundary-layer studies of a series of low pressure drop, permeable surfaces have been conducted to characterize their surface interaction with a turbulent boundary layer. The models were flat and tested at nominally zero pressure gradient in low speed air. The surfaces were thin metal sheets with discrete perforations. Direct drag balance measurements of skin friction indicate that the general effect of surface permeability is to increase drag above that of a smooth plate reference level. Heuristic arguments are presented to show that this type of behavior is to be expected. Other boundary-layer data are also presented including mean velocity profiles and conditionally sampled streamwise velocity fluctuations (hot wire) for selected models.

  11. A compilation of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive literature search was conducted and those experiments related to unsteady boundary layer behavior were cataloged. In addition, an international survey of industrial, university, and governmental research laboratories was made in which new and ongoing experimental programs associated with unsteady turbulent boundary layer research were identified. Pertinent references were reviewed and classified based on the technical emphasis of the various experiments. Experiments that include instantaneous or ensemble averaged profiles of boundary layer variables are stressed. The experimental apparatus and flow conditions are described and summaries of acquired data and significant conclusions are summarized. Measurements obtained from the experiments which exist in digital form were stored on magnetic tape. Instructions are given for accessing these data sets for further analysis.

  12. Finite volume solution of the compressible boundary-layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyd, B.; Murman, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    A box-type finite volume discretization is applied to the integral form of the compressible boundary layer equations. Boundary layer scaling is introduced through the grid construction: streamwise grid lines follow eta = y/h = const., where y is the normal coordinate and h(x) is a scale factor proportional to the boundary layer thickness. With this grid, similarity can be applied explicity to calculate initial conditions. The finite volume method preserves the physical transparency of the integral equations in the discrete approximation. The resulting scheme is accurate, efficient, and conceptually simple. Computations for similar and non-similar flows show excellent agreement with tabulated results, solutions computed with Keller's Box scheme, and experimental data.

  13. Boundary layer effects on particle impaction and capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.

    1984-01-01

    The inertial impaction and deposition of small particles on larger bodies with viscous boundary layers are considered theoretically, in a detailed comment on a paper by Menguturk et al. (1983). Topics addressed include cushion effects, the dimensionless groups corresponding to the diameter range (3-6 microns) examined by Menguturk et al. in a numerical example, analogous effects of particle-gas energy and mass exchange in boundary layers, and the combined effects of particle inertia and diffusion. It is argued that the inertial effects can be characterized in terms of a body, boundary-layer, or sublayer Stokes number. In a reply by Menguturk et al., the focus is on the application of the theoretical model to the erosion of blade surfaces in large gas turbines; the Stokes number is found to be of limited practical value in these cases, because the particle motion is not primarily normal to the blade surfaces.

  14. The Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Rough Curvilinear Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droblenkov, V. F.

    1958-01-01

    A number of semiempirical approximate methods exist for determining the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a curvilinear surface. At present, among these methods, the one proposed by L. G. Loitsianskii is given frequent practical application. This method is sufficiently effective and permits, in the case of wing profiles with technically smooth surfaces, calculating the basic characteristics of the boundary layer and the values of the overall drag with an accuracy which suffices for practical purposes. The idea of making use of the basic integral momentum equation ((d delta(sup xx))/dx) + ((V' delta(sup xx))/V) (2 + H) = (tau(sub 0))/(rho V(exp 2)) proves to be fruitful also for the solution of the problems in the determination of the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer on a rough surface.

  15. Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreilos, Tobias; Khapko, Taras; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S.; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    The spatiotemporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary-layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly obtained from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.

  16. Effect of Blowing on Boundary Layer of Scarf Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Clark, Lorenzo R.

    2004-01-01

    When aircraft operate in stationary or low speed conditions, airflow into the engine accelerates around the inlet lip and pockets of turbulence that cause noise and vibration can be ingested. This problem has been encountered with engines equipped with the scarf inlet, both in full scale and in model tests, where the noise produced during the static test makes it difficult to assess the noise reduction performance of the scarf inlet. NASA Langley researchers have implemented boundary layer control in an attempt to reduce the influence of the flow nonuniformity in a 12-in. diameter model of a high bypass fan engine mounted in an anechoic chamber. Static pressures and boundary layer profiles were measured in the inlet and far field acoustic measurements were made to assess the effectiveness of the blowing treatment. The blowing system was found to lack the authority to overcome the inlet distortions. Methods to improve the implementation of boundary layer control to reduce inlet distortion are discussed.

  17. Turbulence in the convective boundary layer observed by microwave interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.M.; Carlos, R.C.; Kirkland, M.W.

    1997-12-01

    A 9-antenna, 400 meter microwave interferometer was utilized in SALSA MEX on the San Pedro River area in July and August, 1997, to measure the turbulence in the Convective Boundary Layer. Water vapor has an appreciable index of refraction at radio frequencies around 10 GHz, and acts as a passive tracer of the magnitude and motion of turbulence. The relative phase changes of a signal from a satellite were tracked by an array of 9 antennas, and the phase differences between antennas were then used to derive the turbulence properties of the boundary layer. Preliminary analysis shows clearly different characteristics for the convection activity of the boundary layer between day and night. From the structure function analysis they can see that the turbulence structure starts to decorrelate at scale sizes of 200 meters for a temporal passband around 100 seconds. Derivation of average wind fields is currently in process.

  18. Particle motion inside Ekman and Bödewadt boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran Matute, Matias; van der Linden, Steven; van Heijst, Gertjan

    2014-11-01

    We present results from both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of the motion of heavy particles inside Ekman and Bödewadt boundary layers. The particles are initially at rest on the bottom of a rotating cylinder filled with water and with its axis parallel to the axis of rotation. The particles are set into motion by suddenly diminishing the rotation rate and the subsequent creation of a swirl flow with the boundary layer above the bottom plate. We consider both spherical and non-spherical particles with their size of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. It was found that the particle trajectories define a clear logarithmic spiral with its shape depending on the different parameters of the problem. Numerical simulations show good agreement with experiments and help explain the motion of the particles. This research is funded by NWO (the Netherlands) through the VENI Grant 863.13.022.

  19. Roughness Induced Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kergerise, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used to investigate the transition induced by threedimensional isolated roughness elements in a supersonic boundary layer at a free stream Mach number of 3.5. Simulations are performed for two different configurations: one is a square planform roughness and the other is a diamond planform roughness. The mean-flow calculations show that the roughness induces counter rotating streamwise vortices downstream of the roughness. These vortices persist for a long distance downstream and lift the low momentum fluid from the near wall region and place it near the outer part of the boundary layer. This forms highly inflectional boundary layer profiles. These observations agree with recent experimental observations. The receptivity calculations showed that the amplitudes of the mass-flux fluctuations near the neutral point for the diamond shape roughness are the same as the amplitude of the acoustic disturbances. They are three times smaller for the square shape roughness.

  20. Inverse boundary-layer theory and comparison with experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Inverse boundary layer computational procedures, which permit nonsingular solutions at separation and reattachment, are presented. In the first technique, which is for incompressible flow, the displacement thickness is prescribed; in the second technique, for compressible flow, a perturbation mass flow is the prescribed condition. The pressure is deduced implicitly along with the solution in each of these techniques. Laminar and turbulent computations, which are typical of separated flow, are presented and comparisons are made with experimental data. In both inverse procedures, finite difference techniques are used along with Newton iteration. The resulting procedure is no more complicated than conventional boundary layer computations. These separated boundary layer techniques appear to be well suited for complete viscous-inviscid interaction computations.

  1. Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer with Localized Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marxen, Olaf; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2010-01-01

    A localized 3-D roughness causes boundary-layer separation and (weak) shocks. Most importantly, streamwise vortices occur which induce streamwise (low U, high T) streaks. Immersed boundary method (volume force) suitable to represent roughness element in DNS. Favorable comparison between bi-global stability theory and DNS for a "y-mode" Outlook: Understand the flow physics (investigate "z-modes" in DNS through sinuous spanwise forcing, study origin of the beat in DNS).

  2. Boundary layer effects in optical measurements in gas dynamics.

    PubMed

    Small, R D; Weihs, D

    1976-06-01

    A method for including three-dimensional boundary corrections in the analysis of interferograms of two-dimensional flows is described. An effective optical pathlength is calculated using a displacement thickness concept. Expressions and methods for determining the correction to the optical pathlength are given for laminar and turbulent boundary layers in isoenergetic or diabatic flow. An exact expression is derived for the turbulent case and results given showing the correction to be of the order of 10%.

  3. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers over Straight and Flared Cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers were numerically investigated. Simulations were performed for boundary layer flows over a straight cone and two flared cones. The steady and the unsteady flow fields were obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric coordinates using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The mean boundary layer profiles were analyzed using local stability and non-local parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. After the most amplified disturbances were identified, two-dimensional plane acoustic waves were introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and time accurate simulations were performed. The adverse pressure gradient was found to affect the boundary layer stability in two important ways. Firstly, the frequency of the most amplified second-mode disturbance was increased relative to the zero pressure gradient case. Secondly, the amplification of first- and second-mode disturbances was increased. Although an adverse pressure gradient enhances instability wave growth rates, small nose-tip bluntness was found to delay transition due to the low receptivity coefficient and the resulting weak initial amplitude of the instability waves. The computed and measured amplitude-frequency spectrums in all three cases agree very well in terms of frequency and the shape except for the amplitude.

  4. NOx and NOy in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Chris; Evans, Mathew J.; Lee, James D.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Read, Katie A.; Mendes, Luis N.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) and their reservoir species (NOy) play a central role in determining the chemistry of the troposphere. Although their concentrations are low (1-100 ppt) in regions such as the remote marine boundary layer, they have a profound impact on ozone production and the oxidizing capacity. There are very few observations of NOx and NOy in remote oceanic regions due to the technical challenges of measuring such low concentrations, and thus our understanding of this background chemistry is incomplete. Here we present long term measurements of NOx (2006-2015) and more recent measurements of speciated NOy (total peroxyacetyl nitrates, PANs; alkyl nitrates, ANs; nitric acid; and aerosol analogues) made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO; 16° 51' N, 24° 52' W) located in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. We identify potential interferences in the NO2 and NOy measurements and methods to eliminate them. Diurnal and seasonal cycles are interpreted using a box model. We find a complex chemistry with interactions between organic and inorganic chemistry, between the aerosol and gas phase, and between the very local and large scales.

  5. Non-Equilibrium Effects on Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pilbum

    Understanding non-equilibrium effects of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers is essential in order to build cost efficient and reliable hypersonic vehicles. It is well known that non-equilibrium effects on the boundary layers are notable, but our understanding of the effects are limited. The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of non-equilibrium effects on hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. A new code has been developed for direct numerical simulations of spatially developing hypersonic turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with finite-rate reactions. A fifth-order hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme with a low dissipation finite-difference scheme is utilized in order to capture stiff gradients while resolving small motions in turbulent boundary layers. The code has been validated by qualitative and quantitative comparisons of two different simulations of a non-equilibrium flow and a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer. With the validated code, direct numerical simulations of four different hypersonic turbulent boundary layers, perfect gas and non-equilibrium flows of pure oxygen and nitrogen, have been performed. In order to rule out uncertainties in comparisons, the same inlet conditions are imposed for each species, and then mean and turbulence statistics as well as near-wall turbulence structures are compared at a downstream location. Based on those comparisons, it is shown that there is no direct energy exchanges between internal and turbulent kinetic energies due to thermal and chemical non-equilibrium processes in the flow field. Instead, these non-equilibria affect turbulent boundary layers by changing the temperature without changing the main characteristics of near-wall turbulence structures. This change in the temperature induces the changes in the density and viscosity and the mean flow fields are then adjusted to satisfy the conservation laws. The perturbation fields are modified according to

  6. Optically relevant turbulence parameters in the Marine boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, K. L.; Houlihan, T. M.

    1976-01-01

    Shipboard measurements of temperature and velocity fluctuations were performed to determine optical propagation properties of the marine boundary layer. Empirical expressions describing the temperature structure parameter in terms of the Richardson Number overland were used to analyze data obtained for open ocean conditions. Likewise, profiles of mean wind and velocity fluctuation spectra derived from shipboard observations were utilized to calculate associated boundary layer turbulence parameters. In general, there are considerable differences between the open-ocean results of this study and previously determined overland results.

  7. Carbon vaporization into a nonequilibrium, stagnation-point boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1978-01-01

    The heat transfer to the stagnation point of an ablating carbonaceous heat shield, where both the gas-phase boundary layer and the heterogeneous surface reactions are not in chemical equilibrium, is examined. Specifically, the nonequilibrium changes in the mass fraction profiles of carbon species calculated for frozen flow are studied. A set of equations describing the steady-state, nonequilibrium laminar boundary layer in the axisymmetric stagnation region, over an ablating graphite surface, is solved, with allowance for the effects of finite rate of carbon vaporization.

  8. Hypersonic crossing shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussoy, M. I.; Horstman, K. C.; Horstman, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental data for two three-dimensional intersecting shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction flows at Mach 8.3 are presented. The test bodies, composed of two sharp fins fastened to a flat plate test bed, were designed to generate flows with varying degrees of pressure gradient, boundary-layer separation, and turning angle. The data include surface pressure and heat transfer distributions as well as mean flow field surveys both in the undisturbed and interaction regimes. The data are presented in a convenient form to be used to validate existing or future computational models of these hypersonic flows.

  9. Simulation of glancing shock wave and boundary layer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ching-Mao

    1989-09-01

    Shock waves generated by sharp fins, glancing across a laminar boundary layer growing over a flat plate, are simulated numerically. Several basic issues concerning the resultant three-dimensional flow separation are studied. Using the same number of grid points, different grid spacings are employed to investigate the effects of grid resolution on the origin of the line of separation. Various shock strengths (generated by different fin angles) are used to study the so-called separated and unseparated boundary layer and to establish the existence or absence of the secondary separation. The usual interpretations of the flow field from previous studies and new interpretations arising from the present simulation are discussed.

  10. Numerical Study of Boundary-Layer in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tom I-P.

    1997-01-01

    The accomplishments made in the following three tasks are described: (1) The first task was to study shock-wave boundary-layer interactions with bleed - this study is relevant to boundary-layer control in external and mixed-compression inlets of supersonic aircraft; (2) The second task was to test RAAKE, a code developed for computing turbulence quantities; and (3) The third task was to compute flow around the Ames ER-2 aircraft that has been retrofitted with containers over its wings and fuselage. The appendices include two reports submitted to AIAA for publication.

  11. Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebanoff, P S

    1955-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.

  12. Passive and active control of boundary layer transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenchuck, Daniel Mark

    It is well known that laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition is initiated by the formation of Tollmien-Schlichting laminar instability waves. The amplification rates of these waves are strongly dependent on the shape of the boundary layer velocity profile. Consequently, the transition process can be controlled by modifying the velocity profile. This can be accomplished by controlling the pressure gradient (dp/dx), using boundary layer suction, installing surface roughness elements, or by surface heating or cooling. Methods used to modify the transition process through changes in the mean velocity profile are called "passive" in this paper. There exists a large set of experiments and theory on the application of passive methods for boundary layer control. In the present work only surface heating will be addressed.Transition measurements were made on a heated flat plate in water. Results are presented for several plate wall temperature distributions. An increase by a factor of 2.5 in transition Reynolds number was observed for a 5°C isothermal wall overheat. Buoyancy effects on transition were minimal due to the small Richardson and Grashof numbers encountered in the experiments.The amplification of laminar instability waves is comparatively to process, taking place over many boundary layer thicknesses. After the slow amplification of the laminar instability waves, transition occurs by a strong three dimensional dynamic instability. It appears possible to attenuate (or reinforce) the instability waves by introducing amplitude-and phase-controlled perturbations into the laminar boundary layer using feedback control system. This method is called "active" control and forms the larger part of the research reported in this thesis.A combination of sensors, activators and feedback control electronics is required for active control. The sensors used in the experiments are flush-mounted hot film wall shear robes. A new type of activator was developed using thin, flush

  13. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, P; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF; Turner, DD; Chilson, P; Blumberg, WG; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M; Jacobsen, EP; Wharton, S

    2015-11-01

    The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.

  14. Simulation of glancing shock wave and boundary layer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Mao

    1989-01-01

    Shock waves generated by sharp fins, glancing across a laminar boundary layer growing over a flat plate, are simulated numerically. Several basic issues concerning the resultant three-dimensional flow separation are studied. Using the same number of grid points, different grid spacings are employed to investigate the effects of grid resolution on the origin of the line of separation. Various shock strengths (generated by different fin angles) are used to study the so-called separated and unseparated boundary layer and to establish the existence or absence of the secondary separation. The usual interpretations of the flow field from previous studies and new interpretations arising from the present simulation are discussed.

  15. Investigation of turbulent processes in magnetospheric boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotko, William; Sonnerup, B. U. O.

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent non-evolving two dimensional slab model of a viscous low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) coupled to the ionosphere was developed by Phan, et al., (1989). Numerical results from the model and possible use of observations to determine the model parameters are discussed. The dynamical model developed by Lotko, et al., (1987) was used by Lotko and Shen (1991) to examine dynamical processes relevant to the LLBL with particular application to post-noon auroral shear layers. Initial results from a magnetohydrodynamic study of flank-side mangetopause boundary configuration are described. Effects of compressibility, scalar viscosity, and electrical resistivity are included in the MHD equations.

  16. Lidar observations of the planetary boundary layer during FASINEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. H.; Boers, R.; Palm, S. P.

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented on the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the ocean acquired with an airborne downward-looking lidar during the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) with the purpose of studying the impact of an ocean front on air-sea interactions. No changes in the PBL structure were detected by lidar. Lidar data were then used along with other readily available remotely-sensed data and a one-dimensional boundary-layer-growth model to infer the mean PBL moisture and temperature structure and to estimate the surface fluxes of heat and moisture.

  17. On the concept of leaf boundary layer resistance for forced convection

    PubMed

    Vesala

    1998-09-01

    The definition of leaf boundary layer resistance is reconsidered in respect of the three-dimensional diffusion-controlled mass transport region just above the leaf surface. Due to the existence of this superstomatal air layer, the conventional convective boundary layer is not in direct contact with the surface. Thus, in terms of plant physiology, the diffusive "end correction" to the stomatal resistance should be included in the boundary layer resistance. This is true for laminar as well as turbulent flows. When the surface mole fraction of an exchanged gas is estimated using the boundary layer resistance ignoring the diffusive term may lead to a noticeable error. The self-consistent approach is used to clarify the problems of the boundary layer formation and stomatal interference. If the correction is taken into account, the boundary layer resistance becomes dependent also on stomatal shape and distribution on the leaf. The traditional semiempirical formula corrected by the superstomatal diffusion is applied in numerical calculations. In estimates of the water vapour mole fraction on the surface of a transpiring leaf the relative error ranges from insignificant (quiescent air, large leaf and large stomatal pores) to 20 % (low humidity, strong wind, small leaf and small elliptic pores). The boundary layer resistance can decrease by a factor of 3 when the semiaxis lengths of the stomata increase from 1 and 0.5 &mgr;m to 10 and 5 &mgr;m. The effective thickness of the superstomatal air layer is maximally several millimetres (small stomatal surface concentration and small pores). Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited PMID:9778427

  18. On the concept of leaf boundary layer resistance for forced convection

    PubMed

    Vesala

    1998-09-01

    The definition of leaf boundary layer resistance is reconsidered in respect of the three-dimensional diffusion-controlled mass transport region just above the leaf surface. Due to the existence of this superstomatal air layer, the conventional convective boundary layer is not in direct contact with the surface. Thus, in terms of plant physiology, the diffusive "end correction" to the stomatal resistance should be included in the boundary layer resistance. This is true for laminar as well as turbulent flows. When the surface mole fraction of an exchanged gas is estimated using the boundary layer resistance ignoring the diffusive term may lead to a noticeable error. The self-consistent approach is used to clarify the problems of the boundary layer formation and stomatal interference. If the correction is taken into account, the boundary layer resistance becomes dependent also on stomatal shape and distribution on the leaf. The traditional semiempirical formula corrected by the superstomatal diffusion is applied in numerical calculations. In estimates of the water vapour mole fraction on the surface of a transpiring leaf the relative error ranges from insignificant (quiescent air, large leaf and large stomatal pores) to 20 % (low humidity, strong wind, small leaf and small elliptic pores). The boundary layer resistance can decrease by a factor of 3 when the semiaxis lengths of the stomata increase from 1 and 0.5 &mgr;m to 10 and 5 &mgr;m. The effective thickness of the superstomatal air layer is maximally several millimetres (small stomatal surface concentration and small pores). Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited

  19. Understanding the Processes Controlling Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Arctic Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browse, J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Pringle, K.; Mann, G.; Reddington, C.; Brooks, I. M.; Mulcahy, J.; Young, G.; Allan, J. D.; Liu, D.; Trembath, J.; Dean, A.; Yoshioka, M.

    2015-12-01

    Here we use multiple configurations of the UKCA chemistry and aerosol scheme in a global climate model, capable of simulating cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplet number, to understand the processes controlling aerosol-cloud interactions in the marine Arctic boundary layer. Evaluation against an unprecedented number of aerosol and cloud observations made available through the Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP), International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) and the 2013 ACCACIA campaign, suggest that Arctic summertime CCN is well represented in the model. Sensitivity studies indicate that DMS derived nucleation events are the primary source of Arctic summertime aerosol increasing mean (median) surface CCN concentrations north of 70N from 21(14) cm-3 to 46(33) cm-3. However, evaluation against observed aerosol size distributions suggests that UKCA overestimates nucleation mode (~10nm) particle concentrations either due to overestimation of boundary layer nucleation rates or underestimation of the Arctic marine boundary layer condensation sink.

  20. A model of the wall boundary layer for ducted propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter; Moehring, Willi

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to include a representation of a wall boundary layer in an existing finite element model of the propeller in the wind tunnel environment. The major consideration is that the new formulation should introduce only modest alterations in the numerical model and should still be capable of producing economical predictions of the radiated acoustic field. This is accomplished by using a stepped approximation in which the velocity profile is piecewise constant in layers. In the limit of infinitesimally thin layers, the velocity profile of the stepped approximation coincides with that of the continuous profile. The approach described here could also be useful in modeling the boundary layer in other duct applications, particularly in the computation of the radiated acoustic field for sources contained in a duct.

  1. Optical Concentrators with Simple Layered Designs

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mohammad Mehdi; Xu, Lin; Nadgaran, Hamid; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    A microwave prototype of field concentrator was recently fabricated, based on the combination of transformation optics and Fabry-Pérot resonances. Perfect electric conductors used as design elements is however, impossible when the working frequencies go to infrared or optical frequencies. Here in this paper, we show that layered structure with alternating dielectrics of positive and negative permittivities can be used to design concentrators of similar function. A practical design with only two kinds of semiconductors is suggested. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are performed to verify the concentrating effect. PMID:26074497

  2. Developing mass spectrometric techniques for boundary layer measurement in hypersonic high enthalpy test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. M., Jr.; Lewis, B. W.; Nowak, R. J.; Eide, D. G.; Paulin, P. A.; Upchurch, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    Thermodynamic flow properties of gases in the boundary layer or the flowfield have been mainly deduced from pressures and temperatures measured on a model. However, further progress with respect to an understanding of these properties requires a more complete characterization of the layer including determination of the gas composition and chemistry. Most attempts to measure boundary layer chemistry involve the employment of a mass spectrometer and an associated gas sampling system. The three major limiting factors which must be addressed for species measurement in aerothermodynamic investigations on models at reentry stream velocities, are gas sampling effects, instrument limitations, and problems with data acquisition. The present investigation is concerned with a concentrated effort to quantitatively identify and correct for instrument and sampling system effects, and to develop a miniaturized high performance mass spectrometer for on-model real-time analysis of the boundary layer and its associated atmosphere.

  3. Large mixed Ekman Hartmann boundary layers in magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, F.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we study the nonlinear stability of Ekman-Hartmann type boundary layers in a rotating magnetohydrodynamics flow under a sharp spectral assumption. This generalizes the result of Desjardins et al (1999 Nonlinearity 12 181-99) obtained under a smallness assumption on a Reynolds number and the result of Rousset (2003 Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. in press) about the stability of Ekman layers.

  4. Combined effects of surface conditions, boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on diurnal SOA evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, R. H. H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L. N.; Kabat, P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Farmer, D. K.; van Heerwaarden, C. C.; Mammarella, I.

    2012-08-01

    We study the combined effects of land surface conditions, atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on the diurnal evolution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer, using a model that contains the essentials of all these components. First, we evaluate the model for a case study in Hyytiälä, Finland, and find that it is able to satisfactorily reproduce the observed dynamics and gas-phase chemistry. We show that the exchange of organic aerosol between the free troposphere and the boundary layer (entrainment) must be taken into account in order to explain the observed diurnal cycle in organic aerosol (OA) concentration. An examination of the budgets of organic aerosol and terpene concentrations show that the former is dominated by entrainment, while the latter is mainly driven by emission and chemical transformation. We systematically investigate the role of the land surface, which governs both the surface energy balance partitioning and terpene emissions, and the large-scale atmospheric process of vertical subsidence. Entrainment is especially important for the dilution of organic aerosol concentrations under conditions of dry soils and low terpene emissions. Subsidence suppresses boundary layer growth while enhancing entrainment. Therefore, it influences the relationship between organic aerosol and terpene concentrations. Our findings indicate that the diurnal evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the boundary layer is the result of coupled effects of the land surface, dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer, chemistry, and free troposphere conditions. This has potentially some consequences for the design of both field campaigns and large-scale modeling studies.

  5. Numerical modeling of boundary-layer cooling of rocket engine combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitalo, Gerald Alexander

    2000-10-01

    This study investigates boundary-layer cooling of rocket engine combustion chambers by means of numerical modeling. Using computational fluid dynamic methods to model the reacting viscous flow field in rocket combustion chambers, various propellant combinations and chamber geometries are analyzed. Specific propellants are hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. Chamber geometries used are the Space Shuttle Main Engine, 5.7 diameter research chamber, and the Apollo/Saturn F-1. Several modifications to existing codes are required to accommodate proposed boundary-layer cooling using fuel as the boundary fluid. This work discusses the mathematical basis for the numerical scheme used and the chemistry models needed to solve the reacting flow field, including specifically the field's boundary layer. Variables considered in the flow field are temperature, pressure, Mach number, species concentration, velocity, density, acoustic velocity, and heat transfer. Using results obtained in the study, a high pressure (Pc > 3000 psi) methane fueled rocket engine is proposed. Included is an analytical estimate of how thrust can be increased, with no loss of performance due to the active fuelfed boundary layer. The author concludes that numerical methods can effectively model the flow processes in boundary-layer cooled combustion chambers, giving designers the requisite information for analyzing rocket engines.

  6. Sediment transport under wave groups: Relative importance between nonlinear waveshape and nonlinear boundary layer streaming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yu, X.; Hsu, T.-J.; Hanes, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport under nonlinear waves in a predominately sheet flow condition is investigated using a two-phase model. Specifically, we study the relative importance between the nonlinear waveshape and nonlinear boundary layer streaming on cross-shore sand transport. Terms in the governing equations because of the nonlinear boundary layer process are included in this one-dimensional vertical (1DV) model by simplifying the two-dimensional vertical (2DV) ensemble-averaged two-phase equations with the assumption that waves propagate without changing their form. The model is first driven by measured time series of near-bed flow velocity because of a wave group during the SISTEX99 large wave flume experiment and validated with the measured sand concentration in the sheet flow layer. Additional studies are then carried out by including and excluding the nonlinear boundary layer terms. It is found that for the grain diameter (0.24 mm) and high-velocity skewness wave condition considered here, nonlinear waveshape (e.g., skewness) is the dominant mechanism causing net onshore transport and nonlinear boundary layer streaming effect only causes an additional 36% onshore transport. However, for conditions of relatively low-wave skewness and a stronger offshore directed current, nonlinear boundary layer streaming plays a more critical role in determining the net transport. Numerical experiments further suggest that the nonlinear boundary layer streaming effect becomes increasingly important for finer grain. When the numerical model is driven by measured near-bed flow velocity in a more realistic surf zone setting, model results suggest nonlinear boundary layer processes may nearly double the onshore transport purely because of nonlinear waveshape. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Shipborne measurements of mercury in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soerensen, A. L.; Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Glasius, M.; Soerensen, B. T.; Steffen, A.; Jensen, B.; Christoffersen, C.; Madsen, H. W.; Johnson, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury accumulates in the human body, for example when consumed through fish and other aquatic animals. While it is poisonous to adults, only low doses are sufficient to cause severe effects in the development of foetuses where the source of mercury is through the mother's blood. From once being a problem restricted to certain populations, the negative effects of mercury consumption are becoming a global problem due to high anthropogenic emissions, long range transport in the atmosphere and bioaccumulation in the food chain after deposition. It is therefore important to understand the atmospheric photochemical pathways of mercury from source to sink. We have used a TEKRAN 2537A mercury vapor analyzer with a TEKRAN 1130 mercury speciation unit to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during an eight month circumnavigation of the Earth. This is the longest single track time series of mercury concentrations that we know of. This has offered the opportunity to give a global overview of the marine boundary layer (MBL) distribution of both GEM and RGM. Supplemented with earlier cruise measurements, we now have a broader knowledge of global GEM and RGM concentration in the MBL. The Galathea 3 cruise data offers new knowledge of the mechanisms causing the distribution patterns of GEM and RGM in the MBL. The first analysis of the Galathea 3 data indicates that measurements show a concentration difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the mean concentration in the free ocean is 2.06 ng/m3 and, including values down wind of Western Europe, an average value of 2.47 ng/m3 was found. Measurements in the southern hemisphere show a mean concentration of 1.24 ng/m3 and 1.57 ng/m3 where values close to the coast of West Africa are included. In contrast, the concentration levels of RGM are similar for the two hemispheres (northern hemisphere 3.40 pg/m3, southern hemisphere 3.95 pg/m3). Some

  8. Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Integrated Transition Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan

    2005-01-01

    The adjoint parabold stability equations (PSE) formulation is used to calculate the boundary layer receptivity to localized surface roughness and suction for compressible boundary layers. Receptivity efficiency functions predicted by the adjoint PSE approach agree well with results based on other nonparallel methods including linearized Navier-Stokes equations for both Tollmien-Schlichting waves and crossflow instability in swept wing boundary layers. The receptivity efficiency function can be regarded as the Green's function to the disturbance amplitude evolution in a nonparallel (growing) boundary layer. Given the Fourier transformed geometry factor distribution along the chordwise direction, the linear disturbance amplitude evolution for a finite size, distributed nonuniformity can be computed by evaluating the integral effects of both disturbance generation and linear amplification. The synergistic approach via the linear adjoint PSE for receptivity and nonlinear PSE for disturbance evolution downstream of the leading edge forms the basis for an integrated transition prediction tool. Eventually, such physics-based, high fidelity prediction methods could simulate the transition process from the disturbance generation through the nonlinear breakdown in a holistic manner.

  9. Experimental study of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer using PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lin; Yi, ShiHe; Zhao, YuXin; Tian, LiFeng; Chen, Zhi

    2011-09-01

    Particle image velocimetry was applied to the study of the statistical properties and the coherent structures of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at Mach 3. The nanoparticles with a good flow-following capability in supersonic flows were adopted as the tracer particles in the present experiments. The results show that the Van Driest transformed mean velocity profile satisfies the incompressible scalings and reveals a log-law region that extends to y/δ=0.4, which is further away from the wall than that in incompressible boundary layers. The Reynolds stress profiles exhibit a plateau-like region in the log-law region. The hairpin vortices in the streamwise-wall-normal plane are identified using different velocity decompositions, which are similar to the results of the flow visualization via NPLS technique. And multiple hairpin vortices are found moving at nearly the same velocity in different regions of the boundary layer. In the streamwise-spanwise plane, elongated streaky structures are observed in the log-law region, and disappear in the outer region of the boundary layer, which is contrary to the flow visualization results.

  10. ON HYDROMAGNETIC STRESSES IN ACCRETION DISK BOUNDARY LAYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Pessah, Martin E.; Chan, Chi-kwan E-mail: ckch@nordita.org

    2012-05-20

    Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity.

  11. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, C.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

  12. FLUID MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION IN THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Study of convective boundary layer (CBL) processes has depended largely upon laboratory analogs for many years. The pioneering work of Willis and Deardorff (1974) and some 35 subsequent papers by the same authors showed that much useful research could be accomplished with a re...

  13. Poloidal ULF wave observed in the plasmasphere boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Cao, J.; Zong, Q.; Li, X.; Sarris, T. E.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate an event on the formation of a plasmasphere boundary layer and its effect on ULF wave generation observed by THEMIS satellites during three consecutive outbound passes. On September 13 2011, TH-D observed a sharp plasmapause at L=3.4. The plasmasphere starts to expand and to be refilled on September 14th. On September 15th, a plasmasphere boundary layer is formed with two density drops at L=4.5 and 6.5, respectively. Strong radial magnetic field and azimuthal electric field oscillations are observed within the two density gradients, suggesting poloidal ULF wave. Even mode signature and bump-on-tail plasma distribution at ~10keV observed in this event favour the mechanism of drift-bounce resonance. We suggest that the plasma density structures in plasmasphere boundary layers can provide conditions for resonances that could generate ULF waves. All the above features suggest that plasmasphere boundary layer may have impact on the generation of ULF wave and potential impact on radiation belt acceleration.

  14. DNS of stratified spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano; Jansen, Kenneth

    2012-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers under stratification are performed. It is well known that the transport phenomena of the flow is significantly affected by buoyancy, particularly in urban environments where stable and unstable atmospheric boundary layers are encountered. In the present investigation, the Dynamic Multi-scale approach by Araya et al. (JFM, 670, 2011) for turbulent inflow generation is extended to thermally stratified boundary layers. Furthermore, the proposed Dynamic Multi-scale approach is based on the original rescaling-recycling method by Lund et al. (1998). The two major improvements are: (i) the utilization of two different scaling laws in the inner and outer parts of the boundary layer to better absorb external conditions such as inlet Reynolds numbers, streamwise pressure gradients, buoyancy effects, etc., (ii) the implementation of a Dynamic approach to compute scaling parameters from the flow solution without the need of empirical correlations as in Lund et al. (1998). Numerical results are shown for ZPG flows at high momentum thickness Reynolds numbers (~ 3,000) and a comparison with experimental data is also carried out.

  15. Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, B T

    2010-03-01

    Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.

  16. Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.; Magliozzi, B.

    1984-01-01

    In earlier experimental and analytical studies, it was found that the boundary layer on an aircraft could provide significant shielding from propeller noise at typical transport airplane cruise Mach numbers. In this paper a new three-dimensional theory is described that treats the combined effects of refraction and scattering by the fuselage and boundary layer. The complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The model for the incident waves is a near-field frequency-domain propeller source theory developed previously for free field studies. Calculations for an advanced turboprop (Prop-Fan) model flight test at 0.8 Mach number show a much smaller than expected pressure amplification at the noise directivity peak, strong boundary layer shielding in the forward quadrant, and shadowing around the fuselage. Results are presented showing the difference between fuselage surface and free-space noise predictions as a function of frequency and Mach number. Comparison of calculated and measured effects obtained in a Prop-Fan model flight test show good agreement, particularly near and aft of the plane of rotation at high cruise Mach number.

  17. Secondary eyewall formation as a progressive boundary layer response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca, S. F.; Montgomery, M. T.; Bell, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The robust observational (satellite based) evidence that secondary eyewalls are common features in major hurricanes contrasts with the scarce in situ observations of the phenomena and its life cycle. This lack of observations has resulted in an incomplete understanding of the dynamics of secondary eyewall formation (SEF). A wide variety of physical processes have been invoked to explain SEF, but only the recently proposed theory of a progressive boundary layer control in SEF has been supported by a variety of full physics mesoscale numerical integrations. The RAINEX field project provided unique observations of the secondary eyewall of Hurricane Rita (2005) both before and during the time Rita exhibited a clear secondary eyewall structure. These observations have contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the secondary eyewall phenomenon. However, in the RAINEX experiment, there was limited data sampling during the development of the secondary wind maxima, thereby precluding a complete observational investigation of the dynamics of SEF. In this presentation we adopt an azimuthally-averaged perspective of the flow dynamics and we test the newly proposed theory of a progressive boundary layer control on SEF. Specifically, we use both RAINEX data as well as data from high resolution, full physics mesoscale numerical simulations to initialize and force an axisymmetric slab boundary layer model with radial diffusion included. The objective is to investigate whether such a reduced boundary layer model can generate secondary wind maxima as a response to environments like those that result in SEF in nature and in full physics simulations.

  18. Determination of Stability and Translation in a Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crepeau, John; Tobak, Murray

    1996-01-01

    Reducing the infinite degrees of freedom inherent in fluid motion into a manageable number of modes to analyze fluid motion is presented. The concepts behind the center manifold technique are used. Study of the Blasius boundary layer and a precise description of stability within the flow field are discussed.

  19. Fifty Years of Boundary-Layer Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Hugh L.

    1955-01-01

    The year 1954 marked the 50th anniversary of the Prandtl boundary-layer theory from which we may date the beginning of man's understanding of the dynamics of real fluids. A backward look at this aspect of the history of the last 50 years may be instructive. This paper (1) attempts to compress the events of those 50 years into a few thousand words, to tell in this brief space the interesting story of the development of a new concept, its slow acceptance and growth, its spread from group to group within its country of origin, and its diffusion to other countries of the world. The original brief paper of Prandtl (2) was presented at the Third International Mathematical Congress at Heidelberg in 1904 and published in the following year. It was an attempt to explain the d'Alembert paradox, namely, that the neglect of the small friction of air in the theory resulted in the prediction of zero resistance to motion. Prandtl set himself the task of computing the motion of a fluid of small friction, so small that its effect could be neglected everywhere except where large velocity differences were present or a cumulative effect of friction occurred This led to the concept of boundary layer, or transition layer, near the wall of a body immersed in a fluid stream in which the velocity rises from zero to the free-stream value. It is interesting that Prandtl used the term Grenzsehicht (boundary layer) only once and the term Ubergangsschicht (transition layer) seven times in the brief article. Later writers also used Reibungsschicht (friction layer), but most writers today use Grenzschicht (boundary layer).

  20. Anomalous plasma diffusion and the magnetopause boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treumann, Rudolf A.; Labelle, James; Haerendel, Gerhard; Pottelette, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the current state of anomalous diffusion research at the magnetopause and its role in the formation of the magnetopause boundary layer is presented. Plasma wave measurements in the boundary layer indicate that most of the relevant unstable wave modes contribute negligibly to the diffusion process at the magnetopause under magnetically undisturbed northward IMF conditions. The most promising instability is the lower hybrid drift instability, which may yield diffusion coefficients of the right order if the highest measured wave intensities are assumed. It is concluded that global stationary diffusion due to wave-particle interactions does not take place at the magnetopause. Microscopic wave-particle interaction and anomalous diffusion may contribute to locally break the MD frozen-in conditions and help in transporting large amounts of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetospheric boundary.

  1. On the theory of the turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotta, J

    1953-01-01

    As a rule, a division of the turbulent boundary layer is admissible: a division into a part near the wall, where the flow is governed only by the wall effects, and into an outer part, where the wall roughness and the viscosity of the flow medium affects only the wall shearing stress occurring as boundary condition but does not exert any other influence on the flow. Both parts may be investigated to a large extent independently. Under certain presuppositions there result for the outer part "similar" solutions. The theoretical considerations give a cue how to set up, by appropriate experiments and their evaluation, generally valid connections which are required for the approximate calculation of the turbulent boundary layer according to the momentum and energy theorem.

  2. Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.

  3. On Supersonic-Inlet Boundary-Layer Bleed Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, Gary J.; Smith, Gregory E.

    1995-01-01

    Boundary-layer bleed in supersonic inlets is typically used to avoid separation from adverse shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions and subsequent total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser and to improve normal shock stability. Methodologies used to determine bleed requirements are reviewed. Empirical sonic flow coefficients are currently used to determine the bleed hole pattern. These coefficients depend on local Mach number, pressure ratio, hole geometry, etc. A new analytical bleed method is presented to compute sonic flow coefficients for holes and narrow slots and predictions are compared with published data to illustrate the accuracy of the model. The model can be used by inlet designers and as a bleed boundary condition for computational fluid dynamic studies.

  4. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  5. Boundary layer flow visualisation patterns on a riblet surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. G.

    Boundary layer flow visualization methods, developed at Queen Mary and Westfield College, have been applied to a riblet surface. The results reveal cellular crossflows developing in the grooves between the riblets. These local flor regimes appear to have little direct effect on the flow in the wall layers immediately adjacent to them. Qualitatively, the behavior of the wall layers appears to be that which would be expected if a virtual surface existed at a level slightly above the riblet tops, but a tendency for the origin of longitudinal eddy pairs to become anchored to the top of a riblet is noted.

  6. The influence of bulges on boundary-layer instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elli, S.; Vandam, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    Local disturbances caused by a spanwise surface corrugation affect the position of the boundary-layer transition, and so the drag, of an object. This premature transition from laminar to turbulent flow is often associated with a separation of the laminar boundary-layer from its surface. Also the roughness-induced separation bubble provides an important link between the pressure and velocity fluctuations in the environment and the development of the disturbance in the laminar boundary-layer, i.e., the receptivity problem. To investigate the influence of a laminar separation bubble on boundary-layer instability, a separated flow generated by a velocity gradient over a flat plate was analyzed by direct numerical simulation using finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The bubble acts as a strong amplifier of the instability waves and a highly nonlinear flow field is shown to develop downstream of the bubble. Consequently, the results of the direct numerical simulation differ noticeably from those of the classical linear stability theory proving the fact that the nonparallel effects together with the nonlinear interactions are crucial to this flow development. In the present paper, the effect of physical perturbations such as humps and hollows on boundary-layer instability is analyzed. This problem has been considered theoretically by several researchers (e.g., Nayfeh et al., 1987 and 1990; Cebeci et al., 1988). They used linear stability theory in their approach which does not include the nonparallel nor the nonlinear effects. Therefore, to account for these important effects in studying flow over humps and hollows the direct simulation technique is being implemented in generalized coordinates.

  7. Some Basic Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary-Layer Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Robert V.

    1959-01-01

    An appraisal is made of existing solutions of magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations for stagnation flow and flat-plate flow, and some new solutions are given. Since an exact solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics requires complicated simultaneous treatment of the equations of fluid flow and of electromagnetism, certain simplifying assumptions are generally introduced. The full implications of these assumptions have not been brought out properly in several recent papers. It is shown in the present report that for the particular law of deformation which the magnetic lines are assumed to follow in these papers a magnet situated inside the missile nose would not be able to take up any drag forces; to do so it would have to be placed in the flow away from the nose. It is also shown that for the assumption that potential flow is maintained outside the boundary layer, the deformation of the magnetic lines is restricted to small values. The literature contains serious disagreements with regard to reductions in heat-transfer rates due to magnetic action at the nose of a missile, and these disagreements are shown to be mainly due to different interpretations of reentry conditions rather than more complicated effects. In the present paper the magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equation is also expressed in a simple form that is especially convenient for physical interpretation. This is done by adapting methods to magnetic forces which in the past have been used for forces due to gravitational or centrifugal action. The simplified approach is used to develop some new solutions of boundary-layer flow and to reinterpret certain solutions existing in the literature. An asymptotic boundary-layer solution representing a fixed velocity profile and shear is found. Special emphasis is put on estimating skin friction and heat-transfer rates.

  8. Lower Boundary Layer and Ozone Profiles Over Fresno during Wildfire Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Omolayo, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Ozone is a secondary pollutant in the troposphere that is largely formed as a result of photolytic reactions related to ozone precursors such as methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds like isoprene, benzene etc.). Hence, processes and factors regulating emissions of ozone precursors are important in controlling spatial and temporal variation of ozone concentrations. Giving favorable meteorological conditions, large scale wildfires in fuel rich areas have been recognized for their potential to significantly affect the regional and global distributions of tropospheric O3, and also increases the background surface ozone concentrations above the NAAQS level, even in areas that may be hundreds of miles away from wildfire locations. Improving regional ozone forecast thus requires not only the knowledge of the amount of ozone precursors released into the atmosphere and ozone produced during wildfires, but also information on boundary layer dynamics and vertical ozone transport. In this study effort is made to characterize ozone transport in the lower urban boundary layer during wildfire events. In this regard, tethersonde and ozonesonde measurements were made over Fresno California in the period the region was affected by smoke particles from the Moonlight fire in September 2007 and the Telegraph fire in July 2008. Analysis of the profiles data showed that the Fresno Eddy, in addition to boundary layer dynamics, particularly the down mixing of high ozone concentration in the residual boundary layer, were significant factors influencing hourly measured ground level ozone concentration at the site.

  9. Hybrid Manipulation of Streamwise Vorticity in a Diffuser Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gissen, Abraham; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari

    2010-11-01

    The formation of streamwise vorticity concentrations by exploiting the interaction of surface-mounted passive (micro-vanes) and active (synthetic jets) flow control elements with the cross flow is investigated experimentally in a small-scale serpentine duct at high subsonic speeds (up to M = 0.6). Streamwise vortices can be a key element in the mitigation of the adverse effects on pressure recovery and distortion caused by the naturally occurring secondary flows in embedded propulsion systems with complex inlet geometries. Counter rotating and single-sense vortices are formed using conventional passive micro-vanes and active high-power synthetic jet actuators. Interaction of the flow control elements is examined through a hybrid actuation scheme whereby synthetic jet actuation augments the primary vanes' vortices resulting in dynamic enhancement of their strength. It is shown that such sub-boundary layer individual vortices can merge and evolve into duct-scale vortical structures that counteract the inherent secondary flow and mitigates global flow distortion.

  10. Effect of free-stream turbulence on boundary layer transition.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, M E

    2014-07-28

    This paper is concerned with the transition to turbulence in flat plate boundary layers due to moderately high levels of free-stream turbulence. The turbulence is assumed to be generated by an (idealized) grid and matched asymptotic expansions are used to analyse the resulting flow over a finite thickness flat plate located in the downstream region. The characteristic Reynolds number Rλ based on the mesh size λ and free-stream velocity is assumed to be large, and the turbulence intensity ε is assumed to be small. The asymptotic flow structure is discussed for the generic case where the turbulence Reynolds number εRλ and the plate thickness and are held fixed (at O(1) and O(λ), respectively) in the limit as [Formula: see text] and ε→0. But various limiting cases are considered in order to explain the relevant transition mechanisms. It is argued that there are two types of streak-like structures that can play a role in the transition process: (i) those that appear in the downstream region and are generated by streamwise vorticity in upstream flow and (ii) those that are concentrated near the leading edge and are generated by plate normal vorticity in upstream flow. The former are relatively unaffected by leading edge geometry and are usually referred to as Klebanoff modes while the latter are strongly affected by leading edge geometry and are more streamwise vortex-like in appearance.

  11. Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. S.; Dibb, J. E.; Stark, H.; Aldener, M.; Vozella, M.; Whitlow, S.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Jakoubek, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; DeGouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Angevine, W. M.; Sueper, D. T.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2004-04-01

    The nitrate radical, NO3, and dinitrogen pentoxide, N2O5, are two important components of nitrogen oxides that occur predominantly at night in the lower troposphere. Because a large fraction of NO2 reacts to form NO3 and N2O5 during the course of a night, their fate is an important determining factor to the overall fate of NOx (=NO and NO2). As a comprehensive test of nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry, concentrations of O3, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3 and a host of other relevant compounds, aerosol abundance and composition, and meteorological conditions were measured in the marine boundary layer from the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown off the East Coast of the United States as part of the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) during the summer of 2002. The results confirm the prominent role of NO3 and N2O5 in converting NOx to HNO3 at night with an efficiency on par with daytime photochemical conversion. The findings demonstrate the large role of nighttime chemistry in determining the NOx budget and consequent production of ozone.

  12. Evidence of reactive iodine chemistry in the Arctic boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Anoop S.; Shaw, Marvin; Oetjen, Hilke; Hornsby, Karen E.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Lee, James D.; Moller, Sarah J.; Edwards, Peter; Commane, Roisin; Ingham, Trevor; Heard, Dwayne E.; Plane, John M. C.

    2010-10-01

    Although it has recently been established that iodine plays an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of coastal Antarctica, where it occurs at levels which cause significant ozone (O3) depletion and changes in the atmospheric oxidising capacity, iodine oxides have not previously been observed conclusively in the Arctic boundary layer (BL). This paper describes differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) observations of iodine monoxide (IO), along with gas chromatographic measurements of iodocarbons, in the sub-Arctic environment at Kuujjuarapik, Hudson Bay, Canada. Episodes of elevated levels of IO (up to 3.4 ± 1.2 ppt) accompanied by a variety of iodocarbons were observed. Air mass back trajectories show that the observed iodine compounds originate from open water polynyas that form in the sea ice on Hudson Bay. A combination of long-path DOAS and multiaxis DOAS observations suggested that the IO is limited to about 100 m in height. The observations are interpreted using a one-dimensional model, which indicates that the iodocarbon sources from these exposed waters can account for the observed concentrations of IO. These levels of IO deplete O3 at rates comparable to bromine oxide (BrO) and, more importantly, strongly enhance the effect of bromine-catalyzed O3 depletion in the Arctic BL, an effect which has not been quantitatively considered hitherto. However, the measurements and modeling results indicate that the effects of iodine chemistry are on a much more localized scale than bromine chemistry in the Arctic environment.

  13. Low Ozone in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Gregory, G. L.; Andesrson, B.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G. W.; Davis, D. D.; Crawford, J.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Talbot, R.; Blake, D. R.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of ozone, its key precursors, and a variety of chemical tracers were made in the troposphere of the western and central Pacific in October 1991. These data are presented and analyzed to examine the occurrence of low ozone concentrations in the remote marine boundary layer of the tropical and equatorial Pacific Ocean. The data from these flights out of Guam, covering an area extending from the equator to 20 N and from south of the Philippines to Hawaii, show average O3 concentrations as low as 8-9 ppb (ppb=10(exp-9)v/v) at altitudes of 0.3-0.5 km in the boundary layer. Individual measurements as low as 2-5 ppb were recorded. Low O3 concentrations do not always persist in space and time. High O3, generally associated with the transport of upper tropospheric air, was also encountered in the boundary layer. In practically all cases, O3 increased to values as large as 25-30 ppb within 2 km above the boundary layer top. Steady state model computations are used to suggest that these low O3 concentrations are a result of net photochemical O3 destruction in a low NO environment, sea-surface deposition, and extremely low net entrainment rates (1-2 mm per second) from the free troposphere. Day/night measurements of ethane, propane, gaseous and aerosol Cl suggest that daytime (morning) Cl atom concentrations in the vicinity of 10(exp 5) molecules per cubic centimeter may be present in the marine boundary layer. This Cl atom abundance can be rationalized only if sea salt aerosols can release free chlorine (Cl2) to the gas phase in the presence of sun light (and possibly O3). These Cl atom concentrations, however, are still insufficient and Cl (or Br) chemistry is not likely to be an important cause of the observed low O3.

  14. Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.

  15. Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary-Layer and Free Sheer Database Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, Gary S.; Dodson, Lori J.

    1993-01-01

    A critical assessment and compilation of data are presented on attached hypersonic turbulent boundary layers in pressure gradients and compressible turbulent mixing layers. Extensive searches were conducted to identify candidate experiments, which were subjected to a rigorous set of acceptance criteria. Accepted datasets are both tabulated and provided in machine-readable form. The purpose of this database effort is to make existing high quality data available in detailed form for the turbulence-modeling and computational fluid dynamics communities. While significant recent data were found on the subject of compressible turbulent mixing, the available boundary-layer/pressure-gradient experiments are all older ones of which no acceptable data were found at hypersonic Mach numbers.

  16. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

  17. Heavy-Particle Deposition in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yingcheng

    A set of experiments of heavy-particle deposition on the ground in a wind-tunnel simulated atmospheric boundary layer has been conducted. Different particle fall velocities and different wind speeds were used. In order to analyze inertial, continuity, and crossing-trajectories effects of heavy particles, a new random-walk model has been developed in which vertical velocity variance is a function of height. For calibration of the numerical model, a set of tracer-gas concentration measurements was also carried out. The analysis of experimental results reveals that, in the atmospheric surface layer, for most of the practical situations, the crossing-trajectories and the inertia of heavy particles have a very limited effect on heavy-particle dispersion and deposition. However, the continuity effect greatly affects the lateral dispersion and deposition of heavy particles. The continuity effect is strongly height dependent. Influences of different factors on heavy-particle deposition are discussed. This includes the fall-velocity distribution of heavy particles, the integral-time scales of turbulent flow, longitudinal turbulent velocity components, release height, etc. Comparisons between the theoretical prediction and the calculated results from both the model used in this study and the model of Legg and Raupach (1982) support the author's approach in which vertical velocity variance is taken to be height dependent. For practical purposes, the new random-walk model has greatly improved the accuracy of predicting longitudinal deposition of heavy particles compared to that of the traditional Gaussian model. Experiments with more release heights and larger differences of particle fall velocity are suggested in order to further confirm the findings of this dissertation.

  18. Heavy-particle deposition in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yingcheng

    A set of experiments of heavy-particle deposition on the ground in a wind-tunnel simulated atmospheric boundary layer was conducted. Different particle fall velocities and different wind speeds were used. In order to analyze inertial, continuity, and crossing-trajectories effects of heavy particles, a new random-walk model was developed in which vertical velocity variance is a function of height. For calibration of the numerical model, a set of tracer-gas concentration measurements was also carried out. The analysis of experimental results reveals that, in the atmospheric surface layer, for most of the practical situations, the crossing-trajectories and the inertia of heavy particles have a very limited effect on heavy-particle dispersion and deposition. However, the continuity effect greatly affects the lateral dispersion and deposition of heavy particles. The continuity effect is strongly height dependent. Influences of different factors on heavy-particle deposition are discussed. This includes the fall-velocity distribution of heavy particles, the integral-time scales of turbulent flow, longitudinal turbulent velocity components, release height, etc. Comparisons between the theoretical prediction and the calculated results from both the model used in this study and the model of Legg and Raupach (1982) support the author's approach in which vertical velocity variance is taken to be height dependent. For practical purposes, the new random-walk model has greatly improved the accuracy of predicting longitudinal deposition of heavy particles compared to that of the traditional Gaussian model. Experiments with more release heights and larger differences of particle fall velocity are suggested in order to further confirm the findings.

  19. On buffer layers as non-reflecting computational boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli L.

    1996-01-01

    We examine an absorbing buffer layer technique for use as a non-reflecting boundary condition in the numerical simulation of flows. One such formulation was by Ta'asan and Nark for the linearized Euler equations. They modified the flow inside the buffer zone to artificially make it supersonic in the layer. We examine how this approach can be extended to the nonlinear Euler equations. We consider both a conservative and a non-conservative form modifying the governing equations in the buffer layer. We compare this with the case that the governing equations in the layer are the same as in the interior domain. We test the effectiveness of these buffer layers by a simulation of an excited axisymmetric jet based on a nonlinear compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  20. Investigations on entropy layer along hypersonic hyperboloids using a defect boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazier, J. P.; Aupoix, B.; Cousteix, J.

    1992-01-01

    A defect approach coupled with matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a new set of boundary layer equations. This method ensures a smooth matching of the boundary layer with the inviscid solution. These equations are solved to calculate boundary layers over hypersonic blunt bodies involving the entropy gradient effect. Systematic comparisons are made for both axisymmetric and plane flows in several cases with different Mach and Reynolds numbers. After a brief survey of the entropy layer characteristics, the defect boundary layer results are compared with standard boundary layer and full Navier-Stokes solutions. The entropy gradient effects are found to be more important in the axisymmetric case than in the plane one. The wall temperature has a great influence on the results through the displacement effect. Good predictions can be obtained with the defect approach over a cold wall in the nose region, with a first order solution. However, the defect approach gives less accurate results far from the nose on axisymmetric bodies because of the thinning of the entropy layer.

  1. Boundary Layer Clouds in the polluted environment during CAIPEEX and the role of moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, Thara

    2010-05-01

    Prabha T. V. , G. Pandithurai, S. Dipu, B. N. Goswami, R. S. Maheshkumar, and J. R. Kulkarni Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India A major Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment (CAIPEEX; http://www.tropmet.res.in/~caipeex/ ) was conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology in India. First phase of the experiment during the pre-monsoon and monsoon season of 2009 included aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei, cloud droplet concentration and other environmental measurements over different geographical locations over the Indian subcontinent. Cloud and aerosol measurements onboard the research aircraft was carried out over varying degrees of polluted/dry/wet environments depending on the progression of monsoon. We used CAIPEEX observations and cloud resolving model simulations at high resolution to investigate the role of pollution in changing the cloud properties, boundary layer dynamics and precipitation. These simulations are carried out by incorporating CAIPEEX observations over selected clean and polluted environments with a distinct difference in the environmental moisture content. Motivation for this study comes from several earlier studies over different places, emphasizing that aerosol effects on precipitation depends strongly on the environmental conditions and the type of cloud. Three intensive CAIPEEX field campaign periods are considered namely, (a) during pre-monsoon dry conditions dominated by boundary layer clouds (b) during the progression of the monsoon with both boundary layer clouds and mid level clouds and (c) for the active monsoon over the peninsular India, also including high level clouds. Three cases are used to investigate the impact of pollution under dry to moist environments on the rainfall distributions and on the PBL dynamics. Relative humidity varied between 20-80 % inside the boundary layer and 50-70 % above the BL cloud free regions, in the cases considered. It is shown that

  2. Modeling variable blowing effects in the turbulent hypersonic boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanosdol, John G.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of the effects of variable blowing in turbulent hypersonic boundary layers are presented. Numerical calculations of the skin friction and surface heat transfer rates are compared to the experimental measurements of Holden (1990) for a slender cone at zero angle of attack in steady flows at Mach numbers of 11 and 13. An analysis of the transpiration feed system of the cone model was performed and showed that the blowing rate could be variable along the cone surface. This effect is confirmed by internal pressure measurements which were taken inside the cone model. The blowing rates are recalibrated using the internal gauge readings and used as the wall boundary condition for a compressible turbulent boundary layer calculation using the low Reynolds number k-epsilon model of Chien (1982). At low blowing rates, the boundary layer calculations indicate that a situation where both the effects of suction and blowing are present within the same flow. The results show excellent qualitative prediction of the experimental data.

  3. Shear Capacity as Prognostic of Nocturnal Boundary Layer Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hooijdonk, Ivo; Donda, Judith; Bosveld, Fred; Moene, Arnold; Clercx, Herman; van de Wiel, Bas

    2015-04-01

    After sunset the surface temperature can drop rapidly in some nights and may lead to ground frost. This sudden drop is closely related to the occurrence of fundamentally different behaviour of turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer. Recent theoretical findings predict the appearance of two different regimes: the continuously turbulent (weakly stable) boundary layer and the relatively 'quiet' (very stable) boundary layer. Field observations from a large number of nights (approx. 4500 in total) are analysed using an ensemble averaging technique. The observations support the existence of these two fundamentally different regimes: weakly stable (turbulent) nights rapidly reach a steady state (within 2-3 hours). In contrast, very stable nights reach a steady state much later after a transition period (2-6 hours). During this period turbulence is weak and non-stationary. To characterise the regime a new parameter is introduced: the Shear Capacity. This parameter compares the actual shear after sunset with the minimum shear needed to sustain continuous turbulence. In turn, the minimum shear is dictated by the heat flux demand at the surface (net radiative cooling), so that the Shear Capacity combines flow information with knowledge on the boundary condition. It is shown that the Shear Capacity enables prediction of the flow regimes. The prognostic strength of this non-dimensional parameter appears to outperform the traditional ones like z/L and Ri as regime indicator.

  4. BLSTA: A boundary layer code for stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Yong-Sun

    1992-01-01

    A computer program is developed to solve the compressible, laminar boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional flow, axisymmetric flow, and quasi-three-dimensional flows including the flow along the plane of symmetry, flow along the leading-edge attachment line, and swept-wing flows with a conical flow approximation. The finite-difference numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is second-order accurate. The flow over a wide range of speed, from subsonic to hypersonic speed with perfect gas assumption, can be calculated. Various wall boundary conditions, such as wall suction or blowing and hot or cold walls, can be applied. The results indicate that this boundary-layer code gives velocity and temperature profiles which are accurate, smooth, and continuous through the first and second normal derivatives. The code presented herein can be coupled with a stability analysis code and used to predict the onset of the boundary-layer transition which enables the assessment of the laminar flow control techniques. A user's manual is also included.

  5. A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation for incompressible flow with an application to the calculation of the separation point of turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao

    1951-01-01

    A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.

  6. Discrete Roughness Effects on High-Speed Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Prahladh Satyanarayanan

    This dissertation studies the effects of a discrete roughness element on a high-speed boundary layer using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) on unstructured grids. Flow past a cylindrical roughness element placed perpendicular to the flow and a hemispherical bump is studied. A compressible linear stability theory (LST) solver for parallel flows is developed based on the algorithm by Malik and validated for a range of Mach numbers ranging from incompressible to Mach 10. The evolution of the perturbations from DNS is validated with the linear stability solver making the DNS algorithm suitable to study transition problems. Flow past a cylindrical roughness element at Mach 8.12 is simulated using DNS and the velocity profiles in the symmetry and wall---parallel planes are compared to the experiments of Bathel et al.. The flow remains steady and laminar, and does not transition. Overall, good agreement is observed between DNS and experiments, thus validating our algorithm to study effect of roughness on high-speed flows. However, differences are observed in the separation region upstream and recirculation region downstream of the roughness. The DNS results are used to quantify possible uncertainties in the measurement technique as suggested by Danehy [20]. The effect of upstream injection (5% of the free-stream velocity) is also simulated to quantify its effects on the velocity profiles to mimic the injection of NO into air in the experiment. While the boundary layer thickness of the flow increases downstream of the injection location, its effect on the velocity profiles is small when the profiles are scaled with the boundary layer thickness. Flow past a hemispherical bump at Mach 3.37, 5.26 and 8.23 are simulated using DNS with the flow conditions matching the experiments of Danehy et al. to understand the different flow features associated with the flow and the physical mechanism that causes the flow to transition to turbulence. It is observed that the Mach 3.37 and

  7. Trace-Gas Mixing in Isolated Urban Boundary Layers: Results from the 2001 Phoenix Sunrise Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Doran, J C.; Shaw, William J.; Springston, Stephen R.; Spicer, Chet W.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements made from surface sites, from the 50-m and 140-m levels (the 16th and 39th floors) of a skyscraper and from an instrumented aircraft are used to characterize early morning profiles of CO, NOy and O3 within the mid-morning summertime convective atmospheric boundary layer (CABL) over Phoenix, Arizona. Although mixing was anticipated to produce uniform values of these species throughout the CABL, this was found not to be the case. Background air advected into the upper levels of the boundary layer and entrained air from above appears to be the most likely cause for the lack of well-mixed trace gases. The results show that surface measurements may provide only limited information on concentrations of trace gas species higher in the boundary layer.

  8. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  9. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2010-11-22

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the δ-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  10. Numerical Simulation of a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, T. B.; Erlebacher, G.

    2002-01-01

    The results from direct numerical simulations of a spatially evolving, supersonic, flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow, with free-stream Mach number of 2.25 are presented. The simulated flow field extends from a transition region, initiated by wall suction and blowing near the inflow boundary, into the fully turbulent regime. Distributions of mean and turbulent flow quantities are obtained and an analysis of these quantities is performed at a downstream station corresponding to Re(sub x)= 5.548 x10(exp 6) based on distance from the leading edge.

  11. Boundary layer studies related to fusion theory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-29

    The described work studied the boundary between closed and open field lines in EBT geometry, with emphasis on the microstability properties. These properties were established primarily for drift waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. The transport due to these modes was evaluated by a self-consistent treatment, using quasilinear models in a plasma diffusion code. The model was benchmarked against the EDT experimental results from ORNL and the sensitivity to transport model established. Viscosity was estimated to be negligible compared with anomalous transport. Drift wave turbulence gave a boundary layer size much more consistent with experiment than either collisional transport or Bohm diffusion.

  12. Turbulence spectra of the FIRE stratocumulus-topped boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. S.; Nucciarone, J. J.; Albrecht, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    There are at least four physical phenomena which contribute to the FIRE boundary layer turbulence spectra: boundary layer spanning eddies resulting from buoyant and mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy (the microscale subrange); inertial subrange turbulence which cascades this energy to smaller scales; quasi-two dimensional mesoscale variations; and gravity waves. The relative contributions of these four phenomena to the spectra depend on the altitude of observation and variable involved (vertical velocity, temperature and moisture spectra are discussed). The physical origins of these variations in relative contribution are discussed. As expected from the theory (Kaimal et al., 1976), mixed layer scaling of the spectra (i.e., nondimensionalizing wavelength by Z(sub i) and spectral density by Z(sub i) and the dissipation rates) is successful for the microscale subrange and inertial subrange but not for the mesoscale subrange. The most striking feature of the normalized vertical velocity spectra is the lack of any significant mesoscale contribution. The spectral peak results from buoyant and mechanical production on scales similar to the boundary layer depth. The decrease in spectral density at larger scales results from the suppression of vertical velocity perturbations with large horizontal scales by the shallowness of the atmosphere. The spectral density also decreases towards smaller scales following the well known inertial subrange slope. There is a significant variation in the shape of the normalized spectra with height.

  13. Acoustic Radiation From a Mach 14 Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the turbulence statistics and the radiation field generated by a high-speed turbulent boundary layer with a nominal freestream Mach number of 14 and wall temperature of 0:18 times the recovery temperature. The flow conditions fall within the range of nozzle exit conditions of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 facility. The streamwise domain size is approximately 200 times the boundary-layer thickness at the inlet, with a useful range of Reynolds number corresponding to Re 450 ?? 650. Consistent with previous studies of turbulent boundary layer at high Mach numbers, the weak compressibility hypothesis for turbulent boundary layers remains applicable under this flow condition and the computational results confirm the validity of both the van Driest transformation and Morkovin's scaling. The Reynolds analogy is valid at the surface; the RMS of fluctuations in the surface pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux is 24%, 53%, and 67% of the surface mean, respectively. The magnitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations are found to vary dramatically within the inner layer (z/delta 0.< or approx. 0.08 or z+ < or approx. 50). The peak of the pre-multiplied frequency spectrum of the pressure fluctuation is f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 2.1 at the surface and shifts to a lower frequency of f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 0.7 in the free stream where the pressure signal is predominantly acoustic. The dominant frequency of the pressure spectrum shows a significant dependence on the freestream Mach number both at the wall and in the free stream.

  14. FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djolov, G.; Esau, I.

    2010-05-01

    One of the greatest achievements of climate science has been the establisment of the concept of climate change on a multitude of time scales. The Earth's complex climate system does not allow a straightforward interpretation of dependences between the external parameter perturbation, internal stochastic system dynamics and the long-term system response. The latter is usually referred to as climate change in a narrow sense (IPCC, 2007). The focused international conference "Planetary Boundary Layers and Climate Change" has addressed only time scales and dynamical aspects of climate change with possible links to the turbulent processes in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Although limited, the conference topic is by no means singular. One should clearly understand that the PBL is the layer where 99% of biosphere and human activity are concentrated. The PBL is the layer where the energy fluxes, which are followed by changes in cryosphere and other known feedbacks, are maximized. At the same time, the PBL processes are of a naturally small scale. What is the averaged long-term effect of the small-scale processes on the long-term climate dynamics? Can this effect be recognized in existing long-term paleo-climate data records? Can it be modeled? What is the current status of our theoretical understanding of this effect? What is the sensitivity of the climate model projections to the representation of small-scale processes? Are there significant indirect effects, e.g. through transport of chemical components, of the PBL processes on climate? These and other linked questions have been addressed during the conference. The Earth's climate has changed many times during the planet's history, with events ranging from ice ages to long periods of warmth. Historically, natural factors such as the amount of energy released from the Sun, volcanic eruptions and changes in the Earth's orbit have affected the Earth's climate. Beginning late in the 18th century, human activities

  15. Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay

    2014-05-01

    In large wind farms, the effect of turbine wakes, and their interaction leads to a reduction in farm efficiency, with power generated by turbines in a farm being lower than that of a lone-standing turbine by up to 50%. In very large wind farms or `deep arrays', this efficiency loss is related to interaction of the wind farms with the planetary boundary layer, leading to lower wind speeds at turbine level. Moreover, for these cases it has been demonstrated both in simulations and wind-tunnel experiments that the wind-farm energy extraction is dominated by the vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from higher regions in the boundary layer towards the turbine level. In the current study, we investigate the use of optimal control techniques combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large `infinite' wind farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with actuator-disk and actuator-line representations of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind that combines Fourier-spectral discretization in horizontal directions with a fourth-order finite-volume approach in the vertical direction. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in an actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. Optimal model-predictive control (or optimal receding horizon control) is used, where the model simply consists of the full LES equations, and the time horizon is approximately 280 seconds. The optimization is performed using a

  16. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  17. The solution of the laminar-boundary-layer equation for the flat plate for velocity and temperature fields for variable physical properties and for the diffusion field at high concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, H

    1950-01-01

    In connection with Pohlhausen's solution for the temperature field on the flat plate, a series of formulas were indicated by means of which the velocity and temperature field for variable physical characteristics can be computed by an integral equation and an iteration method based on it. With it, the following cases were solved: On the assumption that the viscosity simply varies with the temperature while the other fluid properties remain constant, the velocity and temperature field on the heated and cooled plate, respectively, was computed at the Prandtl numbers 12.5 and 100 (viscous fluids). A closer study of these two cases resulted in general relations: The calculations for a gas of Pr number 0.7 (air) were conducted on the assumption that all fluid properties vary with the temperature, and the velocities are low enough for the heat of friction to be discounted. The result was a thickening of the boundary layers, but no appreciable modification in shearing stress or heat-transfer coefficient.

  18. Dynamics of lee waves on the boundary layer inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachsperger, Johannes; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda

    2016-04-01

    Lee waves are horizontally propagating non-hydrostatic internal gravity waves that may be generated when stratified flow is lifted over a mountain. Depending on the upstream conditions, two types of lee waves can be distinguished. First, resonant lee waves, which are often explored in the context of Scorer's theory of wave trapping in a two-layer atmosphere, where a discontinuity in the Scorer parameter - with evanescent conditions in the upper layer - gives rise to trapped waves. Second, interfacial lee waves, which may form along a density discontinuity, e.g. a temperature inversion, similar to surface waves on a free water surface. While resonant lee waves have been studied extensively, interfacial lee waves were only rarely discussed in meteorological literature so far. For example, observational studies as well as systematic studies on the wavelength dependencies still seem to be lacking. In this work, we modify Scorer's wave trapping theory by applying a boundary condition that accounts for a density jump between the two fluid layers. In this case, wave resonance is possible along the density discontinuity even if the lower layer is neutrally stratified. The resulting linear theory can be applied for instance to atmospheric boundary layer flows over complex terrain, where part of the mountain wave energy can be trapped along the inversion that caps the boundary layer. We validate this model with observations taken in the area of Vienna and highlight the lee wavelength dependence on the flow parameters by systematically varying the upstream conditions. Since interfacial waves have transcendental frequency dispersion relationships that cannot be solved analytically, we also discuss the implications of the shallow- and deep-water approximations on the wavelength of the resonant mode.

  19. Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu Li; Chen, Yifeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Quek, Su Ying; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao; Zheng, Yu Jie; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.

  20. Air Flow in a Separating Laminar Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubauer, G B

    1936-01-01

    The speed distribution in a laminar boundary layer on the surface of an elliptic cylinder, of major and minor axes 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, has been determined by means of a hot-wire anemometer. The direction of the impinging air stream was parallel to the major axis. Special attention was given to the region of separation and to the exact location of the point of separation. An approximate method, developed by K. Pohlhausen for computing the speed distribution, the thickness of the layer, and the point of separation, is described in detail; and speed-distribution curves calculated by this method are presented for comparison with experiment.

  1. Transport of contaminants in the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, I. Y.; Swan, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    A planetary boundary layer model is described and used to simulate PBL phenomena including cloud formation and pollution transport in the San Francisco Bay Area. The effect of events in the PBL on air pollution is considered, and governing equations for the average momentum, potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and air contaminants are presented. These equations are derived by integrating the basic equations vertically through the mixed layer. Characteristics of the day selected for simulation are reported, and the results suggest that the diurnally cyclic features of the mesoscale motion, including clouds and air pollution, can be simulated in a readily interpretable way with the model.

  2. Atmospheric tides on Venus. III - The planetary boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    1983-10-01

    Diurnal solar heating of Venus' surface produces variable temperatures, winds, and pressure gradients within a shallow layer at the bottom of the atmosphere. The corresponding asymmetric mass distribution experiences a tidal torque tending to maintain Venus' slow retrograde rotation. It is shown that including viscosity in the boundary layer does not materially affect the balance of torques. On the other hand, friction between the air and ground can reduce the predicted wind speeds from about 5 to about 1 m/sec in the lower atmosphere, more consistent with the observations from Venus landers and descent probes. Implications for aeolian activity on Venus' surface and for future missions are discussed.

  3. Logarithmic Boundary Layers in Strong Taylor-Couette Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef; Huisman, Sander; Ostilla, Rodolfo; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Grossmann, Siegfried

    2013-11-01

    We provide direct measurements of boundary layer profiles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re = 2 ×106 using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry, complemented by DNS data on the same system up to Re =105 . We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law, but with corrections due to the curvature of the cylinder, which we theoretically account for, based on the Navier-Stokes equation and a closure assumption for the turbulent diffusivity. In particular, we study how these corrections depend on the cylinder radius ratio and show that they are different for the boundary layers at the inner and at the outer cylinder.

  4. Characteristics of Mach 10 transitional and turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the mean flow properties of transitional and turbulent boundary layers in helium on 4 deg and 5 deg wedges were made for flows with edge Mach numbers from 9.5 to 11.3, ratios of wall temperature to total temperature of 0.4 to 0.95, and maximum length Reynolds numbers of one hundred million. The data include pitot and total temperature surveys and measurements of heat transfer and surface shear. In addition, with the assumption of local similarity, turbulence quantities such as the mixing length were derived from the mean flow profiles. Low Reynolds number and precursor transition effects were significant factors at these test conditions and were included in finite difference boundary layer predictions.

  5. 3D LDV Measurements in Oscillatory Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, J. M.; Garcia, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    The oscillatory boundary layer represents a particular case of unsteady wall-bounded flows in which fluid particles follow a periodic sinusoidal motion. Unlike steady boundary layer flows, the oscillatory flow regime and bed roughness character change in time along the period for every cycle, a characteristic that introduces a high degree of complexity in the analysis of these flows. Governing equations can be derived from the general Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of fluids, from which the exact solution for the laminar oscillatory boundary layer is obtained (also known as the 2nd Stokes problem). No exact solution exists for the turbulent case, thus, understanding of the main flow characteristics comes from experimental work. Several researchers have reported experimental work in oscillatory boundary layers since the 1960's; however, larger scale facilities and the development of newer measurement techniques with improved temporal and spatial resolution in recent years provides a unique opportunity to achieve a better understanding about this type of flows. Several experiments were performed in the Large Oscillatory Water and Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) facility at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, for a range of Reynolds wave numbers between 6x10^4 < Rew < 6x10^6 over a flat and smooth bottom. A 3D Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system was used to measure instantaneous flow velocities with a temporal resolution up to ~ 1,000 Hz. It was mounted on a 3-axis traverse with a spatial resolution of 0.01 mm in all three directions. The closest point to the bottom was measured at z = 0.2 mm (z+ ≈ 4), which allowed to capture boundary layer features with great detail. In order to achieve true 3D measurements, 2 probes were used on a perpendicular configuration, such that u and w components were measured from a probe on the side of the flume and v component was measured from a probe pointing down through and access window on top of the flume. The top probe

  6. Crossing shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.; Bogdonoff, S. M.; Horstman, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactions between crossing shock waves generated by symmetric sharp fins and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate are investigated experimentally and theoretically at Mach number 2.95 and freestream unit Reynolds number 1.96 x 10 to the 7th/ft. The incoming boundary layer has a thickness of 4 mm at the location of the fin leading edges. A comparison of experimental and computational results for two sets of fin angles (11 x 11 and 9 x 9 deg) shows general agreement with regard to surface pressure measurements and surface streamline patterns. The principal feature of the streamline structure is a collision of counterrotating vortical structures emanating from near the fin leading edges and meeting at the geometric centerline of the interaction.

  7. Turbulent boundary layers with large streamline curvature effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    It has been shown that turbulent flows are greatly affected by streamline curvature. In spite of this and the fact that curved shear flows are frequently encountered in engineering applications, the predictions of such flows are relatively less developed than the predictions of two-dimensional plane flows. Recently, various attempts were made by different investigators; however, their methods are only successful when the product of the boundary layer thickness to the local surface curvature is approximately 0.05. The present paper investigates the more general case where this product is in the range from 0.1 to 0.5. Results show that the calculated boundary-layer characteristics for arbitrary free stream conditions are in good agreement with measurements.

  8. Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.

  9. Excitation of Crossflow Instabilities in a Swept Wing Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2010-01-01

    The problem of crossflow receptivity is considered in the context of a canonical 3D boundary layer (viz., the swept Hiemenz boundary layer) and a swept airfoil used recently in the SWIFT flight experiment performed at Texas A&M University. First, Hiemenz flow is used to analyze localized receptivity due to a spanwise periodic array of small amplitude roughness elements, with the goal of quantifying the effects of array size and location. Excitation of crossflow modes via nonlocalized but deterministic distribution of surface nonuniformity is also considered and contrasted with roughness induced acoustic excitation of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. Finally, roughness measurements on the SWIFT model are used to model the effects of random, spatially distributed roughness of sufficiently small amplitude with the eventual goal of enabling predictions of initial crossflow disturbance amplitudes as functions of surface roughness parameters.

  10. Possibilities for drag reduction by boundary layer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, I.

    1946-01-01

    The mechanics of laminar boundary layer transition are reviewed. Drag possibilities for boundary layer control are analyzed using assumed conditions of transition Reynolds number, inlet loss, number of slots, blower efficiency, and duct losses. Although the results of such analysis are highly favorable, those obtained by experimental investigations yield conflicting results, showing only small gains, and sometimes losses. Reduction of this data indicates that there is a lower limit to the quantity of air which must be removed at the slot in order to stabilize the laminar flow. The removal of insufficient air permits transition to occur while the removal of excessive amounts of air results in high power costs, with a net drag increases. With the estimated value of flow coefficient and duct losses equal to half the dynamic pressure, drag reductions of 50% may be obtained; with twice this flow coefficient, the drag saving is reduced to 25%.

  11. Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer Flow of a Sisko Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood; Shahzad, Azeem

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the steady boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, represented by a Sisko fluid, over a wedge in a moving fluid. The equations of motion are derived for boundary layer flow of an incompressible Sisko fluid using appropriate similarity variables. The governing equations are reduced to a single third-order highly nonlinear ordinary differential equation in the dimensionless stream function, which is then solved analytically using the homotopy analysis method. Some important parameters have been discussed by this study, which include the power law index n, the material parameter A, the wedge shape factor b, and the skin friction coefficient Cf. A comprehensive study is made between the results of the Sisko and the power-law fluids.

  12. Boundary-layer turbulence as a kangaroo process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Maassen van den Brink, A.

    1995-09-01

    A nonlocal mixing-length theory of turbulence transport by finite size eddies is developed by means of a novel evaluation of the Reynolds stress. The analysis involves the contruct of a sample path space and a stochastic closure hypothesis. The simplifying property of exhange (strong eddies) is satisfied by an analytical sampling rate model. A nonlinear scaling relation maps the path space onto the semi-infinite boundary layer. The underlying near-wall behavior of fluctuating velocities perfectly agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The resulting integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities represents fully developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type of stochastic process. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ (with ɛ-->∞ in the diffusion limit). For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ~=0.58.

  13. Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A. C.

    1989-04-01

    The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations.

  14. Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.

  15. Optimal disturbances in boundary layers subject to streamwise pressure gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Tumin, Anatoli

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the optimal non-modal growth of perturbations in a boundary layer in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient is presented. The analysis is based on PSE equations for an incompressible fluid. Examples with Falkner-Scan profiles indicate that a favorable pressure gradient decreases the non-modal growth, while an unfavorable pressure gradient leads to an increase of the amplification. It is suggested that the transient growth mechanism be utilized to choose optimal parameters of tripping elements on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) airfoil. As an example, a boundary layer flow with a streamwise pressure gradient corresponding to the pressure distribution over a LPT airfoil is considered. It is shown that there is an optimal spacing of the tripping elements and that the transient growth effect depends on the starting point.

  16. A cloudiness transition in a marine boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, Reinout; Betts, Alan K.

    1990-01-01

    In situ aircraft data and lidar data are used to analyze a transition in the boundary layer thermodynamic structure from a clear boundary layer through small cumulus and broken stratocumulus to a deck of solid stratocumulus. The data was collected in conjunction with a Landsat overpass on July 7, 1987 off the coast of southern California. A steady progression in mixing line stability is seen associated with the change in cloudiness. The (empirically based) stability threshold for the breakup of this stratocumulus is that the slope of the mixing line is 0.66 + or - 0.04 of the slope of the wet virtual adiabat. A simple linear parameterization is proposed for cloud fraction in terms of mixing line stability. Surface flux measurements are consistent with bulk aerodynamic estimates.

  17. Calculation of turbulent shear stress in supersonic boundary layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. C.; Childs, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of turbulent boundary layer flow characteristics and the computational procedure used are discussed. The integrated mass and momentum flux profiles and differentials of the integral quantities are used in the computations so that local evaluation of the streamwise velocity gradient is not necessary. The computed results are compared with measured shear stress data obtained by using hot wire anemometer and laser velocimeter techniques. The flow measurements were made upstream and downstream of an adiabatic unseparated interaction of an oblique shock wave with the turbulent boundary layer on the flat wall of a two dimensional wind tunnel. A comparison of the numerical analysis and actual measurements is made and the effects of small differences in mean flow profiles on the computed shear stress distributions are discussed.

  18. A review of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    The essential results of a comprehensive review of existing unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are presented. Different types of unsteady flow facilities are described, and the related unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are cataloged and discussed. The measurements that were obtained in the various experiments are described, and a complete list of experimental results is presented. All the experiments that measured instantaneous values of velocity, turbulence intensity, or turbulent shear stress are identified, and the availability of digital data is indicated. The results of the experiments are analyzed, and several significant trends are identified. An assessment of the available data is presented, delineating gaps in the existing data, and indicating where new or extended information is needed. Guidelines for future experiments are included.

  19. Linear stability theory and three-dimensional boundary layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spall, Robert E.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of linear stability theory and three dimensional boundary layer transition are provided. The ability to predict, using analytical tools, the location of boundary layer transition over aircraft-type configurations is of great importance to designers interested in laminar flow control (LFC). The e(sup N) method has proven to be fairly effective in predicting, in a consistent manner, the location of the onset of transition for simple geometries in low disturbance environments. This method provides a correlation between the most amplified single normal mode and the experimental location of the onset of transition. Studies indicate that values of N between 8 and 10 correlate well with the onset of transition. For most previous calculations, the mean flows were restricted to two-dimensional or axisymmetric cases, or have employed simple three-dimensional mean flows (e.g., rotating disk, infinite swept wing, or tapered swept wing with straight isobars). Unfortunately, for flows over general wing configurations, and for nearly all flows over fuselage-type bodies at incidence, the analysis of fully three-dimensional flow fields is required. Results obtained for the linear stability of fully three-dimensional boundary layers formed over both wing and fuselage-type geometries, and for both high and low speed flows are discussed. When possible, transition estimates form the e(sup N) method are compared to experimentally determined locations. The stability calculations are made using a modified version of the linear stability code COSAL. Mean flows were computed using both Navier Stokes and boundary-layer codes.

  20. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  1. Grey zone simulations of the morning convective boundary layer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G. A.; Beare, R. J.; Osborne, S.; Lock, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical simulations of two cases of morning boundary layer development are conducted to investigate the impact of grid resolution on mean profiles and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) partitioning from the large eddy simulation (LES) to the mesoscale limit. Idealized LES, using the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme, is shown to be capable of reproducing the boundary layer evolution when compared against measurements. However, increasing grid spacing results in the damping of resolved TKE and the production of superadiabatic temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Turbulence initiation is significantly delayed, exhibiting an abrupt onset at intermediate resolutions. Two approaches, the bounding of vertical diffusion coefficient and the blending of the 3-D Smagorinsky with a nonlocal 1D scheme, are used to model subgrid diffusion at grey zone resolutions. Simulations are compared against the coarse-grained fields from the validated LES results for each case. Both methods exhibit particular strengths and weaknesses, indicating the compromise that needs to be made currently in high-resolution numerical weather prediction. The blending scheme is able to reproduce the adiabatic profiles although turbulence is underestimated in favor of the parametrized heat flux, and the spin-up of TKE remains delayed. In contrast, the bounding approach gives an evolution of TKE that follows the coarse-grained LES very well, relying on the resolved motions for the nonlocal heat flux. However, bounding gives unrealistic static instability in the early morning temperature profiles (similar to the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme) because model dynamics are unable to resolve TKE when the boundary layer is too shallow compared to the grid spacing.

  2. Some physical aspects of shock wave/boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Délery, Jean; Dussauge, Jean-Paul

    2009-12-01

    When the flow past a vehicle flying at high velocity becomes supersonic, shock waves form, caused either by a change in the slope of a surface, a downstream obstacle or a back pressure constraining the flow to become subsonic. In modern aerodynamics, one can cite a large number of circumstances where shock waves are present. The encounter of a shock wave with a boundary layer results in complex phenomena because of the rapid retardation of the boundary layer flow and the propagation of the shock in a multilayered structure. The consequence of shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) are multiple and often critical for the vehicle or machine performance. The shock submits the boundary layer to an adverse pressure gradient which may strongly distort its velocity profile. At the same time, in turbulent flows, turbulence production is enhanced which amplifies the viscous dissipation leading to aggravated performance losses. In addition, shock-induced separation most often results in large unsteadiness which can damage the vehicle structure or, at least, severely limit its performance. The article first presents basic and well-established results on the physics of SWBLI corresponding to a description in terms of an average two-dimensional steady flow. Such a description allows apprehending the essential properties of SWBLIs and drawing the main features of the overall flow structure associated with SWBLI. Then, some emphasis is placed on unsteadiness in SWBLI which constitutes a salient feature of this phenomenon. In spite of their importance, fluctuations in SWBLI have been considered since a relatively recent date although they represent a domain which deserves a special attention because of its importance for a clear physical understanding of interactions and of its practical consequences as in aeroelasticity.

  3. A pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar for boundary layer monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Guy N.

    1992-01-01

    A monostatic, master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA), CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar was constructed and tested. The system is compact (120 x 60 cm), operates at high pulse repetition rates (greater than 1 kHz) and is intended for simultaneous Doppler/Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) monitoring of the planetary boundary layer. Details of the system design, hard target calibrations, and aerosol returns are presented.

  4. Boundary Layer Transition Experiments in Support of the Hypersonics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Chen, Fang-Jenq; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

    2007-01-01

    Two experimental boundary layer transition studies in support of fundamental hypersonics research are reviewed. The two studies are the HyBoLT flight experiment and a new ballistic range effort. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with each experimental program. The establishment of experimental databases from ground and flight are to provide better understanding of high-speed flows and data to validate and guide the development of simulation tools.

  5. Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary Layer Interactions. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and numerical results are presented, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in course of preparation.

  6. Identifying Boundary-Layer Transitions on Aircraft Skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Croom, C. C.; Kelliher, W. C.; Obara, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Sublimating chemicals offer accurate, low-cost way of indicating laminarto-turbulent flow transisions on surfaces of aircraft. Aerodynamic surfaces coated with thin film of such volatile chemical solids as naphthalene, diphenyl, acenaphthene, or fluorene. Film sublimes rapidly because of high local shear stress and heat transfer in boundary layer. Coating appears white in regions where chemical remained on surface indicating laminar flow; regions where chemical disappeared indicate turbulent flow.

  7. Boundary layer elasto-optic switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The first experimental observation of a change in the director azimuthal angle due to applied shear stress is reported in a sample configuration involving a liquid-crystal-coated top surface exposed directly to gas flow. The electrooptic response caused by the shear stress is large, fast, and reversible. These findings are relevant to the use of liquid crystals in boundary layer investigations on wind tunnel models.

  8. Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.

    1992-01-01

    A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.

  9. Investigation of the Interaction of External Disturbances with Roughened Flat Plate Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.; Dietz, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of an external disturbance with a laminar boundary layer over a flat plate with distributed roughness is investigated using combined experimental and numerical methods. The experiment is modeled with an unsteady boundary layer code using second order backward differencing. The simulation includes the second order scattering from roughness elements at and near the first streamwise station of predicted boundary layer instability. A comparison of experimental measurements of the boundary layer perturbation due to the wake from a vibrating ribbon with the computed first order forced boundary layer perturbation showed excellent agreement. Second order roughness induced eigenfunctions from boundary layer theory are examined and compared with other forms of excitation

  10. Improving Subtropical Boundary Layer Cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Xiao, Heng; Sun, Ruiyu N.; Han, J.

    2014-09-23

    The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.

  11. Review of Orbiter Flight Boundary Layer Transition Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginley, Catherine B.; Berry, Scott A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Barnell, maria; Wang, Kuo C.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2006-01-01

    In support of the Shuttle Return to Flight program, a tool was developed to predict when boundary layer transition would occur on the lower surface of the orbiter during reentry due to the presence of protuberances and cavities in the thermal protection system. This predictive tool was developed based on extensive wind tunnel tests conducted after the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Recognizing that wind tunnels cannot simulate the exact conditions an orbiter encounters as it re-enters the atmosphere, a preliminary attempt was made to use the documented flight related damage and the orbiter transition times, as deduced from flight instrumentation, to calibrate the predictive tool. After flight STS-114, the Boundary Layer Transition Team decided that a more in-depth analysis of the historical flight data was needed to better determine the root causes of the occasional early transition times of some of the past shuttle flights. In this paper we discuss our methodology for the analysis, the various sources of shuttle damage information, the analysis of the flight thermocouple data, and how the results compare to the Boundary Layer Transition prediction tool designed for Return to Flight.

  12. Unsteady low Reynolds number shock boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loth, E.; Matthys, Mark W.

    1995-05-01

    Finite element methods were used to perform an investigation of the interaction between a reflected shock wave and a low Reynolds number laminar boundary layer in Mach 2 flow. The finite element scheme makes use of the time-accurate flux-corrected transport technique and a fully unstructured mesh, which is adaptive to both viscous and gasdynamic effects. A boundary layer transformation was employed to eliminate both the upstream pressure gradient and resolution issues of the leading edge flow. Shock wave/boundary layer interactions were simulated for four different shock intersection Reynolds numbers: 600, 2400, 9600, and 24 000. While significant amounts of flow separation were found for all Reynolds numbers, the character and size of the separated region varied significantly. It was also noted that separation bubble lengths when normalized by the distance from the leading edge to the shock intersection point decreased as the Reynolds number increased for the conditions considered herein. However, the most interesting observation was the inherent unsteadiness found for the higher Reynolds numbers. This led to separation bubble instability and vortex shedding for the two highest Reynolds number cases. The results indicated a natural shedding frequency of 1.3 based on ambient velocity and primary separation bubble length for these two cases.

  13. Manipulation of Turbulent Boundary Layers Using Synthetic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Zachary; Gomit, Guillaume; Lavoie, Philippe; Ganapathisubramani, Bharath

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the application of active flow control, in the form of synthetic jet actuators, of turbulent boundary layers. An array of 2 synthetic jets are oriented in the spanwise direction and located approximately 2.7 meters downstream from the leading edge of a flat plate. Actuation is applied perpendicular to the surface of the flat plate with varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies (open-loop). Two-component large window particle image velocimetry (PIV) was performed at the University of Southampton, in the streamwise-wall-normal plane. Complementary stereo PIV measurements were performed at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), in the spanwise-wall-normal plane. The freestream Reynolds number is 3x104, based on the boundary layer thickness. The skin friction Reynolds number is 1,200 based on the skin friction velocity. The experiments at Southampton allow for the observation of the control effects as the flow propagates downstream. The experiments at UTIAS allow for the observation of the streamwise vorticity induced from the actuation. Overall the two experiments provide a 3D representation of the flow field with respect to actuation effects. The current work focuses on the comparison of the two experiments, as well as the effects of varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies on the turbulent boundary layer. Funded Supported by Airbus.

  14. Study of the morning transition of the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, M.; Yagüe, C.; Maqueda, G.; Viana, S.

    2009-04-01

    In this work it will be analyzed the main physical processes related to the transition of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) that takes place from the last hours of the night until the first hours of the morning. In order to achieve that, it will be used data from field campaigns which took place in the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA), especially those gathered in the campaign carried out in June, 2008 where information was obtained from a 10m height mast provided with temperature, wind speed and direction, and moisture sensors at several levels. Also a sonic anemometer (20 Hz sampling rate) at 10m was available. The database is complemented by a triangle of microbarometers installed next to the surface, and another two microbarometers placed in a 100m meteorological tower at 50 and 100m respectively. A GRIMM particle monitor (MODEL 365), which can be used to continuously measure each six seconds simultaneously the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 values, was also available to evaluate the degree of mixing taking place near the surface. The thermodynamic characteristics of the first hundreds of meters remain registered from information obtained with a tethered balloon and with a RASS-SODAR. The main turbulent and stability parameters, as well as coherent structures present in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer are studied in connection to their influence in the developing of the next Convective Boundary Layer.

  15. Boundary Layer Transition in the NTF: HSR Experience and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Wahls, Richard A.; Hamner, Marvine P.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts towards understanding boundary layer transition characteristics on a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)-class configuration in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) are ongoing. The majority of the High Speed Research (HSR) data base in the NTF has free transition on the wing, even at low Reynolds numbers (Rn) attainable in conventional facilities. Limited data has been obtained and is described herein showing the effects of a conventional, Braslow method based wing boundary-layer trip on drag. Comparisons are made using force data polars and surface flow visualization at selected angles-of-attack and Mach number. Minimum drag data obtained in this study suggest that boundary layer transition occurred very near the wing leading edge by a chord Rn of 30 million. Sublimating chemicals were used in the air mode of operation only at low Rn and low angles-of-attack with no flap deflections; sublimation results suggest that the forebody and outboard wing panel are the only regions with significant laminar flow. The process and issues related to the sublimating chemical technique as applied in the NTF are discussed. Beyond the existing experience, status of efforts to develop a production transition detection system applicable to both air and cryogenic nitrogen environments is presented.

  16. Numerical simulation of shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    1993-01-01

    Most flows of aerodynamic interest are compressible and turbulent. However, our present knowledge on the structures and mechanisms of turbulence is mostly based on incompressible flows. In the present work, compressibility effects in turbulent, high-speed, boundary layer flows are systematically investigated using the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach. Three-dimensional, time-dependent, fully nonlinear, compressible Navier-Stokes equations were numerically integrated by high-order finite-difference methods; no modeling for turbulence is used during the solution because the available resolution is sufficient to capture the relevant scales. The boundary layer problem deals with fully-turbulent compressible flows over flat geometries. Apart from its practical relevance to technological flows, turbulent compressible boundary layer flow is the simplest experimentally realizable turbulent compressible flow. Still, measuring difficulties prohibit a detailed experimental description of the flow, especially in the near-wall region. DNS studies provide a viable means to probe the physics of compressible turbulence in this region. The focus of this work is to explore the paths of energy transfer through which compressible turbulence is sustained. The structural similarities and differences between the incompressible and compressible turbulence are also investigated. The energy flow patterns or energy cascades are found to be directly related to the evolution of vortical structures which are generated in the near-wall region. Near-wall structures, and mechanisms which are not readily accessible through physical experiments are analyzed and their critical role on the evolution and the behavior of the flow is documented extensively.

  17. Minnowbrook II 1997 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaGraff John E. (Editor); Ashpis, David E. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The volume contains materials presented at the Minnowbrook II - 1997 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines, held at Syracuse University Minnowbrook Conference Center, New York, on September 7-10, 1997. The workshop followed the informal format at the 1993 Minnowbrook I workshop, focusing on improving the understanding of late stage (final breakdown) boundary layer transition, with the engineering application of improving design codes for turbomachinery in mind. Among the physical mechanisms discussed were hydrodynamic instabilities, laminar to turbulent transition, bypass transition, turbulent spots, wake interaction with boundary layers, calmed regions, and separation, all in the context of flow in turbomachinery, particularly in compressors and high and low pressure turbines. Results from experiments, DNS, computation, modeling and theoretical analysis were presented. Abstracts and copies of viewgraphs, a specifically commissioned summation paper prepared after the workshop, and a transcript of the extensive working group reports and discussions are included in this volume. They provide recommendations for future research and clearly highlight the need for continued vigorous research in the technologically important area of transition in turbomachines.

  18. Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.

  19. Measurements Of Instability And Transition In Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Katya M.; Schneider, Steven P.; Beresh, Steven J.

    2011-05-01

    Several studies on boundary-layer instability and transition have been conducted in the Boeing/AFOSR-Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) and the Sandia Hypersonic Wind Tunnels (HWT) at Mach 5 and 8. The first study looked at the effect of freestream noise on roughness- induced transition on a blunt cone. Temperature-sensitive paints were used to visualize the wake of an isolated roughness element at zero deg angle of attack in the BAM6QT. Transition was always delayed under quiet flow compared to noisy flow, even for an effective trip height. The second study measured transitional surface pressure fluctuations on a seven degree half-angle sharp cone in the HWT under noisy flow and in the BAM6QT under noisy and quiet flow. Fluctuations under laminar boundary layers reflected tunnel noise levels. Transition on the model only occurred under noisy flow, and fluctuations peaked during transition. Measurements of second- mode waves showed the waves started to grow under a laminar boundary layer, saturated, and then broke down near the peak in transitional pressure fluctuations. The third study looked at the development of wave packets and turbulent spots on the BAM6QT nozzle wall. A spark perturber was used to generate controlled disturbances. Measurements of the internal structure of the pressure field of the disturbances were made.

  20. Boundary-layer equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panaras, Argyris G.

    1987-01-01

    A set of higher-order boundary-layer equations is derived valid for three-dimensional compressible flows. The equations are written in a generalized curvilinear coordinate system, in which the surface coordinates are nonorthogonal; the third axis is restricted to be normal to the surface. Also, higher-order viscous terms which are retained depend on the surface curvature of the body. Thus, the equations are suitable for the calculation of the boundary layer about arbitrary vehicles. As a starting point, the Navier-Stokes equations are derived in a tensorian notation. Then by means of an order-of-magnitude analysis, the boundary-layer equations are developed. To provide an interface between the analytical partial differentiation notation and the compact tensor notation, a brief review of the most essential theorems of the tensor analysis related to the equations of the fluid dynamics is given. Many useful quantities, such as the contravariant and the covariant metrics and the physical velocity components, are written in both notations.

  1. Turbulent thermal boundary layers subjected to severe acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano

    2013-11-01

    Favorable turbulent boundary layers are flows of great importance in industry. Particularly, understanding the mechanisms of quasi-laminarization by means of a very strong favorable streamwise pressure gradient is indeed crucial in drag reduction and energy management applications. Furthermore, due to the low Reynolds numbers involved in the quasi-laminarization process, abundant experimental investigation can be found in the literature for the past few decades. However, several grey zones still remain unsolved, principally associated with the difficulties that experiments encounter as the boundary layer becomes smaller. In addition, little attention has been paid to the heat transfer in a quasi-laminarization process. In this investigation, DNS of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers with prescribed very strong favorable pressure gradients (K = 4 × 10-6) are performed. Realistic inflow conditions are prescribed based on the Dynamic Multi-scale Approach (DMA) [Araya et al. JFM, Vol. 670, pp. 581-605, 2011]. In this sense the flow carries the footprint of turbulence, particularly in the streamwise component of the Reynolds stresses.

  2. Some characteristics of bypass transition in a heated boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, K. H.; Reshotko, E.; O'Brien, J. E.

    Experimental measurements of both mean and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers on a heated flat plate are presented. Measurements were obtained in air over a range of freestream turbulence intensities from 0.3 percent to 6 percent with a freestream velocity of 30.5 m/s and zero pressure gradient. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layers indicate the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, especially pronounced at low intermittencies. Nonturbulent intervals were observed to possess large levels of low-frequency unsteadiness, and turbulent intervals had peak intensities as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Heat transfer results were consistent with results of previous researches and Reynolds analogy factors were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for unheated starting length. A small dependence of the turbulent Reynolds analogy factors on freestream turbulence level was observed. Laminar boundary layer spectra indicated selective amplification of unstable frequencies. These instabilities appear to play a dominant role in the transition process only for the lowest freestream turbulence level studied, however.

  3. Some characteristics of bypass transition in a heated boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, K. H.; Obrien, J. E.; Reshotko, E.

    Experimental measurements of both mean and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers on a heated flat plate are presented. Measurements were obtained in air over a range of freestream turbulence intensities from 0.3 percent to 6 percent with a freestream velocity of 30.5 m/s and zero pressure gradient. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layers indicate the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, especially pronounced at low intermittencies. Nonturbulent intervals were observed to possess large levels of low-frequency unsteadiness, and turbulent intervals had peak intensities as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Heat transfer results were consistent with results of previous researchers and Reynolds analogy factors were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for unheated starting length. A small dependence of the turbulent Reynolds analogy factors on freestream turbulence level was observed. Laminar boundary layer spectra indicated selective amplification of unstable frequencies. These instabilities appear to play a dominant role in the transition process only for the lowest freestream turbulence level studied, however.

  4. Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.L.; Horwitz, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of earthward streaming protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer are investigated in a model magnetosphere from the analysis of single particle trajectories. The phase space of initial proton distributions within the plasmasheet boundary layer out to 40 Earth radii (R/sub e/) can be separated into four major components. In a region outside the loss cone, protons with pitch angles less than about 2.6/sup 0/ can make it to the auroral zone at S3-3 altitudes and below. Protons at all other pitch angles, with speeds greater than about 1100 km/s, reflect (or mirror) at high latitudes near the Earth and return tailward, often convecting toward the inner plasmasheet. Protons with velocities as high as 800 km/s, regardless of pitch angle, are found to mirror such that they are ''trapped'' in the ring current region of the magnetosphere. These results are dependent on the magnitude and direction of the convection electric field, such that during geomagnetic storms with higher convection electric fields, higher energies of the plasmasheet boundary layer protons would be expected to reach the low-latitude portions of the ring current.

  5. Numerical Investigation of a Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Fredericks, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a numerical assessment of the performance of fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion techniques was conducted. This study is an initial investigation into coupling the aerodynamics of the fuselage with a BLI propulsion system to determine if there is sufficient potential to warrant further investigation of this concept. Numerical simulations of flow around baseline, Boundary Layer Controlled (BLC), and propelled boundary layer controlled airships were performed. Computed results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data and previous numerical studies. Numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on four BLI configurations. The two design variables selected for the parametric study of the new configurations were the inlet area and the inlet to exit area ratio. Current results show that BLI propulsors may offer power savings of up to 85% over the baseline configuration. These interim results include the simplifying assumption that inlet ram drag is negligible and therefore likely overstate the reduction in power. It has been found that inlet ram drag is not negligible and should be included in future analysis.

  6. Coupling of magnetopause-boundary layer to the polar ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, C.Q.; Lee, L.C. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors develop a model which seeks to explain ultraviolet auroral images from the Viking satellite which show periodic bright regions which resemble [open quotes]beads[close quotes] or [open quotes]pearls[close quotes] aligned along the postnoon auroral oval. ULF geomagnetic pulsations observed in the cusp region are also addressed by this model. The model addresses plasma dynamics in the low-latitude boundary layer and interactions with the polar ionosphere by means of field-aligned current. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can develop in the presence of driven plasma flow, which can lead to the formation and growth of plasma vortices in the boundary layer. The finite conductivity of the earth ionosphere causes these vortices to decay. However regions of enhanced field-aligned power density in the postnoon auroral oval can be associated with field-aligned current filaments and boundary layer vortices. These structures may explain the observed bright spots. The authors also discuss the frequency spectrum and the polarization state of the pulsations.

  7. On Parameterizing Turbulence in the Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jordan M.; Venayagamoorthy, Subhas K.

    2014-11-01

    Parameterizing turbulent mixing in the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer remains an active area of research connecting available field measurements with appropriate model parameters. The research presented studies the pertinent mixing lengths for shear- and buoyancy-dominated (or weakly stable and very stable) regimes in the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL). Incorporating shear and buoyancy effects, two length scales can be constructed, LkS =k 1 / 2 / S and LkN =k 1 / 2 / N , respectively. Extending the conceptual framework of Mater & Venayagamoorthy (2014), LkS and LkN are shown to be accurate representations of large-scale motions from which relevant model parameters are developed using observations from three field campaigns. An a priori analysis of large-eddy simulation (LES) data evaluates the efficacy of parameterizations applied to the vertical structure of the SABL. The results of this study provide a thorough evaluation of the pertinent mixing lengths in stably stratified turbulence through applications to atmospheric observations and numerical models for the boundary layer extendable to larger-scale weather prediction or global circulation models. S.K.V. gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OCE-1151838.

  8. RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!

  9. A Parameterization of Intermittent Turbulence in the Stable Boundary Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J K; Nitao, E N; Loosmore, G A

    2003-08-01

    This model explores the interaction between a cooling vegetated surface and the lower atmosphere. Neglecting any possibility of intermittence generated from the top of the stable boundary layer, the frequency of intermittency can be defined as a function of the three input quantities--pressure gradient force, cloud cover fraction, and boundary layer height. It is not clear if the amplitude of the intermittency and the time to reach a quasi-steady state can also be described as a function of the inputs. In addition, time-dependent inputs have an effect on the overall intermittency. Fluctuations in the pressure gradient force have the most influence in decreasing the periods while varying cloud cover fraction decreases the amplitude of the intermittence. It is unclear whether the transition time is affected by the fluctuating inputs. To gauge the sufficiency of this model, the results must be compared to experimental studies and models that include the forcing at the top of the stable boundary layer.

  10. Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Steven K.

    1998-01-01

    The interactions between sea ice, open ocean, atmospheric radiation, and clouds over the Arctic Ocean exert a strong influence on global climate. Uncertainties in the formulation of interactive air-sea-ice processes in global climate models (GCMs) result in large differences between the Arctic, and global, climates simulated by different models. Arctic stratus clouds are not well-simulated by GCMs, yet exert a strong influence on the surface energy budget of the Arctic. Leads (channels of open water in sea ice) have significant impacts on the large-scale budgets during the Arctic winter, when they contribute about 50 percent of the surface fluxes over the Arctic Ocean, but cover only 1 to 2 percent of its area. Convective plumes generated by wide leads may penetrate the surface inversion and produce condensate that spreads up to 250 km downwind of the lead, and may significantly affect the longwave radiative fluxes at the surface and thereby the sea ice thickness. The effects of leads and boundary layer clouds must be accurately represented in climate models to allow possible feedbacks between them and the sea ice thickness. The FIRE III Arctic boundary layer clouds field program, in conjunction with the SHEBA ice camp and the ARM North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean site, will offer an unprecedented opportunity to greatly improve our ability to parameterize the important effects of leads and boundary layer clouds in GCMs.

  11. Using UAV's to Measure the Urban Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, R. L.; Sankaran, R.; Beckman, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    The urban boundary layer is one of the most poorly studied regions of the atmospheric boundary layer. Since a majority of the world's population now lives in urban areas, it is becoming a more important region to measure and model. The combination of relatively low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles and low-cost sensors can together provide a new instrument for measuring urban and other boundary layers. We have mounted a new sensor and compute platform called Waggle on an off-the-shelf XR8 octo-copter from 3DRobotics. Waggle consists of multiple sensors for measuring pressure, temperature and humidity as well as trace gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone. A single board computer running Linux included in Waggle on the UAV allows in-situ processing and data storage. Communication of the data is through WiFi or 3G and the Waggle software can save the data in case communication is lost during flight. The flight pattern is a deliberately simple vertical ascent and descent over a fixed location to provide vertical profiles and so flights can be confined to urban parks, industrial areas or the footprint of a single rooftop. We will present results from test flights in urban and rural areas in and around Chicago.

  12. Iodine Monoxide in the Antarctic Marine Boundary Layer: Recent Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Udo; Zielcke, Johannes; Pöhler, Denis; Nasse, Jan-Marcus; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) is thought to play an important role in the chemistry of the Antarctic marine boundary layer (MBL). Produced either by organic precursors or by inorganic processes, large areas of enhanced IO were detected by satellite not only around the coast of Antarctica, but also over the continent far from the coastal source regions. In the past, several active and passive remote sensing measurements at coastal stations confirmed the presence of IO, which is expected to have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity and the ozone budget in the MBL. We present a summary of recent findings regarding IO in the Antarctic MBL, with a focus on two measurement campaigns conducted at the German Research Station Neumayer (70°S, 8°W), the New Zealand Station Scott Base (177°E, 78°S) and in the marginal sea ice zone of the Wedell Sea onboard the German research vessel Polarstern in austral summer 2011, spring 2012, and winter/spring 2013, respectively. During all three campaigns, IO was measured using a combination of active and passive DOAS remote sensing instruments, including a newly developed mobile open-path cavity-enhanced DOAS instrument. Satellite measurements indicate that the area around Scott Base in the Ross Sea, but also the marginal sea ice zone, are subject to particularly high levels of IO. However, in contrast to previous ground-based and satellite borne observations, we find surprisingly low IO concentrations at Neumayer, Scott Base and in the marginal sea ice zone, with IO being below the detection limit (< 0.5 ppt) of the active DOAS instruments at all times. This raises the question to what extent IO is of importance for the chemistry of the Antarctic MBL.

  13. Self-organization in cathode boundary layer microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; Moselhy, Mohamed; Shi, Wenhui

    2004-02-01

    Direct current glow discharges in xenon between a flat, 100 µm thin cathode and a ring shaped anode, separated by a distance of 250 µm, were found to be stable up to atmospheric pressure. The glow discharge structure in this electrode configuration reduces to only the cathode fall and negative glow, with the negative glow plasma serving to conduct the current radially to the circular anode. Photographs taken in the visible range of the spectrum and at the wavelength of excimer emission for xenon (172 nm) indicate the transition from a homogeneous plasma to a structured plasma when the current is reduced beyond a critical value that is dependent on pressure. The plasma pattern consists of filamentary structures arranged in concentric circles. The structures are most pronounced at pressures below 200 Torr and become less regular when the pressure is increased. The self-organization of such plasmas indicates the existence of two branches of the voltage-current density (V-J) characteristic with positive slope. For conventional glow discharges in the current range of interest (milliampere), the only discharge mode with a positive slope of the V-J characteristic is the abnormal glow mode. At a critical current density, the discharge transfers from the abnormal glow into an arc. However, by cooling the cathode, it seems to be possible to stabilize the discharge, even in the glow-to-arc transition range. This second stable region in the V-J characteristic of such 'cathode boundary layer discharges' would explain the existence of a plasma pattern with two distinct values of current density at the same discharge voltage.

  14. Characterization of internal boundary layer capacitors based upon barium titanate and strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hyun Duk

    1981-01-01

    The nature of ceramic microstructure and the electrical properties of individual grains and junctions was determined by STEM, microprobe analysis and microscale electrical measurements. The chemical compositions of the resistive boundary regions were different from those of the grains. Additives were concentrated in the boundary regions, forming resistive layers. Limited diffusion of the counterdopants into the grain subsurface formed an interfacial compensation layer between the insulating intergranular layer and the semiconducting grains. The electrical behavior of this intermediate layer was found to be similar to that of a depletion layer. Ceramic microstructures were approximated by a three-layer n-c-i-c-n model and representive equivalent circuit, which was used to explain the voltage dependence of the dielectric constant and dispersion behavior. Calculated properties were in good agreement with experimental values. Fine grain microstructures developed by liquid phase sintering techniques, were suitable for high dielectric constant multilayer capacitors, based upon internal boundary layer phenomena, and these capacitors had stable dielectric characteristics.

  15. Saharan dust contribution to the Caribbean summertime boundary layer - a lidar study during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groß, Silke; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Müller, Thomas; Sauer, Daniel; Toledano, Carlos; Ansmann, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Dual-wavelength lidar measurements with the small lidar system POLIS of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München were performed during the SALTRACE experiment at Barbados in June and July 2013. Based on high-accuracy measurements of the linear depolarization ratio down to about 200 m above ground level, the dust volume fraction and the dust mass concentration within the convective marine boundary layer can be derived. Additional information from radiosonde launches at the ground-based measurement site provide independent information on the convective marine boundary layer height and the meteorological situation within the convective marine boundary layer. We investigate the lidar-derived optical properties, the lidar ratio and the particle linear depolarization ratio at 355 and 532 nm and find mean values of 0.04 (SD 0.03) and 0.05 (SD 0.04) at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, for the particle linear depolarization ratio, and (26 ± 5) sr for the lidar ratio at 355 and 532 nm. For the concentration of dust in the convective marine boundary layer we find that most values were between 20 and 50 µg m-3. On most days the dust contribution to total aerosol volume was about 30-40 %. Comparing the dust contribution to the column-integrated sun-photometer measurements we see a correlation between high dust contribution, high total aerosol optical depth and a low Angström exponent, and of low dust contribution with low total aerosol optical depth.

  16. Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Dynamics with Constant Bowen Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, Amilcare

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the observation that the diurnal evolution of sensible and latent heat fluxes tends to maintain a constant Bowen ratio, we derive approximate solutions of the ordinary differential equations of a simplified atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) model. Neglecting the early morning transition, the potential temperature and specific humidity of the mixed layer are found to be linearly related to the ABL height. Similar behaviour is followed by the inversion strengths of temperature and humidity at the top of the ABL. The potential temperature of the mixed layer depends on the entrainment parameter and the free-atmosphere temperature lapse rate, while the specific humidity also depends on the free-atmosphere humidity lapse rate and the Bowen ratio. The temporal dynamics appear only implicitly in the evolution of the height of the boundary layer, which in turn depends on the time-integrated surface sensible heat flux. Studying the limiting behaviour of the Bowen ratio for very low and very large values of net available energy, we also show how the tendency to maintain constant Bowen ratio during midday hours stems from its relative insensitivity to the atmospheric conditions for large values of net available energy. The analytical expression for the diurnal evolution of the ABL obtained with constant Bowen ratio is simple and provides a benchmark for the results of more complex models.

  17. The Benthic Boundary Layer: Transport Processes and Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Duren, Luca A.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    Interdisciplinary research is certainly one of the current buzzwords that needs to be incorporated in virtually every grant proposal. The idea that integration of different scientific fields is a prerequisite for progress in Earth sciences is now well recognized. The benthic boundary layer (BBL) is one area of research in which physicists, chemists, biologists, geologists, and engineers have worked in close and fruitful cooperation for several decades. The BBL comprises the near-bottom layer of water, the sediment-water interface, and the top layer of sediment that is directly influenced by the overlying water. In 1974, a BBL conference in France resulted in a book titled The Benthic Boundary Layer edited by I.N. McCave. This publication contained contributions from scientists from a wide range of disciplines and gave an overview of the state-of-the-art of BBL research. However, science has moved on in the past 25 years. Significant conceptual and technological progress has been made, and it is definitely time for an update.

  18. Modeling of the Coastal Boundary Layer and Pollutant Transport in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angevine, Wayne M.; Tjernström, Michael; Žagar, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of ozone exceeding regulatory standards are regularly observed along the coasts of New Hampshire and Maine in summer. These events are primarily caused by the transport of pollutants from urban areas in Massachusetts and farther south and west. Pollutant transport is most efficient over the ocean. The coastline makes transport processes complex because it makes the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer complex. During pollution episodes, the air over land in daytime is warmer than the sea surface, so air transported from land over water becomes statically stable and the formerly well-mixed boundary layer separates into possibly several layers, each transported in a different direction. This study examines several of the atmospheric boundary layer processes involved in pollutant transport. A three-dimensional model [the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)] run on grids of 2.5 and 7.5 km is used to examine the winds, thermodynamic structure, and structure of tracer plumes emitted from Boston, Massachusetts, and New York City, New York, in two different real cases—one dominated by large-scale transport (22 23 July 2002) and one with important mesoscale effects (11 14 August 2002). The model simulations are compared with measurements taken during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study. The model simulates the basic structure of the two different episodes well. The boundary layer stability over the cold water is weaker in the model than in reality. The tracer allows for easy visualization of the pollutant transport.

  19. Turbulence measurements in hypersonic boundary layers using constant-temperature anemometry and Reynolds stress measurements in hypersonic boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spina, Eric F.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective in the two research investigations performed under NASA Langley sponsorship (Turbulence measurements in hypersonic boundary layers using constant temperature anemometry and Reynolds stress measurements in hypersonic boundary layers) has been to increase the understanding of the physics of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The study began with an extension of constant-temperature thermal anemometry techniques to a Mach 11 helium flow, including careful examinations of hot-wire construction techniques, system response, and system calibration. This was followed by the application of these techniques to the exploration of a Mach 11 helium turbulent boundary layer (To approximately 290 K). The data that was acquired over the course of more than two years consists of instantaneous streamwise mass flux measurements at a frequency response of about 500 kHz. The data are of exceptional quality in both the time and frequency domain and possess a high degree of repeatability. The data analysis that has been performed to date has added significantly to the body of knowledge on hypersonic turbulence, and the data reduction is continuing. An attempt was then made to extend these thermal anemometry techniques to higher enthalpy flows, starting with a Mach 6 air flow with a stagnation temperature just above that needed to prevent liquefaction (To approximately 475 F). Conventional hot-wire anemometry proved to be inadequate for the selected high-temperature, high dynamic pressure flow, with frequent wire breakage and poor system frequency response. The use of hot-film anemometry has since been investigated for these higher-enthalpy, severe environment flows. The difficulty with using hot-film probes for dynamic (turbulence) measurements is associated with construction limitations and conduction of heat into the film substrate. Work continues under a NASA GSRP grant on the development of a hot film probe that overcomes these shortcomings for hypersonic

  20. PIV-based pressure fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi, Sina; Ragni, Daniele; Scarano, Fulvio

    2012-12-01

    The unsteady pressure field is obtained from time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) measurement within a fully developed turbulent boundary layer at free stream velocity of U ∞ = 9.3 m/s and Reθ = 2,400. The pressure field is evaluated from the velocity fields measured by Tomo-PIV at 10 kHz invoking the momentum equation for unsteady incompressible flows. The spatial integration of the pressure gradient is conducted by solving the Poisson pressure equation with fixed boundary conditions at the outer edge of the boundary layer. The PIV-based evaluation of the pressure field is validated against simultaneous surface pressure measurement using calibrated condenser microphones mounted behind a pinhole orifice. The comparison shows agreement between the two pressure signals obtained from the Tomo-PIV and the microphones with a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.6 while their power spectral densities (PSD) overlap up to 3 kHz. The impact of several parameters governing the pressure evaluation from the PIV data is evaluated. The use of the Tomo-PIV system with the application of three-dimensional momentum equation shows higher accuracy compared to the planar version of the technique. The results show that the evaluation of the wall pressure can be conducted using a domain as small as half the boundary layer thickness (0.5δ99) in both the streamwise and the wall normal directions. The combination of a correlation sliding-average technique, the Lagrangian approach to the evaluation of the material derivative and the planar integration of the Poisson pressure equation results in the best agreement with the pressure measurement of the surface microphones.

  1. Use of long-lived radon daughters as indicators of exchange between the free troposphere and the marine boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Fluxes and exchange coefficients are derived for the transport of Sr-90, Pb-210, Bi-210, and Po-210 between the free troposphere and the marine boundary layer and between the boundary layer and the sea surface. Radionuclide concentrations previously measured near Hawaii are used in the derivations. Values obtained for the free troposphere/boundary layer exchange coefficient (expressed as a piston velocity) were 185, 228 and 203 m/d for Pb-210, Bi-210, and Sr-90, respectively. The magnitude of the local sea-surface source of Po-210 is also determined.

  2. A complex-lamellar description of boundary layer transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolla, Maureen Louise

    Flow transition is important, in both practical and phenomenological terms. However, there is currently no method for identifying the spatial locations associated with transition, such as the start and end of intermittency. The concept of flow stability and experimental correlations have been used, however, flow stability only identifies the location where disturbances begin to grow in the laminar flow and experimental correlations can only give approximations as measuring the start and end of intermittency is difficult. Therefore, the focus of this work is to construct a method to identify the start and end of intermittency, for a natural boundary layer transition and a separated flow transition. We obtain these locations by deriving a complex-lamellar description of the velocity field that exists between a fully laminar and fully turbulent boundary condition. Mathematically, this complex-lamellar decomposition, which is constructed from the classical Darwin-Lighthill-Hawthorne drift function and the transport of enstrophy, describes the flow that exists between the fully laminar Pohlhausen equations and Prandtl's fully turbulent one seventh power law. We approximate the difference in enstrophy density between the boundary conditions using a power series. The slope of the power series is scaled by using the shape of the universal intermittency distribution within the intermittency region. We solve the complex-lamellar decomposition of the velocity field along with the slope of the difference in enstrophy density function to determine the location of the laminar and turbulent boundary conditions. Then from the difference in enstrophy density function we calculate the start and end of intermittency. We perform this calculation on a natural boundary layer transition over a flat plate for zero pressure gradient flow and for separated shear flow over a separation bubble. We compare these results to existing experimental results and verify the accuracy of our transition

  3. Grain-boundary layering transitions and phonon engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickman, J. M.; Harmer, M. P.; Chan, H. M.

    2016-09-01

    We employ semi-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to investigate layering transitions at grain boundaries in a prototypical binary alloy. We demonstrate the existence of such transitions among various interfacial states and examine the role of elastic fields in dictating state equilibria. The results of these studies are summarized in the form of diagrams that highlight interfacial state coexistence in this system. Finally, we examine the impact of layering transitions on the phononic properties of the system, as given by the specific heat and, by extension, the thermal conductivity. Thus, it is suggested that by inducing interfacial layering transitions via changes in temperature or pressure, one can thereby engineer thermodynamic and transport properties in materials.

  4. The simulation of coherent structures in a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, Kenny; Landahl, Marten T.; Spalart, Philippe R.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent structures in turbulent shear flows were studied extensively by several techniques, including the VITA technique which selects rapidly accelerating or decelerating regions in the flow. The evolution of a localized disturbance in a laminar boundary layer shows strong similarity to the evolution of coherent structures in a turbulent-wall bounded flow. Starting from a liftup-sweep motion, a strong shear layer develops which shares many of the features seen in conditionally-sampled turbulent velocity fields. The structure of the shear layer, Reynolds stress distribution, and wall pressure footprint are qualitatively the same, indicating that the dynamics responsible for the structure's evolution are simple mechanisms dependent only on the presence of a high mean shear and a wall and independent of the effects of local random fluctuations and outer flow effects. As the disturbance progressed, the development of streak-like-high- and low-speed regions associated with the three-dimensionality.

  5. Determination of monomethylmercury and dimethylmercury in the Arctic marine boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Baya, Pascale A; Gosselin, Michel; Lehnherr, Igor; St Louis, Vincent L; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of monomethylmercury (MMHg) in the Arctic is incomplete because atmospheric sources and sinks of MMHg are still unclear. We sampled air in the Canadian Arctic marine boundary layer to quantify, for the first time, atmospheric concentrations of methylated Hg species (both MMHg and dimethylmercury (DMHg)), and, estimate the importance of atmospheric deposition as a source of MMHg to Arctic land- and sea-scapes. Overall atmospheric MMHg and DMHg concentrations (mean ± SD) were 2.9 ± 3.6 and 3.8 ± 3.1 (n = 37) pg m(-3), respectively. Concentrations of methylated Hg species in the marine boundary layer varied significantly among our sites, with a predominance of MMHg over Hudson Bay (HB), and DMHg over Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) waters. We concluded that DMHg is of marine origin and that primary production rate and sea-ice cover are major drivers of its concentration in the Canadian Arctic marine boundary layer. Summer wet deposition rates of atmospheric MMHg, likely to be the product of DMHg degradation in the atmosphere, were estimated at 188 ± 117.5 ng m(-2) and 37 ± 21.7 ng m(-2) for HB and CAA, respectively, sustaining MMHg concentrations available for biomagnification in the pelagic food web.

  6. Bifurcation of the cusp: Implications for understanding boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N. C.; Burke, W. J.; Moen, J.; Sandholt, P. E.; Lester, M.; Ober, D. M.; Weimer, D. R.; White, W. E.

    Event analyses and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling provide complementary insights into solar-wind/magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a stronger Y than Z component. The sources for convection and particle precipitation within the cusp become spatially bifurcated. Incoming surfaces of constant phase in the interplanetary electric field (IEF) can be tilted with respect to the Sun-Earth line. This forces the two hemispheres to respond to the same elements of the solar wind stream at significantly different times. We consider a case in which ground and rocket measurements indicate that IEF phase planes interacted first with the magnetopause in the Southern Hemisphere at lag times significantly less than the simple adjection time between an L1 monitor and Earth. Magnetic merging on the Northern Hemisphere magnetopause occurred later. The timing differences are related to the phase-plane tilts and the strong IMF BX. Auroral emissions created by electrons injected from the Southern Hemisphere merging line can appear in close proximity to those from Northern Hemisphere sites, within an all-sky imager's field-of-view. Bifurcation is driven by IMF BY, while BX controls differences in the timing of interactions with the two hemispheres. Detailed harmonization of auroral features with interplanetary drivers strongly supports the utility of the antiparallel merging criterion for estimating when and where the IMF-magnetosphere interactions occur. We compare empirical results with MHD simulations to help constrain interpretations of magnetospheric boundary layers. Merging at high latitudes creates layers of open field lines that drape over the dayside magnetosphere to form an open boundary layer. MHD modeling suggests that open boundary layers may become quite thick along the magnetospheric flank equatorward of the sash. Simulations and the empirical results indicate that merging in the conjugate hemisphere drives the smaller

  7. The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tjernstroem, M.; Smedman, A.S. )

    1993-03-15

    The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea. 40 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. MHD boundary layer flow of a power-law nanofluid with new mass flux condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood; Khan, Waqar Azeem

    2016-02-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the magnetohydrodynamic (" separators=" MHD ) boundary layer flow of power-law nanofluid over a non-linear stretching sheet. In the presence of a transverse magnetic field, the flow is generated due to non-linear stretching sheet. By using similarity transformations, the governing boundary layer equations are reduced into a system of ordinary differential equations. A recently proposed boundary condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is employed in the flow analysis of power-law fluid. The reduced coupled differential equations are then solved numerically by the shooting method. The variations of dimensionless temperature and nanoparticle concentration with various parameters are graphed and discussed in detail. Numerical values of physical quantities such as the skin-friction coefficient and the reduced local Nusselt number are computed in tabular form.

  9. Three-dimensional boundary layer calculation by a characteristic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houdeville, R.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical method for solving the three-dimensional boundary layer equations for bodies of arbitrary shape is presented. In laminar flows, the application domain extends from incompressible to hypersonic flows with the assumption of chemical equilibrium. For turbulent boundary layers, the application domain is limited by the validity of the mixing length model used. In order to respect the hyperbolic nature of the equations reduced to first order partial derivative terms, the momentum equations are discretized along the local streamlines using of the osculator tangent plane at each node of the body fitted coordinate system. With this original approach, it is possible to overcome the use of the generalized coordinates, and therefore, it is not necessary to impose an extra hypothesis about the regularity of the mesh in which the boundary conditions are given. By doing so, it is possible to limit, and sometimes to suppress, the pre-treatment of the data coming from an inviscid calculation. Although the proposed scheme is only semi-implicit, the method remains numerically very efficient.

  10. Turbulent boundary layer flow over broad-banded roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Geno; Aghsaee, Payam; Mazrouei, Saeed; Leonardi, Stefano; Rajagopalan, Krishnakumar; Kobayashi, Marcelo

    2014-11-01

    The response of the boundary layer to a regular roughness is often parameterized in terms of the length scales defining the roughness. Difficulty arises in the case of broad-banded and highly irregular roughness distributions such as over coral reefs or urban canopies where the length scale that determines the response of the boundary layer is not clear. Here we use a spectral description for roughness to create idealized two-dimensional irregular roughness profiles, using square waves as a basis function. Laboratory experiments along with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are used to examine the hydrodynamic response to the broad-banded roughness and flow characteristics are related to geometric characteristics of the boundary. The simulations and experiments show that the nature of the flow over two-dimensional irregular walls can be determined as a function of the hydrodynamic origin, which, in turn, can be determined as a function of a mean cavity shape. Results are interpreted in terms of the spectral characteristics of the roughness. The contribution of the various spectral components to the total drag is analyzed for each case. The roughness spectrum influences the flow through the shape of the cavities on the wall and can provide some guidance in predicting the nature of the flow.

  11. Coupling the dynamics of boundary layers and evolutionary dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Pablo; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2009-04-01

    A theoretical formulation and corresponding numerical solutions are presented for fluid flow and sediment transport past evolutionary sand dunes. Time-dependent curvilinear coordinates are employed to fully couple flow aloft with the developing landform. The differential conservation law that defines shape of the lower boundary depends on details of local surface stress, thereby favoring the large eddy simulation of the boundary layer. To shrink the gap between the time scales characteristic of planetary boundary layer flows O(103)s and sand dune evolution O(106)s , a hypothetical “severe-wind scenario” is adopted with the saltation flux amplified up to 3 orders of magnitude. While the results are largely insensitive to the rescaling, the efficacy of computations is greatly improved. The flux-form partial differential equation for the interface profile—via saltation and sand avalanches—is formulated as an advection-diffusion equation, to facilitate discrete integrations. Numerical experiments verify the adopted theoretical framework by reproducing scaling results reported in the literature. The versatility of the approach is illustrated with evolution of a sandhole—an example of application likely never addressed in the literature, yet realizable in nature.

  12. Defining the Entrainment Zone in Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Zhou, M.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Lenschow, D. H.; Dai, C.; Wang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of an entrainment zone near the top of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layers has been identified by many early studies. However, the definition of the entrainment zone was rather vague. We have examined the fine vertical variations of cloud liquid water content, wind, temperature and humidity near the stratocumulus top and developed a new method to identify the entrainment zone objectively. Aircraft measurements from various field projects in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers are used, taking advantage of the fast sampling capability of many of the aircraft sensors. Because of the inhomogeneous mixing of two air masses with distinctively different thermodynamic properties, the magnitude of temperature perturbations within the entrainment zone is significantly larger than those above or below. This characteristics is used to define the upper and lower boundaries of the entrainment zone using a wavelet spectra analyses. The definition of the entrainment zone is further evaluated by the presence of a linear mixing line through mixing line analyses. Various other interfaces at the cloud top are also examined, including the cloud interface, temperature interface (inversion), and moisture interface. The heights of these interfaces are examined relative to the height of the entrainment zone. This study also systematically revealed the presence of turbulence above the local cloud top and/or above the entrainment zone. Wind shear near the cloud top is one possible source that generated local turbulence. Other potential sources of turbulence will also be discussed.

  13. The effects of external conditions in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzek, Brian G.

    The effects of multiple external conditions on turbulent boundary layers were studied in detail. These external conditions include: surface roughness, upstream turbulence intensity, and pressure gradient. Furthermore, the combined effects of these conditions show the complicated nature of many realistic flow conditions. It was found that the effects of surface roughness are difficult to generalize, given the importance of so many parameters. These parameters include: roughness geometry, roughness regime, roughness height to boundary layer thickness, (k/delta), roughness parameter, ( k+), Reynolds number, and roughness function (Delta B+). A further complication, is the difficulty in computing the wall shear stress, tauw/rho. For the sand grain type roughness, the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were studied in inner and outer variables, as well as, boundary layer parameters, anisotropy tensor, production term, and viscous stress and form drag contributions. To explore the effects of roughness and Reynolds number dependence in the boundary layer, a new experiment was carefully designed to properly capture the x-dependence of the single-point statistics. It was found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the skin friction due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction, near-wall roughness parameters, and inner velocity profiles as k + increases into the fully rough regime. However, in the transitionally rough regime, (i.e., 5 < k+ < 70), it was found that these parameters are functions of both Reynolds number and roughness. For the sand grain type roughnesses, only the Zagarola and Smits scaling, Uinfinitydelta*/delta, is able to remove the effects of roughness and Reynolds number from the velocity profiles in outer variables, provided there is no freestream

  14. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  15. Dynamic Immersed Boundary Method for Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layers over Bio-Fouled Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles

    2013-11-01

    The growth of large organisms on ship surfaces, i.e. macrobiofouling, is a major contributor to drag, and consequently, fuel consumption. The problem of turbulence over biofouled surfaces may be reduced to that of a developing turbulent boundary layer over a surface with a wide range of roughness length scales. Due to the presence of these scales, direct numerical simulation (DNS) or even wall-resolved large-eddy-simulation (LES) is prohibitively expensive. We address this challenge by developing a dynamic immersed boundary method that does not require the flow field nor the roughness to be fully resolved. The effect of unresolved small eddies are included via an LES sub-grid model. The large-scale roughness elements are resolved by a sharp-interface immersed boundary method and the effect of small (unresolved) roughness elements is incorporated through the use of a wall model that assumes a log-law at the grid point closest to the wall. This computationally efficient method is validated against experiments of developing turbulent boundary layer with multiple-scale roughness elements. We present results from this study and provide a discussion of our findings. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) grant N00014-12-1-0582. Fruitful interactions with M. Schultz (USNA), B. Ganapathisubramani and M. Placidi (Southhampton) are also gratefully acknowledged.

  16. On the Partially Reacted Boundary Layer in Rate Sticks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2013-06-01

    Using our reactive flow model TDRR to simulate detonation in a rate stick, we observe that a partially reacted layer (PRL) is formed near the boundary. We are not aware that such a PRL has been observed in tests, and this is why we regarded it in the past as a numerical artifact. Assuming that such an artifact may be caused by the finite rise time of the detonation shock, we showed in how it can be eliminated by delaying the outward boundary motion for a length of time comparable with the shock rise time. Here we revisit the PRL problem. First we show that it is not a numerical artifact but a real phenomenon. We do this by repeating the reactive flow run with a finer resolution. By looking at the PRL structure, we see doubling the resolution affects the PRL only slightly. We then conjecture that the PRL formation has to do with the finite duration of the reaction process (or the finite extent of the reaction zone). By the time the boundary rarefaction reaches a cell near the boundary, it is only partially reacted, and its reaction is cut off. To strengthen our conjecture we also show how the PRL structure changes with the reaction duration.

  17. On the partially reacted boundary layer in rate sticks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Using our temperature dependent reactive flow model (TDRR) to simulate detonation in a rate stick, we observe that a partially reacted layer (PRL) is formed near the boundary. We are not aware that such a PRL has been observed in tests, and this is why we regarded it in the past as a numerical artifact. Assuming that such an artefact may be caused by the finite rise time of the detonation shock, we showed in [1] how it can be eliminated by delaying the outward boundary motion for a length of time comparable with the shock rise time. Here we revisit the PRL problem. We first show that it is not a numerical artifact but a real phenomenon. We do this by repeating the reactive flow run with a finer mesh. By looking at the PRL structure, we see that doubling the resolution affects the PRL only slightly. We then conjecture that the PRL formation has to do with the finite duration of the reaction process (or the finite extent of the reaction zone). By the time the boundary rarefaction reaches a cell near the boundary, it may be only partially reacted, and its reaction may therefore be cut off. To establish our conjecture we show how the PRL structure changes with the reaction duration.

  18. Characteristics of convective boundary layer over the Arabian sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Parasnis, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) over the oceanic regions plays an important role in regulating the transport of energy and moisture upward into the atmosphere from the surface. CBL structure over the Arabian sea region has been explored using the aerological soundings at two ships viz. SHIRSHOV (12.5{degrees}N, 68{degrees}E ) and OKEAN (14.5{degrees} N, 66{degrees} E) during MONSOON-77. Conserved variable analysis of the mean data sets obtained during the period of 29 June - 16 July, 1977 revealed salient features of the CBL over these regions. The vertical gradients of saturation point parameters viz. virtual potential temperature ({Theta}{sub v}), equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub e}), saturated equivalent potential temperature ({Theta}{sub es}), saturation pressure deficit (P*) and the mixing ratio (q) were used to characterize the different sublayers such as subcloud layer, cloud layer and inversion/stable layer. The mean cloud base was around 950 hPa and the subcloud layer has nearly constant {Theta}{sub v}. The moist layer was associated with unstable {Theta}{sub es} with nearly constant value of P* ({approximately} -40 hPa). This cloud layer was capped by the stable (over OKEAN). The {Theta}{sub e} minimum over OKEAN was observed at 650 hPa (50 hPa above the CBL top) indicating that at some time the convection had reached deeper levels. The {Theta}{sub e} -q diagrams showed a characteristic mixing line up through the cloud and stable layer to the top of CBL. The low level stability analysis using the {Theta}{sub e} and {Theta}{sub es} profiles indicated conditions favorable for shallow convection over OKEAN and for deep convection over SHIRSHOV. The above characteristic features could be attributed to the prevailing weather conditions at OKEAN and SHIRSHOV. The results are discussed.

  19. The Jovian boundary layer as formed by magnetic-anomaly effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    A model is presented in which a plasma boundary layer of Jupiter is formed from plasma of internal origin. It is proposed that, unlike the Earth's boundary layer, which is thought to consist principally of solar wind plasma, Jupiter's boundary layer consists principally of sulphur and oxygen from the Io plasma torus, plus a small component of hydrogen from Jupiter's ionosphere. Fresh plasma is supplied to the boundary layer once each planetary rotation period by a convection pattern that rotates with Jupiter.

  20. Large eddy simulation and study of the urban boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Shiguang; Jiang, Weimei

    2004-08-01

    Based on a pseudo-spectral large eddy simulation (LES) model, an LES model with an anisotropy turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) closure model and an explicit multi-stage third-order Runge-Kutta scheme is established. The modeling and analysis show that the LES model can simulate the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with a uniform underlying surface under various stratifications very well. Then, similar to the description of a forest canopy, the drag term on momentum and the production term of TKE by subgrid city buildings are introduced into the LES equations to account for the area-averaged effect of the subgrid urban canopy elements and to simulate the meteorological fields of the urban boundary layer (UBL). Numerical experiments and comparison analysis show that: (1) the result from the LES of the UBL with a proposed formula for the drag coefficient is consistent and comparable with that from wind tunnel experiments and an urban subdomain scale model; (2) due to the effect of urban buildings, the wind velocity near the canopy is decreased, turbulence is intensified, TKE, variance, and momentum flux are increased, the momentum and heat flux at the top of the PBL are increased, and the development of the PBL is quickened; (3) the height of the roughness sublayer (RS) of the actual city buildings is the maximum building height (1.5 3 times the mean building height), and a constant flux layer (CFL) exists in the lower part of the UBL.

  1. On the nature of the plasma sheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hones, E.W. Jr. Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1990-01-01

    The regions of the plasma sheet adjacent to the north and south lobes of the magnetotail have been described by many experimenters as locations of beams of energetic ions and fast-moving plasma directed primarily earthward and tailward along magnetic field lines. Measurements taken as satellites passed through one or the other of these boundary layers have frequently revealed near-earth mirroring of ions and a vertical segregation of velocities of both earthward-moving and mirroring ions with the fastest ions being found nearest the lobe-plasma sheet interface. These are features expected for particles from a distant tail source {bar E} {times} {bar B} drifting in a dawn-to-dusk electric field and are consistent with the source being a magnetic reconnection region. The plasma sheet boundary layers are thus understood as separatrix layers, bounded at their lobeward surfaces by the separatrices from the distant neutral line. This paper will review the observations that support this interpretation. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruegen, Steven K.; Delnore, Victor E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The research objective of this NASA grant-funded project was to determine in detail how large-scale processes. in combination with cloud-scale radiative, microphysical, and dynamical processes, govern the formation and multi-layered structure of Arctic stratus clouds. This information will be useful for developing and improving 1D (one dimensional) boundary layer models for the Arctic. Also, to quantitatively determine the effects of leads on the large-scale budgets of sensible heat, water vapor, and condensate in a variety of Arctic winter conditions. This information will be used to identify the most important lead-flux processes that require parameterization in climate models. Our approach was to use a high-resolution numerical model, the 2D (two dimensional) University of Utah Cloud Resolving Model (UU CRM), and its 1D version, the University of Utah Turbulence Closure Model (UU TCM), a boundary layer model based on third-moment turbulence closure, as well as a large-eddy simulation (LES) model originally developed by C.H. Moeng.

  3. Mechanisms leading to net drag reduction in manipulated turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guezennec, Y. G.; Nagib, H. M.

    1990-02-01

    Turbulent boundary layers have been manipulated successfully using passive devices called BLADES (boundary-layer alteration devices) leading to net drag reduction. Measurements of various turbulence quantities including intermittency have led to the identification of some of the mechanisms involved in skin-friction reduction. Velocity and vorticity fluctuations associated with oncoming large scales are inhibited significantly by the manipulator blades and the vorticity shed in their wake. The manipulated boundary layers exhibit a reduced intermittency in the outer part of the layer. The effects of manipulation relax with downstream distance and the boundary layer returns toward normal conditions after 100 or 150 boundary-layer thicknesses.

  4. Tollmien-Schlichting/vortex interactions in compressible boundary layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackaby, Nicholas D.

    1993-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear interaction of oblique Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices in compressible, high Reynolds number, boundary-layer flow over a flat plate is considered for all ranges of the Mach number. The interaction equations comprise of equations for the vortex which is indirectly forced by the waves via a boundary condition, whereas a vortex term appears in the amplitude equation for the wave pressure. The downstream solution properties of interaction equations are found to depend on the sign of an interaction coefficient. Compressibility is found to have a significant effect on the interaction properties; principally through its impact on the waves and their governing mechanism, the triple-deck structure. It is found that, in general, the flow quantities will grow slowly with increasing downstream co-ordinate; i.e. in general, solutions do not terminate in abrupt, finite-distance 'break-ups'.

  5. Enhanced air pollution via aerosol-boundary layer feedback in China

    PubMed Central

    Petäjä, T.; Järvi, L.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Ding, A.J.; Sun, J.N.; Nie, W.; Kujansuu, J.; Virkkula, A.; Yang, X.; Fu, C.B.; Zilitinkevich, S.; Kulmala, M.

    2016-01-01

    Severe air pollution episodes have been frequent in China during the recent years. While high emissions are the primary reason for increasing pollutant concentrations, the ultimate cause for the most severe pollution episodes has remained unclear. Here we show that a high concentration of particulate matter (PM) will enhance the stability of an urban boundary layer, which in turn decreases the boundary layer height and consequently cause further increases in PM concentrations. We estimate the strength of this positive feedback mechanism by combining a new theoretical framework with ambient observations. We show that the feedback remains moderate at fine PM concentrations lower than about 200 μg m−3, but that it becomes increasingly effective at higher PM loadings resulting from the combined effect of high surface PM emissions and massive secondary PM production within the boundary layer. Our analysis explains why air pollution episodes are particularly serious and severe in megacities and during the days when synoptic weather conditions stay constant. PMID:26753788

  6. Nonlinear spatial evolution of inviscid instabilities on hypersonic boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wundrow, David W.

    1996-01-01

    The spatial development of an initially linear vorticity-mode instability on a compressible flat-plate boundary layer is considered. The analysis is done in the framework of the hypersonic limit where the free-stream Mach number M approaches infinity. Nonlinearity is shown to become important locally, in a thin critical layer, when sigma, the deviation of the phase speed from unity, becomes o(M(exp -8/7)) and the magnitude of the pressure fluctuations becomes 0(sigma(exp 5/2)M(exp 2)). The unsteady flow outside the critical layer takes the form of a linear instability wave but with its amplitude completely determined by the nonlinear flow within the critical layer. The coupled set of equations which govern the critical-layer dynamics reflect a balance between spatial-evolution, (linear and nonlinear) convection and nonlinear vorticity-generation terms. The numerical solution to these equations shows that nonlinear effects produce a dramatic reduction in the instability-wave amplitude.

  7. Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piomelli, Ugo

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low

  8. Sub-layers inside the entrainment zone of a dry, shear-free convective boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Jade Rachele; Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2013-11-01

    The entrainment zone of a dry, shear-free convective boundary layer growing into a homogeneously stably-stratified fluid is studied using direct numerical simulation. Based on the self-similar analysis of the mean and variance buoyancy profiles, we identify two sub-layers within the entrainment zone, defined as the region of negative buoyancy flux: i) an upper sub-layer with a thickness comparable to the penetrative length scale based on the convective velocity and the buoyancy frequency of the free troposphere and ii) a lower sub-layer acting as a transition towards the mixed layer, with a thickness equal to a constant fraction of the boundary layer height. The capping region of the penetrative thermals belongs to the upper sub-layer of the entrainment zone, and the troughs between the penetrating thermals belong to the lower sub-layer of the entrainment zone. Correspondingly, different buoyancy scales are identified in the different regions; parametrizations thereof are provided and explained. This multiplicity of characteristic scales inside the entrainment zone helps to explain the uncertainty associated with previous analysis of entrainment zone properties and the difficulty to parametrize them based on a single length scale and a single buoyancy scale. Juelich Research Centre for the computing time.

  9. Observations of the atmospheric boundary layer height over Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Investigating boundary layer climatology in arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa

    2014-05-01

    Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.

  10. Shock Train/Boundary-Layer Interaction in Rectangular Scramjet Isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, Jonathan Simon

    Numerous studies of the dual-mode scramjet isolator, a critical component in preventing inlet unstart and/or vehicle loss by containing a collection of flow disturbances called a shock train, have been performed since the dual-mode propulsion cycle was introduced in the 1960s. Low momentum corner flow and other three-dimensional effects inherent to rectangular isolators have, however, been largely ignored in experimental studies of the boundary layer separation driven isolator shock train dynamics. Furthermore, the use of two dimensional diagnostic techniques in past works, be it single-perspective line-of-sight schlieren/shadowgraphy or single axis wall pressure measurements, have been unable to resolve the three-dimensional flow features inside the rectangular isolator. These flow characteristics need to be thoroughly understood if robust dual-mode scramjet designs are to be fielded. The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimentally analyzing shock train/boundary layer interactions from multiple perspectives in aspect ratio 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 rectangular isolators with inflow Mach numbers ranging from 2.4 to 2.7. Secondary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics studies are performed to compare to the experimental results and to provide additional perspectives of the flow field. Specific issues that remain unresolved after decades of isolator shock train studies that are addressed in this work include the three-dimensional formation of the isolator shock train front, the spatial and temporal low momentum corner flow separation scales, the transient behavior of shock train/boundary layer interaction at specific coordinates along the isolator's lateral axis, and effects of the rectangular geometry on semi-empirical relations for shock train length prediction. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Boundary layer polarization and voltage in the 14 MLT region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Woch, J.; Marklund, G.

    1995-05-01

    Viking midlatitude observations of ions and electrons in the postnoon auroral region show that field-aligned acceleration of electrons and ions with energies up to a few kiloelectron volts takes place. The characteristics of the upgoing ion beams and the local transverse electric field observed by Viking indicate that parallel ion acceleration is primarily due to a quasi-electrostatic field-aligned acceleration process below Viking altitudes, i.e., below 10,000-13,500 km. A good correlation is found between the maximum upgoing ion beam energy and the depth of the local potential well determined by the Viking electric field experiment within dayside 'ion inverted Vs.' The total transverse potential throughout the entire region near the ion inverted Vs. is generally much higher than the field-aligned potential and may reach well above 10 kV. However, the detailed mapping of the transverse potential out to the boundary layer, a fundamental issue which remains controversial, was not attempted here. An important finding in this study is the strong correlation between the maximum up going ion beam energy of dayside ion inverted Vs and the solar wind velocity. This suggests a direct coupling of the solar wind plasma dynamo/voltage generator to the region of field-aligned particle acceleration. The fact that the center of dayside ion inverted Vs coincide with convection reversals/flow stagnation and upward Birkeland currents on what appears to be closed field lines (Woch et al., 1993), suggests that field-aligned potential structures connect to the inner part of an MHD dyanmo in the low-latitude boundary layer. Thus the Viking observations substantiate the idea of a solar wind induced boundary layer polarization where negatively charged perturbations in the postnoon sector persistently develops along the magnetic field lines, establishing accelerating potential drops along the geomagnetic field lines in the 0.5-10 kV range.

  12. Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.

  13. Influence of convective conditions on three dimensional mixed convective hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, A.; Siddiq, M. K.; Abbasi, F. M.; Meraj, M. A.; Ashraf, M.; Shehzad, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs.

  14. Modeling of the Arctic boundary layer: Comparisons with measurements from the Arctic Ocean Expedition 1996

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D.O.; Nilsson, E.D.; Kulmala, M.

    1997-08-01

    During the recent 3 month Arctic Ocean Expedition (AOE-96) to the North Pole during the summer of 1996 an enormous amount of data collected on the Arctic planetary boundary layer. In preparation for the expedition, the authors have developed an expanded and quite flexible 1-D computer code based on the successful work of ReVelle and of ReVelle and Coulter on modeling of boundary layer ``bursting``. This new code, BLMARC (Boundary Layer, Mixing, Aerosols, Radiation and Clouds), explicitly includes the physical and chemical effects due to the presence of clouds, aerosols and associated air chemistry. Using data from AOE-96 and the model BLMARC, the authors have begun a systematic effort to compare observations of the high Arctic boundary layer against numerical modeling results. The preliminary results for case963 and case964 are quite promising. The second period exhibits what appears to be bursting effects in the temperature, the winds and in the aerosol concentration and the modeling efforts have shown a similar set of features as well. Current work also includes model experiments with BLMARC on the aerosol nucleation and growth in the Arctic PBL and cloud and fog formation.

  15. Removal of NOx and NOy in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer over northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Ko, M.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Nishi, N.; Hu, W.; Liley, J. B.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Russel-Smith, J.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-05-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase B (BIBLE-B) aircraft measurement campaign was conducted over the western Pacific and Australia in August and September 1999. In situ aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and other species were made during BIBLE-B. Meteorological analysis shows that the trace gases emitted from biomass burning in northern Australia were mostly confined within the planetary boundary layer (below ˜3 km) by strong subsidence in the free troposphere. Removal processes of NOx (equal to measured NO + calculated NO2) and NOy in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer are examined on the basis of correlation analysis. The photochemical lifetime of NOx in biomass burning plumes during the daytime is estimated to be 0.1 to 0.3 days using the correlations of NOx with short-lived NMHCs and hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration calculated from a constrained photochemical model. Correlation of NOy with CO shows that ˜60% of the NOy molecules originating from biomass burning were removed in the boundary layer within 2-3 days. This result is consistent with dry deposition of nitric acid (HNO3) in the plumes. It is likely that only a small fraction of NOy emitted from biomass burning was exported from the boundary layer to the free troposphere during the BIBLE-B period.

  16. Direct simulation of a turbulent oscillating boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalart, Philippe R.; Baldwin, Barrett S.

    1987-01-01

    The turbulent boundary layer driven by a freestream velocity that varies sinusoidally in time around a zero mean is considered. The flow has a rich behavior including strong pressure gradients, inflection points, and reversal. A theory for the velocity and stress profiles at high Reynolds number is formulated. Well-resolved direct Navier-Stokes simulations are conducted over a narrow range of Reynolds numbers, and the results are compared with the theoretical predictions. The flow is also computed over a wide range of Reynolds numbers using a new algebraic turbulence model; the results are compared with the direct simulations and the theory.

  17. Boundary Layer Control by Means of Plasma Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, R.

    2007-09-06

    The development of controlled transition in a flat-plate boundary layer is investigated using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic Smagorinsky model. The analysis of flow control with the objective to optimize the effects of Tollmien-Schlichting waves on a flat plate by means of plasma actuators was studied. The plasma effect is modeled as a body force in the momentum equations. These equations are solved in a uniform grid using a 2nd-order finite difference scheme in time and space. The response of plasma actuators operating in different time-dependent conditions, produced by transient or periodic inputs at different frequencies, is also analyzed.

  18. Asymptotically optimal unsaturated lattice cubature formulae with bounded boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, M D

    2013-07-31

    This paper describes a new algorithm for constructing lattice cubature formulae with bounded boundary layer. These formulae are unsaturated (in the sense of Babenko) both with respect to the order and in regard to the property of asymptotic optimality on W{sub 2}{sup m}-spaces, m element of (n/2,∞). Most of the results obtained apply also to W{sub 2}{sup μ}(R{sup n})-spaces with a hypoelliptic multiplier of smoothness μ. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  19. Inner scaling for boundary layers in strong pressure-gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickels, Tim

    2003-11-01

    Strong pressure-gradients can have a marked effect on scaling in the inner region of turbulent boundary layers. In particular the usual universal logarithmic law for the mean velocity profile "breaks down" in these circumstances. It is shown that the modification to the mean velocity can be explained by a universal critical Reynolds number for the sublayer. Further it is shown that this theoretical model also provides the correct scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear-stress. The concept can be further extended to explain modifications due to other imposed effects such as wall suction.

  20. Numerical analysis of Weyl's method for integrating boundary layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Najfeld, I.

    1982-01-01

    A fast method for accurate numerical integration of Blasius equation is proposed. It is based on the limit interchange in Weyl's fixed point method formulated as an iterated limit process. Each inner limit represents convergence to a discrete solution. It is shown that the error in a discrete solution admits asymptotic expansion in even powers of step size. An extrapolation process is set up to operate on a sequence of discrete solutions to reach the outer limit. Finally, this method is extended to related boundary layer equations.

  1. Shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions in transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Messiter, A. F.

    1976-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used in analyzing the structure of the interaction region formed when a shock wave impinges on a turbulent flat plate boundary layer in transonic flow. Solutions in outer regions, governed by inviscid flow equations, lead to relations for the wall pressure distribution. Solutions in the inner regions, governed by equations in which Reynolds and/or viscous stresses are included, lead to a relation for the wall shear stress. Solutions for the wall pressure distribution are reviewed for both oblique and normal incoming shock waves. Solutions for the wall shear stress are discussed.

  2. Effect of roughness on the stability of boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.; Al-Maaitah, Ayman

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is conducted on the effect of imperfections consisting of humps and dips on the stability of incompressible flows over flat plates. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers. Linear quasiparallel spatial stability is used to calculate the growth rates and mode shapes of two-dimensional disturbances. Then, the amplification factor is computed. A search for the most dangerous frequency is conducted based on an amplification factor of 9 in the shortest distance. Correlations are made with the transition experiment of Walker and Greening using the e sup 9 method.

  3. Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Transitional Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ting

    2007-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of elevated free-stream turbulence and streamwise acceleration on flow and thermal structures in transitional boundary layers. The free-stream turbulence ranges from 0.5 to 6.4% and the streamwise acceleration ranges from K = 0 to 0.8 x 10(exp -6). The onset of transition, transition length and the turbulent spot formation rate are determined. The statistical results and conditionally sampled results of th streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations, temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stress and Reynolds heat fluxes are presented.

  4. Numerical simulation of transition control in boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurien, E.; Kleiser, L.

    The transition process from laminar to turbulent boundary layers is simulated by numerical integration of the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Spatially periodic wave disturbances in a parallel Blasius flow are assumed. A spectral method with real-space Chebyshev collocation in the normal direction is employed. Both the classical K-type and the subharmonic type of transition are investigated. Good agreement with measurements and flow visualizations of transition experiments is obtained. Control of transition by wave superposition is simulated using periodic wall suction/blowing. It is shown that 2D control works well at an early stage but fails after significant 3D disturbances have developed.

  5. Experiments on the active control of transitional boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.; Rioual, J.-L.; Fisher, M. J.

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the streamwise position of the transition region of a flat plate boundary layer can be actively controlled. The means of control is through the application of suction through the surface of the plate, a progressive increase in suction rate being capable of producing transition at progressively larger distances downstream from the plate leading edge. A simple digital feedback regulator based on an integral control law is shown to be most effective in regulating the position of transition, an error signal being derived from measurements of pressure fluctuations on the surface of the plate.

  6. An investigation of planetary convection: The role of boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Eric M.

    Thermal and gravitational energy sources drive turbulent convection in Earth's vast liquid metal outer core. These fluid motions generate the electric currents that are believed to power Earth's magnetic field through a process known as dynamo action. Core flow is subject to the influence of Earth's rotation via the Coriolis force, which has an organizational effect on otherwise chaotic motions. Furthermore the magnetic field generated by convection acts back on the flow via Lorentz forces. Fluid motions in Earth's core, and the magnetic field generating regions of other planets and stars, are then governed by three main ingredients: convection, rotation, and magnetic fields. The goal of my Ph.D. research is to further our understanding of the systematic fluid dynamics occurring in dynamo systems. To accomplish this, I have developed a unique experimental device that allows me to produce fluid conditions approaching those expected in Earth's core and other planetary and stellar environments. The results presented here stem from a broad parameter survey of non-magnetic, rotating convection. In this study, I examine the interplay between rotation and convection by broadly varying the strength of each and measuring the efficiency of convective heat transfer. This parameter survey allows me to argue that the importance of rotation in convection dynamics is determined by boundary layer physics, where the Ekman (rotating) and thermal (non-rotating) boundary layers compete for control of convection dynamics. I develop a simple predictive scaling of this convective regime transition using theoretical boundary layer thickness scalings. This transition scaling permits a unified description of heat transfer in rotating convection, which reconciles contrasting results from previous studies. I also extend this experimental result to a broad array of numerical dynamo models, arguing that the boundary layer control of convective regimes is also evident in the dynamo models. A

  7. Kubo-Anderson Mixing in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Brink, A. Maassen Van Den

    A novel ab initio analysis of the Reynolds stress is presented in order to model non-local turbulence transport. The theory involves a sample path space and a stochastic hypothesis. A scaling relation maps the path space onto the boundary layer. Analytical sampling rates are shown to model mixing by exchange. Nonlocal mixing involves a scaling exponent ɛ≈0.58 (ɛ→∞ in the diffusion limit). The resulting transport equation represents a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type stochastic process.

  8. Direct simulation of the turbulent boundary layer on a plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupa, V. G.

    2016-08-01

    A numerical method for the integration of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for compressible fluid as applied to direct numerical simulation is proposed. By way of example, the boundary layer on a plate is simulated. The computations were carried out for Reθ = 1500. The computational grid consisted of a half billion nodes. The flow region includes the laminar, transitional, and turbulent zones. The numerically obtained distributions of average velocity, friction, and pulsations are compared with experimental data and available numerical solutions.

  9. Notes on an Internal Boundary-Layer Height Formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, Sergiya.; Taylor, Petera.

    The derivation of the Panofsky-Dutton internal boundary-layer(IBL) height formula has been revisited. We propose that the upwindroughness length (rather than downwind) should be used in theformula and that a turbulent vertical velocity (w) ratherthan the surface friction velocity (u*) should be considered asthe appropriate scaling for the rate of propagation ofdisturbances into the turbulent flow. A published set ofwind-tunnel and atmospheric data for neutral stratification hasbeen used to investigate the influence of the magnitude ofroughness change on the IBL height.

  10. Supersonic and hypersonic shock/boundary-layer interaction database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, Gary S.; Dodson, Lori J.

    1994-01-01

    An assessment is given of existing shock wave/tubulent boundary-layer interaction experiments having sufficient quality to guide turbulence modeling and code validation efforts. Although the focus of this work is hypersonic, experiments at Mach numbers as low as 3 were considered. The principal means of identifying candidate studies was a computerized search of the AIAA Aerospace Database. Several hundred candidate studies were examined and over 100 of these were subjected to a rigorous set of acceptance criteria for inclusion in the data-base. Nineteen experiments were found to meet these criteria, of which only seven were in the hypersonic regime (M is greater than 5).

  11. Regional scale evaporation and the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlange, Marc B.; Eichinger, William E.; Albertson, John D.

    1995-01-01

    In this review we briefly summarize some current models of evaporation and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and discuss new experimental and computational oppurtunities that may aid our understanding of evaporation at these larger scales. In particular, consideration is given to remote sensing of the atmosphere, computational fluid dynamics and the role numerical models can play in understanding land-atmosphere interactions. These powerful modeling and measurement tools are allowing us to visualize and study spatial and temporal scales previously untouched, thereby increasing the oppurtunities to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere interaction.

  12. Discussion of boundary-layer characteristics near the casing of an axial-flow compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mager, Artur; Mahoney, John J; Budinger, Ray E

    1951-01-01

    Boundary-layer velocity profiles on the casing of an axial-flow compressor behind the guide vanes and rotor were measured and resolved into two components: along the streamline of the flow and perpendicular to it. Boundary-layer thickness and the deflection of the boundary layer at the wall were the generalizing parameters. By use of these results and the momentum-integral equations, the characteristics of boundary on the walls of axial-flow compressor are qualitatively discussed. Important parameters concerning secondary flow in the boundary layer appear to be turning of the flow and the product of boundary-layer thickness and streamline curvature outside the boundary layer. Two types of separation are shown to be possible in three dimensional boundary layer.

  13. Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group Viscous CFD Boundary Layer Transition Trailblazer Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.; Erickson, David W.; Greene, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Boundary layer transition correlations for the Shuttle Orbiter have been previously developed utilizing a two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The particular two-layer technique that was used is limited to Mach numbers less than 20. To allow assessments at Mach numbers greater than 20, it is proposed to use viscous CFD to the predict boundary layer properties. This report addresses if the existing Orbiter entry aeroheating viscous CFD solutions, which were originally intended to be used for heat transfer rate predictions, adequately resolve boundary layer edge properties and if the existing two-layer results could be leveraged to reduce the number of needed CFD solutions. The boundary layer edge parameters from viscous CFD solutions are extracted along the wind side centerline of the Space Shuttle Orbiter at reentry conditions, and are compared with results from the two-layer boundary layer prediction technique. The differences between the viscous CFD and two-layer prediction techniques vary between Mach 6 and 18 flight conditions and Mach 6 wind tunnel conditions, and there is not a straightforward scaling between the viscous CFD and two-layer values. Therefore: it is not possible to leverage the existing two-layer Orbiter flight boundary layer data set as a substitute for a viscous CFD data set; but viscous CFD solutions at the current grid resolution are sufficient to produce a boundary layer data set suitable for applying edge-based boundary layer transition correlations.

  14. Effect of bulges on the stability of boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.; Al-Maaitah, Ayman A.

    1988-01-01

    The instability of flows around hump and dip imperfections is investigated. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers, thereby accounting for viscous/inviscid interaction and separation bubbles. Then, the two-dimensional linear stability of this flow is analyzed, and the amplification factors are computed. Results are obtained for several height/width ratios and locations. The theoretical results have been used to correlate the experimental results of Walker and Greening (1942). The observed transition locations are found to correspond to amplification factors varying between 7.4 and 10.0, consistent with previous results for flat plates. The method accounts for both viscous and shear-layer instabilities. Separation is found to increase significantly the amplification factor.

  15. Amplitude-dependent neutral modes in compressible boundary layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.

    1990-01-01

    The ideas of Benney and Bergeron (1969) and Davies (1970) on nonlinear critical layers are extended, and some new nonlinear neutral modes are computed for compressible boundary layer flow. A special case of the work is when the generalized inflexion point criterion holds. Neutral modes are found for a range of phase-speeds, dependent on the Mach number, and the properties of these are discussed. As in the linear case when the flow is relatively supersonic, multiple neutral modes exist. The behavior of the neutral amplitude in some limiting cases is also considered, and it is found that the results are significantly different from that in incompressible flow when the flow is locally supersonic.

  16. Total Solar Eclipses and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoev, A.; Stoeva, P.; Kuzin, S.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of three total solar eclipses on meteorological parameters is discussed in the paper. Measurements were conducted at the village of Ravnets,General Toshevo municipality, Bulgaria, 1999,in Manavgat, near Antalya, Turkey, 2006 and in Tian Huang Ping, China, 2009. The observed decrease of the sky illumination (incoming solar radiation) during the eclipses was proportional to the percentage of solar coverage. The after eclipse sky illumination level is due to the effect of the natural change of the solar elevation angle. For the 1999 TSE it did not regain its pre eclipse value, it has exactly the same value for the 2006 TSE, and, It is three times larger than the pre eclipse value for the 2009 TSE. This fact can be easily explained by the Local Time of the maximum of the eclipses: LT 13:12, LT 12:58, and LT 09:34, respectively. Measurements showed significant changes in the surface air temperature. The minimum of the air temperature during the 2009 TSE (Tmin=4.5°C) was measured 6 min after the end of the total phase. This minimal temperature drop and larger time lag can be explained with the huge artificial lake near the place of observation, which minimizes the temperature response due to its larger heat capacity. During the 1999 TSE, minimal temperature (Tmin=6.4°C) is measured 7 min 30 s after the total phase, and for the 2006 TSE (Tmin=5°C) - 5 min. It is in accordance with the fact that the temperature minima at residential/commercial stations occurred in general, before the minima at stations in agricultural terrains. In 2006 we were at the yard of the hotel, and in 1999 in the countryside. The wind velocity drops during the total phase as a result of the cooling and stabilization of the atmospheric boundary layer. The wind direction during the total phase changes and the wind begins to blow in the same direction as the direction of motion of the lunar shadow on the earth. Cirrus and cirrostratus clouds were observed during the 2006 total solar

  17. Modeling basic features of biogeochemical structure of water column, bottom boundary layer and benthic boundary layer in changeable redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, Evgeniy

    2013-04-01

    Climate Change affects oxygen depletion and leads to spreading of the bottom areas with hypoxic and anoxic conditions in the coastal areas of the seas and inland waters. This work aimed in estimation of a role of changes of redox conditions in the biogeochemical structure there. We use a 1-dimensional C-N-P-Si-O-S-Mn-Fe vertical transport-reaction model describing the water column, bottom boundary layer and benthic boundary layer with biogeochemical block simulating redox conditions changeability. A biogeochemical block is based on ROLM (RedOx Layer Model), that was constructed to simulate basic features of the water column biogeochemical structure changes in oxic, anoxic and changeable conditions (Yakushev et al., 2007). Organic matter formation and decay, reduction and oxidation of species of nitrogen, sulfur, manganese, iron, and the transformation of phosphorus species are parameterized in the model. ROLM includes a simplified ecological model with phytoplankton, zooplankton, aerobic autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, anaerobic autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. We simulate changes in the parameters distributions and fluxes connected with the vertical displacement of redox interface from the sediments to the water.

  18. Study of the evening transition to the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer: statistical analysis and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, Mariano; Viana, Samuel; Maqueda, Gregorio; Yagüe, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Turbulence is probably the most important feature dealing with the diffusion of contaminants in the planetary boundary layer. The main characteristics of turbulence are governed, apart from synoptic conditions, by the daily cycle of the Earth surface heating and cooling, so that, simplifying, two configurations are often found: convective and stable. The transition from a diurnal convective boundary layer to a typically stable nocturnal one is not still well understood (Edwards, 2009). Different micrometeorological conditions at sunset or a few hours previously may be critical for the establishment of a strong surface-based stability or a weak one, even for similar synoptic conditions. This work focuses on the characterization of the evening transition which takes place at the atmospheric boundary layer, considering the temporal interval 17.00-23.00 GMT. The methodology includes looking for some relations between meteorological variables, turbulent parameters and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) concentrations measured by a GRIMM particle monitor (MODEL 365). Observational data (Summer 2009) is provided from permanent instrumentation at the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA) in Valladolid (Spain), which is on a quite flat terrain (Cuxart et al., 2000). A 10m height mast equipped with temperature, wind speed and direction, and moisture sensors at several levels are available. Also two sonic anemometers (20 Hz sampling rate) at 1.5 and 10m were deployed in the mast. The database is complemented by a triangle of microbarometers installed next to the surface, and another three microbarometers placed in a 100m meteorological tower at 20, 50 and 100m respectively, which are ideal to study coherent structures present in the boundary layer. Statistical parameters of meteorological variables have been calculated and studied in order to find out connections with the most relevant physical processes. Moreover different cases studies will be analyzed

  19. Convection and reaction in a diffusive boundary layer in a porous medium: Nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Jeanne Therese H.; Cardoso, Silvana S. S.

    2012-09-01

    We study numerically the nonlinear interactions between chemical reaction and convective fingering in a diffusive boundary layer in a porous medium. The reaction enhances stability by consuming a solute that is unstably distributed in a gravitational field. We show that chemical reaction profoundly changes the dynamics of the system, by introducing a steady state, shortening the evolution time, and altering the spatial patterns of velocity and concentration of solute. In the presence of weak reaction, finger growth and merger occur effectively, driving strong convective currents in a thick layer of solute. However, as the reaction becomes stronger, finger growth is inhibited, tip-splitting is enhanced and the layer of solute becomes much thinner. Convection enhances the mass flux of solute consumed by reaction in the boundary layer but has a diminishing effect as reaction strength increases. This nonlinear behavior has striking differences to the density fingering of traveling reaction fronts, for which stronger chemical kinetics result in more effective finger merger owing to an increase in the speed of the front. In a boundary layer, a strong stabilizing effect of reaction can maintain a long-term state of convection in isolated fingers of wavelength comparable to that at onset of instability.

  20. [Measurements of atmospheric boundary layer O3, NOx and CO in summer with Beijing 325 m meteorological tower].

    PubMed

    An, Junlin; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi; Shi, Liqing; Hu, Fei; Xu, Yongfu

    2003-11-01

    Based on the Beijing 325 m meteorological tower, O3, NOx and CO concentrations and meteorological parameters in urban atmospheric boundary layer were measured in July 2002. The variations of O3 concentration were remarkably different among the five levels. Contrasted with the higher levels, the daily variations were clear and the difference values between day and night were large in the lower levels. It was also found that the photochemistry reaction was an important source in boundary layer in daytime and precipitation process could arouse marked change of O3 concentration.

  1. Multi-spacecraft tracing of turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, S.; Zelenyi, L.; Maynard, N.; Sandahl, I.; Kawano, H.; Russell, C. T.; Romanov, S.; Amata, E.; Avanov, L.; Blecki, J.; Buechner, J.; Consolini, G.; Gustafsson, G.; Klimov, S.; Marcucci, F.; Nemecek, Z.; Nikutowski, B.; Pickett, J.; Rauch, J. L.; Safrankova, J.; Skalsky, A.; Smirnov, V.; Stasiewicz, K.; Song, P.; Trotignon, J. G.; Yermolaev, Yu.

    Multi-spacecraft tracing of the high latitude magnetopause (MP) and boundary layers and Interball-1 statistics indicate that: (a) The turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is a persistent feature in the region of the cusp and 'sash', a noticeable part of the disturbances weakly depends on the interplanetary magnetic field By component; TBL is a major site for magnetosheath (MSH) plasma penetration inside the magnetosphere through percolation and local reconnection. (b) The TBL disturbances are mainly inherent with the characteristic kinked double-slope spectra and, most probably, 3-wave cascading. The bi-spectral phase coupling indicates self-organization of the TBL as the entire region with features of the non-equilibrium multi-scale and multi-phase system in the near-critical state. (c) We've found the different outer cusp topologies in summer/winter periods: the summer cusp throat is open for the decelerated MSH flows, the winter one is closed by the distant MP with a large-scale (˜several Re) diamagnetic 'plasma ball' inside the MP; the 'ball' is filled from MSH through patchy merging rather than large-scale reconnection. (d) A mechanism for the energy release and mass inflow is the local TBL reconnection, which operates at the larger scales for the average anti-parallel fields and at the smaller scales for the nonlinear fluctuating fields; the latter is operative throughout the TBL. The remote from TBL anti-parallel reconnection seems to happen independently.

  2. Retrievals of boundary layer methane and isotope fractionation on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkovics, Mate; Lora, Juan M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2016-10-01

    The amount of methane in the boundary layer on Titan is an interesting diagnostic of whether or not it might be seeping out of the regolith. We know that kinetic fractionation of methane isotopes can be diagnostic of evaporation at the surface and condensation in the atmosphere. If a parcel is constrained to follow a moist adiabat while condensation occurs, we can predict the amount of fractionation that is expected (Ádámkovics & Mitchell, 2016). We will present our most recent efforts to measure boundary layer methane abundance and isotopic composition, which include our recently published Keck NIRSPAO observations from 17 July 2014 (Ádámkovics et al., 2016), as well as preliminary results from follow-up measurements made on 15 May 2016. Our measurements are tantalizingly close to being able to distinguish between different hydrological parameterizations of the polar regions in the Titan Atmospheric Model (Lora & Ádámkovics, 2016). We will discuss the systematic uncertainties that can be evaluated with the combination of these two datasets and the prospects for exceptionally high S/N observations via particularly deep integrations over multiple nights.

  3. Analytical Studies of Boundary Layer Generated Aircraft Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, M. S.; Shah, P. L.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis is made of the "interior noise" produced by high, subsonic turbulent flow over a thin elastic plate partitioned into "panels" by straight edges transverse to the mean flow direction. This configuration models a section of an aircraft fuselage that may be regarded as locally flat. The analytical problem can be solved in closed form to represent the acoustic radiation in terms of prescribed turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations. Two cases are considered: (i) the production of sound at an isolated panel edge (i.e., in the approximation in which the correlation between sound and vibrations generated at neighboring edges is neglected), and (ii) the sound generated by a periodic arrangement of identical panels. The latter problem is amenable to exact analytical treatment provided the panel edge conditions are the same for all panels. Detailed predictions of the interior noise depend on a knowledge of the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectrum, and are given here in terms of an empirical spectrum proposed by Laganelli and Wolfe. It is expected that these analytical representations of the sound generated by simplified models of fluid-structure interactions can used to validate more general numerical schemes.

  4. Characterization of structural response to hypersonic boundary-layer transition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riley, Zachary B.; Deshmukh, Rohit; Miller, Brent A.; McNamara, Jack J.; Casper, Katya M.

    2016-05-24

    The inherent relationship between boundary-layer stability, aerodynamic heating, and surface conditions makes the potential for interaction between the structural response and boundary-layer transition an important and challenging area of study in high-speed flows. This paper phenomenologically explores this interaction using a fundamental two-dimensional aerothermoelastic model under the assumption of an aluminum panel with simple supports. Specifically, an existing model is extended to examine the impact of transition onset location, transition length, and transitional overshoot in heat flux and fluctuating pressure on the structural response of surface panels. Transitional flow conditions are found to yield significantly increased thermal gradients, and theymore » can result in higher maximum panel temperatures compared to turbulent flow. Results indicate that overshoot in heat flux and fluctuating pressure reduces the flutter onset time and increases the strain energy accumulated in the panel. Furthermore, overshoot occurring near the midchord can yield average temperatures and peak displacements exceeding those experienced by the panel subject to turbulent flow. Lastly, these results suggest that fully turbulent flow does not always conservatively predict the thermo-structural response of surface panels.« less

  5. Turbulent Boundary Layer Facility to Investigate Superhydrophobic Drag Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, James W.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2013-11-01

    Recent developments in superhydrophobic surfaces have led to potential economic and environmental benefits, perhaps most notably in skin-friction drag reduction. A team from the University of Michigan has developed a recirculating turbulent boundary layer facility to investigate the reduction of drag along engineered superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The facility can accommodate both small and large SHS samples in a test section 7 mm (depth)×100 mm (span)×1000 mm (length). Coupled with an 11.2 kilowatt pump and a 30:1 contraction the facility is capable of producing an average flow velocity of 25 m/s, yielding a Reynolds number of 84,000. Flexure-mounted test samples subjected to shear deflect to a max of 50 microns; movements are measured using a digital microscope composed of a high-resolution camera and a water immersion objective. The setup yields an optical resolution of about one micron whereas sub-micron resolution is achieved by implementing an FFT of two Ronchi rulings. Additional drag measurement methods include pressure drop across the test specimen and PIV measured boundary layers. Additional SHS investigations include the implementation of active gas replenishment, providing an opportunity to replace gas-pockets that would otherwise be disrupted in traditional passive SHS surfaces due to high shear stress and turbulent pressure fluctuations. The authors recognize the support of ONR.

  6. Transition Delay in Hypersonic Boundary Layers via Optimal Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nonlinear optimal streaks on disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7deg half-angle cone is investigated in an e ort to expand the range of available techniques for transition control. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone, but subharmonic first mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. These results suggest a passive flow control strategy of using micro vortex generators to induce streaks that would delay transition in hypersonic boundary layers.

  7. Contrasting Vertical Structures of the Stable Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, Dean

    2002-01-01

    Wyngaard (1973) introduced the concept of z-less stratification for cases where the stratification is sufficiently strong, that the turbulence no longer is in significant communication with the surface (see also Holtslag and Nieuwstadt, 1986). Then z is no longer a primary scaling variable, nor is the boundary-layer depth. The eddies are vertically constrained by strong stratification. However, the z-less concept implies more than small eddies, since vertically continuous turbulence can still organize according to z even if the eddies at any level are small compared to z. For example, with local similarity where the relevant Obukhov length must be recast in terms of local fluxes at level z instead of surface fluxes (Nieuwstadt, 1984), the overall vertical structure is still posed in terms of z/h even if the eddy size is small compared to z. In this sense, local similarity still satisfies the criteria for traditional boundary layers. On the other hand, continuous turbulence between the surface and level z might still qualify as primarily z-less turbulence if the principal source of turbulence is detached from the surface and the distance above the ground surface is only a secondary influence.

  8. Scaling of pressure spectrum in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Saurabh S.; Ramesh, O. N.

    2014-04-01

    Scaling of pressure spectrum in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers is discussed. Spatial DNS data of boundary layer at one time instant (Reθ = 4500) are used for the analysis. It is observed that in the outer regions the pressure spectra tends towards the -7/3 law predicted by Kolmogorov's theory of small-scale turbulence. The slope in the pressure spectra varies from -1 close to the wall to a value close to -7/3 in the outer region. The streamwise velocity spectra also show a -5/3 trend in the outer region of the flow. The exercise carried out to study the amplitude modulation effect of the large scales on the smaller ones in the near-wall region reveals a strong modulation effect for the streamwise velocity, but not for the pressure fluctuations. The skewness of the pressure follows the same trend as the amplitude modulation coefficient, as is the case for the velocity. In the inner region, pressure spectra were seen to collapse better when normalized with the local Reynolds stress than when scaled with the local turbulent kinetic energy

  9. Vortex Roll Breakup in Three-Dimensional Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamman, Curtis; Moin, Parviz

    2011-11-01

    Large helical vortex rolls with axes in the general direction of the mean wind commonly appear in the unstably stratified atmospheric boundary layer. When a rapid shift in the mean wind direction occurs, the vertical transport of momentum and heat flux is sharply reduced compared to the equilibrium value. At long times, this non-equilibrium turbulent flow may develop back into a stable pattern of organized vortex rolls, now aligned with the new wind direction. This transition process is studied via direct numerical simulation of plane channel flow heated from below with impulsively started transverse pressure gradient (Ri = - Ra / PrRe2 = - 0 . 25 , Ra =107 , and Pr = 0 . 71). The timescale for heat flux recovery is approximately the same for turning angles larger than 30 degrees. For higher turning angles, however, the Nusselt number will temporarily drop below one due to a significant reduction in vertical transport. Horizontal velocity and temperature spectra suggest that scale separation between large-scale, organized convective motions and turbulent eddies can prevent heat transfer reduction in transversely accelerated three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers. Supported by the DOE CSGF, grant no. DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  10. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-04-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  11. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  12. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  13. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  14. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  15. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  16. Competing disturbance amplification mechanisms in two-fluid boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sandeep; Page, Jacob; Zaki, Tamer

    2015-11-01

    The linear stability of boundary layers above a thin wall film of lower viscosity is analyzed. Appropriate choice of the film thickness and viscosity excludes the possibility of interfacial instabilities. Transient amplification of disturbances is therefore the relevant destabilizing influence, and can take place via three different mechanisms in the two-fluid configuration. Each is examined in detail by solving an initial value problem whose initial condition comprises a pair of appropriately chosen eigenmodes from the discrete, continuous and interface modes. Two regimes are driven by the lift-up mechanism: (i) The response to a streamwise vortex and (ii) the normal vorticity generated by a stable Tollmien-Schlichting wave. Both are damped due to the film. The third regime is associated with the wall-normal vorticity that is generated by the interface displacement. It can lead to appreciable streamwise velocity disturbances in the near-wall region at relatively low viscosity ratios. The results demonstrate that a wall film can stabilize the early linear stages of boundary-layer transition, and explain the observations from the recent nonlinear direct numerical simulations of this configuration by Jung & Zaki (J. Fluid Mech., vol 772, 2015, 330-360).

  17. Pressure power spectra beneath a supersonic turbulent boundary layer.

    SciTech Connect

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Henfling, John Francis; Pruett, Brian O. M.

    2010-06-01

    Wind tunnel experiments up to Mach 3 have provided fluctuating wall-pressure spectra beneath a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to frequencies reaching 400 kHz by combining signals from piezoresistive silicon pressure transducers effective at low- and mid-range frequencies and piezoelectric quartz sensors to detect high frequency events. Data were corrected for spatial attenuation at high frequencies and for wind-tunnel noise and vibration at low frequencies. The resulting power spectra revealed the {omega}{sup -1} dependence for fluctuations within the logarithmic region of the boundary layer, but are essentially flat at low frequency and do not exhibit the theorized {omega}{sup 2} dependence. Variations in the Reynolds number or streamwise measurement location collapse to a single curve for each Mach number when normalized by outer flow variables. Normalization by inner flow variables is successful for the {omega}{sup -1} region but less so for lower frequencies. A comparison of the pressure fluctuation intensities with fifty years of historical data shows their reported magnitude chiefly is a function of the frequency response of the sensors. The present corrected data yield results in excess of the bulk of the historical data, but uncorrected data are consistent with lower magnitudes. These trends suggest that much of the historical compressible database may be biased low, leading to the failure of several semi-empirical predictive models to accurately represent the power spectra acquired during the present experiments.

  18. Experimental Study of Fully Developed Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner v, John; Wosnik, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Results from an experimental study of an array of up to 100 model wind turbines with 0.25 m diameter, conducted in the turbulent boundary layer of the 6.0 m wide × 2.7 m tall × 72.0 m long test section of the UNH Flow Physics Facility, are reported. The study aims to address two questions. First, for a given configuration (turbine spacing, initial conditions, etc.), when will the model wind farm reach a ``fully developed'' condition, in which turbulence statistics remain the same from one row to the next within and above the wind turbine array. Second, how is kinetic energy transported in the wind turbine array boundary layer (WTABL). Measurements in the fully developed WTABL can provide valuable insight to the optimization of wind farm energy production. Previous experimental studies with smaller model wind farms were unable to reach the fully developed condition. Due to the size of the UNH facility and the current model array, the fully developed WTABL condition can be achieved. The wind turbine array was simulated by a combination of drag-matched porous disks, used in the upstream part of the array, and by a smaller array of realistic, scaled 3-bladed wind turbines immediately upstream of the measurement location.

  19. Characteristic Lifelength of Coherent Structure in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    A characteristic lifelength is defined by which a Gaussian distribution is fit to data correlated over a 3 sensor array sampling streamwise sidewall pressure. The data were acquired at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds aboard a Tu-144. Lifelengths are estimated using the cross spectrum and are shown to compare favorably with Efimtsov's prediction of correlation space scales. Lifelength distributions are computed in the time/frequency domain using an interval correlation technique on the continuous wavelet transform of the original time data. The median values of the lifelength distributions are found to be very close to the frequency averaged result. The interval correlation technique is shown to allow the retrieval and inspection of the original time data of each event in the lifelength distribution, thus providing a means to locate and study the nature of the coherent structure in the turbulent boundary layer. The lifelength data can be converted to lifetimes using the convection velocity. The lifetime of events in the time/frequency domain are displayed in Lifetime Maps. The primary purpose of the paper is to validate these new analysis techniques so that they can be used with confidence to further characterize coherent structure in the turbulent boundary layer.

  20. On the development of turbulent boundary layer with wall transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Marco; Downs, Robert S., III; Fallenius, Bengt E. G.; Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study of the development of the transpired boundary layer in zero pressure gradient is carried out on a 6.4 m long hydrodynamically smooth and perforated plate. The relatively longer development length of the present perforated plate compared to the ones used in previous studies allows us to investigate whether an asymptotic suction boundary layer with constant thickness is achieved for the turbulent state, analogously to what happens in the laminar state. Velocity profiles are obtained via hot-wire anemometry while the wall shear stress is measured at several streamwise locations with hot-film and wall-wire probes as well as with oil-film interferometry. The threshold suction coefficient above which relaminarization starts to occur is examined. The scaling of the mean velocity and of higher order velocity moments is discussed in light of the measured wall shear stress data. Support from the European Research Council of the Advanced Fluid Research On Drag reduction in Turbulence Experiments (AFRODITE) is acknowledged.

  1. Low Cost Geothermal Separators BLISS Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Douglas; Wai, King

    2000-05-26

    A new compact, low cost, and high performance separator is being developed to help reduce the installed and O and M cost of geothermal power generation. This device has been given the acronym ''BLISS'' that stands for ''Boundary Layer Inline Separator Scrubber''. The device is the first of a series of separators, and in the case of injectates, scrubbers to address the cost-reduction needs of the industry. The BLISS is a multi-positional centrifugal separator primarily designed to be simply installed between pipe supports, in a horizontal position. This lower profile reduces the height safety concern for workers, and significantly reduces the total installation cost. The vessel can demand as little as one-quarter (25%) the amount of steel traditionally required to fabricate many large vertical separators. The compact nature and high separating efficiency of this device are directly attributable to a high centrifugal force coupled with boundary layer control. The pseudo isokinetic flow design imparts a self-cleaning and scale resistant feature. This polishing separator is designed to remove moderate amounts of liquid and entrained solids.

  2. Composite structure of plumes in stratus-topped boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeng, C.H. ); Schumann, U. )

    1991-10-15

    Knowledge of convective plumes within the clear convective boundary layer (CBL) is quite advanced owing to direct measurements, tank experiments, and large-eddy simulation studies. As a result, modeling of the CBL is relatively successful. Progress for the stratus-topped boundary layer (STBL), however, is slow. This study compares the plume structure of the surface-heated CBL with that of the cloud-top-cooled STBL in the hope of extending knowledge of the CBL to the STBL. A conditional sampling technique is applied to the STBL flow fields that are generated through large-eddy simulations, so that the structures of typical updrafts and downdrafts may be derived. For the purpose of comparing the surface-heated CBL and the cloud-top-cooled STBL, an idealized STBL, the compensating updrafts are nearly as strong as the top-cooling-generated downdrafts, and they contribute a significant amount to the heat, moisture, and momentum transports. This differs very much from the CBL, where the compensating downdrafts are much weaker than the surface-heating-generated updrafts and contribute much less to the transports. The mechanism that results in such an asymmetry between the CBL and STBL is examined, and suggestions on how the asymmetry affects the entrainment process are made. 25 refs., 26 figs.

  3. Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer due to Acoustic Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    2004-01-01

    The boundary layer receptivity process due to the interaction of three-dimensional slow and fast acoustic disturbances with a blunted flat plate is numerically investigated at a free stream Mach number of 3.5 and at a high Reynolds number of 106/inch. The computations are performed with and without two-dimensional isolated roughness element located near the leading edge. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using the 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The simulations showed that the linear instability waves are generated very close to the leading edge. The wavelength of the disturbances inside the boundary layer first increases gradually and becomes longer than the wavelength for the instability waves within a short distance from the leading edge. The wavelength then decreases gradually and merges with the wavelength for the Tollmien_Schlichting wave. The initial amplitudes of the instability waves near the neutral points, the receptivity coefficients, are about 1.20 and 0.07 times the amplitude of the free-stream disturbances for the slow and the fast waves respectively. It was also revealed that small isolated roughness element does not enhance the receptivity process for the given nose bluntness.

  4. Transition in a Supersonic Boundary Layer Due to Acoustic Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.

    2005-01-01

    The boundary layer receptivity process due to the interaction of three-dimensional slow and fast acoustic disturbances with a blunted flat plate is numerically investigated at a free stream Mach number of 3.5 and at a high Reynolds number of 10(exp 6)/inch. The computations are performed with and without two-dimensional isolated roughness element located near the leading edge. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using the fifth-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The simulations showed that the linear instability waves are generated very close to the leading edge. The wavelength of the disturbances inside the boundary layer first increases gradually and becomes longer than the wavelength for the instability waves within a short distance from the leading edge. The wavelength then decreases gradually and merges with the wavelength for the Tollmien-Schlichting wave. The initial amplitudes of the instability waves near the neutral points, the receptivity coefficients, are about 1.20 and 0.07 times the amplitude of the free-stream disturbances for the slow and the fast waves respectively. It was also revealed that small isolated roughness element does not enhance the receptivity process for the given nose bluntness.

  5. Characteristics of turbulent boundary layer flow over algal biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael; Steppe, Cecily; Flack, Karen; Reidenbach, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Algal biofilms are an important fouling community on ship hulls, with severe economic consequences due to drag-induced increases in fuel use and cleaning costs. Here, we characterize the boundary layer flow structure in turbulent flow over diatomaceous slime, a type of biofilm. Diatomaceous slime composed of three species of diatoms commonly found on ship hulls was grown on acrylic test plates under shear stress. The slime averages 1.6 mm in thickness and has a high density of streamers, which are flexible elongated growths with a length on the order of 1- 2 mm located at the top of the biofilm that interact with the flow. Fouled acrylic plates were placed in a water tunnel facility specialized for detailed turbulent boundary layer measurements. High resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data are analyzed for mean velocity profile as well as local turbulent stresses and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production, dissipation and transport. Quadrant analysis is used to characterize the impact of the instantaneous events of Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in the flow. To investigate the coherence of the large-scale motion in the flow two-point correlation analysis is employed. Funding provided by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.

  6. Application of Arnoldi method to boundary layer instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Ming; Luo, Ji-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    The Arnoldi method is applied to boundary layer instability, and a finite difference method is employed to avoid the limit of the finite element method. This modus operandi is verified by three comparison cases, i.e., comparison with linear stability theory (LST) for two-dimensional (2D) disturbance on one-dimensional (1D) basic flow, comparison with LST for three-dimensional (3D) disturbance on 1D basic flow, and comparison with Floquet theory for 3D disturbance on 2D basic flow. Then it is applied to secondary instability analysis on the streaky boundary layer under spanwise-localized free-stream turbulence (FST). Three unstable modes are found, i.e., an inner mode at a high-speed center streak, a sinuous type outer mode at a low-speed center streak, and a sinuous type outer mode at low-speed side streaks. All these modes are much more unstable than Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves, implying the dominant contribution of secondary instability in bypass transition. The modes at strong center streak are more unstable than those at weak side streaks, so the center streak is ‘dangerous’ in secondary instability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11202147, 11332007, 11172203, and 91216111) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120032120007).

  7. Planetary Boundary-Layer Modelling and Tall Building Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simiu, Emil; Shi, Liang; Yeo, DongHun

    2016-04-01

    Characteristics of flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) strongly affect the design of tall structures. PBL modelling in building codes, based as it is on empirical data from the 1960s and 1970s, differs significantly from contemporary PBL models, which account for both "neutral" flows, and "conventionally neutral" flows. PBL heights estimated in these relatively sophisticated models are typically approximately half as large as those obtained using the classical asymptotic similarity approach, and are one order of magnitude larger than those specified in North American and Japanese building codes. A simple method is proposed for estimating the friction velocity and PBL height as functions of specified surface roughness and geostrophic wind speed. Based on published results, it is tentatively determined that, even at elevations as high as 800 m above the surface, the contribution to the resultant mean flow velocity of the component V normal to the surface stress is negligible and the veering angle is of the order of only 5°. This note aims to encourage dialogue between boundary-layer meteorologists and structural engineers.

  8. Boundary-layer turbulence characteristics during aeolian saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bailiang; McKenna Neuman, Cheryl

    2012-06-01

    A great deal of effort has been expended in measuring turbulence phenomena in clean air flows. However, no previous measurements have been successfully made of the vertical distributions of turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress in a fully adjusted boundary-layer flow saturated with saltating particles. The present wind tunnel study addresses this knowledge gap using a custom designed laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA). The amount of turbulence is found to increase with the introduction of saltating particles to the airflow. Over the lowest 15% of boundary layer, vertical profiles of the streamwise wind speed provide friction velocities that lie well within the narrow range of those derived from direct measurement of the Reynolds stress. Relative to clean air, aeolian saltation is demonstrated to increase the magnitude but not the frequency of burst-sweep events that primarily contribute to the total fluid stress. Within several millimeters above the bed surface, all vertical profiles of wind speed converge upon a focal point, as the local fluid stress declines toward the mobile bed.

  9. Boundary-layer turbulence characteristics during aeolian saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; McKenna Neuman, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    A great deal of effort has been expended in measuring turbulence phenomena in clean air flows. However, no previous measurements have been successfully made of the vertical distributions of turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress in a fully adjusted boundary-layer flow saturated with saltating particles. The present wind tunnel study addresses this knowledge gap using a custom designed laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA). The amount of turbulence is found to increase with the introduction of saltating particles to the airflow. Over the lowest 15% of boundary layer, vertical profiles of the streamwise wind speed provide friction velocities that lie well within the narrow range of those derived from direct measurement of the Reynolds stress. Relative to clean air, aeolian saltation is demonstrated to increase the magnitude but not the frequency of burst-sweep events that primarily contribute to the total fluid stress. Within several millimeters above the bed surface, all vertical profiles of wind speed converge upon a focal point, as the local fluid stress declines toward the mobile bed.

  10. Flowfield Measurements Inside a Boundary-Layer Bleed Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. O.; Willis, B. P.; Hingst, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the flowfield inside a bleed slot used to control an oblique shock-wave and turbulent boundary-layer interaction. The slot was oriented normal to the primary flow direction and had a width of 1.0 cm (primary flow direction) and a length of 2.54 cm and spanned 16.5 cm. The approach boundary layer upstream of the interaction was nominally 3.0 cm thick. Two operating conditions were studied: M = 1.98 with a shock generator deflection angle of 6 deg and M = 2.46 with a shock generator deflection angle of 8 deg. Measurements include surface and flowfield static pressure, pitot pressure, and total mass flow through the slot. The results show that despite an initially two-dimensional interaction for the zero-bleed-flow case, the slot does not remove mass uniformly in the spanwise direction. Inside the slot, the flow is characterized bv two separation regions, which significantly reduce the effective flow area. The upper separation region acts as an aerodynamic throat, resulting in supersonic flow through much of the slot.

  11. Stability and modal analysis of shock/boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Joseph W.; Larsson, Johan; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions is analyzed by mining a large-eddy simulation (LES) database for various strengths of the incoming shock. The flow dynamics is first analyzed by means of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), which highlights the simultaneous occurrence of two types of flow modes, namely a low-frequency type associated with breathing motion of the separation bubble, accompanied by flapping motion of the reflected shock, and a high-frequency type associated with the propagation of instability waves past the interaction zone. Global linear stability analysis performed on the mean LES flow fields yields a single unstable zero-frequency mode, plus a variety of marginally stable low-frequency modes whose stability margin decreases with the strength of the interaction. The least stable linear modes are grouped into two classes, one of which bears striking resemblance to the breathing mode recovered from DMD and another class associated with revolving motion within the separation bubble. The results of the modal and linear stability analysis support the notion that low-frequency dynamics is intrinsic to the interaction zone, but some continuous forcing from the upstream boundary layer may be required to keep the system near a limit cycle. This can be modeled as a weakly damped oscillator with forcing, as in the early empirical model by Plotkin (AIAA J 13:1036-1040, 1975).

  12. Flow Coefficient Behavior for Boundary Layer Bleed Holes and Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, B. P.; Davis, D. O.; Hingst, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental investigation into the flow coefficient behavior for nine boundary layer bleed orifice configurations is reported. This test was conducted for the purposes of exploring boundary layer control through mass flow removal and does not address issues of stability bleed. Parametric data consist of bleed region flow coefficient as a function of Mach number, bleed plenum pressure, and bleed orifice geometry. Seven multiple hole configurations and two single slot configurations were tested over a supersonic Mach number range of 1.3 to 2.5 (nominal). Advantages gained by using multiple holes in a bleed region instead of a single spanwise slot are discussed and the issue of modeling an entire array of bleed orifices based on the performance of a single orifice is addressed. Preconditioning the flow approaching a 90 degree inclined (normal) hole configuration resulted in a significant improvement in the performance of the configuration. The same preconditioning caused only subtle changes in performance for a 20 degree inclined (slanted) configuration.

  13. Boundary layer flow on a long thin rotating cylinder.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, Miguel A.; Del Pino, Carlos; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon

    2006-11-01

    The development and stability of the boundary layer flow over a long thin cylinder aligned with the main flow and which rotates around its axis is considered. Numerical results show that the introduction of rotation has an important effect on the behavior of the basic flow. When the swirl increases, the shear stress at the wall also increases due to the changes in the pressure distribution along the cylinder surface. A nonparallel linear stability analysis of the basic flow is also performed using Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE). Even at moderately low rotation, we have found the existence of unstable centrifugal modes, in addition to the shear ones found in previous stability analysis of the boundary layer flow on a cylinder with no rotation. These centrifugal instabilities develop at Reynolds numbers much lower than those required for the growing of the shear instabilities. Our analysis shows that non parallel effects play a key role in the development of these instabilities, being the mode with azimuthal wave number n=1 the most unstable one.

  14. Optimal Disturbances in Boundary Layers Subject to Streamwise Pressure Gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Tumin, Anatoli

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the non-modal growth of perturbations in a boundary layer in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient is presented. The analysis is based on PSE equations for an incompressible fluid. Examples with Falkner- Skan profiles indicate that a favorable pressure gradient decreases the non-modal growth while an unfavorable pressure gradient leads to an increase of the amplification. It is suggested that the transient growth mechanism be utilized to choose optimal parameters of tripping elements on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) airfoil. As an example, a boundary-layer flow with a streamwise pressure gradient corresponding to the pressure distribution over a LPT airfoil is considered. It is shown that there is an optimal spacing of the tripping elements and that the transient growth effect depends on the starting point. The amplification is found to be small at the LPT s very low Reynolds numbers, but there is a possibility to enhance the transient energy growth by means of wall cooling.

  15. Free-stream disturbances, continuous eigenfunctions, boundary-layer instability and transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salwen, H.

    1980-01-01

    A rational foundation is provided for the application of the linear stability theory of parallel shear flows to transition prediction. An explicit method is given for carrying out the necessary calculations. The expansions are shown to be complete. Sample calculations show that a typical boundary layer is very sensitive to vorticity disturbance in the inner boundary layer near the critical layer. Vorticity disturbances three or four boundary layer thicknesses above the boundary are nearly uncoupled from the boundary layer, in that the amplitudes of the discrete Tollmein-Schlichting waves are an extremely small fraction of the amplitude of the disturbance.

  16. Computation of unsteady turbulent boundary layers with flow reversal and evaluation of two separate turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure which solves the governing boundary layer equations within Keller's box method was developed for calculating unsteady laminar flows with flow reversal. This method is extended to turbulent boundary layers with flow reversal. Test cases are used to investigate the proposition that unsteady turbulent boundary layers also remain free of singularities. Turbulent flow calculations are performed. The governing equations for both models are solved. As in laminar flows, the unsteady turbulent boundary layers are free from singularities, but there is a clear indication of rapid thickening of the boundary layer with increasing flow reversal. Predictions of both turbulence models are the same for all practical purposes.

  17. Stable Stratification Effects on Flow and Pollutant Dispersion in Boundary Layers Entering a Generic Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, J. M.; Pourquie, M. J. B. M.; Jonker, H. J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) are used to investigate the effect of stable stratification on rural-to-urban roughness transitions. Smooth-wall turbulent boundary layers are subjected to a generic urban roughness consisting of cubes in an in-line arrangement. Two line sources of pollutant are added to investigate the effect on pollutant dispersion. Firstly, the LES method is validated with data from wind-tunnel experiments on fully-developed flow over cubical roughness. Good agreement is found for the vertical profiles of the mean streamwise velocity component and mean Reynolds stress. Subsequently, roughness transition simulations are done for both neutral and stable conditions. Results are compared with fully-developed simulations with conventional double-periodic boundary conditions. In stable conditions, at the end of the domain the streamwise velocity component has not yet reached the fully-developed state even though the surface forces are nearly constant. Moreover, the internal boundary layer is shallower than in the neutral case. Furthermore, an investigation of the turbulence kinetic energy budget shows that the buoyancy destruction term is reduced in the internal boundary layer, above which it is equal to the undisturbed (smooth wall) value. In addition, in stable conditions pollutants emitted above the urban canopy enter the canopy farther downstream due to decreased vertical mixing. Pollutants emitted below the top of the urban canopy are 85 % higher in concentration in stable conditions mostly due to decreased advection. If this is taken into account concentrations remain 17 % greater in stable conditions due to less rapid internal boundary-layer growth. Finally, it is concluded that in the first seven streets the vertical advective pollutant flux is significant, in contrast to the fully-developed case.

  18. Time-domain implementation of an impedance boundary condition with boundary layer correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambley, E. J.; Gabard, G.

    2016-09-01

    A time-domain boundary condition is derived that accounts for the acoustic impedance of a thin boundary layer over an impedance boundary, based on the asymptotic frequency-domain boundary condition of Brambley (2011) [25]. A finite-difference reference implementation of this condition is presented and carefully validated against both an analytic solution and a discrete dispersion analysis for a simple test case. The discrete dispersion analysis enables the distinction between real physical instabilities and artificial numerical instabilities. The cause of the latter is suggested to be a combination of the real physical instabilities present and the aliasing and artificial zero group velocity of finite-difference schemes. It is suggested that these are general properties of any numerical discretization of an unstable system. Existing numerical filters are found to be inadequate to remove these artificial instabilities as they have a too wide pass band. The properties of numerical filters required to address this issue are discussed and a number of selective filters are presented that may prove useful in general. These filters are capable of removing only the artificial numerical instabilities, allowing the reference implementation to correctly reproduce the stability properties of the analytic solution.

  19. Stability of boundary layers within high-speed viscous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyttle, Ian John

    2003-10-01

    A numerical study was undertaken to predict the stability of a variety of high-speed boundary-layer flows. Using a finite-volume code, the Navier-Stokes equations were solved for a series of flows around spherically blunted cones. These solutions were used to perform linear-stability analyses for second-mode disturbances. Two investigations were undertaken using an ideal-gas model: the Stetson experiment and a recent experiment conducted at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics in Russia. Comparisons were made with both basic-state and disturbance state quantities. For both cases, linear-growth regions have been identified. For the Stetson case, using an experimentally determined wall-temperature distribution for the basic-state appeared to give better agreement with the experimentally measured growth than does the classical adiabatic-wall boundary condition. For the Russian experiment, initial comparisons were made in order to continue a careful collaboration. A third investigation was made which used a chemical non-equilibrium model, considering a Mach 13.5 flow in upper-atmospheric conditions. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the sensitivity of second-mode growth predictions to changes (within accepted uncertainties) in thermodynamic, reaction-rate; and transport models. The magnitude of change in the stability results correlated strongly with changes in the basic-state thermal boundary-layer profile, consistent with second-mode theory. The largest change in the stability behavior was observed for the case where the transport model was changed. For high-speed flows, the development of computational techniques is in some ways ahead of the experimental community's ability to verify the results. As these techniques are applied to flows in thermochemical non-equilibrium, the fidelity of the constitutive relationships should be considered.

  20. Cloud Shading Effects on Characteristic Boundary-Layer Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, G. L.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Sikma, M.

    2015-11-01

    We studied the effects of shading by shallow cumulus (shallow Cu) and the subsequent effect of inducing heterogeneous conditions at the surface on boundary-layer characteristics. We placed special emphasis on quantifying the changes in the characteristic length and time scales associated with thermals, shallow Cu and induced thermal circulation structures. A series of systematic numerical experiments, inspired by Amazonian thermodynamic conditions, was performed using a large-eddy simulation model coupled to a land-surface model. We used four different experiments to disentangle the effects of shallow Cu on the surface and the response of clouds to these surface changes. The experiments include a `clear case', `transparent clouds', `shading clouds' and a case with a prescribed uniform domain and reduced surface heat flux. We also performed a sensitivity study on the effect of introducing a weak background flow. Length and time scales were calculated using autocorrelation and two-dimensional spectral analysis, and we found that shading controlled by shallow Cu locally lowers surface temperatures and consequently reduces the sensible and latent heat fluxes, thus inducing spatial and temporal variability in these fluxes. The length scale of this surface heterogeneity is not sufficiently large to generate circulations that are superimposed on the boundary-layer scale, but the heterogeneity does disturb boundary-layer dynamics and generates a flow opposite to the normal thermal circulation. Besides this effect, shallow Cu shading reduces turbulent kinetic energy and lowers the convective velocity scale, thus reducing the mass flux. This hampers the thermal lifetime, resulting in a decrease in the shallow Cu residence time (from 11 to 7 min). This reduction in lifetime, combined with a decrease in mass flux, leads to smaller clouds. This is partially compensated for by a decrease in thermal cell size due to a reduction in turbulent kinetic energy. As a result, inter