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Sample records for concentrations cucumis sativus

  1. The Genome of the Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen...

  2. Effect of arsenic species on the growth and arsenic accumulation in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Choi, Sun Ah; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Min, Bo Ra; Yoon, Cheolho; Yoon, Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The effects of arsenic (As) species, such as As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), on the accumulation of As in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), as well as on its growth in a soil mesocosm were evaluated. When Cucumis sativus was cultivated in soils contaminated with 20 and 50 mg/kg of As(III), As(V) or DMA for 40 days, the growth was markedly inhibited by the inorganic As (As(III) and As(V)) rather than the organic As (DMA). Irrespective of the As species, the As concentrations accumulated in Cucumis sativus increased with increasing As concentration in the soil. The As bioaccumulation factors from soil into the tissue of Cucumis sativus were 17.5-35.4, 29.3-42.7 and 17.6-25.7 for As(III), As(V) and DMA, respectively. In addition, the As translocation factors from the roots to shoots were 0.025-0.031, 0.018-0.032 and 0.014-0.026 for As(III), As(V) and DMA, respectively. In conclusion, Cucumis sativus mainly accumulated As in its roots rather than its shoots and easily accumulated inorganic rather than organic As from the soil into its tissue.

  3. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. II. Carbon exchange rates, enzyme activities, and starch and nutrient concentrations. [Cucumis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.; Huber, S.C.; Patterson, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon exchange capacity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germinated and grown in controlled environment chambers at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ decreased from the vegetative growth stage to the fruiting stage, during which time capacity of plants grown at 350 microliters per liter increased. Carbon exchange rates (CERs) measured under growth conditions during the fruiting period were, in fact, lower in plants grown at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ than those grown at 350. Progressive decreases in CERs in 1000 microliters per liter plants were associated with decreasing stomatal conductances and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. Leaf starch concentrations were higher in 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ grown-plants than in 350 microliters per liter grown plants but calcium and nitrogen concentrations were lower, the greatest difference occurring at flowering. Sucrose synthase and sucrose-P-synthase activities were similar in 1000 microliters per liter compared to 350 microliters per liter plants during vegetative growth and flowering but higher in 350 microliters per liter plants at fruiting. The decreased carbon exchange rates observed in this cultivar at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ could explain the lack of any yield increase when compared with plants grown at 350 microliters per liter.

  4. Comparison of the distribution of the repetitive DNA sequences in three variants of Cucumis sativus reveals their phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Lu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Hu, Jiajin; Huang, Sanwen; Jin, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences with variability in copy number or/and sequence polymorphism can be employed as useful molecular markers to study phylogenetics and identify species/chromosomes when combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Cucumis sativus has three variants, Cucumis sativus L. var. sativus, Cucumis sativus L. var. hardwickii and Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannesis. The phylogenetics among these three variants has not been well explored using cytological landmarks. Here, we concentrate on the organization and distribution of highly repetitive DNA sequences in cucumbers, with emphasis on the differences between cultivar and wild cucumber. The diversity of chromosomal karyotypes in cucumber and its relatives was detected in our study. Thereby, sequential FISH with three sets of multi-probe cocktails (combined repetitive DNA with chromosome-specific fosmid clones as probes) were conducted on the same metaphase cell, which helped us to simultaneously identify each of the 7 metaphase chromosomes of wild cucumber C. sativus var. hardwickii. A standardized karyotype of somatic metaphase chromosomes was constructed. Our data also indicated that the relationship between cultivar cucumber and C. s. var. xishuangbannesis was closer than that of C. s. var. xishuangbannesis and C. s. var. hardwickii.

  5. Cucumis sativus secretes 4'-ketoriboflavin under iron-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Junichi; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Sekino, Kouta; Ito, Shinsaku; Katsuta, Ryo; Takeda, Kouji; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Shinmachi, Fumie; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi; Nukada, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    A new compound in cucumber, Cucumis sativus, nutrient solution that appears under iron-deficient conditions, but not under ordinary culture conditions, has been revealed by HPLC analysis. The chemical structure of this compound was identified using LC-MS and NMR techniques as that of 4'-ketoriboflavin. This is the first report to show that 4'-ketoriboflavin can be found in metabolites from organisms.

  6. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  7. Exploring a new serine protease from Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Nafeesa, Zohara; Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-03-01

    Coagulation is an important physiological process in hemostasis which is activated by sequential action of proteases. This study aims to understand the involvement of aqueous fruit extract of Cucumis sativus L. (AqFEC) European burp less variety in blood coagulation cascade. AqFEC hydrolyzed casein in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of protease activity was further confirmed by casein zymography which revealed the possible presence of two high molecular weight protease(s). The proteolytic activity was inhibited only by phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride suggesting the presence of serine protease(s). In a dose-dependent manner, AqFEC also hydrolysed Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen, whereas it failed to degrade the γ subunit of fibrinogen even at a concentration as high as 100 μg and incubation time up to 4 h. AqFEC reduced the clotting time of citrated plasma by 87.65%. The protease and fibrinogenolytic activity of AqFEC suggests its possible role in stopping the bleeding and ensuing wound healing process.

  8. Silicon uptake and transport is an active process in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongchao; Si, Jin; Römheld, Volker

    2005-09-01

    Cucumis sativus is a species known to accumulate high levels of silicon (Si) in the tops, though the mechanism for its high Si uptake is little understood. In a series of hydroponic experiments, we examined uptake and xylem loading of Si in C. sativus along with Vicia faba at three levels of Si (0.085, 0.17 and 1.70 mm). Measured Si uptake in C. sativus was more than twice as high as calculated from the rate of transpiration assuming no discrimination between silicic acid and water in uptake. Measured Si uptake in V. faba, however, was significantly lower than the calculated uptake. Concentration of Si in xylem exudates was several-fold higher in C. sativus, but was significantly lower in V. faba compared with the Si concentration in external solutions, regardless of Si levels. Silicon uptake was strongly inhibited by low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol, a metabolic inhibitor, in C. sativus but not in V. faba. It can be concluded that Si uptake and transport in C. sativus is active and independent of external Si concentrations, in contrast to the process in V. faba.

  9. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L . negeen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Gholamabbas; Ranjbar, Morteza; Amiri, Aliasghar

    2013-05-01

    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant's productions for human consumptions.

  10. Screening of Cucumis sativus as a new arsenic-accumulating plant and its arsenic accumulation in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Choi, Sun Ah; Yoon, Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technology with a promising application for removing arsenic (As) from soils and waters. Several plant species were evaluated for their As accumulation capacity in hydroponic culture amended with As. Cucumis sativus (cucumber) displayed the highest tolerance against As among 4 plants tested in this study (corn, wheat, sorghum and cucumber). The germination ratio of Cucumis sativus was more than 50% at the high concentration of 5,000 mg-As/l. In Cucumis sativus grown in a solution contaminated with 25 mg-As/l, the accumulated As concentrations in the shoot and root were 675.5 ± 11.5 and 312.0 ± 163.4 mg/kg, respectively, and the corresponding values of the translocation and bioaccumulation factors for As were 1.9 ± 0.9 and 21.1 ± 8.4, respectively. These results indicate Cucumis sativus is to be a candidate plant for phytoextraction of As from soils and water.

  11. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    PubMed

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  12. Marker-assisted backcross selection in an interspecific Cucumis population broadens the genetic base of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a major cucurbit vegetable species whose genetic base has been drastically reduced during its domestication. The crop's narrow genetic base (3-12% DNA polymorphism) has resulted from the use of limited genetic material and intense selection during plant improvement....

  13. Comparative mapping of ZYMV resistances in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Katzir, N; Brotman, Y; King, J; Bertrand, F; Havey, M

    2004-08-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) routinely causes significant losses in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and melon ( Cucumis melo L.). ZYMV resistances from the cucumber population 'TMG1' and the melon plant introduction (PI) 414723 show different modes of inheritance and their genetic relationships are unknown. We used molecular markers tightly linked to ZYMV resistances from cucumber and melon for comparative mapping. A 5-kb genomic region (YCZ-5) cosegregating with the zym locus of cucumber was cloned and sequenced to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels distinguishing alleles from ZYMV-resistant (TMG1) and susceptible (Straight 8) cucumbers. A low-copy region of the YCZ-5 clone was hybridized to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of melon and a 180-kb contig assembled. One end of this melon contig was mapped in cucumber and cosegregated with ZYMV resistance, demonstrating that physically linked regions in melon show genetic linkage in cucumber. However the YCZ-5 region segregated independently of ZYMV resistance loci in two melon families. These results establish that these sources of ZYMV resistances from cucumber TMG1 and melon PI414723 are likely non-syntenic.

  14. Isoptericola cucumis sp. nov., isolated from the root tissue of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kloepper, Joseph W; Hu, Chia-Hui; McInroy, John A; Martin, Karin; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic organism, showing an irregular cell morphology, was isolated from the root tissue of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and investigated in detail for its taxonomic position. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain AP-38T was shown to be most closely related to Isoptericola variabilis (99.1 %) and Isoptericola nanjingensis (98.9 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to all other species of the genus Isoptericola was ≤98.5 %. DNA-DNA relatedness to Isoptericola variablis DSM 10177T and Isoptericola nanjingensis DSM 24300T was 31(reciprocal 41 %) and 34 (reciprocal 34 %), respectively. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was l-lysine. The quinone system contained predominantly menaquinones MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H2). In the polar lipid profile, major compounds were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The polyamine pattern contained the major components spermidine and spermine and significant amounts of tyramine. In the fatty acid profile, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 were present in major amounts. These data support the allocation of the strain to the genus Isoptericola. The results of physiological and biochemical characterization additionally provide phenotypic differentiation of strain AP-38T from I. variabilis and I. nanjingensis. AP-38T represents a novel species of the genus Isoptericola, for which we propose the name Isoptericola cucumis sp. nov., with AP-38T (= LMG 29223T=CCM 8653T) as the type strain.

  15. Functional characterization of gibberellin oxidases from cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Liebrandt, Anja; Arnold, Linda; Chmielewska, Sara-Miriam; Felsberger, André; Freier, Eduard; Heuer, Monika; Zur, Doreen; Lange, Theo

    2013-06-01

    Cucurbits have been used widely to elucidate gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. With the recent availability of the genome sequence for the economically important cucurbit Cucumis sativus, sequence data became available for all genes potentially involved in GA biosynthesis for this species. Sixteen cDNAs were cloned from root and shoot of 3-d to 7-d old seedlings and from mature seeds of C. sativus. Two cDNAs code for GA 7-oxidases (CsGA7ox1, and -2), five for GA 20-oxidases (CsGA20ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5), four for GA 3-oxidases (CsGA3ox1, -2, -3, and -4), and another five for GA 2-oxidases (CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5). Their enzymatic activities were investigated by heterologous expression of the cDNAs in Escherichia coli and incubation of the cell lysates with (14)C-labelled, D2-labelled, or unlabelled GA-substrates. The two GA 7-oxidases converted GA12-aldehyde to GA12 efficiently. CsGA7ox1 converted GA12 to GA14, to 15α-hydroxyGA12, and further to 15α-hydroxyGA14. CsGA7ox2 converted GA12 to its 12α-hydroxylated analogue GA111. All five GA 20-oxidases converted GA12 to GA9 as a major product, and to GA25 as a minor product. The four GA 3-oxidases oxidized the C19-GA GA9 to GA4 as the only product. In addition, three of them (CsGA3ox2, -3, and -4) converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA14. The GA 2-oxidases CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, and -4 oxidized the C19-GAs GA9 and GA4 to GA34 and GA51, respectively. CsGA2ox2, -3, and -4 converted GA51 and GA34 further to respective GA-catabolites. In addition to C19-GAs, CsGA2ox4 also converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA110. In contrast, CsGA2ox5 oxidized only the C20 GA12 to GA110 as the sole product. As shown for CsGA20ox1 and CsGA3ox1, similar reactions were catalysed with 13-hydroxlyated GAs as substrates. It is likely that these enzymes are also responsible for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroxylated GAs in vivo that occur at low levels in cucumber.

  16. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  17. Determination of germination quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed by LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: We developed a viability evaluation method for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Methods: Reflectance spectra of cucumber seeds in the 400 to 1000 nm range were collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED ill...

  18. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  19. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  20. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity.

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. Hardwickii, the wild progenitor of cultivated cucumber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bang; Zhang, Dan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii) was determined and characterized in this study. The genome is of 155 277 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats regions (IRs) of 25 198 bp, which are separated by a large single-copy region of 86 618 bp and a small single-copy region of 18 263 bp. The wild cucumber chloroplast genome has 130 known genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 19 comprise one or two introns. There are 11 tRNA genes present in the IR of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenomic analysis showed that C. sativus var. hardwickii forms a cluster with other Cucumis species with strong bootstrap supports and is closely related to C. sativus var. sativus. This newly sequenced chloroplast genome sequence may provide useful genetic information to explore wild cucumber germplasms for cucumber breeding programs.

  2. Protective mechanisms of Cucumis sativus in diabetes-related modelsof oxidative stress and carbonyl stress

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Himan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Noubarani, Maryam; Rahmati, Mokhtar; Jafarian, Iman; Adiban, Hasan; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oxidative stress and carbonyl stress have essential mediatory roles in the development of diabetes and its related complications through increasing free radicals production and impairing antioxidant defense systems. Different chemical and natural compounds have been suggested for decreasing such disorders associated with diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) fruit (cucumber) in oxidative and carbonyl stress models. These diabetes-related models with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) simulate conditions observed in chronic hyperglycemia. Methods: Cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonyl stress model) were measured and the protective effects of C. sativus were evaluated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: Aqueous extract of C. sativus fruit (40 μg/mL) prevented all cytotoxicity markers in both the oxidative and carbonyl stress models including cell lysis, ROS formation, membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal labialization, and proteolysis. The extract also protected hepatocytes from protein carbonylation induced by glyoxal. Our results indicated that C. sativus is able to prevent oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in the isolated hepatocytes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that C. sativus has protective effects in diabetes complications and can be considered a safe and suitable candidate for decreasing the oxidative stress and carbonyl stress that is typically observed in diabetes mellitus. PMID:27340622

  3. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  4. Abscisic acid substantially inhibits senescence of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) grown under low nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Oka, Mariko; Shimoda, Yousuke; Sato, Naoko; Inoue, Junya; Yamazaki, Teru; Shimomura, Norihiro; Fujiyama, Hideyasu

    2012-05-15

    Low nitrogen (N) availability such as that found in both dry land and tropical regions limits plant growth and development. The relationship between the level of abscisic acid (ABA) in a plant and its growth under low-N conditions was investigated. The level of ABA in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants under low-N conditions was significantly higher at 10 and 20 d after transplantation compared with that under sufficient-N conditions. Chlorophyll was preserved in the aerial parts of cucumber plants grown under low-N conditions in the presence of ABA, while there was no significant difference between control plants and ABA-applied plants under sufficient-N conditions. ABA suppressed the reduction of chlorophyll biosynthesis under low-N conditions but not under sufficient-N conditions. On the other hand, ABA decreased the expression of the chlorophyll degradation gene in older cucumber plants grown under both conditions. In addition, transcript and protein levels of a gene encoding a chlorophyll a/b binding protein were positively correlated with ABA concentration under low-N conditions. The chloroplasts in control plants were round, and the stack of thylakoid membranes was reduced compared with that of plants treated with ABA 10(-5) M. These results strongly suggest that ABA is accumulated in cucumber plants grown under low-N conditions and that accumulated ABA promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis and inhibits its degradation in those plants.

  5. Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.

  6. Next generation sequencing and omics in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding directed research.

    PubMed

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Zieliński, Konrad; Zielińska, Dorota; Pląder, Wojciech; Yagi, Kouhei; Wojcieszek, Michał; Siedlecka, Ewa; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In the post-genomic era the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading us to novel generation methods in plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. In this study we have mainly concentrated on the Cucumis sativus and (but much less) Cucurbitaceae family several important vegetable crops. There are many reports on research conducted in Cucurbitaceae plant breeding programs on the ripening process, phloem transport, disease resistance, cold tolerance and fruit quality traits. This paper presents the role played by new omic technologies in the creation of knowledge on the mechanisms of the formation of the breeding features. The analysis of NGS (NGS-next generation sequencing) data allows the discovery of new genes and regulatory sequences, their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Firstly a high density map should be created for the reference genome, then each re-sequencing data could be mapped and new markers brought out into breeding populations. The paper also presents methods that could be used in the future for the creation of variability and genomic modification of the species in question. It has been shown also the state and usefulness in breeding the chloroplastomic and mitochondriomic study.

  7. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  8. Copper-induced oxidative damage, antioxidant response and genotoxicity in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. and Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    İşeri, Özlem Darcansoy; Körpe, Didem Aksoy; Yurtcu, Erkan; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Haberal, Mehmet

    2011-09-01

    Adequate copper (Cu(2+)) concentrations are required for plants; however, at higher concentrations it can also cause multiple toxic effects. In the present study, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels as well as ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1/11/1/11) and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) activities were determined in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. and Cucumis sativus L. seedlings after 7-day exposure to copper sulfate. In addition, DNA damage in these two crops was assessed by measuring micronucleus (MN) frequency and tail moments (TM) as determined by Comet assay. Inhibitory copper concentrations (EC(50): 30 and 5.5 ppm for L. esculentum and C. sativus, respectively) were determined according to dose-dependent root inhibition curves, and EC(50) and 2×EC(50) were applied. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) levels significantly increased in all groups studied. CAT activity increased in treatment groups of C. sativus. APX activity increased in L. esculentum seedlings due to 2×EC(50) treatment. Reductions in mitotic indices (MI) represented Cu(2+)dependent root growth inhibition in all treatment groups studied. According to TMs and MN frequencies, copper exposure induced significant DNA damage (p < 0.05) in all study groups, whereas the DNA damage induced was dose dependent in C. sativus roots. In conclusion, Cu(2+)induced oxidative damage, elevations in H(2)O(2) levels and alterations in APX and CAT activities, as well as significant DNA damage in nuclei of both study groups. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative and comprehensive study demonstrating the effects of copper on two different plant species at relevant cytotoxic concentrations at both biochemical and genotoxicity levels with multiple end points.

  9. Uptake and/or utilization of two simple phenolic acids by Cucumis sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Shann, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) from solutions (0.1 to 1.00 mM, pH 4.0 to 7.0), was determined for intact and excised roots of Cucumis sativus. Uptake methods based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acid depletion from solution were compared to those radioisotopic methods employing (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA or p-HBA. Although radiotracer methods more accurately reflected actual uptake of the compounds by cucumber seedlings, HPLC solution depletion methods may be useful in the elucidation of trends over very limited periods of time. The uptake of FA was unaffected by the presence of p-HBA. The uptake of p-HBA was reduced by 30% in the presence of FA when compared to the uptake from solutions containing p-HBA alone. Ferulic acid acts both as an allelopathic agent and precursor in the endogenous process of lignification. To evaluate the involvement of exogenous FA in lignin biosynthesis, roots of hydroponically grown cucumber seedlings were exposed to concentrations of FA labeled with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. Radiotracer was distributed throughout the seedling. A quantitative change in lignification occurred in treated seedlings. In roots and stems, the level of lignin increased with the number of exposures and as the concentrations of exogenous FA increased. Radiotracer was found in the residues of lignin isolated from seedling tissue treated with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. This suggested the utilization of the exogenously applied FA in the endogenous process of lignification.

  10. Inheritance and mapping of the ore gene controlling the quantity of ß-carotene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endocarp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic precursor of vitamin A, ß-carotene, is essential for human health. The gene(s) controlling ß- carotene quantity (QßC) has been introgressed from Xishuangbanna gourd (XIS, possessing ß-carotene; Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) into cultivated cucumbe...

  11. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  12. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in beit alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  13. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  14. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the sister species of melon is from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Patrizia; Schaefer, Hanno; Telford, Ian R H; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-08-10

    Among the fundamental questions regarding cultivated plants is their geographic origin and region of domestication. The genus Cucumis, which includes cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (Cucumis melo), has numerous wild African species, and it has therefore been assumed that melon originated in Africa. For cucumber, this seemed less likely because wild cucumbers exist in India and a closely related species lives in the Eastern Himalayas. Using DNA sequences from plastid and nuclear markers for some 100 Cucumis accessions from Africa, Australia, and Asia, we show here that melon and cucumber are of Asian origin and have numerous previously overlooked species-level relatives in Australia and around the Indian Ocean. The wild progenitor of C. melo occurs in India, and our data confirm that the Southeast Asian Cucumis hystrix is the closest relative of cucumber. Most surprisingly, the closest relative of melon is Cucumis picrocarpus from Australia. C. melo diverged from this Australian sister species approximately 3 Ma, and both diverged from the remaining Asian/Australian species approximately 10 Ma. The Asian/Australian Cucumis clade comprises at least 25 species, nine of them new to science, and diverged from its African relatives in the Miocene, approximately 12 Ma. Range reconstruction under maximum likelihood suggests Asia as the ancestral area for the most recent common ancestor of melon and cucumber, fitting with both having progenitor populations in the Himalayan region and high genetic diversity of C. melo landraces in India and China. Future investigations of wild species related to melon and cucumber should concentrate on Asia and Australia.

  15. Mutualistic association of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 offers thermotolerance to Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Shin, Jae-Ho; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-02-01

    We investigated in this study the influence of an endophytic fungus, Paecilomyces formosus LHL10, on the thermotolerance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) upon exposure to high (38°C) and low (8°C) temperature stresses. The results showed that endophyte-inoculated plants had significantly higher plant growth attributes under high-temperature stress. However, they were either low or insignificant in non-inoculated control and inoculated plants with 8°C treatments. Lower stress-promulgated water deficit and cellular membrane damage were observed in endophyte-treated plants after 38°C treatment than in control plants under 8°C stress. Total polyphenol, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation activities were reduced in endophyte-associated plants after exposure to 38°C as compared with control and 8°C-treated plants. The concentration of saturated fatty acids (palmitic-C16:0; stearic-C18:0) was lower in endophyte-treated plants with or without low-temperature stress, but after 8°C treatment increased compared with controls. Unsaturated fatty acids (oleic-C18:1; linoleic-C18:2; linolenic-C18:3 acids) were similar at normal conditions; however, at 38°C, C18:2 and C18:3 were decreased, and C18:1 was increased in endophyte-treated plants compared with controls, while the inverse relationship was found at 8°C. Low levels of abscisic acid in P. formosus-associated plants after 38°C treatments revealed stress tolerance compared with control and 8°C-treated plants. In contrast, salicylic acid was pronounced in endophyte-treated plants after low-temperature stress as compared to other treatments. The results provide evidence that the response to P. formosus association was beneficial at normal growth temperature and had varying effects in response to temperature stress.

  16. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  17. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on fungal disease development in Cucumis sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, A.B.; Teramura, A.H.; Sisler, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion due to increased atmospheric pollutants has received considerable attention because of the potential increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation that will reach the earth's surface. Three cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars were exposed to a daily dose of 11.6 kJ m{sup {minus}2} biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-B{sub BE}) radiation in an unshaded greenhouse before and/or after injection by Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass.) Ell. and Halst. or Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. and Arth. and analyzed for disease development. Two of these cultivars, Poinsette and Calypso Hybrid, were disease resistant, while the third cultivar, Straight-8, was disease susceptible. Preinfectional treatment of 1 to 7 days with UV-B{sub BE} in Straight-8 led to greater severity of both diseases. Postinfectional UV treatment did not lead to increased disease severity caused by C. lagenarium, while preinfectional UV treatment in both Straight-8 and Poinsette substantially increased disease severity. Although resistant cultivars Poinsette and Calypso Hybrid showed increased anthracnose disease severity when exposed to UV-B, this effect was apparent only on the cotyledons. Both higher spore concentration and exposure to UV-B radiation resulted in greater disease severity. Of the cucumber cultivars tested for UV-B sensitivity, growth in Poinsette was most sensitive and Calypso Hybrid was least sensitive. These preliminary results indicate that the effects of UV-B radiation on disease development in cucumber vary depending on cultivar, timing and duration of UV-B exposure, inoculation level, and plant age.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper IV transcription factor family in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rao; Liu, Wei; Li, Qiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2013-07-01

    The class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip IV) proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors known to play crucial roles in plant growth and development. In this study, 11 cucumber (Cucumis sativus) HD-Zip IV genes were identified in the version 2 cucumber genome and found to be distributed unevenly across the chromosomes. The CsHDZIV (Cucumis sativus homeodomain-leucine zipper IV) gene family is smaller than in other studied species (except for rice) because of the absence of gene duplication events. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HD-Zip IV genes from cucumber, Arabidopsis, tomato, cotton, maize, and rice could be classified into five subgroups. All CsHDZIV genes appear to be derived from a basic module containing 11 exons in the coding region. Two conserved motifs of 21 and 19 nucleotides were found in the 3'-untranslated regions of six CsHDZIV genes, suggesting that post-transcriptional regulation may play a role in regulation of CsHDZIV genes. In addition, 6 of 11 CsHDZIV genes were found to undergo alternative splicing events. Reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that all CsHDZIV genes (except one) were expressed and showed preferential expression in reproductive organs.

  19. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  20. Genetic background of host-pathogen interaction between Cucumis sativus L. and Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans.

    PubMed

    Olczak-Woltman, H; Schollenberger, M; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, K

    2009-01-01

    The interplay of plant resistance mechanisms and bacterial pathogenicity is very complex. This applies also to the interaction that takes place between the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (Smith et Bryan) and the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) as its host plant. Research on P. syringae pv. lachrymans has led to the discovery of specific factors produced during pathogenesis, i.e. toxins or enzymes. Similarly, studies on cucumber have identified the specific types of plant resistance expressed, namely Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) or Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR). This paper presents a summary of the current state of knowledge about this particular host-pathogen interaction, with reference to general information about interactions of P. syringae pathovars with host plants.

  1. Genetic analysis of molecular markers for propamocarb residue in Cucumis sativus using quantitative trait locus mapping.

    PubMed

    Xin, M; Wang, L; Ma, B H; Qin, Z W; Zhou, X Y

    2016-11-03

    The use of pesticides to protect plants against harmful organisms, such as pathogenic microorganisms, is one of the most effective ways to improve agricultural production. However, the continuous use of pesticides might present a risk to human health, animals, and the environment. In this study, two cucumber (Cucumis sativus) varieties containing different levels of pesticide residues, D9320 and D0351, were selected to establish an F2 population. A genetic model and genetic linkage map were constructed. The results showed that the heredity of pesticide residues was dominated by an additive effect and was significantly influenced by non-additive factors in cucumber. QCp1 was detected as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that might be involved in regulating the levels of pesticide residue in cucumber. Moreover, the cucumber genetic map was compared with the LG6 map, and the results indicated that this QTL was closely related to the level of pesticide residue in cucumber.

  2. Development of a Cucumis sativus TILLinG Platform for Forward and Reverse Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Troadec, Christelle; Audigier, Pascal; Kumar, Anish P. K.; Chatterjee, Manash; Alsadon, Abdullah A.; Sadder, Monther T.; Wahb-Allah, Mahmoud A.; Al-Doss, Abdullah A.; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2014-01-01

    Background Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family that includes more than 800 species. The cucumber genome has been recently sequenced and annotated. Transcriptomics and genome sequencing of many plant genomes are providing information on candidate genes potentially related to agronomically important traits. To accelerate functional characterization of these genes in cucumber we have generated an EMS mutant population that can be used as a TILLinG platform for reverse genetics. Principal Findings A population of 3,331 M2 mutant seed families was generated using two EMS concentrations (0.5% and 0.75%). Genomic DNA was extracted from M2 families and eight-fold pooled for mutation detection by ENDO1 nuclease. To assess the quality of the mutant collection, we screened for induced mutations in five genes and identified 26 mutations. The average mutation rate was calculated as 1/1147 Kb giving rise to approximately 320 mutations per genome. We focused our characterization on three missense mutations, G33C, S238F and S249F identified in the CsACS2 sex determination gene. Protein modeling and crystallography studies predicted that mutation at G33 may affect the protein function, whereas mutations at S238 and S249 may not impair the protein function. As predicted, detailed phenotypic evaluation showed that the S238F and the S249F mutant lines had no sexual phenotype. In contrast, plants homozygous for the G33C mutation showed a complete sexual transition from monoecy to andromonoecy. This result demonstrates that TILLinG is a valuable tool for functional validation of gene function in crops recalcitrant to transgenic transformation. Conclusions We have developed a cucumber mutant population that can be used as an efficient reverse genetics tool. The cucumber TILLinG collection as well as the previously described melon TILLinG collection will prove to be a valuable resource for both fundamental research and the identification of agronomically

  3. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the MLO gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S J; Jing, Z; Shi, J L

    2013-12-11

    Mildew resistance locus o (MLO) is a plant-specific seven-transmembrane (TM) gene family. Several studies have revealed that certain members of the MLO gene family mediate powdery mildew susceptibility in three plant species, namely, Arabidopsis, barley, and tomato. The sequenced cucumber genome provides an opportunity to conduct a comprehensive overview of the MLO gene family. Fourteen genes (designated CsMLO01 through CsMLO14) have been identified within the Cucumis sativus genome by using an in silico cloning method with the MLO amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice as probes. Sequence alignment revealed that numerous features of the gene family, such as TMs, a calmodulin-binding domain, peptide domains I and II, and 30 important amino acid residues for MLO function, are well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the MLO genes from cucumber and other plant species reveals seven different clades (I through VII). Three of these clades comprised MLO genes from A. thaliana, rice, maize, and cucumber, suggesting that these genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. In silico mapping showed that these CsMLOs were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 without any obvious clustering, except CsMLO01. To our knowledge, this paper is the first comprehensive report on MLO genes in C. sativus. These findings will facilitate the functional characterization of the MLOs related to powdery mildew susceptibility and assist in the development of disease resistance in cucumber.

  4. The Genome Sequence of the North-European Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Unravels Evolutionary Adaptation Mechanisms in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wóycicki, Rafał; Witkowicz, Justyna; Gawroński, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Joanna; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Siedlecka, Ewa; Yagi, Kohei; Pląder, Wojciech; Seroczyńska, Anna; Śmiech, Mieczysław; Gutman, Wojciech; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Katarzyna; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Borodovsky, Mark; Karpiński, Stanisław; Malepszy, Stefan; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar – Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in

  5. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    PubMed

    Wóycicki, Rafał; Witkowicz, Justyna; Gawroński, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Joanna; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Siedlecka, Ewa; Yagi, Kohei; Pląder, Wojciech; Seroczyńska, Anna; Śmiech, Mieczysław; Gutman, Wojciech; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Katarzyna; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Borodovsky, Mark; Karpiński, Stanisław; Malepszy, Stefan; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in

  6. Impact of a snail pellet on the phytoavailability of different metals to cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Freitag, Sabine; Krupp, Eva M; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    FePO4 based molluscicides (snail pellets) also contain a chelating agent. The influence of the chelating agent, which is intrinsically present in the molluscicide, on the phytoavailability of other metals present in the growth medium was investigated in the present study. Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) were grown in a hydroponic nutrient solution and exposed for one week to different metals in combination with a chelating agent containing molluscicide. Oven dried roots and shoots of plants were HNO 3/H2O2 microwave digested and analysed regarding total Fe, stable isotopic (54)Fe, Cd, Pb, and Bi concentrations using ICP-MS. The results showed that the addition of a chelating agent enhances the Fe phytoavailability to the plant, whether as an intrinsic part of the molluscicide or added individually. Additionally, the chelating agent present in the pesticide mobilises externally added metals and thus increases their phytoavailability. In particular the significantly higher Cd concentration in shoots from plants exposed to chelating agents indicates a potentially detrimental environmental effect.

  7. Synergistic effect of flyash and SO{sub 2} on development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaf injury

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, G.; McIlveen, W.D.; Jones, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    In a two-factorial experiment, sulfur dioxide alone at concentration of 131 {micro}g/m{sup 3} over long exposures or flyash for either coal or oil combustion alone applied onto cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) foliage causes no visible injury. However, if both flyash and sulfur dioxide were presented simultaneously, a specific mosaic-chlorosis symptom developed on leaves. A synergistic effect was thus demonstrated. Histopathology of the mosaic-chlorosis symptom was studied. An unusual pattern of tissue abnormally initiated from the collapse of the anticlinal cell walls of the upper epidermal cells and progressed along cell walls into mesophyll tissues. Cellular injury at the lower spongy tissues typical of that caused by SO{sub 2} was also observed. A significant elevation of sulfate-sulfur in the leaves treated with a combination of SO{sub 2} and flyash was demonstrated. Significant interactions between the two factors were found for both injury and sulfur chemistry. This suggests that flyash deposits on the leaf surface play a catalytic role in oxidizing atmospheric sulfur dioxide continuously to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) in situ. This acid could infiltrate into mesophyll damage cells and tissues en route.

  8. Responses of soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to exogenously applied p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingang; Yu, Gaobo; Wu, Fengzhi

    2012-08-01

    Changes in soil biological properties have been implicated as one of the causes of soil sickness, a phenomenon that occurs in continuous monocropping systems. However, the causes for these changes are not yet clear. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), an autotoxin of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), in changing soil microbial communities. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was applied to soil every other day for 10 days in cucumber pot assays. Then, the structures and sizes of bacterial and fungal communities, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial carbon biomass (MCB) were assessed in the rhizosphere soil. Structures and sizes of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR, respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid inhibited cucumber seedling growth and stimulated rhizosphere dehydrogenase activity, MBC content, and bacterial and fungal community sizes. Rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities responded differently to exogenously applied PHBA. The PHBA decreased the Shannon-Wiener index for the rhizosphere bacterial community but increased that for the rhizosphere fungal community. In addition, the response of the rhizosphere fungal community structure to PHBA acid was concentration dependent, but was not for the rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Our results indicate that PHBA plays a significant role in the chemical interactions between cucumber and soil microorganisms and could account for the changes in soil microbial communities in the continuously monocropped cucumber system.

  9. A novel role for cyanide in the control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Feng; Tang, He; Lv, Xin; Cheng, Jian; Xie, Huang-Fan; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-11-01

    The effects of potassium cyanide (KCN) pretreatment on the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and cold stress were investigated in the present study. Here, we found that KCN pretreatment improved cucumber seedlings tolerance to stress conditions with maximum efficiency at a concentration of 20 µM. The results showed that pretreatment with 20 µM KCN alleviated stress-induced oxidative damage in plant cells and clearly induced the activity of alternative oxidase (AOX) and the ethylene production. Furthermore, the structures of thylakoids and mitochondria in the KCN-pretreated seedlings were less damaged by the stress conditions, which maintained higher total chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and photosystem II (PSII) proteins levels than the control. Importantly, the addition of the AOX inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (1 mm; SHAM) decreased plant resistance to environmental stress and even compromised the cyanide (CN)-enhanced stress tolerance. Therefore, our findings provide a novel role of CN in plant against environmental stress and indicate that the CN-enhanced AOX might contribute to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the protection of photosystem by maintaining energy charge homoeostasis from chloroplast to mitochondria.

  10. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  11. Molecular cloning, characteristics and low temperature response of raffinose synthase gene in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiao-lei; Meng, Fan-zhen; Wang, Hong-yun; Wei, Yu-xia; Li, Rui-fu; Wang, Zhen-yu; Hu, Li-ping; Wang, Shao-hui; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2012-12-15

    Raffinose synthase (RS, EC2.4.1.82) is one of the key enzymes that channels sucrose into the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) biosynthetic pathway. However, the gene encoding RS is poorly characterized in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is a typical RFOs-translocating plant species. Here we isolated the gene encoding RS (CsRS) from the leaves of cucumber plants. The complete cDNA of CsRS consisted of 2552 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 784 amino acid residues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and RNA hybridization analysis revealed that expression of CsRS was the highest in leaves followed by roots, fruits, and stems. The RS activity was up-regulated and the raffinose content was high in the leaves of transgenic tobacco with over-expression of CsRS, while both the RS activity and the raffinose content decreased in the transgenic cucumber plants with anti-sense expression of CsRS. The expression of CsRS could be induced by low temperature and exogenous phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). In cucumber growing under low temperature stress, CsRS expression, RS activity and raffinose content increased gradually in the leaves, the fruits, the stems and the roots. The most notable increase was observed in the leaves. Similarly, the expression of CsRS was induced in cucumber leaves and fruits with 200 μM and 150 μM ABA treatments, respectively.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of trichome-less reveals genes associated with multicellular trichome development in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Yun-Li; Yao, Dan-Qing; Zhu, Wen-Ying; Chen, Long; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2015-10-01

    Trichomes on plants, similar to fine hairs on animal and human bodies, play important roles in plant survival and development. They also represent a useful model for the study of cell differentiation. Although the regulatory gene network of unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been well studied, the genes that regulate multicellular trichome development remain unclear. We confirmed that Cucumis sativus (cucumber) trichomes are multicellular and unbranched, but identified a spontaneous mutant, trichome-less (tril), which presented a completely glabrous phenotype. We compared the transcriptome profilings of the tril mutant and wild type using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 991 genes exhibited differential expression: 518 were up-regulated and 473 were down-regulated. We further identified 62 differentially expressed genes that encoded crucial transcription factors and were subdivided into seven categories: homeodomain, MADS, MYB, and WRKY domains, ethylene-responsive, zinc finger, and other transcription factor genes. We further analyzed the tissue-expression profiles of two candidate genes, GLABRA2-like and ATHB51-like, using qRT-PCR and found that these two genes were specifically expressed in the epidermis and trichomes, respectively. These results and the tril mutant provide useful tools to study the molecular networks associated with multicellular trichome development.

  13. Multiple tandem duplication of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qing-Mao; Li, Liang; Dong, Chun-Juan

    2012-10-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first entry enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and therefore plays a key role in both plant development and stress defense. In many plants, PAL is encoded by a multi-gene family, and each member is differentially regulated in response to environmental stimuli. In the present study, we report that PAL in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is encoded for by a family of seven genes (designated as CsPAL1-7). All seven CsPALs are arranged in tandem in two duplication blocks, which are located on chromosomes 4 and 6, respectively. The cDNA and protein sequences of the CsPALs share an overall high identity to each other. Homology modeling reveals similarities in their protein structures, besides several slight differences, implying the different activities in conversion of phenylalanine. Phylogenic analysis places CsPAL1-7 in a separate cluster rather than clustering with other plant PALs. Analyses of expression profiles in different cucumber tissues or in response to various stress or plant hormone treatments indicate that CsPAL1-7 play redundant, but divergent roles in cucumber development and stress response. This is consistent with our finding that CsPALs possess overlapping but different cis-elements in their promoter regions. Finally, several duplication events are discussed to explain the evolution of the cucumber PAL genes.

  14. [Role of phytochrome in organ formation processes in Cucumis sativus L].

    PubMed

    Sysoeva, M I; Marovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    The role of phytochrome B in the organogenesis process in the apical and axillary shoot meristems during early ontogenesis stages in cucumber Cucumis sativus L. at photoperiods (day/night) 10/14, 16/8 h, and continuous light in comparison with wild type plants and phytochrome B-deficient mutant (lh-mutant) was investigated. In mutant phytochrome B, deficiency caused inhibition of initiation of leaves both in the leading shoot and off-shoots and increased the number of flower buds (IV stage of organogenesis). With continuous light, the number of off-shoots and flowers during stage IV of organogenesis in wild-type plants increased twofold in comparison with the mutant. Short-term temperature drops did not induce floral ontogenesis in mutants but increased the number of off-shoots in both experimental variants during a long photoperiod and continuous light situations. We propose that phytochrome B, by increasing the compactness of chromatin, may facilitate coordination of ontogenesis processes with changing environmental conditions.

  15. Expression profiling of Cucumis sativus in response to infection by Pseudoperonospora cubensis.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bishwo N; Savory, Elizabeth A; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Childs, Kevin L; Hamilton, John P; Day, Brad; Buell, C Robin

    2012-01-01

    The oomycete pathogen, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is the causal agent of downy mildew on cucurbits, and at present, no effective resistance to this pathogen is available in cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus). To better understand the host response to a virulent pathogen, we performed expression profiling throughout a time course of a compatible interaction using whole transcriptome sequencing. As described herein, we were able to detect the expression of 15,286 cucumber genes, of which 14,476 were expressed throughout the infection process from 1 day post-inoculation (dpi) to 8 dpi. A large number of genes, 1,612 to 3,286, were differentially expressed in pair-wise comparisons between time points. We observed the rapid induction of key defense related genes, including catalases, chitinases, lipoxygenases, peroxidases, and protease inhibitors within 1 dpi, suggesting detection of the pathogen by the host. Co-expression network analyses revealed transcriptional networks with distinct patterns of expression including down-regulation at 2 dpi of known defense response genes suggesting coordinated suppression of host responses by the pathogen. Comparative analyses of cucumber gene expression patterns with that of orthologous Arabidopsis thaliana genes following challenge with Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis revealed correlated expression patterns of single copy orthologs suggesting that these two dicot hosts have similar transcriptional responses to related pathogens. In total, the work described herein presents an in-depth analysis of the interplay between host susceptibility and pathogen virulence in an agriculturally important pathosystem.

  16. [Growth and development of cucumber Cucumis sativus L. in the prereproductive period under long photoperiods].

    PubMed

    Shibaeva, T G; Markovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    When plants are grown in a greenhouse, an increase in the photoperiod, as well as continuous lighting, is one of the ways to improve plant productivity and energy savings. However, a number of crops under long photoperiods develop signs of light damage to leaves, and productivity is reduced. We studied the effect of the photoperiod (8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) and photon flux densities (60, 120, and 160 micromol/m2 with PAR) on cucumber plants Cucumis sativus L. in a prereproductive period. We show that the response of the cucumber plants to a photoperiod duration of more than 20 h, including continuous lighting, depending on the plant age and lighting conditions, may include epinastic reaction of the leaves, activation of a mechanism of nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and/or reversible photoinhibition of a reaction center of photosystem II, development of reversible chlorosis, reduction of a light-harvesting complex, and increase in the content of carotenoids. Reaction of immature and virginile plants to long photoperiods was different, which highlights the need for experimental separation of the prereproductive period of development in terms of age states and consideration of this when preparing programs of cultivation.

  17. Purification, physico-chemical characterization and thermodynamics of chitooligosaccharide binding to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) phloem lectin.

    PubMed

    Nareddy, Pavan Kumar; Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Swamy, Musti J

    2017-02-01

    A chitooligosaccharide-specific lectin has been purified from the phloem exudate of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) by affinity chromatography on chitin. The molecular weight of the cucumber phloem lectin (CPL) was determined as 51912.8Da by mass spectrometry whereas SDS-PAGE yielded a single band with a subunit mass of 26kDa, indicating that the protein is a homodimer. Peptide mass fingerprinting studies strongly suggest that CPL is identical to the 26kDa phloem protein 2 (PP2) from cucumber. CD spectroscopy indicated that CPL is a predominantly β-sheets protein. Hemagglutination activity of CPL was mostly unaffected between 4 and 90°C and between pH 4.0 and 10.0, indicating functional stability of the protein. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies indicate that the CPL dimer binds to two chitooligosaccharide ((GlcNAc)2-6) molecules with association constants ranging from 1.0×10(3) to 17.5×10(5)M(-1). The binding reaction was strongly enthalpy driven (ΔHb=-ve) with negative contribution from binding entropy (ΔSb=-ve). The enthalpy-driven nature of binding reactions suggests that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions stabilize the CPL-chitooligosaccharide association. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the CPL-chitooligosaccharide interaction, indicating that water molecules play an important role in the binding process.

  18. Metabolic Implications in the Biochemical Responses to Iron Deficiency in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Roots.

    PubMed Central

    Rabotti, G.; De Nisi, P.; Zocchi, G.

    1995-01-01

    Strategy I plants respond to Fe deficiency by inducing morphological and biochemical modifications at the root level that are apt to make iron available for uptake. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in the absence of Fe has been shown to increase the capacity to acidify the rhizosphere and Fe3+ reduction activity. We have determined in these roots some metabolic activities that might be correlated with the increased proton extrusion. Proton efflux from roots may be followed by a mechanism regulating the cytosolic pH according to the pH-stat theory. Roots grown in the absence of Fe showed an increase in dark 14CO2 fixation and organic acid synthesis and a 6-fold increase in the extractable phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity with respect to the control roots. Dehydrogenase activities producing cytosolic NAD(P)H were also increased under Fe deficiency. The presence of Fe2+, but not Fe3+, inhibited dark 14CO2 fixation in a range between 24 and 52% but did not show any effect on the in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. PMID:12228426

  19. Estimation and Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Leaf Cellular Heat Sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Poinsett 76 and cv Ashley) leaf discs was used as a viability assay to examine the effect of temperature pretreatment on the tissue response to acute hyperthermia. Semi-logarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of incubation time at different temperatures from 40 to 60[deg]C resembled the heat survival curves of animal cells. Heat inactivation rates were obtained and subjected to "quasi" Arrhenius analyses by analytical methods derived from the animal studies. The Arrhenius plots of TTC reduction rates for cv Ashley leaf discs preincubated at 25 or 37[deg]C and for cv Poinsett 76 preincubated at 37[deg]C were linear with the same activation energy (Ea) of about 80 kcal mol-1. The Arrhenius plot of cv Poinsett 76 preincubated at 25[deg]C was nonlinear with an Ea of about 80 kcal mol-1 at temperatures below 46[deg]C and an Ea of about 27.5 kcal mol-1 at temperatures above 47[deg]C. The significance of these differences is discussed in terms of the role of protein denaturation in the thermal sensitivity of cucumber disc reduction of TTC and the applicability of these methods to the analysis of plant cellular heat sensitivity. PMID:12231745

  20. Effects of Acifluorfen on Endogenous Antioxidants and Protective Enzymes in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, William H.; Duke, Stephen O.

    1985-01-01

    The herbicide acifluorfen (2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-2-nitrobenzoate) causes strong photooxidative destruction of pigments and lipids in sensitive plant species. Antioxidants and oxygen radical scavengers slow the bleaching action of the herbicide. The effect of acifluorfen on glutathione and ascorbate levels in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledon discs was investigated to assess the relationship between herbicide activity and endogenous antioxidants. Acifluorfen decreased the levels of glutathione and ascorbate over 50% in discs exposed to less than 1.5 hours of white light (450 microeinsteins per square meter per second). Coincident increases in dehydroascorbate and glutathione disulfide were not observed. Acifluorfen also caused the rapid depletion of ascorbate in far-red light grown plants which were photosynthetically incompetent. Glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate oxidase, ascorbate free radical reductase, peroxidase, and catalase activities rapidly decreased in acifluorfen-treated tissue exposed to white light. None of the enzymes were inhibited in vitro by the herbicide. Acifluorfen causes irreversible photooxidative destruction of plant tissue, in part, by depleting endogenous antioxidants and inhibiting the activities of protective enzymes. PMID:16664506

  1. Chromosome synteny in cucumis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2x = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2x = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Two inter-fertile botanical varieties with 14 chromosomes, the cultivated C. sativus var. sativus L. and the wild C. sativus var. hardwick...

  2. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins.

  3. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.

  4. Isolation and functional characterization of CsLsi1, a silicon transporter gene in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Guo, Jia; Duan, Yaoke; Zhang, Tiantian; Huo, Heqiang; Gong, Haijun

    2017-02-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely grown cucurbitaceous vegetable that exhibits a relatively high capacity for silicon (Si) accumulation, but the molecular mechanism for silicon uptake remains to be clarified. Here we isolated and characterized CsLsi1, a gene encoding a silicon transporter in cucumber (cv. Mch-4). CsLsi1 shares 55.70 and 90.63% homology with the Lsi1s of a monocot and dicot, rice (Oryza sativa) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), respectively. CsLsi1 was predominantly expressed in the roots, and application of exogenous silicon suppressed its expression. Transient expression in cucumber protoplasts showed that CsLsi1 was localized in the plasma membrane. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that CsLsi1 evidenced influx transport activity for silicon but not urea or glycerol. Expression of cucumber CsLsi1-mGFP under its own promoter showed that CsLsi1 was localized at the distal side of the endodermis and the cortical cells in the root tips as well as in the root hairs near the root tips. Heterologous expression of CsLsi1 in a rice mutant defective in silicon uptake and the over-expression of this gene in cucumber further confirmed the role of CsLsi1 in silicon uptake. Our results suggest that CsLsi1 is a silicon influx transporter in cucumber. The cellular localization of CsLsi1 in cucumber roots is different from that in other plants, implying the possible effect of transporter localization on silicon uptake capability.

  5. Genome-wide identification and characterization of polygalacturonase genes in Cucumis sativus and Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Youjian; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Wu, Jian; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG, EC3.2.1.15), one of the hydrolytic enzymes associated with the modification of pectin network in plant cell wall, has an important role in various cell-separation processes that are essential for plant development. PGs are encoded by a large gene family in plants. However, information on this gene family in plant development remains limited. In the present study, 53 and 62 putative members of the PG gene family in cucumber and watermelon genomes, respectively, were identified by genome-wide search to explore the composition, structure, and evolution of the PG family in Cucurbitaceae crops. The results showed that tandem duplication could be an important factor that contributes to the expansion of the PG genes in the two crops. The phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggested that PGs could be classified into seven clades, and that the exon/intron structures and intron phases were conserved within but divergent between clades. At least 24 ancestral PGs were detected in the common ancestor of Arabidopsis and Cucumis sativus. Expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most CsPGs exhibit specific or high expression pattern in one of the organs/tissues. The 16 CsPGs associated with fruit development could be divided into three subsets based on their specific expression patterns and the cis-elements of fruit-specific, endosperm/seed-specific, and ethylene-responsive exhibited in their promoter regions. Our comparative analysis provided some basic information on the PG gene family, which would be valuable for further functional analysis of the PG genes during plant development.

  6. A novel allele of monoecious (m) locus is responsible for elongated fruit shape and perfect flowers in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sex determination is controlled primarily by the F (female) and M (monoecy) loci. Homozygous recessive mm plants bear bisexual (perfect) flowers and the fruits are often round shaped. CsACS2 encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase has been shown ...

  7. Effect of mitochondrial genome rearrangement on respiratory activity, photosynthesis, photorespiration and energy status of MSC16 cucumber (Cucumis sativus) mutant.

    PubMed

    Juszczuk, Izabela M; Flexas, Jaume; Szal, Bozena; Dabrowska, Zofia; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Rychter, Anna M

    2007-12-01

    The effects of changes in mitochondrial DNA in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) mosaic mutant (MSC16) on respiration, photosynthesis and photorespiration were analyzed under non-stressed conditions. Decreased respiratory capacity of complex I in MSC16 mitochondria was indicated by lower respiration rates of intact mitochondria with malate and by rotenone-inhibited NADH or malate oxidation in the presence of alamethicin. Moreover, blue native PAGE indicated decreased intensity of protein bands of respiratory chain complex I in MSC16 leaves. Concerning the redox state, complex I impairment could be compensated to some extent by increased external NADH dehydrogenases (ND(ex)NADH) and alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity, the latter presenting differential expression in the light and in the dark. Although MSC16 mitochondria have a higher AOX protein level and an increased capacity, the AOX activity measured in the dark conditions by oxygen discrimination technique is similar to that in wild-type (WT) plants. Photosynthesis induction by light followed different patterns in WT and MSC16, suggesting changes in feedback chloroplast DeltapH caused by different adenylate levels. At steady-state, net photosynthesis was only slightly impaired in MSC16 mutants, while photorespiration rate (PR) was significantly increased. This was the result of large decreases in both stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO2, which resulted in a lower CO2 concentration in the chloroplasts. The observed changes on CO2 diffusion caused by mitochondrial mutations open a whole new view of interaction between organelle metabolism and whole tissue physiology. The sum of all the described changes in photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism resulted in a lower ATP availability and a slower plant growth.

  8. Characterization of PSI recovery after chilling-induced photoinhibition in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zishan; Jia, Yujiao; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Li, Haidong; Meng, Qingwei

    2011-11-01

    By simultaneously analyzing the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient and light absorbance at 820 nm as well as chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, we investigated the effects of different photon flux densities (0, 15, 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) with or without 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) on the repair process of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves after treatment with low temperature (6°C) combined with moderate photon flux density (200 μmol m(-2 )s(-1)) for 6 h. Both the maximal photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) (F (v)/F (m)) and the content of active P700 (ΔI/I (o)) significantly decreased after chilling treatment under 200 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) light. After the leaves were transferred to 25°C, F (v)/F (m) recovered quickly under both 200 and 15 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) light. ΔI/I (o) recovered quickly under 15 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light, but the recovery rate of ΔI/I (o) was slower than that of F (v)/F (m). The cyclic electron transport was inhibited by chilling-light treatment obviously. The recovery of ΔI/I (o) was severely suppressed by 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light, whereas a pretreatment with DCMU effectively relieved this suppression. The cyclic electron transport around PSI recovered in a similar way as the active P700 content did, and the recovery of them was both accelerated by pretreatment with DCMU. The results indicate that limiting electron transport from PSII to PSI protected PSI from further photoinhibition, accelerating the recovery of PSI. Under a given photon flux density, faster recovery of PSII compared to PSI was detrimental to the recovery of PSI or even to the whole photosystem.

  9. Phytoextraction of weathered p,p'-DDE by zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under different cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; White, Jason C; Gent, Martin P N; Iannucci-Berger, William; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under field conditions are good and poor accumulators, respectively, of persistent organic pollutants from soil. Here, each species was grown under three cultivation regimes: dense (five plants in 5 kg soil): nondense (one plant in 80 kg soil): and field conditions (two to three plants in approximately 789 kg soil). p,p'-DDE and inorganic element content in roots, stems, leaves, and fruit were determined. In addition. rhizosphere, near-root, and unvegetated soil fractions were analyzed for concentrations of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) and 14 water-extractable inorganic elements. Under field conditions, zucchini phytoextracted 1.3% of the weathered p,p'-DDE with 98% of the contaminant in the aerial tissues. Conversely, cucumber removed 0.09% of the p,p'-DDE under field conditions with 83% in the aerial tissues. Under dense cultivation, cucumber produced a fine and fibrous root system not observed in our previous experiments and phytoextracted 0.78% of the contaminant, whereas zucchini removed only 0.59% under similar conditions. However. cucumber roots translocated only 5.7% of the pollutant to the shoot system, while in zucchini 48% of the p,p'-DDE in the plant was present in the aerial tissue. For each species, the concentrations of LMWOA in soil increased with increasing impact by the root system both within a given cultivation regime (i.e., rhizosphere > near-root > unvegetated) and across cultivation regimes (i.e., dense > nondense > field conditions). Under dense cultivation, the rhizosphere concentrations of LMWOAs were significantly greater for cucumber than for zucchini; no species differences were evident in the other two cultivation regimes. To enable direct comparison across cultivation regimes, total in planta p,p'-DDE and inorganic elements were mass normalized or multiplied by the ratio of plant mass to soil mass. For cucumber, differences in

  10. Expression of recombinant Digitalis lanata EHRH. cardenolide 16'-O-glucohydrolase in Cucumis sativus L. hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Shi, He-Ping; Lindemann, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The coding sequence for the Digitalis lanata EHRH. cardenolide 16'-O-glucohydrolase was inserted downstream of the 35S promoter in the binary vector pBI121 resulting in plant expression vector pBI121cgh. Cotyledon explants excised from 10-day-old seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. were transformed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 harbouring pBI121cgh. Hairy roots were obtained from infected cotyledon explants in vitro 10 days after inoculation. PCR amplification of coding sequences for cgh I, rolB and rolC from Ri plasmid showed that the aimed sequences were inserted into the genome of transformed cucumber hairy roots. Glycolytic activity of the transgenic CGH I was measured by HPLC using Lanatoside glycosides as substrate. Therefore, the cgh I transformed cucumber hairy roots may provide a valuable model for biotransformation of natural compounds by recombinant enzymes.

  11. Compensation effect of bacterium containing biofertilizer on the growth of Cucumis sativus L. under Al-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Lévai, L; Kovács, B; Varga, Mária Borbélyné; Veres, Szilvia

    2013-03-01

    Biofertilizers are used to improve soil fertility and plant production in sustainable agriculture. However, their applicability depends on several environmental parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of free-living bacteria containing fertilizer on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Delicates) under aluminium (Al) stress. Different responses to Al stress of cucumber growth parameters were examined in terms of root elongation and physiological traits, such as Spad index (relative chlorophyll value), biomass accumulation of root and shoot, Al uptake and selected element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) of leaves and root. The applied bacteria containing biofertilizer contains Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium. The dry weights of cucumber shoots and roots decreased in line with the increasing Al concentration. Due to different Al treatments (10-3 M, 10-4 M) higher Al concentration was observed in the leaves, while the amounts of other elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) decreased. This high Al content of the leaves decreased below the control value when biofertilizer was applied. In the case of the roots the additional biofertilizer treatments compensated the effect of Al. The relative chlorophyll content was reduced during Al-stress in older plants and the biofertilizer moderated this effect. The root/shoot ratio was decreased in all the Al-treatments in comparison to the control. The living bacteria containing fertilizer also had a modifying effect. The root/shoot ratio increased at the 10-4 M Al2(SO4)2 + biofertilizer and 10-4 M Al(NO3)3 + biofertilizer treatments compared to the control and Al-treatments. According to our results the biofertilizer is an alternative nutrient supply for replacing chemical fertilizers because it enhances dry matter production. Biofertilizer usage is also offered under Al polluted environmental conditions. Although, the nutrient solution is a clean system where we can examine the main processes without

  12. Different effect of cadmium and copper on H+-ATPase activity in plasma membrane vesicles from Cucumis sativus roots

    PubMed Central

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzyński, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots was studied. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanism of modification of the PM H+-ATPase activity in plants subjected to heavy metals. Plants were treated with 10 μM Cd or Cu for 6 d. After 3 d exposure to the heavy metals, some of the plants were transferred to control conditions for a further 3 d (3/3 plants). The activity of PM H+-ATPase was found to be increased in plants treated with heavy metals. The highest activity measured as proton transport was observed in 3/3 plants. Estimation of transcript levels of C. sativus PM H+-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of Cd, but not Cu, affected the gene expression level. Transcript levels of C. sativus PM H+-ATPase (CsHA2, CsHA3, CsHA4, CsHA8, and CsHA9) genes increased in roots treated with Cd. Moreover, Western blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM H+-ATPase under heavy-metal stress resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. It was found that Cu markedly increased the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and reduced the level of H2O2 in cucumber roots. In contrast, Cd did not affect these parameters. These results indicate that Cd and Cu can, in different ways, lead to modification of PM H+-ATPase activity. Additionally, it was observed that treatment of plants with heavy metals led to an increased level of heat-shock proteins in the tissues. This suggests that the plants had started adaptive processes to survive adverse conditions, and increased PM H+-ATPase activity could further enhance the repair processes in heavy-metal-stressed plants. PMID:22451724

  13. Different effect of cadmium and copper on H+-ATPase activity in plasma membrane vesicles from Cucumis sativus roots.

    PubMed

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzynski, Marek

    2012-06-01

    The effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots was studied. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanism of modification of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity in plants subjected to heavy metals. Plants were treated with 10 μM Cd or Cu for 6 d. After 3 d exposure to the heavy metals, some of the plants were transferred to control conditions for a further 3 d (3/3 plants). The activity of PM H(+)-ATPase was found to be increased in plants treated with heavy metals. The highest activity measured as proton transport was observed in 3/3 plants. Estimation of transcript levels of C. sativus PM H(+)-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of Cd, but not Cu, affected the gene expression level. Transcript levels of C. sativus PM H(+)-ATPase (CsHA2, CsHA3, CsHA4, CsHA8, and CsHA9) genes increased in roots treated with Cd. Moreover, Western blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM H(+)-ATPase under heavy-metal stress resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. It was found that Cu markedly increased the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and reduced the level of H(2)O(2) in cucumber roots. In contrast, Cd did not affect these parameters. These results indicate that Cd and Cu can, in different ways, lead to modification of PM H(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, it was observed that treatment of plants with heavy metals led to an increased level of heat-shock proteins in the tissues. This suggests that the plants had started adaptive processes to survive adverse conditions, and increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity could further enhance the repair processes in heavy-metal-stressed plants.

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Cucumis sativus Seed Extract on Serum Lipids in Adult Hyperlipidemic Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasool; Hashemi, Mohammad; Farazmand, Alimohammad; Asghari, Gholamreza; Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Kiyan; Kharazmkia, Ali; Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis; therefore, control of this risk factor is very important in preventing atherosclerosis. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed is used traditionally as a lipid-lowering nutritional supplement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cucumber seed extract on serum lipid profile in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, hyperlipidemic patients with inclusion criteria were randomly and equally assigned to either Cucumis or placebo groups and used one medicinal or placebo capsule, respectively, once daily with food for 6 wk. Body mass index (BMI) as well as fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) were measured for all patients pre- and post-intervention and finally the changes were compared between the groups. Twenty-four patients in Cucumis group and 23 patients in placebo group completed the study. Cucumis seed extract resulted in significant reduction of total cholesterol (P = 0.016), LDL-C (P < 0.001), TG (P < 0.001), and BMI (P < 0.001) as well as significant increase of HDL-C (P = 0.012) compared to placebo. In conclusion, the consumption of C. sativus seed extract with daily dose of 500 mg results in desirable effects on serum lipid profile in adult hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, cucumber seed could be considered as a food supplement for treatment of dyslipidemia.

  15. Characterization of stress induced by copper and zinc on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings by means of molecular and population parameters.

    PubMed

    Soydam Aydin, Semra; Gökçe, Esra; Büyük, Ilker; Aras, Sümer

    2012-07-04

    Contamination of plants with heavy metals could result in damage in DNA, such as mutations and cross-links with proteins. These altered DNA profiles may become visible in changes such as the appearance of a new band, or loss of an existing band, in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. In this study, various concentrations of copper and zinc salts were applied to cucumber seedlings during germination. Results displayed abnormalities in germination and also changes in root elongation, dry weight and total soluble protein level. All treatment concentrations (40, 80, 160, 240, 320, and 640mg/L) used in the study caused a decrease/delay in germination of the cucumbers to different extents. Inhibition or activation of root elongation was considered to be the first effect of metal toxicity in the tested plants. Application of the metal salts and the combined solutions on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings revealed similar consequences for total soluble protein level, dry weight and ultimately in inhibitory rates as well. The data obtained from RAPD band-profiles and genomic template stability (GTS) showed results that were consistent with the population parameters. In this regard, we conclude that molecular marker assays can be applied in combination with population parameters to measure genotoxic effects of heavy metals on plants.

  16. Synchrotron micro-XRF and micro-XANES confirmation of the uptake and translocation of TiO₂ nanoparticles in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alia D; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Diaz, Baltazar Corral; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2012-07-17

    Advances in nanotechnology have raised concerns about possible effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment, especially in terrestrial plants. In this research, the impacts of TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated in hydroponically grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. Seven day old seedlings were treated with TiO(2) NPs at concentrations varying from 0 to 4000 mg L(-1). At harvest, the size of roots and shoots were measured. In addition, micro X- ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS), respectively, were used to track the presence and chemical speciation of Ti within plant tissues. Results showed that at all concentrations, TiO(2) significantly increased root length (average >300%). By using micro-XRF it was found that Ti was transported from the roots to the leaf trichomes, suggesting that trichomes are possible sink or excretory system for the Ti. The micro-XANES spectra showed that the absorbed Ti was present as TiO(2) within the cucumber tissues, demonstrating that the TiO(2) NPs were not biotransformed.

  17. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on the photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant system, and chloroplast ultrastructure in Cucumis sativus L. under Ca(NO(3))(2) stress.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lingyun; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    The effects of 0.1 μM 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) on plant growth (plant height, leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight), chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzymes, and chloroplast ultrastructure were investigated using cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyou No. 4) with 80 mM Ca(NO(3))(2) to induce stress. The presence of Ca(NO(3))(2) caused significant reductions in net photosynthetic rate (P(N)), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO(2) concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (Tr) of leaves. In addition, Ca(NO(3))(2) markedly reduced the chlorophyll content and inhibited photochemical activity, including the actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII). In contrast, EBL increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosynthesis caused by the Ca(NO(3))(2). The application of EBL to the plants subjected to Ca(NO(3))(2)-enhanced photochemical activity. EBL protected the photosynthetic membrane system from oxidative damage due to up-regulating the capacity of the antioxidant systems. Microscopic analyses revealed that Ca(NO(3))(2) affected the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus and membrane system and induced damage of granal thylakoid layers, while EBL recovered the typical shape of chloroplasts and promoted the formation of grana. Taken together, EBL compensated for damage/losses by Ca(NO(3))(2) due to the regulation of photosynthetic characteristics and the antioxidant system.

  18. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2 × = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2 × = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon through chromosome fusion, but the details of this process are largely unknown. In this study, comparative genetic mapping between cucumber and melon was conducted to examine syntenic relationships of their chromosomes. Results Using two melon mapping populations, 154 and 127 cucumber SSR markers were added onto previously reported F2- and RIL-based genetic maps, respectively. A consensus melon linkage map was developed through map integration, which contained 401 co-dominant markers in 12 linkage groups including 199 markers derived from the cucumber genome. Syntenic relationships between melon and cucumber chromosomes were inferred based on associations between markers on the consensus melon map and cucumber draft genome scaffolds. It was determined that cucumber Chromosome 7 was syntenic to melon Chromosome I. Cucumber Chromosomes 2 and 6 each contained genomic regions that were syntenic with melon chromosomes III+V+XI and III+VIII+XI, respectively. Likewise, cucumber Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 5 each was syntenic with genomic regions of two melon chromosomes previously designated as II+XII, IV+VI, VII+VIII, and IX+X, respectively. However, the marker orders in several syntenic blocks on these consensus linkage maps were not co-linear suggesting that more complicated structural changes beyond simple chromosome fusion events have occurred during the evolution of cucumber. Conclusions Comparative mapping conducted herein supported the hypothesis that cucumber chromosomes may be the result of chromosome fusion from a 24-chromosome progenitor species. Except for a possible inversion, cucumber Chromosome 7 has largely remained intact in the past nine million years

  19. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction, by TEM Tomography, of the Ultrastructural Modifications Occurring in Cucumis sativus L. Mitochondria under Fe Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Faoro, Franco; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Cantele, Francesca; Maffi, Dario; Marelli, Marcello; Maver, Mauro; Murgia, Irene; Zocchi, Graziano

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondria, as recently suggested, might be involved in iron sensing and signalling pathways in plant cells. For a better understanding of the role of these organelles in mediating the Fe deficiency responses in plant cells, it is crucial to provide a full overview of their modifications occurring under Fe-limited conditions. The aim of this work is to characterize the ultrastructural as well as the biochemical changes occurring in leaf mitochondria of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown under Fe deficiency. Methodology/Results Mitochondrial ultrastructure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography techniques, which allowed a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cellular structures. These analyses reveal that mitochondria isolated from cucumber leaves appear in the cristae junction model conformation and that Fe deficiency strongly alters both the number and the volume of cristae. The ultrastructural changes observed in mitochondria isolated from Fe-deficient leaves reflect a metabolic status characterized by a respiratory chain operating at a lower rate (orthodox-like conformation) with respect to mitochondria from control leaves. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a 3D reconstruction of plant mitochondria. Furthermore, these results suggest that a detailed characterization of the link between changes in the ultrastructure and functionality of mitochondria during different nutritional conditions, can provide a successful approach to understand the role of these organelles in the plant response to Fe deficiency. PMID:26107946

  20. Ethylene is Involved in Brassinosteroids Induced Alternative Respiratory Pathway in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seedlings Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li-Jie; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhu, Tong; Zheng, Ting; Li, Peng-Xu; Wu, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG), cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 μM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs) relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (CSACS1), ripening-related ACC synthase2 (CSACS2), ripening-related ACC synthase3 (CSACS3), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (CSACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (CSACO2), and CSAOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor) and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings. PMID:26617622

  1. Silencing of the gibberellin receptor homolog, CsGID1a, affects locule formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingwang; Yang, Sen; Chen, Chunhua; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Dandan; Yin, Shuai; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-04-01

    Gibberellins are phytohormones with many roles, including the regulation of fruit development. However, little is known about the relationship between GA perception and fleshy fruit ontogeny, and particularly locule formation. We characterized the expression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) GA receptor gene (CsGID1a) using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. CsGID1a-RNAi cucumber fruits were observed by dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, genome-wide gene expression in young fruits from a control and the RNAi line was compared using a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis approach. The expression pattern of CsGID1a was found to be closely correlated with fruit locule formation, and silencing CsGID1a in cucumber resulted in fruits with abnormal carpels and locules. Overexpression of CsGID1a in the Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant (gid1a gid1c) resulted in 'cucumber locule-like' fruits. The DGE analysis suggested that expression of genes related to auxin synthesis and transport, as well as the cell cycle, was altered in CsGID1a-RNAi fruits, a result that was supported by comparing the auxin content and cellular structures of the control and transgenic fruits. This study demonstrates a previously uncharacterized GA signaling pathway that is essential for cucumber fruit locule formation.

  2. Atmospheric Humidity Influences Oviposition Rate of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Through Morphological Responses of Host Cucumis sativus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, T; Itagaki, K; Ueyama, S; Hirai, N; Endo, R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative humidity, respectively) in growth chambers until the second true leaves had expanded. Adult females of T. urticae were released on the adaxial surfaces of leaf squares cut from first and second true leaves in each treatment group, and held in the same humidity condition. Eggs were counted 2 d after release. The lower acclimatization humidity (higher VPD) increased trichome (leaf hair) density of the host leaves and oviposition rate, but the relationship between the trichome and oviposition differed between leaf positions. The leaf mass per area (LMA) was greater in first true leaves than in second true leaves, but was not influenced by VPD. A linear regression model with oviposition rate as the dependent variable and trichome density and LMA as independent variables showed that both variables influenced the oviposition rate approximately equally. We conclude that oviposition was accelerated under low humidity (high VPD) conditions indirectly probably through an increase in the trichome density of host leaves.

  3. Ultraviolet-induced photodegradation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) microsomal and soluble protein tryptophanyl residues in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The in vitro effects of ultraviolet B (280--320 nm) radiation on microsomal membrane proteins and partially purified ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was investigated by measuring the direct photolytic reduction of tryptophan fluorescence and the formation of fluorescent photooxidation products. Exposure of microsomes and Rubisco to monochromatic 300-nm radiation resulted in the loss of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and the production of blue-emitting fluorophores. The major product of tryptophan photolysis was tentatively identified as N-formylkynurenine (N-FK). Even though the rates of tryptophan photodegradation and N-FK formation were similar, the amount of blue fluorescence produced was significantly higher in the microsomes relative to Rubisco. Studies with various free radical scavengers and other modifiers indicated that tryptophan photodegradation requires oxygen species. The optimum wavelengths for loss of tryptophan fluorescence were 290 nm for the microsomes and 280 nm for Rubisco. The temperature dependence of tryptophan fluorescence and rate of tryptophan photodegradation indicated an alteration in the cucumber microsomal membranes at about 24[degrees]C, which influenced protein structure and tryptophan photosensitivity. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Phloem unloading follows an extensive apoplasmic pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit from anthesis to marketable maturing stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liping; Sun, Huihui; Li, Ruifu; Zhang, Lingyun; Wang, Shaohui; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2011-11-01

    The phloem unloading pathway remains unclear in fruits of Cucurbitaceae, a classical stachyose-transporting species with bicollateral phloem. Using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of phloem-mobile symplasmic tracer carboxyfluorescein, assays of acid invertase and sucrose transporter, and [(14)C]sugar uptake, the phloem unloading pathway was studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from anthesis to the marketable maturing stage. Structural investigations showed that the sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complex of the vascular bundles feeding fruit flesh is apparently symplasmically restricted. Imaging of carboxyfluorescein unloading showed that the dye remained confined to the phloem strands of the vascular bundles in the whole fruit throughout the stages examined. A 37 kDa acid invertase was located predominantly in the cell walls of SE-CC complexes and parenchyma cells. Studies of [(14)C]sugar uptake suggested that energy-driven transporters may be functional in sugar trans-membrane transport within symplasmically restricted SE-CC complex, which was further confirmed by the existence of a functional plasma membrane sucrose transporter (CsSUT4) in cucumber fruit. These data provide a clear evidence for an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway in cucumber fruit. A presumption that putative raffinose or stachyose transporters may be involved in soluble sugars unloading was discussed.

  5. Evidence of translocation and physiological impacts of foliar applied CeO2 nanoparticles on cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Rico, Cyren; Sahi, Shivendra; Viveros, Marian N; Bartonjo, Jane; Zhao, Lijuan; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-04-15

    Currently, most of the nanotoxicity studies in plants involve exposure to the nanoparticles (NPs) through the roots. However, plants interact with atmospheric NPs through the leaves, and our knowledge on their response to this contact is limited. In this study, hydroponically grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants were aerially treated either with nano ceria powder (nCeO2) at 0.98 and 2.94 g/m(3) or suspensions at 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 mg/L. Fifteen days after treatment, plants were analyzed for Ce uptake by using ICP-OES and TEM. In addition, the activity of three stress enzymes was measured. The ICP-OES results showed Ce in all tissues of the CeO2 NP treated plants, suggesting uptake through the leaves and translocation to the other plant parts. The TEM results showed the presence of Ce in roots, which corroborates the ICP-OES results. The biochemical assays showed that catalase activity increased in roots and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased in leaves. Our findings show that atmospheric NPs can be taken up and distributed within plant tissues, which could represent a threat for environmental and human health.

  6. Micro-trichome as a class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene regulates multicellular trichome development in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Pan, Jun-Song; Guan, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Bie, Bei-Bei; Wang, Yun-Li; He, Huan-Le; Lian, Hong-Li; Cai, Run

    2015-11-01

    Plant trichomes serve as a highly suitable model for investigating cell differentiation at the single-cell level. The regulatory genes involved in unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana have been intensively studied, but genes regulating multicellular trichome development in plants remain unclear. Here, we characterized Cucumis sativus (cucumber) trichomes as representative multicellular and unbranched structures, and identified Micro-trichome (Mict), using map-based cloning in an F2 segregating population of 7,936 individuals generated from a spontaneous mict mutant. In mict plants, trichomes in both leaves and fruits, are small, poorly developed, and denser than in the wild type. Sequence analysis revealed that a 2,649-bp genomic deletion, spanning the first and second exons, occurred in a plant-specific class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that Mict is strongly expressed in the trichome cells. Transcriptome profiling identified potential targets of Mict including putative homologs of genes known in other systems to regulate trichome development, meristem determinacy, and hormone responsiveness. Phylogenic analysis charted the relationships among putative homologs in angiosperms. Our paper represents initial steps toward understanding the development of multicellular trichomes.

  7. Identification of fruit related microRNAs in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xueling; Song, Tiefeng; Liu, Chang; Feng, Hui; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nt noncoding RNAs that influence the phenotypes of different species through the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Although many miRNAs have been identified in a few model plants, less is known about miRNAs specific to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, two libraries of cucumber RNA, one based on fruit samples and another based on mixed samples from leaves, stems, and roots, were prepared for deep-sequencing. A total of 110 sequences were matched to known miRNAs in 47 families, while 56 sequences in 46 families are newly identified in cucumber. Of these, 77 known and 44 new miRNAs were differentially expressed, with a fold-change of at least 2 and p-value < 0.05. In addition, we predicted the potential targets of known and new miRNAs. The identification and characterization of known and new miRNAs will enable us to better understand the role of these miRNAs in the formation of cucumber fruit.

  8. Glutathione-dependent induction of local and systemic defense against oxidative stress by exogenous melatonin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Xin; Luo, Dan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is involved in defending against oxidative stress caused by various environmental stresses in plants. In this study, the roles of exogenous melatonin in regulating local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and the involvement of redox signaling were examined. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin enhanced tolerance to photooxidative stress in both melatonin-treated leaves and untreated systemic leaves. Increased melatonin levels are capable of increasing glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH]) redox status. Application of H2 O2 and GSH also induced tolerance to photooxidative stress, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation and GSH synthesis compromised melatonin-induced local and systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress. H2 O2 treatment increased the GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation prevented a melatonin-induced increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. Additionally, inhibition of GSH synthesis blocked H2 O2 -induced photooxidative stress tolerance, whereas scavenging or inhibition of H2 O2 production attenuated but did not abolish GSH-induced tolerance to photooxidative stress. These results strongly suggest that exogenous melatonin is capable of inducing both local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress and melatonin-enhanced GSH/GSSG ratio in a H2 O2 -dependent manner is critical in the induction of tolerance.

  9. Fine genetic mapping of cp: a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhong; Yang, Luming; Pathak, Mamta; Li, Dawei; He, Xiaoming; Weng, Yiqun

    2011-10-01

    The compact (dwarf) plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding that has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene cp. With 150 F(2:3) families derived from two inbred cucumber lines, PI 308915 (compact vining) and PI 249561 (regular vining), we conducted genome-wide molecular mapping with microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers. A framework genetic map was constructed consisting of 187 SSR loci in seven linkage groups (chromosomes) covering 527.5 cM. Linkage analysis placed cp at the distal half of the long arm of cucumber Chromosome 4. Molecular markers cosegregating with the cp locus were identified through whole genome scaffold-based chromosome walking. Fine genetic mapping with 1,269 F(2) plants delimited the cp locus to a 220 kb genomic DNA region. Annotation and function prediction of genes in this region identified a homolog of the cytokinin oxidase (CKX) gene, which may be a potential candidate of compact gene. Alignment of the CKX gene homologs from both parental lines revealed a 3-bp deletion in the first exon of PI 308915, which can serve as a marker for marker-assisted selection of the compact phenotype. This work also provides a solid foundation for map-based cloning of the compact gene and understanding the molecular mechanisms of the dwarfing in cucumber.

  10. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001) for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  11. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M.; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N.; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10–12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001) for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size. PMID:26528543

  12. 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 μM of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar.

  13. MAP-kinase activity in etiolated Cucumis sativus cotyledons: the effect of red and far-red light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Flórez, Fagua; Vidal, Dolors; Simón, Esther

    2013-02-01

    Phytochrome (phy) signalling in plants may be transduced through protein phosphorylation. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP-kinase, MAPK) activity and the effect of R (red) and FR (far-red) light irradiation on MAPK activity were studied in etiolated Cucumis sativus L. cotyledons. By in vitro protein phosphorylation and in-gel assays with myelin basic protein (MBP), a protein band (between 48 and 45 kDa) with MAPK-like activity was detected. The addition to the phosphorylation buffer of specific protein phosphatase (PTP) inhibitors (Na(3)VO(4) and NaF) and genistein, apigenin or PD98059 as MAPK inhibitors allowed us to confirm the MAPK activity of the protein band. Irradiation of etiolated cotyledons with FR light for 5, 10 or 60 min rapidly and transiently stimulated the MAPK activity of the protein band. This suggests that there was a very low fluence response (VLFR) of phys. In addition, 15 min of R light irradiation or a sequential treatment of 15 min of R plus 5 min of FR also increased MAPK activity. The stimulatory effect of R light was also attributed to the same photoreceptor, which suggests that MAPKs are involved in phytochrome signal transduction. Protein immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting analysis with the polyclonal antibody anti-pERK1/2 (Tyr 204) and the monoclonal antibody anti-phosphotyrosine PY20 allowed us to recognize the above mentioned protein band as two proteins with molecular masses (M(r)) of approximately 47 and 45 kDa, and MAPK activity. The biochemical and immunological properties showed by the proteins detected indicated that they were members of the MAPK family phosphorylated in tyrosine residues.

  14. Effects of exogenous spermine on chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in Cucumis sativus L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Ling-Yun; Guo, Shi-Rong; Sun, Jin; Yuan, Ying-Hui

    2013-02-01

    The effects of exogenous spermine (Spm) on plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, ultrastructure and anti-oxidative metabolism of chloroplasts were investigated in Cucumis sativus L. under NaCl stress. Salt stress significantly reduced plant growth, chlorophylls content and F(v)/F(m). These changes could be alleviated by foliar spraying with Spm. Salt stress caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide anion [Formula: see text] generation rate in chloroplasts. Application of Spm significantly increased activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) which decreased the levels of [Formula: see text] and MDA in the salt-stressed chloroplasts. Salt stress decreased the activities of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in the chloroplasts and reduced the contents of dehydroascorbate (DAsA) and glutathione (GSH), but increased monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR, EC 1.6.5.4) activity. On the other hand, Spm significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of antioxidants in the salt-stressed chloroplasts. Further analysis of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts indicated that salinity induced destruction of the chloroplast envelope and increased the number of plastoglobuli with aberrations in thylakoid membranes. However, Spm application to salt-stressed plant leaves counteracted the adverse effects of salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. These results suggest that Spm alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress through regulating antioxidant systems in chloroplasts of cucumber seedlings, which is associated with an improvement of the photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  15. [Effects of temperature regime on low-light tolerance of Cucumis sativus seedling leaves in their photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Sui, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2008-12-01

    In a phytotron, the effects of three temperature regimes (day/night 25 degrees C/18 degrees C, optimal temperature; 15 degrees C/9 degrees C, suboptimal temperature; and 9 degrees C/7 degrees C, low temperature) on the low-light (75-85 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) tolerance of two Cucumis sativus cultivars (shade-susceptible Jinyan 2 and shade-tolerant Deltastar) seedling leaves in their photosynthesis were studied. The results showed that under low light, the SPAD, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (q(p)) of cucumber leaves decreased, with the decrement getting more with decreasing temperature, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were in adverse. During the recovery process after low-light stress relieved, the parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of the leaves recovered gradually, and the recovery of some gas exchange parameters lagged to that of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Under low light, the lower the temperature, the more damage the photosynthesis apparatus suffered, and the lesser tolerance to low light the cucumber leaves had in their photosynthesis. During the low temperature and low light treatment period, the decrease of Pn, phi(PS II), and q(p) was more obvious for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar; and during the relief period, the recovery of these parameters was slower for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar. It was indicated that Jinyan 2 had weaker tolerance to low temperature and/or low light in its photosynthesis than Deltastar.

  16. Molecular cytogenetic mapping of Cucumis sativus and C. melo using highly repetitive DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Koo, Dal-Hoe; Nam, Young-Woo; Choi, Doil; Bang, Jae-Wook; de Jong, Hans; Hur, Yoonkang

    2010-04-01

    Chromosomes often serve as one of the most important molecular aspects of studying the evolution of species. Indeed, most of the crucial mutations that led to differentiation of species during the evolution have occurred at the chromosomal level. Furthermore, the analysis of pachytene chromosomes appears to be an invaluable tool for the study of evolution due to its effectiveness in chromosome identification and precise physical gene mapping. By applying fluorescence in situ hybridization of 45S rDNA and CsCent1 probes to cucumber pachytene chromosomes, here, we demonstrate that cucumber chromosomes 1 and 2 may have evolved from fusions of ancestral karyotype with chromosome number n = 12. This conclusion is further supported by the centromeric sequence similarity between cucumber and melon, which suggests that these sequences evolved from a common ancestor. It may be after or during speciation that these sequences were specifically amplified, after which they diverged and specific sequence variants were homogenized. Additionally, a structural change on the centromeric region of cucumber chromosome 4 was revealed by fiber-FISH using the mitochondrial-related repetitive sequences, BAC-E38 and CsCent1. These showed the former sequences being integrated into the latter in multiple regions. The data presented here are useful resources for comparative genomics and cytogenetics of Cucumis and, in particular, the ongoing genome sequencing project of cucumber.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of transketolase gene in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Bi, Huangai; Wang, Meiling; Dong, Xubing; Ai, Xizhen

    2013-09-01

    Transketolase (TK, EC 2.2.1.1) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (Calvin cycle). A full-length cDNA encoding transketolase (TK, designated as CsTK) was isolated from cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativa L. cv 'Jinyou 3') by RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA contained 2368 nucleotides with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 2229 nucleotides, which was predicted to encode a peptide of 742 amino acids. Expression analysis by real-time PCR and western blot revealed that TK mRNA was abundant in cucumber leaves and detectable in stems, fruits and roots. TK activity and the gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels was higher in mid-position leaves (4th apical leaves) than in upper position leaves (1st) and base position leaves (12th). The diurnal variation of CsTK expression and TK activity in the optimal functional leaf (4th leaf) was a single-peak curve, and the peak appeared at 14:00 on a sunny day. Low temperature (5 °C) and low light (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) induced CsTK expression, but the expression level decreased after 24 h of chilling stress. Over-expression of CsTK increased the TK activity, mRNA abundance and activities of other main enzymes in Calvin cycle, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in transgenic cucumber leaves. Transgenic plants showed a higher ratio of female flower and yield relative to the wild type (WT) plants. The decreases in Pn and carboxylation efficiency (CE) were less in transgenic plants than that in WT during low temperature and low light intensity.

  18. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Nitric Oxide Synthase Associated Gene1 (CsNOA1) Plays a Role in Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingwang; Liu, Bin; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanlinq; Qi, Wenzhu; Jian, Chen; Xu, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants, transducing information as a result of exposure to low temperatures. However, the underlying molecular mechanism linking NO with chilling stress is not well understood. Here, we functionally characterized the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) nitric oxide synthase-associated gene, NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (CsNOA1). Expression analysis of CsNOA1, using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assay, revealed that it is expressed mainly in the root and shoot apical meristem (SAM), and that expression is up-regulated by low temperatures. A CsNOA1-GFP fusion protein was found to be localized in the mitochondria, and ectopic expression of CsNOA1 in the A. thaliana noa1 mutant partially rescued the normal phenotype. When overexpressing CsNOA1 in the Atnoa1 mutant under normal condition, no obvious phenotypic differences was observed between its wild type and transgenic plants. However, the leaves from mutant plant grown under chilling conditions showed hydrophanous spots and wilting. Physiology tolerance markers, chlorophyll fluorescence parameter (Fv/Fm), and electrolyte leakage, were observed to dramatically change, compared mutant to overexpressing lines. Transgenic cucumber plants revealed that the gene is required by seedlings to tolerate chilling stress: constitutive over-expression of CsNOA1 led to a greater accumulation of soluble sugars, starch, and an up-regulation of Cold-regulatory C-repeat binding factor3 (CBF3) expression as well as a lower chilling damage index (CI). Conversely, suppression of CsNOA1 expression resulted in the opposite phenotype and a reduced NO content compared to wild type plants. Those results suggest that CsNOA1 regulates cucumber seedlings chilling tolerance. Additionally, under normal condition, we took several classic inhibitors to perform, and detect endogenous NO levels in wild type cucumber seedling. The results

  19. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  20. Effect of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) on germination, antioxidant system, and chloroplast ultrastructure in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xin; Wang, Lei; Du, Na; Tao, Yue; Sun, Guoqiang; Erinle, Kehinde O; Wang, Pengjie; Zhou, Changjian; Duan, Shuwei

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils caused by widely employed plastic products, such as phthalic acid esters (PAEs), are becoming widespread in China, and they have become a threat to human health and the environment. However, little information is available on the influence of PAEs on vegetable crops. In this study, effects of different dimethyl phthalate (DMP) treatments (0, 30, 50, 100, and 200 mg L(-1)) on seed germination and growth of cucumber seedlings were investigated. Although germination rate showed no significant difference compared to control, seed germination time was significantly delayed at DMP greater than 50 mg L(-1). Concentrations of DMP greater than 30 mg L(-1) reduced cucumber lateral root length and number. The measurement of five physiological indexes in cucumber leaves with increasing DMP concentration revealed a decrease in leaf chlorophyll content, while proline and H2O2 contents increased. Peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased in cucumber plants under 30 and 50 mg L(-1) DMP treatments compared to control; while after a 7-day treatment, these activities were seriously reduced under 100 and 200 mg L(-1) DMP treatments. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographic images, the control and 30 mg L(-1) DMP treatments caused no change to leaf chloroplast shape with well-structured thylakoid membrane and parallel pattern of lamellae. At concentrations higher than 30 mg L(-1), DMP altered the ultrastructure of chloroplast, damaged membrane structure, disordered the lamellae, and increased the number and volume of starch grains. Moreover, the envelope of starch grains began to degrade under 200 mg L(-1) DMP treatment.

  1. CeO₂ and ZnO nanoparticles change the nutritional qualities of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Rico, Cyren M; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Sun, Youping; Niu, Genhua; Servin, Alia; Nunez, Jose E; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-04-02

    There is lack of information about the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on cucumber fruit quality. This study aimed to determine possible impacts on carbohydrates, proteins, mineral nutrients, and antioxidants in the fruit of cucumber plants grown in soil treated with CeO2 and ZnO NPs at 400 and 800 mg/kg. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect changes in functional groups, while ICP-OES and μ-XRF were used to quantify and map the distribution of nutrient elements, respectively. Results showed that none of the ZnO NP concentrations affected sugars; however at 400 mg/kg, CeO2 and ZnO NPs increased starch content. Conversely, CeO2 NPs did not affect starch content but impacted nonreducing sugar content (sucrose). FTIR data showed changes in the fingerprint regions of 1106, 1083, 1153, and 1181, indicating that both NPs altered the carbohydrate pattern. ZnO NPs did not impact protein fractionation; however, CeO2 NPs at 400 mg/kg increased globulin and decreased glutelin. Both CeO2 and ZnO NPs had no impact on flavonoid content, although CeO2 NPs at 800 mg/kg significantly reduced phenolic content. ICP-OES results showed that none of the treatments reduced macronutrients in fruit. In case of micronutrients, all treatments reduced Mo concentration, and at 400 mg/kg, ZnO NPs reduced Cu accumulation. μ-XRF revealed that Cu, Mn, and Zn were mainly accumulated in cucumber seeds. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report on the nutritional quality of cucumber fruit attributed to the impact of CeO2 and ZnO NPs.

  2. Rapid identification of fruit length loci in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing-zhen; Fu, Wen-yuan; Wang, Yun-zhu; Qin, Xiao-dong; Wang, Jing; Li, Ji; Lou, Qun-feng; Chen, Jin-feng

    2016-01-01

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) exhibits extensive variations in fruit size and shape. Fruit length is an important agronomic and domesticated trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Nonetheless, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine cucumber fruit length remain unclear. QTL-seq is an efficient strategy for QTL identification that takes advantage of bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping and QTL-seq of cucumber fruit length. QTL mapping identified 8 QTLs for immature and mature fruit length. A major-effect QTL fl3.2, which explained a maximum of 38.87% of the phenotypic variation, was detected. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between two DNA bulks identified 6 QTLs for ovary length. QTLs ovl3.1 and ovl3.2 both had major effects on ovary length with a △ (SNP-index) of 0.80 (P < 0.01) and 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR of fruit size-related homologous genes localized in the consensus QTL FL3.2 was conducted. Four candidate genes exhibited increased expression levels in long fruit genotypes. Our results demonstrated the power of the QTL-seq method in rapid QTL detection and provided reliable QTL regions for fine mapping of fruit length-related loci and for identifying candidate genes. PMID:27271557

  3. Rapid identification of fruit length loci in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Zhen; Fu, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Qin, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jing; Li, Ji; Lou, Qun-Feng; Chen, Jin-Feng

    2016-06-07

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) exhibits extensive variations in fruit size and shape. Fruit length is an important agronomic and domesticated trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Nonetheless, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine cucumber fruit length remain unclear. QTL-seq is an efficient strategy for QTL identification that takes advantage of bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping and QTL-seq of cucumber fruit length. QTL mapping identified 8 QTLs for immature and mature fruit length. A major-effect QTL fl3.2, which explained a maximum of 38.87% of the phenotypic variation, was detected. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between two DNA bulks identified 6 QTLs for ovary length. QTLs ovl3.1 and ovl3.2 both had major effects on ovary length with a △ (SNP-index) of 0.80 (P < 0.01) and 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR of fruit size-related homologous genes localized in the consensus QTL FL3.2 was conducted. Four candidate genes exhibited increased expression levels in long fruit genotypes. Our results demonstrated the power of the QTL-seq method in rapid QTL detection and provided reliable QTL regions for fine mapping of fruit length-related loci and for identifying candidate genes.

  4. Age dependent alterations in photosystem II acceptor side in Cucumis sativus cotyledonary leaf thylakoids: analysis of binding characteristics of herbicide [14C]-atrazine.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J S; Baig, M A; Mohanty, P

    1999-02-01

    Senescence induced temporal changes in photosystems can be conveniently studied in cotyledonary leaves. We monitored the protein, chlorophyll and electron transport activities in Cucumis sativus cv Poinsette cotyledonary leaves and observed that by 20th day, there was a 50%, 41% and 30-33% decline in the chlorophyll, protein and photosystem II activity respectively when compared to 6th day cotyledonary leaves taken as control. We investigated the changes in photosystem II activity (O2 evolution) as a function of light intensity. The photosystem II functional antenna decreased by 27% and the functional photosystem II units decreased by 30% in 20-day old cotyledonary leaf thylakoids. The herbicide [14C]-atrazine binding assay to monitor specific binding of the herbicide to the acceptor side of photosystem II reaction centre protein, D1, showed an increase in the affinity for atrazine towards D1 protein and decrease in the QB binding sites in 20th day leaf thylakoids when compared to 6th day leaf thylakoids. The western blot analysis also suggested a decrease in steady state levels of D1 protein in 20th day cotyledonary leaf thylakoids as compared to 6th day sample which is in agreement with [14C]-atrazine binding assay and light saturation kinetics.

  5. Grafting of Cucumis sativus onto Cucurbita ficifolia leads to improved plant growth, increased light utilization and reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chilled plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanhong; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Lifeng; Ding, Xiaotao; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan

    2009-09-01

    The effects of chilling at 14 and 7 degrees C on plant growth, CO(2) assimilation, light allocation, photosynthetic electron flux and antioxidant metabolism were examined in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan No. 4, CS) plants with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, CF) and cucumber as rootstocks, respectively. Growth inhibition by chilling at 7 degrees C was characterized by irreversible inhibition of CO(2) assimilation in grafted plants with cucumber as rootstock and scion (CS/CS) but this effect was significantly alleviated by grafting onto CF roots (CS/CF). Chilled CS/CF plants exhibited a higher photosynthetic activity and lower proportion of energy dissipation than chilled CS/CS plants. Chilling resulted in a greater decrease in the electron flux in photosystem (PS) II (J (PSII)) than the rate of energy dissipation either via light-dependent (J (NPQ)) or via constitutive thermal dissipation and fluorescence (J (f,D)) in CS/CS plants. In parallel with the reduction in J (PSII), electron flux to oxygenation (J (o)) and carboxylation by Rubisco (J (c)) all decreased significantly whilst alternative electron flux in PS II (J (a)) increased, especially in CS/CS plants. Moreover, CS/CF plants exhibited higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, lower antioxidant content and less membrane peroxidation relative to CS/CS plants after chilling.

  6. High light inhibits chlorophyll biosynthesis at the level of 5-aminolevulinate synthesis during de-etiolation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Aarti, D; Tanaka, R; Ito, H; Tanaka, A

    2007-01-01

    Using the vascular plant Cucumis sativus (cucumber) as a model, we studied the effects of high (intense and excess) light upon chlorophyll biosynthesis during de-etiolation. When illuminated with high light (1500-1600 microE/m2/s), etiolated cucumber cotyledons failed to synthesize chlorophyll entirely. However, upon transfer to low light conditions (40-45 microE/m2/s), chlorophyll biosynthesis and subsequent accumulation resumed following an initial 2-12 h delay. Duration of high light treatment negatively correlated with chlorophyll biosynthetic activity. Specifically, we found that high light severely inhibited 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis. This effect partly could be because of the decrease in protein level of glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR) observed. Protein level of glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA-AT) remained unchanged. It was also found that high light did not suppress HEMA 1 expression. Therefore, we speculated that this significant inhibition of ALA synthesis might have occurred mainly because of concomitant inactivation of GluTR and/or inhibition of complex formation between GluTR and GSA-AT. Our further observation that both methyl viologen and rose bengal similarly inhibit ALA synthesis under low light conditions suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be responsible for the inhibition of ALA synthesis in cotyledons exposed to high light conditions.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the roles of microtubule-related genes and transcription factors in fruit length regulation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Wencai; Li, Yanqiang; Xia, Mengxue; Chen, Zijing; Wang, Qian; Yan, Liying; Song, Xiaofei; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-01-26

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit is a type of fleshy fruit that is harvested immaturely. Early fruit development directly determines the final fruit length and diameter, and consequently the fruit yield and quality. Different cucumber varieties display huge variations of fruit length, but how fruit length is determined at the molecular level remains poorly understood. To understand the genes and gene networks that regulate fruit length in cucumber, high throughout RNA-Seq data were used to compare the transcriptomes of early fruit from two near isogenic lines with different fruit lengths. 3955 genes were found to be differentially expressed, among which 2368 genes were significantly up-regulated and 1587 down-regulated in the line with long fruit. Microtubule and cell cycle related genes were dramatically activated in the long fruit, and transcription factors were implicated in the fruit length regulation in cucumber. Thus, our results built a foundation for dissecting the molecular mechanism of fruit length control in cucumber, a key agricultural trait of significant economic importance.

  8. Changes of alternative oxidase activity, capacity and protein content in leaves of Cucumis sativus wild-type and MSC16 mutant grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Ostaszewska, Monika; Galle, Alexander; Flexas, Jaume; Rychter, Anna M; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2009-12-01

    In vitro studies demonstrated that alternative oxidase (AOX) is biochemically regulated by a sulfhydryl-disulfide system, interaction with alpha-ketoacids, ubiquinone pool redox state and protein content among others. However, there is still scarce information about the in vivo regulation of the AOX. Cucumis sativus wild-type (WT) and MSC16 mutant plants were grown under two different light intensities and were used to analyze the relationship between the amount of leaf AOX protein and its in vivo capacity and activity at night and day periods. WT and MSC16 plants presented lower total respiration (V(t)), cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) activity (v(cyt)) and alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) activity (v(alt)) when grown at low light (LL), although growth light intensity did not change the amount of cytochrome oxidase (COX) nor AOX protein. Changes of v(cyt) related to growing light conditions suggested a substrate availability and energy demand control. On the other hand, the total amount of AOX protein present in the tissue does not play a role in the regulation neither of the capacity nor of the activity of the AOP in vivo. Soluble carbohydrates were directly related to the activity of the AOP. However, although differences in soluble sugar contents mostly regulate the capacity of the AOP at different growth light intensities, additional regulatory mechanisms are necessary to fully explain the observed results.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, CsHO1, which is involved in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Yue; Cao, Ze-Yu; Shen, Wen-Biao; Cui, Jin

    2011-10-15

    Our previous work showed that in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), auxin rapidly induces heme oxygenase (HO) activity and the product of HO action, carbon monoxide (CO), then triggers the signal transduction events leading to adventitious root formation. In this study, the cucumber HO-1 gene (named as CsHO1) was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns and encodes a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. Further results show that CsHO1 shares a high homology with plant HO-1 proteins and codes a 33.3 kDa protein with a 65-amino transit peptide, predicting a mature protein of 26.1 kDa. The mature CsHO1 was expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a fusion protein, which exhibits HO activity. The CsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Related biochemical analyses of mature CsHO1, including Vmax, Km, Topt and pHopt, were also investigated. CsHO1 mRNA was found in germinating seeds, roots, stem, and especially in leaf tissues. Several well-known adventitious root inducers, including auxin, ABA, hemin, nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), CaCl(2), and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), differentially up-regulate CsHO1 transcripts and corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that CsHO1 may be involved in cucumber adventitious rooting.

  10. Cucumis sativus L. WAX2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Wax Biosynthesis, Influencing Pollen Fertility and Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-07-01

    Cuticular waxes play an important part in protecting plant aerial organs from biotic and abiotic stresses. In previous studies, the biosynthetic pathway of cuticular waxes and relative functional genes has been researched and understood; however, little is known in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, we cloned and characterized an AtWAX2 homolog, CsWAX2, in cucumber and found that it is highly expressed in the epidermis, where waxes are synthesized, while subcellular localization showed that CsWAX2 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transcriptional expression of CsWAX2 was found to be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and ABA, while the ectopic expression of CsWAX2 in an Arabidopsis wax2 mutant could partially complement the glossy stem phenotype. Abnormal expression of CsWAX2 in transgenic cucumbers specifically affected both very long chain (VLC) alkanes and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transgenic cucumber plants of CsWAX2 showed significant changes in pollen viability and fruit resistance to water loss and pathogens compared with the wild type. Collectively, these results indicated that CsWAX2 plays a pivotal role in wax biosynthesis, influencing pollen fertility and the plant's response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  11. Transcriptome comparison of global distinctive features between pollination and parthenocarpic fruit set reveals transcriptional phytohormone cross-talk in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Wu, Zhe; Cui, Li; Zhang, Tinglin; Guo, Qinwei; Xu, Jian; Jia, Li; Lou, Qunfeng; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Zhengguo; Chen, Jinfeng

    2014-07-01

    Parthenocarpy is an important trait determining yield and quality of fruit crops. However, the understanding of the mechanisms underlying parthenocarpy induction is limited. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is abundant in parthenocarpic germplasm resources and is an excellent model organism for parthenocarpy studies. In this study, the transcriptome of cucumber fruits was studied using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of set fruits were compared against aborted fruits. Distinctive features of parthenocarpic and pollinated fruits were revealed by combining the analysis of the transcriptome together with cytomorphological and physiological analysis. Cell division and the transcription of cell division genes were found to be more active in parthenocarpic fruit. The study also indicated that parthenocarpic fruit set is a high sugar-consuming process which is achieved via enhanced carbohydrate degradation through transcription of genes that lead to the breakdown of carbohydrates. Furthermore, the evidence provided by this work supports a hypothesis that parthenocarpic fruit set is induced by mimicking the processes of pollination/fertilization at the transcriptional level, i.e. by performing the same transcriptional patterns of genes inducing pollination and gametophyte development as in pollinated fruit. Based on the RNA-Seq and ovary transient expression results, 14 genes were predicted as putative parthenocarpic genes. The transcription analysis of these candidate genes revealed auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin cross-talk at the transcriptional level during parthenocarpic fruit set.

  12. Induction of 33-kD and 60-kD peroxidases during ethylene-induced senescence of cucumber cotyledons. [Cucumis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Abeles, F.B.; Dunn, L.J.; Morgens, P.; Callahan, A.; Dinterman, R.E.; Schmidt, J. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD )

    1988-07-01

    Ethylene enhanced the senescence of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Poinsett 76) cotyledons. The effect of 10 microliters per liter ethylene was inhibited by 1 millimolar silver thiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action. An increase in proteins with molecular weights of 33 to 30 kilodaltons and lower molecular weights (25, 23, 20, 16, 12 and 10 kilodaltons) were observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels after ethylene enhanced senescence. The measurement of DNase and RNase activity in gels indicated that these new proteins were not nucleases. Two proteins from ethylene-treated cotyledons were purified on the basis of their association with a red chromaphore and subsequently were identified as peroxidases. The molecular weights and isoelectric points (pI) of two of these peroxidases were 33 kilodaltons (cationic, pI = 8.9) and 60 kilodaltons (anionic, pI = 4.0). The observation that ({sup 35}S)Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was incorporated into these proteins during ethylene-enhanced senescence suggests that these peroxidases represent newly synthesized proteins. Antibodies to the 33-kilodalton peroxidase precipitated two in vitro translation products from RNA isolated from ethylene-treated but not from control cucumber seedlings. This indicates that the increase in 33-kilodalton peroxidase activity represents de novo protein synthesis. Both forms of peroxidase degraded chlorophyll in vitro, which is consistent with the hypothesis that peroxidases have catabolic or scavenging functions in senescent tissues.

  13. The effect of a microgravity (space) environment on the expression of expansins from the peg and root tissues of Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Link, B M; Wagner, E R; Cosgrove, D J

    2001-10-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar outgrowth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. The development of the peg is thought to be gravity-dependent and has become a model system for plant-gravity response. Peg development requires rapid cell expansion, a process thought to be catalyzed by alpha-expansins, and thus was a good system to identify expansins that were regulated by gravity. This study identified 7 new alpha-expansin cDNAs from cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) and examined their expression patterns. Two alpha-expansins (CsExp3 and CsExp4) were more highly expressed in the peg and the root. Earlier reports stated that pegs tend not to form in the absence of gravity, so the expression levels were compared in the pegs of seedlings grown in space (STS-95), on a clinostat, and on earth (1 g). Pegs were observed to form at high frequency on clinostat and space-grown seedlings, yet on clinostats there was more than a 4-fold reduction in the expression of CsExp3 in the pegs of seedlings grown on clinostats vs. those grown at 1 g, while the CsExp4 gene appeared to be turned off (below detection limits). There were no detectable differences in expansin gene expression levels for the pegs of seedlings grown in space or in the orbiter environmental simulator (OES) (1 g) at NASA. The microgravity environment did not affect the expression of CsExp3 or CsExp4, and the clinostat did not simulate the microgravity environment well.

  14. Effects of light quality on CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll-fluorescence quenching, expression of Calvin cycle genes and carbohydrate accumulation in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Gu, Min; Cui, Jinxia; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan

    2009-07-17

    Light quality is thought to affect many plant physiological processes during growth and development, particularly photosynthesis. We examined how light quality influences plant photosynthesis by analyzing changes in photosynthetic parameters and expression levels of some photosynthesis related genes of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyou No. 1) plants. The plants were grown under different light qualities: purple (P), blue (B), green (G), yellow (Y), red (R) and white light (W) of the same photosynthetic photon flux density (PFD) about 350 micromol m(-2)s(-1) for 5 days. The results show that all plants grown under monochromatic light had reduced growth, CO(2) assimilation rate (Pn) and quantum yield of PSII electron transport (Phi(PSII)) as compared with plants grown under W, and these reductions were more significant in the plants under G, Y and R. The decrease in Phi(PSII) is mostly due to the reduction in photochemical quenching (qP). Interestingly, P- and B-grown plants had higher stomatal conductance (Gs), total and initial Rubisco activities and higher transcriptional levels of 10 genes which encode key enzymes in the Calvin cycle together with higher total soluble sugars, sucrose and starch contents as compared with W-grown plants, whereas in G-, Y-, and R-grown plants these parameters declined. Therefore, the reduction in Pn under P and B is likely the result of inactivation of photosystems, whilst under Y, G and R it is caused by, in addition to photosystem inactivation, the closure of stomata and the transcriptional down-regulation of genes for the Calvin cycle enzymes such as rbc L and rca. In conclusion, light quality alters plant photosynthesis by the effects on the activity of photosynthetic apparatus in leaves and the effects on the expression and/or activity of the Calvin cycle enzymes.

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis Implies That GA Regulates Sex Expression via Ethylene-Dependent and Ethylene-Independent Pathways in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guiye; Li, Yushun; Mo, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Sex differentiation of flower buds is an important developmental process that directly affects fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plant hormones, such as gibberellins (GAs) and ethylene can promote development of male and female flowers, respectively, however, the regulatory mechanisms of GA-induced male flower formation and potential involvement of ethylene in this process still remain unknown. In this study, to unravel the genes and gene networks involved in GA-regulated cucumber sexual development, we performed high throughout RNA-Seq analyses that compared the transcriptomes of shoot tips between GA3 treated and untreated gynoecious cucumber plants. Results showed that GA3 application markedly induced male flowers but decreased ethylene production in shoot tips. Furthermore, the transcript levels of M (CsACS2) gene, ethylene receptor CsETR1 and some ethylene-responsive transcription factors were dramatically changed after GA3 treatment, suggesting a potential involvement of ethylene in GA-regulated sex expression of cucumber. Interestingly, GA3 down-regulated transcript of a C-class floral homeotic gene, CAG2, indicating that GA may also influence cucumber sex determination through an ethylene-independent process. These results suggest a novel model for hormone-mediated sex differentiation and provide a theoretical basis for further dissection of the regulatory mechanism of male flower formation in cucumber. Statement: We reveal that GA can regulate sex expression of cucumber via an ethylene-dependent manner, and the M (CsACS2), CsETR1, and ERFs are probably involved in this process. Moreover, CAG2, a C-class floral homeotic gene, may also participate in GA-modulated cucumber sex determination, but this pathway is ethylene-independent. PMID:28154572

  16. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Luo, L X; Liang, C Q; Jiang, N; Liu, P F; Li, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01) validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  17. CsNIP2;1 is a Plasma Membrane Transporter from Cucumis sativus that Facilitates Urea Uptake When Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Yan, Jiapei; Vatamaniuk, Olena K; Du, Xiangge

    2016-03-01

    Urea is an important source of nitrogen (N) for the growth and development of plants. It occurs naturally in soils, is the major N source in agricultural fertilizers and is an important N metabolite in plants. Therefore, the identification and characterization of urea transporters in higher plants is important for the fundamental understanding of urea-based N nutrition in plants and for designing novel strategies for improving the N-use efficiency of urea based-fertilizers. Progress in this area, however, is hampered due to scarce knowledge of plant urea transporters. From what is known, urea uptake from the soil into plant roots is mediated by two types of transporters: the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) and the DUR3 orthologs, mediating low- and high-affinity urea transport, respectively. Here we characterized a MIP family member from Cucumis sativus, CsNIP2;1, with regard to its contribution to urea transport. We show that CsNIP2;1 is a plasma membrane transporter that mediates pH-dependent urea uptake when expressed in yeast. We also found that ectopic expression of CsNIP2;1 improves growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and rescues growth and development of the atdur3-3 mutant on medium with urea as the sole N source. In addition, CsNIP2;1 is transcriptionally up-regulated by N deficiency, urea and NO3 (-). These data and results from the analyses of the pattern of CsNIP2;1 expression in A. thaliana and cucumber suggest that CsNIP2;1 might be involved in multiple steps of urea-based N nutrition, including urea uptake and internal transport during N remobilization throughout seed germination and N delivery to developing tissues.

  18. The effect of a microgravity (space) environment on the expression of expansins from the peg and root tissues of Cucumis sativus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Wagner, E. R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar outgrowth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. The development of the peg is thought to be gravity-dependent and has become a model system for plant-gravity response. Peg development requires rapid cell expansion, a process thought to be catalyzed by alpha-expansins, and thus was a good system to identify expansins that were regulated by gravity. This study identified 7 new alpha-expansin cDNAs from cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) and examined their expression patterns. Two alpha-expansins (CsExp3 and CsExp4) were more highly expressed in the peg and the root. Earlier reports stated that pegs tend not to form in the absence of gravity, so the expression levels were compared in the pegs of seedlings grown in space (STS-95), on a clinostat, and on earth (1 g). Pegs were observed to form at high frequency on clinostat and space-grown seedlings, yet on clinostats there was more than a 4-fold reduction in the expression of CsExp3 in the pegs of seedlings grown on clinostats vs. those grown at 1 g, while the CsExp4 gene appeared to be turned off (below detection limits). There were no detectable differences in expansin gene expression levels for the pegs of seedlings grown in space or in the orbiter environmental simulator (OES) (1 g) at NASA. The microgravity environment did not affect the expression of CsExp3 or CsExp4, and the clinostat did not simulate the microgravity environment well.

  19. Functional characterization and expression analysis of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hexose transporters, involving carbohydrate partitioning and phloem unloading in sink tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Tao; Li, Xiang; Yao, Feng-Zhen; Shan, Nan; Li, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Zhen-Xian; Sui, Xiao-Lei

    2015-08-01

    Many hexose transporters (HTs) have been reported to play roles in sucrose-transporting plants. However, little information about roles of HTs in RFOs (raffinose family oligosaccharides)-transporting plants has been reported. Here, three hexose transporters (CsHT2, CsHT3, and CsHT4) were cloned from Cucumis sativus L. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CsHT3 transported glucose, galactose and mannose, with a K(m) of 131.9 μM for glucose, and CsHT4 only transported galactose, while CsHT2 was non-functional. Both CsHT3 and CsHT4 were targeted to the plasma membrane of cucumber protoplasts. Spatio-temporal expression indicated that transcript level of CsHT3 was much higher than that of CsHT2 and CsHT4 in most tissues, especially in peduncles and fruit tissues containing vascular bundles. GUS staining of CsHT3-promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) transgenic Arabidopsis plants revealed CsHT3 expression in tissues with high metabolic turnover, suggesting that CsHT3 is involved in sugar competition among different sink organs during plant development. The transcript levels of CsHT3 and cell wall invertase genes increased in peduncles and fruit tissues along with cucumber fruit enlargement, and CsHT3 localized to phloem tissues by immunohistochemical localization; These results suggest that CsHT3 probably plays an important role in apoplastic phloem unloading of cucumber fruit.

  20. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm.

  1. Orthology Analysis and In Vivo Complementation Studies to Elucidate the Role of DIR1 during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Cucumis sativus

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Marisa; Carella, Philip; Faubert, Jennifer; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Cameron, Robin K.

    2016-01-01

    AtDIR1 (Defective in Induced Resistance1) is an acidic lipid transfer protein essential for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon SAR induction, DIR1 moves from locally infected to distant uninfected leaves to activate defense priming; however, a molecular function for DIR1 has not been elucidated. Bioinformatic analysis and in silico homology modeling identified putative AtDIR1 orthologs in crop species, revealing conserved protein motifs within and outside of DIR1’s central hydrophobic cavity. In vitro assays to compare the capacity of recombinant AtDIR1 and targeted AtDIR1-variant proteins to bind the lipophilic probe TNS (6,P-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate) provided evidence that conserved leucine 43 and aspartic acid 39 contribute to the size of the DIR1 hydrophobic cavity and possibly hydrophobic ligand binding. An Arabidopsis–cucumber SAR model was developed to investigate the conservation of DIR1 function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and we demonstrated that phloem exudates from SAR-induced cucumber rescued the SAR defect in the Arabidopsis dir1-1 mutant. Additionally, an AtDIR1 antibody detected a protein of the same size as AtDIR1 in SAR-induced cucumber phloem exudates, providing evidence that DIR1 function during SAR is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. In vitro TNS displacement assays demonstrated that recombinant AtDIR1 did not bind the SAR signals azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate or pipecolic acid. However, recombinant CsDIR1 and CsDIR2 interacted weakly with AzA and pipecolic acid. Bioinformatic and functional analyses using the Arabidopsis–cucumber SAR model provide evidence that DIR1 orthologs exist in tobacco, tomato, cucumber, and soybean, and that DIR1-mediated SAR signaling is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. PMID:27200039

  2. Integrative Analyses of Nontargeted Volatile Profiling and Transcriptome Data Provide Molecular Insight into VOC Diversity in Cucumber Plants (Cucumis sativus)1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guo; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Fengxia; Qin, Hao; Miao, Han; Chen, Qingwen; Hu, Zhongyi; Wang, Meijiao; Chen, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds, which are generated in a tissue-specific manner, play important ecological roles in the interactions between plants and their environments, including the well-known functions of attracting pollinators and protecting plants from herbivores/fungi attacks. However, to date, there have not been reports of holistic volatile profiling of the various tissues of a single plant species, even for the model plant species. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 85 volatile chemicals, including 36 volatile terpenes, in 23 different tissues of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most volatile chemicals were found to occur in a highly tissue-specific manner. The consensus transcriptomes for each of the 23 cucumber tissues were generated with RNA sequencing data and used in volatile organic compound-gene correlation analysis to screen for candidate genes likely to be involved in cucumber volatile biosynthetic pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of the candidate enzymes demonstrated that TERPENE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11)/TPS14, TPS01, and TPS15 were responsible for volatile terpenoid production in the roots, flowers, and fruit tissues of cucumber plants, respectively. A functional heteromeric geranyl(geranyl) pyrophosphate synthase, composed of an inactive small subunit (type I) and an active large subunit, was demonstrated to play a key role in monoterpene production in cucumber. In addition to establishing a standard workflow for the elucidation of plant volatile biosynthetic pathways, the knowledge generated from this study lays a solid foundation for future investigations of both the physiological functions of cucumber volatiles and aspects of cucumber flavor improvement. PMID:27457123

  3. Orthology Analysis and In Vivo Complementation Studies to Elucidate the Role of DIR1 during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Marisa; Carella, Philip; Faubert, Jennifer; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Cameron, Robin K

    2016-01-01

    AtDIR1 (Defective in Induced Resistance1) is an acidic lipid transfer protein essential for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon SAR induction, DIR1 moves from locally infected to distant uninfected leaves to activate defense priming; however, a molecular function for DIR1 has not been elucidated. Bioinformatic analysis and in silico homology modeling identified putative AtDIR1 orthologs in crop species, revealing conserved protein motifs within and outside of DIR1's central hydrophobic cavity. In vitro assays to compare the capacity of recombinant AtDIR1 and targeted AtDIR1-variant proteins to bind the lipophilic probe TNS (6,P-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate) provided evidence that conserved leucine 43 and aspartic acid 39 contribute to the size of the DIR1 hydrophobic cavity and possibly hydrophobic ligand binding. An Arabidopsis-cucumber SAR model was developed to investigate the conservation of DIR1 function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and we demonstrated that phloem exudates from SAR-induced cucumber rescued the SAR defect in the Arabidopsis dir1-1 mutant. Additionally, an AtDIR1 antibody detected a protein of the same size as AtDIR1 in SAR-induced cucumber phloem exudates, providing evidence that DIR1 function during SAR is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. In vitro TNS displacement assays demonstrated that recombinant AtDIR1 did not bind the SAR signals azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate or pipecolic acid. However, recombinant CsDIR1 and CsDIR2 interacted weakly with AzA and pipecolic acid. Bioinformatic and functional analyses using the Arabidopsis-cucumber SAR model provide evidence that DIR1 orthologs exist in tobacco, tomato, cucumber, and soybean, and that DIR1-mediated SAR signaling is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber.

  4. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption.

  5. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Uroic, M Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (As(V)) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under As(V) stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. As(V) exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by As(V) exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, As(V) exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) As(V). No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high As(V) exposure. These results show that As(V) has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  6. Physiological and proteomic analysis of selenium-mediated tolerance to Cd stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyan; Dai, Huaxin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Guohui

    2016-11-01

    Selenium can mitigate cadmium toxicity in plants. However, the mechanism of this alleviation has not been fully understood. In the present study, the role of Se in inducing tolerance to Cd stress in cucumber was elucidated. Results showed that Se significantly alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition, reduced Cd concentration, increased SPAD value and improved photosynthetic performance. Through proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry, 26 protein spots were identified, which were significantly influenced by Cd stress and/or Se application. Among these proteins, the abundance of 21 spots (10 in leaves and 11 in roots) were repressed in Cd-treated and up-accumulated or no-changed in Cd+Se-treated cucumber. These altered proteins were involved in the response to stress, metabolism, photosynthesis and storage, they were including glutathione S-transferase F8, heat shock protein STI-like, peroxidase, ascorbate oxidase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase 2, NiR, Rieske type ion sulfur subunit and PsbP domain-containing protein 6. Furthermore, we identified five proteins with an increase in relative abundance after Cd treatment, they were involved in the functional groups active in response to stress and transport. The present study provided novel insights into Se-mediated tolerance of cucumber seedlings against Cd toxicity at the proteome level.

  7. (1)H NMR and GC-MS based metabolomics reveal nano-Cu altered cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit nutritional supply.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Hu, Jerry; Huang, Yuxiong; Wang, Hongtao; Adeleye, Adeyemi; Ortiz, Cruz; Keller, Arturo A

    2017-01-01

    It is imperative to study the interaction of nanoparticles residuals with crop plants in agricultural soils, due to the increased application of nanotechnology in agriculture. So far, a few studies have focused on the impact of nanoparticles on fruit quality and nutritional supply. In this work, a thorough and comprehensive analysis of metabolite changes of cucumber fruits from plants under nano-Cu stress was possible through the use of both (1)H NMR and GC-MS. The results of supervised partial least-squares discriminant analysis from both platforms showed that cucumber fruit extracts samples were clearly grouped based on the nano-Cu level in soil. This indicates that the fruit metabolite profile was influenced by exposure to nano-Cu. GC-MS data showed concentrations of some sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and fatty acids were increased or decreased by nano-Cu. Several metabolites, such as methylnicotinamide (MNA), trigonelline, imidazole, quinolinate were only detected and quantified by (1)H NMR. Our results showed that combining the two platforms provided a comprehensive understanding about the metabolites (nutrient supply) changes in cucumber fruits impacted by exposure to nano-Cu.

  8. Construction of a Fosmid Library of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Comparative Analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E Regions from Cucumber and Melon (Cucumis melo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber and melon are the most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae and are members of distinct subgenera in the genus Cucumis. We undertook comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes. A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as...

  9. Cucumis sativus L-type lectin receptor kinase (CsLecRK) gene family response to Phytophthora melonis, Phytophthora capsici and water immersion in disease resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingquan; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaomei; He, Xiaoming; Sun, Baojuan; Zhong, Yujuan; Liang, Zhaojuan; Luo, Shaobo; Lin, Yu'e

    2014-10-10

    L-type lectin receptor kinase (LecRK) proteins are an important family involved in diverse biological processes such as pollen development, senescence, wounding, salinity and especially in innate immunity in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco. Till date, LecRK proteins or genes of cucumber have not been reported. In this study, a total of 25 LecRK genes were identified in the cucumber genome, unequally distributed across its seven chromosomes. According to similarity comparison of their encoded proteins, the Cucumis sativus LecRK (CsLecRK) genes were classified into six major clades (from Clade I to CladeVI). Expression of CsLecRK genes were tested using QRT-PCR method and the results showed that 25 CsLecRK genes exhibited different responses to abiotic (water immersion) and biotic (Phytophthora melonis and Phytophthora capsici inoculation) stresses, as well as that between disease resistant cultivar (JSH) and disease susceptible cultivar (B80). Among the 25 CsLecRK genes, we found CsLecRK6.1 was especially induced by P. melonis and P. capsici in JSH plants. All these results suggested that CsLecRK genes may play important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses.

  10. Mechanisms of decreasing dysploidy in Cucumis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae), cucumber (C. sativus) is the only species with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes. The majority of the remaining species, including melon (C. melo) and C. hystrix, have 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes suggesting a reduction from n = 12 to n = 7. To understand the underlying mechani...

  11. The identification of Cucumis sativus Glabrous 1 (CsGL1) required for the formation of trichomes uncovers a novel function for the homeodomain-leucine zipper I gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Cao, Chenxing; Zhang, Cunjia; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zenghui; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2015-05-01

    The spines and bloom of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit are two important quality traits related to fruit market value. However, until now, none of the genes involved in the formation of cucumber fruit spines and bloom trichomes has been identified. Here, the characterization of trichome development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, glabrous 1 (csgl1) controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, with glabrous aerial organs, is reported. Via map-based cloning, CsGL1 was isolated and it was found that it encoded a member of the homeodomain-leucine zipper I (HD-Zip I) proteins previously identified to function mainly in the abiotic stress responses of plants. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that CsGL1 was strongly expressed in trichomes and fruit spines. In addition, CsGL1 was a nuclear protein with weak transcriptional activation activity in yeast. A comparative analysis of the digital gene expression (DGE) profile between csgl1 and WT leaves revealed that CsGL1 had a significant influence on the gene expression profile in cucumber, especially on genes related to cellular process, which is consistent with the phenotypic difference between csgl1 and the WT. Moreover, two genes, CsMYB6 and CsGA20ox1, possibly involved in the formation of cucumber trichomes and fruit spines, were characterized. Overall, the findings reveal a new function for the HD-Zip I gene subfamily, and provide some candidate genes for genetic engineering approaches to improve cucumber fruit external quality.

  12. Antioxidant, Sugar, Mineral and Phytonutrient Concentrations Across Edible Fruit Tissues of Orange-Fleshed HoneyDew Melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange-fleshed honey dew melon (Cucumis melo L.) equatorial mesocarp was segmented into hypodermal (sub-peel), outer, middle, and inner (near the seed cavity) tissues and assayed for enzymatic antioxidants, fruit sugars, minerals, phytonutrients, and total protein concentrations. Moving inwards fro...

  13. Pollination of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), by the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Santos, Solange A B dos; Roselino, Ana C; Bego, Luci R

    2008-01-01

    When for a successful fruit development the fertilization of flowers is necessary, bees can be used as crop-pollinators in greenhouses. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis Moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier as pollinators of cucumber plants (Cucumus sativus var. caipira) in greenhouses during the Brazilian winter season. The study was conducted in four greenhouses (GH), of which two greenhouses contained bee colonies to ascertain pollination of the cucumber plants (GH I, with S. aff. depilis, GH II, with N. testaceicornis), whereas the other two greenhouses (GH III, GH IV) had no bee colonies and served as control groups. Furthermore, we planted cucumbers in an open field plot (OA) where pollination by any/various visiting insects could occur. Each of the experimental areas measured 87.5 m2. Without pollination (GH III, GH IV), the plants produced a low number of cucumbers, and the fruits were smaller and less heavy than in those experimental areas where pollination occurred. In the open field area, not protected against unfavorable climatic conditions, the plants produced fewer flowers than the plants in the greenhouses. The highest cucumber yield (with the highest amount of perfect fruits) was found in those greenhouses which housed the stingless bees as pollinators (GH I, GH II). Our results demonstrate that stingless bees can be successfully and efficiently used as pollinators of greenhouse cucumbers during the winter season.

  14. Chromosome-specific painting in Cucumis species using bulked oligonucleotides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome-specific painting is a powerful technique in molecular cytogenetic and genome research. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting technique in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) that will be applicable in any plant species with a sequenced genome. Oligos specific to a sing...

  15. Basipetal auxin versus acropetal cytokinin transport, and their interaction with NO3 fertilisation in cotyledon senescence and sink:source relationships in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Bangerth, K-F

    2015-11-01

    The paramount role of cytokinins (CKs) in initiation, as well as prevention, of senescence is well established. In recent years, experimental methods have become available to raise and lower the CK concentration and experimentally manipulate senescence. Decapitating the apical shoot and adding the synthetic auxin naphthylacetic acid to the cut stem reduced endogenous CKs to low levels. Conversely, if no auxin was applied, xylem and leaf CK levels increased dramatically, indicating that basipolar auxin transport is a key determinant in the synthesis of CKs and is potentially more important than NO(3). Manipulating the concentration of applied NO(3) caused considerable variation in leaf CK levels and concomitant changes in senescence. These and other results suggest that the frequently discussed decrease in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) may be more highly regulated by CKs than by NO(3). Analysis of the re-metabolisation and re-allocation of chlorophyll, proteins, amino acids and starch in three different cucumber cultivars indirectly showed that these metabolites were significantly affected by the concentration of CKs in the leaves. Further research in this area may allow leaf senescence and plant yield to be more efficiently regulated by manipulating CKs and/or basipolar auxin transport instead of nitrate.

  16. Tuberculate fruit gene Tu encodes a C2 H2 zinc finger protein that is required for the warty fruit phenotype in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuqin; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Huanle; Nie, Jingtao; Bie, Beibei; Zhao, Junlong; Ren, Guoliang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Dabing; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2014-06-01

    Cucumber fruits that have tubercules and spines (trichomes) are known to possess a warty (Wty) phenotype. In this study, the tuberculate fruit gene Tu was identified by map-based cloning, and was found to encode a transcription factor (TF) with a single C2 H2 zinc finger domain. Tu was identified in all 38 Wty lines examined, and was completely absent from all 56 non-warty (nWty) lines. Cucumber plants transgenic for Tu (TCP) revealed that Tu was required for the Wty fruit phenotype. Subcellular localization showed that the fusion protein GFP-Tu was localized mainly to the nucleus. Based on analyses of semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and mRNA in situ hybridization, we found that Tu was expressed specifically in fruit spine cells during development of fruit tubercules. Moreover, cytokinin (CTK) content measurements and cytological observations in Wty and nWty fruits revealed that the Wty fruit phenotype correlated with high endogenous CTK concentrations. As a result of further analyses on the transcriptomic profile of the nWty fruit epidermis and TCP fruit warts, expression of CTK-associated genes, and hormone content in nWty fruit epidermis, Wty fruit warts and epidermis, and TCP fruit warts and epidermis, we found that Tu probably promoted CTK biosynthesis in fruit warts. Here we show that Tu could not be expressed in the glabrous and tubercule-free mutant line gl that contained Tu, this result that futher confirmed the epistatic effect of the trichome (spine) gene Gl over Tu. Taken together, these data led us to propose a genetic pathway for the Wty fruit trait that could guide future mechanistic studies.

  17. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of beta-carotene bioaccessability and bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honey dew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honey dew, are excellent sources of ß-carotene. Although ß-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precu...

  18. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of β-carotene bioaccessibility and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, Matthew K; Lester, Gene E; Riedl, Ken M; Kopec, Rachel E; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2011-05-11

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honeydew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honeydew, are excellent sources of β-carotene. Although β-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, its bioaccessibility/bioavailability is unknown. We compared β-carotene concentrations from previously frozen orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe melons grown under the same glasshouse conditions, and from freshly harvested field-grown, orange-fleshed honeydew melon to determine β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability, concentrations of novel β-apocarotenals, and chromoplast structure of orange-fleshed honeydew melon. β-Carotene and β-apocarotenal concentrations were determined by HPLC and/or HPLC-MS, β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability was determined by in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake, and chromoplast structure was determined by electron microscopy. The average β-carotene concentrations (μg/g dry weight) for the orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 242.8 and 176.3 respectively. The average dry weights per gram of wet weight of orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 0.094 g and 0.071 g, respectively. The bioaccessibility of field-grown orange-fleshed honeydew melons was determined to be 3.2 ± 0.3%, bioavailability in Caco-2 cells was about 11%, and chromoplast structure from orange-fleshed honeydew melons was globular (as opposed to crystalline) in nature. We detected β-apo-8'-, β-apo-10', β-apo-12'-, and β-apo-14'-carotenals and β-apo-13-carotenone in orange-fleshed melons (at a level of 1-2% of total β-carotene). Orange-fleshed honeydew melon fruit had higher amounts of β-carotene than cantaloupe. The bioaccessibility/bioavailability of β-carotene from orange-fleshed melons was comparable to that from carrot (Daucus carota).

  19. Carotene and Novel Apocarotenoid Concentrations in Orange-fleshed Cucumis melo Melons: Determinations of β-Carotene Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    FLESHMAN, MATTHEW K.; LESTER, GENE E.; RIEDL, KEN M.; KOPEC, RACHEL E.; NARAYANASAMY, SURESHBABU; CURLEY, ROBERT W.; SCHWARTZ, STEVEN J.; HARRISON, EARL H.

    2013-01-01

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honey dew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honey dew, are excellent sources of β-carotene. Although β-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, its bioaccessibility/bioavailability is unknown. We compared β-carotene concentrations from previously frozen orange-fleshed honey dew and cantaloupe melons grown under the same glasshouse conditions, and from freshly harvested field-grown, orange-fleshed honey dew melon to determine β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability, concentrations of novel β-apocarotenals, and chromoplast structure of orange-fleshed honey dew melon. β-Carotene and β-apocarotenal concentrations were determined by HPLC and/or HPLC-MS, β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability was determined by in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake, and chromoplast structure was determined by electron microscopy. The average β-carotene concentrations (μg/g dry weight) for the orange-fleshed honey dew and cantaloupe were 242.8 and 176.3 respectively. The average dry weights per gram of wet weight of orange-fleshed honey dew and cantaloupe were 0.094g and 0.071g, respectively. The bioaccessibility of field-grown orange-fleshed honey dew melons was determined to be 3.2±0.3 percent, bioavailability in Caco-2 cells was about 11%, and chromoplast structure from orange-fleshed honey dew melons was globular (as opposed to crystalline) in nature. We detected β-apo-8’-, β-apo-10’, β-apo-12’-, β-apo-14’-carotenals and β-apo-13-carotenone in orange-fleshed melons (at a level of 1-2% of total β-carotene). Orange-fleshed honey dew melon fruit had higher amounts of β-carotene than cantaloupe. The bioaccessibility/bioavailability of β-carotene from orange-fleshed melons was comparable to that from carrot (Dacus carota). PMID:21417375

  20. Relationships of cucumbers and melons unraveled: molecular phylogenetics of Cucumis and related genera (Benincaseae, Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghebretinsae, Amanuel G; Thulin, Mats; Barber, Janet C

    2007-07-01

    Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) comprises 33 species of annuals and perennials with a major native center of diversity in tropical and southern Africa. The genus includes some economically important and widely grown vegetables such as cucumbers and melons. Monophyly of the genus has been disputed in previous studies, but with only limited sampling. Relationships within Cucumis are thus poorly understood; moreover, the validity of the closely related genera has not been thoroughly tested. The present study was undertaken to test the monophyly of Cucumis and several closely related genera, to test sectional circumscriptions within Cucumis, and to understand the biogeographical history of the genus. We sequenced the nuclear ITS and plastid trnS-trnG regions for 40 ingroup and three outgroup taxa, representing all recognized subgenera and sections. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses found Cucumella, Oreosyce, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Dicaelospermum nested within Cucumis. The clades recovered within the Cucumis complex in some instances represent the first phylogenetically derived hypothesis of relationships, whereas others correspond to previous subgeneric and sectional classifications. At least four introductions from Africa to Asia, as well as one reintroduction to Africa, are suggested within the Cucumis complex. Cucumis sativus (cucumber) is strongly supported as sister to the eastern Asian C. hystrix, whereas C. melo (melon) is strongly supported as sister to C. sagittatus in southern Africa.

  1. Characterisation of senescence-induced changes in light harvesting complex II and photosystem I complex of thylakoids of Cucumis sativus cotyledons: age induced association of LHCII with photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jogadhenu Syama Sundara; Baig, Masroor A; Bhagwat, Anil S; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2003-02-01

    Structure and function of chloroplasts are known to after during senescence. The senescence-induced specific changes in light harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) were investigated in Cucumis cotyledons. Purified light harvesting complex II (LHCII) and photosystem I complex were isolated from 6-day non-senescing and 27-day senescing Cucumis cotyledons. The chlorophyll a/b ratio of LHCII obtained from 6-day-old control cotyledons and their absorption, chlorophyll a fluorescence emission and the circular dichroism (CD) spectral properties were comparable to the LHCII preparations from other plants such as pea and spinach. The purified LHCII obtained from 27-day senescing cotyledons had a Chl a/b ratio of 1.25 instead of 1.2 as with 6-day LHCII and also exhibited significant changes in the visible CD spectrum compared to that of 6-day LHCII, indicating some specific alterations in the organisation of chlorophylls of LHCII. The light harvesting antenna of photosystems are likely to be altered due to aging. The room temperature absorption spectrum of LHCII obtained from 27-day senescing cotyledons showed changes in the peak positions. Similarly, comparison of 77K chlorophyll a fluorescence emission characteristics of LHCII preparation from senescing cotyledons with that of control showed a small shift in the peak position and the alteration in the emission profile, which is suggestive of possible changes in energy transfer within LHCII chlorophylls. Further, the salt induced aggregation of LHCII samples was lower, resulting in lower yields of LHCII from 27-day cotyledons than from normal cotyledons. Moreover, the PSI preparations of 6-day cotyledons showed Chl a/b ratios of 5 to 5.5, where as the PSI sample of 27-day cotyledons had a Chl a/b ratio of 2.9 suggesting LHCII association with PSI. The absorption, fluorescence emission and visible CD spectral measurements as well as the polypeptide profiles of 27-day cotyledon-PSI complexes

  2. Next-generation sequencing, FISH mapping and synteny-based modeling reveal mechanisms of decreasing dysploidy in Cucumis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the family of Cucurbitaceae, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is the only species with 14 chromosomes. The majority of the remaining species, including melon and the sister species of cucumber, C. hystrix, have 24 chromosomes. To understand the underlying mechanisms of chromosome reduction from n=12 to...

  3. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites in Cucumis hystrix and in silico identification of polymorphic SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, genome HH) is a wild relative of cucumber (C. sativus L., 2n = 2x = 14) that possesses multiple disease resistances and has a great potential for cucumber improvement. Despite its importance, there is no genomic resource currently available for C. hystrix. To expedite ...

  4. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. I. Vegetative and reproductive growth. [Cucmuis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    CO/sub 2/ concentrations of 1000 compared to 350 microliters per liter in controlled environment chambers did not increase total fruit weight or number in a monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Chipper) nor did it increase biomass, leaf area, or relative growth rates beyond the first 16 days after seeding. Average fruit weight was slightly, but not significantly greater in the 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ treatment because fruit numbers were changed more than total weight. Plants grown at 1000 and 350 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ were similar in distribution of dry matter and leaf area between mainstem, axillary, and subaxillary branches. Early flower production was greater in 1000 microliters per liter plants. Subsequent flower numbers were either lower in enriched plants or similar in the two treatments, except for the harvest at fruiting when enriched plants produced many more male flowers than the 350 microliters per liter treatments.

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Qi, Jianjian; Shi, Qiuxiang; Shen, Di; Zhang, Shengping; Shao, Guangjin; Li, Hang; Sun, Zhanyong; Weng, Yiqun; Shang, Yi; Gu, Xingfang; Li, Xixiang; Zhu, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Jinzhe; van Treuren, Robbert; van Dooijeweert, Willem; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also includes melon, watermelon, pumpkin and squash. Previous isozyme studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop's genetic structure and diversity are largely missing. We have fingerprinted 3,342 accessions from the Chinese, Dutch and U.S. cucumber collections with 23 highly polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers evenly distributed in the genome. The data reveal three distinct populations, largely corresponding to three geographic regions. Population 1 corresponds to germplasm from China, except for the unique semi-wild landraces found in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China and East Asia; population 2 to Europe, America, and Central and West Asia; and population 3 to India and Xishuangbanna. Admixtures were also detected, reflecting hybridization and migration events between the populations. The genetic background of the Indian germplasm is heterogeneous, indicating that the Indian cucumbers maintain a large proportion of the genetic diversity and that only a small fraction was introduced to other parts of the world. Subsequently, we defined a core collection consisting of 115 accessions and capturing over 77% of the SSR alleles. Insight into the genetic structure of cucumber will help developing appropriate conservation strategies and provides a basis for population-level genome sequencing in cucumber.

  6. Induction of systemic stress tolerance by brassinosteroid in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Ding, Ju; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2011-08-01

    • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a new class of plant hormones that are essential for plant growth and development. Here, the involvement of BRs in plant systemic tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses was studied. • The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on plant stress tolerance were studied through the assessment of symptoms of photooxidative stress by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging pulse amplitude modulation, the analysis of gene expression using quantitative real-time PCR and the measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) production using a spectrophotometric assay or confocal laser scanning microscopy. • Treatment of primary leaves with EBR induced systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress in untreated upper and lower leaves. This was accompanied by the systemic accumulation of H₂O₂ and the systemic induction of genes associated with stress responses. Foliar treatment of EBR also enhanced root resistance to Fusarium wilt pathogen. Pharmacological study showed that EBR-induced systemic tolerance was dependent on local and systemic H₂O₂ accumulation. The expression of BR biosynthetic genes was repressed in EBR-treated leaves, but elevated significantly in untreated systemic leaves. Further analysis indicated that EBR-induced systemic induction of BR biosynthetic genes was mediated by systemically elevated H₂O₂. • These results strongly argue that local EBR treatment can activate the continuous production of H₂O₂, and the autopropagative nature of the reactive oxygen species signal, in turn, mediates EBR-induced systemic tolerance.

  7. Effects of different concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP on somatic embryogenesis induction in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Rajabpoor, Sh; Azghandi, A V; Saboora, A

    2007-11-01

    To optimize an in vitro protocol for propagation of saffron through somatic embryogenesis, effects of various concentrations of 2,4-D ( 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg L(-1)) in combination with BAP (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg L(-1)) were studied. Surface-sterilized corms were cut transversally into equal portions and the upper or lower parts were used separately as explants. All treatments were maintained in the darkness at 24 +/- 2 degrees C. After 70 days, the first globular embryos were observed and the number of embryos on each explant reached to its maximum 3 months after culture. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between treatments regarding the number of embryos induced on each explant. The most effective treatment was 2.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D + 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP for both types of explant (inducing 6.5 +/- 1.3 and 35.95 +/- 4.9 embryos on each explant for the upper and lower parts, respectively). The average percentages of explants showing embryogenic response were 33.3 and 93.3% for the upper and the lower part of corm tissue respectively in this treatment. Complementary studies are in progress to optimize maturation and germination stages of these somatic embryos.

  8. Melon (Cucumis melo).

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Satoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation is an important technique used in plant breeding and to functionally characterize genes of interest. The earliest reports of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the melon (Cucumis melo) were from the early 1990s (Fang and Grumet, Plant Cell Rep, 9: 160-164, 1990; Dong et al., Nat Biotechnol 9: 858-863, 1991; Valles and Lasa, Plant Cell Rep 13: 145-148, 1994). These early studies described three problems that decreased the efficiency of transformation: tetraploidy, chimeras, and escape. Using a liquid culture system for somatic embryogenesis, Akasaka-Kenedy et al. (Plant Sci 166: 763-769, 2004) overcame these problems and established an efficient transformation system; the protocol introduced in this chapter is based on this method.

  9. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  10. Histopathology combined with transcriptome analyses reveals the mechanism of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Cucumis metuliferus.

    PubMed

    Ye, De-You; Qi, Yong-Hong; Cao, Su-Fang; Wei, Bing-Qiang; Zhang, Hua-Sheng

    2017-02-20

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) cause serious threat to cucumber production. Cucumis metuliferus, a relative of cucumber, is reported to be resistant to Meloidogyne incognita, yet the underlying resistance mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the response of resistant C. metuliferus accession PI482443 following nematode infection was studied in comparison with susceptible C. sativus cv. Jinlv No.3. Roots of selected Cucumis seedings were analysed using histological and biochemical techniques. Transcriptome changes of the resistance reaction were investigated by RNA-seq. The results showed that penetration and development of the nematode in resistant plants were reduced when compared to susceptible plants. Infection of a resistant genotype with M. incognita resulted in a hypersensitive reaction. The induction of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase activities after infection was greater in resistant than susceptible roots. Several of the most relevant genes for phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, and the plant-pathogen interaction pathway that are involved in resistance to the nematode were significantly altered. The resistance in C. metuliferus PI482443 to M. incognita was associated with reduced nematode penetration, retardation of nematode development, and hypersensitive necrosis. The expression of genes resulting in the deposition of lignin, toxic compounds synthesis, cell wall reinforcement, suppression of nematode feeding and resistance protein accumulation, and activation of several transcription factors might all contribute to the resistance response to the pest. These results may lead to a better understanding of the resistance mechanism and aid in the identification of potential targets resistant to pests for cucumber improvement.

  11. Moisturizing effect of stable cream containing Crocus sativus extracts.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Haji Muhammad-Shoaib; Ashraf, Shoaib; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Saqib, Najam-us; Bashir, Kamran

    2014-11-01

    The present study is about to prepare stable cream of water-in-oil emulsion containing extracts of Crocus sativus against its base (without extracts) taken as control, to determine its stability on different storage conditions and effects on skin moisture contents and transepidermal water loss. The formulation contains 3% Crocus sativus (Saffron) concentrated extracts, and the base containing no extract, were formulated. Different stability tests were done on samples, which placed at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C with 75% relative humidity, for 4 week period. These formulations (Creams) were applied on the cheeks of human volunteers for 8week period. To evaluate any effect produced by these formulations different skin parameters were monitored every week. The significant results of this study explored the fact that water-in-oil emulsion topical cream of saffron formulated from Crocus sativus extract has absolute physical stability at different storage conditions. The increase in skin moisture contents and changes in transepidermal water loss were significant (p<0.05) with respect to base and formulation respectively. Topical cream of Crocus sativus showed significant moisturizing effects on human skin.

  12. Fine genetic mapping of a locus controlling short internode length in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A diminutive (dwarf) melon mutant line (PNU-D1) wi...

  13. Cucumis zambianus (Cucurbitaceae): A New Species from Northwestern Zambia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During germplasm explorations within Zambia in 1984, seven Cucumis accessions were collected that could not be identified to species. Two of the accessions were studied in-depth. Based on phenotypic characters, they were closest to Cucumis pustulatus. In ITS analyses of all available Cucumis spec...

  14. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  15. A Conserved Ethylene Biosynthesis Enzyme Leads to Andromonoecy in Two Cucumis Species

    PubMed Central

    Boualem, Adnane; Troadec, Christelle; Kovalski, Irina; Sari, Marie-Agnes; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2009-01-01

    Andromonoecy is a widespread sexual system in angiosperms, characterized by plants carrying both male and bisexual flowers. Monoecy is characterized by the presence of both male and female flowers on the same plant. In cucumber, these sexual forms are controlled by the identity of the alleles at the M locus. In melon, we recently showed that the transition from monoecy to andromonoecy result from a mutation in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene, CmACS-7. To isolate the andromonoecy gene in cucumber we used a candidate gene approach in combination with genetical and biochemical analysis. We demonstrated co-segregation of CsACS2, a close homolog of CmACS-7, with the M locus. Sequence analysis of CsACS2 in cucumber accessions identified four CsACS2 isoforms, three in andromonoecious and one in monoecious lines. To determine whether the andromonoecious phenotype is due to a loss of ACS enzymatic activity, we expressed the four isoforms in Escherichia coli and assayed their activity in vitro. Like in melon, the isoforms from the andromonoecious lines showed reduced to no enzymatic activity and the isoform from the monoecious line was active. Consistent with this, the mutations leading andromonoecy were clustered in the active site of the enzyme. Based on this, we concluded that active CsACS2 enzyme leads to the development of female flowers in monoecious lines, whereas a reduction of enzymatic activity yields hermaphrodite flowers. Consistent with this, CsACS2, like CmACS-7 in melon, is expressed specifically in carpel primordia of buds determined to develop carpels. Following ACS expression, inter-organ communication is likely responsible for the inhibition of stamina development. In both melon and cucumber, flower unisexuality seems to be the ancestral situation, as the majority of Cucumis species are monoecious. Thus, the ancestor gene of CmACS-7/CsACS2 likely have controlled the stamen development before speciation of Cucumis sativus (cucumber

  16. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pubescens and Cucumis trigonus Cucurbit Melon. Cucumis sativus Cucumber Melon, Oriental, Peach. Cucumis.... Sechium edule Chayote Melon. Sesbania grandiflora Scarlet wisteria tree Melon. Sicyes sp Cucumber, bur... colocynthis) Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Cucumber, bur (Sicyes spp.) Cucurbit (Cucumis pubescens and...

  17. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pubescens and Cucumis trigonus Cucurbit Melon. Cucumis sativus Cucumber Melon, Oriental, Peach. Cucumis.... Sechium edule Chayote Melon. Sesbania grandiflora Scarlet wisteria tree Melon. Sicyes sp Cucumber, bur... colocynthis) Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Cucumber, bur (Sicyes spp.) Cucurbit (Cucumis pubescens and...

  18. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pubescens and Cucumis trigonus Cucurbit Melon. Cucumis sativus Cucumber Melon, Oriental, Peach. Cucumis.... Sechium edule Chayote Melon. Sesbania grandiflora Scarlet wisteria tree Melon. Sicyes sp Cucumber, bur... colocynthis) Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Cucumber, bur (Sicyes spp.) Cucurbit (Cucumis pubescens and...

  19. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    PubMed

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels.

  20. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits. [Cucumis melo

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in /sup 14/C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized /sup 14/C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the /sup 14/C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole.

  1. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar ‘EP6392’ which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns. PMID:25959296

  2. Sensitivity of Female Inbreds of Cucumis sativus to Sex Reversion by Gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Shifriss, O; George, W L

    1964-03-27

    Two female inbred cucumbers were developed by substituting gene Acr for acr in the genetic backgrounds of the monoecious races Marketer and Tokyo, which exhibit weak and strong male tendency respectively. Marketer females are resistant and Tokyo females are sensitive to sex reversion in response to treatments with gibberellin A(3). Resistance and sensitivity of this type appear to depend upon the genetic system which controls sex tendency.

  3. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C.; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth plant trait in cucumber breeding and provide for future cloning of csgl3. PMID:26845560

  4. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Antioxidant Defense in Cucumber Seeds (Cucumis sativus L.) Germinated under Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Marta, Bałabusta; Szafrańska, Katarzyna; Posmyk, Małgorzata M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exogenous melatonin applied into cucumber seeds during osmopriming and modifications of their antioxidant defense was studied. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione pool were investigated in embryonic axes isolated from the control, osmoprimed, and osmoprimed with melatonin seeds. Germinating cucumber seeds are very sensitive to chilling. Temperature 10°C causes oxidative stress in young seedlings. Seed pre-treatment with melatonin seemed to limit H2O2 accumulation during germination under optimal condition as well as during chilling stress and recovery period. Melatonin affected superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and its isoforms during stress and recovery period but did not influence CAT and POX activities. Thus it is possible that in cucumber this indoleamine could act mostly as a direct H2O2 scavenger, but superoxide anion combat via SOD stimulation. The GSH/GSSG ratio is considered as an indirect determinant of oxidative stress. When the cells are exposed to oxidative stress GSSG is accumulated and the ratio of GSH to GSSG decreases. In our research pre-sowing melatonin application into the cucumber seeds caused high beneficial value of GSH/GSSG ratio that could be helpful for stress countering. Glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activity in the axes isolated from these seeds was two fold higher than in those isolated from the control and from the osmoprimed without melatonin ones. Additional isoforms of GSSG-R in melatonin treated seeds were also observed. It explains high and effective GSH pool restoration in the seeds pre-treated with melatonin. We confirmed that melatonin could protect cucumber seeds and young seedlings against oxidative stress directly and indirectly detoxifying ROS, thereby plants grown better even in harmful environmental conditions. This work is the first that investigated on plant in vivo model and documented melatonin influence on redox state during seed germination. This way we try to fill lack of information about melatonin-regulated pathways involved in antioxidant strategy of plant defense. PMID:27200048

  5. HANABA TARANU regulates the shoot apical meristem and leaf development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Lian; Yan, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Li; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Jianyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Han, Ying-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-12-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for continuous organogenesis in higher plants, while the leaf is the primary source organ and the leaf shape directly affects the efficiency of photosynthesis. HANABA TARANU (HAN) encodes a GATA3-type transcription factor that functions in floral organ development, SAM organization, and embryo development in Arabidopsis, but is involved in suppressing bract outgrowth and promoting branching in grass species. Here the function of the HAN homologue CsHAN1 was characterized in cucumber, an important vegetable with great agricultural and economic value. CsHAN1 is predominantly expressed at the junction of the SAM and the stem, and can partially rescue the han-2 floral organ phenotype in Arabidopsis. Overexpression and RNAi of CsHAN1 transgenic cucumber resulted in retarded growth early after embryogenesis and produced highly lobed leaves. Further, it was found that CsHAN1 may regulate SAM development through regulating the WUSCHEL (WUS) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) pathways, and mediate leaf development through a complicated gene regulatory network in cucumber.

  6. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-05-11

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  7. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Ying; Miao, Han; Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth plant trait in cucumber breeding and provide for future cloning of csgl3.

  8. Fine Mapping of Virescent Leaf Gene v-1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Miao, Han; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Min; Wang, Ye; Weng, Yiqun; Gu, Xingfang

    2016-09-22

    Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants that can be used as markers in crop breeding or as an important tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In virescent leaf mutants, young leaves are yellow in color, which gradually return to normal green when the seedlings grow large. In the present study, we conducted phenotypic characterization and genetic mapping of the cucumber virescent leaf mutant 9110Gt conferred by the v-1 locus. Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in 9110Gt was reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, as compared with its wild type parental line 9110G. Electron microscopic investigation revealed fewer chloroplasts per cell and thylakoids per chloroplast in 9110Gt than in 9110G. Fine genetic mapping allowed for the assignment of the v-1 locus to a 50.4 kb genomic DNA region in chromosome 6 with two flanking markers that were 0.14 and 0.16 cM away from v-1, respectively. Multiple lines of evidence supported CsaCNGCs as the only candidate gene for the v-1 locus, which encoded a cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channel protein. A single nucleotide change in the promoter region of v-1 seemed to be associated with the virescent color change in 9110Gt. Real-time PCR revealed significantly lower expression of CsaCNGCs in the true leaves of 9110Gt than in 9110G. This was the first report that connected the CsaCNGCs gene to virescent leaf color change, which provided a useful tool to establish linkages among virescent leaf color change, chloroplast development, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and the functions of the CsaCNGCs gene.

  9. Inheritance and quantitative trait locus analysis of low-light tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, D D; Qin, Z W; Lian, H; Yu, G B; Sheng, Y Y; Liu, F

    2015-09-09

    The low-light tolerance index was investigated in a set of 123 F2:3 lines during the seedling stage across 2 seasons, and the heredity of low-light tolerance was assessed via different ge-netic analysis methods. The results of the classical analysis showed that low-light tolerance is controlled by an additive-dominant poly-gene, and the polygenic inheritance rate of separate generations was >30%. In addition, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) exhibited a low-light tolerance index across both seasons, including 2 QTLs (Llti1.1 and Llti1.2) on the 1st linkage group (variances of 6.0 and 9.5%) and 3 QTLs (Llti2.1, Llti2.1, and Llti2.1) on the 2nd linkage group (variances of 10.1-14.0%). The classical analysis method and QTL information on the heredity of low-light tolerance showed that it is controlled by several major genes and a mini-polygene. The results will facilitate the breeding of resistance to low-light stress in cucumber.

  10. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber.

  11. Transcriptome analysis in Cucumis sativus identifies genes involved in multicellular trichome development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Pan, Jun-Song; Guan, Yuan; Nie, Jing-Tao; Yang, Jun-Jun; Qu, Mei-Ling; He, Huan-Le; Cai, Run

    2015-05-01

    The regulatory gene network of unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been studied intensively, but that of multicellular remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized cucumber trichomes as representative multicellular and unbranched structures, but in a spontaneous mutant, mict (micro-trichome), all trichomes showed a micro-size and stunted morphologies. We revealed the transcriptome profile using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology, and determined that a total of 1391 genes exhibited differential expression. We further validated the accuracy of the transcriptome data by RT-qPCR and found that 43 genes encoding critical transcription factors were likely involved in multicellular trichome development. These 43 candidate genes were subdivided into seven groups: homeodomain, MYB-domain, WRKY-domain, bHLH-domain, ethylene-responsive, zinc finger and other transcription factor genes. Our findings also serve as a powerful tool to further study the relevant molecular networks, and provide a new perspective for investigating this complex and species-specific developmental process.

  12. Assessment of chilling injury and molecular marker analysis in cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses to chilling temperature of 12 Korean cucumber varieties were compared to those of two U.S.A. (previously determined cold tolerant NC76 and 'Chipper'), and Chinese and Japanese germplasms. Seedlings of each entry were exposed to 4 degrees C (Experiment 1) and 1 degree C (Experiments 2 ...

  13. Fine Mapping of Virescent Leaf Gene v-1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Han; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Min; Wang, Ye; Weng, Yiqun; Gu, Xingfang

    2016-01-01

    Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants that can be used as markers in crop breeding or as an important tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In virescent leaf mutants, young leaves are yellow in color, which gradually return to normal green when the seedlings grow large. In the present study, we conducted phenotypic characterization and genetic mapping of the cucumber virescent leaf mutant 9110Gt conferred by the v-1 locus. Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in 9110Gt was reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, as compared with its wild type parental line 9110G. Electron microscopic investigation revealed fewer chloroplasts per cell and thylakoids per chloroplast in 9110Gt than in 9110G. Fine genetic mapping allowed for the assignment of the v-1 locus to a 50.4 kb genomic DNA region in chromosome 6 with two flanking markers that were 0.14 and 0.16 cM away from v-1, respectively. Multiple lines of evidence supported CsaCNGCs as the only candidate gene for the v-1 locus, which encoded a cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channel protein. A single nucleotide change in the promoter region of v-1 seemed to be associated with the virescent color change in 9110Gt. Real-time PCR revealed significantly lower expression of CsaCNGCs in the true leaves of 9110Gt than in 9110G. This was the first report that connected the CsaCNGCs gene to virescent leaf color change, which provided a useful tool to establish linkages among virescent leaf color change, chloroplast development, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and the functions of the CsaCNGCs gene. PMID:27669214

  14. Fine genetic mapping of target leaf spot resistance gene cca-3 in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The target leaf spot (TLS) is a very important fungal disease in cucumber. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of a recessively inherited resistance gene, cca-2 against TLS with 1,083 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line D31 and the susceptible line D5. Initial mapp...

  15. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  16. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  17. Genetic Analysis and QTL Mapping of Fruit Peduncle Length in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanized harvesting of cucumbers offers significant advantages compared to manual labor as both shortages and costs of labor increase. However the efficient use of machines depends on breeding plants with longer peduncles, but the genetic and molecular basis of fruit peduncle development in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, F2 populations were developed from a cross between two inbred lines, 1101 with a long peduncle and 1694 with a short peduncle. These were grown at two field sites, Hainan, with a tropical marine climate, in December 2014, and Beijing, with a warm temperate climate, in May 2015. Electron microscope examination of the pith cells in the peduncles of the two parental lines showed that line 1101 had significantly greater numbers of smaller cells compared to line 1694. The inheritance of cucumber fruit peduncle length (FPL) was investigated by the mixed major gene and polygene inheritance model. Genetic analysis indicated that FPL in cucumber is quantitatively inherited and controlled by one additive major gene and additive-dominant polygenes (D-2 model). A total of 1460 pairs of SSR (simple sequence repeat) primers were analyzed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Two similar genetic maps with 78 SSR markers which covered 720.6 cM in seven linkage groups were constructed based on two F2 populations. QTL analysis from the data collected at the two field sites showed that there are two minor QTLs on chromosome 1, named qfpl1.1 and qfpl1.2, and one major QTL on chromosome 6, named qfpl6.1. The marker UW021226, which was the closest one to qfpl6.1, had an accuracy rate of 79.0% when tested against plants selected from populations of the two parents. The results from this study provide insights into the inheritance and molecular mechanism of the variation of FPL in cucumber, and further research will be carried out to fine map qfpl6.1 to develop more accurate markers for MAS breeding. PMID:27936210

  18. Fine mapping of virescent leaf gene v-1 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chloroplhyll gives the green color in plants. Any mutations in chloroplhyll biosynthesis or regulation may result in color changes. Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants, which can be used as markers in crop breeding or as a tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll bio...

  19. Transcriptomic and physiological characterization of the fefe mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) reveals new aspects of iron–copper crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Brian M.; McInturf, Samuel A.; Amundsen, Keenan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. In previous work, Fe deficiency interacted with Cu regulated genes and stimulated Cu accumulation. The C940-fe (fefe) Fe uptake mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) was characterized, and the fefe mutant was used to test whether Cu deficiency could stimulate Fe uptake. Wild type and fefe mutant transcriptomes were determined by RNA-seq under Fe and Cu deficiency. FeFe regulated genes included core Fe uptake, metal homeostasis, and transcription factor genes. Numerous genes were regulated by both Fe and Cu. The fefe mutant was rescued by high Fe or by Cu deficiency, which stimulated ferric-chelate reductase activity, FRO2 expression, and Fe accumulation. Accumulation of Fe in Cu deficient plants was independent of the normal Fe uptake system. One of the four FRO genes in the melon and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genomes was Fe regulated, and one was Cu regulated. Simultaneous Fe and Cu deficiency synergistically upregulated Fe uptake gene expression. Overlap in Fe and Cu deficiency transcriptomes highlights the importance of Fe– Cu crosstalk in metal homeostasis. The fefe gene is not orthologous to FIT, thus identification of this gene will provide clues to help understand regulation of Fe uptake in plants. PMID:24975482

  20. Transcriptomic and physiological characterization of the fefe mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) reveals new aspects of iron-copper crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; McInturf, Samuel A; Amundsen, Keenan

    2014-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. In previous work, Fe deficiency interacted with Cu-regulated genes and stimulated Cu accumulation. The C940-fe (fefe) Fe-uptake mutant of melon (Cucumis melo) was characterized, and the fefe mutant was used to test whether Cu deficiency could stimulate Fe uptake. Wild-type and fefe mutant transcriptomes were determined by RNA-seq under Fe and Cu deficiency. FeFe-regulated genes included core Fe uptake, metal homeostasis, and transcription factor genes. Numerous genes were regulated by both Fe and Cu. The fefe mutant was rescued by high Fe or by Cu deficiency, which stimulated ferric-chelate reductase activity, FRO2 expression, and Fe accumulation. Accumulation of Fe in Cu-deficient plants was independent of the normal Fe-uptake system. One of the four FRO genes in the melon and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genomes was Fe-regulated, and one was Cu-regulated. Simultaneous Fe and Cu deficiency synergistically up-regulated Fe-uptake gene expression. Overlap in Fe and Cu deficiency transcriptomes highlights the importance of Fe-Cu crosstalk in metal homeostasis. The fefe gene is not orthologous to FIT, and thus identification of this gene will provide clues to help understand regulation of Fe uptake in plants.

  1. Genotypic Variation in the Concentration of β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Seeds Is Associated with an Accumulation of Leaf and Pod β-ODAP during Vegetative and Reproductive Stages at Three Levels of Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Xiong, You-Cai; Bai, Xue; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Zhu, Hao; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Wang, Jian-Yong; Turner, Neil C

    2015-07-15

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivation is limited because of the presence in seeds and tissues of the nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin that can cause lathyrism in humans. Seven grass pea genotypes differing in seed β-ODAP concentration were grown in pots at three levels of water availability to follow changes in the concentration and amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods and seeds. The concentration and amount of β-ODAP decreased in leaves in early reproductive development and in pods as they matured, while water stress increased β-ODAP concentration in leaves and pods at these stages. The net amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods at early podding was positively associated with seed β-ODAP concentration at maturity. We conclude that variation among genotypes in seed β-ODAP concentration results from variation in net accumulation of β-ODAP in leaves and pods during vegetative and early reproductive development.

  2. Toxicity identification evaluation of anaerobically treated swine slurry: a comparison between Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina A; Silva, Jeannette; Bay-Schmith, Enrique; Vidal, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion does not efficiently reduce ionic compounds present in swine slurry, which could present a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (surface runoff) and terrestrial ambient (irrigation). The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological characteristics of anaerobically treated swine slurry using acute and chronic (epicotyl elongation) toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus and identification of suspected toxic compounds using the Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) method. The evaluation was performed in three phases: physicochemical characterization of the slurry; acute/chronic toxicity testing with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus for each fraction of the TIE (cation and anion exchange columns, activated carbon, pH modification/aeration and EDTA) and identification of suspected toxic compounds. The anaerobically treated slurry contained concentrations of ammonium of 1,072 mg L(-1), chloride of 815 mg L(-1) and metals below 1 mg L(-1) with a D. magna acute toxicity (48h-LC50) of 5.3% and R. sativus acute toxicity (144h-LC50) of 48.1%. Epicotyl elongation of R. sativus was inhibited at concentrations above 25% (NOEC). The cation exchange reduced the toxicity and free ammonia by more than 90% for both bio-indicators. Moreover, this condition stimulated the epicotyl growth of R. sativus between 10% and 37%. In conclusion, the main compound suspected of causing acute toxicity in D. magna and acute/chronic toxicity in R. sativus is the ammonium. The findings suggest the need the ammonium treatment prior to the agricultural reuse of swine slurry given the high risk to contaminate the aquatic environment by runoff and toxicity of sensitive plants.

  3. Effects of Seselin and Coumarin on Growth, Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase, and Peroxidase, with Special Reference to Cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) Radicles

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Raphael; Tomer, Eliahu

    1971-01-01

    Seselin, a natural coumarin derivative isolated from citrus roots, inhibited radicle growth in seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativa), lettuce (Lactuca sativum), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in the dark. Coumarin similarly inhibited radicle growth of cucumber seedlings. Growth retardation of the cucumber radicles was accompanied by an increased activity of peroxidase and indole-3-acetic acid oxidase. Both compounds antagonized indole-3-acetic acid-induced growth of wheat coleoptiles, whereas coumarin was much less effective than seselin in antagonizing gibberellic acid-induced release of reducing sugars from barley endosperm. It is suggested that seselin plays an important role in the regulation of root growth, and that it is the indole-3-acetic acid oxidase cofactor previously detected in citrus roots. Images PMID:16657614

  4. Excitotoxicity of lathyrus sativus neurotoxin in leech retzius neurons.

    PubMed

    Cemerikic, D; Nedeljkov, V; Lopicic, S; Dragovic, S; Beleslin, B

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Lathyrus sativus neurotoxin were studied on the cell membrane potential and cellular cation composition in Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga, with ion-selective microelectrodes using liquid ion-exchangers. Bath application of 10(-4) mol/l Lathyrus sativus neurotoxin for 3 min depolarized the cell membrane potential and decreased the input resistance of directly polarized membrane in Retzius neurons. At the same time the cellular Na+ activity increased and cellular K+ activity decreased with slow but complete recovery, while the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was not changed. Na+-free Ringer solutions inhibited the depolarizing effect of the neurotoxin on the cell membrane potential. Zero-Ca2+ Ringer solution or Ni2+-Ringer solution had no influence on the depolarizing effect of the neurotoxin on the cell membrane potential. It is obvious that the increase in membrane conductance and depolarization of the cell membrane potential are due to an influx of Na+ into the cell accompanied by an efflux of K+ from the cell.

  5. The application of high-concentration short-time chlorine dioxide treatment for selected specialty crops including Roma tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), cantaloupes (Cucumis melo ssp. melo var. cantaloupensis) and strawberries (Fragaria×ananassa).

    PubMed

    Trinetta, V; Linton, R H; Morgan, M T

    2013-06-01

    The effects of high-concentration short-time chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas treatment on food-borne pathogens inoculated onto the surface of tomatoes, cantaloupes, and strawberries were studied. Produce were spot-inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica (serotypes Montevideo, Javiana and Baildon), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (serotypes 204 P, EDL 933 and C792) or Listeria monocytogenes (serotypes Scott A, F 5069 and LCDC 81-861), and treated with ClO2 gas at 10 mg/l for 180 s. After ClO2 gas treatment, surviving populations were determined and shelf-life studies were conducted (microbial spoilage population, change in color and overall appearance). Significant microbial reduction (p < 0.05) was observed for all treated samples. Nearly a 5LogCFU/cm(2)Salmonella reduction was found on tomatoes, cantaloupe and strawberries, while a ~3LogCFU/cm(2) reduction was observed for E. coli and Listeria on all produce surfaces. E. coli and Listeria appeared to be more resistant to ClO2 gas as compared to Salmonella spp. Treatments significantly (p < 0.05) reduced initial microflora population, while produce color surface was not significantly influenced, as compared to the control (p > 0.05). Results obtained suggest the potential use of high-concentration short-time ClO2 gas treatment as an effective online pathogen inactivation technology for specialty crops in large-scale produce packing operations.

  6. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Gug-Seoun

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo), oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon), and cucumber (C. sativus) were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV) was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii) transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP) gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea. PMID:26673519

  7. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se.

  8. A new method to estimate photosynthetic parameters through net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany P; Chen, Tsu-Wei; Stützel, Hartmut

    2017-02-01

    Gas exchange (GE) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements are widely used to noninvasively study photosynthetic parameters, for example the rates of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax ), electron transport rate (J), daytime respiration (Rd ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ). Existing methods for fitting GE data (net assimilation rate-intercellular space CO2 concentration (A-Ci ) curve) are based on two assumptions: gm is unvaried with CO2 concentration in the intercellular space (Ci ); and light absorption (α) and the proportion of quanta absorbed by photosystem II (β) are constant in the data set. These may result in significant bias in estimating photosynthetic parameters. To avoid the above-mentioned hypotheses, we present a new method for fitting A-Ci curves and CF data simultaneously. This method was applied to a data set obtained from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves of various leaf ages and grown under eight different light conditions. The new method had significantly lower root mean square error and a lower rate of failures compared with previously published methods (6.72% versus 24.1%, respectively) and the effect of light conditions on Vcmax and J was better observed. Furthermore, the new method allows the estimation of a new parameter, the fraction of incoming irradiance harvested by photosystem II, and the dependence of gm on Ci .

  9. Genetic Diversity in Chinese melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) is a morphologically diverse outcrossing Cucurbitaceae species. Genetically mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been used broadly to define genetic relationships (GR) among melon botanical groups and commercial market classes. Such inform...

  10. Somatic Embryogenesis in Crocus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sevindik, Basar; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important species in Crocus genus because of its effective usage. It is not only a very expensive spice, but it has also a big ornamental plant potential. Crocus species are propagated by corm and seed, and male sterility is the most important problem of this species. Hence, somatic embryogenesis can be regarded as a strategic tool for the multiplication of saffron plants. In this chapter, the production of saffron corms via somatic embryogenesis is described.

  11. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils.

  12. Inhibitory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on histamine (H1) receptors of guinea pig tracheal chains.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, M H; Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, M; Nemati, H; Esmaeilzadeh, M

    2010-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), on histamine (H1) receptors was examined on tracheal chains of guinea pigs. The effects of three concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract, 10 nM chlorpheniramine, and saline on histamine (H1) receptors were tested on three groups of guinea pig tracheal chains as follows; incubated trachea with: 1) indomethacin, 2) indomethacin, propranolol, and atropine and 3) indomethacin and propranolol. The EC50 (effective concentration of histamine causing 50% of maximum response) obtained in the presence of chlorpheniramine and all concentrations of the extract in all three groups were significantly greater than those of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001) except low concentration of the extract in groups 1 and 3. The EC50 obtained in the presence of two higher concentrations of extract in group 2 were greater than group 1 and 3 (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Maximum response obtained in the presence of two higher concentrations of extract in group 2 were greater than those of group 1 and group 3 (p<0.001 for all cases). There were parallel right ward shift in concentration response curves obtained in the presence of only low and medium concentrations of the extract in group 2 compared to the those of saline. These results indicated an inhibitory effect of Crocus sativus at histamine H1 receptors.

  13. Foliar applied nanoscale and microscale CeO2 and CuO alter cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Wang, Lina; Sun, Youping; Zhao, Lijuan; Niu, Genhua; Tan, Wenjuan; Rico, Cyren M; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    There is lack of information about the effects of foliar applied nanoparticles on fruit quality. In this study, three week-old soil grown cucumber seedlings were foliar-exposed to nCeO2, nCuO, and corresponding bulk counterparts at 50, 100, and 200mg/L. Respective suspensions/solutions were sprayed to experimental units in a volume of 250ml. Net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (E) were measured 15days after treatment application and in 74day-old plants. Yield, fruit characteristics (size, weight, and firmness), Ce, Cu, and nutritional elements were also measured. Results showed a nano-specific decrement on Pn (22% and 30%) and E (11% and 17%) in seedling leaves exposed to nCeO2 and nCuO at 200mg/L, respectively, compared with control. nCeO2 at 50mg/L, bCeO2 at 200mg/L, and all Cu treatments, except nCuO at 100mg/L, significantly reduced fruit firmness (p≤0.05), compared with control. However, nCuO at 200mg/L and bCuO at 50mg/L significantly increased fruit fresh weight (p≤0.05). At 200mg/L, nCeO2 and bCeO2 reduced fruit Zn by 25%, while nCuO and bCuO reduced fruit Mo by 51% and 44%, respectively, compared with control. This study has shown that when the route of exposure is the foliage, differences in particle size are less significant, compared to root-based exposure. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of foliar application of nCeO2 and nCuO upon yield and nutritional quality of cucumber.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus *

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-ping; Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-hong; Xia, Xiao-jian; Mao, Wei-hua; Shi, Kai; Chen, Zhi-xiang; Yu, Jing-quan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO2 assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H2O2 treatment induced increases in CO2 assimilation whilst inhibition of the H2O2 accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO2 assimilation. Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H2O2-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q P). EBR and H2O2 both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO2 response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities. Moreover, EBR and H2O2 increased contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, hexose, and starch, followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase. Interestingly, expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H2O2. However, the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H2O2 generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment. All of these results indicate that H2O2 functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants. Our study confirms that H2O2 mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H2O2 regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops. PMID:23024048

  15. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  16. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  17. Trichome-Related Mutants Provide a New Perspective on Multicellular Trichome Initiation and Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingwang; Bartholomew, Ezra; Cai, Yanling; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located in aerial parts of plants that function in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study the molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. Loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana have suggested that the core genes GL1 (which encodes a MYB transcription factor) and TTG1 (which encodes a WD40 repeat-containing protein) are important for the initiation and spacing of leaf trichomes, while for normal trichome initiation, the genes GL3, and EGL3 (which encode a bHLH protein) are needed. However, the positive regulatory genes involved in multicellular trichrome development in cucumber remain unclear. This review focuses on the phenotype of mutants (csgl3, tril, tbh, mict, and csgl1) with disturbed trichomes in cucumber and then infers which gene(s) play key roles in trichome initiation and development in those mutants. Evidence indicates that MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are allelic with alternative splicing. CsGL3 and TRIL are allelic and override the effect of TBH, MICT, and CsGL1 on the regulation of multicellular trichome development; and affect trichome initiation. CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 encode HD-Zip proteins with different subfamilies. Genetic and molecular analyses have revealed that CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are responsible for the differentiation of epidermal cells and the development of trichomes. Based on current knowledge, a positive regulator pathway model for trichome development in cucumber was proposed and compared to a model in Arabidopsis. These data suggest that trichome development in cucumber may differ from that in Arabidopsis. PMID:27559338

  18. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  19. Development of Fe-deficiency responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) roots: involvement of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Dell'Orto, M; Santi, S; De Nisi, P; Cesco, S; Varanini, Z; Zocchi, G; Pinton, R

    2000-04-01

    One of the mechanisms through which some strategy I plants respond to Fe-deficiency is an enhanced acidification of the rhizosphere due to proton extrusion. It was previously demonstrated that under Fe-deficiency, a strong increase in the H(+)-ATPase activity of plasma membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from cucumber roots occurred. This result was confirmed in the present work and supported by measurement of ATP-dependent proton pumping in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. There was also an attempt to clarify the regulatory mechanism(s) which lead to the activation of the H(+)-ATPase under Fe-deficiency conditions. Plasma membrane proteins from Fe-deficient roots submitted to immunoblotting using polyclonal antibodies showed an increased level in the 100 kDa polypeptide. When the plasma membrane proteins were treated with trypsin a 90 kDa band appeared. This effect was accompanied by an increase in the enzyme activity, both in the Fe-deficient and in the Fe-sufficient extracts. These results suggest that the increase in the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity seen under Fe-deficiency is due, at least in part, to an increased steady-state level of the 100 kDa polypeptide.

  20. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of the NAC genes under abiotic stresses in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao Meng; Yu, Hong Jun; Sun, Chao; Deng, Jie; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Peng; Li, Yun Yun; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2017-04-01

    The NAC (standing for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF] and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC]) proteins pertain to one of the plant-specific transcription factor families that play important roles in plant development, abiotic stress resistance and signalling transduction. In the present study, the genomic features of the NAC genes in cucumber were analysed in depth using in silico tools. To reveal a tissue-specific, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of CsNAC genes, RT-qPCR was performed under different treatments. Phylogenetic analyses and genome-wide annotation indicated that 82 high-confidence CsNAC genes were clustered into 13 sub-groups with uneven distribution in the cucumber genome. Furthermore, the CsNAC genes exhibited different tissue-specific expression patterns in 10 tissues under normal growth conditions, while 13 (16%) and 28 (34%) genes displayed preferential expression in roots and flowers, respectively. Moreover, CsNAC genes were more sensitive to salinity than other stresses; however, their responses were relatively rapid and transient to nutrition deprivation. Several CsNAC genes, including CsNAC35, which is an orthologue of the known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RD26, were identified as highly responsive to abiotic stresses and hormones. Overall, our findings revealed the genomic landscape and expression profiling of the CsNAC genes in response to multiple stresses and hormones, offering clues for further function analyses and molecular breeding.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-ping; Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-hong; Xia, Xiao-jian; Mao, Wei-hua; Shi, Kai; Chen, Zhi-xiang; Yu, Jing-quan

    2012-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2) treatment induced increases in CO(2) assimilation whilst inhibition of the H(2)O(2) accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO(2) assimilation. Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H(2)O(2)-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)). EBR and H(2)O(2) both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO(2) response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities. Moreover, EBR and H(2)O(2) increased contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, hexose, and starch, followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase. Interestingly, expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H(2)O(2). However, the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H(2)O(2) generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment. All of these results indicate that H(2)O(2) functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO(2) assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants. Our study confirms that H(2)O(2) mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H(2)O(2) regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops.

  2. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-09-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators.

  3. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, B B; Pan, J S; He, H L; Yang, X Q; Zhao, J L; Cai, R

    2013-10-07

    The plant gaseous hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To gain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the full-length cDNA encoding EIN3 (designated as CsEIN3) was cloned from cucumber for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full length of CsEIN3 was 2560 bp, with an open reading frame of 1908 bp encoding 635 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsEIN3 has high homology with other plant EIN3/EIL proteins that were derived from a common ancestor during evolution, and CsEIN3 was grouped into a cluster along with melon. Homology modeling demonstrated that CsEIN3 has a highly similar structure to the specific DNA-binding domain contained in EIN3/EIL proteins. Based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that CsEIN3 was constitutively expressed in all organs examined, and was increased during flower development and maturation in both male and female flowers. Our results suggest that CsEIN3 is involved in processes of flower development. In conclusion, this study will provide the basis for further study on the role of EIN3 in relevant biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  5. Genome-wide identification and expression profile of homeodomain-leucine zipper Class I gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Fu, Rao; Li, Qiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2013-12-01

    The HD-Zip proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. HD-Zip genes have been grouped into four different classes: HD-Zip I to IV. In this study, we described the identification and structural characterization of Class I HD-Zip genes in cucumber. A complete set of 13 HD-Zip I genes were identified in the cucumber genome using Blast search tools and phylogeny. The cucumber HD-Zip I family contained a smaller number of identified genes compared to other higher plants such as Arabidopsis and maize due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are distributed unevenly across 5 of 7 chromosomes. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 13 cucumber HD-Zip I genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues, which suggested that cucumber HD-Zip I genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic stress conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of HD-Zip I genes that responded to one or more treatments.

  6. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  7. Long-Term In Vitro System for Maintenance and Amplification of Root-Knot Nematodes in Cucumis sativus Roots

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E.; Olmo, Rocío; Cabrera, Javier; Barcala, Marta; Escobar, Carolina; Fenoll, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are polyphagous plant-parasitic roundworms that produce large crop losses, representing a relevant agricultural pest worldwide. After infection, they induce swollen root structures called galls containing giant cells (GCs) indispensable for nematode development. Among efficient control methods are biotechnology-based strategies that require a deep knowledge of underlying molecular processes during the plant-nematode interaction. Methods of achieving this knowledge include the application of molecular biology techniques such as transcriptomics (as massive sequencing or microarray hybridization), proteomics or metabolomics. These require aseptic experimental conditions, as undetected contamination with other microorganisms could compromise the interpretation of the results. Herein, we present a simple, efficient and long-term method for nematode amplification on cucumber roots grown in vitro. Amplification of juveniles (J2) from the starting inoculum is around 40-fold. The method was validated for three Meloidogyne species (Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita, and M. arenaria), producing viable and robust freshly hatched J2s. These J2s can be used for further in vitro infection of different plant species such as Arabidopsis, tobacco and tomato, as well as to maintain and amplify the population. The method allowed maintenance of around 90 Meloidogyne sp. generations (one every 2 months) from a single initial female over 15 years. PMID:26941745

  8. Enantioselective residue dissipation of hexaconazole in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. caulorapa DC.), and soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiangyun; Wu, Changxing; Yang, Hongda; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qiang

    2012-03-07

    In this study, the enantioselective dissipation behavior of hexaconazole was investigated in cucumber fruit, head cabbage, and two different types of agricultural soils. The dissipation kinetics was determined by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on a cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) chiral column. Dissipation rates of hexaconazole enantiomers followed first-order kinetics; the residues of (+)-enantiomer decreased more rapidly than (-)-enantiomer in cucumber and head cabbage, resulting in relative enrichment of the (-)-form, while the two enantiomers showed similar degradation rates in the tested soils. These results indicate substantial enantioselectivity in the residue dissipation of hexaconazole enantiomers in cucumber and head cabbage; however, nonenantioselective dissipation was observed in the tested soils.

  9. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  10. Melatonin promotes seed germination under high salinity by regulating antioxidant systems, ABA and GA₄ interaction in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Na; Yang, Rong-Chao; Wang, Li; Sun, Qian-Qian; Li, Dian-Bo; Cao, Yun-Yun; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Although previous studies have found that melatonin can promote seed germination, the mechanisms involved in perceiving and signaling melatonin remain poorly understood. In this study, it was found that melatonin was synthesized during cucumber seed germination with a peak in melatonin levels occurring 14 hr into germination. This is indicative of a correlation between melatonin synthesis and seed germination. Meanwhile, seeds pretreated with exogenous melatonin (1 μM) showed enhanced germination rates under 150 mM NaCl stress compared to water-pretreated seeds under salinity stress. There are two apparent mechanisms by which melatonin alleviated salinity-induced inhibition of seed germination. Exogenous melatonin decreased oxidative damage induced by NaCl stress by enhancing gene expression of antioxidants. Under NaCl stress, compared to untreated control, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were significantly increased by approximately 1.3-5.0-fold, with a concomitant 1.4-2.0-fold increase of CsCu-ZnSOD, CsFe-ZnSOD, CsCAT, and CsPOD in melatonin-pretreated seeds. Melatonin also alleviated salinity stress by affecting abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) biosynthesis and catabolism during seed germination. Compared to NaCl treatment, melatonin significantly up-regulated ABA catabolism genes (e.g., CsCYP707A1 and CsCYP707A2, 3.5 and 105-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 16 hr, respectively) and down-regulated ABA biosynthesis genes (e.g., CsNECD2, 0.29-fold of CK2 at 16 hr), resulting in a rapid decrease of ABA content during the early stage of germination. At the same time, melatonin positively up-regulated GA biosynthesis genes (e.g., GA20ox and GA3ox, 2.3 and 3.9-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 0 and 12 hr, respectively), contributing to a significant increase of GA (especially GA4) content. In this study, we provide new evidence suggesting that melatonin alleviates the inhibitory effects of NaCl stress on germination mainly by regulating the biosynthesis and catabolism of ABA and GA4.

  11. Ultrahigh-density linkage map for cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the low cost of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery, use of SNP markers for SNP array development is becoming more affordable. The SNP array is a very useful tool for high throughput genotyping and has a number of applications such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Since the...

  12. Storage proteins from Lathyrus sativus seeds.

    PubMed

    Rosa, M J; Ferreira, R B; Teixeira, A R

    2000-11-01

    The proteins from Lathyrus sativus Linn. (chickling vetch or grass pea) seeds were investigated. Protein constitutes approximately 20% of the seed dry weight, >60% of which is composed by globulins and 30% by albumins. A single, 24 kDa polypeptide comprises more than half of the protein present in the albumin fraction. The globulins may be fractionated into three main components, which were named alpha-lathyrin (the major globulin), beta-lathyrin, and gamma-lathyrin. alpha-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 18S, is composed of three main types of unglycosylated subunits (50-66 kDa), each of which produce, upon reduction, a heavy and a light polypeptide chain, by analogy with 11S. beta-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of 13S, is composed by a relatively large number of subunits (8-66 kDa). Two major polypeptides are glycosylated and exhibit structural similarity with beta-conglutin from Lupinus albus. One of these possesses an internal disulfide bond. gamma-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 5S, contains two interacting, unglycosylated polypeptides, with no disulfide bonds: the major 24 kDa albumin and the heavier (20 kDa) polypeptide chain of La. sativus lectin.

  13. [Effect of combined treatment of 60Co gamma-ray and EMS on antioxidase activity and ODAP content in Lathyrus sativus].

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Wang, F; Wang, X; Zhou, G; Li, Z

    2000-12-01

    Lathyrus sativus seeds were treated with 60Co gamma-ray and EMS(ethyl methane sulfonate), and their emergence rate and SOD, POD and CAT activities were determined. The result indicated that the treatment decreased the emergence rate. The activities of SOD and POD were changed in accordance with the increase of irradiation dose and EMS concentration, while that of CAT had no obvious change. After treatment, the ODAP content in Lathyrus sativus decreased. Amutant was developed, with toxin content of 0.1%, compared to 0.2% in control.

  14. Next-generation sequencing, FISH mapping and synteny-based modeling reveal mechanisms of decreasing dysploidy in Cucumis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luming; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jiming; Luan, Feishi; Renner, Susanne S; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Sanseverino, Walter; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Casacuberta, Josep; Senalik, Douglas A; Simon, Philipp W; Chen, Jinfeng; Weng, Yiqun

    2014-01-01

    In the large Cucurbitaceae genus Cucumis, cucumber (C. sativus) is the only species with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes. The majority of the remaining species, including melon (C. melo) and the sister species of cucumber, C. hystrix, have 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes, implying a reduction from n = 12 to n = 7. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we investigated chromosome synteny among cucumber, C. hystrix and melon using integrated and complementary approaches. We identified 14 inversions and a C. hystrix lineage-specific reciprocal inversion between C. hystrix and melon. The results reveal the location and orientation of 53 C. hystrix syntenic blocks on the seven cucumber chromosomes, and allow us to infer at least 59 chromosome rearrangement events that led to the seven cucumber chromosomes, including five fusions, four translocations, and 50 inversions. The 12 inferred chromosomes (AK1-AK12) of an ancestor similar to melon and C. hystrix had strikingly different evolutionary fates, with cucumber chromosome C1 apparently resulting from insertion of chromosome AK12 into the centromeric region of translocated AK2/AK8, cucumber chromosome C3 originating from a Robertsonian-like translocation between AK4 and AK6, and cucumber chromosome C5 originating from fusion of AK9 and AK10. Chromosomes C2, C4 and C6 were the result of complex reshuffling of syntenic blocks from three (AK3, AK5 and AK11), three (AK5, AK7 and AK8) and five (AK2, AK3, AK5, AK8 and AK11) ancestral chromosomes, respectively, through 33 fusion, translocation and inversion events. Previous results (Huang, S., Li, R., Zhang, Z. et al., , Nat. Genet. 41, 1275-1281; Li, D., Cuevas, H.E., Yang, L., Li, Y., Garcia-Mas, J., Zalapa, J., Staub, J.E., Luan, F., Reddy, U., He, X., Gong, Z., Weng, Y. 2011a, BMC Genomics, 12, 396) showing that cucumber C7 stayed largely intact during the entire evolution of Cucumis are supported. Results from this study allow a fine-scale understanding of the

  15. An integrated approach for flavour quality evaluation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Sivertsen, Hanne; Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2013-08-15

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening and maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavour quality of fruits. The effect of ripening on chemical composition, physical parameters and sensory perception of three muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) cultivars was evaluated. Significant correlations emerging from this extensive data set are discussed in the context of identifying potential targets for melon sensory quality improvement. A portable ultra-fast gas-chromatograph coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW) was also used to monitor aroma volatile concentrations during fruit ripening and evaluated for its ability to predict the sensory perception of melon flavour. UFGC-SAW analysis allowed the discrimination of melon maturity stage based on six measured peaks, whose abundance was positively correlated to maturity-specific sensory attributes. Our findings suggest that this technology shows promise for future applications in rapid flavour quality evaluation.

  16. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, Diego Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-15

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. - Graphical abstract: Metals investigated: Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury, Nickel and Zinc. - Highlights: • The short-term phytotoxicity of seven metals was investigated with 3 higher plants. • Italian limits for arsenic and nickel in

  17. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants.

  18. Cucumis melo endornavirus: Genome organization, host range and codivergence with the host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high molecular weight dsRNA was isolated from a Cucumis melo plant (referred to as“CL01”) of an unknown cultivar and completely sequenced. Sequence analyses showed similarities with members of the Endornaviridae. The name Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) is proposed. The genome of CmEV-CL01 consis...

  19. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  20. Stimulatory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on beta2-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal chains.

    PubMed

    Nemati, H; Boskabady, M H; Ahmadzadef Vostakolaei, H

    2008-12-01

    To study the mechanism(s) of the relaxant effects of Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), the stimulatory effect of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of this plant and one of its constituent, safranal was examined on beta-adrenoceptors in tracheal chains of guinea pigs. The beta(2)-adrenergic stimulatory was tested by performing the cumulative concentration-response curves of isoprenaline-induced relaxation of pre-contracted isolated guinea pig tracheal chains. The studied solutions were included two concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract from Crocus sativus (0.1 and 0.2g%), safranal (1.25 and 2.5 microg), 10nM propranolol, and saline. The study was done in two different conditions including: non-incubated (group 1, n=9) and incubated tissues with 1 microM chlorpheniramine (group 2, n=6). The results showed clear leftward shifts in isoprenaline curves obtained in the presence of only higher concentration of the extract in group 1 and its both concentrations in group 2 compared with that of saline. The EC(50) (the effective concentration of isoprenaline, causing 50% of maximum response) obtained in the presence of both concentrations of the extract (0.17+/-0.06 and 0.12+/-0.02) and safranal (0.22+/-0.05 and 0.22+/-0.05) in group 1 and only in the presence of two concentrations of the extract (1.16+/-0.31 and 0.68+/-0.21) in group 2 was significantly lower compared to saline (1.00+/-0.22 and 4.06+/-1.04 for groups 1 and 2, respectively) (p<0.05-0.001). The maximum responses obtained in the presence of both concentrations of the extract and safranal in group 1 were significantly lower than that of saline (p<0.005 for all cases). All values (CR-1=(EC(50) obtained in the presence of active substances/EC(50), obtained in the presence of saline)-1) obtained in the presence of higher concentrations of extract in group 1, its both concentrations and higher concentration of safranal in group 2 were negative and there were significant differences in this value between propranolol and

  1. Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) and its neurotoxin ODAP.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ze-Yi; Spencer, Peter S; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Liang, Yong-Min; Wang, Ya-Fu; Wang, Chun-Ying; Li, Fen-Min

    2006-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a high-yielding, drought-resistant legume consumed as a food in Northern India and neighboring countries as well as in Ethiopia. Its development into an important food legume, however, has been hindered by the presence of the neurotoxin - beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in seeds which, if consumed in large quantities for prolonged periods, can cause irreversible paralysis. Recently, some low-toxin lines have been developed that may prove safe for both animal and human foods. Cultivation of L. sativus should thus be considered in suitable regions because the demand for legume animal feed protein products is expected to increase. This paper addresses advances in understanding L. sativus from the perspective of its taxonomy, genetics, ecology, chemistry, nutrition, medicine, biology and for animal nutrition.

  2. Lathyrus diversity: available resources with relevance to crop improvement – L. sativus and L. cicera as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Patto, M. C.; Rubiales, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lathyrus genus includes 160 species, some of which have economic importance as food, fodder and ornamental crops (mainly L. sativus, L. cicera and L. odoratus, respectively) and are cultivated in >1·5 Mha worldwide. However, in spite of their well-recognized robustness and potential as a source of calories and protein for populations in drought-prone and marginal areas, cultivation is in decline and there is a high risk of genetic erosion. Scope In this review, current and past taxonomic treatments of the Lathyrus genus are assessed and its current status is examined together with future prospects for germplasm conservation, characterization and utilization. A particular emphasis is placed on the importance of diversity analysis for breeding of L. sativus and L. cicera. Conclusions Efforts for improvement of L. sativus and L. cicera should concentrate on the development of publicly available joint core collections, and on high-resolution genotyping. This will be critical for permitting decentralized phenotyping. Such a co-ordinated international effort should result in more efficient and faster breeding approaches, which are particularly needed for these neglected, underutilized Lathyrus species. PMID:24623333

  3. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo.

  4. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields.

  5. [Effects of grafting on physiological characteristics of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-min; Zhang, Xin-ying; Fu, Qiu-shi; He, Zhong-qun; Wang, Huai-song

    2014-12-01

    The effects of grafting on physiological characters of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress were investigated with Pumpkin Jingxinzhen No. 3 as stock and oriental melon IVF09 as scion. The results showed that the physiological characters of melon seedlings were inhibited significantly under copper stress. Compared with self-rooted seedlings, the biomass, the contents of photosynthetic pigment, glucose and fructose, the photosynthetic parameters, the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, neutral invertase and acid invertase in the leaves of the grafted seedlings were increased significantly. The uptake of nutrients was improved with the contents of K, P, Na increased and the content of Cu decreased. When the concentration of Cu2+ stress was 800 micromol L(-1), the contents of Cu in the leaves and roots of the grafted seedlings were decreased by 31.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Endogenous hormone balance of seedlings was improved by grafting. In the grafted seedlings, the content of IAA and peroxidase activity were higher, whereas the contents of ABA, maleicdialdehyde, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were lower than that in the control. It was concluded that the copper stress on the physiological characters of melon seedlings was relieved by grafting which improved the resistance of the grafted seedlings.

  6. Factors affecting β-ODAP content in Lathyrus sativus and their possible physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jiao, C-J; Jiang, J-L; Ke, L-M; Cheng, W; Li, F-M; Li, Z-X; Wang, C-Y

    2011-03-01

    A neuroexcitatory non-protein amino acid, β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), present in the seeds of the hardy legume crop grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), was considered responsible for human lathyrism. The levels of β-ODAP were reported to vary in different tissues during plant development, and to be affected by a wide range of environmental stresses. In this paper, dynamic changes in β-ODAP level at specific stages of plant development as well as the influences of various environmental factors, including nutrient deficiency, drought, salinity, toxic heavy metals, and Rhizobium symbiosis on β-ODAP levels were analyzed, highlighting the relationship between changes in β-ODAP concentrations and Rhizobium growth. Possible mechanisms underlying β-ODAP accumulation are proposed and future research is suggested.

  7. Six new acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Tsuji, Kouji; Yongzhen, Piao; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-09-01

    Six new acylated anthocyanins (1-6) were isolated along with the three known congeners (7-9) from the fresh roots of red radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated by our group. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic properties. Among the six new anthocyanins, the five constituents (1, 2, 4-6) were shown to contain the malonyl function at 6-OH in the glucopyranosyl residue linked to C-5 in the pelargonidin nucleus.

  8. CmMDb: a versatile database for Cucumis melo microsatellite markers and other horticulture crop research.

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K; Bonthala, Venkata S; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A; Polumetla, Ananda K; Prasad, Gajula M N V

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies.

  9. CmMDb: A Versatile Database for Cucumis melo Microsatellite Markers and Other Horticulture Crop Research

    PubMed Central

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K.; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A.; Polumetla, Ananda K.; Prasad, Gajula M. N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies. PMID:25885062

  10. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review.

    PubMed

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rezaee, Ramin; M Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  11. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review

    PubMed Central

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rezaee, Ramin; M. Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:26468457

  12. Transcriptome analysis of leaf tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libin; Jia, Haibo; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Gang; Xia, Heng; Wang, Xiaodong; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng; Wu, Jiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO) database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus.

  13. Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2009-02-12

    An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of MI and 100mg/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic LPO, were administered to Wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in tissue (heart, liver and kidney) LPO and in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)), insulin, glucose, alpha-amylase and different lipids were examined. Administration of three test peel extracts significantly increased both the thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) with a concomitant decrease in tissue LPO, suggesting their thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidative role. This thyroid stimulatory nature was also exhibited in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid animals. However, only minor influence was observed in serum lipid profile in which CM reduced the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while CV decreased triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). When the combined effects of either two (MI+CV) or three (MI+CV+CM) peel extracts were evaluated in euthyroid animals, serum T(3) concentration was increased in response to MI+CV and MI+CV+CM treatments, while T(4) level was elevated by the combinations of first two peels only. Interestingly, both the categories of combinations increased T(4) levels, but not T(3) in PTU treated hypothyroid animals. Moreover, a parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed in these animals, suggesting their unsafe nature in combination. In conclusion the three test peel extracts appear to be stimulatory to thyroid functions and inhibitory to tissue LPO but only when treated individually.

  14. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed.

  15. Biological detection and analysis of toxicity of organophosphate- and azadirachtin-based insecticides in Lathyrus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Susmita; Bhattacharya, Sima; Mandi, Sukumar; Tarafdar, Jayanta

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attention was paid to investigate the effect of organophosphate insecticides, profenofos 40% EC, methyl parathion (metacid) 50% EC, and neem-based product nimbecidine 0.03% EC (from Azadirachta indica) on somatic chromosomal behavior, level of leaf protein, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Lathyrus sativus L., the leguminous herb. The experiments on somatic chromosomes of root tip cells of L. sativus L. revealed that most common type of abnormalities were anaphase bridge, chromosome fragment, breaks, giant interphase, etc. Also, the mitotic index reduced and abnormality index enhanced, which were directly proportional to the rise in concentration as well as time period of exposure of chemicals. The profenofos and metacid induced drastic changes in mitotic index when compared with nimbecidine. The electrophoretic studies of leaf protein of L. sativus L. showed alteration of some major and minor protein bands subjected to spraying of organophosphate insecticides and induced to synthesize additional high molecular mass protein compared to untreated control. Analysis of SOD, EST, and POD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different patterns of the isoforms. Complete inhibition of EST was observed in profenofos-treated plants, while with metacid- and nimbecidine-treated plants EST was suppressed. Induction and/or increased activities of SOD and POD were generally enhanced. Our present study not only provides the important information for better understanding of the toxic and tolerance mechanisms, but as well can be used as a bio-indicator for contamination by pesticides, which could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties.

  16. In vitro activity and cytotoxicity of Crocus sativus extract against leihmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER).

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Elham; Eskandari, Alborz; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex protozoan disease comprising a wide range of clinical manifestations that is usually divided into visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis depending on leishmania parasite species and host's immune system responses. Most of the drugs produced for the treatment of leishmaniasis, from the first used to the most recently accepted, are toxic, resistance issues and poorly tolerated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its apoptotic activity against Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/ 75/ER) promastigotes. MTT assay was used to find viability of L. major promastigotes and the achieved results were explicated as IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration). ED50 (50% effective doses) for L. major amastigotes were also analyzed. Annexin-V FLUOS staining was performed to study the cell death properties of saffron by using FACS analysis. Qualitative analysis of the DNA fragmentations was accomplished by agarose gel electrophoresis and light microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of promastigotes. Our results revealed that L. major promastigotes and amastigotes are sensitive to saffron at different concentrations and time dependent manner with apoptotic features including DNA laddering, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and externalization of phosphatidylserine. IC50 and ED50 of this extract after 48 h of incubation was 0.7mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml respectively. Finally, C. sativus has shown anti-leishmanial activity against L. major promastigote and amastigote and may induce apoptosis.

  17. New chromone and triglyceride from Cucumis melo seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M

    2014-02-01

    Re-investigation of the MeOH extract of the seeds of Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus (Cucurbitaceae) led to the isolation of a new chromone derivative (5,7- dihydroxy-2-[2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (5) and a triglyceride (1,3-di-(6Z,9Z)-docosa-6,9-dienoyl-2-(6Z) hexacos-6-enoylglycerol (1), together with three known compounds; alpha-spinasterol (2), stigmasta-7,22,25-trien-3-ol (3), and D:B-friedoolean-5-ene-3-beta-ol (4), are reported from this species for the first time. Their structures were determined by extensive 1D (1H, 13C, and DEPT) and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR and mass spectral measurements. Compound 5 displayed significant cytotoxic activity against L5178Y cells, with an ED50 of 5 microM. The MeOH extract and 5 showed antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of Cucumis melo fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Huaisong; Yi, Hongping; Zhai, Wenqiang; Wang, Guangzhi; Fu, Qiushi

    2016-01-01

    Hami melon (Cucumis melo) is the most important melon crop grown in the north-western provinces of China. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of developmental changes related to size, flesh, sugar and sour content, we performed a transcriptome profiling of its fruit development. Over 155 000 000 clean reads were mapped to MELONOMICS genome, yielding a total of 23 299 expressed genes. Of these, 554 genes were specifically expressed in flowers, and 3260 genes in fruit flesh tissues. The 7892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to fruit development and mediated diverse metabolic processes and pathways; 83 DEGs and 13 DEGs were possibly associated with sucrose and citric acid accumulation, respectively. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that six out of eight selected candidate genes displayed expression trends similar to our DEGs. This study profiled the gene expression related to different growing stages of flower and fruit at the whole transcriptome level to provide an insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying Hami melon fruit development.

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family.

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  1. Mapping Resistance to Alternaria cucumerina in Cucumis melo.

    PubMed

    Daley, James; Branham, Sandra; Levi, Amnon; Hassell, Richard; Wechter, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Infection with Alternaria cucumerina causes Alternaria leaf blight (ALB), a disease characterized by lesion formation on leaves, leading to substantial yield and quality losses in Cucumis melo (melon). Although fungicides are effective against ALB, reduction in the frequency of application would be economically and environmentally beneficial. Resistant melon lines have been identified but the genetic basis of this resistance has not been determined. A saturated melon genetic map was constructed with markers developed through genotyping by sequencing of a recombinant inbred line population (F6 to F10; n = 82) derived from single-seed descent of a F2 population from a cross between the ALB-resistant parent MR-1 and the ALB-susceptible parent Ananas Yokneum. The population was evaluated for A. cucumerina resistance with an augmented block greenhouse study using inoculation with the wounded-leaf method. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping identified two QTL that explained 33.9% of variation in lesion area. Several candidate genes within range of these QTL were identified using the C. melo v3.5 genome. Markers linked to these QTL will be used to accelerate efforts to breed melon cultivars resistant to ALB.

  2. Transcriptome profiling of Cucumis melo fruit development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Huaisong; Yi, Hongping; Zhai, Wenqiang; Wang, Guangzhi; Fu, Qiushi

    2016-01-01

    Hami melon (Cucumis melo) is the most important melon crop grown in the north-western provinces of China. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of developmental changes related to size, flesh, sugar and sour content, we performed a transcriptome profiling of its fruit development. Over 155 000 000 clean reads were mapped to MELONOMICS genome, yielding a total of 23 299 expressed genes. Of these, 554 genes were specifically expressed in flowers, and 3260 genes in fruit flesh tissues. The 7892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to fruit development and mediated diverse metabolic processes and pathways; 83 DEGs and 13 DEGs were possibly associated with sucrose and citric acid accumulation, respectively. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that six out of eight selected candidate genes displayed expression trends similar to our DEGs. This study profiled the gene expression related to different growing stages of flower and fruit at the whole transcriptome level to provide an insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying Hami melon fruit development. PMID:27162641

  3. Sequencing, de novo assembly and comparative analysis of Raphanus sativus transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Libin; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Jiangsheng; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is an important Brassicaceae plant and also an edible vegetable with great economic value. However, currently there is not enough transcriptome information of R. sativus tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on R. sativus. In this study, RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of leaf tissues. Approximately 70 million clean pair-end reads were obtained and used for de novo assembly by Trinity program, which generated 68,086 unigenes with an average length of 576 bp. All the unigenes were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. In the meanwhile, we merged leaf sequencing data with existing root sequencing data and obtained better de novo assembly of R. sativus using Oases program. Accordingly, potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs), transcription factors (TFs) and enzyme codes were identified in R. sativus. Additionally, we detected a total of 3563 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P = 0.05) and tissue-specific biological processes between leaf and root tissues. Furthermore, a TFs-based regulation network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Taken together, these results not only provide a comprehensive genomic resource of R. sativus but also shed light on functional genomic and proteomic research on R. sativus in the future.

  4. Crocus sativus L. protects against SDS‑induced intestinal damage and extends lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-12-01

    Medicinal plants are important sources of potentially therapeutic biochemical drugs. Crocus sativus L. has been used to treat various diseases in China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The present study investigated the protective effect of C. sativus L. extract in Drosophila melanogaster intestinal immunity. Wild‑type flies were fed standard cornmeal‑yeast medium and used as controls, and flies supplemented with 1% C. sativus L. aqueous extract in standard medium were used as the experimental group. Following the ingestion of the various toxic compounds, the survival rate of the flies was determined. Cell viability and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using 7‑amino‑actinomycin D and dihydroethidium staining, respectively. The present study demonstrated that aqueous extracts of C. sativus L. may significantly increase the lifespan and survival rate of adult flies. Additionally, C. sativus L. may decrease epithelial cell death and ROS levels, resulting in improved intestinal morphology. These findings indicated that C. sativus L. had a protective effect against intestinal injury and may extend the lifespan of Drosophila. Therefore, the findings of the present study may improve the understanding of clinical researchers on the complex effects of C. sativus L. in intestinal disorders.

  5. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake.

  7. Variation in amylase activities in radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masakazu; Ito, Fumio; Asai, Tatsuo; Kuboi, Toru

    2009-09-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family which shows amylolytic activity in the taproot. However, there is little information about differences in these amylolytic activities among radish cultivars. We analyzed the amylase activities and starch contents of 7 kinds of radish cultivars. The Koshin cultivar showed the highest amylase activity, with a level approximately 6 times higher than that of the Sobutori cultivar, which had the lowest. Cultivars with higher amylase activities showed higher starch contents. These results suggest that there are intraspecies variations in amylolytic activities in radishes, and positive correlations between amylase activity and starch content.

  8. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination.

  9. Spatial variation in foliar chemicals within radish (Raphanus sativus) plants and their effects on performance of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jitendra; Tan, Ching-Wen; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2010-12-01

    Foliar chemicals are variable within a plant and this may affect herbivore feeding preference. This study was carried out to quantify concentrations of primary (nitrogen, water, and total nonstructural carbohydrates) and secondary substances (sinigrin) in young and old leaves of Raphanus sativus L. and to evaluate performance and survival of a generalist herbivore Spodoptera litura F. feeding on them. Forty to 50-d-old R. sativus plants were used in both foliar chemical analysis and insect performance bioassays. Leaves located on the third to the sixth node from the base of the plant were defined as old leaves and the remaining leaves (from seventh node to the plant apex) of the plant were referred as young leaves in this study. All foliar chemicals except water differed significantly between young and old leaves. Moreover, young leaves were more nutritious but much more defended, based on sinigrin content, against S. litura than old leaves. Performance and survival of S. litura were reduced on young leaves as compared with old leaves. Male and female larval duration only differed significantly on young leaves. Female larval development time was longer than male development time on young leaves, but not on older leaves. Therefore, this study revealed that defenses in young leaves have differential effects upon male and female S. litura.

  10. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  11. First Report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Infecting Gherkin (Cucumis anguira) in India.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Vidya, T; Papaiah, S; Srinivasulu, M; Mandal, Bikash; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-09-01

    A field visit in September 2011 to the Cucumis anguira (Gherkin) growing regions of Kuppam, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India revealed occurrence of mosaic, blistering and fruit malformation leading to the crop losses. Analysis of field samples revealed association of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) with the disease. This is the first confirmed report of natural occurrence of ZYMV on Gherkin in India.

  12. Histological Aspects of Cucumis melo PI 313970 Resistance to Podosphaera xanthii and Golovinomyces cichoracearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis melo accession PI 313970 possesses numerous genes for race-specific resistance to powdery mildew incited by Podosphaera xanthi, but it also exhibits non-race-specific, resistant blister leaf reactions in California, U.S.A. to several races of P. xanthii. Light microscopic examination confirm...

  13. A golden SNP in CmOr governs fruit flesh color of melon (cucumis melo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon (Cucumis melo) flesh color is genetically determined and can be white, light green or orange with B-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as t...

  14. Spanish melons (Cucumis melo L.) of the Madrid provenance: A unique germplasm reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces of the Madrid provenance, Spain, have received national distinction for their high fruit quality and sensorial attributes. More specifically, a unique array of Group Inodorus landraces have been continuously cultivated and conserved by farmers in the municipality o...

  15. Asynchronous meiosis in Cucumis hystrix-cucumber synthetic tetraploids resulting in low male fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wide hybridization is an important tool for crop improvement. Recently, we successfully developed a synthetic allotetraploid from interspecific cross between cucumber and its relative Cucumis hystrix-(2n = 2x =24) followed by chemical induction of chromosome doubling. The resulting allotetraploid wa...

  16. Superoxide dismutase activity in mesocarp tissue from divergent Cucumis melo L. genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit matrix is unique among plant foods in being able to provide a protective medium in which the antioxidant activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) is preserved during the digestive process, and therefore, being able to elicit in vivo pharmacological effects ...

  17. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  18. De novo assembly of a draft genome for Cucumis hystrix, the closest relative of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, HH) is the only known species that is cross-compatible with cucumber and has a great potential for cucumber improvement, To facilitate introgression of C. hystrix chromatins into cucumber genetic background through development of introgression library, we sequenced two...

  19. Root-knot nematode resistance, yield, and fruit quality of specialty melons grafted onto cucumis metulifer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in specialty melons (Cucumis melo) with distinctive fruit characteristics has grown in the United States in recent years. However, disease management remains a major challenge in specialty melon production. In this study, grafting experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of...

  20. Reproductive biology of the andromonoecious Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kouonon, Leonie C.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Zoro Bi, Arsene I.; Bertin, Pierre; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Dje, Yao

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae) is cultivated in many African regions for its edible kernels used as a soup thickener. The plant, an annual, andromonoecious, trailing-vine species, is of high social, cultural and economic value for local communities. In order to improve the yield of this crop, the first step and our aim were to elucidate its breeding system. Methods Eight experimental pollination treatments were performed during three growing seasons to assess spontaneous selfing, self-compatibility and effects of pollen source (hermaphroditic vs. male flowers). Pollination success was determined by pollen tube growth and reproductive success was assessed by fruit, seed and seedling numbers and characteristics. The pollinator guild was surveyed and the pollination distance determined both by direct observations and by indirect fluorescent dye dispersal. Key Results The species is probably pollinated by several Hymenoptera, principally by Hypotrigona para. Pollinator flight distances varied from 25 to 69 cm. No evidence for apomixis or spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of insect visitors was found. The self-fertility index (SFI = 0) indicated a total dependence on pollinators for reproductive success. The effects of hand pollination on fruit set, seed number and seedling fitness differed among years. Pollen tube growth and reproductive success did not differ between self- and cross-pollinations. Accordingly, a high self-compatibility index for the fruit set (SCI = 1·00) and the seed number (SCI = 0·98) and a low inbreeding depression at all developmental stages (cumulative δ = 0·126) suggest a high selfing ability. Finally, pollen origin had no effect on fruit and seed sets. Conclusions This andromonoecious species has the potential for a mixed mating system with high dependence on insect-mediated pollination. The selfing rate through geitonogamy should be important. PMID:19671577

  1. Root-Zone Warming Differently Benefits Mature and Newly Unfolded Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings under Sub-Optimal Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yanxiu; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sub-optimal temperature extensively suppresses crop growth during cool-season greenhouse production. Root-zone (RZ) warming is considered an economical option to alleviate crop growth reduction. In this study we cultivated cucumber seedlings in nutrient solution under different air-RZ temperature treatments to investigate the effects of RZ warming on seedling growth- and photosynthesis-related parameters in leaves. The air-RZ temperature treatments included sub-optimal RZ temperature 13°C and sub-optimal air temperature 20/12°C (day/night) (S13), RZ warming at 19°C and sub-optimal air temperature (S19), and RZ warming at 19°C and optimal air temperature 26/18°C (day/night) (O19). In addition, for each air-RZ temperature treatment, half of the seedlings were also treated with 2% (m/m) polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in nutrient solution to distinguish the effect of root-sourced water supply from RZ temperature. At the whole-plant level, S19 significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) by approximately 18% compared with S13, although the increase was less than in O19 (50%) due to delayed leaf emergence. S19 alleviated both diffusive and metabolic limitation of photosynthesis in mature leaves compared with S13, resulting in a photosynthetic rate similar to that in O19 leaves. In newly unfolded leaves, S19 significantly promoted leaf area expansion and alleviated stomatal limitation of photosynthesis compared with S13. PEG addition had a limited influence on RGR and leaf photosynthesis, but significantly suppressed new leaf expansion. Thus, our results indicate that under sub-optimal temperature conditions, RZ warming promotes cucumber seedling growth by differently benefiting mature and newly unfolded leaves. In addition, RZ warming enhanced root-sourced water supply, mainly promoting new leaf expansion, rather than photosynthesis. PMID:27152599

  2. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected. PMID:27148281

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Provides Insight into the Key Proteins Involved in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Adventitious Root Emergence under Waterlogging Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Ma, Xiaotian; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common abiotic stress in both natural and agricultural systems, and it primarily affects plant growth by the slow oxygen diffusion in water. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, a key adaptation for waterlogging tolerant plants is the formation of adventitious roots (ARs). We found that cucumber waterlogging tolerant line Zaoer-N seedlings adapt to waterlogging stress by developing a larger number of ARs in hypocotyls, while almost no AR is generated in sensitive line Pepino. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AR emergence, the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach was employed to map the proteomes of hypocotyls cells of the Zaoer-N and Pepino under control and waterlogging conditions. A total of 5508 proteins were identified and 146 were differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), of which 47 and 56 DRPs were specific to tolerant and sensitive line, respectively. In the waterlogged Zaoer-N hypocotyls, DRPs related to alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylicacid oxidases, peroxidases, 60S ribosomal proteins, GSDL esterases/lipases, histone deacetylases, and histone H5 and were strongly overrepresented to manage the energy crisis, promote ethylene release, minimize oxidative damage, mobilize storage lipids, and stimulate cell division, differentiation and growth. The evaluations of ethylene production, ADH activity, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity and ethanol production were in good agreement with the proteomic results. qRT-PCR analysis of the corresponding 146 genes further confirmed the accuracy of the observed protein abundance. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying waterlogging triggered cucumber ARs emergence, and provided valuable information for the breeding of cucumber with enhanced tolerance to waterlogging. PMID:27790230

  4. The expression profiling of the lipoxygenase (LOX) family genes during fruit development, abiotic stress and hormonal treatments in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Yong; Jiang, Wei-Jie; Yu, Hong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-haem iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipids to initiate the formation of a group of biologically active compounds called oxylipins. Plant oxylipins play important and diverse functions in the cells. In the current study, expression analysis during cucumber development using semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that 13 of 23 CsLOX genes were detectable, and were tissue specific or preferential accumulation. In total, 12 genes were found to be differentially expressed during fruit development and have different patterns of expression in exocarp, endocarp and pulp at day 5 after anthesis. The expression analysis of these 12 cucumber LOX genes in response to abiotic stresses and plant growth regulator treatments revealed their differential transcript in response to more than one treatment, indicating their diverse functions in abiotic stress and hormone responses. Results suggest that in cucumber the expanded LOX genes may play more diverse roles in life cycle and comprehensive data generated will be helpful in conducting functional genomic studies to understand their precise roles in cucumber fruit development and stress responses.

  5. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the ‘one-hormone hypothesis’, which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified ‘one-hormone hypothesis’ for sex determination in cucumber is proposed. PMID:22577183

  6. Ultraviolet-B Radiation (UV-B) Relieves Chilling-Light-Induced PSI Photoinhibition And Accelerates The Recovery Of CO2 Assimilation In Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Tikkanen, Mikko; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2016-09-30

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is generally considered to negatively impact the photosynthetic apparatus and plant growth. UV-B damages PSII but does not directly influence PSI. However, PSI and PSII successively drive photosynthetic electron transfer, therefore, the interaction between these systems is unavoidable. So we speculated that UV-B could indirectly affect PSI under chilling-light conditions. To test this hypothesis, the cucumber leaves were illuminated by UV-B prior or during the chilling-light treatment, and the leaves were then transferred to 25 °C and low-light conditions for recovery. The results showed that UV-B decreased the electron transfer to PSI by inactivating the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), thereby protecting PSI from chilling-light-induced photoinhibition. This effect advantages the recoveries of PSI and CO2 assimilation after chilling-light stress, therefore should minimize the yield loss caused by chilling-light stress. Because sunlight consists of both UV-B and visible light, we suggest that UV-B-induced OEC inactivation is critical for chilling-light-induced PSI photoinhibition in field. Moreover, additional UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to relieve PSI photoinhibition and yield loss in protected cultivation during winter. This study also demonstrates that minimizing the photoinhibition of PSI rather than that of PSII is essential for the chilling-light tolerance of the plant photosynthetic apparatus.

  7. Ultraviolet-B Radiation (UV-B) Relieves Chilling-Light-Induced PSI Photoinhibition And Accelerates The Recovery Of CO2 Assimilation In Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Tikkanen, Mikko; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is generally considered to negatively impact the photosynthetic apparatus and plant growth. UV-B damages PSII but does not directly influence PSI. However, PSI and PSII successively drive photosynthetic electron transfer, therefore, the interaction between these systems is unavoidable. So we speculated that UV-B could indirectly affect PSI under chilling-light conditions. To test this hypothesis, the cucumber leaves were illuminated by UV-B prior or during the chilling-light treatment, and the leaves were then transferred to 25 °C and low-light conditions for recovery. The results showed that UV-B decreased the electron transfer to PSI by inactivating the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), thereby protecting PSI from chilling-light-induced photoinhibition. This effect advantages the recoveries of PSI and CO2 assimilation after chilling-light stress, therefore should minimize the yield loss caused by chilling-light stress. Because sunlight consists of both UV-B and visible light, we suggest that UV-B-induced OEC inactivation is critical for chilling-light-induced PSI photoinhibition in field. Moreover, additional UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to relieve PSI photoinhibition and yield loss in protected cultivation during winter. This study also demonstrates that minimizing the photoinhibition of PSI rather than that of PSII is essential for the chilling-light tolerance of the plant photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:27686324

  8. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-07-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the 'one-hormone hypothesis', which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified 'one-hormone hypothesis' for sex determination in cucumber is proposed.

  9. [Auxin production by Klebsiella planticola strain TSKhA-91 and Its Effect of development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seeds].

    PubMed

    Blinkov, E A; Tsavkelova, E A; Selitskaia, O V

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of Klebsiella planticola strain TSJhA-91 for synthesis of indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) and other auxins was studied. The qualitative and quantitative composition of these compounds depends on the presence of exogeneous tryptophan and on the nitrogen source. The highest IAA yield was obtained at the stationary phase of growth. Addition of L-tryptophan to the medium resulted in a significant increase (up to 85.5 microg/mL) of auxin biosynthesis, especially in the presence of nitrates. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that the indole-3-acetamide pathway was not active in this strain. The biological activity of auxins was confirmed by plant assay with the kidney bean cuttings; the height of root formation and rdot number increased 16- and 6-fold, respectively. Under conditions of low-temperature stress, protective effect of K. planticola TSKhA-91 on development of cucumbers (Cucumissativus L.) seeds, including stimulation of germi- nation and root formation by its seeds were shown.

  10. A single base substitution in BADH/AMADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and development of SNAP markers for the fragrance.

    PubMed

    Yundaeng, Chutintorn; Somta, Prakit; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chankaew, Sompong; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-09-01

    Sequence analysis revealed that an SNP (A1855G) in CsBADH of cucumber accession PK2011T202 causes amino acid change in a highly conserved motif, Y163C. Gene mapping showed association between the SNP and the fragrance. Pandan-like fragrance is a value-added trait in several food crops such as rice, vegetable soybean and sorghum. The fragrance is caused by the volatile chemical 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Mutation(s) in betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2; also known as aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 2) gene causes defective BADH2 and results in biosynthesis of 2AP. Recently, cucumber cultivars possessing pandan-like fragrance were discovered in Thailand. In this study, we report an association between CsBADH and the fragrance in cucumber accession "PK2011T202". Gene expression analysis of CsBADH in leaves of PK2011T202 and "301176" (non-fragrant) at various growth stages revealed that CsBADH was expressed in both accessions. Sequence comparison of CsBADH showed that PK2011T202 possesses a single base substitution (A1855G) in exon 5 which causes an amino acid change in a highly conserved motif of BADH, Y163C. Single nucleotide-amplified polymorphism markers were developed to detect the SNP polymorphism between the wild-type and fragrance alleles. Since CsBADH is located on chromosome 1, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted for this chromosome using an F2 and a backcross populations developed from the cross between PK2011T202 and 301176. QTL analysis in both populations showed that the major QTL for fragrance, qFgr, was co-localized with the CsBADH. We concluded that the defect function of CsBADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber PK2011T202.

  11. Abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide induce modification of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase from Cucumis sativus L. roots under heat shock.

    PubMed

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna

    2012-11-01

    We examined the effect of heat shock (HS), for 2 h at 48°C, on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PM-H(+)-ATPase) measured as the hydrolytic and H(+)-pumping activity. Some of the plants were transferred after 2 h HS to control temperature for another 24 h, as post-stressed (PS) plants. A significant increase of PM-H(+)-ATPase in plants subjected to HS was observed. The stimulation of PM-H(+)-ATPase was higher in PS plants. Estimation of transcript levels of cucumber PM-H(+)-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of HS affected gene expression levels. Transcript levels of two isoforms, CsHA4 and CsHA8, in PS plants were elevated. The expression of PM-H(+)-ATPase genes was not affected in plants treated for 2 h with HS. HS elevated the endogenous level of abscisic acid (ABA) both in plants treated for 2 h with HS and in PS plants. Moreover, in PS plants, a distinctly higher level of H(2)O(2) was observed. It was also demonstrated that transcript levels of PM-H(+)-ATPase were elevated in cucumber roots after 24-h treatment of plants with ABA or H(2)O(2). Both of these compounds seem to play an important role in increasing ATPase activity during heat stress, because the use of the inhibitors tungstate and DPI restrained stimulation of PM-H(+)-ATPase activity by heat. Moreover, protein blot analysis with an antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM-H(+)-ATPase under HS resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that, under post-heat stress conditions, abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide are involved in PM-ATPase modification, through stimulation of gene expression of that PM proton pump. Moreover, heat treatment of cucumber plants results in increased phosphorylation of PM-ATPase and thus fast post-translational modification, leading to activation of the enzyme protein.

  12. Dark-chilling induces substantial structural changes and modifies galactolipid and carotenoid composition during chloroplast biogenesis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Skupień, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Joanna; Kowalewska, Łucja; Mazur, Radosław; Garstka, Maciej; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Mostowska, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Plants in a temperate climate are often subject to different environmental factors, chilling stress among them, which influence the growth especially during early stages of plant development. Chloroplasts are one of the first organelles affected by the chilling stress. Therefore the proper biogenesis of chloroplasts in early stages of plant growth is crucial for undertaking the photosynthetic activity. In this paper, the analysis of the cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis at different levels of plastid organization was performed in cucumber, one of the most popular chilling sensitive crops. Influence of low temperature on the ultrastructure was manifested by partial recrystallization of the prolamellar body, the formation of elongated grana thylakoids and a change of the prolamellar body structure from the compacted "closed" type to a more loose "open" type. Structural changes are strongly correlated with galactolipid and carotenoid content. Substantial changes in the galactolipid and the carotenoid composition in dark-chilled plants, especially a decrease of the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol to digalactosyldiacylglycerol ratio (MGDG/DGDG) and an increased level of lutein, responsible for a decrease in membrane fluidity, were registered together with a slower adaptation to higher light intensity and an increased level of non-photochemical reactions. Changes in the grana thylakoid fluidity, of their structure and photosynthetic efficiency in developing chloroplasts of dark-chilled plants, without significant changes in the PSI/PSII ratio, could distort the balance of photosystem rearrangements and be one of the reasons of cucumber sensitivity to chilling.

  13. Radiation processing to ensure safety of minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus): optimization of dose for the elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Dhokane, V S; Hajare, S; Shashidhar, R; Sharma, A; Bandekar, J R

    2006-02-01

    Minimally processed vegetables are in demand, because they offer convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe because of possible contamination with pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Shigella species. Therefore, this study was carried out to optimize the radiation dose necessary to ensure the safety of precut carrot and cucumber. Decimal reduction doses (D-values) of Salmonella Typhimurium MTCC 98 were ca. 0.164 kGy in carrot samples and 0.178 kGy in cucumber samples. D-values of Listeria monocytogenes were determined to be 0.312 and 0.345 kGy in carrot and cucumber samples, respectively. Studies of inoculated, packaged, minimally processed carrot and cucumber samples showed that treatment with a 1-kGy dose of gamma radiation eliminated up to 4 log CFU/g of Salmonella Typhimurium and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes. However, treatment with a 2-kGy dose was necessary to eliminate these pathogens by 5 log CFU/g. Storage studies showed that both Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes were able to grow at 10 degrees C in inoculated control samples. Neither of these pathogens could be recovered from radiation-processed samples after storage for up to 8 days.

  14. Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

  15. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse.

  16. Blue light dose–responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light

    PubMed Central

    Hogewoning, Sander W.; Trouwborst, Govert; Maljaars, Hans; Poorter, Hendrik; van Ieperen, Wim; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The blue part of the light spectrum has been associated with leaf characteristics which also develop under high irradiances. In this study blue light dose–response curves were made for the photosynthetic properties and related developmental characteristics of cucumber leaves that were grown at an equal irradiance under seven different combinations of red and blue light provided by light-emitting diodes. Only the leaves developed under red light alone (0% blue) displayed dysfunctional photosynthetic operation, characterized by a suboptimal and heterogeneously distributed dark-adapted Fv/Fm, a stomatal conductance unresponsive to irradiance, and a relatively low light-limited quantum yield for CO2 fixation. Only 7% blue light was sufficient to prevent any overt dysfunctional photosynthesis, which can be considered a qualitatively blue light effect. The photosynthetic capacity (Amax) was twice as high for leaves grown at 7% blue compared with 0% blue, and continued to increase with increasing blue percentage during growth measured up to 50% blue. At 100% blue, Amax was lower but photosynthetic functioning was normal. The increase in Amax with blue percentage (0–50%) was associated with an increase in leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA), nitrogen (N) content per area, chlorophyll (Chl) content per area, and stomatal conductance. Above 15% blue, the parameters Amax, LMA, Chl content, photosynthetic N use efficiency, and the Chl:N ratio had a comparable relationship as reported for leaf responses to irradiance intensity. It is concluded that blue light during growth is qualitatively required for normal photosynthetic functioning and quantitatively mediates leaf responses resembling those to irradiance intensity. PMID:20504875

  17. Effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in Cucumis sativus and its protection by exogenous putrescine.

    PubMed

    Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-Rong; Sun, Jin; Yuan, Ling-Yun

    2012-11-01

    With the objective to clarify the physiological significance of polyamines (PAs) in the photosynthetic apparatus, the present study investigated the effects of salt stress with and without foliar application of putrescine (Put) on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber. Salt stress at 75 mM NaCl for 7 days resulted in a severe reduction of photosynthesis. The fast chlorophyll afluorescence transient analysis showed that salt stress inhibited the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)), mainly due to damage at the receptor side of PSII. In addition, salt stress decreased the density of active reaction centers and the structure performance. The microscopic analysis revealed that salt stress-induced destruction of the chloroplast envelope and increased the number of plastoglobuli along with aberrations in thylakoid membranes. Besides, salt stress caused a decrease in the content of endogenous PAs, conjugated and bound forms of spermidine and spermine in particular, in thylakoid membranes. However, applications of 8 mM Put alleviated the salt stress-mediated decrease in net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and actual efficiency of PSII(Φ(PSII)). Put increased PAs in thylakoid membranes and overcame the damaging effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in salt-stressed plant leaves. Put application to control plants neither increased PAs in thylakoid membranes nor affected photosynthesis. These results indicate that PAs in chloroplasts play crucial roles in protecting the thylakoid membranes against the deleterious influences of salt stress. In addition, the present results point to the probability that the salt-induced dysfunction of photosynthesis is largely attributable to the loss of PAs in the photosynthetic apparatus.

  18. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  19. Selective Th2 Upregulation by Crocus sativus: A Neutraceutical Spice

    PubMed Central

    Bani, Sarang; Pandey, Anjali; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Pathania, Vijaylata; Singh, Bikram

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of an Indian neutraceutical spice, saffron (Crocus sativus) was studied on Th1 and Th2 limbs of the immune system. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus (ACS) at graded dose levels from 1.56–50 mg/kg p.o. potentiated the Th2 response of humoral immunity causing the significant increases in agglutinating antibody titre in mice at a dose of 6.25 mg/kg and an elevation of CD19+ B cells and IL-4 cytokine, a signature cytokine of Th2 pathway. Appreciable elevation in levels of IgG-1 and IgM antibodies of the primary and secondary immune response was observed. However, ACS showed no appreciable expression of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 (growth factor for CD4+ T cells) and IFN-γ (signature cytokine of Th1 response). A significant modulation of immune reactivity was observed in all the animal models used. This paper represents the selective upregulation of the Th2 response of the test material and suggests its use for subsequent selective Th2 immunomodulation. PMID:20953384

  20. Polyphenolics profile and antioxidant properties of Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2012-01-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological properties. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of R. sativus root extracted with solvents of varying polarity were evaluated using different model systems. Polyphenolic content was estimated to be in the range 13.18-63.54 mg g⁻¹ dry weight, with a considerable amount being obtained with polar solvents. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the presence of an array of polyphenolics. Catechin was found to be the most abundant phenolic compound in water extract and sinapic acid, the predominant phenolic compound in methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. The methanolic extract showed significant ferric reducing ability, moderate metal chelating activity and strong radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract could be successfully utilised as an ingredient in functional foods. However, water extract could be more pertinent to human nutrition as it contained a significant amount of catechin, which was comparable to traditional sources like green and black tea.

  1. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  2. Antimicrobial activity, synergism and inhibition of germ tube formation by Crocus sativus-derived compounds against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Simone; Chimenti, Paola; Fazzari, Marina; Granese, Arianna; Angiolella, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The limited arsenal of synthetic antifungal agents and the emergence of resistant Candida strains have prompted the researchers towards the investigation of naturally occurring compounds or their semisynthetic derivatives in order to propose new innovative hit compounds or new antifungal combinations endowed with reduced toxicity. We explored the anti-Candida effects, for the first time, of two bioactive compounds from Crocus sativus stigmas, namely crocin 1 and safranal, and some semisynthetic derivatives of safranal obtaining promising biological results in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum fungicidal concentration (MIC/MFC) values, synergism and reduction in the germ tube formation. Safranal and its thiosemicarbazone derivative 5 were shown to display good activity against Candida spp.

  3. The Effect of Crocus sativus L. and Its Constituents on Memory: Basic Studies and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Memory-related disorders are a common public health issue. Memory impairment is frequent in degenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson disease), cerebral injuries, and schizophrenia. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus and its constituents are implicated in cognition. Here we critically review advances in research of these emerging molecular targets for the treatment of memory disorders, and discuss their advantages over currently used cognitive enhancers as well remaining challenges. Current analysis has shown that C. sativus and its components might be a promising target for cognition impairments. PMID:25713594

  4. Raphanus sativus, Germination, and Inquiry: A Learning Cycle Approach for Novice Experimenters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes open-ended experiments with seeds from the common garden radish (Raphanus sativus). The phases of the 5-E learning cycle--Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and Evaluation--guide this activity series. (Author/MM)

  5. Protective effects of the aqueous extract of Crocus sativus against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, Bahareh; Feriz, Hanieh Moghri; Hariri, Alireza Timcheh; Meybodi, Naser Tayyebi; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the possible protective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of renal calculi. Aqueous extract of saffron (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, daily) was administered intraperitoneally in two regimens of protective or curative, using male Wistar rats. Urolithiasis was induced by ethylene glycol (% 0.75) in drinking water. Urine was collected for biochemical analysis and the kidneys were prepared for total lipid peroxide and histological evaluation. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in an increased urine output, renal excretion of oxalate and decreased excretion of citrate and magnesium. Saffron did not show diuretic effect; however, it significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate in prophylactic (50 and 100 mg/kg) and curative (100 mg/kg) studies. Only the high dose of prophylactic regimen restored citrate concentration of urine. Increased number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits in the kidney tissue of calculogenic rats was significantly reverted by the prophylactic and high dose of curative saffron treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDA, a lipid peroxidation product) in the kidneys was increased following the lithogenic treatment; however, prophylactic (50, 100 mg/kg) and curative (100 mg/kg) regimens with saffron reduced the elevated levels of MDA. Results in the current study indicate that saffron can protect against ethylene glycol induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. The mechanisms underlying this effect are mediated possibly through effect on the urinary concentration of stone-forming constituents and an antioxidant effect.

  6. Adsorption of cadmium on husk of Lathyrus sativus: physico-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Panda, G C; Das, S K; Chatterjee, S; Maity, P B; Bandopadhyay, T S; Guha, A K

    2006-06-01

    Adsorption of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution by low-cost biosorbents was investigated. Husk of Lathyrus sativus (HLS) was found to be the most efficient in this respect and removed approximately 95% of the metal. The influence of pH, temperature, contact time and metal ion concentration on the adsorption process by HLS was studied. Hydrogen ion concentration of the solution greatly influenced the process with an optimum at pH 5.0-6.0, whereas temperature had no significant effect. The process was very fast and more than 90% of the total adsorption took place within the first 5 min and was found to follow pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The adsorption data can better be explained by Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum adsorption capacity was 35 mg/g of HLS at pH 5.0 and 30 degrees C. Scanning electron micrographs showed that cadmium was present as micro precipitate on the surface of the adsorbent. Cadmium replaced calcium of the biomass as revealed from the EDX analysis indicating that the adsorption proceeds through ion exchange mechanism. Cadmium could be desorbed from the loaded biomass by lowering pH approximately 1.0 with mineral acid.

  7. Influence of culinary processing time on saffron's bioactive compounds (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Neira, Lidia; Lage-Yusty, María Asunción; López-Hernández, Julia

    2014-12-01

    Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is used as a condiment spice. The major bioactive compounds are crocins, picrocrocin and safranal, which are responsible for the sensory profile of saffron (color, flavor and aroma, respectively), and also health-promoting properties. In this paper, the effect on the bioactive compounds of different cooking times in boiling water at 100 °C in samples of Saffron from La Mancha (safranal, picrocrocin, trans-crocin 4, cis-crocin 4 and trans-crocin 3) was investigated. Performance characteristics of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Variable Wavelength Detector method, parameters of linearity, limits of detection and quantification are reported. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array-Mass Spectrometry was used as a confirmatory technique in crocins identification. When the samples are subjected to different cooking times, they present different behaviors, depending on the bioactive compound. In this way, no changes were observed in the concentration of picrocrocin, while heat culinary treatment adversely affects the concentrations of crocins and safranal.

  8. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Shariatifar, Nabi; Shoeibi, Shahram; Sani, Moslem Jaferi; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein; Zarei, Ali; Mehdizade, Abbas; Dadgarnejad, Manouchehr

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW) and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally), a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  9. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-02

    Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus) commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  10. Razi's Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi's Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  11. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma by exposure to Lathyrus sativus flour.

    PubMed

    Antón Gironés, M; de la Hoz Caballer, B; Muñoz Martín, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Sánchez-Cano, M

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old non-smoking man, who had worked as a carpenter for 6 years and who reported a history of rhinorrhea, paroxysmal sneezing, nasocular pruritus, lacrimation, wheezing and dyspnea attacks while preparing a mixture to seal the junctures between wooden panels. Allergy study consisted of skin prick testing (SPT) to inhalants, foods and Lathyrus sativus flour (LSF) extract, specific bronchial provocation test with LSF extract, cytological analysis of sputum, specific IgE antibodies against LSF, and histamine releasing test with dilutions (1:5, 1:25, 1:125, 1:625) of LSF. The results demonstrated occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to LSF exposure. We provide a review of published reports to date.

  12. Analysis of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Chen, X; Hu, Z; Li, Q; Chen, Q; Li, Z

    1999-10-01

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus (LS; grass pea). A new Na2B4O7-Na2SO4 run buffer was used and the pH was 9.20, contents of beta-ODAP and homoarginine in crude extracts of LS plant material were determined with this method, the RSDs of peak areas of beta-ODAP and homoarginine were 2.62% and 3.61%, respectively. It was found that the equilibrium concentration ratio of alpha- and beta-ODAP decreased from 34.5/65.5 to 28.6/71.4 when the pH of the solution increased from pH 3.0 to pH 11.0.

  13. Interaction of Brassinosteroids and Polyamines Enhances Copper Stress Tolerance in Raphanus Sativus

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H2O2, comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored. PMID:22915739

  14. Interaction of brassinosteroids and polyamines enhances copper stress tolerance in raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Oral, H Volkan; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H(2)O(2), comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored.

  15. Identification of a New Antibacterial Sulfur Compound from Raphanus sativus Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Yazbak, Ahmad; Rushrush, Salwa; Rudy, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish), a member of Brassicaceae, is widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of several diseases and disorders associated with microbial infections. The antibacterial activity of the different plant parts has been mainly attributed to several isothiocyanate (ITC) compounds. However, the low correlation between the ITC content and antibacterial activity suggests the involvement of other unknown compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potential of red radish seeds and identify the active compounds. A crude ethanol seed extract was prepared and its antibacterial activity was tested against five medically important bacteria. The ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of all tested strains. However, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract followed by HPLC, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 15N-NMR, and HMBC analysis revealed that the active fraction consisted of a single new compound identified as [5-methylsulfinyl-1-(4-methylsulfinyl-but-3-enyl)-pent-4-enylidene]-sulfamic acid, which consisted of two identical sulfur side chains similar to those found in ITCs. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of the isolated compound were in the range of 0.5–1 mg/mL. These results further highlight the role of radish as a rich source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:27781070

  16. Transcriptome sequencing for SNP discovery across Cucumis melo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a highly diverse species that is cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing have begun to allow the study of nucleotide diversity in this species. The Sanger method combined with medium-throughput 454 technology were used in a previous study to analyze the genetic diversity of germplasm representing 3 botanical varieties, yielding a collection of about 40,000 SNPs distributed in 14,000 unigenes. However, the usefulness of this resource is limited as the sequenced genotypes do not represent the whole diversity of the species, which is divided into two subspecies with many botanical varieties variable in plant, flowering, and fruit traits, as well as in stress response. As a first step to extensively document levels and patterns of nucleotide variability across the species, we used the high-throughput SOLiD™ system to resequence the transcriptomes of a set of 67 genotypes that had previously been selected from a core collection representing the extant variation of the entire species. Results The deep transcriptome resequencing of all of the genotypes, grouped into 8 pools (wild African agrestis, Asian agrestis and acidulus, exotic Far Eastern conomon, Indian momordica and Asian dudaim and flexuosus, commercial cantalupensis, subsp. melo Asian and European landraces, Spanish inodorus landraces, and Piel de Sapo breeding lines) yielded about 300 M reads. Short reads were mapped to the recently generated draft genome assembly of the DHL line Piel de Sapo (inodorus) x Songwhan Charmi (conomon) and to a new version of melon transcriptome. Regions with at least 6X coverage were used in SNV calling, generating a melon collection with 303,883 variants. These SNVs were dispersed across the entire C. melo genome, and distributed in 15,064 annotated genes. The number and variability of in silico SNVs differed considerably between pools. Our finding of higher genomic diversity in wild and exotic agrestis melons

  17. Employment of pumpkin (Cucumis melo) urease entrapped in alginate beads for quantitation of cadmium in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Talat, Mahe

    2008-10-01

    The potential of employment of free as well as alginate-immobilized urease for the quantitation of cadmium (Cd(2+)) was explored. Urease from the seeds of pumpkin (Cucumis melo) was purified to apparent homogeneity by heat treatment at 48 +/- 0.1 degrees C and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme exhibited a single band on native PAGE under coomassie brilliant blue and silver staining. The enzyme entrapped in 3.5% alginate beads (with 86% immobilization) exhibited no leaching over a period of 15 days at 4 degrees C. Urease-catalyzed urea hydrolysis by both soluble and immobilized enzyme revealed a dependence on the inhibitor concentration. The inhibition caused by Cd(2+) was non-competitive and the interaction of Cd(2+) with the enzyme was irreversible as the activity could not be restored by dialysis. The time-dependent inhibition both in the presence and in absence of substrate revealed a biphasic inhibition of the activity. The significance of the results is discussed.

  18. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    PubMed

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  19. The contents of the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid), and other free and protein amino acids in the seeds of different genotypes of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Fikre, Asnake; Korbu, Lijalem; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Lambein, Fernand

    2008-09-15

    The free and protein amino acids of nine different genotypes of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds were analysed by HPLC with pre-column PITC (phenyl isothiocyanate) derivatisation. Among the free amino acids, homoarginine was quantitatively the most important (up to 0.8% seed weight) and stable while the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) showed highest variation (0.02-0.54%) in the nine genotypes examined. Among protein amino acids, glutamic acid was quantitatively most significant, followed by aspartic acid, arginine, leucine, lysine and proline. The sulphur amino acid, methionine, showed the lowest concentration in all the L. sativus genotypes, and also in lentil (Lens culinaris) and in soybean (Glycine max) seeds analysed at the same time.

  20. Neuropharmacological Aspects of Crocus sativus L.: A Review of Preclinical Studies and Ongoing Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Singh, Damanpreet

    2015-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) is an important member of the genus Crocus having high medicinal value. Its dried stigmas, known as "saffron" are being widely used form past many centuries as a food additive, coloring agent, flavoring agent and a potential source of traditional medicine. The stigmas along with other botanical parts of Crocus sativus are being extensively used in ethnomedical treatment of varied central nervous system diseases. In line with its ethnomedical importance, several preclinical studies have been carried out to validate its traditional uses, identify active principle(s), understand pharmacological basis of therapeutic action and explore novel medicinal uses. The bioactive components of Crocus sativus have been found to modulate several synaptic processes via direct/indirect interplay with neurotransmitter receptor functions, interaction with neuronal death/survival pathways and alteration in neuronal proteins expression. Many clinical studies proving beneficial effect of Crocus sativus in depressive disorders, Alzheimer's disease and some other neurological abnormalities have also been carried out. Based on the vast literature reports available, an attempt has been made to comprehend the fragmented information on neuropharmacological aspects, chemistry and safety of Crocus sativus. Although the plant has been well explored, but still a large scope of future preclinical and clinical research exist to explore its potential in neurological diseases, that has been discussed in depth in the present review.

  1. Effect of copper on pro- and antioxidative reactions in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lukatkin, Alexander; Egorova, Irina; Michailova, Irina; Malec, Przemysław; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The generation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxidation (as measured by malone dialdehyde formation) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) were assessed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), in response to elevated concentrations of copper ions in the culture medium in vitro and in vivo. Experiments were performed on 7-day-old seedlings and 5-week-old calluses grown on media supplemented with CuSO4 in concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000μМ. The exposure to elevated Cu concentrations in the medium significantly reduced both callogenesis and the proliferation of radish calluses in vitro. Cu treatment resulted in the increased generation of the superoxide radical (O2(-)) in radish seedlings and calluses indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in radish cells, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained unchanged. Both in calluses and in radish seedlings in vivo, the relative level of oxidative stress was maximal at micromolar Cu concentrations and became attenuated with increasing Cu concentrations. Stronger oxidative stress occurred in the radish seedlings in vivo, compared with radish calluses in vitro. The observed lower sensitivity of calluses to Cu-induced oxidative stress and their ability to proliferate upon exposure to Cu concentrations of up to 1000μМ demonstrate the potential of in vitro cell-selection to obtain metal-tolerant radish plant lines.

  2. Divergence between C. melo and African Cucumis Species Identified by Chromosome Painting and rDNA Distribution Pattern.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunpeng; Wang, Huaisong; Wang, Jiming; Sun, Jianying; Li, Zongyun; Han, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    The 5S and 45S rDNA sites are useful chromosome landmarks and can provide valuable information about karyotype evolution and species interrelationships. In this study, we employed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the number and chromosomal location of 5S and 45S rDNA loci in 8 diploid Cucumis species. Two oligonucleotide painting probes specific for the rDNA-bearing chromosomes in C. melo were hybridized to other Cucumis species in order to investigate the homeologies among the rDNA-carrying chromosomes in Cucumis species. The analyzed diploid species showed 3 types of rDNA distribution patterns, which provided clear cytogenetic evidence on the divergence between C. melo and wild diploid African Cucumis species. The present results not only show species interrelationships in the genus Cucumis, but the rDNA FISH patterns can also be used as cytological markers for the discrimination of closely related species. The data will be helpful for breeders to choose the most suitable species from various wild species for improvement of cultivated melon.

  3. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, N; Boultadakis, A; Georgiadou, G; Tarantilis, P A; Sakellaridis, N

    2008-12-01

    Crocus sativus L. is a plant cultivated in various parts of the world. Crocins are among the active components of Crocus sativus L. The present study was designed to investigate in the rat whether or not crocins possess anxiolytic properties. For this aim, the light/dark test was selected. Either crocins, at a dose which did not influence animals' motor activity (50mg/kg), or diazepam (1.5 mg/kg), significantly increased the latency to enter the dark compartment and prolonged the time spent in the lit chamber in the rats. Conversely, lower doses of crocins (15-30 mg/kg) did not substantially modify animals' behaviour. The present results indicate that treatment with these active constituents of Crocus sativus L. induce anxiolytic-like effects in the rat.

  4. Green Route for Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis by Raphanus Sativus Extract in a Continuous Flow Tubular Microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolhe, P. D.; Bhanvase, B. A.; Patil, V. S.; Sonawane, S. H.

    The present work deals with the investigation of the greener route for the production of silver nanoparticles using Raphanus sativus (R. sativus) bioextract in a continuous flow tubular microreactor. The parameters affecting the particle size and distribution were investigated. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the ascorbic acid (reducing agent) present in the R. sativus bioextract is responsible for the reduction of silver ions. At optimum condition, the particle size distribution of nanoparticles is found between 18nm and 39nm. The absorbance value was found to be decreased with an increase in the diameter of the microreactor. It indicates that a number of nuclei are formed in the micrometer sized (diameter) reactor because of the better solute transfer rate leading to the formation of large number of silver nanoparticles. The study of antibacterial activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles shows effective inhibitory activity against waterborne pathogens, Shegella and Listeria bacteria.

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Arash; Riahinia, Narges; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Behdani, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24) were randomly assigned into four groups including: I) healthy, receiving normal saline; II) Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg); III) pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg); IV) pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg). Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats. PMID:25386395

  6. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have emerged as major environmental contaminants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of heavy metal like chromium (Cr) on man, animals and plants have been documented. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond critical levels generates oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by antioxidant defence system and stress shielding phytohormones. Thus, the present study has been focused to analyze the effect of one of imperative group of plant hormones, i.e., brassinosteroids (BRs) which have been reported for its protective properties for wide array of environmental stresses. Raphanus sativus L. (Pusa Chetaki) seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) were raised under various concentrations of Cr(VI). It was observed that 28-HBL treatment considerably reduced the impact of Cr-stress on seedlings which was evinced upon analysis of morphological and biochemical parameters of 7-days old radish seedlings. The toxic effects of Cr in terms of reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll (Chl), protein, proline; increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and elevated metal uptake were ameliorated by applications of 28-HBL. Also, the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes except guaiacol peroxidase (POD), increased significantly when subjected to Cr stress in combination with 28-HBL. Overall, seed pre-soaking treatment of 28-HBL at 10(-7) M was most effective in ameliorating Cr stress. The present work emphasizes the protective role of 28-HBL on regulation of antioxidant enzymes and its possible link in amelioration of stress in plants.

  7. An EST-SSR linkage map of Raphanus sativus and comparative genomics of the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Oyama, Maki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Fujioka, Takashi; Kimizuka-Takagi, Chiaki; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kato, Midori; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Takahashi, Chika; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Wada, Tsuyuko; Sakai, Takako; Isobe, Sachiko

    2011-08-01

    Raphanus sativus (2n = 2x = 18) is a widely cultivated member of the family Brassicaceae, for which genomic resources are available only to a limited extent in comparison to many other members of the family. To promote more genetic and genomic studies and to enhance breeding programmes of R. sativus, we have prepared genetic resources such as complementary DNA libraries, expressed sequences tags (ESTs), simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and a genetic linkage map. A total of 26 606 ESTs have been collected from seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowers, and clustered into 10 381 unigenes. Similarities were observed between the expression patterns of transcripts from R. sativus and those from representative members of the genera Arabidopsis and Brassica, indicating their functional relatedness. The EST sequence data were used to design 3800 SSR markers and consequently 630 polymorphic SSR loci and 213 reported marker loci have been mapped onto nine linkage groups, covering 1129.2 cM with an average distance of 1.3 cM between loci. Comparison of the mapped EST-SSR marker positions in R. sativus with the genome sequence of A. thaliana indicated that the Brassicaceae members have evolved from a common ancestor. It appears that genomic fragments corresponding to those of A. thaliana have been doubled and tripled in R. sativus. The genetic map developed here is expected to provide a standard map for the genetics, genomics, and molecular breeding of R. sativus as well as of related species. The resources are available at http://marker.kazusa.or.jp/Daikon.

  8. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-04-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.

  9. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi; Shahabian, Masoud; Esmaeili, Habib-Allah; Rajbai, Omid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2008-12-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of a 1 week treatment of saffron tablets. Volunteers were divided into 3 groups of 10 each (5 males and 5 females). Group I received placebo; groups 2 and 3 received 200 and 400mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days. General measures of health were recorded during the study such as hematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic parameters done in pre- and post-treatment periods. Clinical examination showed no gross changes in all volunteers after intervention. Saffron with higher dose (400mg) decreased standing systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures significantly. Saffron decreased slightly some hematological parameters such as red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. Saffron increased sodium, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. This study showed that saffron tablets may change some hematological and biochemical parameters. However, these alterations were in normal ranges and they were not important clinically.

  10. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prasan R

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; fān hóng huā) has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  11. Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zareena, A V; Variyar, P S; Gholap, A S; Bongirwar, D R

    2001-02-01

    Changes in aroma and coloring properties of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy (necessary for microbial decontamination) were investigated. The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for aroma of the spice were isolated by steam distillation and then subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). No significant qualitative changes were observed in these constituents upon irradiation, although a trained sensory panel could detect slight quality deterioration at a dose of 5 kGy. Carotene glucosides that impart color to the spice were isolated by solvent extraction and then subjected to thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of the above pigments into aglycon and glucosides was achieved by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Analysis of these fractions by HPLC revealed a decrease in glucosides and an increase in aglycon content in irradiated samples. The possibility of degradation of pigments during gamma irradiation is discussed.

  12. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. PMID:24761112

  13. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified.

  14. A new indole glycoside from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Lee, Dong-Sung; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2016-06-01

    A new indole glycoside, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2-(methylthio)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, named raphanuside A (1), as well as eight known compounds, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (2), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (4), (3,4-O-disinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (8) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (9) were isolated from the seeds of Raphanus sativus. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 and 6-9, were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of compounds 1-9 were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activity of these isolated compounds against interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cells was also examined.

  15. Uptake, transport and transformation of arsenate in radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paula G; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2008-02-01

    The localization and identification of arsenic compounds in terrestrial plants are important for the understanding of arsenic uptake, transformation and translocation within these organisms, and contributes to our understanding of arsenic cycling in the environment. High performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis identified arsenite, arsenate and arsenic(III)-sulphur compounds in leaf, stem and root sections of Rhaphanus sativus (radish) plants grown in both arsenic contaminated mine waste, and arsenic amended liquid cultures. The total arsenic distribution was similar between the plants grown in mine waste and those grown hydroponically. Arsenate was the predominant form of arsenic available in the growth mediums, and after it was taken up by roots, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) imaging indicated that some of the arsenate was transported to the shoots via the xylem. Additionally, arsenate was reduced by the plant and arsenic(III)-sulphur compound(s) accounted for the majority of arsenic in the leaf and stem of living plants. In this study the application of synchrotron techniques permitted the identification of arsenic(III)-sulphur species which were "invisible" to conventional HPLC-ICP-MS analysis.

  16. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul R; Barnes, David M

    2011-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. Practical Application: Understanding the influence variety and developmental stage has on the biological activity of cruciferous vegetables provides important information for further studies examining the in vivo effects of radish treatment and foundation for providing recommendations to reduce the risk of chronic disease through dietary intervention.

  17. Brachypodium distachyon-Cochliobolus sativus Pathosystem is a New Model for Studying Plant-Fungal Interactions in Cereal Crops.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shaobin; Ali, Shaukat; Leng, Yueqiang; Wang, Rui; Garvin, David F

    2015-04-01

    Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana) causes spot blotch, common root rot, and kernel blight or black point in barley and wheat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. sativus or the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility in the hosts. This study aims to establish the model grass Brachypodium distachyon as a new model for studying plant-fungus interactions in cereal crops. Six B. distachyon lines were inoculated with five C. sativus isolates. The results indicated that all six B. distachyon lines were infected by the C. sativus isolates, with their levels of resistance varying depending on the fungal isolates used. Responses ranging from hypersensitive response-mediated resistance to complete susceptibility were observed in a large collection of B. distachyon (2n=2x=10) and B. hybridum (2n=4x=30) accessions inoculated with four of the C. sativus isolates. Evaluation of an F2 population derived from the cross between two of the B. distachyon lines, Bd1-1 and Bd3-1, with isolate Cs07-47-1 showed quantitative and transgressive segregation for resistance to C. sativus, suggesting that the resistance may be governed by quantitative trait loci from both parents. The availability of whole-genome sequences of both the host (B. distachyon) and the pathogen (C. sativus) makes this pathosystem an attractive model for studying this important disease of cereal crops.

  18. USDA, ARS EOM 402-10 high B-carotene cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high B-carotene cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 is being released. This line was derived from a cross between the "Xishuangbanna gourd" (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) that bears orange fruit and the non-orange-fruited cultivated c...

  19. In vitro development of microcorms and stigma like structures in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mir, Javid Iqbal; Ahmed, Nazeer; Wani, Shabir H; Rashid, Rizwan; Mir, Hidayatullah; Sheikh, Muneer A

    2010-12-01

    Saffron is an important spice derived from the stigmas of Crocus sativus, a species belonging to the family Iridaceae. Due to its triploid nature it is sterile and is not able to set seeds, so it is propagated only by corms. The natural propagation rate of most geophytes including saffron is relatively low. An in vitro multiplication technique like micropropagation has been used for the propagation of saffron. In the present study, various explants were cultured on different nutrient media supplemented with various concentrations of plant growth regulators to standardize the best media combination for obtaining optimum response with respect to corm production and development of Stigma Like Structures (SLS). Highest response (60 %) was observed with half ovaries on G-5 media supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA followed by 55 % on LS media with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA. Maximum size (1.3 g) of microcorms were obtained from apical buds on the LS media supplemented with 21.6 μM NAA and 22.2 μM. Stigma Like Structures were developed from half ovary explants both directly and indirectly. Maximum number (120 indirectly and 20 directly) and size (5.2 cm) of SLS were obtained in G-5 medium supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA followed by 100 indirectly and 20 directly and 4.5 cm long on LS medium supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA.

  20. The effect of the extract of Crocus sativus and its constituent safranal, on lung pathology and lung inflammation of ovalbumin sensitized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, M H; Tabatabaee, A; Byrami, G

    2012-07-15

    Different pharmacological effects of Crocus sativus have been demonstrated on guinea pig tracheal chains in previous studies. In the present study, the prophylactic effect of the extract of C. sativus and its constituent, safranal on lung pathology and total and differential white blood cells (WBC) of sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Guinea pigs were sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA). One group of sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S) and three groups were given drinking water containing three concentrations of safranal (S+SA1, S+SA2 and S+SA3 groups), three groups, drinking water containing three concentrations of extract (S+CS1, S+CS2 and S+CS3 groups) and one group drinking water containing one concentration of dexamethasone (S+D group) (n=6, for all groups). The lung pathology was evaluated in control, non treated and treated sensitized groups. Total and differential WBC counts of lung lavage were also examined. All pathological indices in group S showed significant increased compared to control group (p<0.05 for lung congestion and p<0.001 for other groups). Total WBC number (p<0.001), eosinophyl percentage (p<0.001) in lung lavage and serum histamine levels (p<0.01) were also increased in sensitized animals compared to those of controls. Treatment of S animals with dexamethasone, all concentrations of the extract and safranal significantly improved lung pathological changes, most types of WBC and serum histamine levels compared to group S (p<0.05-0.001). Treatment of S group with first concentration of safranal also decreased total WBC. Treatment with safranal was more effective in improvement of most pathological changes, total and differential WBC count as well as serum histamine level (p<0.05-0.001). These results showed a preventive effect of the extract of C. sativus and its constituent safranal on lung inflammation of sensitized guinea pigs. The results also showed that the effect of the plant is

  1. Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2013-12-01

    Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant.

  2. Can Saffron (Crocus sativus) be effective in the treatment of leishmaniasis?

    PubMed

    Bagherani, Nooshin

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of some sandfly species. It is endemic in 88 countries throughout the world. Pentavalent antimonials are the standard therapy for leismaniasis. Saffron (crocus sativus) belongs to the iridaceae family. This paper will outline the benefits and challenges of repurposing saffron for treating leishmaniasis.

  3. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  4. RNA-mediated Gene Silencing in the Cereal Fungal Pathogen Cochliobolus sativus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana) is the causal agent of spot blotch, common root rot and black point in barley and wheat. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity and virulence of the pathogen. In this study, we developed a high-throughput RNA-...

  5. Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-09-01

    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated by its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma. The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in C. sativus are crocetin, its glucoside derivatives, crocins, and picrocrocin, all of which increased as stigmas reached a fully developed stage. After anthesis, and in the absence of fertilization, the flower enters in a senescence programme, which represents the ultimate stage of floral development and results in wilting of whole flower. The programmed senescence of flowers allows the removal of a metabolically active tissue. We studied the composition of saffron apocarotenoids during the senescence of C. sativus flowers, and observed that changes in crocins were due to their transport from the senescent stigma to the ovaries and the developing corm. Afterwards, deglucosylation of crocins in these tissues results in crocetin accumulation. This mobilization mimics the export to storage cells (resorbed) of different compounds during leaf senescence avoiding loss of nutrients in leaves that would otherwise be cycled back into the soil system through leaf litter decomposition. In C. sativus, the resorbed apocarotenoids are stored within the developing corm, where they are not further detected in the advanced stages of development, suggesting that they are metabolized during the early and active phases of corm development, where the glucose molecules from crocins might contribute to cell initiation and elongation.

  6. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

    PubMed

    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  7. Response of cucurbit rootstocks for grafted melon (Cucumis melo) to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are an important re-emerging pest of melon (Cucumis melo), due largely to the loss of methyl bromide as a pre-plant soil fumigant. Melon is highly susceptible to southern RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, which causes severe root galling and reduced melon fruit yields. Cucurbit...

  8. Snapmelon (Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis var. momordica), indigenous cucurbitaceous vegetable species from India with immense breeding value: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snapmelon (Cucumis melo L. Momordica Group; 2n = 2x = 24) is native to India, where it is widely cultivated and is commonly called ‘phut,’ which means to split. Immature fruits are cooked or eaten raw. In this paper we review the wealth of genetic resources in Indian snapmelon landraces for resistan...

  9. Snapmelon (Cucumis melo L. Momordica group), an indigenous cucurbit from India with immense value for melon breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snapmelon [Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis var. momordica (Roxb.) Duthie et Fuller] is native to India, where it is cultivated in various states, and is commonly called ‘phut,’ which means to split. Immature fruits are cooked or eaten raw. In this paper we review the wealth of genetic resources in I...

  10. Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone attenuates genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route, tested in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomie, Ganngam; Sahu, Hrushi K; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

    2016-08-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellularly from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using kernel extract from ripe mango Mengifera indica L. under four different reaction conditions of the synthesis media such as the (i) absence of the reducing agent, trisodium citrate (AgNPI), (ii) presence of the reducing agent (AgNPII), (iii) presence of the cleansing agent, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP (AgNPIII), and (iv) presence of the capping agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP (AgNPIV). The synthesis of the AgNPs was monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The AgNPs were characterised by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Functional groups on the AgNPs were established by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs (AgNPI, AgNPII, AgNPIII and AgNPIV) were spherical in shape with the diameters and size distribution-widths of 14.0±5.4, 19.2±6.6, 18.8±6.6 and 44.6±13.2nm, respectively. Genotoxicity of the AgNPs at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100mgL(-1) was determined by the Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay and several endpoint assays including the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death, lipid peroxidation, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus formation (MN), and DNA damage as determined by the Comet assay. The dose-dependent induction of genotoxicity of the silver ion (Ag(+)) and AgNPs was in the order Ag(+)>AgNPII>AgNPI>AgNPIV>AgNPIII that corresponded with their relative potencies of induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the findings underscored the CA and MN endpoint-based genotoxicity assay which demonstrated the genotoxicity of AgNPs at concentrations (≤10mgL(-1)) lower than that (≥10mgL(-1)) tested in the Comet assay. This study demonstrated the protective action of PVPP against the genotoxicity of AgNPIII which was independent of the size of the AgNPs in the L. sativus L. root bioassay

  11. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  12. Genotoxicity of ferric oxide nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus: Deciphering the role of signaling factors, oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Quaiser; Faisal, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ansari, Sabiha M; Alwathnani, Hend A; Okla, Mohammad K; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Praveen, Shelly; Khan, Shams T; Wahab, Rizwan; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) in Raphanus sativus (radish). Fe2O3-NPs retarded the root length and seed germination in radish. Ultrathin sections of treated roots showed subcellular localization of Fe2O3-NPs, along with the appearance of damaged mitochondria and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Fe2O3-NPs (1.0mg/mL) treated groups exhibited 219.5%, 161%, 120.4% and 161.4% increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) influx in radish protoplasts. A concentration dependent increase in the antioxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been recorded. Comet assay showed a concentration dependent increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in Fe2O3-NPs treated groups. Cell cycle analysis revealed 88.4% of cells in sub-G1 apoptotic phase, suggesting cell death in Fe2O3-NPs (2.0mg/mL) treated group. Taking together, the genotoxicity induced by Fe2O3-NPs highlights the importance of environmental risk associated with improper disposal of nanoparticles (NPs) and radish can serve as a good indicator for measuring the phytotoxicity of NPs grown in NP-polluted environment.

  13. Efficacy of Crocus sativus L. on reduction of cadmium-induced toxicity on spermatogenesis in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yari, A; Sarveazad, A; Asadi, E; Raouf Sarshoori, J; Babahajian, A; Amini, N; Amidi, F; Bahadoran, H; Joghataei, M T; Asadi, M H; Shams, A

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal element, which probably cause infertility by impairment in spermatogenesis. The present work aimed (i) to study the toxic effect of cadmium on spermatogenesis in rat, as well as (ii) the protective effect of Crocus sativus L. on cadmium-intoxicated rats. Cadmium chloride was administered intraperitoneally during 16 days at intervals of 48 h between subsequent treatments. Crocus sativus L. was pre-treated in both of control and cadmium-injected rats. Animals were sacrificed on day 17 after the first treatment. The left cauda epididymis was removed and immediately immersed into Hank's balanced salt solution for the evaluation of sperm count and viability, and left testis was fixed in 10% formalin for histological evaluation. Following contamination with cadmium, a decrease was observed in the number and viability of cauda epididymis sperm, which were increased by Crocus sativus L. pre-treatment (P < 0.05). In addition, cadmium decreased both cell proliferation and Johnsen Scores in the seminiferous tubules, which were reversed by Crocus sativus pre-treatment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, cadmium-induced decrease in the amount of free serum testosterone as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation activity in the testicular tissue was reversed by Crocus sativus L. (P < 0.05). These findings may support the concept that Crocus sativus L. can improve the cadmium toxicity on spermatogenesis.

  14. Kaiware Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) extract: a naturally multipotent chemopreventive agent.

    PubMed

    Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Papi, Alessio; Orlandi, Marina; Bartolini, Giovanna; Gabbanini, Simone; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca

    2008-09-10

    Brassica vegetables are attracting major attention as healthy foods because of their content of glucosinolates (GLs) that release the corresponding isothiocyanates (ITCs) upon myrosinase hydrolysis. A number of studies have so far documented the chemopreventive properties of some ITCs. On the other hand, single nutrients detached from the food itself risk being somewhat "reductive", since plants contain several classes of compounds endowed with a polyhedral mechanism of action. Our recent finding that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRH-ITC) and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRE-ITC), released by the GLs purified from Japanese (Kaiware) Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds and sprouts, had selective cytotoxic/apoptotic activity on three human colon carcinoma cell lines prompted further research on the potential chemopreventive role of a standardized Kaiware Daikon extract (KDE), containing 10.5% w/w GRH and 3.8% w/w GRE, compared to its isolated components. KDE administered in combination with myrosinase at doses corresponding to 50 microM GRH-ITC plus 15 microM GRE-ITC (50 microM KDE-ITC) to three human cancer cell lines (LoVo, HCT-116 and HT-29) significantly reduced cell growth by 94-96% of control in six days (p < 0.05), outperforming pure GRH-ITC or GRE-ITC at the same dose. On the other hand, the same treatment had no significant toxicity on normal human T-lymphocytes. A 50 microM concentration of KDE-ITC had relevant apoptosis induction in all tested cancer cell lines, as confirmed by annexin V assay (e.g., 33% induction in LoVo compared to control, p < 0.05), Bax protein induction (e.g., +20% in HT-29, p < 0.05), and Bcl2 downregulation (e.g.-20% in HT-29, p < 0.05), and induced caspase-1 and PARP-1 activation in all cancer cells as shown by Western blot analysis. Unlike pure GRH or GRH-ITC, KDE also had significant chain-breaking antioxidant activity, retarding the AAPH-initiated autoxidation of methyl linoleate in SDS micelles at

  15. Green synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extract of anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Devi, V.; Adavallan, K.; Saranya, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we have explored anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus (saffron) as a reducing agent for one pot size controlled green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) at ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. The prepared AuNPs showed surface Plasmon resonance centered at 549 nm with average particle size of 15±5 nm. Stable, spherical and triangular crystalline AuNPs with well-defined dimensions were synthesized using anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus (saffron). Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the HR-TEM, SAED and SEM images, and XRD patterns. From the FTIR spectra it is found that the biomolecules are responsible for capping in gold nanoparticles.

  16. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Lathyrus sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Insaf A.; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2006-09-01

    A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of L. sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of Lathyrus sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence showed significant homology with the 2S albumin class of seed storage proteins. The protein showed 85% sequence homology with the seed albumin of Pisum sativum within the 40 N-terminal residues. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 82.7, c = 153.4 Å.

  17. New sources of resistance to leafminers (Liriomyza sativae) in melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Celin, E F; Oliveira, F I C; Dias-Pini, N S; Nunes, G H S; Aragão, F A S

    2017-04-05

    Leafminers (Liriomyza sativae) are the main melon (Cucumis melo L.) pests in Northeast Brazil, which is the main region for the production and export of the fruit in Brazil. Of the integrated management strategies available, genetic resistance is the best method of preventing damage by these insects. The aim of this study was to select sources of resistance to leafminers in melon germplasm. Seven experiments were conducted in the laboratory, field, and greenhouse, with and without choice, using 52 melon accessions and 4 commercial hybrids as controls. Genetic variability among the accessions made it possible to select four new sources of resistance: 'CNPH 11-1072' and 'CNPH 11-1077', because they exhibited lower levels of infestation by the insect (antixenosis); and 'CNPH 00-915(R)' and 'BAGMEL 56(R)', because the pest larvae died soon after beginning to feed on the leaf mesophyll (antibiosis).

  18. An experimental design approach to the chemical characterisation of pectin polysaccharides extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus.

    PubMed

    Denman, Laura J; Morris, Gordon A

    2015-03-06

    Extracted pectins have been utilised in a number of applications in both the food and pharmaceutical industries where they are generally used as gelling agents, thickeners and stabilisers, although a number of pectins have been shown to be bioactive. These functional properties will depend upon extraction conditions. A statistical experimental design approach was used to study the effects of extraction conditions pH, time and temperature on pectins extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus. The results show that the chemical composition is very sensitive to these conditions and that this has a great influence on for example the degree of branching. Higher temperatures, lower pHs and longer extraction times lead to a loss of the more acid labile arabinofuranose residues present on the pectin side chain. The fitting of regression equations relating yield and composition to extraction conditions can therefore lead to tailor-made pectins for specific properties and/or applications.

  19. Flavour profiles of three novel acidic varieties of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Lignou, Stella; Parker, Jane K; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S

    2013-08-15

    Novel acidic varieties of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) are emerging onto the UK market. These melons contain almost twice the amount of citric acid compared to standard melons and are described as 'zesty and fresh'. This study compared the flavour components of three acidic varieties with a standard Galia-type melon. The volatile and semivolatile compounds were extracted, using dynamic headspace extraction (DHE) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solid phase extraction (SPE), respectively, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). More than 50 volatile and 50 semivolatile compounds were identified in the headspace and the SPE extracts, respectively. GC-O revealed 15 odour-active components in the headspace, with esters being consistently higher in the acidic variety. This study showed quantitative and qualitative differences among all four varieties and key differences between acidic varieties and standard melons.

  20. Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie; Parker, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, analytical modeling, and detailed numerical simulations, the iridescence observed from the comb rows of the ctenophore Beroë cucumis was investigated. It is shown that the changing coloration which accompanies the beating of comb rows as the animal swims can be explained by the weakly-contrasted structure of the refractive index induced by the very coherent packing of locomotory cilia. The colors arising from the narrow band-gap reflection are shown to be highly saturated and, as a function of the incidence angle, cover a wide range of the visible and ultraviolet spectrum. The high transparency of the structure at the maximal bioluminescence wavelength is also explained.

  1. Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora).

    PubMed

    Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie; Parker, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, analytical modeling, and detailed numerical simulations, the iridescence observed from the comb rows of the ctenophore Beroë cucumis was investigated. It is shown that the changing coloration which accompanies the beating of comb rows as the animal swims can be explained by the weakly-contrasted structure of the refractive index induced by the very coherent packing of locomotory cilia. The colors arising from the narrow band-gap reflection are shown to be highly saturated and, as a function of the incidence angle, cover a wide range of the visible and ultraviolet spectrum. The high transparency of the structure at the maximal bioluminescence wavelength is also explained.

  2. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  3. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  4. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  5. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    PubMed

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences.

  6. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nuno F; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding.

  7. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Nuno F.; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding. PMID:25852725

  8. Improvement of xylanase production by Cochliobolus sativus in solid state fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Yasser; Jawhar, Mohammed; Arabi, Mohammed Imad Eddin

    2008-01-01

    The xylanase production by Cochliobolus sativus strain Cs6 was improved under solid state fermentation (SSF). High xylanase activity (1079 U/g) was obtained when wheat straw was used after 8 days of incubation. Combinations of sodium nitrate with peptone or yeast extract resulted in an increased xylanase production (1543 and 1483 U/g, respectively). The Cs6 strain grown in SSF in a simple medium, proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production. PMID:24031273

  9. Antidepressant properties of bioactive fractions from the extract of Crocus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Han, Ting; Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Ming, Qian-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant properties of stigmas and corms of Crocus sativus L. The aqueous ethanol extract of C. sativus corms was fractionated on the basis of polarity. Among the different fractions, the petroleum ether fraction and dichloromethane fraction at doses of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg showed significant antidepressant-like activities in dose-dependent manners, by means of behavioral models of depression. The immobility time in the forced swimming test and tail suspending test was significantly reduced by the two fractions, without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in the open-field test. By means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique, twelve compounds of the petroleum ether fraction were identified. These data show that administration of C. sativus corms extract produces antidepressant-like effects. Aqueous stigmas extract also exerted antidepressive effects in the behavioral models. Crocin 1 and crocin 2 of the aqueous stigmas extract were identified by a reversed-phase HPLC analysis. In addition, the bioactive compound crocin 1 in this herb was quantitatively determined. The data indicate that antidepressant-like properties of aqueous stigma extracts may be due to crocin 1, giving support to the validity of the use of this plant in traditional medicine. All these results suggest that the low polarity parts of C. sativus corms should be considered as a new plant material for curing depression, which merit further studies regarding antidepressive-like activities of chemical compounds isolated from the two fractions and mechanism of action.

  10. Cucumis melo endornavirus: Genome organization, host range and co-divergence with the host.

    PubMed

    Sabanadzovic, Sead; Wintermantel, William M; Valverde, Rodrigo A; McCreight, James D; Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina

    2016-03-02

    A high molecular weight dsRNA was isolated from a Cucumis melo L. plant (referred to as 'CL01') of an unknown cultivar and completely sequenced. Sequence analyses showed that dsRNA is associated with an endornavirus for which a name Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) is proposed. The genome of CmEV-CL01 consists of 15,078 nt, contains a single, 4939 codons-long ORF and terminates with a stretch of 10 cytosine residues. Comparisons of the putative CmEV-encoded polyprotein with available references in protein databases revealed a unique genome organization characterized by the presence of the following domains: viral helicase Superfamily 1 (Hel-1), three glucosyltransferases (doublet of putative capsular polysaccharide synthesis proteins and a putative C_28_Glycosyltransferase), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The presence of three glycome-related domains of different origin makes the genome organization of CmEV unique among endornaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of viral RdRp domains showed that CmEV belongs to a specific lineage within the family Endornaviridae made exclusively of plant-infecting endornaviruses. An RT-PCR based survey demonstrated high incidence of CmEV among melon germplasm accession (>87% of tested samples). Analyses of partial genome sequences of CmEV isolates from 26 different melon genotypes suggest fine-tuned virus adaptation and co-divergence with the host. Finally, results of the present study revealed that CmEV is present in plants belonging to three different genera in the family Cucurbitaceae. Such diverse host range is unreported for known endornaviruses and suggests a long history of CmEV association with cucurbits predating their speciation.

  11. The Andromonoecious Sex Determination Gene Predates the Separation of Cucumis and Citrullus Genera

    PubMed Central

    Boualem, Adnane; Lemhemdi, Afef; Sari, Marie-Agnes; Pignoly, Sarah; Troadec, Christelle; Abou Choucha, Fadi; Solmaz, Ilknur; Sari, Nebahat; Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires the cloning and the characterization of sex determination genes. Monoecy is characterized by the presence of both male and female flowers on the same plant. Andromonoecy is characterized by plants carrying both male and bisexual flowers. In watermelon, the transition between these two sexual forms is controlled by the identity of the alleles at the A locus. We previously showed, in two Cucumis species, melon and cucumber, that the transition from monoecy to andromonoecy results from mutations in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene, ACS-7/ACS2. To test whether the ACS-7/ACS2 function is conserved in cucurbits, we cloned and characterized ClACS7 in watermelon. We demonstrated co-segregation of ClACS7, the homolog of CmACS-7/CsACS2, with the A locus. Sequence analysis of ClACS7 in watermelon accessions identified three ClACS7 isoforms, two in andromonoecious and one in monoecious lines. To determine whether the andromonoecious phenotype is due to a loss of ACS enzymatic activity, we expressed and assayed the activity of the three protein isoforms. Like in melon and cucumber, the isoforms from the andromonoecious lines showed reduced to no enzymatic activity and the isoform from the monoecious line was active. Consistent with this, the mutations leading andromonoecy were clustered in the active site of the enzyme. Based on this, we concluded that active ClACS7 enzyme leads to the development of female flowers in monoecious lines, whereas a reduction of enzymatic activity yields hermaphrodite flowers. ClACS7, like CmACS-7/CsACS2 in melon and cucumber, is highly expressed in carpel primordia of buds determined to develop carpels and not in male flowers. Based on this finding and previous investigations, we concluded that the monoecy gene, ACS7, likely predated the separation of the Cucumis and Citrullus genera. PMID:27171236

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the soil-radish (Raphanus sativus) system with sewage sludge and compost application.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Qi-Tang; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-01

    We studied the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in a latosolic red soil and radish (Raphanus sativus) with application of sewage sludge at rates of 10, 20 and 40 g kg(-1) soil or compost at rate of 10 g kg(-1) soil. In radish the concentrations of individual PAHs and PAEs varied from non-detectable to 803 microg kg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and from non-detectable to 2048 microg kg(-1) d.w., respectively. Compared to the control, higher application rates of sewage sludge resulted in pronounced increases in shoot, root and soil concentrations of PAHs and PAEs. PAE concentrations in radish grown in soil spiked with sludge compost were higher while the PAH concentrations were comparable to those receiving 10 g kg(-1) of sewage sludge. However, the root biomass of radish in soil amended with compost was significantly higher and the shoot-to-root ratio was significantly lower than in the other treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs, the ratio of contaminant concentration in plant tissue to the soil concentration) of di-n-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in both shoots and roots and of total PAH concentrations in roots were less than 1.0, but some BCFs for individual PAHs were high with a maximum value of 80.

  13. [Production and cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria and Raphanus sativus].

    PubMed

    Huang, B Q; Chang, L; Ju, C M; Chen, J G

    2001-01-01

    Crosses between Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria (AA, 2n = 20) and Raphanus sativus (RR, 2n = 18) were made and many intergeneric hybrids were produced. The F1 seedlings did not show chlorosis at low temperature. When red Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent, the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were purple, and when white Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent, the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were not purple. All the F1 plants had white flowers and normal honey glands. Male gametes of the F1 were highly sterile and female gametes of the F1 were partly fertile. Cytological studies indicated that chromosome number of the F1 was 2n = 19 as expected, the mean chromosome pairing pattern was 15.53 I + 1.34 II + 0.25 III + 0.01 IV. Most chromosomes exsistet as univalents, but there also exsisted some bivalents, trivalents and even tetravalents, suggesting that chromosome set A was partly homologous with chromosome set R.

  14. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened.

  15. Lessons from neurolathyrism: a disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal).

    PubMed

    Singh, Surya S; Rao, S L N

    2013-01-01

    Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal) is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid) the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism.

  16. [Accumulation of ABA and ODAP in Lathyrus sativus under water stress].

    PubMed

    Xing, G; Zhou, G; Li, Z; Cui, K

    2000-10-01

    The roots of fifteen days old Lathyrus sativus seedlings were treated by PEG, PEG + ABA and ABA, and their leaves were sampled to determine the contents of endogenic ABA, ODAP, MDA and H2O2 and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The results showed that after treated, the contents of ABA and ODAP in leaves increased markedly. The addition of exogenous ABA decreased the increment of MDA and H2O2 contents and retarded the attenuation of CAT activity, which were induced by PEG stress, and enhanced the GR activity. In addition, when materials were treated with exogenous ABA in a long time, the ABA content in leaves was increased markedly, and ODAP was then accumulated. There was no significant effect on metabolism of active oxygen in the early days(0-3 days) of ABA treatment, but the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and GR decreased, and the contents of MDA and H2O2 increased in leaves of Lathyrus sativus with the duration of ABA treatment(7-15 days). The results indicated that ABA could promote the accumulation of ODAP in leaves of Lathyrus sativus.

  17. Dissipation kinetics and pre-harvest residue limit of pyriofenone in oriental melon (Cucumis melo Var. makuwa) grown under regulated climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyung Suk; Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Chang, Byung-Joon; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2017-02-23

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was used to estimate the disappearance rates as well as the pre-harvest residue limits of pyriofenone in oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa) grown under greenhouse conditions in two different locations (A and B) in Seongju, Republic of Korea. The identity of the compound in standard solution and representative field incurred samples was confirmed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy (expressed as recovery) and precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) for accurate and precise quantitation. Notably, the residual levels of field incurred samples collected over days 0-10 post-application were below the maximum residue level (0.2 mg/kg) established by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Site A showed lower residue levels and a higher decline rate than site B, which might be attributed to seasonal variation (high temperature) and increased metabolic and enzyme profiling in the mature fruits. The half-lives were similar, 4.9 and 4.3 days, at sites A and B, respectively. Using the pre-harvest residue limit, we predicted the residue amounts at 10 and 5 days before harvest, which resulted in concentrations lower than the provisional maximum residue level at harvest time.

  18. Enzymatic detection of mercuric ions in ground-water from vegetable wastes by immobilizing pumpkin (Cucumis melo) urease in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Talat, Mahe; Hasan, Syed Hadi; Pandey, Rajesh K

    2008-07-01

    Present report describes a quick and simple test based on enzyme inhibition for the detection of mercury in aqueous medium by urease immobilized in alginate beads. Urease was extracted from the discarded seeds of pumpkin (Cucumis melo) and was purified to apparent homogeneity (5.2-fold) by heat treatment at 48+/-0.1 degrees C and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. The homogeneous enzyme preparation (Sp activity 353 U/mg protein, A(280)/A(260)=1.12) was immobilized in 3.5% alginate leading to 86% immobilization. Effect of mercuric ion on the activity of soluble as well as immobilized enzyme was investigated. Hg(2+) exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition both in the presence and absence of the substrate. The alginate immobilized enzyme showed less inhibition. There was no leaching of the enzyme over a period of 15 days at 4 degrees C. The inhibition was non-competitive and the K(i) was found to be 1.26x10(-1)microM. Time-dependent interaction of urease with Hg(2+) exhibited a biphasic inhibition behavior in which approximately half of the initial activity was lost rapidly (within 10 min) and reminder in a slow phase. Binding of Hg(2+) with the enzyme was largely irreversible, as the activity could not be restored by dialysis. The significance of the observations is discussed.

  19. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world’s most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus. PMID:26936416

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-03-03

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world's most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus.

  1. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    PubMed

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine.

  2. Recovery of crocins from saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus) in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Hernández, Bertha; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Benavides, Jorge

    2012-05-04

    Crocins are carotenoid derivates that have recently attracted the interest of the scientific community due to their nutraceutical properties. Saffron (dry Crocus sativus stigmas) is one of the main known sources of crocins. In this study the potential use of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the extraction of crocins from C. sativus stigmas was evaluated. The partitioning behavior of crocins in different types of ATPS (polymer-polymer, polymer-salt, alcohol-salt and ionic liquid-salt) was evaluated. Ethanol-potassium phosphate ATPS were selected based on their high top phase recovery yield and low cost of system constituents. The evaluation and optimization of system parameters rendered conditions (V(R)=3.2, ethanol 19.8% (w/w), potassium phosphate 16.5% (w/w), TLL of 25% (w/w), 0.1M NaCl and 2% (w/w) of sample load) under which more than 75% of total crocins were recovered in the top (ethanol rich) phase, whereas the wasted stigmas accumulated in the bottom phase. Lastly, a comparison between an optimized solid-liquid extraction using ethanol:water as solvent and ATPS was conducted demonstrating that similar yields are achieved with both strategies (76.89 ± 18% and 79.27 ± 1.6%, respectively). However, ATPS rendered a higher extraction selectivity of 1.3 ± 0.04 mg of crocins for each mg of phenolic compound, whereas ethanolic extraction showed a selectivity of 0.87 ± 0.01. The results reported herein demonstrate the potential application of ATPS, particularly ethanol-potassium phosphate systems, for the recovery of crocins from C. sativus stigmas.

  3. Genetic analysis of hybrid seed formation ability of Brassica rapa in intergeneric crossings with Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Tonosaki, K; Michiba, K; Bang, S W; Kitashiba, H; Kaneko, Y; Nishio, T

    2013-03-01

    A hybridization barrier leads to the inability of seed formation after intergeneric crossings between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. Most B. rapa lines cannot set intergeneric hybrid seeds because of embryo breakdown, but a B. rapa line obtained from turnip cultivar 'Shogoin-kabu' is able to produce a large number of hybrid seeds as a maternal parent by crossings with R. sativus. In 'Shogoin-kabu' crossed with R. sativus, developments of embryos and endosperms were slower than those in intraspecific crossings, but some of them grew to mature seeds without embryo breakdown. Intergeneric hybrid seeds were obtained in a 'Shogoin-kabu' line at a rate of 0.13 per pollinated flower, while no hybrid seeds were obtained in a line developed from Chinese cabbage cultivar 'Chiifu'. F(1) hybrid plants between the lines of 'Shogoin-kabu' and 'Chiifu' set a larger number of hybrid seeds per flower, 0.68, than both the parental lines. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for hybrid seed formation were analyzed after intergeneric crossings using two different F(2) populations derived from the F(1) hybrids, and three QTLs with significant logarithm of odds scores were detected. Among them, two QTLs, i.e., one in linkage group A10 and the other in linkage group A01, were detected in both the F(2) populations. These two QTLs had contrary effects on the number of hybrid seeds. Epistatic interaction between these two QTLs was revealed. Possible candidate genes controlling hybrid seed formation ability in QTL regions were inferred using the published B. rapa genome sequences.

  4. Identification of safranal as the main allelochemical from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Mardani, Hossein; Sekine, Takayuki; Azizi, Majid; Mishyna, Maryia; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Dried parts of 75 medicinal plant species collected from different regions in Iran were assayed by the Dish Pack Method for volatile allelopathic activity, using Lactuca sativa (lettuce) as the test plant. The highest (60%) inhibition was observed for saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus), followed by Dracocephalum kotschyi, Solanum nigrum and Artemisia aucheri. Safranal was identified as the main chemical by Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS- GC-MS) analyses of saffron. Moreover, the EC50 of safranal was evaluated as 1.2 μg/L (ppb). This is the first report on allelopathic activity of safranal as a bioactive compound identified from saffron.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  6. Efficient intergeneric fusion of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Durieu, P; Ochatt, S J

    2000-07-01

    Large numbers of viable protoplasts of pea (Pisum sativum) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) were efficiently and reproducibly obtained and, for the first time, fused. Different procedures for fusion were compared, based either on electrofusion (750, 1000, 1250 or 1500 V cm(-1)), or on the use of macro or micromethods with a polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 or PEG 1540), or a glycine/high pH solution. Over 10% of viable heterokaryons were obtained, with PEG as the most efficient and reproducible agent for protoplast fusion (>20% of viable heterokaryons). Both the division of heterokaryons and the formation of small calluses were observed.

  7. Antioxidant properties of extracts from fermented and cooked seeds of Polish cultivars of Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Jamróz, Małgorzata

    2008-07-15

    Antiradical and total antioxidant activities of extracts from raw, prepared for inoculation, fermented (tempeh) and cooked seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus Krab and Derek cultivars) were measured. Tempeh fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus resulted in higher scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals which correlated well with the content of total phenols. In Derek cultivar, fermentation caused a significant inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by methanol extracts. In buffer extracts the highest TAA values were observed in raw seeds. Cooking of seeds lowered RSA values as compared to fermentation, especially for the DPPH assay. Methanol and buffer extracts from cooked seeds showed prooxidant activity towards linoleic acid.

  8. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Insaf A; Sethi, Dhruv K; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2006-09-01

    A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of Lathyrus sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence showed significant homology with the 2S albumin class of seed storage proteins. The protein showed 85% sequence homology with the seed albumin of Pisum sativum within the 40 N-terminal residues. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 82.7, c = 153.4 A.

  9. Superoxide dismutase activity in mesocarp tissue from divergent Cucumis melo L. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lester, Gene E; Jifon, John L; Crosby, Kevin M

    2009-09-01

    Muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.) are well-known as excellent sources of several vitamins, minerals and non-enzymatic antioxidant phytochemicals such as vitamin C and pro-vitamin A. Less well-studied is their potential role as sources of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), which have been associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity in some muskmelon fruits. In this study, we investigated the variability in SOD activities among diverse advanced breeding lines and commercial muskmelon cultivars grown in two different soil types-clay or sandy loam. Specific and total SOD activities varied significantly among the genotypes (P

  10. Genetic diversity among melon accessions (Cucumis melo) from Turkey based on SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Kaçar, Y A; Simsek, O; Solmaz, I; Sari, N; Mendi, Y Y

    2012-12-19

    Melon (Cucumis melo) is an important vegetable crop in Turkey, where it is grown in many regions; the most widely planted lines are local winter types belonging to the var. inodorous. We examined 81 melon genotypes collected from different provinces of Turkey, compared with 15 reference melon genotypes obtained from INRA/France, to determine genetic diversity among Turkish melons. Twenty polymorphic primers were used to generate the SSR markers. PCR amplification was performed and electrophoresis was conducted. SSR data were used to generate a binary matrix. For cluster analysis, UPGMA was employed to construct a clustering dendrogram based on the genetic distance matrix. The cophenetic correlation was compared with the similarity matrix using the Mantel matrix correspondence test to evaluate the representativeness of the dendrogram. A total of 123 alleles were amplified using the 20 SSR primer sets. The number of alleles detected by a single primer set ranged from 2 to 12, with an average of 6.15. The similarity ranged from 0.22 to 1.00 in the dendrogram developed from microsatellite analysis. Based on this molecular data, we concluded that genetic diversity among these Turkish accessions is relatively high.

  11. Cucumis melo microRNA expression profile during aphid herbivory in a resistant and susceptible interaction.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Sampurna; Song, Yan; Anstead, James A; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Thompson, Gary A

    2012-06-01

    Aphis gossypii resistance in melon (Cucumis melo) is due to the presence of a single dominant virus aphid transmission (Vat) gene belonging to the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat family of resistance genes. Significant transcriptional reprogramming occurs in Vat(+) plants during aphid infestation as metabolism shifts to respond to this biotic stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of many biotic stress responses. The role of miRNAs was investigated in response to aphid herbivory during both resistant and susceptible interactions. Small RNA (smRNA) libraries were constructed from bulked leaf tissues of a Vat(+) melon line following early and late aphid infestations. Sequence analysis indicated that the expression profiles of conserved and newly identified miRNAs were altered during different stages of aphid herbivory. These results were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction experiments in both resistant Vat(+) and susceptible Vat(-) interactions. The comparative analyses revealed that most of the conserved miRNA families were differentially regulated during the early stages of aphid infestation in the resistant and susceptible interactions. Along with the conserved miRNA families, 18 cucurbit-specific miRNAs were expressed during the different stages of aphid herbivory. The comparison of the miRNA profiles in the resistant and susceptible interactions provides insight into the miRNA-dependent post-transcriptional gene regulation in Vat-mediated resistance.

  12. A novel member of the genus Nepovirus isolated from Cucumis melo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Usugi, Tomio; Yasuda, Fumitoshi; Okayama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Shinya

    2011-03-01

    An unusual virus was isolated from a Japanese Cucumis melo cv. Prince melon plant showing mild mottling of the leaves. The virus had a broad experimental host range including at least 19 plant species in five families, with most infected plants showing no symptoms on inoculated and uninoculated systemically infected leaves. The virus particles were spherical, approximately 28 nm in diameter, and the coat protein (CP) had an apparent molecular mass of about 55 kDa. The virus possessed a bi-partite genome with two RNA species, of approximately 8,000 and 4,000 nucleotides. Both genome components for the new virus were sequenced. Amino acid sequence identities in CP between the new virus and previously characterized nepoviruses were found to be low (less than 27%); however, in phylogenetic reconstructions the closest relationship was revealed between the new virus and subgroup A nepoviruses. These results suggest that the new virus represents a novel member of the genus Nepovirus. A new name, Melon mild mottle virus, has been proposed for this new virus.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ah-Young; Kim, Yong-Min; Koo, Namjin; Lee, Su Min; Nahm, Seokhyeon

    2017-01-01

    Background The oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of the most important cultivated cucurbits grown widely in Korea, Japan, and northern China. It is cultivated because its fruit has a sweet aromatic flavor and is rich in soluble sugars, organic acids, minerals, and vitamins. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of the developmental changes that determine size, color, and sugar contents of the fruit, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to analyze the genes expressed during fruit development. Results We identified a total of 47,666 of representative loci from 100,875 transcripts and functionally annotated 33,963 of the loci based on orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among those loci, we identified 5,173 differentially expressed genes, which were classified into 14 clusters base on the modulation of their expression patterns. The expression patterns suggested that the differentially expressed genes were related to fruit development and maturation through diverse metabolic pathways. Analyses based on gene set enrichment and the pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes suggested that the expression of genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism and carotenoid biosynthesis were regulated dynamically during fruit development and subsequent maturation. Conclusion Our results provide the gene expression patterns related to different stages of fruit development and maturation in the oriental melon. The expression patterns give clues about important regulatory mechanisms, especially those involving starch, sugar, and carotenoid biosynthesis, in the development of the oriental melon fruit. PMID:28070461

  14. Efficient DNA extraction from nail clippings using the protease solution from Cucumis melo.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Nishimura, Sayaka; Okuno, Teruko; Rakuman, Miki; Takii, Yukio

    2010-09-01

    Owing to the increasing importance of genomic information, obtaining genomic DNA easily from biological specimens has become more and more important. This article proposes an efficient method for obtaining genomic DNA from nail clippings. Nail clippings can be easily obtained, are thermostable and easy to transport, and have low infectivity. The drawback of their use, however, has been the difficulty of extracting genomic material from them. We have overcome this obstacle using the protease solution obtained from Cucumis melo. The keratinolytic activity of the protease solution was 1.78-fold higher than that of proteinase K, which is commonly used to degrade keratin. With the protease solution, three times more DNA was extracted than when proteinase K was used. In order to verify the integrity of the extracted DNA, genotype analysis on 170 subjects was performed by both PCR-RFLP and Real Time PCR. The results of the genotyping showed that the extracted DNA was suitable for genotyping analysis. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient extraction method for using nail clippings as a genome source and a research tool in molecular epidemiology, medical diagnostics, and forensic science.

  15. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  16. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  17. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality.

  18. Purification and characterization of insulin-mimetic inositol phosphoglycan-like molecules from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Pañeda, C.; Villar, A. V.; Alonso, A.; Goñi, F. M.; Varela, F.; Brodbeck, U.; León, Y.; Varela-Nieto, I.; Jones, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Signal transduction through the hydrolysis of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) leading to the release of the water-soluble inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) molecules has been demonstrated to be important for mediating some of the actions of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, GPI from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds has been purified and partially characterized on the basis of its chromatographic properties and its compositional analysis. RESULTS: The results indicate that it shows similarities to GPI previously isolated from other sources such as rat liver. IPG was generated from L. sativus seed GPI by hydrolysis with a GPI-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD). This IPG inhibited protein kinase A (PKA) in an in vitro assay, caused cell proliferation in explanted cochleovestibular ganglia (CVG), and decreased 8-Br-cAMP-induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression in cultured hepatoma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that L. sativus seed IPG possess insulin-mimetic activities. This may explain why L. sativus seeds have been used in some traditional medicines to ameliorate diabetic symptoms. PMID:11683370

  19. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  20. Large-scale microsatellite development in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an orphan legume of the arid areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14), a member of the family Leguminosae, holds great agronomic potential as grain and forage legume crop in the arid areas for its superb resilience to abiotic stresses such as drought, flood and salinity. The crop could not make much progress through conventional...

  1. Isolation of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate from Raphanus sativus sprouts (kaiware daikon) and its redox properties.

    PubMed

    Barillari, Jessica; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Paolini, Moreno; Tatibouët, Arnaud; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2005-12-28

    The most promising among glucosinolates (GLs) are those bearing in their aglycon an extra sulfur function, such as glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl GL; GRH) and glucoraphenin (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl GL; GRE). The GRE/GRH redox couple is typically met among secondary metabolites of Raphanus sativus L. and, whereas GRE prevails in seeds, GRH is the major GL in full-grown roots. During the 10 days of sprouting of R. sativus seeds, the GRE and GRH contents were determined according to the Eurpean Union official method (ISO 9167-1). In comparison to the seeds, the GRE content in sprouts decreased from about 90 to about 12 micromol g(-1) of dry weight (dw), whereas a 25-fold increase--from about 3 to 76 micromol g(-1) of dw--of the GRH content was measured. An efficient pure GRH gram-scale production process from R. sativus (kaiware daikon) sprouts resulted in significant yield improvement of up to 2.2% (dw basis). The reaction of GRH with both H2O2 and ABTS*+ radical cation was investigated. Whereas H2O2 oxidation of GRH readily resulted in complete transformation into GRE, ABTS*+ caused complete decay of the GL. Even though not directly related to its radical scavenging activity, the assessed reducing capacity of GRH suggests that R. sativus sprouts might possess potential for health benefits.

  2. Brachypodium distachyon-Cochliobolus sativus pathosystem is a new model for studying plant-fungal interactions in cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana) causes three major diseases in barley and wheat, including spot blotch, common root rot and kernel blight or black point. These diseases significantly reduce the yield and quality of the two most important cereal crops in the US and other region...

  3. Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, M; Vahabzadeh, M; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-06-01

    Commonly known as saffron, Crocus sativus L and its active components have shown several useful pharmacological effects such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, radical scavenger effects, learning and memory improving effects, etc. There has been an increasing body of data on saffron use in medical databases within the last 20 years. In the current review, the strengths and weaknesses of some of the clinical trials about different pharmacological effects of saffron will be discussed C. sativus extract has been studied in 8 anti-depressant clinical trials in comparison to placebo or some antidepressant drugs, in which saffron showed effectiveness as an antidepressant drug. Clinical trials on anti-Alzheimer effect of saffron demonstrated that it was more effective than the placebo, and as effective as donepezil. 2 clinical trials on antipruritic and complexion promoter in skin care effects of saffron both confirmed that saffron was more efficient than the placebo. In another clinical trial, it was proved that in addition to the weight loss treatment, saffron could reduce snacking frequency. Clinical trials conducted on women with premenstrual syndrome showed that saffron could reduce suffering symptoms more than the placebo and similar to standard treatments.Furthermore, additional clinical trials on effects of saffron on erection dysfunction, allergies, cardiovascular and immune system as well as its safety, toxicity and human pharmacokinetics are reviewed herein.

  4. Identification and possible role of a MYB transcription factor from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Gómez, Maria Dolores; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2012-03-15

    The MYB family is the most abundant group of transcription factors described for plants. Plant MYB genes have been shown to be involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant development. No MYB genes are described for saffron, the dried stigma of Crocus sativus, utilized as a colorant for foodstuffs. In this study, we used RACE-PCR to isolate a full length cDNA of 894bp with a 591bp open reading frame, encoding a putative CsMYB1 from C. sativus. Comparison between gDNA and cDNA revealed no introns. Homology studies indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence is similar to members of the R2R3 MYB subfamily. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in stigma tissue and low levels in tepals, whereas no signal was detected in either anthers or leaves. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that CsMYB1 expression is developmentally regulated during stigma development. Furthermore, expression analysis in stigmas from different Crocus species showed a correlation with stigma morphology. No transcripts were found in stigma tissues of Crocus species characterized by branched stigma morphology. Taken together, these results suggest that CsMYB1 may be involved in the regulation of stigma morphology in Crocus.

  5. Ectopic expression of CsCTR1, a cucumber CTR-like gene, attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant and expression pattern analysis of CsCTR1 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, Beibei; Sun, Jin; Pan, Junsong; He, Huanle; Cai, Run

    2014-09-15

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1) was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  6. The cytochrome P450 gene CsCYP85A1 is a putative candidate for super compact-1 (scp-1) plant architecture mutation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in plant breeding. A number of genes controlling plant height have been cloned and functionally characterized which often involve in biosynthesis or signaling of plant hormones such as brassinosteroids(BRs). No genes for plant height or vine length ...

  7. The Cytochrome P450 Gene CsCYP85A1 Is a Putative Candidate for Super Compact-1 (Scp-1) Plant Architecture Mutation in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Li, Wanqing; Qin, Yaguang; Pan, Yupeng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Weng, Yiqun; Chen, Peng; Li, Yuhong

    2017-01-01

    The dwarf or compact plant architecture is an important trait in plant breeding. A number of genes controlling plant height have been cloned and functionally characterized which often involve in biosynthesis or signaling of plant hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs). No genes for plant height or vine length have been cloned in cucurbit crops (family Cucurbitaceae). From an EMS-induced mutagenesis population, we identified a super compact (SCP) mutant C257 which was extremely dwarf due to practically no internode elongation. Under dark growing condition, C257 did not undergo skotomorphogenesis and its mutant phenotype could be rescued with exogenous application of brassinolide (BL), suggesting SCP might be a BR-deficient mutant. Segregation analysis revealed a single recessive gene scp-1 that was responsible for the SCP mutation. Map-based cloning combined with a modified MutMap identified CsCYP85A1, a member of the plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene family, as the most possible candidate gene for scp-1, which encodes a BR-C6-oxidase in the BR biosynthesis pathway. We show that a SNP within the second exon of scp-1 candidate gene caused the SCP phenotype. Three copies of the CsCYP85A gene are present in the cucumber genome, but only the scp-1/CsCYP85A1 gene seemed active. The expression of CsCYP85A1 was higher in flowers than in the leaves and stem; its expression in the wild type (WT) was feedback regulated by BL application. Its expression was reduced in C257 as compared with the WT. This was the first report of map-based cloning of a plant height gene in cucurbit crops. The research highlighted the combined use of linkage mapping, an improved MutMap method and allelic diversity analysis in natural populations in quick cloning of simply inherited genes in cucumber. The roles of CsCYP85A1 in regulation of internode elongation in cucumber was discussed. PMID:28303144

  8. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Beibei; Sun, Jin; Pan, Junsong; He, Huanle; Cai, Run

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1) was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway. PMID:25226540

  9. Possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-01-01

    Hitherto unknown efficacy of the peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Cucumis melo (CM) and Citrullus vulgaris (CV) fruits in ameliorating the diet-induced alterations in dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus have been investigated in rats. In one study, out of 4 different doses (50-300 mg/kg), 200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for other two peel extracts could inhibit lipidperoxidation (LPO) maximally in liver. In the second experiment rats were maintained on pre-standardized atherogenic diet CCT (supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% 2-thiouracil) to induce dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus and the effects of the test peel extracts (200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for CM and CV for 10 consecutive days) were studied by examining the changes in tissue LPO (in heart, liver and kidney), concentrations of serum lipids, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose. Rats, treated simultaneously with either of the peel extracts reversed the CCT-diet induced increase in the levels of tissue LPO, serum lipids, glucose, creatinine kinase-MB and decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones and insulin indicating their potential to ameliorate the diet induced alterations in serum lipids, thyroid dysfunctions and hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus. A phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of a high amount of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the test peel extracts suggesting that the beneficial effects could be the result of the rich content of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the studied peels.

  10. Diversity among melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces from the Indo-Gangetic plains of India and their genetic relationship with U.S.A. melon cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the first broad genetic characterization of farmer-developed land races of melon (Cucumis melo L.) from the Indo-Gangetic plains of India, an area overlooked in previous genetic diversity analyses of Indian melon germplasm. Eighty-eight landraces from three melon groups in two subspec...

  11. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in ...

  12. The genome of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Genome amplification in the absence of recent duplication in an old widely cultivated species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the genome sequence of melon (Cucumis melo L.), an important horticultural crop worldwide. We assembled 375 Mb of the double haploid line DHL92, representing 83.3 % of the estimated melon genome. We predicted 27,427 protein-coding genes, which we analyzed by reconstructing 22,218 phylogene...

  13. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Cucumis Wild Species Distributed in Southern Africa: Physical Mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA with DAPI.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kouhei; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Osipowski, Paweł; Siedlecka, Ewa; Przybecki, Zbigniew; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Malepszy, Stefan; Pląder, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Wild Cucumis species have been divided into Australian/Asian and African groups using morphological and phylogenetic characteristics, and new species have been described recently. No molecular cytogenetic information is available for most of these species. The crossability between 5 southern African Cucumis species (C. africanus, C. anguria, C. myriocarpus, C. zeyheri, and C. heptadactylus) has been reported; however, the evolutionary relationship among them is still unclear. Here, a molecular cytogenetic analysis using FISH with 5S and 45 S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used to investigate these Cucumis species based on sets of rDNA-bearing chromosomes (rch) types I, II and III. The molecular cytogenetic and phylogenetic results suggested that at least 2 steps of chromosomal rearrangements may have occurred during the evolution of tetraploid C. heptadactylus. In step 1, an additional 45 S rDNA site was observed in the chromosome (type III). In particular, C. myriocarpus had a variety of rch sets. Our results suggest that chromosomal rearrangements may have occurred in the 45 S rDNA sites. We propose that polyploid evolution occurred in step 2. This study provides insights into the chromosomal characteristics of African Cucumis species and contributes to the understanding of chromosomal evolution in this genus.

  14. The gene CmACS-7 provides sequence variation for the development of DNA markers associated with monoecious sex expresion in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding lines in South Korea display andromonoecious sex expression (i.e., possessing both bisexual and male flowers on the same plant), which, in turn, necessitates laborious hand emasculation during F1 hybrid seed production. Thus, there is a need to develop monoecio...

  15. A Consensus Linkage Map that Identifies Genomic Regions Controlling Beta-Carotene Quantity and Fruit Maturity in Melon (Cucumis Melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional value and yield potential of U.S. Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.) could be improved through the introgression of genes for early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of the quantity of B-carotene (QBC) in fruit mesocarp (i.e., orange mesocarp). Therefore, a set of 116 F3...

  16. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2010-02-01

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and alpha-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[(13)C(6)]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective alpha-keto acids, utilizing alpha-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6 kDa and 42.7 kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.

  17. [Identification of two Fusarium isolates and their crude toxin allelopathic effect on Cucumis melo seedlings].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Xue, Quan-Hong; Du, Jun-Zhi; Chen, Jiao-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Eight fungi isolates were obtained from Fusarium-infected Cucumis melo (melon) plants and their rhizosphere soils. Taking melon cultivar 'Xitian 1' as test material, the re-inoculation and seed germination experiments were conducted to investigate the pathogenicity and growth inhibition effect of these fungi isolates on melon. Through the determination of the induced enzyme activities, resistant substance contents, and cell membrane permeability of potted melon roots, the allelopathic effect of the crude toxins of two harmful fungi was studied, and according to the morphological characteristics and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequencing, the two harmful fungi were identified. The crude toxins of the two harmful fungi TF and HF had strong inhibition effects on the germination and growth of the melon seeds. The MDA and soluble protein contents and the cell membrane permeability of the 'Xitian 1' seedlings roots all increased, among which, the MDA content and cell membrane permeability increased by 108.6% and 40.6%, respectively when treated with the stock solution of TF toxin, compared with the control. The crude toxins of the two harmful fungi improved the induced enzyme activities of the melon roots, with the increment of the PAL and POD activities under the treatment of 10-fold dilution of TF crude toxin increased by 25.6% and 23.2%, respectively. When treated with the stock solution of HF toxin, the PAL activity significantly increased by 30.0%. The two harmful fungi TF and HF were primarily identified as Fusarium equisti and F. proliferatum, respectively. This study showed that the two Fusarium isolates could not infect melon via re-inoculation, but could negatively affect the melon's normal growth and normal physiological and biochemical metabolism via toxins excretion, and in the meantime, improve the root protective enzyme activities, with the effects of both benefit and harmfulness on melon plants. The allelopathic hazard of the crude toxins of the

  18. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the SGR gene family in Cucumis melo L.

    PubMed

    Bade, R G; Bao, M L; Jin, W Y; Ma, Y; Niu, Y D; Hasi, A

    2016-10-17

    Chlorophyll (CHL) is present in many plant organs, and its metabolism is strongly regulated throughout plant development. Understanding the fate of CHL in senescent leaves or during fruit ripening is a complex process. The stay-green (SGR) protein has been shown to affect CHL degradation. In this study, we used the conserved sequences of STAY-GREEN domain protein (NP_567673) in Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe to search SGR family genes in the genome-wide melon protein database. Four candidate SGR family genes were identified in melon (Cucumis melo L. Hetao). The phylogenetic evolution, gene structure, and conserved motifs were subsequently analyzed. In order to verify the function of CmSGR genes in CHL degradation, CmSGR1 and CmSGR2 were transiently overexpressed and silenced using different plasmids in melon. Overexpression of CmSGR1 or CmSGR2 induced leaf yellowing or fruit ripening, while silencing of CmSGR1 or CmSGR2 via RNA interference delayed CHL breakdown during fruit ripening or leaf senescence compared with the wild type. Next, the expression profile was analyzed, and we found that CmSGR genes were expressed ubiquitously. Moreover, CmSGR1 and CmSGR2 were upregulated, and promoted fruit ripening. CmSGR3 and CmSGR4 were more highly expressed in leaves, cotyledon, and stem compared with CmSGR1 or CmSGR2. Thus, we conclude that CmSGR genes are crucial for fruit ripening and leaf senescence. CmSGR protein structure and function were further clarified to provide a theoretical foundation and valuable information for improved performance of melon.

  19. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    PubMed

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  20. Crystal structure of cucumisin, a subtilisin-like endoprotease from Cucumis melo L.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kazutaka; Kato-Murayama, Miyuki; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Sotokawauchi, Ami; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Arima, Kazunari; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2012-10-26

    Cucumisin is a plant serine protease, isolated as an extracellular glycoprotein from the melon fruit Cucumis melo L. var. Prince. Cucumisin is composed of multiple domain modules, including catalytic, protease-associated, and fibronectin-III-like domains. The crystal structure of cucumisin was determined by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method and refined at 2.75Å resolution. A structural homology search indicated that the catalytic domain of cucumisin shares structural similarity with subtilisin and subtilisin-like fold enzymes. According to the Z-score, the highest structural similarity is with tomato subtilase 3 (SBT3), with an rmsd of 3.5Å for the entire region. The dimer formation mediated by the protease-associated domain in SBT3 is a distinctive structural characteristic of cucumisin. On the other hand, analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that cucumisin is mainly monomeric in solution. Although the locations of the amino acid residues composing the catalytic triad are well conserved between cucumisin and SBT3, a disulfide bond is uniquely located near the active site of cucumisin. The steric circumstances of the active site with this disulfide bond are distinct from those of SBT3, and it contributes to the substrate preference of cucumisin, especially at the P2 position. Among the plant serine proteases, the thermostability of cucumisin is higher than that of its structural homologue SBT3, as determined by their melting points. A structural comparison between cucumisin and SBT3 revealed that cucumisin possesses less surface area and shortened loop regions. Consequently, the higher thermostability of cucumisin is achieved by its more compact structure.

  1. A 'golden' SNP in CmOr governs the fruit flesh color of melon (Cucumis melo).

    PubMed

    Tzuri, Galil; Zhou, Xiangjun; Chayut, Noam; Yuan, Hui; Portnoy, Vitaly; Meir, Ayala; Sa'ar, Uzi; Baumkoler, Fabian; Mazourek, Michael; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Arthur A; Li, Li; Burger, Joseph; Katzir, Nurit; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2015-04-01

    The flesh color of Cucumis melo (melon) is genetically determined, and can be white, light green or orange, with β-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as the previously described gf locus in melon. CmOr was found to co-segregate with fruit flesh color, and presented two haplotypes (alleles) in a broad germplasm collection, one being associated with orange flesh and the second being associated with either white or green flesh. Allelic variation of CmOr does not affect its transcription or protein level. The variation also does not affect its plastid subcellular localization. Among the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between CmOr alleles in orange versus green/white-flesh fruit, a single SNP causes a change of an evolutionarily highly conserved arginine to histidine in the CmOr protein. Functional analysis of CmOr haplotypes in an Arabidopsis callus system confirmed the ability of the CmOr orange haplotype to induce β-carotene accumulation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CmOr green/white haplotype to change the CmOR arginine to histidine triggered β-carotene accumulation. The identification of the 'golden' SNP in CmOr, which is responsible for the non-orange and orange melon fruit phenotypes, provides new tools for studying the Or mechanism of action, and suggests genome editing of the Or gene for nutritional biofortification of crops.

  2. Water Relations of Seed Development and Germination in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Welbaum, Gregory E.; Bradford, Kent J.

    1988-01-01

    Total water potential (ψ), solute potential, and turgor potential of field-grown muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit tissue (pericarp) and seeds were determined by thermocouple psychrometry at 5-day intervals from 10 to 65 days after anthesis (DAA). Fruit maturity occurred between 44 and 49 DAA, and seed germination ability developed between 35 and 45 DAA. Pericarp ψ was essentially constant at approximately −0.75 megapascal (MPa) from 10 to 25 DAA, then decreased to a minimum value of −1.89 MPa at 50 DAA before increasing to −1.58 MPa at 65 DAA. Seed ψ remained relatively constant at approximately −0.5 MPa from 10 to 30 DAA then decreased to −2.26 MPa at 50 to 60 DAA before increasing to −2.01 MPa at 65 DAA. After a rapid increase to 20 DAA, seed fresh weight declined until 30 DAA due to net water loss, despite continuing dry weight gain. As fruit and seed growth rates decreased, turgor potential initially increased, then declined to small values when growth ceased. A disequilibrium in ψ was measured between seeds and pericarp both early and late in development. From 20 to 40 DAA, the ψ gradient was from the seed to the tissue, coinciding with water loss from the seeds. From 50 to 65 DAA, seed ψ decreased, causing a reversal of the ψ gradient and a slight increase in seed water content. The partitioning of solutes between symplast and apoplast may create and maintain ψ gradients between the pericarp and seed. The low solute potential within the pericarp due to solute accumulation and loss of cellular compartmentation during ripening and sensecence may be involved in prevention of precocious germination of mature seeds. PMID:16665921

  3. Water Relations of Seed Development and Germination in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Welbaum, Gregory E.; Bradford, Kent J.

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported that an apparent water potential disequilibrium is maintained late in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seed development between the embryo and the surrounding fruit tissue (mesocarp). To further investigate the basis of this phenomenon, the permeability characteristics of the tissues surrounding muskmelon embryos (the mucilaginous endocarp, the testa, a 2- to 4-cell-layered perisperm and a single cell layer of endosperm) were examined from 20 to 65 days after anthesis (DAA). Water passes readily through the perisperm envelope (endosperm + perisperm), testa, and endocarp at all stages of development. Electrolyte leakage (conductivity of imbibition solutions) of individual intact seeds, decoated seeds (testa removed), and embryos (testa and perisperm envelope removed) was measured during imbibition of freshly harvested seeds. The testa accounted for up to 80% of the total electrolyte leakage. Leakage from decoated seeds fell by 8- to 10-fold between 25 and 45 DAA. Presence of the perisperm envelope prior to 40 DAA had little effect on leakage, while in more mature seeds, it reduced leakage by 2- to 3-fold. In mature seeds, freezing, soaking in methanol, autoclaving, accelerated aging, and other treatments which killed the embryos had little effect on leakage of intact or decoated seeds, but caused osmotic swelling of the perisperm envelope due to the leakage of solutes from the embryo into the space between the embryo and perisperm. The semipermeability of the perisperm envelope of mature seeds did not depend upon cellular viability or lipid membrane integrity. After maximum seed dry weight is attained (35-40 DAA), the perisperm envelope prevents the diffusion of solutes, but not of water, between the embryo and the surrounding testa, endocarp, and mesocarp tissue. Images Figure 5 PMID:16667368

  4. Analysis of the melon (Cucumis melo) small RNAome by high-throughput pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a commercially important fruit crop that is cultivated worldwide. The melon research community has recently benefited from the determination of a complete draft genome sequence and the development of associated genomic tools, which have allowed us to focus on small RNAs (sRNAs). These are short, non-coding RNAs 21-24 nucleotides in length with diverse physiological roles. In plants, they regulate gene expression and heterochromatin assembly, and control protection against virus infection. Much remains to be learned about the role of sRNAs in melon. Results We constructed 10 sRNA libraries from two stages of developing ovaries, fruits and photosynthetic cotyledons infected with viruses, and carried out high-throughput pyrosequencing. We catalogued and analysed the melon sRNAs, resulting in the identification of 26 known miRNA families (many conserved with other species), the prediction of 84 melon-specific miRNA candidates, the identification of trans-acting siRNAs, and the identification of chloroplast, mitochondrion and transposon-derived sRNAs. In silico analysis revealed more than 400 potential targets for the conserved and novel miRNAs. Conclusion We have discovered and analysed a large number of conserved and melon-specific sRNAs, including miRNAs and their potential target genes. This provides insight into the composition and function of the melon small RNAome, and paves the way towards an understanding of sRNA-mediated processes that regulate melon fruit development and melon-virus interactions. PMID:21812964

  5. Genome-wide BAC-end sequencing of Cucumis melo using two BAC libraries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an economically important fruit crop, no genome-wide sequence information is openly available at the current time. We therefore sequenced BAC-ends representing a total of 33,024 clones, half of them from a previously described melon BAC library generated with restriction endonucleases and the remainder from a new random-shear BAC library. Results We generated a total of 47,140 high-quality BAC-end sequences (BES), 91.7% of which were paired-BES. Both libraries were assembled independently and then cross-assembled to obtain a final set of 33,372 non-redundant, high-quality sequences. These were grouped into 6,411 contigs (4.5 Mb) and 26,961 non-assembled BES (14.4 Mb), representing ~4.2% of the melon genome. The sequences were used to screen genomic databases, identifying 7,198 simple sequence repeats (corresponding to one microsatellite every 2.6 kb) and 2,484 additional repeats of which 95.9% represented transposable elements. The sequences were also used to screen expressed sequence tag (EST) databases, revealing 11,372 BES that were homologous to ESTs. This suggests that ~30% of the melon genome consists of coding DNA. We observed regions of microsynteny between melon paired-BES and six other dicotyledonous plant genomes. Conclusion The analysis of nearly 50,000 BES from two complementary genomic libraries covered ~4.2% of the melon genome, providing insight into properties such as microsatellite and transposable element distribution, and the percentage of coding DNA. The observed synteny between melon paired-BES and six other plant genomes showed that useful comparative genomic data can be derived through large scale BAC-end sequencing by anchoring a small proportion of the melon genome to other sequenced genomes. PMID:21054843

  6. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar “Yumeiren”, encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development. PMID:27101009

  7. Evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Ghenaati, Jafar

    2006-09-01

    The antitussive activity of Crocus sativus stigma and petal extracts and its components, safranal and crocin, was evaluated using the nebolized solution of citric acid 20% in guinea pigs. The extract and agents were injected intraperitoneally. The ethanolic extract of C. sativus (100-800 mg/kg) and safranal (0.25-0.75 ml/kg) reduced the number of cough. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of petal and crocin did not show antitussive activity.

  8. Leaves of Raphanus sativus L. Shows Anti-Inflammatory Activity in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages via Suppression of COX-2 and iNOS Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Minjung

    2017-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (RS) is a cruciferous vegetable that is widely consumed in Korea. The anticancer activity of leaves of RS (RSL) extract has been investigated; however, no studies focused on its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of RSL extract. In brief, RSL powder was fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water-soluble fractions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with each fraction for initial screening. It was found that the chloroform fraction significantly inhibited nitric oxide release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 196 μg/mL. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression decreased. Furthermore, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the key regulator of the transcriptional activation of the inflammatory cytokine genes, was reduced by the RSL chloroform fraction. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that RSL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-κB inactivation.

  9. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.

  10. Diamine Oxidase from White Pea (Lathyrus sativus) Combined with Catalase Protects the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Line from Histamine Damage.

    PubMed

    Jumarie, Catherine; Séïde, Marilyne; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2017-01-20

    Diamine oxidase (DAO) administration has been proposed to treat certain gastrointestinal dysfunctions induced by histamine, an immunomodulator, signaling, and pro-inflammatory factor. However, H2O2 resulting from the oxidative deamination of histamine by DAO may be toxic. The purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent DAO from white pea (Lathyrus sativus), alone or in combination with catalase, may modulate histamine toxicity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. The results show that histamine at concentrations higher than 1 mM is toxic to the Caco-2 cells, independently of the cell differentiation status, with a LC50 of ≅ 10 mM following a 24-h exposure. Depending on its concentration, DAO increased histamine toxicity to a greater extent in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated cultures. In the presence of catalase, the DAO-induced increase in histamine toxicity was completely abolished in the undifferentiated cells and only partially decreased in differentiated cells, showing differences in the sensitivity of Caco-2 cells to the products resulting from histamine degradation by DAO (H2O2, NH3, or imidazole aldehyde). It appears that treatment of food histaminosis using a combination of vegetal DAO and catalase would protect against histamine toxicity and prevent H2O2-induced damage that may occur during histamine oxidative deamination.

  11. In vitro activation of protein kinase C by beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid, the Lathyrus sativus neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Singh, M Raghuveer; Pratap Rudra, M P; Rao, S L N; Singh, Surya S

    2004-07-01

    Beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (L-ODAP) toxicity has been associated with lathyrism; a spastic paraparesis caused by excessive dietary intake of the pulse Lathyrus sativus. We investigated the effect of Lathyrus neurotoxin L-ODAP on protein kinase C (PKC) activity under in vitro conditions. L-ODAP activated phosphorylation activity of purified chick brain PKC. Both lysine-rich (histone III-S) and arginine-rich (protamine sulfate) substrate phosphorylation was enhanced in the presence of L-ODAP. The activation is concentration dependent, and maximal activation is observed at 100 microM concentration. Protamine sulfate phosphorylation was enhanced by 47%, whereas histone III-S phosphorylation was enhanced by 50% over PS/PDBu/Ca2+ dependent activity. The nontoxic D-isomer (D-ODAP) did not affect both histone III-S and protamine sulfate phosphorylation activity. These results indicate that L-ODAP taken up by neuronal cells could also contribute to PKC activation and so be associated with toxicity.

  12. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel extracts in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Bidkar, Jayant S; Ghanwat, Dhanaji Dadaso; Bhujbal, Madhuri D; Dama, Ganesh Y

    2012-09-24

    Abstract Cucumis melo Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits have been used, traditionally in Indian traditional system of medicine, for the treatment of various disorders such as liver tonic, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, antiobesity, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Cucumis melo fruit peel (CMFP) methanolic and aqueous extract in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in gain in body weight, serum lipid profile like total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, atherogenic index and increased the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in 28 days treatment when compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. The fecal excretion of bile acids and sterols was further increased upon treatment with CMFP methanolic and aqueous extract and standard drug. Administration of methanolic extract of CMFP at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed higher antihyperlipidemic activity as compared to other extract treated groups. The results concluded that CMFP methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) have potent antihyperlipidemic activity in high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia model and which is equipotent activity when compared with atorvastatin treated group.

  13. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  14. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

  15. Extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species were revealed by comparative genetic mapping with high-density EST-based SNP markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction-mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another.

  16. Extensive Chromosome Homoeology among Brassiceae Species Were Revealed by Comparative Genetic Mapping with High-Density EST-Based SNP Markers in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)‡

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction–mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another. PMID:21816873

  17. Heterotopic expression of B-class floral homeotic genes PISTILLATA/GLOBOSA supports a modified model for crocus (Crocus sativus L.) flower formation.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, Apostolos; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Polidoros, Alexios N; Tsaftaris, Athanasios S

    2007-04-01

    For uncovering and understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling flower development in cultivated Crocus sativus and particularly the transformation of sepals in outer whorl (whorl 1) tepals, we have cloned and characterized the expression of a family of five PISTILLATA/GLOBOSA-like (PI/GLO-like) MADS-box genes expressed in the C. sativus flower. The deduced amino acid sequences of the coded proteins indicated high homology with members of the MADS-box family of transcription factors, and particularly with other members of the PI/GLO family of MADS-box proteins that control floral organ identity. PI/GLO expression studies in cultivated C. sativus uncover the presence of PI/GLO transcripts not only in the second and third whorls of flower organs as expected, but also in the outer whorl tepals that are the sepals in most typical flowers. This heterotopic expression of both B-class genes: PI/GLO and AP3/DEF, known to form heterodimers for stamens and petals (petaloid inner whor l-whorl 2-tepals in C. sativus), explains the homeotic transformation of sepals into outer whorl tepals in this species. Analysis of PI/GLO sequences from C. sativus for putative targets to known micro-RNAs (miRNAs) showed that the target site for ath-miRNA167 found in Arabidopsis thaliana PI is not present in C. sativus, however, the PI/GLO sequences may be regulated by an ath-miRNA163.

  18. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-08-01

    The (133)Cs and (88)Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of (133)Cs, (88)Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for (88)Sr was far higher than that for (133)Cs when the concentration of (88)Sr was as the same as that of (133)Cs in the soil (The concentration of (88)Sr or (133)Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg(-1) to 40 mg kg(-1)). The highest (88)Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the highest (133)Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg(-1)), and the lowest (88)Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the lowest (133)Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg(-1)). The (88)Sr and (133)Cs TF values were 1.16-1.72 and 0.24-0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of (88)Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to (88)Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the (88)Sr stress than that under the (133)Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the (88)Sr stress than that under (133)Cs stress.

  19. Hormone and microorganism treatments in the cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Alper; Acikgoz, Aynur Ozkul

    2008-05-13

    The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L.) make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world's most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone--a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K--and two different microorganism based materials--biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms (EM)--in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus) was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  20. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Castro-Díaz, Nathaly; Salaun, Bruno; Perret, Rachel; Sierro, Sophie; Romero, Jackeline F; Fernández, Jose-Antonio; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Romero, Pedro

    2012-01-05

    Protein and peptide-based vaccines provide rigorously formulated antigens. However, these purified products are only weakly immunogenic by themselves and therefore require the addition of immunostimulatory components or adjuvants in the vaccine formulation. Various compounds derived from pathogens, minerals or plants, possess pro-inflammatory properties which allow them to act as adjuvants and contribute to the induction of an effective immune response. The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus. In vivo immunization studies and tumor protection experiments unambiguously establish the value of saffron saponins as candidate adjuvants. These saponins were indeed able to increase both humoral and cellular immune responses to protein-based vaccines, ultimately providing a significant degree of protection against tumor challenge when administered in combination with a tumor antigen. This preclinical study provides an in depth immunological characterization of a new saponin as a vaccine adjuvant, and encourages its further development for use in vaccine formulations.

  1. Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on male erectile dysfunction: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shamsa, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Molaei, Mahmood; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Rajabi, Omid

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) was studied on male erectile dysfunction (ED). Twenty male patients with ED were followed for ten days in which each morning they took a tablet containing 200mg of saffron. Patients underwent the nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) test and the international index of erectile function questionnaire (IIEF-15) at the start of the treatment and at the end of the ten days. After the ten days of taking saffron there was a statistically significant improvement in tip rigidity and tip tumescence as well as base rigidity and base tumescence. ILEF-15 total scores were significantly higher in patients after saffron treatment (before treatment 22.15+/-1.44; after treatment 39.20+/-1.90, p<0.001). Saffron showed a positive effect on sexual function with increased number and duration of erectile events seen in patients with ED even only after taking it for ten days.

  2. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w).

  3. Razi’s Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review

    PubMed Central

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi’s Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases. PMID:26877844

  4. Effect of methyl jasmonate on phenolics, isothiocyanate, and metabolic enzymes in radish sprout (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Choi, Ju-Hee

    2006-09-20

    The effect of spraying exogenous plant hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) upon radish sprout (Raphanus sativus L.) was investigated in aspects of total phenolic content (TPC), isothiocyanate content, antioxidant activity of the radish extract, and enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and myrosinase. The MeJA treatment significantly increased the TPC that resulted in the increased DPPH* (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the PAL activity also increased by 60% at 24 h after MeJA treatment. However, the same treatment decreased the amount of 4-methylthio-3-butenylisothiocyanate (MTBITC), a major isothiocyanate in radish sprout and the activity of myrosinase, an enzyme related to produce isothiocyanates.

  5. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Marchiol, L; Assolari, S; Sacco, P; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  6. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease.

  7. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  8. A novel polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from Lathyrus sativus L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Tamburino, Rachele; Chambery, Angela; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

    2012-08-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular plant proteins bound to the plant cell wall containing leucine-rich repeats (LRR). They play an important role in plant defence being able to inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (EPGs), the first enzymes secreted by phytopathogenic fungi during plant infection. In the present work, a novel PGIP (LsPGIP) has been isolated from Lathyrus sativus seeds. LsPGIP exhibited an inhibitory activity towards EPGs from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus spp. A pI value of 8.3 and a molecular mass of 40 kDa were determined for the purified inhibitor. Furthermore, N-terminal sequence up to residue 20 revealed that LsPGIP exhibit a high percentage of identity with PGIP from Actinidia deliciosa. A secondary structure similar to those of other polygalacturonase inhibitors was also inferred form circular dichroism data.

  9. Adsorption of nickel on husk of Lathyrus sativus: behavior and binding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Panda, G C; Das, S K; Bandopadhyay, T S; Guha, A K

    2007-06-15

    Husk of Lathyrus sativus (HLS) has been found to be a good sorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from its aqueous solution. The adsorption process depends on pH of the solution with an optimum at 5.0, and follows Langmuir isotherm model (correlation coefficient 0.998). Initial adsorption rate is very fast and reaches equilibrium following pseudo-second order kinetics within 60 min. Amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phosphate groups of the biomass are involved in chemical interaction with nickel ions as revealed from SEM-EDX and FTIR studies. Chemical modifications of the functional groups of the biosorbent show that amino groups contribute largely (approximately 57%) for the binding of nickel ions and probably undergo chelation through dative bond formation. HLS biomass has been found to adsorb both nickel and cadmium equally from their mixed solution to the extent of approximately 70% indicating the importance of this sorbent in industrial effluent treatment.

  10. Influence of heat stress on genome of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girjesh; Tripathi, Ritambhara

    2009-05-01

    Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability that culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. Several abiotic environmental factors such as heat may cause anomalies at genetic level that ultimately impair fertility of the plant. In the present study, the effect of heat stress on various morphological and cytological parameters has been studied in Lathyrus sativus. The most interesting anomaly recorded during the study was the formation of synezetic knot in prophase-l instead of leptotene and zygotene stages. Furthermore, a large number of interesting karyological and cytoplasmic irregularities viz. multivalents, transmigration of chromosomes, bridges, tripolarity, etc. were found among the heat treated population of 48 hr duration in M2 generation.

  11. Biosorption of cadmium and nickel by functionalized husk of Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Panda, G C; Das, S K; Guha, A K

    2008-04-01

    The husk of Lathyrus sativus (HLS) has been functionalized by introducing thio groups with the help of carbon disulphide treatment in alkaline environment. Elemental analysis indicates that sulphur content of the functionalized biomass increases to 3.7% from 0.36% of the pristine biomass suggesting the incorporation of thio group on HLS. A conspicuous change in the surface morphology of the biomass due to functionalization is depicted by SEM images. EDX data support the introduction of sulphur group on the HLS. The involvement of the hydroxyl groups mainly in the functionalization process is demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study. The adsorption capacity of the functionalized biomass with respect to cadmium and nickel is observed to increase by about 50% compared to that of pristine one. Similar to the case of unmodified HLS the adsorption process involving the functionalized one obeys Langmuir isotherm model and attains equilibrium in 10 min compared with 60 min in the case of unmodified biomass.

  12. Analysis of neurotoxin 3-N-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid and its alpha-isomer in Lathyrus sativus by high-performance liquid chromatography with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) derivatization.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wang, F; Chen, Q; Qin, X C; Li, Z

    2000-08-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative determination of the neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid, 3-N-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP), and its nontoxic alpha-isomer, 2-N-oxalyl-L-2, 3-diaminopropionic acid (alpha-ODAP), in the plant samples of Lathyrus sativus after derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Hippuric acid was used as an internal standard. A linear response was recorded in the concentration rang 0.32-32 nmol with r > 0.999. The RP HPLC detection limit for both isomers is 1.8 ng. According to different experimental needs, a ternary gradient system can be used to determine toxin and other nonprotein amino acids. The RP HPLC method and a colorimetric method were compared for measuring ODAP.

  13. Glucose trimming of N-glycan in endoplasmic reticulum is indispensable for the growth of Raphanus sativus seedling (kaiware radish).

    PubMed

    Mega, Tomohiro

    2005-07-01

    Recently I found that glycosidase inhibitors such as castanospermine, deoxynojirimycin, swainsonine, 2-acetamindo 2,3-dideoxynojirimycin, and deoxymannojirimycin change the N-glycan structure of root glycoproteins, and that the glucosidase inhibitors castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin suppress the growth of Raphanus sativus seedlings (Mega, T., J. Biochem., 2004). The present study undertook to see whether the growth suppression is due to the inhibition of glucose trimming in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The study, using three glucosidase inhibitors, castanospermine, N-methyl deoxynojirimycin, and deoxynojirimycin, upon the growth of R. sativus foliage leaf, made clear that glucose trimming is indispensable for plant growth, because the inhibition of glucose trimming correlated with leaf growth. On the other hand, processing inhibition in the Golgi apparatus by other glycosidase inhibitors had little effect on plant growth, although N-glycan processing was disrupted depending on inhibitor specificity. These results suggest that N-glycan processing after glucosidase processing is dispensable for plant growth and cell differentiation.

  14. Lead accumulation in the roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): a novel plant for phytoremediation systems?

    PubMed

    Brunet, Judicaëlle; Repellin, Anne; Varrault, Gilles; Terryn, Nancy; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine

    2008-11-01

    Eleven day-old grass pea plants (Lathyrus sativus L.) were grown hydroponically for 96 h in the presence of 0.5 mM lead nitrate (Pb(NO(3))(2)). The survival rate was 100%. The mean lead content (measured by ICP-OES) in root tissues was 153 mg Pb g(-1) dry matter. Over three quarters of the lead was not labile. Compared with control plants, lead-exposed plants showed a six-fold, two-fold and three and a half-fold reduction in their root calcium, zinc and copper contents, respectively. Together, these results suggested that Lathyrus sativus L. was tolerant to a deficiency in essential nutrients and able to store large amounts of lead in its root tissues. Therefore, it could be used for the development of new rhizofiltration systems.

  15. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants.

  16. Effect of methionine supplement on physical responses and neurological symptoms in broiler chicks fed grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)-based starter ration.

    PubMed

    Fikre, Asnake; Yami, Alemu; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Ahmed, Seid; Gheysen, Godelieve; Lambein, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    Starter feeding experiments of broiler chicks with raw grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) supplemented with different levels of DL-methionine were undertaken for 4 weeks to assess the toxicity of grass pea-based feed and to correlate it with neurological symptoms. Four hundred fifty day-old broiler chicks were divided into two groups and were given formulations containing 35% (ration I) or 98.5% (ration II) grass pea, respectively. Each ration included controls and treatments with added methionine of four different concentrations. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were much higher in ration I than in ration II and these parameters significantly improved by addition of methionine in both rations. Significant increase of neurological signs with higher grass pea intake and significant reduction of acute neurological signs with addition of methionine were observed. Tolerance for grass pea was enhanced with increasing methionine in the diet and with age. Despite a similarity in the initial intake, a significant (p0.05) increase in the final feed intake by the chicks with methionine addition was found in both rations. These results suggest that methionine can improve a grass pea-based diet for broiler chicks and especially can protect young chicks from neurological symptoms.

  17. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency.

  18. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. These results suggest that the efficiency of radish foliage in increasing; root mass decreases with increased rainfall acidity since only foliage was exposed to the treatments.

  19. Cytosolic and plastoglobule-targeted carotenoid dioxygenases from Crocus sativus are both involved in beta-ionone release.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Angela; Rambla, José Luís; Santaella, Marcella; Gómez, M Dolores; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2008-09-05

    Saffron, the processed stigma of Crocus sativus, is characterized by the presence of several apocarotenoids that contribute to the color, flavor, and aroma of the spice. However, little is known about the synthesis of aroma compounds during the development of the C. sativus stigma. The developing stigma is nearly odorless, but before and at anthesis, the aromatic compound beta-ionone becomes the principal norisoprenoid volatile in the stigma. In this study, four carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) genes, CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, CsCCD4a, and CsCCD4b, were isolated from C. sativus. Expression analysis showed that CsCCD1a was constitutively expressed, CsCCD1b was unique to the stigma tissue, but only CsCCD4a and -b had expression patterns consistent with the highest levels of beta-carotene and emission of beta-ionone derived during the stigma development. The CsCCD4 enzymes were localized in plastids and more specifically were present in the plastoglobules. The enzymatic activities of CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, and CsCCD4 enzymes were determined by Escherichia coli expression, and subsequent analysis of the volatile products was generated by GC/MS. The four CCDs fell in two phylogenetically divergent dioxygenase classes, but all could cleave beta-carotene at the 9,10(9',10') positions to yield beta-ionone. The data obtained suggest that all four C. sativus CCD enzymes may contribute in different ways to the production of beta-ionone. In addition, the location and precise timing of beta-ionone synthesis, together with its known activity as a fragrance and insect attractant, suggest that this volatile may have a role in Crocus pollination.

  20. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus Sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, G; Tarantilis, P A; Pitsikas, N

    2012-10-18

    Crocins are among the active components of the plant Crocus Sativus L. C. Sativus L. and its constituents were effective in different models of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions. The non selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist mCPP is known to induce OCD-like behavior (excessive self-grooming) in rodents and exacerbate symptoms in patients with OCD. The present study investigated whether or not crocins were able to counteract excessive self-grooming induced by mCPP (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Crocins (30 and 50mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated mCPP-induced excessive self-grooming. The present results also indicate that these effects of crocins on an animal model of OCD cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that the active constituents of C. Sativus L. crocins might play a role in compulsive behavior and support a functional interaction between crocins and the serotonergic system.

  1. Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-10-01

    Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them.

  2. New 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives from the seeds of Cucumis melo L var. reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M

    2010-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the seeds of Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus (Cucurbitaceae) afforded three new chromone derivatives; 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone 3, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone 4, and 7-glucosyloxy-5-hydroxy-2-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone 6, together with three known compounds; beta-amyrin 1, beta-sitosterol 2, and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside 5. Their structures were established by UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, in addition to mass spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. The n-hexane and methanolic extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp bioassay.

  3. Efficacy of random primer-pair arrays in plant genome analysis: a case study of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) for identification of wild and cultivated species.

    PubMed

    Gatphoh, E M; Sharma, S K; Rajkumari, K; Rama Rao, S

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of random primer-pair arrays compared to conventional RAPD method with a single decamer primer was evaluated using DNA from two species of Cucumis. The banding patterns of amplicons revealed enhanced utility of primer-pair arrays over conventional RAPDs, producing more bands and a higher degree of polymorphism, both at intra- and inter-specific levels. Amplification produced by both methods clearly distinguished a wild from a cultivated species of the genus Cucumis. The main advantage of the primer-pair RAPD over single-primer-based RAPD is the increase in the number of reactions and amplification products in the form of novel/unique bands with a limited number of primers. It also enables the generation of reliable amplicons with a large number of polymorphic bands, which can be linked to gene-governing traits, allowing sequence-characterized partial genome analysis.

  4. Influence of an iron-rich amendment on chemical lability and plant (Raphanus sativus L.) availability of two metallic elements (As and Pb) on mine-impacted agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Kim, Yong-Seong; Hyun, Seunghun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Jun Young

    2016-10-01

    Variation of the chemical extractability and phytoavailability of two metallic elements (e.g., As and Pb) on amendment-treated soils was investigated. Four mine-impacted agricultural soils contaminated with both As (174-491 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (116-357 mg kg(-1)) were amended with an iron-rich sludge at the rate of 5 % (w/w). After a 4-, 8-, and 16-week incubation, the extractability of metallic elements was assessed by sequential extraction procedure (SEP; F1-F5). The control without amendment was also run. In amended soils, the labile element mass (i.e., F1 + F2) promptly decreased (15-48 % of As and 5-10 % of Pb) in 4 weeks, but the decrement was continued over 16 weeks up to 70 and 28 % for As and Pb, respectively. The labile mass decrement was quantitatively corresponded with the increment of F3 (bound to amorphous metal oxides). In plant test assessed by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on the 16-week soils, up to 57 % of As and 28 % of Pb accumulation was suppressed and 10-43 % of growth (i.e., shoot/root elongation and fresh weight) was improved. For both the control and amended soils, element uptake by plant was well correlated with their labile soil concentrations (r (2) = 0.799 and 0.499 for As and Pb, respectively). The results confirmed that the iron-rich material can effectively suppress element uptake during R. sativus seedling growth, most likely due to the chemical stabilization of metallic elements in growth medium.

  5. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications.

  6. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changkeun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Seyedian, Ramin; Jo, MiNa; Kim, Jehein; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2012-12-15

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) has been an important subject of research in the past two decades because of its various biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities. On the other hand, the molecular bases of its actions have been scarcely understood. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of the hypoglycemic actions of saffron through investigating its signaling pathways associated with glucose metabolism in C(2)C(12) skeletal muscle cells. Saffron strongly enhanced glucose uptake and the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)/ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), but not PI 3-kinase (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt. Interestingly, the co-treatment of saffron and insulin further improved the insulin sensitivity via both insulin-independent (AMPK/ACC and MAPKs) and insulin-dependent (PI 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR) pathways. It also suggested that there is a crosstalk between the two signaling pathways of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. These results could be confirmed from the findings of GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, AMPK plays a major role in the effects of saffron on glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Our study provides important insights for the possible mechanism of action of saffron and its potential as a therapeutic agent in diabetic patients.

  7. Revisiting extraction of bioactive apocarotenoids from Crocus sativus L. dry stigmas (saffron).

    PubMed

    Kyriakoudi, Anastasia; Chrysanthou, Andreas; Mantzouridou, Fani; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2012-11-28

    An ultrasound assisted extraction method is proposed for the recovery of bioactive glycosides (i.e. crocins and picrocrocin) from Crocus sativus L. dry stigmas using aqueous methanol. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction parameters, namely, the percentage of methanol (%), the duration (min) and the duty cycles (s) of sonication. Optical microscopy, spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC-DAD were employed to follow pros and cons of the process. Additional experiments were conducted to compare recoveries with those under other agitation conditions (e.g. magnetic stirring according to ISO 3632-2 standard). The percentage of methanol, the sonication duration and duty cycles combination that can be recommended as optimum for the recovery of crocins and picrocrocin were 50%, 30 min, 0.2s and 0.44%, 30 min, 0.6s, respectively. Picrocrocin levels were not influenced dramatically under the optimum conditions for crocins extraction (11±2 instead of 12±1 mg kg(-1) dry stigmas, respectively) so that these can be considered optimum for both categories of tested compounds. Ultrasound assisted extraction speeded up further recovery of these precious apocarotenoids. Our findings for extraction conditions are useful for both industrial and analytical applications and should be considered in a forthcoming revision of the ISO 3632-2 technical standard.

  8. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds.

  9. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes.

  10. Bacillus subtilis FZB24 affects flower quantity and quality of saffron (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2008-08-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24 on saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. SUBTILIS FZB24(R). Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15 min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24 may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12 %. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required.

  11. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  12. Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Halataei, Bahar-al-Sadat; Khosravi, Maryam; Arbabian, Sedigheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Golmanesh, Leila; Zardooz, Homeira; Jalili, Cyrus; Ghoshooni, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of an ethanol and aqueous extract of saffron Crocus sativus and its constituents safranal and crocin on the stress-induced reduction in food intake, weight gain and anorexic time in mice were investigated. Male albino mice (20-25 g) were irregularly exposed to a trial of electroshock stress for 7 days. Then, the anorexic time as well as the animal's food intake and weight were recorded. In addition, blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for corticosterone determination. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the aqueous but not the ethanol extract (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the anorexic time. The results were similar for crocin (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, a reduction in weight gain was observed in the controls as well as in the groups that received alcohol extract or safranal. However, this was not observed in animals treated with aqueous extract or crocin. The plasma corticosterone level did not increase in the aqueous extract and crocin treated animals. It can be concluded that the saffron aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduce side effects of electroshock stress in mice.

  13. Bacillus subtilis FZB24® Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24® on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. subtilis FZB24®. Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24® may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required. PMID:18622904

  14. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-08

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  15. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings. PMID:27403251

  16. Cloning and expression of mitochondrial MnSOD from the small radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Il; An, Chung Sun

    2003-10-31

    A cDNA clone for a mitochondrial MnSOD was isolated from a cDNA library derived from seedlings of the small radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The cDNA clone, RsMnSOD, encoded a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 25.4 kDa and calculated pI of 8.77. Its deduced amino acid sequence was 93% homologous with MnSOD of Arabidopsis. RNA gel blot analysis showed that RsMnSOD transcripts were most abundant in leaves, followed by roots and hypocotyls, whereas transcripts of RsFeSOD and RsCu/ZnSOD were not detected in roots. The hypocotyls of germinated seedlings turned green and finally red in response to white light. These color changes were accompanied by increases in RsMnSOD and RsCu/ZnSOD mRNA. In addition, RsMnSOD expression was strongly induced by osmotic stress, moderately induced by phytohormones such as ABA and IAA, and not induced by xenobiotics other than cercosporin.

  17. Somatic hybrids between Arabidopsis thaliana and cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, H; Glimelius, K

    2003-08-01

    Somatic hybrids were produced by protoplast fusion between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia and a male-sterile radish line MS-Gensuke ( Raphanus sativus) with the Ogura cytoplasm. Forty-one shoots were differentiated from the regenerated calli and established as shoot cultures in vitro. About 20 of these shoots were judged to be hybrids based on growth characteristics and morphology. Molecular analyses of 11 shoots were performed, confirming the hybrid features. Of these 11 shoots, eight were established as rooted plants in the greenhouse. Polymerase chain reaction and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the nuclear genomes of all analyzed shoots and plants confirmed that they contained hybrid DNA patterns. Their chromosome numbers also supported the hybrid nature of the plants. Investigations of the organelles in the hybrids revealed that the chloroplast (cp) genome was exclusively represented by radish cpDNA, while the mitochondrial DNA configuration showed a combination of both parental genomes as well as fragments unique to the hybrids. Hybrid plants that flowered were male-sterile independent of the presence of the Ogura CMS-gene orf138.

  18. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  19. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.

  20. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antitumor phenylpropanoid sucrosides from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Park, Yong Joo; Moon, Eunjung; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Jei Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Raphanus sativus seeds resulted in the isolation and identification of eight phenylpropanoid sucrosides (1-8) including two new compounds, named raphasativuside A and B (1-2) from the most active CHCl₃-soluble fraction. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D-NMR data, and chemical reaction experiments. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ values of 21.63 and 26.96 μM, respectively. All isolates were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15). Compounds 1-7 showed consistent cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.71-27.92 μM. Additionally, the free-radical scavenging activity of 1-8 was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay where compounds 1, 3, and 4 scavenged DPPH radical strongly with IC₅₀ values of 23.05, 27.10, and 29.63 μg/mL, respectively.

  2. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  3. Initiation of spontaneous tumors in radish (Raphanus sativus): Cellular, molecular and physiological events.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva Osipova, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Vinogradova, Alena P; Gancheva, Maria S; Azarakhsh, Mahboobeh; Ilina, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Dodueva, Irina E; Lutova, Lyudmila A

    2015-01-15

    In plant meristems, the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained by phytohormones, specifically auxin and cytokinin, as well as transcription factors. Changing of the cytokinin/auxin balance in plants may lead to developmental abnormalities, and in particular, to the formation of tumors. The examples of spontaneous tumor formation in plants include tumors formed on the roots of radish (Raphanus sativus) inbred lines. Previously, it was found that the cytokinin/auxin ratio is altered in radish tumors. In this study, a detailed histological analysis of spontaneous radish tumors was performed, revealing a possible mechanism of tumor formation, namely abnormal cambial activity. The analysis of cell proliferation patterns revealed meristematic foci in radish tumors. By using a fusion of an auxin-responsive promoter (DR5) and a reporter gene, the involvement of auxin in developmental processes in tumors was shown. In addition, the expression of the root meristem-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) gene was observed in cells adjacent to meristematic foci. Taken together, the results of the present study show that tumor tissues share some characteristics with root apical meristems, including the presence of auxin-response maxima in meristematic foci with adjacent cells expressing WOX5.

  4. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells.

  5. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  6. Isolation and characterization of novel variants of BBI coding genes from the legume Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    De Paola, Domenico; Blanco, Emanuela; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2012-08-01

    A pool of twelve cDNA sequences coding for Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs) was identified in the legume grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). The corresponding amino acid sequences showed a canonical first anti-trypsin domain, predicted according to the identity of the determinant residue P(1). A more variable second binding loop was observed allowing to identify three groups based on the identity of residue P(1): two groups (Ls_BBI_1 and Ls_BBI_2) carried a second reactive site specific for chymotrypsin, while a third group (Ls_BBI_3) was predicted to inhibit elastase. A fourth variant carrying an Asp in the P(1) position of the second reactive site was identified only from genomic DNA. A phylogenetic tree constructed using grass pea BBIs with their homologs from other legume species revealed grouping based on taxonomy and on specificity of the reactive sites. Five BBI sequences, representing five different second reactive sites, were heterologously expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins demonstrated to be active against trypsin, while three of them were also active against chymotrypsin, and one against human leukocyte elastase. Comparative modeling and protein docking were used to further investigate interactions between two grass pea BBI isoforms and their target proteases. Thus two reliable 3D models have been proposed, representing two potential ternary complexes, each constituted of an inhibitor and its target enzymes.

  7. Testing uniformity of mutants of the Lathyrus sativus L. (grasspea) using Bennet's method.

    PubMed

    Zawieja, B; Bocianowski, J; Rybin'ski, W

    2012-02-01

    In this paper interest is focused on uniformity of individual mutants. Because before the registration of a new variety the criteria for DUS (distinctness, uniformity and stability) are checked, so you should also check whether the mutant meets them. The aim of created mutants, in many genetic experiments, is to expand variation of the initial material. This is achieved through use of the mutagen or combination of mutagens on different stages of plants growth. The experimenter should choose some of obtained mutants (for example these which showed better property as regards the same trait). Calculations were done on the basis of results of test with variety Krab of the Lathyrus sativus L. (grasspea) species and 17 mutants getting from this variety. Uniformity was checked with the use of the Bennett's method which is based on testing of equality of coefficients of variation. After analysis the mutants with codes K3, K37, K63 and K64 were detected as uniform at the same level as variety Krab.

  8. [Ecological function and application of toxin beta-ODAP in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Bai, Xue; Batool, Asfa; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Wang, Ya-Fu; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Xiong, You-Cai

    2014-04-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a legume with various adverse adaptability and rich nutrition. However, it can lead to the human and animal neurotoxicity after long-term consumption due to its neurotoxin, beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP), limiting its utilization. This paper summarized the influences of beta-ODAP on osmotic adjustment and growth regulation in grass pea under drought stress, the research progress in analysis methods, toxicological mechanisms and practical utility of beta-ODAP, and the breeding strategies for low- and zero-beta-ODAP. Beta-ODAP synthesis was found to be abundant in grass pea under drought stress and its content was enhanced gradually with the increasing extent of drought stress. beta-ODAP could supply nitrogen for plant growth and seed development, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), involve in osmotic adjustment as a soluble amino acid, transport zinc-ions as a carrier molecule, and impact nodule development. However, increasing the content of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) could decrease the level of toxicity of grass pea. There were a lot of investigations on collecting genetic resources, cross breeding, tissue culture, and gene manipulation for low- and zero-toxin in grass pea in recent years. Although beta-ODAP could induce excitotoxicity by damaging intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and as glutamate analogues, it has medicinal value on hemostasis and anti-tumor.

  9. Changes in chemical composition during development of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Korus, Anna; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2003-12-01

    The level of chemical components was determined in seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), cv. Krab, harvested at a dry matter content between 25.9 and 49.6 g/100 g of the raw material, and divided into five degrees of maturity. The results presented suggest that, in general, with an increasing maturity of seeds, the level of the following components increased if related to fresh matter: starch, dietary fibre, acids, total and protein nitrogen, total amino acids and sulphur amino acids, ash and its alkalinity, magnesium, calcium, total phosphorus and phytic phosphorus, and thiamine. The following components were reduced: vitamin C, riboflavin, carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls. No such regularity could be found with respect to the accumulation of sugars, essential amino acids, and iron. By expressing the results in dry matter, increases were noted in starch, protein nitrogen, and thiamine. The content of sugars, total nitrogen, total amino acids, essential and sulphur amino acids, ash and its alkalinity, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls were reduced while that of dietary fibre, iron, calcium, and phytic phosphorus varied.

  10. A Bowman-Birk inhibitor with anti-elastase activity from Lathyrus sativus L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Micaela; Malorni, Livia; Chambery, Angela; Poerio, Elia; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

    2011-08-01

    Four Bowman-Birk inhibitors, named LSI-1/4, were isolated and purified from Lathyrus sativus L. seeds. The purification procedure consisted of two cation-exchange chromatography steps, followed by gel-filtration and RP-HPLC. Mass spectrometry analysis of LSI-1/4 inhibitors yielded relative molecular masses of 7914.41 for LSI-1, 6867.67 for LSI-2, 7341.24 for LSI-3 and 7460.01 for LSI-4. N-terminal sequences (up to 30 residues) of LSI-1/4 inhibitors were identical with the exception of sequence positions 21, 27 and 28 and highly similar to those of other Bowman-Birk inhibitors isolated from Leguminosae plants. Inhibitors LSI-1/4 were active towards trypsin and α-chymotrypsin, with IC(50) values for 12.6 nM of trypsin ranging from 4.9 to 24.3 nM. A lower activity was observed against bovine α-chymotrypsin (IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 3.4 μM for 15.0 nM of α-chymotrypsin). Peptide mapping of the LSI-1 sequence showed the presence of an Ala residue in the second reactive site, thus explaining the low anti-chymotrypsin activity of this inhibitor. In addition, LSI-1 was endowed with anti-elastase activity, being able to inhibit human leukocyte elastase.

  11. Identification and purification of metalloprotease from dry grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Vadde; Rajasekhar, Sake; Reddy, Lokireddy Sudarsana

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes play a central role in the biochemical mechanism of germination. The present study reported the presence of Zn(2+)-dependent endoproteases in the dry seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) with maximum caseinolytic activity observed at pH 8.0. Studies with class-specific inhibitors (specific for cysteine, serine, aspartate, and metalloproteases) on crude extract identified the inhibitory effect of 1,10-phenanthroline. This inhibitory effect was overcome by addition of Zn(2+), not with Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, or Co and indicates that the protease is Zn(2+) dependent. This metalloprotease was further characterized by attempting gelatin-PAGE zymography and observed three distinct zones of proteolytic activity with higher mobility. The protease fraction consisted of three isoforms as evidenced by the appearance of three different bands on gelatin-PAGE zymogram. We also purified these proteases to 110-fold by a three-step procedure comprising crude extract from dry seeds, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) fractionation, and casein-alginate affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of isoforms of metalloproteases is 25, 18, and 14 kDa.

  12. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.

  13. Photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boes, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    A status report on photovoltaic (PV) concentrators technology is presented. The major topics covered are as follows: (1) current PV concentrator arrays; designs, performances, and costs; (2) current PV concentrator array components; cells and cell assemblies, optical concentrators, support structures, tracking, and drive; (3) design of PV concentrator arrays; and (4) array manufacturing technology.

  14. Concentration of Cs in plants and water resulting from radioactive pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, A.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Fujishiro, F.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Koshio, S.; Yamauchi, S.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Itoh, S.; Kasahara, K.; Toyama, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of plants cultivated in soils contaminated by radioactive cesium can lead to internal exposure and health problems in humans. It is therefore very important to clarify the uptake mechanism of radioactive cesium from contaminated soils. In this study, the variation of cesium concentrations in plants was examined using mediums that contained no potassium and different cesium concentrations of 50, 100, 250 and 500 ppm. Raphanus sativus was selected as a typical edible vegetable and hydroponically cultivated. Cesium concentrations in leaves were analyzed with a submilli-PIXE camera. The concentration of cesium in plants was observed to increase as concentrations in the medium increased. As the concentration of cesium in the medium increased, the transfer coefficient decreased. However, there was little difference between the 250 and 500 ppm treatments. In future work, PIXE analysis will be performed on different mediums and the relationship with other materials will be investigated.

  15. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest.

  16. Effect of gamma rays on different explants of callus treatment of multiple shoots in Cucumis melo cv. Bathasa.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwarlu, M

    2008-09-01

    A mutagenesis programme was carried out using physical mutagens (gamma rays) on Cucumis melo cv. Bathasa. In irradiated seeds the number of shoots formed in the lower doses was significantly higher than the controls. Decrease in the number of shoots and shoot bud formation was observed with higher doses in all the explants studies. There was complete lethality in the 10, 15 and 20 kR doses. In irradiated stem cultures the maximum number of shoots were observed in 2 kR. The number of shoots decreased with increasing doses of irradiation. At higher doses of 4 and 5kR, light green compact callus was formed in almost all the explants. The effect of lower doses of gamma irradiation on shoot bud formation and rooting efficiency from nodal explants cultured on MS +2.0 mgl(-1) L-glutamic acid + 0.5 mgl(-1) BAP, stimulation of shoot and root induction were studied. The number of shoots and root lengths decreased with the increasing dosage of irradiation. The irradiated callus was grown on solidified MS medium with containing 2.0 mgl(-1) BAP + 1.0 mgl(-1) IAA. There was a significant stimulation of growth in the callus at lower doses. At higher doses like 15 and 20 kRs growth was drastically reduced.

  17. Physiological analysis and transcriptome comparison of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, L M; Zhang, L D; Chen, J B; Huang, D F; Zhang, Y D

    2016-09-19

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important vegetable crop that ranks second in salt tolerance among the Cucurbitaceae. Previous studies on the two muskmelon cultivars 'Bing XueCui' (BXC) and 'Yu Lu' (YL) revealed that they had different characteristics under salt stress, but the molecular basis underlying their different physiological responses is unclear. Here, we combined a physiological study with a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to understand the molecular basis of genetic variation that responds to salt stress in the melon. BXC performed better under salt stress than YL in terms of biomass and photosynthetic characteristics, because it exhibited less reduction in transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, and stomatal conductance under 150-mM NaCl stress than YL. A transcriptome comparison of the leaves of the cultivars revealed that 1171 genes responded to salt stress in BXC while 1487 genes were identified as salt-stress-responsive in YL. A real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of 12 of the responsive genes revealed that there was a strong, positive correlation with RNA sequencing data. The genes were involved in several pathways, including photosynthesis, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction, and their expression levels differed between the two cultivars in response to salt stress. This study provides a molecular perspective of two melon cultivars in response to salt stress, and its results could be used to investigate the complex molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in the melon.

  18. Chlorophenoxyacetic acid and chloropyridylphenylurea accelerate translocation of photoassimilates to parthenocarpic and seeded fruits of muskmelon (Cucumis melo).

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xian; Kobayashi, Fumiyuki; Ikeura, Hiromi; Hayata, Yasuyoshi

    2011-06-15

    We compared the effect of p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (p-CPA) and 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) on parthenocarpic and seeded muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruits in regards to fruit development and the transport of photoassimilates from leaves exposed to ¹⁴CO₂ to the developing fruits. Ten days after anthesis (DAA), the fresh weight, total ¹⁴C-radioactivity and contents of ¹⁴C-sucrose and ¹⁴C-fructose were higher in the CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits than in seeded fruits. However, at 35 DAA, fresh weight and sucrose content in mesocarp, placenta and empty seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower than in seeded fruits. Also, total ¹⁴C-radioactivity and ¹⁴C-sugar content of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower as well as the translocation rate of ¹⁴C-photoassimilates into these fruits. Application of p-CPA to the parthenocarpic fruits at 10 and 25 DAA increased fresh weight and sugar content. Moreover, these treatments elevated the total ¹⁴C-radioactivity, ¹⁴C-sucrose content and the translocation rate of ¹⁴C-photoassimilates. The ¹⁴C-radioactivity along the translocation pathway from leaf to petiole, stem, lateral shoot and peduncle showed a declining pattern but dramatically increased again in the fruits. These results suggest that the fruit's sink strength was regulated by the seed and enhanced by the application of p-CPA.

  19. Intestinal cell targeting of a stable recombinant Cu-Zn SOD from Cucumis melo fused to a gliadin peptide.

    PubMed

    Intes, Laurent; Bahut, Muriel; Nicole, Pascal; Couvineau, Alain; Guette, Catherine; Calenda, Alphonse

    2012-05-31

    The mRNA encoding full length chloroplastic Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase) of Cucumis melo (Cantaloupe melon) was cloned. This sequence was then used to generate a mature recombinant SOD by deleting the first 64 codons expected to encode a chloroplastic peptide signal. A second hybrid SOD was created by inserting ten codons to encode a gliadin peptide at the N-terminal end of the mature SOD. Taking account of codon bias, both recombinant proteins were successfully expressed and produced in Escherichia coli. Both recombinant SODs display an enzymatic activity of ~5000U mg(-1) and were shown to be stable for at least 4h at 37°C in biological fluids mimicking the conditions of intestinal transit. These recombinant proteins were capable in vitro, albeit at different levels, of reducing ROS-induced-apoptosis of human epithelial cells. They also stimulated production and release in a time-dependent manner of an autologous SOD activity from cells located into jejunum biopsies. Nevertheless, the fused gliadin peptide enable the recombinant Cu-Zn SOD to maintain a sufficiently sustained interaction with the intestinal cells membrane in vivo rather than being eliminated with the flow. According to these observations, the new hybrid Cu-Zn SOD should show promise in applications for managing inflammatory bowel diseases.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of Cucumis melo Var. flexuosus leaf extract on the brains of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Doaa S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system is one of the most vulnerable organs affected by the oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Healthy food provides an important source for antioxidants. Therefore, the protective effect of Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (C. melo var. flexuosus) leaf extract on the brains of diabetic rats was investigated. Adult male albino rats divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into a normal control group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg bw). One of the four diabetic groups was left untreated and was considered as a diabetic control group while the three other groups were treated with C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract at the doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg bw for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration plasma and brains were used for evaluating biochemical changes. The obtained data showed that C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract treatment lowered blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, brain tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin levels, brain malondialdehyde content and caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in plasma dopamine, melatonin, brain vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage associated with diabetes.

  1. Antisense suppression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) sucrose synthase 3 (CsSUS3) reduces hypoxic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyun; Sui, Xiaolei; Guo, Jinju; Wang, Zhenyu; Cheng, Jintao; Ma, Si; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2014-03-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) plays important roles in sugar metabolism and abiotic stress response. But the genes encoding SUS in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) have not been well studied. Here, we isolated four cucumber sucrose synthase genes (CsSUS). Among them, CsSUS3, which highly expressed in the roots, was chosen for further study. Immunolocalization and subcellular localization analysis indicated that CsSUS3 localized in the cytosol and the plasma membrane, and mainly existed in the companion cells of phloem in the roots. When suffering hypoxia stress from flooding, CsSUS3 expression and SUS activity in roots increased, especially in the lateral roots; moreover, the soluble SUS activity increased clearly, but the membrane fraction hardly changed. Compared with the wild-type cucumbers, the transgenic lines with antisense expression of CsSUS3 were more sensitive to flooding. After 6 d of flooding, the SUS activity, soluble sugar and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose (UDPG) content and the ratio of ATP/ADP in the roots of transgenic plants were significantly lower than that in wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic lines grew more slowly with more yellow necrosis in the leaves. These findings suggested CsSUS3 participated in resisting hypoxic stress. Furthermore, the mechanism of CsSUS3 in resisting hypoxic stress was also discussed.

  2. Cell wall yield properties of growing tissue: evaluation by in vivo stress relaxation. [Pisum sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1985-06-01

    Growing pea stem tissue, when isolated from an external supply of water, undergoes stress relaxation because of continued loosening of the cell wall. A theoretical analysis is presented to show that such stress relaxation should result in an exponential decrease in turgor pressure down to the yield threshold (Y), with a rate constant given by phi epsilon where phi is the metabolically maintained irreversible extensibility of the cell wall and epsilon is the volumetric elastic modulus of the cell. Stress relaxation was measured in pea (Pisum sativus L.) stem segments using the pressure microprobe technique. From the rate of stress relaxation, phi of segments pretreated with water was calculated to be 0.08 per megapascal per hour while that of auxin-pretreated tissue was 0.24 per megapascal per hour. These values agreed closely with estimates of phi made by a steady-state technique. The yield threshold (0.29 megapascal) was not affected by auxin. A theoretical analysis is also presented to show that the tissue hydraulic conductance may be estimated from the T/sub 1/2/ of tissue swelling. Experimentally, pea stems had a swelling T/sub 1/2/ of 2.0 minutes, corresponding to a relative hydraulic conductance of about 2.0 per megapascal per hour. This value is at least 8 times larger than phi. From these data and from computer modeling, it appears that the radial gradient in water potential which sustains water uptake in growing pea segments is small (0.04 megapascal). This means that hydraulic conductance does not substantially restrict growth. The results also demonstrate that the stimulation of growth by auxin can be entirely accounted for by the change in phi.

  3. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity evaluation of Crocus sativus stigmas in neonates of nursing mice

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian, Mortaza; Baradaran, Azar; Rafieian, Samira; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Crocus sativus, known as saffron crocus, is best known for the spice saffron. Saffron use spans more than 3500 years, however, its toxicity on neonates during lactation has not yet evaluated. Objectives: This study was aimed to examine the acute toxicity of saffron on adult mice and its nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity on neonates of lactating mothers that used saffron during lactation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, following acute toxicity evaluation, 32 pregnant mice were randomly designated into four equal groups. Following delivery, the mothers of groups 1 to 4 were administered orally (by gavage) normal saline (control group), 500, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/day of saffron for three weeks, respectively. The newborn’s kidney and liver parameters were assessed at the end of the study for possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity evaluation. The kidney and liver tissue samples of newborns were histopathologically studied after staining with Hematoxylin & Eosin. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe’s tests Results: The LD50 value of saffron was calculated to be 4120±556 mg/kg in mice. To evaluate lactating toxicity, saffron was administered orally to the mothers once daily for 21 days, after delivery, during lactating period. Saffron increased serum urea nitrogen (p< 0.05). Histological studies indicated that saffron did not have any toxic effect on liver, however, histopathology changes were seen in the kidney of neonates. Conclusions: From the results of present study, it might be concluded that saffron is a nearly safe spice, however, nursing mothers should avoid high doses of this spice. PMID:24772401

  4. The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

  5. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  6. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family.

  7. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus and gene evolution of cruciferous mitochondrial types.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Wang, Yankun; Gu, Bingchao; He, Jianbo; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2013-03-20

    To explore the mitochondrial genes of the Cruciferae family, the mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus (sat) was sequenced and annotated. The circular mitochondrial genome of sat is 239,723 bp and includes 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 17 tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains a pair of large repeat sequences 5.9 kb in length, which may mediate genome reorganization into two sub-genomic circles, with predicted sizes of 124.8 kb and 115.0 kb, respectively. Furthermore, gene evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Cruciferae family was analyzed using sat mitochondrial type (mitotype), together with six other reported mitotypes. The cruciferous mitochondrial genomes have maintained almost the same set of functional genes. Compared with Cycas taitungensis (a representative gymnosperm), the mitochondrial genomes of the Cruciferae have lost nine protein-coding genes and seven mitochondrial-like tRNA genes, but acquired six chloroplast-like tRNAs. Among the Cruciferae, to maintain the same set of genes that are necessary for mitochondrial function, the exons of the genes have changed at the lowest rates, as indicated by the numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function in the cruciferous genomes are not conserved. Evolutionary events, such as mutations, genome reorganizations and sequence insertions or deletions (indels), have resulted in the non-conserved ORFs in the cruciferous mitochondrial genomes, which is becoming significantly different among mitotypes. This work represents the first phylogenic explanation of the evolution of genes of known function in the Cruciferae family. It revealed significant variation in ORFs and the causes of such variation.

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  10. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety 'BioR-231' and 'Hooghly Local', respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  11. Exploring the genetic diversity of Ethiopian grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) using EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, E; Pè, M E; Porceddu, E; Ponnaiah, M

    2012-08-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in public databases and cross-species transferable markers are considered to be a cost-effective means for developing sequence-based markers for less-studied species. In this study, EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Lathyrus sativus L. EST sequences and cross-transferable EST-SSRs derived from Medicago truncatula L. were utilized to investigate the genetic diversity among grass pea populations from Ethiopia. A total of 45 alleles were detected using eleven EST-SSRs with an average of four alleles per locus. The average polymorphism information content for all primers was 0.416. The average gene diversity was 0.477, ranging from 0.205 for marker Ls942 to 0.804 for MtBA32F05. F(ST) values estimated by analysis of molecular variance were 0.01, 0.15, and 0.84 for among regions, among accessions and within accessions respectively, indicating that most of the variation (84%) resides within accessions. Model-based cluster analysis grouped the accessions into three clusters, grouping accessions irrespective of their collection regions. Among the regions, high levels of diversity were observed in Gojam, Gonder, Shewa and Welo regions, with Gonder region showing a higher number of different alleles. From breeding and conservation aspects, conducting a close study on a specific population would be advisable for genetic improvement in the crop, and it would be appropriate if future collection and conservation plans give due attention to under-represented regions. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9662-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  12. Ecotoxicity of halloysite nanotube-supported palladium nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgetti, Lucia; Riela, Serena; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Scialabba, Anna; Massaro, Marina

    2016-10-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are natural nanomaterials that are biocompatible and available in large amounts at low prices. They are emerging nanomaterials with appealing properties for applications like support for metal nanoparticles (NPs). The potential environmental impacts of NPs can be understood in terms of phytotoxicity. Current research has been focusing on HNT applications in cell or animal models, while their use in plants is limited so their ecotoxicological impact is poorly documented. To date there are no studies on the phytotoxic effects of functionalized halloysites (functionalized-HNTs). To develop a quantitative risk assessment model for predicting the potential impact of HNT-supported palladium nanoparticles (HNT-PdNPs) on plant life, an investigation was undertaken to explore their effects on seed germination, seedling development, and mitotic division in root tip cells of 2 lots of Raphanus sativus L. with different vigor. The results showed that exposure to 1500 mg/L of HNTs, functionalized-HNTs, and HNT-PdNPs had no significant influence on germination, seedling development, xylem differentiation, or mitotic index in both lots. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that treatments with functionalized-HNT significantly increased the number of aberrations in low-vigor seeds. These results suggest that low-vigor seeds represent a model for a stress test that would be useful to monitor the effects of NPs. Moreover the present study offers scientific evidence for the use of halloysite for environmental purposes, supporting the biological safety of HNT-PdNPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2503-2510. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses.

  14. ß-N-oxalyl-L-a,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP) content in Lathyrus sativus: the integration of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism through ß-cyanoalanine synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This under utilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for p...

  15. Safranal of Crocus sativus L. inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and attenuates asthma in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Syed Imran; Pattnaik, Bijay; Rayees, Sheikh; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-04-01

    The present study involves evaluation of antioxidant potential of Crocus sativus and its main constituents, safranal (SFN) and crocin (CRO), in bronchial epithelial cells, followed antiinflammatory potential of the active constituent safranal, in a murine model of asthma. To investigate the antioxidizing potential of Crocus sativus and its main constituents in bronchial epithelial cells, the stress was induced in these cells by a combination of different cytokines that resulted in an increase in nitric oxide production (NO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, peroxynitrite ion generation, and cytochrome c release. Treatment with saffron and its constituents safranal and crocin resulted in a decrease of NO, iNOS levels, peroxynitrite ion generation, and prevented cytochrome c release. However, safranal significantly reduced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells via iNOS reduction besides preventing apoptosis in these cells. In the murine model of asthma study, antiinflammatory role of safranal was characterized by increased airway hyper-responsiveness, airway cellular infiltration, and epithelial cell injury. Safranal pretreatment to these allergically inflamed mice lead to a significant decrease in airway hyper-responsiveness and airway cellular infiltration to the lungs. It also reduced iNOS production, bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis, and Th2 type cytokine production in the lungs.

  16. Identification and analysis of isothiocyanates and new acylated anthocyanins in the juice of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango sprouts.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Petrillo, Gianna; Valgimigli, Luca

    2012-07-15

    The freeze-dried sprouts' juice of Raphanus sativus (L.) cv. Sango was prepared and analysed for the first time. HPLC analysis of total isothiocyanates, after protein displacement, resulted in 77.8 ± 3.0 μmol/g of dry juice while GC-MS analysis of hexane and acetone extracts showed E- and Z-raphasatin (8.9 and 0.11 μmol/g, respectively) and sulforaphene (11.7 μmol/g), summing up to 20.7 ± 1.7 μmol/g of free isothiocyanates. Sprouts' juice contained an unprecedented wealth of anthocyanins and a new fractionation methodology allowed us to isolate 34 mg/g of acylated anthocyanins (28.3 ± 1.9 μmol/g), belonging selectively to the cyanidin family. Analysis was performed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n) and extended to deacylated anthocyanins and aglycones, obtained, respectively, by alkaline and acid hydrolysis. This study identified 70 anthocyanins, 19 of which have never been described before and 32 of which are reported here in R. sativus for the first time. Sango radish sprouts are exceptional dietary sources of heath-promoting micronutrients.

  17. Effects of Eu3+ on the metabolism of amino acid and protein in xerophytic Lathyrus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong Er; Gao, Yong Sheng; Zeng, Fu Li; Li, Feng Min; Shan, Lun

    2005-01-01

    The contents of amino acids and proteins and the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase were determined in roots, stems, and leaves of Eu3+-treated Lathyrus sativus L. The results showed that the treatment of Eu3+ made the contents of amino acid and protein and the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase change. The first possible mechanism was that Eu3+ directly made the electric potential of -NH2 or -COOH of amino acid change. The second possible mechanism was that Eu3+ played a role in metallic-activated factors of certain enzymes, which catalyze the catabolism and anabolism of protein. Then, the contents of amino acids and proteins were relatively changed. The third possible mechanism was that Eu3+ regulated the activity of ATPase through changing the Na+/K+ ratio. The energy released by ATPase was the driving force for the translocation of amino acids and proteins in the plant cell. Because of the changeability of its valence, Eu3+ played an important role in regulating certain physiological reactions to increase the adaptability of L. sativus in arid environment.

  18. In silico identification of miRNAs and their target genes and analysis of gene co-expression network in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma.

    PubMed

    Zinati, Zahra; Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Roohollah; Behpouri, Ali

    2016-12-01

    As an aromatic and colorful plant of substantive taste, saffron (Crocus sativus L.) owes such properties of matter to growing class of the secondary metabolites derived from the carotenoids, apocarotenoids. Regarding the critical role of microRNAs in secondary metabolic synthesis and the limited number of identified miRNAs in C. sativus, on the other hand, one may see the point how the characterization of miRNAs along with the corresponding target genes in C. sativus might expand our perspectives on the roles of miRNAs in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. A computational analysis was used to identify miRNAs and their targets using EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) library from mature saffron stigmas. Then, a gene co- expression network was constructed to identify genes which are potentially involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathways. EST analysis led to the identification of two putative miRNAs (miR414 and miR837-5p) along with the corresponding stem- looped precursors. To our knowledge, this is the first report on miR414 and miR837-5p in C. sativus. Co-expression network analysis indicated that miR414 and miR837-5p may play roles in C. sativus metabolic pathways and led to identification of candidate genes including six transcription factors and one protein kinase probably involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Presence of transcription factors, miRNAs and protein kinase in the network indicated multiple layers of regulation in saffron stigma. The candidate genes from this study may help unraveling regulatory networks underlying the carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthesis in saffron and designing metabolic engineering for enhanced secondary metabolites.

  19. In silico identification of miRNAs and their target genes and analysis of gene co-expression network in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma

    PubMed Central

    Zinati, Zahra; Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Roohollah; Behpouri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    As an aromatic and colorful plant of substantive taste, saffron (Crocus sativus L.) owes such properties of matter to growing class of the secondary metabolites derived from the carotenoids, apocarotenoids. Regarding the critical role of microRNAs in secondary metabolic synthesis and the limited number of identified miRNAs in C. sativus, on the other hand, one may see the point how the characterization of miRNAs along with the corresponding target genes in C. sativus might expand our perspectives on the roles of miRNAs in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. A computational analysis was used to identify miRNAs and their targets using EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) library from mature saffron stigmas. Then, a gene co- expression network was constructed to identify genes which are potentially involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathways. EST analysis led to the identification of two putative miRNAs (miR414 and miR837-5p) along with the corresponding stem- looped precursors. To our knowledge, this is the first report on miR414 and miR837-5p in C. sativus. Co-expression network analysis indicated that miR414 and miR837-5p may play roles in C. sativus metabolic pathways and led to identification of candidate genes including six transcription factors and one protein kinase probably involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Presence of transcription factors, miRNAs and protein kinase in the network indicated multiple layers of regulation in saffron stigma. The candidate genes from this study may help unraveling regulatory networks underlying the carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthesis in saffron and designing metabolic engineering for enhanced secondary metabolites. PMID:28261627

  20. Effect of environmental factors on the biosynthesis of the neuro-excitatory amino acid β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) in callus tissue of Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Haque, Rabiul M; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Lambein, Fernand; Hussain, Muhammed

    2011-03-01

    Habituated callus tissues derived from leaf explants of Lathyrus sativus L. (grass pea) were cultured under different environmental conditions such as drought, salinity and deficiency or oversupply of micronutrients. The biosynthesis of the neuro-excitatory β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) was induced by feeding the precursor BIA, (β-isoxazolin-5-on-2-yl)-alanine, to those calli habituated under different stress conditions. Conversion of BIA into β-ODAP was reduced by Zn(2+) at different levels of Fe(2+) supplements while excess of Fe(2+) enhanced it at different Zn(2+) levels in the media. The biosynthesis of β-ODAP was increased by both oversupply and deficiency of Mn(2+) manganese while B(3+) as well as Co(2+) increased it significantly by oversupply. Al(3+) enhanced the conversion of BIA into β-ODAP significantly in a concentration-dependent way. Cu(2+) also reduced the formation of β-ODAP when increased in the media. Mo(6+) had no apparent effect. NaCl decreased the conversion of BIA into β-ODAP proportionately with the increase in salinity. β-ODAP was increased with increasing mannitol concentration till -0.23MPa while at this osmotic potential created with PEG-20,000 the formation of β-ODAP is completely inhibited in low toxin calli. These experiments demonstrate the importance of environmental factors, especially micronutrients and salinity, on the biosynthesis of β-ODAP.