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Sample records for concentrations cucumis sativus

  1. Water uptake and growth of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) under control of dissolved O2 concentration in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Kitano, M; Eguchi, H

    1996-12-01

    Dissolved O2 concentration ([O2]) in nutrient solution was controlled at 0.01, 0.10 and 0.20 mM with accuracy of +/- 0.005 mM in a newly developed hydroponic system, and the effects of [O2] on water uptake and growth of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) were analyzed. For evaluating water uptake rate under the control of [O2], water flux at the stem base was measured on-line with +/-5% in accuracy, 1 mg s-1 in resolution and 1 min in time constant by heat flux control (HFC) method. Water uptake rate was drastically increased by lighting to the plant at each [O2], and water uptake per day was depressed in proportion to decrease in [O2]. In the plants grown for 10 days, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of leaves decreased at lower [O2], while stem length and number of leaves were scarcely affected. These facts suggest that membrane permeability of root cells reduces at lower [O2] through respiration-dependent processes, and growth is inhibited through leaf turgor loss caused by the depressed water uptake of roots in O2-deficient nutrient solution in hydroponics.

  2. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  3. The Genome of the Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen...

  4. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. II. Carbon exchange rates, enzyme activities, and starch and nutrient concentrations. [Cucumis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.; Huber, S.C.; Patterson, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon exchange capacity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germinated and grown in controlled environment chambers at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ decreased from the vegetative growth stage to the fruiting stage, during which time capacity of plants grown at 350 microliters per liter increased. Carbon exchange rates (CERs) measured under growth conditions during the fruiting period were, in fact, lower in plants grown at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ than those grown at 350. Progressive decreases in CERs in 1000 microliters per liter plants were associated with decreasing stomatal conductances and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. Leaf starch concentrations were higher in 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ grown-plants than in 350 microliters per liter grown plants but calcium and nitrogen concentrations were lower, the greatest difference occurring at flowering. Sucrose synthase and sucrose-P-synthase activities were similar in 1000 microliters per liter compared to 350 microliters per liter plants during vegetative growth and flowering but higher in 350 microliters per liter plants at fruiting. The decreased carbon exchange rates observed in this cultivar at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ could explain the lack of any yield increase when compared with plants grown at 350 microliters per liter.

  5. Cucumis sativus secretes 4'-ketoriboflavin under iron-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Junichi; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Sekino, Kouta; Ito, Shinsaku; Katsuta, Ryo; Takeda, Kouji; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Shinmachi, Fumie; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi; Nukada, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    A new compound in cucumber, Cucumis sativus, nutrient solution that appears under iron-deficient conditions, but not under ordinary culture conditions, has been revealed by HPLC analysis. The chemical structure of this compound was identified using LC-MS and NMR techniques as that of 4'-ketoriboflavin. This is the first report to show that 4'-ketoriboflavin can be found in metabolites from organisms.

  6. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  7. Exploring a new serine protease from Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Nafeesa, Zohara; Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-03-01

    Coagulation is an important physiological process in hemostasis which is activated by sequential action of proteases. This study aims to understand the involvement of aqueous fruit extract of Cucumis sativus L. (AqFEC) European burp less variety in blood coagulation cascade. AqFEC hydrolyzed casein in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of protease activity was further confirmed by casein zymography which revealed the possible presence of two high molecular weight protease(s). The proteolytic activity was inhibited only by phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride suggesting the presence of serine protease(s). In a dose-dependent manner, AqFEC also hydrolysed Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen, whereas it failed to degrade the γ subunit of fibrinogen even at a concentration as high as 100 μg and incubation time up to 4 h. AqFEC reduced the clotting time of citrated plasma by 87.65%. The protease and fibrinogenolytic activity of AqFEC suggests its possible role in stopping the bleeding and ensuing wound healing process.

  8. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients.

  9. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    PubMed

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  10. [Effects of cinnamic acid on physiological characteristics of Cucumis sativus seedling].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengzhi; Pan, Kai; Zhou, Xiuyan

    2005-05-01

    With substrate culture, this paper studied the effects of different concentrations of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of Cucumis sativus seedling. The results showed that 25 micromol.L(-1) of cinnamic acid had an inhibition effect on carotenoids, but a promotion effect on chlorophyll a and b. 50 micromol.L(-1) of this compound could significantly inhibit the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and root activity (P < 0.05), and this effect was getting stronger when the concentration was higher. 150 micromol cinnamic acid.L(-1) had a significant inhibition effect on chlorophyll a and b (P < 0.05). Cinnamic acid had a weak inhibition effect on root activity when its concentration was low (25-50 micromol.L(-1)), but the effect was significant when the concentration was high (100-150 micromol.L(-1)), which became stronger with the longer handling time (P < 0.05).

  11. Isoptericola cucumis sp. nov., isolated from the root tissue of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kloepper, Joseph W; Hu, Chia-Hui; McInroy, John A; Martin, Karin; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic organism, showing an irregular cell morphology, was isolated from the root tissue of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and investigated in detail for its taxonomic position. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain AP-38T was shown to be most closely related to Isoptericola variabilis (99.1 %) and Isoptericola nanjingensis (98.9 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to all other species of the genus Isoptericola was ≤98.5 %. DNA-DNA relatedness to Isoptericola variablis DSM 10177T and Isoptericola nanjingensis DSM 24300T was 31(reciprocal 41 %) and 34 (reciprocal 34 %), respectively. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was l-lysine. The quinone system contained predominantly menaquinones MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H2). In the polar lipid profile, major compounds were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The polyamine pattern contained the major components spermidine and spermine and significant amounts of tyramine. In the fatty acid profile, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 were present in major amounts. These data support the allocation of the strain to the genus Isoptericola. The results of physiological and biochemical characterization additionally provide phenotypic differentiation of strain AP-38T from I. variabilis and I. nanjingensis. AP-38T represents a novel species of the genus Isoptericola, for which we propose the name Isoptericola cucumis sp. nov., with AP-38T (= LMG 29223T=CCM 8653T) as the type strain.

  12. Isoptericola cucumis sp. nov., isolated from the root tissue of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kloepper, Joseph W; Hu, Chia-Hui; McInroy, John A; Martin, Karin; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic organism, showing an irregular cell morphology, was isolated from the root tissue of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and investigated in detail for its taxonomic position. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain AP-38T was shown to be most closely related to Isoptericola variabilis (99.1 %) and Isoptericola nanjingensis (98.9 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to all other species of the genus Isoptericola was ≤98.5 %. DNA-DNA relatedness to Isoptericola variablis DSM 10177T and Isoptericola nanjingensis DSM 24300T was 31(reciprocal 41 %) and 34 (reciprocal 34 %), respectively. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was l-lysine. The quinone system contained predominantly menaquinones MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H2). In the polar lipid profile, major compounds were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The polyamine pattern contained the major components spermidine and spermine and significant amounts of tyramine. In the fatty acid profile, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 were present in major amounts. These data support the allocation of the strain to the genus Isoptericola. The results of physiological and biochemical characterization additionally provide phenotypic differentiation of strain AP-38T from I. variabilis and I. nanjingensis. AP-38T represents a novel species of the genus Isoptericola, for which we propose the name Isoptericola cucumis sp. nov., with AP-38T (= LMG 29223T=CCM 8653T) as the type strain. PMID:27045419

  13. Functional characterization of gibberellin oxidases from cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Liebrandt, Anja; Arnold, Linda; Chmielewska, Sara-Miriam; Felsberger, André; Freier, Eduard; Heuer, Monika; Zur, Doreen; Lange, Theo

    2013-06-01

    Cucurbits have been used widely to elucidate gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. With the recent availability of the genome sequence for the economically important cucurbit Cucumis sativus, sequence data became available for all genes potentially involved in GA biosynthesis for this species. Sixteen cDNAs were cloned from root and shoot of 3-d to 7-d old seedlings and from mature seeds of C. sativus. Two cDNAs code for GA 7-oxidases (CsGA7ox1, and -2), five for GA 20-oxidases (CsGA20ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5), four for GA 3-oxidases (CsGA3ox1, -2, -3, and -4), and another five for GA 2-oxidases (CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5). Their enzymatic activities were investigated by heterologous expression of the cDNAs in Escherichia coli and incubation of the cell lysates with (14)C-labelled, D2-labelled, or unlabelled GA-substrates. The two GA 7-oxidases converted GA12-aldehyde to GA12 efficiently. CsGA7ox1 converted GA12 to GA14, to 15α-hydroxyGA12, and further to 15α-hydroxyGA14. CsGA7ox2 converted GA12 to its 12α-hydroxylated analogue GA111. All five GA 20-oxidases converted GA12 to GA9 as a major product, and to GA25 as a minor product. The four GA 3-oxidases oxidized the C19-GA GA9 to GA4 as the only product. In addition, three of them (CsGA3ox2, -3, and -4) converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA14. The GA 2-oxidases CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, and -4 oxidized the C19-GAs GA9 and GA4 to GA34 and GA51, respectively. CsGA2ox2, -3, and -4 converted GA51 and GA34 further to respective GA-catabolites. In addition to C19-GAs, CsGA2ox4 also converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA110. In contrast, CsGA2ox5 oxidized only the C20 GA12 to GA110 as the sole product. As shown for CsGA20ox1 and CsGA3ox1, similar reactions were catalysed with 13-hydroxlyated GAs as substrates. It is likely that these enzymes are also responsible for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroxylated GAs in vivo that occur at low levels in cucumber.

  14. The MSC phenotype of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) - a method for production of plant mitochondrial mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mosaic (MSC) mutants of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) appear after passage through cell cultures. The MSC phenotype shows paternal transmission and is associated with mitochondrial DNA rearrangements. This review describes the origins and phenotypes of independently produced MSC mutants of cuc...

  15. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  16. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  17. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  18. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity.

  19. Protective mechanisms of Cucumis sativus in diabetes-related modelsof oxidative stress and carbonyl stress

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Himan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Noubarani, Maryam; Rahmati, Mokhtar; Jafarian, Iman; Adiban, Hasan; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oxidative stress and carbonyl stress have essential mediatory roles in the development of diabetes and its related complications through increasing free radicals production and impairing antioxidant defense systems. Different chemical and natural compounds have been suggested for decreasing such disorders associated with diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) fruit (cucumber) in oxidative and carbonyl stress models. These diabetes-related models with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) simulate conditions observed in chronic hyperglycemia. Methods: Cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonyl stress model) were measured and the protective effects of C. sativus were evaluated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: Aqueous extract of C. sativus fruit (40 μg/mL) prevented all cytotoxicity markers in both the oxidative and carbonyl stress models including cell lysis, ROS formation, membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal labialization, and proteolysis. The extract also protected hepatocytes from protein carbonylation induced by glyoxal. Our results indicated that C. sativus is able to prevent oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in the isolated hepatocytes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that C. sativus has protective effects in diabetes complications and can be considered a safe and suitable candidate for decreasing the oxidative stress and carbonyl stress that is typically observed in diabetes mellitus. PMID:27340622

  20. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B. PMID:23779070

  1. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  2. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L.) induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a plastic tunnel.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  3. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  4. Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.

  5. Next generation sequencing and omics in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding directed research.

    PubMed

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Zieliński, Konrad; Zielińska, Dorota; Pląder, Wojciech; Yagi, Kouhei; Wojcieszek, Michał; Siedlecka, Ewa; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In the post-genomic era the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading us to novel generation methods in plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. In this study we have mainly concentrated on the Cucumis sativus and (but much less) Cucurbitaceae family several important vegetable crops. There are many reports on research conducted in Cucurbitaceae plant breeding programs on the ripening process, phloem transport, disease resistance, cold tolerance and fruit quality traits. This paper presents the role played by new omic technologies in the creation of knowledge on the mechanisms of the formation of the breeding features. The analysis of NGS (NGS-next generation sequencing) data allows the discovery of new genes and regulatory sequences, their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Firstly a high density map should be created for the reference genome, then each re-sequencing data could be mapped and new markers brought out into breeding populations. The paper also presents methods that could be used in the future for the creation of variability and genomic modification of the species in question. It has been shown also the state and usefulness in breeding the chloroplastomic and mitochondriomic study.

  6. Photosynthesis Is Not Involved in the Mechanism of Action of Acifluorfen in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Stephen O.; Kenyon, William H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of photosynthesis in the mechanism of action of the herbicide acifluorfen (2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-2-nitrobenzoate; AF) was examined. The sensitivity to AF of cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) which had been grown under far red light (FR) and white light were compared. FR grown tissues which were photosynthetically imcompetent were hypersensitive to AF under white light and had approximately the same relative response to AF under blue and red light as green, white-light-grown tissues. Ultrastructural damage was apparent in FR-grown, AF-treated tissues within an hour after exposure to white light, with cytoplasmic and plastidic disorganization occurring simultaneously. In cucumber cotyledon tissue which had been greening for various time periods, there was no correlation between photosynthetic capacity and herbicidal efficacy of AF. PSII inhibitors (atrazine and DCMU) and the photophosphorylation inhibitor, tentoxin, had no effect on AF activity. Atrazine did not reduce AF activity at any concentration or light intensity tested, indicating that there is no second, photosynthetic-dependent mechanism of action operating at low AF concentrations or low fluence rates. Carbon dioxide-dependent O2 evolution of intact chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) had an AF I50 of 125 micromolar compared to 1000 micromolar for cucumber, whereas AF was much more herbicidally active in tissues of cucumber than of spinach. Differences in activity could not be accounted for by differences in uptake of AF. Our results indicate that there is no photosynthetic involvement in the mechanism of action of AF in cucumber. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664919

  7. Photosynthesis Is Not Involved in the Mechanism of Action of Acifluorfen in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Duke, S O; Kenyon, W H

    1986-07-01

    The possible role of photosynthesis in the mechanism of action of the herbicide acifluorfen (2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-2-nitrobenzoate; AF) was examined. The sensitivity to AF of cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) which had been grown under far red light (FR) and white light were compared. FR grown tissues which were photosynthetically imcompetent were hypersensitive to AF under white light and had approximately the same relative response to AF under blue and red light as green, white-light-grown tissues. Ultrastructural damage was apparent in FR-grown, AF-treated tissues within an hour after exposure to white light, with cytoplasmic and plastidic disorganization occurring simultaneously. In cucumber cotyledon tissue which had been greening for various time periods, there was no correlation between photosynthetic capacity and herbicidal efficacy of AF. PSII inhibitors (atrazine and DCMU) and the photophosphorylation inhibitor, tentoxin, had no effect on AF activity. Atrazine did not reduce AF activity at any concentration or light intensity tested, indicating that there is no second, photosynthetic-dependent mechanism of action operating at low AF concentrations or low fluence rates. Carbon dioxide-dependent O(2) evolution of intact chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) had an AF I(50) of 125 micromolar compared to 1000 micromolar for cucumber, whereas AF was much more herbicidally active in tissues of cucumber than of spinach. Differences in activity could not be accounted for by differences in uptake of AF. Our results indicate that there is no photosynthetic involvement in the mechanism of action of AF in cucumber.

  8. Uptake and/or utilization of two simple phenolic acids by Cucumis sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Shann, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) from solutions (0.1 to 1.00 mM, pH 4.0 to 7.0), was determined for intact and excised roots of Cucumis sativus. Uptake methods based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acid depletion from solution were compared to those radioisotopic methods employing (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA or p-HBA. Although radiotracer methods more accurately reflected actual uptake of the compounds by cucumber seedlings, HPLC solution depletion methods may be useful in the elucidation of trends over very limited periods of time. The uptake of FA was unaffected by the presence of p-HBA. The uptake of p-HBA was reduced by 30% in the presence of FA when compared to the uptake from solutions containing p-HBA alone. Ferulic acid acts both as an allelopathic agent and precursor in the endogenous process of lignification. To evaluate the involvement of exogenous FA in lignin biosynthesis, roots of hydroponically grown cucumber seedlings were exposed to concentrations of FA labeled with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. Radiotracer was distributed throughout the seedling. A quantitative change in lignification occurred in treated seedlings. In roots and stems, the level of lignin increased with the number of exposures and as the concentrations of exogenous FA increased. Radiotracer was found in the residues of lignin isolated from seedling tissue treated with (U-ring-/sup 14/C)FA. This suggested the utilization of the exogenously applied FA in the endogenous process of lignification.

  9. Inheritance and mapping of the ore gene controlling the quantity of ß-carotene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endocarp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic precursor of vitamin A, ß-carotene, is essential for human health. The gene(s) controlling ß- carotene quantity (QßC) has been introgressed from Xishuangbanna gourd (XIS, possessing ß-carotene; Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) into cultivated cucumbe...

  10. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  11. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  12. Comprehensive analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper IV transcription factor family in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rao; Liu, Wei; Li, Qiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2013-07-01

    The class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip IV) proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors known to play crucial roles in plant growth and development. In this study, 11 cucumber (Cucumis sativus) HD-Zip IV genes were identified in the version 2 cucumber genome and found to be distributed unevenly across the chromosomes. The CsHDZIV (Cucumis sativus homeodomain-leucine zipper IV) gene family is smaller than in other studied species (except for rice) because of the absence of gene duplication events. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HD-Zip IV genes from cucumber, Arabidopsis, tomato, cotton, maize, and rice could be classified into five subgroups. All CsHDZIV genes appear to be derived from a basic module containing 11 exons in the coding region. Two conserved motifs of 21 and 19 nucleotides were found in the 3'-untranslated regions of six CsHDZIV genes, suggesting that post-transcriptional regulation may play a role in regulation of CsHDZIV genes. In addition, 6 of 11 CsHDZIV genes were found to undergo alternative splicing events. Reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that all CsHDZIV genes (except one) were expressed and showed preferential expression in reproductive organs.

  13. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on fungal disease development in Cucumis sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, A.B.; Teramura, A.H.; Sisler, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion due to increased atmospheric pollutants has received considerable attention because of the potential increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation that will reach the earth's surface. Three cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars were exposed to a daily dose of 11.6 kJ m{sup {minus}2} biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-B{sub BE}) radiation in an unshaded greenhouse before and/or after injection by Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass.) Ell. and Halst. or Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. and Arth. and analyzed for disease development. Two of these cultivars, Poinsette and Calypso Hybrid, were disease resistant, while the third cultivar, Straight-8, was disease susceptible. Preinfectional treatment of 1 to 7 days with UV-B{sub BE} in Straight-8 led to greater severity of both diseases. Postinfectional UV treatment did not lead to increased disease severity caused by C. lagenarium, while preinfectional UV treatment in both Straight-8 and Poinsette substantially increased disease severity. Although resistant cultivars Poinsette and Calypso Hybrid showed increased anthracnose disease severity when exposed to UV-B, this effect was apparent only on the cotyledons. Both higher spore concentration and exposure to UV-B radiation resulted in greater disease severity. Of the cucumber cultivars tested for UV-B sensitivity, growth in Poinsette was most sensitive and Calypso Hybrid was least sensitive. These preliminary results indicate that the effects of UV-B radiation on disease development in cucumber vary depending on cultivar, timing and duration of UV-B exposure, inoculation level, and plant age.

  14. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  15. Albumins, glyoxysomal enzymes and globulins in dry seeds of cucumis sativus: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Köller, W; Frevert, J; Kindl, H

    1979-02-01

    1) Albumins and globulins were prepared from dry seeds of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) by differential extraction. The globulin fraction was analyzed by gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions in the presence and absence of mercaptoethanol. The subunit (Mr = 54000) of the tetramer (Mr = 240000) was shown to be composed of two different peptides. Microheterogeneity rendered the exact interpretation of the analysis difficult. 2) Glyoxysomal proteins were already present in dry seeds: malate synthase, isocitrate lyase, citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, catalase and crotonase could be detected unequivocally. It was demonstrated that the enzymatic and immunological properties of malate synthase and isocitrate lyase were not distinguishable from that of enzymes assigned to glyoxysomes of fully developed cotyledons. 3) Homogenates prepared from seeds by cautious cell disintegration were subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation and yielded microbody and protein body fractions, among other things.

  16. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the MLO gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S J; Jing, Z; Shi, J L

    2013-12-11

    Mildew resistance locus o (MLO) is a plant-specific seven-transmembrane (TM) gene family. Several studies have revealed that certain members of the MLO gene family mediate powdery mildew susceptibility in three plant species, namely, Arabidopsis, barley, and tomato. The sequenced cucumber genome provides an opportunity to conduct a comprehensive overview of the MLO gene family. Fourteen genes (designated CsMLO01 through CsMLO14) have been identified within the Cucumis sativus genome by using an in silico cloning method with the MLO amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice as probes. Sequence alignment revealed that numerous features of the gene family, such as TMs, a calmodulin-binding domain, peptide domains I and II, and 30 important amino acid residues for MLO function, are well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the MLO genes from cucumber and other plant species reveals seven different clades (I through VII). Three of these clades comprised MLO genes from A. thaliana, rice, maize, and cucumber, suggesting that these genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. In silico mapping showed that these CsMLOs were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 without any obvious clustering, except CsMLO01. To our knowledge, this paper is the first comprehensive report on MLO genes in C. sativus. These findings will facilitate the functional characterization of the MLOs related to powdery mildew susceptibility and assist in the development of disease resistance in cucumber.

  17. Impact of atmospheric CO2 on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Eloísa; Ruano, David; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación

    2006-07-01

    Expression and activity of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) were analysed in relation to the rate of CO(2) assimilation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves. Intact plants were exposed to different atmospheric CO(2) concentrations (100, 400 and 1200microLL(-1)) for 14 days. A correlation between the in vivo rates of net CO(2) assimilation and the atmospheric CO(2) concentrations was observed. Transpiration rate and stomatal conductance remained unaffected by CO(2) levels. The exposure of the cucumber plants to rising CO(2) concentrations led to a concomitant increase in the contents of starch and soluble sugars, and a decrease in the nitrate content in leaves. At very low CO(2), NR and GS expression decreased, in spite of high nitrate contents, whereas at normal and elevated CO(2) expression and activity were high although the nitrate content was very low. Thus, in cucumber, NR and GS expression appear to be dominated by sugar levels, rather than by nitrate contents.

  18. The Genome Sequence of the North-European Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Unravels Evolutionary Adaptation Mechanisms in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wóycicki, Rafał; Witkowicz, Justyna; Gawroński, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Joanna; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Siedlecka, Ewa; Yagi, Kohei; Pląder, Wojciech; Seroczyńska, Anna; Śmiech, Mieczysław; Gutman, Wojciech; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Katarzyna; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Borodovsky, Mark; Karpiński, Stanisław; Malepszy, Stefan; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar – Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in

  19. Impact of a snail pellet on the phytoavailability of different metals to cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Freitag, Sabine; Krupp, Eva M; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    FePO4 based molluscicides (snail pellets) also contain a chelating agent. The influence of the chelating agent, which is intrinsically present in the molluscicide, on the phytoavailability of other metals present in the growth medium was investigated in the present study. Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) were grown in a hydroponic nutrient solution and exposed for one week to different metals in combination with a chelating agent containing molluscicide. Oven dried roots and shoots of plants were HNO 3/H2O2 microwave digested and analysed regarding total Fe, stable isotopic (54)Fe, Cd, Pb, and Bi concentrations using ICP-MS. The results showed that the addition of a chelating agent enhances the Fe phytoavailability to the plant, whether as an intrinsic part of the molluscicide or added individually. Additionally, the chelating agent present in the pesticide mobilises externally added metals and thus increases their phytoavailability. In particular the significantly higher Cd concentration in shoots from plants exposed to chelating agents indicates a potentially detrimental environmental effect.

  20. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  1. Synergistic effect of flyash and SO{sub 2} on development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaf injury

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, G.; McIlveen, W.D.; Jones, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    In a two-factorial experiment, sulfur dioxide alone at concentration of 131 {micro}g/m{sup 3} over long exposures or flyash for either coal or oil combustion alone applied onto cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) foliage causes no visible injury. However, if both flyash and sulfur dioxide were presented simultaneously, a specific mosaic-chlorosis symptom developed on leaves. A synergistic effect was thus demonstrated. Histopathology of the mosaic-chlorosis symptom was studied. An unusual pattern of tissue abnormally initiated from the collapse of the anticlinal cell walls of the upper epidermal cells and progressed along cell walls into mesophyll tissues. Cellular injury at the lower spongy tissues typical of that caused by SO{sub 2} was also observed. A significant elevation of sulfate-sulfur in the leaves treated with a combination of SO{sub 2} and flyash was demonstrated. Significant interactions between the two factors were found for both injury and sulfur chemistry. This suggests that flyash deposits on the leaf surface play a catalytic role in oxidizing atmospheric sulfur dioxide continuously to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) in situ. This acid could infiltrate into mesophyll damage cells and tissues en route.

  2. Leaf Carbohydrate Status and Enzymes of Translocate Synthesis in Fruiting and Vegetative Plants of Cucumis sativus L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Pharr, David M.; Huber, Steven C.; Sox, Harriet N.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon partitioning in the leaves of Cucumis sativus L., a stachyose translocating plant, was influenced by the presence or absence of a single growing fruit on the plant. Fruit growth was very rapid with rates of fresh weight gain as high as 3.3 grams per hour. Fruit growth was highly competitive with vegetative growth as indicated by lower fresh weights of leaf blades, petioles, stem internodes and root systems on plants bearing a single growing fruit compared to plants not bearing a fruit. Carbon exchange rates, starch accumulation rates and carbon export rates were higher in leaves of plants bearing a fruit. Dry weight loss from leaves was higher at night from fruiting plants, and morning starch levels were consistently lower in leaves of fruiting than in leaves of vegetative plants indicating rapid starch mobilization at night from the leaves of fruiting plants. Galactinol, the galactosyl donor for stachyose biosynthesis, was present in the leaves of fruit-bearing plants at consistently lower concentration than in leaves of vegetative plants. Galactinol synthase, and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not different on a per gram fresh weight basis in leaves from the two plant types; however, stachyose synthase activity was twice as high in leaves from fruiting plants. Thus, the lower galactinol pools may be associated with an activation of the terminal step in stachyose biosynthesis in leaves in response to the high sink demand of a growing cucumber fruit. PMID:16663989

  3. [Role of phytochrome in organ formation processes in Cucumis sativus L].

    PubMed

    Sysoeva, M I; Marovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    The role of phytochrome B in the organogenesis process in the apical and axillary shoot meristems during early ontogenesis stages in cucumber Cucumis sativus L. at photoperiods (day/night) 10/14, 16/8 h, and continuous light in comparison with wild type plants and phytochrome B-deficient mutant (lh-mutant) was investigated. In mutant phytochrome B, deficiency caused inhibition of initiation of leaves both in the leading shoot and off-shoots and increased the number of flower buds (IV stage of organogenesis). With continuous light, the number of off-shoots and flowers during stage IV of organogenesis in wild-type plants increased twofold in comparison with the mutant. Short-term temperature drops did not induce floral ontogenesis in mutants but increased the number of off-shoots in both experimental variants during a long photoperiod and continuous light situations. We propose that phytochrome B, by increasing the compactness of chromatin, may facilitate coordination of ontogenesis processes with changing environmental conditions.

  4. Synthesis of a dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding proteolipid by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hack, E; Leaver, C J

    1984-09-01

    When isolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) mitochondria were treated with (14)C-labelled dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), a single polypeptide was predominantly labelled. This polypeptide was soluble in 1-butanol or chloroform: methanol (2: 1, v/v) and had an apparent molecular mass of approximately 7 kDa; it therefore had the characteristic properties of the DCCD-binding proteolipid subunit of the ATP synthase complexes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and prokaryotes.When isolated cucumber mitochondria were allowed to synthesize protein in the presence of [(35)S]methionine and then extracted with 1-butanol or chloroform: methanol (2: l, v/v), a (35)S-labelled proteolipid that migrated more rapidly on SDS-polyacrylamide gels than the pro-teolipid labelled by [(14)C]DCCD was solubilized. Treatment of mitochondria with unlabelled DCCD after they had been allowed to synthesize protein, specifically converted some of the [(35)S]methionine-labelled proteolipid to a form that comigrated with the [(14)C]DCCD-labelled proteolipid. We therefore conclude that a DCCD-binding proteolipid is synthesized by isolated cucumber mitochondria.

  5. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase to heavy metal stress in Cucumis sativus roots.

    PubMed

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzyński, Marek; Kłobus, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals on the modification of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber roots was studied. In plants stressed for 2 h with 10 microM or 100 microM Cd, Cu or Ni the hydrolytic as well as the transporting activity of H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membranes of root cells was decreased. Transcript levels of Cucumis sativus plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in roots treated with 10 microM Cd, Cu, or Ni as well as with 100 microM Cu or Ni were similar to the control, indicating that the action of metals did not involve the gene expression level. Only in roots exposed to 100 microM Cd was the level of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase mRNA markedly decreased. The inhibition of the plasma membrane proton pump caused by 100 microM Cd, Cu and Ni was partially diminished in the presence of cantharidin, a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases. Western blot analysis with the antibody against phosphothreonine confirmed that decreased activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase under heavy metals resulted from dephosphorylation of the enzyme protein. Taken together, these data strongly indicated that alteration of the enzyme under heavy metal stresses was mainly due to the post-translational modification of its proteins in short-term experiments.

  6. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase to heavy metal stress in Cucumis sativus roots

    PubMed Central

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzyński, Marek; Kłobus, Grażyna

    2008-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals on the modification of plasma membrane H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber roots was studied. In plants stressed for 2 h with 10 μM or 100 μM Cd, Cu or Ni the hydrolytic as well as the transporting activity of H+-ATPase in the plasma membranes of root cells was decreased. Transcript levels of Cucumis sativus plasma membrane H+-ATPase in roots treated with 10 μM Cd, Cu, or Ni as well as with 100 μM Cu or Ni were similar to the control, indicating that the action of metals did not involve the gene expression level. Only in roots exposed to 100 μM Cd was the level of plasma membrane H+-ATPase mRNA markedly decreased. The inhibition of the plasma membrane proton pump caused by 100 μM Cd, Cu and Ni was partially diminished in the presence of cantharidin, a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases. Western blot analysis with the antibody against phosphothreonine confirmed that decreased activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase under heavy metals resulted from dephosphorylation of the enzyme protein. Taken together, these data strongly indicated that alteration of the enzyme under heavy metal stresses was mainly due to the post-translational modification of its proteins in short-term experiments. PMID:18820260

  7. Multiple tandem duplication of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qing-Mao; Li, Liang; Dong, Chun-Juan

    2012-10-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first entry enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and therefore plays a key role in both plant development and stress defense. In many plants, PAL is encoded by a multi-gene family, and each member is differentially regulated in response to environmental stimuli. In the present study, we report that PAL in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is encoded for by a family of seven genes (designated as CsPAL1-7). All seven CsPALs are arranged in tandem in two duplication blocks, which are located on chromosomes 4 and 6, respectively. The cDNA and protein sequences of the CsPALs share an overall high identity to each other. Homology modeling reveals similarities in their protein structures, besides several slight differences, implying the different activities in conversion of phenylalanine. Phylogenic analysis places CsPAL1-7 in a separate cluster rather than clustering with other plant PALs. Analyses of expression profiles in different cucumber tissues or in response to various stress or plant hormone treatments indicate that CsPAL1-7 play redundant, but divergent roles in cucumber development and stress response. This is consistent with our finding that CsPALs possess overlapping but different cis-elements in their promoter regions. Finally, several duplication events are discussed to explain the evolution of the cucumber PAL genes.

  8. [Growth and development of cucumber Cucumis sativus L. in the prereproductive period under long photoperiods].

    PubMed

    Shibaeva, T G; Markovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    When plants are grown in a greenhouse, an increase in the photoperiod, as well as continuous lighting, is one of the ways to improve plant productivity and energy savings. However, a number of crops under long photoperiods develop signs of light damage to leaves, and productivity is reduced. We studied the effect of the photoperiod (8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) and photon flux densities (60, 120, and 160 micromol/m2 with PAR) on cucumber plants Cucumis sativus L. in a prereproductive period. We show that the response of the cucumber plants to a photoperiod duration of more than 20 h, including continuous lighting, depending on the plant age and lighting conditions, may include epinastic reaction of the leaves, activation of a mechanism of nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and/or reversible photoinhibition of a reaction center of photosystem II, development of reversible chlorosis, reduction of a light-harvesting complex, and increase in the content of carotenoids. Reaction of immature and virginile plants to long photoperiods was different, which highlights the need for experimental separation of the prereproductive period of development in terms of age states and consideration of this when preparing programs of cultivation.

  9. Transcriptome profiling of trichome-less reveals genes associated with multicellular trichome development in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Yun-Li; Yao, Dan-Qing; Zhu, Wen-Ying; Chen, Long; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2015-10-01

    Trichomes on plants, similar to fine hairs on animal and human bodies, play important roles in plant survival and development. They also represent a useful model for the study of cell differentiation. Although the regulatory gene network of unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been well studied, the genes that regulate multicellular trichome development remain unclear. We confirmed that Cucumis sativus (cucumber) trichomes are multicellular and unbranched, but identified a spontaneous mutant, trichome-less (tril), which presented a completely glabrous phenotype. We compared the transcriptome profilings of the tril mutant and wild type using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 991 genes exhibited differential expression: 518 were up-regulated and 473 were down-regulated. We further identified 62 differentially expressed genes that encoded crucial transcription factors and were subdivided into seven categories: homeodomain, MADS, MYB, and WRKY domains, ethylene-responsive, zinc finger, and other transcription factor genes. We further analyzed the tissue-expression profiles of two candidate genes, GLABRA2-like and ATHB51-like, using qRT-PCR and found that these two genes were specifically expressed in the epidermis and trichomes, respectively. These results and the tril mutant provide useful tools to study the molecular networks associated with multicellular trichome development.

  10. Molecular cloning, characteristics and low temperature response of raffinose synthase gene in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiao-lei; Meng, Fan-zhen; Wang, Hong-yun; Wei, Yu-xia; Li, Rui-fu; Wang, Zhen-yu; Hu, Li-ping; Wang, Shao-hui; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2012-12-15

    Raffinose synthase (RS, EC2.4.1.82) is one of the key enzymes that channels sucrose into the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) biosynthetic pathway. However, the gene encoding RS is poorly characterized in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is a typical RFOs-translocating plant species. Here we isolated the gene encoding RS (CsRS) from the leaves of cucumber plants. The complete cDNA of CsRS consisted of 2552 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 784 amino acid residues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and RNA hybridization analysis revealed that expression of CsRS was the highest in leaves followed by roots, fruits, and stems. The RS activity was up-regulated and the raffinose content was high in the leaves of transgenic tobacco with over-expression of CsRS, while both the RS activity and the raffinose content decreased in the transgenic cucumber plants with anti-sense expression of CsRS. The expression of CsRS could be induced by low temperature and exogenous phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). In cucumber growing under low temperature stress, CsRS expression, RS activity and raffinose content increased gradually in the leaves, the fruits, the stems and the roots. The most notable increase was observed in the leaves. Similarly, the expression of CsRS was induced in cucumber leaves and fruits with 200 μM and 150 μM ABA treatments, respectively.

  11. Microviscosity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit protoplast membranes is altered by triacontanol and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Shripathi, V; Swamy, G S; Chandrasekhar, K S

    1997-01-31

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit protoplast membranes were probed with diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and pyrene, and also with two different plant growth regulators, triacontanol (TRIA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Fluorescence anisotropies of DPH and pyrene were measured after incorporating them into the membranes. The fluorescence lifetime of membrane-bound pyrene was also measured by using neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser of 35 ps pulses. The microviscosities of the membranes were calculated using the values of fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime. In the presence of TRIA and ABA, there was a sharp decrease in the fluorescence lifetime of pyrene. Similarly, there was also a decrease in the microviscosities of the membranes and increase in the rate of rotation of membrane-bound fluorophore, induced by the plant growth regulators. Furthermore, TRIA or TRIA + ABA could reduce the fluorescence anisotropy of both the fluorophores whereas, ABA decreased the anisotropy of only pyrene. This property of ABA may be due to its confinement to a specific spacial facet in the membrane. Fatty acid analysis indicated that membrane microviscosity fluctuations were not due to altered fatty acid composition alone as it is known that change in lipid-protein interaction would also alter the physical status of the membrane.

  12. Phytochrome, Gibberellins, and Hypocotyl Growth (A Study Using the Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) long hypocotyl Mutant).

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Juez, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakurai, A.; Kamiya, Y.; Kendrick, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The possible involvement of gibberellins (GAs) in the regulation of hypocotyl elongation by phytochrome was examined. Under white light the tall long hypocotyl (lh) cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) mutant, deficient in a type B-like phytochrome, shows an increased "responsiveness" (defined as response capability) to applied GA4 (the main endogenous active GA) compared to the wild type. Supplementing far-red irradiation results in a similar increase in responsiveness in the wild type. Experiments involving application of the precursor GA9 and of an inhibitor of GA4 inactivation suggest that both the GA4 activation and inactivation steps are phytochrome independent. Endogenous GA levels of whole seedlings were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. The levels of GA4 (and those of GA34, the inactivated GA4) were lower in the lh mutant under low-irradiance fluorescent light compared with the wild type, similar to wild type under higher irradiance light during the initial hypocotyl extension phase, and higher during the phase of sustained growth, in which extension involved an increase in the number of cells in the upper region. In all cases, growth of the lh mutant was more rapid than that of the wild type. It is proposed that GA4 and phytochrome control cell elongation primarily through separate mechanisms that interact at a step close to the terminal response. PMID:12228348

  13. Chromosome synteny in cucumis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2x = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2x = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Two inter-fertile botanical varieties with 14 chromosomes, the cultivated C. sativus var. sativus L. and the wild C. sativus var. hardwick...

  14. Genome-wide identification and characterization of polygalacturonase genes in Cucumis sativus and Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Youjian; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Wu, Jian; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG, EC3.2.1.15), one of the hydrolytic enzymes associated with the modification of pectin network in plant cell wall, has an important role in various cell-separation processes that are essential for plant development. PGs are encoded by a large gene family in plants. However, information on this gene family in plant development remains limited. In the present study, 53 and 62 putative members of the PG gene family in cucumber and watermelon genomes, respectively, were identified by genome-wide search to explore the composition, structure, and evolution of the PG family in Cucurbitaceae crops. The results showed that tandem duplication could be an important factor that contributes to the expansion of the PG genes in the two crops. The phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggested that PGs could be classified into seven clades, and that the exon/intron structures and intron phases were conserved within but divergent between clades. At least 24 ancestral PGs were detected in the common ancestor of Arabidopsis and Cucumis sativus. Expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that most CsPGs exhibit specific or high expression pattern in one of the organs/tissues. The 16 CsPGs associated with fruit development could be divided into three subsets based on their specific expression patterns and the cis-elements of fruit-specific, endosperm/seed-specific, and ethylene-responsive exhibited in their promoter regions. Our comparative analysis provided some basic information on the PG gene family, which would be valuable for further functional analysis of the PG genes during plant development.

  15. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.

  16. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. PMID:23689747

  17. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of R2R3MYB Family in Cucumis sativus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Cunjia; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    Background The R2R3MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Principal Findings This study has identified 55 R2R3MYB genes in the latest cucumber genome and the CsR2R3MYB family contained the smallest number of identified genes compared to other species that have been studied due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. These results were also supported by genome distribution and gene duplication analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they could be classified into 11 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intron - exon organizations that showed similarities with Arabidopsis, Vitis and Glycine R2R3MYB proteins were also analyzed and suggested strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the evolution of the plant species. In addition, we found that 8 out of 55 (∼14.54%) cucumber R2R3MYB genes underwent alternative splicing events, producing a variety of transcripts from a single gene, which illustrated the extremely high complexity of transcriptome regulation. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 50 cucumber R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues and the other 5 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, which suggested that cucumber R2R3MYB genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or more treatments. Conclusions This study has produced a comparative genomics analysis of the cucumber R2R3MYB gene family and has provided the first steps towards the selection of CsR2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection that can be used in further studies to uncover their roles in cucumber growth and

  19. Compensation effect of bacterium containing biofertilizer on the growth of Cucumis sativus L. under Al-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Lévai, L; Kovács, B; Varga, Mária Borbélyné; Veres, Szilvia

    2013-03-01

    Biofertilizers are used to improve soil fertility and plant production in sustainable agriculture. However, their applicability depends on several environmental parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of free-living bacteria containing fertilizer on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Delicates) under aluminium (Al) stress. Different responses to Al stress of cucumber growth parameters were examined in terms of root elongation and physiological traits, such as Spad index (relative chlorophyll value), biomass accumulation of root and shoot, Al uptake and selected element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) of leaves and root. The applied bacteria containing biofertilizer contains Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium. The dry weights of cucumber shoots and roots decreased in line with the increasing Al concentration. Due to different Al treatments (10-3 M, 10-4 M) higher Al concentration was observed in the leaves, while the amounts of other elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) decreased. This high Al content of the leaves decreased below the control value when biofertilizer was applied. In the case of the roots the additional biofertilizer treatments compensated the effect of Al. The relative chlorophyll content was reduced during Al-stress in older plants and the biofertilizer moderated this effect. The root/shoot ratio was decreased in all the Al-treatments in comparison to the control. The living bacteria containing fertilizer also had a modifying effect. The root/shoot ratio increased at the 10-4 M Al2(SO4)2 + biofertilizer and 10-4 M Al(NO3)3 + biofertilizer treatments compared to the control and Al-treatments. According to our results the biofertilizer is an alternative nutrient supply for replacing chemical fertilizers because it enhances dry matter production. Biofertilizer usage is also offered under Al polluted environmental conditions. Although, the nutrient solution is a clean system where we can examine the main processes without

  20. Compensation effect of bacterium containing biofertilizer on the growth of Cucumis sativus L. under Al-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Lévai, L; Kovács, B; Varga, Mária Borbélyné; Veres, Szilvia

    2013-03-01

    Biofertilizers are used to improve soil fertility and plant production in sustainable agriculture. However, their applicability depends on several environmental parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of free-living bacteria containing fertilizer on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Delicates) under aluminium (Al) stress. Different responses to Al stress of cucumber growth parameters were examined in terms of root elongation and physiological traits, such as Spad index (relative chlorophyll value), biomass accumulation of root and shoot, Al uptake and selected element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) of leaves and root. The applied bacteria containing biofertilizer contains Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium. The dry weights of cucumber shoots and roots decreased in line with the increasing Al concentration. Due to different Al treatments (10-3 M, 10-4 M) higher Al concentration was observed in the leaves, while the amounts of other elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) decreased. This high Al content of the leaves decreased below the control value when biofertilizer was applied. In the case of the roots the additional biofertilizer treatments compensated the effect of Al. The relative chlorophyll content was reduced during Al-stress in older plants and the biofertilizer moderated this effect. The root/shoot ratio was decreased in all the Al-treatments in comparison to the control. The living bacteria containing fertilizer also had a modifying effect. The root/shoot ratio increased at the 10-4 M Al2(SO4)2 + biofertilizer and 10-4 M Al(NO3)3 + biofertilizer treatments compared to the control and Al-treatments. According to our results the biofertilizer is an alternative nutrient supply for replacing chemical fertilizers because it enhances dry matter production. Biofertilizer usage is also offered under Al polluted environmental conditions. Although, the nutrient solution is a clean system where we can examine the main processes without

  1. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and fruit quality of plastic greenhouse Cucumis sativus L].

    PubMed

    Lü, Guiyun; Chen, Guilin; Qi, Guohui; Gao, Zhikui

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus versiforme (GV), Glomus mosseae (GM), Glomus intraradices (GI) and their mixtures were applied to inoculate plastic greenhouse Cucumis sativus seedlings to investigate the effects of AMF on C. sativus growth, development, yield, and quality. The results showed that all test AMF could form mycorrhiza with cucumber roots, and the infected rate reached 41.74% - 55.69%. Compared with the control, treatments GV, GM, GM + GV, GM + GV + GI and GV + GI enhanced the healthy seedling index by 58.14% - 123.6%, and increased early yield by 21.71% - 37.87% and total yield by 19.72% - 34.41%. AMF also improved fruit quality. The Vc content of cucumber fruit increased by 22.84% and 21.95% in treatments GM + GV and GV + GI, soluble sugar content increased by 13.29%, 8.25%, and 10.20% in treatments GV, GI and GV + GI, and amino acid content increased by 47.66% and 23.19% in treatments GV and GM + GI, respectively, while soluble protein content increased by 17.67% - 34.29% in all AMF treatments. The results suggested that AMF inoculation could significantly promote the seedling growth of cucumber and improve its fruit quality, and the effects differed with different AMF and their combinations.

  2. Different effect of cadmium and copper on H+-ATPase activity in plasma membrane vesicles from Cucumis sativus roots.

    PubMed

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzynski, Marek

    2012-06-01

    The effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots was studied. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanism of modification of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity in plants subjected to heavy metals. Plants were treated with 10 μM Cd or Cu for 6 d. After 3 d exposure to the heavy metals, some of the plants were transferred to control conditions for a further 3 d (3/3 plants). The activity of PM H(+)-ATPase was found to be increased in plants treated with heavy metals. The highest activity measured as proton transport was observed in 3/3 plants. Estimation of transcript levels of C. sativus PM H(+)-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of Cd, but not Cu, affected the gene expression level. Transcript levels of C. sativus PM H(+)-ATPase (CsHA2, CsHA3, CsHA4, CsHA8, and CsHA9) genes increased in roots treated with Cd. Moreover, Western blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM H(+)-ATPase under heavy-metal stress resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. It was found that Cu markedly increased the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and reduced the level of H(2)O(2) in cucumber roots. In contrast, Cd did not affect these parameters. These results indicate that Cd and Cu can, in different ways, lead to modification of PM H(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, it was observed that treatment of plants with heavy metals led to an increased level of heat-shock proteins in the tissues. This suggests that the plants had started adaptive processes to survive adverse conditions, and increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity could further enhance the repair processes in heavy-metal-stressed plants.

  3. Different effect of cadmium and copper on H+-ATPase activity in plasma membrane vesicles from Cucumis sativus roots

    PubMed Central

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Burzyński, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals on plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots was studied. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanism of modification of the PM H+-ATPase activity in plants subjected to heavy metals. Plants were treated with 10 μM Cd or Cu for 6 d. After 3 d exposure to the heavy metals, some of the plants were transferred to control conditions for a further 3 d (3/3 plants). The activity of PM H+-ATPase was found to be increased in plants treated with heavy metals. The highest activity measured as proton transport was observed in 3/3 plants. Estimation of transcript levels of C. sativus PM H+-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of Cd, but not Cu, affected the gene expression level. Transcript levels of C. sativus PM H+-ATPase (CsHA2, CsHA3, CsHA4, CsHA8, and CsHA9) genes increased in roots treated with Cd. Moreover, Western blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM H+-ATPase under heavy-metal stress resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. It was found that Cu markedly increased the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase and reduced the level of H2O2 in cucumber roots. In contrast, Cd did not affect these parameters. These results indicate that Cd and Cu can, in different ways, lead to modification of PM H+-ATPase activity. Additionally, it was observed that treatment of plants with heavy metals led to an increased level of heat-shock proteins in the tissues. This suggests that the plants had started adaptive processes to survive adverse conditions, and increased PM H+-ATPase activity could further enhance the repair processes in heavy-metal-stressed plants. PMID:22451724

  4. Binding of transition metals to monosilicic acid in aqueous and xylem (Cucumis sativus L.) solutions: a low-T electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Stevic, Nenad; Korac, Jelena; Pavlovic, Jelena; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    The supplementation of monosilicic acid [Si(OH)4] to the root growing medium is known to protect plants from toxic levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), but also to mitigate deficiency of Fe and Mn. However, the physicochemical bases of these alleviating mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we applied low-T electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the formation of complexes of Si(OH)4 with Mn(2+), Fe(3+), and Cu(2+) in water and in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown without or with supply of Si(OH)4. EPR, which is also useful in establishing the redox state of these metals, was combined with measurements of total concentrations of metals in xylem sap by inductive coupled plasma. Our results show that Si(OH)4 forms coordination bonds with all three metals. The strongest interactions of Si(OH)4 appear to be with Cu(2+) (1/1 stoichiometry) which might lead to Cu precipitation. In line with this in vitro findings, Si(OH)4 supply to cucumber resulted in dramatically lower concentration of this metal in the xylem sap. Further, it was demonstrated that Si(OH)4 supplementation causes pro-reductive changes that contribute to the maintenance of Fe and, in particular, Mn in the xylem sap in bioavailable 2+ form. Our results shed more light on the intertwined reactions between Si(OH)4 and transition metals in plant fluids (e.g. xylem sap).

  5. Synchrotron micro-XRF and micro-XANES confirmation of the uptake and translocation of TiO₂ nanoparticles in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alia D; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Diaz, Baltazar Corral; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2012-07-17

    Advances in nanotechnology have raised concerns about possible effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment, especially in terrestrial plants. In this research, the impacts of TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated in hydroponically grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. Seven day old seedlings were treated with TiO(2) NPs at concentrations varying from 0 to 4000 mg L(-1). At harvest, the size of roots and shoots were measured. In addition, micro X- ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS), respectively, were used to track the presence and chemical speciation of Ti within plant tissues. Results showed that at all concentrations, TiO(2) significantly increased root length (average >300%). By using micro-XRF it was found that Ti was transported from the roots to the leaf trichomes, suggesting that trichomes are possible sink or excretory system for the Ti. The micro-XANES spectra showed that the absorbed Ti was present as TiO(2) within the cucumber tissues, demonstrating that the TiO(2) NPs were not biotransformed.

  6. Ethylene is Involved in Brassinosteroids Induced Alternative Respiratory Pathway in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seedlings Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li-Jie; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhu, Tong; Zheng, Ting; Li, Peng-Xu; Wu, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG), cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 μM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs) relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (CSACS1), ripening-related ACC synthase2 (CSACS2), ripening-related ACC synthase3 (CSACS3), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (CSACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (CSACO2), and CSAOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor) and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings. PMID:26617622

  7. Endogenous levels of polyamines in the organs of cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus) and factors affecting leaf polyamine contents.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Shinsuke; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2001-11-01

    Polyamine compositions of various organs from hydroponically cultivated cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Sharp-1) and factors affecting the leaf polyamine content were examined. Diamine putrescine was found most abundantly in the root, while a relatively large amount of spermine was detected in the reproductive organs such as the immature fruit and the calyx (+stamen). Spermidine was present at the highest level in rapidly growing tissues such as newly expanded leaf and fruit at an early developing stage, implying the possible involvement of spermidine in the growth and development of these young tissues. Polyamine content of cucumber leaves changed during the day. Especially, the putrescine content of upper leaves showed a striking decrease from the morning to the night. Alterations of leaf Ca or Mg content did not significantly affect leaf polyamine composition. On the other hand, abnormal cucumber leaves showed altered polyamine composition. Yellowing of the leaf intervein resulted in a striking decrease in spermidine content without a significant change in putrescine and spermine content. By contrast, the leaves infected with the phytopathogen, powdery mildew, showed decreased putrescine and increased spermine content in response to the degree of fungi infection. The possible usefulness of polyamines as a diagnostic marker of plant development and physiological disorder is discussed. PMID:12060288

  8. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction, by TEM Tomography, of the Ultrastructural Modifications Occurring in Cucumis sativus L. Mitochondria under Fe Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Faoro, Franco; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Cantele, Francesca; Maffi, Dario; Marelli, Marcello; Maver, Mauro; Murgia, Irene; Zocchi, Graziano

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondria, as recently suggested, might be involved in iron sensing and signalling pathways in plant cells. For a better understanding of the role of these organelles in mediating the Fe deficiency responses in plant cells, it is crucial to provide a full overview of their modifications occurring under Fe-limited conditions. The aim of this work is to characterize the ultrastructural as well as the biochemical changes occurring in leaf mitochondria of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown under Fe deficiency. Methodology/Results Mitochondrial ultrastructure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography techniques, which allowed a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cellular structures. These analyses reveal that mitochondria isolated from cucumber leaves appear in the cristae junction model conformation and that Fe deficiency strongly alters both the number and the volume of cristae. The ultrastructural changes observed in mitochondria isolated from Fe-deficient leaves reflect a metabolic status characterized by a respiratory chain operating at a lower rate (orthodox-like conformation) with respect to mitochondria from control leaves. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a 3D reconstruction of plant mitochondria. Furthermore, these results suggest that a detailed characterization of the link between changes in the ultrastructure and functionality of mitochondria during different nutritional conditions, can provide a successful approach to understand the role of these organelles in the plant response to Fe deficiency. PMID:26107946

  9. Ethylene is Involved in Brassinosteroids Induced Alternative Respiratory Pathway in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seedlings Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Jie; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhu, Tong; Zheng, Ting; Li, Peng-Xu; Wu, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG), cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 μM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs) relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (C S ACS1), ripening-related ACC synthase2 (C S ACS2), ripening-related ACC synthase3 (C S ACS3), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (C S ACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (C S ACO2), and C S AOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor) and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  10. Evidence of translocation and physiological impacts of foliar applied CeO2 nanoparticles on cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Rico, Cyren; Sahi, Shivendra; Viveros, Marian N; Bartonjo, Jane; Zhao, Lijuan; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-04-15

    Currently, most of the nanotoxicity studies in plants involve exposure to the nanoparticles (NPs) through the roots. However, plants interact with atmospheric NPs through the leaves, and our knowledge on their response to this contact is limited. In this study, hydroponically grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants were aerially treated either with nano ceria powder (nCeO2) at 0.98 and 2.94 g/m(3) or suspensions at 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 mg/L. Fifteen days after treatment, plants were analyzed for Ce uptake by using ICP-OES and TEM. In addition, the activity of three stress enzymes was measured. The ICP-OES results showed Ce in all tissues of the CeO2 NP treated plants, suggesting uptake through the leaves and translocation to the other plant parts. The TEM results showed the presence of Ce in roots, which corroborates the ICP-OES results. The biochemical assays showed that catalase activity increased in roots and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased in leaves. Our findings show that atmospheric NPs can be taken up and distributed within plant tissues, which could represent a threat for environmental and human health.

  11. Ultraviolet-induced photodegradation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) microsomal and soluble protein tryptophanyl residues in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The in vitro effects of ultraviolet B (280--320 nm) radiation on microsomal membrane proteins and partially purified ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was investigated by measuring the direct photolytic reduction of tryptophan fluorescence and the formation of fluorescent photooxidation products. Exposure of microsomes and Rubisco to monochromatic 300-nm radiation resulted in the loss of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and the production of blue-emitting fluorophores. The major product of tryptophan photolysis was tentatively identified as N-formylkynurenine (N-FK). Even though the rates of tryptophan photodegradation and N-FK formation were similar, the amount of blue fluorescence produced was significantly higher in the microsomes relative to Rubisco. Studies with various free radical scavengers and other modifiers indicated that tryptophan photodegradation requires oxygen species. The optimum wavelengths for loss of tryptophan fluorescence were 290 nm for the microsomes and 280 nm for Rubisco. The temperature dependence of tryptophan fluorescence and rate of tryptophan photodegradation indicated an alteration in the cucumber microsomal membranes at about 24[degrees]C, which influenced protein structure and tryptophan photosensitivity. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Silencing of the gibberellin receptor homolog, CsGID1a, affects locule formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingwang; Yang, Sen; Chen, Chunhua; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Dandan; Yin, Shuai; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-04-01

    Gibberellins are phytohormones with many roles, including the regulation of fruit development. However, little is known about the relationship between GA perception and fleshy fruit ontogeny, and particularly locule formation. We characterized the expression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) GA receptor gene (CsGID1a) using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. CsGID1a-RNAi cucumber fruits were observed by dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, genome-wide gene expression in young fruits from a control and the RNAi line was compared using a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis approach. The expression pattern of CsGID1a was found to be closely correlated with fruit locule formation, and silencing CsGID1a in cucumber resulted in fruits with abnormal carpels and locules. Overexpression of CsGID1a in the Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant (gid1a gid1c) resulted in 'cucumber locule-like' fruits. The DGE analysis suggested that expression of genes related to auxin synthesis and transport, as well as the cell cycle, was altered in CsGID1a-RNAi fruits, a result that was supported by comparing the auxin content and cellular structures of the control and transgenic fruits. This study demonstrates a previously uncharacterized GA signaling pathway that is essential for cucumber fruit locule formation.

  13. Micro-trichome as a class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene regulates multicellular trichome development in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Pan, Jun-Song; Guan, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Bie, Bei-Bei; Wang, Yun-Li; He, Huan-Le; Lian, Hong-Li; Cai, Run

    2015-11-01

    Plant trichomes serve as a highly suitable model for investigating cell differentiation at the single-cell level. The regulatory genes involved in unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana have been intensively studied, but genes regulating multicellular trichome development in plants remain unclear. Here, we characterized Cucumis sativus (cucumber) trichomes as representative multicellular and unbranched structures, and identified Micro-trichome (Mict), using map-based cloning in an F2 segregating population of 7,936 individuals generated from a spontaneous mict mutant. In mict plants, trichomes in both leaves and fruits, are small, poorly developed, and denser than in the wild type. Sequence analysis revealed that a 2,649-bp genomic deletion, spanning the first and second exons, occurred in a plant-specific class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that Mict is strongly expressed in the trichome cells. Transcriptome profiling identified potential targets of Mict including putative homologs of genes known in other systems to regulate trichome development, meristem determinacy, and hormone responsiveness. Phylogenic analysis charted the relationships among putative homologs in angiosperms. Our paper represents initial steps toward understanding the development of multicellular trichomes.

  14. Identification of fruit related microRNAs in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xueling; Song, Tiefeng; Liu, Chang; Feng, Hui; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nt noncoding RNAs that influence the phenotypes of different species through the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Although many miRNAs have been identified in a few model plants, less is known about miRNAs specific to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, two libraries of cucumber RNA, one based on fruit samples and another based on mixed samples from leaves, stems, and roots, were prepared for deep-sequencing. A total of 110 sequences were matched to known miRNAs in 47 families, while 56 sequences in 46 families are newly identified in cucumber. Of these, 77 known and 44 new miRNAs were differentially expressed, with a fold-change of at least 2 and p-value < 0.05. In addition, we predicted the potential targets of known and new miRNAs. The identification and characterization of known and new miRNAs will enable us to better understand the role of these miRNAs in the formation of cucumber fruit.

  15. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on membrane lipid peroxidation and photosynthetic characteristics of Cucumis sativus seedlings under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Hao, Jing-Hong; Yi, Yang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Dong, Chun-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2012-03-01

    To approach the related mechanisms of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in improving plant drought-resistance, this paper studied the effects of applying exogenous SA to the rhizosphere on the plant growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, water use efficiency, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings under drought stresses (60% and 50% of saturated water capacity). Applying SA relieved the inhibitory effects of drought stress on plant growth, Pn, and water use efficiency, decreased membrane lipid peroxidation, and promoted proline accumulation. Meanwhile, the SA decreased the decrements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II, actual photochemical efficiency of PS II, potential activity of PS II, effective photochemical efficiency of PS II, and photochemical quenching coefficient under drought stress significantly, and limited the increase of non-photochemical quenching coefficient. All the results suggested that applying exogenous SA could alleviate the oxidation damage of cell membrane resulted from the drought-caused membrane lipid peroxidation, improve the Pn by increasing PS II activity to benefit water utilization, enhance the regulation capability of osmosis to decrease water loss and increase water use efficiency, and thereby, improve the plant drought-resistance.

  16. Atmospheric Humidity Influences Oviposition Rate of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Through Morphological Responses of Host Cucumis sativus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, T; Itagaki, K; Ueyama, S; Hirai, N; Endo, R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative humidity, respectively) in growth chambers until the second true leaves had expanded. Adult females of T. urticae were released on the adaxial surfaces of leaf squares cut from first and second true leaves in each treatment group, and held in the same humidity condition. Eggs were counted 2 d after release. The lower acclimatization humidity (higher VPD) increased trichome (leaf hair) density of the host leaves and oviposition rate, but the relationship between the trichome and oviposition differed between leaf positions. The leaf mass per area (LMA) was greater in first true leaves than in second true leaves, but was not influenced by VPD. A linear regression model with oviposition rate as the dependent variable and trichome density and LMA as independent variables showed that both variables influenced the oviposition rate approximately equally. We conclude that oviposition was accelerated under low humidity (high VPD) conditions indirectly probably through an increase in the trichome density of host leaves.

  17. Glutathione-dependent induction of local and systemic defense against oxidative stress by exogenous melatonin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Xin; Luo, Dan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is involved in defending against oxidative stress caused by various environmental stresses in plants. In this study, the roles of exogenous melatonin in regulating local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and the involvement of redox signaling were examined. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin enhanced tolerance to photooxidative stress in both melatonin-treated leaves and untreated systemic leaves. Increased melatonin levels are capable of increasing glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH]) redox status. Application of H2 O2 and GSH also induced tolerance to photooxidative stress, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation and GSH synthesis compromised melatonin-induced local and systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress. H2 O2 treatment increased the GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation prevented a melatonin-induced increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. Additionally, inhibition of GSH synthesis blocked H2 O2 -induced photooxidative stress tolerance, whereas scavenging or inhibition of H2 O2 production attenuated but did not abolish GSH-induced tolerance to photooxidative stress. These results strongly suggest that exogenous melatonin is capable of inducing both local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress and melatonin-enhanced GSH/GSSG ratio in a H2 O2 -dependent manner is critical in the induction of tolerance.

  18. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10-12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001) for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size.

  19. Exocarp Properties and Transcriptomic Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Expressing Age-Related Resistance to Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Kaori; Carr, Kevin M.; Colle, Marivi; Mansfeld, Ben N.; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Very young cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit are highly susceptible to infection by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. As the fruit complete exponential growth, at approximately 10–12 days post pollination (dpp), they transition to resistance. The development of age-related resistance (ARR) is increasingly recognized as an important defense against pathogens, however, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Peel sections from cucumber fruit harvested at 8 dpp (susceptible) and 16 dpp (resistant) showed equivalent responses to inoculation as did whole fruit, indicating that the fruit surface plays an important role in defense against P. capsici. Exocarp from 16 dpp fruit had thicker cuticles, and methanolic extracts of peel tissue inhibited growth of P. capsici in vitro, suggesting physical or chemical components to the ARR. Transcripts specifically expressed in the peel vs. pericarp showed functional differentiation. Transcripts predominantly expressed in the peel were consistent with fruit surface associated functions including photosynthesis, cuticle production, response to the environment, and defense. Peel-specific transcripts that exhibited increased expression in 16 dpp fruit relative to 8 dpp fruit, were highly enriched (P<0.0001) for response to stress, signal transduction, and extracellular and transport functions. Specific transcripts included genes associated with potential physical barriers (i.e., cuticle), chemical defenses (flavonoid biosynthesis), oxidative stress, penetration defense, and molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered or effector-triggered (R-gene mediated) pathways. The developmentally regulated changes in gene expression between peels from susceptible- and resistant- age fruits suggest programming for increased defense as the organ reaches full size. PMID:26528543

  20. In vivo noninvasive detection of chlorophyll distribution in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves by indices based on hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaobo; Shi, Jiyong; Hao, Limin; Zhao, Jiewen; Mao, Hanpin; Chen, Zhenwei; Li, Yanxiao; Holmes, Mel

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the spectral behavior of the relationship between reflectance and chlorophyll content and to develop a technique for non-destructive chlorophyll estimation and distribution in leaves using hyperspectral imaging. The hyperspectral imaging data cube of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves in the range of 450-850 nm was investigated and preprocessed. Sixty optical signatures or indices as a function of the associated reflectance (R(λ)) at the special wavelength (λ) nm which proposed in the literatures were used to predict the total chlorophyll content in cucumber leaves. Finally, R(710)/R(760), (R(780)-R(710))/(R(780)-R(680)), (R(750)-R(705))/(R(750)+R(705)), (R(680)-R(430))/(R(680)+R(430)), R(860)/(R(550)×R(708)), (R(695-705))(-1)-(R(750-800))(-1), and REP-LEM (a index based on red edge position and estimated with a linear extrapolation method) were identified as optimum indices. Red-edge waveband (680-780 nm) appeared in all these optimum indices, indicating the importance of REP (red edge position) in chlorophyll estimation. When (R(695-705))(-1)-(R(750-800))(-1), the best index was applied to an independent validation set, chlorophyll content (r=0.8286) were reasonably well predicted, indicating model robustness. Depending on the sample, this technique enables to identify and characterize the relative content of various chlorophyll that distribution in the cucumber leaves. The map shows a relatively low level of chlorophyll at margins. Higher level can be noticed in the regions along the main veins and in some areas exhibiting dark green tissue. Our results indicate that hyperspectral imaging has considerable promise for predicting pigments in leaves and, the pigments can be detected in situ in living plant samples non-destructively. PMID:21995916

  1. Integrative Analyses of Nontargeted Volatile Profiling and Transcriptome Data Provide Molecular Insight into VOC Diversity in Cucumber Plants (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Fengxia; Qin, Hao; Miao, Han; Chen, Qingwen; Hu, Zhongyi; Cao, Li; Wang, Meijiao; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Guodong

    2016-09-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds, which are generated in a tissue-specific manner, play important ecological roles in the interactions between plants and their environments, including the well-known functions of attracting pollinators and protecting plants from herbivores/fungi attacks. However, to date, there have not been reports of holistic volatile profiling of the various tissues of a single plant species, even for the model plant species. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 85 volatile chemicals, including 36 volatile terpenes, in 23 different tissues of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most volatile chemicals were found to occur in a highly tissue-specific manner. The consensus transcriptomes for each of the 23 cucumber tissues were generated with RNA sequencing data and used in volatile organic compound-gene correlation analysis to screen for candidate genes likely to be involved in cucumber volatile biosynthetic pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of the candidate enzymes demonstrated that TERPENE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11)/TPS14, TPS01, and TPS15 were responsible for volatile terpenoid production in the roots, flowers, and fruit tissues of cucumber plants, respectively. A functional heteromeric geranyl(geranyl) pyrophosphate synthase, composed of an inactive small subunit (type I) and an active large subunit, was demonstrated to play a key role in monoterpene production in cucumber. In addition to establishing a standard workflow for the elucidation of plant volatile biosynthetic pathways, the knowledge generated from this study lays a solid foundation for future investigations of both the physiological functions of cucumber volatiles and aspects of cucumber flavor improvement. PMID:27457123

  2. Effects of exogenous spermine on chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and ultrastructure of chloroplasts in Cucumis sativus L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Ling-Yun; Guo, Shi-Rong; Sun, Jin; Yuan, Ying-Hui

    2013-02-01

    The effects of exogenous spermine (Spm) on plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, ultrastructure and anti-oxidative metabolism of chloroplasts were investigated in Cucumis sativus L. under NaCl stress. Salt stress significantly reduced plant growth, chlorophylls content and F(v)/F(m). These changes could be alleviated by foliar spraying with Spm. Salt stress caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide anion [Formula: see text] generation rate in chloroplasts. Application of Spm significantly increased activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) which decreased the levels of [Formula: see text] and MDA in the salt-stressed chloroplasts. Salt stress decreased the activities of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) in the chloroplasts and reduced the contents of dehydroascorbate (DAsA) and glutathione (GSH), but increased monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR, EC 1.6.5.4) activity. On the other hand, Spm significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of antioxidants in the salt-stressed chloroplasts. Further analysis of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts indicated that salinity induced destruction of the chloroplast envelope and increased the number of plastoglobuli with aberrations in thylakoid membranes. However, Spm application to salt-stressed plant leaves counteracted the adverse effects of salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. These results suggest that Spm alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress through regulating antioxidant systems in chloroplasts of cucumber seedlings, which is associated with an improvement of the photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  3. Integrative Analyses of Nontargeted Volatile Profiling and Transcriptome Data Provide Molecular Insight into VOC Diversity in Cucumber Plants (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Fengxia; Qin, Hao; Miao, Han; Chen, Qingwen; Hu, Zhongyi; Cao, Li; Wang, Meijiao; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Guodong

    2016-09-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds, which are generated in a tissue-specific manner, play important ecological roles in the interactions between plants and their environments, including the well-known functions of attracting pollinators and protecting plants from herbivores/fungi attacks. However, to date, there have not been reports of holistic volatile profiling of the various tissues of a single plant species, even for the model plant species. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 85 volatile chemicals, including 36 volatile terpenes, in 23 different tissues of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most volatile chemicals were found to occur in a highly tissue-specific manner. The consensus transcriptomes for each of the 23 cucumber tissues were generated with RNA sequencing data and used in volatile organic compound-gene correlation analysis to screen for candidate genes likely to be involved in cucumber volatile biosynthetic pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of the candidate enzymes demonstrated that TERPENE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11)/TPS14, TPS01, and TPS15 were responsible for volatile terpenoid production in the roots, flowers, and fruit tissues of cucumber plants, respectively. A functional heteromeric geranyl(geranyl) pyrophosphate synthase, composed of an inactive small subunit (type I) and an active large subunit, was demonstrated to play a key role in monoterpene production in cucumber. In addition to establishing a standard workflow for the elucidation of plant volatile biosynthetic pathways, the knowledge generated from this study lays a solid foundation for future investigations of both the physiological functions of cucumber volatiles and aspects of cucumber flavor improvement.

  4. [Effects of temperature regime on low-light tolerance of Cucumis sativus seedling leaves in their photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Sui, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Zhen-xian

    2008-12-01

    In a phytotron, the effects of three temperature regimes (day/night 25 degrees C/18 degrees C, optimal temperature; 15 degrees C/9 degrees C, suboptimal temperature; and 9 degrees C/7 degrees C, low temperature) on the low-light (75-85 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) tolerance of two Cucumis sativus cultivars (shade-susceptible Jinyan 2 and shade-tolerant Deltastar) seedling leaves in their photosynthesis were studied. The results showed that under low light, the SPAD, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (phi(PS II)), and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (q(p)) of cucumber leaves decreased, with the decrement getting more with decreasing temperature, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were in adverse. During the recovery process after low-light stress relieved, the parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of the leaves recovered gradually, and the recovery of some gas exchange parameters lagged to that of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Under low light, the lower the temperature, the more damage the photosynthesis apparatus suffered, and the lesser tolerance to low light the cucumber leaves had in their photosynthesis. During the low temperature and low light treatment period, the decrease of Pn, phi(PS II), and q(p) was more obvious for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar; and during the relief period, the recovery of these parameters was slower for Jinyan 2 than for Deltastar. It was indicated that Jinyan 2 had weaker tolerance to low temperature and/or low light in its photosynthesis than Deltastar.

  5. 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 μM of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar.

  6. Brassinosteroids promote photosynthesis and growth by enhancing activation of Rubisco and expression of photosynthetic genes in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Li-Feng; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Wu, Jian-Xiang; Asami, Tadao; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-11-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a new group of plant growth substances that promote plant growth and productivity. We showed in this study that improved growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants after treatment with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), an active BR, was associated with increased CO(2) assimilation and quantum yield of PSII (Phi(PSII)). Treatment of brassinazole (Brz), a specific inhibitor for BR biosynthesis, reduced plant growth and at the same time decreased CO(2) assimilation and Phi(PSII). Thus, the growth-promoting activity of BRs can be, at least partly, attributed to enhanced plant photosynthesis. To understand how BRs enhance photosynthesis, we have analyzed the effects of EBR and Brz on a number of photosynthetic parameters and their affecting factors, including the contents and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Northern and Western blotting demonstrated that EBR upregulated, while Brz downregulated, the expressions of rbcL, rbcS and other photosynthetic genes. In addition, EBR had a positive effect on the activation of Rubisco based on increased maximum Rubisco carboxylation rates (V (c,max)), total Rubisco activity and, to a greater extent, initial Rubisco activity. The accumulation patterns of Rubisco activase (RCA) based on immunogold-labeling experiments suggested a role of RCA in BR-regulated activation state of Rubisco. Enhanced expression of genes encoding other Calvin cycle genes after EBR treatment may also play a positive role in RuBP regeneration (J (max)), thereby increasing maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (V (c,max)). Thus, BRs promote photosynthesis and growth by positively regulating synthesis and activation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes including Rubisco in cucumber.

  7. Alleviation of salt stress-induced inhibition of seed germination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) by ethylene and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chenshuo; Wang, Baolan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yinxin; Duo, Lian; Zhang, Wenhao

    2010-09-15

    Ethylene is an important plant gas hormone, and the amino acid Glu is emerging as a messenger molecule in plants. To evaluate the role of ethylene and Glu in seed germination and radicle growth under salt stress, effects of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), Ethephon and Glu on germination and radicle growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in the absence and presence of 200 mM NaCl were investigated. Seed germination was markedly inhibited by salt stress, and this effect was alleviated by ACC and Ethephon. In contrast to seed germination, ACC and Ethephon had little effect on radicle growth under salt stress. In addition to ethylene, we found exogenous supply of Glu was effective in alleviating the salt stress-induced inhibition of seed germination and radicle growth. The effect of Glu on the seed germination and radicle growth was specific to L-Glu, whereas D-Glu and Gln had no effect. There was an increase in ethylene production during seed imbibition, and salt stress suppressed ethylene production. Exogenous L-Glu evoked ethylene evolution from the imbibed seeds and attenuated the reduction in ethylene evolution induced by salt stress. The alleviative effect of L-Glu on seed germination was diminished by antagonists of ethylene synthesis, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and CoCl(2), suggesting that L-Glu is likely to exert its effect on seed germination by modulation of ethylene evolution. These findings demonstrate that ethylene is associated with suppression of seed germination under salt stress and that L-Glu interacts with ethylene in regulation of seed germination under salt stress.

  8. Binding of transition metals to monosilicic acid in aqueous and xylem (Cucumis sativus L.) solutions: a low-T electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Stevic, Nenad; Korac, Jelena; Pavlovic, Jelena; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    The supplementation of monosilicic acid [Si(OH)4] to the root growing medium is known to protect plants from toxic levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), but also to mitigate deficiency of Fe and Mn. However, the physicochemical bases of these alleviating mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we applied low-T electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the formation of complexes of Si(OH)4 with Mn(2+), Fe(3+), and Cu(2+) in water and in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown without or with supply of Si(OH)4. EPR, which is also useful in establishing the redox state of these metals, was combined with measurements of total concentrations of metals in xylem sap by inductive coupled plasma. Our results show that Si(OH)4 forms coordination bonds with all three metals. The strongest interactions of Si(OH)4 appear to be with Cu(2+) (1/1 stoichiometry) which might lead to Cu precipitation. In line with this in vitro findings, Si(OH)4 supply to cucumber resulted in dramatically lower concentration of this metal in the xylem sap. Further, it was demonstrated that Si(OH)4 supplementation causes pro-reductive changes that contribute to the maintenance of Fe and, in particular, Mn in the xylem sap in bioavailable 2+ form. Our results shed more light on the intertwined reactions between Si(OH)4 and transition metals in plant fluids (e.g. xylem sap). PMID:27502949

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of transketolase gene in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Bi, Huangai; Wang, Meiling; Dong, Xubing; Ai, Xizhen

    2013-09-01

    Transketolase (TK, EC 2.2.1.1) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (Calvin cycle). A full-length cDNA encoding transketolase (TK, designated as CsTK) was isolated from cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativa L. cv 'Jinyou 3') by RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA contained 2368 nucleotides with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 2229 nucleotides, which was predicted to encode a peptide of 742 amino acids. Expression analysis by real-time PCR and western blot revealed that TK mRNA was abundant in cucumber leaves and detectable in stems, fruits and roots. TK activity and the gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels was higher in mid-position leaves (4th apical leaves) than in upper position leaves (1st) and base position leaves (12th). The diurnal variation of CsTK expression and TK activity in the optimal functional leaf (4th leaf) was a single-peak curve, and the peak appeared at 14:00 on a sunny day. Low temperature (5 °C) and low light (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) induced CsTK expression, but the expression level decreased after 24 h of chilling stress. Over-expression of CsTK increased the TK activity, mRNA abundance and activities of other main enzymes in Calvin cycle, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in transgenic cucumber leaves. Transgenic plants showed a higher ratio of female flower and yield relative to the wild type (WT) plants. The decreases in Pn and carboxylation efficiency (CE) were less in transgenic plants than that in WT during low temperature and low light intensity.

  10. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  11. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on germination, growth and chlorophyll amounts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Songül; Munzuroğlu, Omer

    2007-09-01

    Germination activities, various growth parameters (primary root length, hypocotyl length, primary leaf length, plant length and increase in fresh weight) and chlorophyll (a+b) amounts of cucumber seeds exposed to 0, 10(-5), 10(-4), 10(-3) and 0.5x 10(-2) M aqueous solutions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for 48 h were established. While 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA significantly prevented germination activity of the seeds, other concentrations did not produce any effect, either positive or negative. Meanwhile, 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA inhibited radicle growth of the germinated seeds, while 10(-5) M ASA increased radicle growth. Other concentrations of ASA did not affect radicle growth. The following findings were obtained from the one-week seedlings exposed to ASA for 48 h: 0.5x10(-2) M ASA prevented growth (lengthening) of root, hypocotyl, leaf and plant and increased chlorophyll (a+b) amount with an increase in fresh weight. Contrary to 0.5x 10(-2) M ASA application, these features of the seedlings (except for the leaf length) were encouraged by 10(-5) M ASA. 10(-3)) M ASA only prevented root growth and reduced chlorophyll (a+b) amount. Other concentrations of ASA did not bring about any positive or negative effect on the features studied.

  12. Effect of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) on germination, antioxidant system, and chloroplast ultrastructure in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xin; Wang, Lei; Du, Na; Tao, Yue; Sun, Guoqiang; Erinle, Kehinde O; Wang, Pengjie; Zhou, Changjian; Duan, Shuwei

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils caused by widely employed plastic products, such as phthalic acid esters (PAEs), are becoming widespread in China, and they have become a threat to human health and the environment. However, little information is available on the influence of PAEs on vegetable crops. In this study, effects of different dimethyl phthalate (DMP) treatments (0, 30, 50, 100, and 200 mg L(-1)) on seed germination and growth of cucumber seedlings were investigated. Although germination rate showed no significant difference compared to control, seed germination time was significantly delayed at DMP greater than 50 mg L(-1). Concentrations of DMP greater than 30 mg L(-1) reduced cucumber lateral root length and number. The measurement of five physiological indexes in cucumber leaves with increasing DMP concentration revealed a decrease in leaf chlorophyll content, while proline and H2O2 contents increased. Peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased in cucumber plants under 30 and 50 mg L(-1) DMP treatments compared to control; while after a 7-day treatment, these activities were seriously reduced under 100 and 200 mg L(-1) DMP treatments. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographic images, the control and 30 mg L(-1) DMP treatments caused no change to leaf chloroplast shape with well-structured thylakoid membrane and parallel pattern of lamellae. At concentrations higher than 30 mg L(-1), DMP altered the ultrastructure of chloroplast, damaged membrane structure, disordered the lamellae, and increased the number and volume of starch grains. Moreover, the envelope of starch grains began to degrade under 200 mg L(-1) DMP treatment.

  13. CeO₂ and ZnO nanoparticles change the nutritional qualities of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Rico, Cyren M; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Sun, Youping; Niu, Genhua; Servin, Alia; Nunez, Jose E; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-04-01

    There is lack of information about the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on cucumber fruit quality. This study aimed to determine possible impacts on carbohydrates, proteins, mineral nutrients, and antioxidants in the fruit of cucumber plants grown in soil treated with CeO2 and ZnO NPs at 400 and 800 mg/kg. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect changes in functional groups, while ICP-OES and μ-XRF were used to quantify and map the distribution of nutrient elements, respectively. Results showed that none of the ZnO NP concentrations affected sugars; however at 400 mg/kg, CeO2 and ZnO NPs increased starch content. Conversely, CeO2 NPs did not affect starch content but impacted nonreducing sugar content (sucrose). FTIR data showed changes in the fingerprint regions of 1106, 1083, 1153, and 1181, indicating that both NPs altered the carbohydrate pattern. ZnO NPs did not impact protein fractionation; however, CeO2 NPs at 400 mg/kg increased globulin and decreased glutelin. Both CeO2 and ZnO NPs had no impact on flavonoid content, although CeO2 NPs at 800 mg/kg significantly reduced phenolic content. ICP-OES results showed that none of the treatments reduced macronutrients in fruit. In case of micronutrients, all treatments reduced Mo concentration, and at 400 mg/kg, ZnO NPs reduced Cu accumulation. μ-XRF revealed that Cu, Mn, and Zn were mainly accumulated in cucumber seeds. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report on the nutritional quality of cucumber fruit attributed to the impact of CeO2 and ZnO NPs. PMID:24611936

  14. CeO₂ and ZnO nanoparticles change the nutritional qualities of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Rico, Cyren M; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Sun, Youping; Niu, Genhua; Servin, Alia; Nunez, Jose E; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-04-01

    There is lack of information about the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on cucumber fruit quality. This study aimed to determine possible impacts on carbohydrates, proteins, mineral nutrients, and antioxidants in the fruit of cucumber plants grown in soil treated with CeO2 and ZnO NPs at 400 and 800 mg/kg. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect changes in functional groups, while ICP-OES and μ-XRF were used to quantify and map the distribution of nutrient elements, respectively. Results showed that none of the ZnO NP concentrations affected sugars; however at 400 mg/kg, CeO2 and ZnO NPs increased starch content. Conversely, CeO2 NPs did not affect starch content but impacted nonreducing sugar content (sucrose). FTIR data showed changes in the fingerprint regions of 1106, 1083, 1153, and 1181, indicating that both NPs altered the carbohydrate pattern. ZnO NPs did not impact protein fractionation; however, CeO2 NPs at 400 mg/kg increased globulin and decreased glutelin. Both CeO2 and ZnO NPs had no impact on flavonoid content, although CeO2 NPs at 800 mg/kg significantly reduced phenolic content. ICP-OES results showed that none of the treatments reduced macronutrients in fruit. In case of micronutrients, all treatments reduced Mo concentration, and at 400 mg/kg, ZnO NPs reduced Cu accumulation. μ-XRF revealed that Cu, Mn, and Zn were mainly accumulated in cucumber seeds. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report on the nutritional quality of cucumber fruit attributed to the impact of CeO2 and ZnO NPs.

  15. Proteomic characterization of iron deficiency responses in Cucumis sativus L. roots

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency induces in Strategy I plants physiological, biochemical and molecular modifications capable to increase iron uptake from the rhizosphere. This effort needs a reorganization of metabolic pathways to efficiently sustain activities linked to the acquisition of iron; in fact, carbohydrates and the energetic metabolism has been shown to be involved in these responses. The aim of this work was to find both a confirmation of the already expected change in the enzyme concentrations induced in cucumber root tissue in response to iron deficiency as well as to find new insights on the involvement of other pathways. Results The proteome pattern of soluble cytosolic proteins extracted from roots was obtained by 2-DE. Of about two thousand spots found, only those showing at least a two-fold increase or decrease in the concentration were considered for subsequent identification by mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven proteins showed significant changes, and 44 of them were identified. Twenty-one of them were increased in quantity, whereas 23 were decreased in quantity. Most of the increased proteins belong to glycolysis and nitrogen metabolism in agreement with the biochemical evidence. On the other hand, the proteins being decreased belong to the metabolism of sucrose and complex structural carbohydrates and to structural proteins. Conclusions The new available techniques allow to cast new light on the mechanisms involved in the changes occurring in plants under iron deficiency. The data obtained from this proteomic study confirm the metabolic changes occurring in cucumber as a response to Fe deficiency. Two main conclusions may be drawn. The first one is the confirmation of the increase in the glycolytic flux and in the anaerobic metabolism to sustain the energetic effort the Fe-deficient plants must undertake. The second conclusion is, on one hand, the decrease in the amount of enzymes linked to the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates of the cell wall

  16. Expression characteristics of CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3, three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under carbon dioxide stress.

    PubMed

    Mathooko, F M; Mwaniki, M W; Nakatsuka, A; Shiomi, S; Kubo, Y; Inaba, A; Nakamura, R

    1999-02-01

    We investigated the expression pattern of three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes, CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under CO2 stress. CO2 stress-induced ethylene production paralleled the accumulation of only CS-ACS1 transcripts which disappeared upon withdrawal of CO2. Cycloheximide inhibited the CO2 stress-induced ethylene production but superinduced the accumulation of CS-ACS1 transcript. At higher concentrations, cycloheximide also induced the accumulation of CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 transcripts. In the presence of CO2 and cycloheximide, the accumulation of CS-ACS2 transcript occurred within 1 h, disappeared after 3 h and increased greatly upon withdrawal of CO2. Inhibitors of protein kinase and types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases which inhibited and stimulated, respectively, CO2 stress-induced ethylene production had little effect on the expression of these genes. The results presented here identify CS-ACS1 as the main ACC synthase gene responsible for the increased ethylene biosynthesis in cucumber fruit under CO2 stress and suggest that this gene is a primary response gene and its expression is under negative control since it is expressed by treatment with cycloheximide. The results further suggest that the regulation of CO2 stress-induced ethylene biosynthesis by reversible protein phosphorylation does not result from enhanced ACC synthase transcription. PMID:10202812

  17. Cucumis sativus L. WAX2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Wax Biosynthesis, Influencing Pollen Fertility and Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-07-01

    Cuticular waxes play an important part in protecting plant aerial organs from biotic and abiotic stresses. In previous studies, the biosynthetic pathway of cuticular waxes and relative functional genes has been researched and understood; however, little is known in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, we cloned and characterized an AtWAX2 homolog, CsWAX2, in cucumber and found that it is highly expressed in the epidermis, where waxes are synthesized, while subcellular localization showed that CsWAX2 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transcriptional expression of CsWAX2 was found to be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and ABA, while the ectopic expression of CsWAX2 in an Arabidopsis wax2 mutant could partially complement the glossy stem phenotype. Abnormal expression of CsWAX2 in transgenic cucumbers specifically affected both very long chain (VLC) alkanes and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transgenic cucumber plants of CsWAX2 showed significant changes in pollen viability and fruit resistance to water loss and pathogens compared with the wild type. Collectively, these results indicated that CsWAX2 plays a pivotal role in wax biosynthesis, influencing pollen fertility and the plant's response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26023108

  18. Transcriptome comparison of global distinctive features between pollination and parthenocarpic fruit set reveals transcriptional phytohormone cross-talk in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Wu, Zhe; Cui, Li; Zhang, Tinglin; Guo, Qinwei; Xu, Jian; Jia, Li; Lou, Qunfeng; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Zhengguo; Chen, Jinfeng

    2014-07-01

    Parthenocarpy is an important trait determining yield and quality of fruit crops. However, the understanding of the mechanisms underlying parthenocarpy induction is limited. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is abundant in parthenocarpic germplasm resources and is an excellent model organism for parthenocarpy studies. In this study, the transcriptome of cucumber fruits was studied using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of set fruits were compared against aborted fruits. Distinctive features of parthenocarpic and pollinated fruits were revealed by combining the analysis of the transcriptome together with cytomorphological and physiological analysis. Cell division and the transcription of cell division genes were found to be more active in parthenocarpic fruit. The study also indicated that parthenocarpic fruit set is a high sugar-consuming process which is achieved via enhanced carbohydrate degradation through transcription of genes that lead to the breakdown of carbohydrates. Furthermore, the evidence provided by this work supports a hypothesis that parthenocarpic fruit set is induced by mimicking the processes of pollination/fertilization at the transcriptional level, i.e. by performing the same transcriptional patterns of genes inducing pollination and gametophyte development as in pollinated fruit. Based on the RNA-Seq and ovary transient expression results, 14 genes were predicted as putative parthenocarpic genes. The transcription analysis of these candidate genes revealed auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin cross-talk at the transcriptional level during parthenocarpic fruit set. PMID:24733865

  19. Changes of alternative oxidase activity, capacity and protein content in leaves of Cucumis sativus wild-type and MSC16 mutant grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Ostaszewska, Monika; Galle, Alexander; Flexas, Jaume; Rychter, Anna M; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2009-12-01

    In vitro studies demonstrated that alternative oxidase (AOX) is biochemically regulated by a sulfhydryl-disulfide system, interaction with alpha-ketoacids, ubiquinone pool redox state and protein content among others. However, there is still scarce information about the in vivo regulation of the AOX. Cucumis sativus wild-type (WT) and MSC16 mutant plants were grown under two different light intensities and were used to analyze the relationship between the amount of leaf AOX protein and its in vivo capacity and activity at night and day periods. WT and MSC16 plants presented lower total respiration (V(t)), cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) activity (v(cyt)) and alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) activity (v(alt)) when grown at low light (LL), although growth light intensity did not change the amount of cytochrome oxidase (COX) nor AOX protein. Changes of v(cyt) related to growing light conditions suggested a substrate availability and energy demand control. On the other hand, the total amount of AOX protein present in the tissue does not play a role in the regulation neither of the capacity nor of the activity of the AOP in vivo. Soluble carbohydrates were directly related to the activity of the AOP. However, although differences in soluble sugar contents mostly regulate the capacity of the AOP at different growth light intensities, additional regulatory mechanisms are necessary to fully explain the observed results.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the roles of microtubule-related genes and transcription factors in fruit length regulation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Wencai; Li, Yanqiang; Xia, Mengxue; Chen, Zijing; Wang, Qian; Yan, Liying; Song, Xiaofei; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-01-26

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit is a type of fleshy fruit that is harvested immaturely. Early fruit development directly determines the final fruit length and diameter, and consequently the fruit yield and quality. Different cucumber varieties display huge variations of fruit length, but how fruit length is determined at the molecular level remains poorly understood. To understand the genes and gene networks that regulate fruit length in cucumber, high throughout RNA-Seq data were used to compare the transcriptomes of early fruit from two near isogenic lines with different fruit lengths. 3955 genes were found to be differentially expressed, among which 2368 genes were significantly up-regulated and 1587 down-regulated in the line with long fruit. Microtubule and cell cycle related genes were dramatically activated in the long fruit, and transcription factors were implicated in the fruit length regulation in cucumber. Thus, our results built a foundation for dissecting the molecular mechanism of fruit length control in cucumber, a key agricultural trait of significant economic importance.

  1. Cucumis sativus L. WAX2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Wax Biosynthesis, Influencing Pollen Fertility and Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-07-01

    Cuticular waxes play an important part in protecting plant aerial organs from biotic and abiotic stresses. In previous studies, the biosynthetic pathway of cuticular waxes and relative functional genes has been researched and understood; however, little is known in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, we cloned and characterized an AtWAX2 homolog, CsWAX2, in cucumber and found that it is highly expressed in the epidermis, where waxes are synthesized, while subcellular localization showed that CsWAX2 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transcriptional expression of CsWAX2 was found to be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and ABA, while the ectopic expression of CsWAX2 in an Arabidopsis wax2 mutant could partially complement the glossy stem phenotype. Abnormal expression of CsWAX2 in transgenic cucumbers specifically affected both very long chain (VLC) alkanes and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transgenic cucumber plants of CsWAX2 showed significant changes in pollen viability and fruit resistance to water loss and pathogens compared with the wild type. Collectively, these results indicated that CsWAX2 plays a pivotal role in wax biosynthesis, influencing pollen fertility and the plant's response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  2. Induction of 33-kD and 60-kD peroxidases during ethylene-induced senescence of cucumber cotyledons. [Cucumis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Abeles, F.B.; Dunn, L.J.; Morgens, P.; Callahan, A.; Dinterman, R.E.; Schmidt, J. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD )

    1988-07-01

    Ethylene enhanced the senescence of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Poinsett 76) cotyledons. The effect of 10 microliters per liter ethylene was inhibited by 1 millimolar silver thiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action. An increase in proteins with molecular weights of 33 to 30 kilodaltons and lower molecular weights (25, 23, 20, 16, 12 and 10 kilodaltons) were observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels after ethylene enhanced senescence. The measurement of DNase and RNase activity in gels indicated that these new proteins were not nucleases. Two proteins from ethylene-treated cotyledons were purified on the basis of their association with a red chromaphore and subsequently were identified as peroxidases. The molecular weights and isoelectric points (pI) of two of these peroxidases were 33 kilodaltons (cationic, pI = 8.9) and 60 kilodaltons (anionic, pI = 4.0). The observation that ({sup 35}S)Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was incorporated into these proteins during ethylene-enhanced senescence suggests that these peroxidases represent newly synthesized proteins. Antibodies to the 33-kilodalton peroxidase precipitated two in vitro translation products from RNA isolated from ethylene-treated but not from control cucumber seedlings. This indicates that the increase in 33-kilodalton peroxidase activity represents de novo protein synthesis. Both forms of peroxidase degraded chlorophyll in vitro, which is consistent with the hypothesis that peroxidases have catabolic or scavenging functions in senescent tissues.

  3. Transcriptome comparison of global distinctive features between pollination and parthenocarpic fruit set reveals transcriptional phytohormone cross-talk in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Wu, Zhe; Cui, Li; Zhang, Tinglin; Guo, Qinwei; Xu, Jian; Jia, Li; Lou, Qunfeng; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Zhengguo; Chen, Jinfeng

    2014-07-01

    Parthenocarpy is an important trait determining yield and quality of fruit crops. However, the understanding of the mechanisms underlying parthenocarpy induction is limited. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is abundant in parthenocarpic germplasm resources and is an excellent model organism for parthenocarpy studies. In this study, the transcriptome of cucumber fruits was studied using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of set fruits were compared against aborted fruits. Distinctive features of parthenocarpic and pollinated fruits were revealed by combining the analysis of the transcriptome together with cytomorphological and physiological analysis. Cell division and the transcription of cell division genes were found to be more active in parthenocarpic fruit. The study also indicated that parthenocarpic fruit set is a high sugar-consuming process which is achieved via enhanced carbohydrate degradation through transcription of genes that lead to the breakdown of carbohydrates. Furthermore, the evidence provided by this work supports a hypothesis that parthenocarpic fruit set is induced by mimicking the processes of pollination/fertilization at the transcriptional level, i.e. by performing the same transcriptional patterns of genes inducing pollination and gametophyte development as in pollinated fruit. Based on the RNA-Seq and ovary transient expression results, 14 genes were predicted as putative parthenocarpic genes. The transcription analysis of these candidate genes revealed auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin cross-talk at the transcriptional level during parthenocarpic fruit set.

  4. Rapid identification of fruit length loci in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Zhen; Fu, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Qin, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jing; Li, Ji; Lou, Qun-Feng; Chen, Jin-Feng

    2016-06-07

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) exhibits extensive variations in fruit size and shape. Fruit length is an important agronomic and domesticated trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Nonetheless, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine cucumber fruit length remain unclear. QTL-seq is an efficient strategy for QTL identification that takes advantage of bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping and QTL-seq of cucumber fruit length. QTL mapping identified 8 QTLs for immature and mature fruit length. A major-effect QTL fl3.2, which explained a maximum of 38.87% of the phenotypic variation, was detected. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between two DNA bulks identified 6 QTLs for ovary length. QTLs ovl3.1 and ovl3.2 both had major effects on ovary length with a △ (SNP-index) of 0.80 (P < 0.01) and 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR of fruit size-related homologous genes localized in the consensus QTL FL3.2 was conducted. Four candidate genes exhibited increased expression levels in long fruit genotypes. Our results demonstrated the power of the QTL-seq method in rapid QTL detection and provided reliable QTL regions for fine mapping of fruit length-related loci and for identifying candidate genes.

  5. Rapid identification of fruit length loci in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Zhen; Fu, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Qin, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jing; Li, Ji; Lou, Qun-Feng; Chen, Jin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) exhibits extensive variations in fruit size and shape. Fruit length is an important agronomic and domesticated trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Nonetheless, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine cucumber fruit length remain unclear. QTL-seq is an efficient strategy for QTL identification that takes advantage of bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping and QTL-seq of cucumber fruit length. QTL mapping identified 8 QTLs for immature and mature fruit length. A major-effect QTL fl3.2, which explained a maximum of 38.87% of the phenotypic variation, was detected. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between two DNA bulks identified 6 QTLs for ovary length. QTLs ovl3.1 and ovl3.2 both had major effects on ovary length with a △ (SNP-index) of 0.80 (P < 0.01) and 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR of fruit size-related homologous genes localized in the consensus QTL FL3.2 was conducted. Four candidate genes exhibited increased expression levels in long fruit genotypes. Our results demonstrated the power of the QTL-seq method in rapid QTL detection and provided reliable QTL regions for fine mapping of fruit length-related loci and for identifying candidate genes. PMID:27271557

  6. Rapid identification of fruit length loci in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing-zhen; Fu, Wen-yuan; Wang, Yun-zhu; Qin, Xiao-dong; Wang, Jing; Li, Ji; Lou, Qun-feng; Chen, Jin-feng

    2016-01-01

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) exhibits extensive variations in fruit size and shape. Fruit length is an important agronomic and domesticated trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Nonetheless, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine cucumber fruit length remain unclear. QTL-seq is an efficient strategy for QTL identification that takes advantage of bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping and QTL-seq of cucumber fruit length. QTL mapping identified 8 QTLs for immature and mature fruit length. A major-effect QTL fl3.2, which explained a maximum of 38.87% of the phenotypic variation, was detected. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between two DNA bulks identified 6 QTLs for ovary length. QTLs ovl3.1 and ovl3.2 both had major effects on ovary length with a △ (SNP-index) of 0.80 (P < 0.01) and 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR of fruit size-related homologous genes localized in the consensus QTL FL3.2 was conducted. Four candidate genes exhibited increased expression levels in long fruit genotypes. Our results demonstrated the power of the QTL-seq method in rapid QTL detection and provided reliable QTL regions for fine mapping of fruit length-related loci and for identifying candidate genes. PMID:27271557

  7. Grafting of Cucumis sativus onto Cucurbita ficifolia leads to improved plant growth, increased light utilization and reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chilled plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanhong; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Lifeng; Ding, Xiaotao; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan

    2009-09-01

    The effects of chilling at 14 and 7 degrees C on plant growth, CO(2) assimilation, light allocation, photosynthetic electron flux and antioxidant metabolism were examined in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan No. 4, CS) plants with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, CF) and cucumber as rootstocks, respectively. Growth inhibition by chilling at 7 degrees C was characterized by irreversible inhibition of CO(2) assimilation in grafted plants with cucumber as rootstock and scion (CS/CS) but this effect was significantly alleviated by grafting onto CF roots (CS/CF). Chilled CS/CF plants exhibited a higher photosynthetic activity and lower proportion of energy dissipation than chilled CS/CS plants. Chilling resulted in a greater decrease in the electron flux in photosystem (PS) II (J (PSII)) than the rate of energy dissipation either via light-dependent (J (NPQ)) or via constitutive thermal dissipation and fluorescence (J (f,D)) in CS/CS plants. In parallel with the reduction in J (PSII), electron flux to oxygenation (J (o)) and carboxylation by Rubisco (J (c)) all decreased significantly whilst alternative electron flux in PS II (J (a)) increased, especially in CS/CS plants. Moreover, CS/CF plants exhibited higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, lower antioxidant content and less membrane peroxidation relative to CS/CS plants after chilling.

  8. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p < 0.001), while fungi and G(-) bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R(2) = 0.590, p < 0.01). Therefore, Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. PMID:24077568

  9. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p < 0.001), while fungi and G(-) bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R(2) = 0.590, p < 0.01). Therefore, Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils.

  10. Effects of light quality on CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll-fluorescence quenching, expression of Calvin cycle genes and carbohydrate accumulation in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Gu, Min; Cui, Jinxia; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan

    2009-07-17

    Light quality is thought to affect many plant physiological processes during growth and development, particularly photosynthesis. We examined how light quality influences plant photosynthesis by analyzing changes in photosynthetic parameters and expression levels of some photosynthesis related genes of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyou No. 1) plants. The plants were grown under different light qualities: purple (P), blue (B), green (G), yellow (Y), red (R) and white light (W) of the same photosynthetic photon flux density (PFD) about 350 micromol m(-2)s(-1) for 5 days. The results show that all plants grown under monochromatic light had reduced growth, CO(2) assimilation rate (Pn) and quantum yield of PSII electron transport (Phi(PSII)) as compared with plants grown under W, and these reductions were more significant in the plants under G, Y and R. The decrease in Phi(PSII) is mostly due to the reduction in photochemical quenching (qP). Interestingly, P- and B-grown plants had higher stomatal conductance (Gs), total and initial Rubisco activities and higher transcriptional levels of 10 genes which encode key enzymes in the Calvin cycle together with higher total soluble sugars, sucrose and starch contents as compared with W-grown plants, whereas in G-, Y-, and R-grown plants these parameters declined. Therefore, the reduction in Pn under P and B is likely the result of inactivation of photosystems, whilst under Y, G and R it is caused by, in addition to photosystem inactivation, the closure of stomata and the transcriptional down-regulation of genes for the Calvin cycle enzymes such as rbc L and rca. In conclusion, light quality alters plant photosynthesis by the effects on the activity of photosynthetic apparatus in leaves and the effects on the expression and/or activity of the Calvin cycle enzymes.

  11. Integrative Analyses of Nontargeted Volatile Profiling and Transcriptome Data Provide Molecular Insight into VOC Diversity in Cucumber Plants (Cucumis sativus)1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guo; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Fengxia; Qin, Hao; Miao, Han; Chen, Qingwen; Hu, Zhongyi; Wang, Meijiao; Chen, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds, which are generated in a tissue-specific manner, play important ecological roles in the interactions between plants and their environments, including the well-known functions of attracting pollinators and protecting plants from herbivores/fungi attacks. However, to date, there have not been reports of holistic volatile profiling of the various tissues of a single plant species, even for the model plant species. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 85 volatile chemicals, including 36 volatile terpenes, in 23 different tissues of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most volatile chemicals were found to occur in a highly tissue-specific manner. The consensus transcriptomes for each of the 23 cucumber tissues were generated with RNA sequencing data and used in volatile organic compound-gene correlation analysis to screen for candidate genes likely to be involved in cucumber volatile biosynthetic pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of the candidate enzymes demonstrated that TERPENE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11)/TPS14, TPS01, and TPS15 were responsible for volatile terpenoid production in the roots, flowers, and fruit tissues of cucumber plants, respectively. A functional heteromeric geranyl(geranyl) pyrophosphate synthase, composed of an inactive small subunit (type I) and an active large subunit, was demonstrated to play a key role in monoterpene production in cucumber. In addition to establishing a standard workflow for the elucidation of plant volatile biosynthetic pathways, the knowledge generated from this study lays a solid foundation for future investigations of both the physiological functions of cucumber volatiles and aspects of cucumber flavor improvement. PMID:27457123

  12. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm.

  13. The effect of a microgravity (space) environment on the expression of expansins from the peg and root tissues of Cucumis sativus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Wagner, E. R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar outgrowth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. The development of the peg is thought to be gravity-dependent and has become a model system for plant-gravity response. Peg development requires rapid cell expansion, a process thought to be catalyzed by alpha-expansins, and thus was a good system to identify expansins that were regulated by gravity. This study identified 7 new alpha-expansin cDNAs from cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) and examined their expression patterns. Two alpha-expansins (CsExp3 and CsExp4) were more highly expressed in the peg and the root. Earlier reports stated that pegs tend not to form in the absence of gravity, so the expression levels were compared in the pegs of seedlings grown in space (STS-95), on a clinostat, and on earth (1 g). Pegs were observed to form at high frequency on clinostat and space-grown seedlings, yet on clinostats there was more than a 4-fold reduction in the expression of CsExp3 in the pegs of seedlings grown on clinostats vs. those grown at 1 g, while the CsExp4 gene appeared to be turned off (below detection limits). There were no detectable differences in expansin gene expression levels for the pegs of seedlings grown in space or in the orbiter environmental simulator (OES) (1 g) at NASA. The microgravity environment did not affect the expression of CsExp3 or CsExp4, and the clinostat did not simulate the microgravity environment well.

  14. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liang, C. Q.; Jiang, N.; Liu, P. F.; Li, J. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01) validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes. PMID:26076360

  15. Orthology Analysis and In Vivo Complementation Studies to Elucidate the Role of DIR1 during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Cucumis sativus

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Marisa; Carella, Philip; Faubert, Jennifer; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Cameron, Robin K.

    2016-01-01

    AtDIR1 (Defective in Induced Resistance1) is an acidic lipid transfer protein essential for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon SAR induction, DIR1 moves from locally infected to distant uninfected leaves to activate defense priming; however, a molecular function for DIR1 has not been elucidated. Bioinformatic analysis and in silico homology modeling identified putative AtDIR1 orthologs in crop species, revealing conserved protein motifs within and outside of DIR1’s central hydrophobic cavity. In vitro assays to compare the capacity of recombinant AtDIR1 and targeted AtDIR1-variant proteins to bind the lipophilic probe TNS (6,P-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate) provided evidence that conserved leucine 43 and aspartic acid 39 contribute to the size of the DIR1 hydrophobic cavity and possibly hydrophobic ligand binding. An Arabidopsis–cucumber SAR model was developed to investigate the conservation of DIR1 function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and we demonstrated that phloem exudates from SAR-induced cucumber rescued the SAR defect in the Arabidopsis dir1-1 mutant. Additionally, an AtDIR1 antibody detected a protein of the same size as AtDIR1 in SAR-induced cucumber phloem exudates, providing evidence that DIR1 function during SAR is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. In vitro TNS displacement assays demonstrated that recombinant AtDIR1 did not bind the SAR signals azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate or pipecolic acid. However, recombinant CsDIR1 and CsDIR2 interacted weakly with AzA and pipecolic acid. Bioinformatic and functional analyses using the Arabidopsis–cucumber SAR model provide evidence that DIR1 orthologs exist in tobacco, tomato, cucumber, and soybean, and that DIR1-mediated SAR signaling is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. PMID:27200039

  16. Orthology Analysis and In Vivo Complementation Studies to Elucidate the Role of DIR1 during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Marisa; Carella, Philip; Faubert, Jennifer; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Cameron, Robin K

    2016-01-01

    AtDIR1 (Defective in Induced Resistance1) is an acidic lipid transfer protein essential for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon SAR induction, DIR1 moves from locally infected to distant uninfected leaves to activate defense priming; however, a molecular function for DIR1 has not been elucidated. Bioinformatic analysis and in silico homology modeling identified putative AtDIR1 orthologs in crop species, revealing conserved protein motifs within and outside of DIR1's central hydrophobic cavity. In vitro assays to compare the capacity of recombinant AtDIR1 and targeted AtDIR1-variant proteins to bind the lipophilic probe TNS (6,P-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate) provided evidence that conserved leucine 43 and aspartic acid 39 contribute to the size of the DIR1 hydrophobic cavity and possibly hydrophobic ligand binding. An Arabidopsis-cucumber SAR model was developed to investigate the conservation of DIR1 function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and we demonstrated that phloem exudates from SAR-induced cucumber rescued the SAR defect in the Arabidopsis dir1-1 mutant. Additionally, an AtDIR1 antibody detected a protein of the same size as AtDIR1 in SAR-induced cucumber phloem exudates, providing evidence that DIR1 function during SAR is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. In vitro TNS displacement assays demonstrated that recombinant AtDIR1 did not bind the SAR signals azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate or pipecolic acid. However, recombinant CsDIR1 and CsDIR2 interacted weakly with AzA and pipecolic acid. Bioinformatic and functional analyses using the Arabidopsis-cucumber SAR model provide evidence that DIR1 orthologs exist in tobacco, tomato, cucumber, and soybean, and that DIR1-mediated SAR signaling is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber.

  17. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Luo, L X; Liang, C Q; Jiang, N; Liu, P F; Li, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01) validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  18. CsNIP2;1 is a Plasma Membrane Transporter from Cucumis sativus that Facilitates Urea Uptake When Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Yan, Jiapei; Vatamaniuk, Olena K; Du, Xiangge

    2016-03-01

    Urea is an important source of nitrogen (N) for the growth and development of plants. It occurs naturally in soils, is the major N source in agricultural fertilizers and is an important N metabolite in plants. Therefore, the identification and characterization of urea transporters in higher plants is important for the fundamental understanding of urea-based N nutrition in plants and for designing novel strategies for improving the N-use efficiency of urea based-fertilizers. Progress in this area, however, is hampered due to scarce knowledge of plant urea transporters. From what is known, urea uptake from the soil into plant roots is mediated by two types of transporters: the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) and the DUR3 orthologs, mediating low- and high-affinity urea transport, respectively. Here we characterized a MIP family member from Cucumis sativus, CsNIP2;1, with regard to its contribution to urea transport. We show that CsNIP2;1 is a plasma membrane transporter that mediates pH-dependent urea uptake when expressed in yeast. We also found that ectopic expression of CsNIP2;1 improves growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and rescues growth and development of the atdur3-3 mutant on medium with urea as the sole N source. In addition, CsNIP2;1 is transcriptionally up-regulated by N deficiency, urea and NO3 (-). These data and results from the analyses of the pattern of CsNIP2;1 expression in A. thaliana and cucumber suggest that CsNIP2;1 might be involved in multiple steps of urea-based N nutrition, including urea uptake and internal transport during N remobilization throughout seed germination and N delivery to developing tissues.

  19. Functional characterization and expression analysis of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hexose transporters, involving carbohydrate partitioning and phloem unloading in sink tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Tao; Li, Xiang; Yao, Feng-Zhen; Shan, Nan; Li, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Zhen-Xian; Sui, Xiao-Lei

    2015-08-01

    Many hexose transporters (HTs) have been reported to play roles in sucrose-transporting plants. However, little information about roles of HTs in RFOs (raffinose family oligosaccharides)-transporting plants has been reported. Here, three hexose transporters (CsHT2, CsHT3, and CsHT4) were cloned from Cucumis sativus L. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CsHT3 transported glucose, galactose and mannose, with a K(m) of 131.9 μM for glucose, and CsHT4 only transported galactose, while CsHT2 was non-functional. Both CsHT3 and CsHT4 were targeted to the plasma membrane of cucumber protoplasts. Spatio-temporal expression indicated that transcript level of CsHT3 was much higher than that of CsHT2 and CsHT4 in most tissues, especially in peduncles and fruit tissues containing vascular bundles. GUS staining of CsHT3-promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) transgenic Arabidopsis plants revealed CsHT3 expression in tissues with high metabolic turnover, suggesting that CsHT3 is involved in sugar competition among different sink organs during plant development. The transcript levels of CsHT3 and cell wall invertase genes increased in peduncles and fruit tissues along with cucumber fruit enlargement, and CsHT3 localized to phloem tissues by immunohistochemical localization; These results suggest that CsHT3 probably plays an important role in apoplastic phloem unloading of cucumber fruit.

  20. Orthology Analysis and In Vivo Complementation Studies to Elucidate the Role of DIR1 during Systemic Acquired Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Marisa; Carella, Philip; Faubert, Jennifer; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Cameron, Robin K

    2016-01-01

    AtDIR1 (Defective in Induced Resistance1) is an acidic lipid transfer protein essential for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon SAR induction, DIR1 moves from locally infected to distant uninfected leaves to activate defense priming; however, a molecular function for DIR1 has not been elucidated. Bioinformatic analysis and in silico homology modeling identified putative AtDIR1 orthologs in crop species, revealing conserved protein motifs within and outside of DIR1's central hydrophobic cavity. In vitro assays to compare the capacity of recombinant AtDIR1 and targeted AtDIR1-variant proteins to bind the lipophilic probe TNS (6,P-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate) provided evidence that conserved leucine 43 and aspartic acid 39 contribute to the size of the DIR1 hydrophobic cavity and possibly hydrophobic ligand binding. An Arabidopsis-cucumber SAR model was developed to investigate the conservation of DIR1 function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and we demonstrated that phloem exudates from SAR-induced cucumber rescued the SAR defect in the Arabidopsis dir1-1 mutant. Additionally, an AtDIR1 antibody detected a protein of the same size as AtDIR1 in SAR-induced cucumber phloem exudates, providing evidence that DIR1 function during SAR is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. In vitro TNS displacement assays demonstrated that recombinant AtDIR1 did not bind the SAR signals azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate or pipecolic acid. However, recombinant CsDIR1 and CsDIR2 interacted weakly with AzA and pipecolic acid. Bioinformatic and functional analyses using the Arabidopsis-cucumber SAR model provide evidence that DIR1 orthologs exist in tobacco, tomato, cucumber, and soybean, and that DIR1-mediated SAR signaling is conserved in Arabidopsis and cucumber. PMID:27200039

  1. Functional characterization and expression analysis of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hexose transporters, involving carbohydrate partitioning and phloem unloading in sink tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Tao; Li, Xiang; Yao, Feng-Zhen; Shan, Nan; Li, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Zhen-Xian; Sui, Xiao-Lei

    2015-08-01

    Many hexose transporters (HTs) have been reported to play roles in sucrose-transporting plants. However, little information about roles of HTs in RFOs (raffinose family oligosaccharides)-transporting plants has been reported. Here, three hexose transporters (CsHT2, CsHT3, and CsHT4) were cloned from Cucumis sativus L. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CsHT3 transported glucose, galactose and mannose, with a K(m) of 131.9 μM for glucose, and CsHT4 only transported galactose, while CsHT2 was non-functional. Both CsHT3 and CsHT4 were targeted to the plasma membrane of cucumber protoplasts. Spatio-temporal expression indicated that transcript level of CsHT3 was much higher than that of CsHT2 and CsHT4 in most tissues, especially in peduncles and fruit tissues containing vascular bundles. GUS staining of CsHT3-promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) transgenic Arabidopsis plants revealed CsHT3 expression in tissues with high metabolic turnover, suggesting that CsHT3 is involved in sugar competition among different sink organs during plant development. The transcript levels of CsHT3 and cell wall invertase genes increased in peduncles and fruit tissues along with cucumber fruit enlargement, and CsHT3 localized to phloem tissues by immunohistochemical localization; These results suggest that CsHT3 probably plays an important role in apoplastic phloem unloading of cucumber fruit. PMID:26089151

  2. The Infection of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Roots by Meloidogyne incognita Alters the Expression of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor (ADF) Genes, Particularly in Association with Giant Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingwang; Liu, Ying; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Yang, Sen; Dong, Mingming; Zhang, Yaqi; Liu, Huiling; Zhao, Binyu; Qi, Changhong; Zhu, Ning; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is threatened by substantial yield losses due to the south root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of nematode infection is still limited. In this study, we found that M. incognita infection affected the structure of cells in cucumber roots and treatment of the cytoskeleton inhibitor (cytochalasin D) reduced root-knot nematode (RKN) parasitism. It is known that Actin-Depolymerizing Factor (ADF) affects cell structure, as well as the organization of the cytoskeleton. To address the hypothesis that nematode-induced abnormal cell structures and cytoskeletal rearrangements might be mediated by the ADF genes, we identified and characterized eight cucumber ADF (CsADF) genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the cucumber ADF gene family is grouped into four ancient subclasses. Expression analysis revealed that CsADF1, CsADF2-1, CsADF2-2, CsADF2-3 (Subclass I), and CsADF6 (Subclass III) have higher transcript levels than CsADF7-1, CsADF7-2 (Subclass II genes), and CsADF5 (Subclass IV) in roots. Members of subclass I genes (CsADF1, CsADF2-1, CsADF2-2, and CsADF2-3), with the exception of CsADF2-1, exhibited a induction of expression in roots 14 days after their inoculation (DAI) with nematodes. However, the expression of subclass II genes (CsADF7-1 and CsADF7-2) showed no significant change after inoculation. The transcript levels of CsADF6 (Subclass III) showed a specific induction at 21 DAI, while CsADF5 (Subclass IV) was weakly expressed in roots, but was strongly up-regulated as early as 7 DAI. In addition, treatment of roots with cytochalasin D caused an approximately 2-fold down-regulation of the CsADF genes in the treated plants. These results suggest that CsADF gene mediated actin dynamics are associated with structural changes in roots as a consequence of M. incognita infection. PMID:27695469

  3. The Infection of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Roots by Meloidogyne incognita Alters the Expression of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor (ADF) Genes, Particularly in Association with Giant Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingwang; Liu, Ying; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Yang, Sen; Dong, Mingming; Zhang, Yaqi; Liu, Huiling; Zhao, Binyu; Qi, Changhong; Zhu, Ning; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is threatened by substantial yield losses due to the south root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of nematode infection is still limited. In this study, we found that M. incognita infection affected the structure of cells in cucumber roots and treatment of the cytoskeleton inhibitor (cytochalasin D) reduced root-knot nematode (RKN) parasitism. It is known that Actin-Depolymerizing Factor (ADF) affects cell structure, as well as the organization of the cytoskeleton. To address the hypothesis that nematode-induced abnormal cell structures and cytoskeletal rearrangements might be mediated by the ADF genes, we identified and characterized eight cucumber ADF (CsADF) genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the cucumber ADF gene family is grouped into four ancient subclasses. Expression analysis revealed that CsADF1, CsADF2-1, CsADF2-2, CsADF2-3 (Subclass I), and CsADF6 (Subclass III) have higher transcript levels than CsADF7-1, CsADF7-2 (Subclass II genes), and CsADF5 (Subclass IV) in roots. Members of subclass I genes (CsADF1, CsADF2-1, CsADF2-2, and CsADF2-3), with the exception of CsADF2-1, exhibited a induction of expression in roots 14 days after their inoculation (DAI) with nematodes. However, the expression of subclass II genes (CsADF7-1 and CsADF7-2) showed no significant change after inoculation. The transcript levels of CsADF6 (Subclass III) showed a specific induction at 21 DAI, while CsADF5 (Subclass IV) was weakly expressed in roots, but was strongly up-regulated as early as 7 DAI. In addition, treatment of roots with cytochalasin D caused an approximately 2-fold down-regulation of the CsADF genes in the treated plants. These results suggest that CsADF gene mediated actin dynamics are associated with structural changes in roots as a consequence of M. incognita infection.

  4. Comparative toxicity of nanoparticulate/bulk Yb₂O₃ and YbCl₃ to cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Guo, Zhi; Tai, Renzhong; Ding, Yayun; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-02-01

    With the increasing utilization of nanomaterials, there is a growing concern for the potential environmental and health effects of them. To assess the environmental risks of nanomaterials, better knowledge about their fate and toxicity in plants are required. In this work, we compared the phytotoxicity of nanoparticulate Yb(2)O(3), bulk Yb(2)O(3), and YbCl(3)·6H(2)O to cucumber plants. The distribution and biotransformation of the three materials in plant roots were investigated in situ by TEM, EDS, as well as synchrotron radiation based methods: STXM and NEXAFS. The decrease of biomass was evident at the lowest concentration (0.32 mg/L) when exposed to nano-Yb(2)O(3), while at the highest concentration, the most severe inhibition was from YbCl(3). The inhibition was dependent on the actual amount of toxic Yb uptake by the cucumber plants. In the intercellular regions of the roots, Yb(2)O(3) particles and YbCl(3) were all transformed to YbPO(4). We speculate that the dissolution of Yb(2)O(3) particles induced by the organic acids exuded from roots played an important role in the phytotoxicity. Only under the nano-Yb(2)O(3) treatment, YbPO(4) deposits were found in the cytoplasm of root cells, so the phytotoxicity might also be attributed to the Yb internalized into the cells.

  5. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption.

  6. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:27383492

  7. Differential regulation of vacuolar H+-ATPase and H+-PPase in Cucumis sativus roots by zinc and nickel.

    PubMed

    Kabała, Katarzyna; Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata

    2011-03-01

    Zinc and nickel, as micronutrients, are essential for all organisms. We investigated the effect of 10 and 100 μM Zn and Ni on two tonoplast proton pumps, vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) (EC 3.6.3.14) and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) (EC 3.6.1.1), in cucumber roots. ATP-dependent proton transport as well as ATP hydrolysis, catalyzed by V-ATPase, decreased in roots after exposure of plants to both Zn and Ni under all the examined conditions. In contrast, V-PPase activities, measured as PP(i) hydrolysis and PP(i)-driven H+ transport, were stimulated by lower concentration of metals. However, at higher metal concentration, hydrolytic activity of V-PPase remained unchanged, while PP(i)-dependent proton pumping into the tonoplast vesicles was reduced. When heavy metals were introduced into the enzyme reaction medium, both V-ATPase and V-PPase activities were lowered by Zn and Ni in a similar manner. As the gene expression and immunoblot analyses depicted, observed changes in the activity of both tonoplast proton pumps in response to zinc and nickel were not due to the modification in the expression of the CsVHA-A, CsVHA-c and CsVP genes encoding V-ATPase subunit A and c, and V-PPase, respectively, in cucumber roots or in amounts of enzyme proteins. Moreover, Zn as well as Ni ions did not enhance the lipid peroxidation in the root tonoplast fractions. Comparison of ATP and pyrophosphate contents in the control roots and roots treated with heavy metals revealed that Zn and Ni do not affect the ATP amount but reduce the PP(i) level.

  8. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Uroic, M Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (As(V)) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under As(V) stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. As(V) exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by As(V) exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, As(V) exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) As(V). No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high As(V) exposure. These results show that As(V) has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  9. Phloem transcriptome signatures underpin the physiological differentiation of the pedicel, stalk and fruit of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianyu; Li, Yanqiang; Ding, Lian; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Zhao, Wensheng; Wang, Qian; Yan, Liying; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is one of the most important vegetables grown worldwide due to its important economic and nutritional value. The cucumber fruit consists morphologically of the undesirable stalk and the tasty fruit; however, physiological differentiation of these two parts and the underlying molecular basis remain largely unknown. Here we characterized the physiological differences among the pedicel, stalk and fruit, and compared the respective phloem transcriptomes using laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We found that the pedicel was characterized by minor cell expansion and a high concentration of stachyose, the stalk showed rapid cell expansion and high raffinose accumulation, and the fruit featured transition from cell division to cell expansion and high levels of monosaccharides. Analyses of transcriptome data indicated that cell wall- and calcium ion binding-related genes contributed to the cell expansion in the pedicel and stalk, whereas genes implicated in cell cycle and hormone actions regulated the transition from cell division to cell expansion in the fruit. Differential sugar distribution in these three phloem-connected tissues resulted from tissue-specific sugar metabolism and transport. Enrichment of transcription factors in the stalk and fruit may facilitate nutrient accumulation in these sink organs. As such, phloem-located gene expression partially orchestrated physiological differentiation of the pedicel, stalk and fruit in cucumber. In addition, we identified 432 cucumber-unique genes and five phloem markers guiding future functional studies.

  10. Physiological and proteomic analysis of selenium-mediated tolerance to Cd stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyan; Dai, Huaxin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Guohui

    2016-11-01

    Selenium can mitigate cadmium toxicity in plants. However, the mechanism of this alleviation has not been fully understood. In the present study, the role of Se in inducing tolerance to Cd stress in cucumber was elucidated. Results showed that Se significantly alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition, reduced Cd concentration, increased SPAD value and improved photosynthetic performance. Through proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry, 26 protein spots were identified, which were significantly influenced by Cd stress and/or Se application. Among these proteins, the abundance of 21 spots (10 in leaves and 11 in roots) were repressed in Cd-treated and up-accumulated or no-changed in Cd+Se-treated cucumber. These altered proteins were involved in the response to stress, metabolism, photosynthesis and storage, they were including glutathione S-transferase F8, heat shock protein STI-like, peroxidase, ascorbate oxidase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase 2, NiR, Rieske type ion sulfur subunit and PsbP domain-containing protein 6. Furthermore, we identified five proteins with an increase in relative abundance after Cd treatment, they were involved in the functional groups active in response to stress and transport. The present study provided novel insights into Se-mediated tolerance of cucumber seedlings against Cd toxicity at the proteome level.

  11. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Uroic, M. Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (AsV) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under AsV stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. AsV exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by AsV exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, AsV exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 AsV. No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg−1 DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high AsV exposure. These results show that AsV has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention. PMID:22536187

  12. Physiological and proteomic analysis of selenium-mediated tolerance to Cd stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyan; Dai, Huaxin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Guohui

    2016-11-01

    Selenium can mitigate cadmium toxicity in plants. However, the mechanism of this alleviation has not been fully understood. In the present study, the role of Se in inducing tolerance to Cd stress in cucumber was elucidated. Results showed that Se significantly alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition, reduced Cd concentration, increased SPAD value and improved photosynthetic performance. Through proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry, 26 protein spots were identified, which were significantly influenced by Cd stress and/or Se application. Among these proteins, the abundance of 21 spots (10 in leaves and 11 in roots) were repressed in Cd-treated and up-accumulated or no-changed in Cd+Se-treated cucumber. These altered proteins were involved in the response to stress, metabolism, photosynthesis and storage, they were including glutathione S-transferase F8, heat shock protein STI-like, peroxidase, ascorbate oxidase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase 2, NiR, Rieske type ion sulfur subunit and PsbP domain-containing protein 6. Furthermore, we identified five proteins with an increase in relative abundance after Cd treatment, they were involved in the functional groups active in response to stress and transport. The present study provided novel insights into Se-mediated tolerance of cucumber seedlings against Cd toxicity at the proteome level. PMID:27434422

  13. Cucumis sativus L-type lectin receptor kinase (CsLecRK) gene family response to Phytophthora melonis, Phytophthora capsici and water immersion in disease resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingquan; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaomei; He, Xiaoming; Sun, Baojuan; Zhong, Yujuan; Liang, Zhaojuan; Luo, Shaobo; Lin, Yu'e

    2014-10-10

    L-type lectin receptor kinase (LecRK) proteins are an important family involved in diverse biological processes such as pollen development, senescence, wounding, salinity and especially in innate immunity in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco. Till date, LecRK proteins or genes of cucumber have not been reported. In this study, a total of 25 LecRK genes were identified in the cucumber genome, unequally distributed across its seven chromosomes. According to similarity comparison of their encoded proteins, the Cucumis sativus LecRK (CsLecRK) genes were classified into six major clades (from Clade I to CladeVI). Expression of CsLecRK genes were tested using QRT-PCR method and the results showed that 25 CsLecRK genes exhibited different responses to abiotic (water immersion) and biotic (Phytophthora melonis and Phytophthora capsici inoculation) stresses, as well as that between disease resistant cultivar (JSH) and disease susceptible cultivar (B80). Among the 25 CsLecRK genes, we found CsLecRK6.1 was especially induced by P. melonis and P. capsici in JSH plants. All these results suggested that CsLecRK genes may play important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses.

  14. Mechanisms of decreasing dysploidy in Cucumis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae), cucumber (C. sativus) is the only species with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes. The majority of the remaining species, including melon (C. melo) and C. hystrix, have 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes suggesting a reduction from n = 12 to n = 7. To understand the underlying mechani...

  15. The identification of Cucumis sativus Glabrous 1 (CsGL1) required for the formation of trichomes uncovers a novel function for the homeodomain-leucine zipper I gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Cao, Chenxing; Zhang, Cunjia; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zenghui; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2015-05-01

    The spines and bloom of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit are two important quality traits related to fruit market value. However, until now, none of the genes involved in the formation of cucumber fruit spines and bloom trichomes has been identified. Here, the characterization of trichome development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, glabrous 1 (csgl1) controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, with glabrous aerial organs, is reported. Via map-based cloning, CsGL1 was isolated and it was found that it encoded a member of the homeodomain-leucine zipper I (HD-Zip I) proteins previously identified to function mainly in the abiotic stress responses of plants. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that CsGL1 was strongly expressed in trichomes and fruit spines. In addition, CsGL1 was a nuclear protein with weak transcriptional activation activity in yeast. A comparative analysis of the digital gene expression (DGE) profile between csgl1 and WT leaves revealed that CsGL1 had a significant influence on the gene expression profile in cucumber, especially on genes related to cellular process, which is consistent with the phenotypic difference between csgl1 and the WT. Moreover, two genes, CsMYB6 and CsGA20ox1, possibly involved in the formation of cucumber trichomes and fruit spines, were characterized. Overall, the findings reveal a new function for the HD-Zip I gene subfamily, and provide some candidate genes for genetic engineering approaches to improve cucumber fruit external quality.

  16. The identification of Cucumis sativus Glabrous 1 (CsGL1) required for the formation of trichomes uncovers a novel function for the homeodomain-leucine zipper I gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Cao, Chenxing; Zhang, Cunjia; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zenghui; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2015-05-01

    The spines and bloom of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit are two important quality traits related to fruit market value. However, until now, none of the genes involved in the formation of cucumber fruit spines and bloom trichomes has been identified. Here, the characterization of trichome development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, glabrous 1 (csgl1) controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, with glabrous aerial organs, is reported. Via map-based cloning, CsGL1 was isolated and it was found that it encoded a member of the homeodomain-leucine zipper I (HD-Zip I) proteins previously identified to function mainly in the abiotic stress responses of plants. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that CsGL1 was strongly expressed in trichomes and fruit spines. In addition, CsGL1 was a nuclear protein with weak transcriptional activation activity in yeast. A comparative analysis of the digital gene expression (DGE) profile between csgl1 and WT leaves revealed that CsGL1 had a significant influence on the gene expression profile in cucumber, especially on genes related to cellular process, which is consistent with the phenotypic difference between csgl1 and the WT. Moreover, two genes, CsMYB6 and CsGA20ox1, possibly involved in the formation of cucumber trichomes and fruit spines, were characterized. Overall, the findings reveal a new function for the HD-Zip I gene subfamily, and provide some candidate genes for genetic engineering approaches to improve cucumber fruit external quality. PMID:25740926

  17. Pollination of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), by the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Santos, Solange A B dos; Roselino, Ana C; Bego, Luci R

    2008-01-01

    When for a successful fruit development the fertilization of flowers is necessary, bees can be used as crop-pollinators in greenhouses. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis Moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier as pollinators of cucumber plants (Cucumus sativus var. caipira) in greenhouses during the Brazilian winter season. The study was conducted in four greenhouses (GH), of which two greenhouses contained bee colonies to ascertain pollination of the cucumber plants (GH I, with S. aff. depilis, GH II, with N. testaceicornis), whereas the other two greenhouses (GH III, GH IV) had no bee colonies and served as control groups. Furthermore, we planted cucumbers in an open field plot (OA) where pollination by any/various visiting insects could occur. Each of the experimental areas measured 87.5 m2. Without pollination (GH III, GH IV), the plants produced a low number of cucumbers, and the fruits were smaller and less heavy than in those experimental areas where pollination occurred. In the open field area, not protected against unfavorable climatic conditions, the plants produced fewer flowers than the plants in the greenhouses. The highest cucumber yield (with the highest amount of perfect fruits) was found in those greenhouses which housed the stingless bees as pollinators (GH I, GH II). Our results demonstrate that stingless bees can be successfully and efficiently used as pollinators of greenhouse cucumbers during the winter season. PMID:19061034

  18. Antioxidant, Sugar, Mineral and Phytonutrient Concentrations Across Edible Fruit Tissues of Orange-Fleshed HoneyDew Melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange-fleshed honey dew melon (Cucumis melo L.) equatorial mesocarp was segmented into hypodermal (sub-peel), outer, middle, and inner (near the seed cavity) tissues and assayed for enzymatic antioxidants, fruit sugars, minerals, phytonutrients, and total protein concentrations. Moving inwards fro...

  19. Basipetal auxin versus acropetal cytokinin transport, and their interaction with NO3 fertilisation in cotyledon senescence and sink:source relationships in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Bangerth, K-F

    2015-11-01

    The paramount role of cytokinins (CKs) in initiation, as well as prevention, of senescence is well established. In recent years, experimental methods have become available to raise and lower the CK concentration and experimentally manipulate senescence. Decapitating the apical shoot and adding the synthetic auxin naphthylacetic acid to the cut stem reduced endogenous CKs to low levels. Conversely, if no auxin was applied, xylem and leaf CK levels increased dramatically, indicating that basipolar auxin transport is a key determinant in the synthesis of CKs and is potentially more important than NO(3). Manipulating the concentration of applied NO(3) caused considerable variation in leaf CK levels and concomitant changes in senescence. These and other results suggest that the frequently discussed decrease in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) may be more highly regulated by CKs than by NO(3). Analysis of the re-metabolisation and re-allocation of chlorophyll, proteins, amino acids and starch in three different cucumber cultivars indirectly showed that these metabolites were significantly affected by the concentration of CKs in the leaves. Further research in this area may allow leaf senescence and plant yield to be more efficiently regulated by manipulating CKs and/or basipolar auxin transport instead of nitrate.

  20. Chromosome-specific painting in Cucumis species using bulked oligonucleotides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome-specific painting is a powerful technique in molecular cytogenetic and genome research. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting technique in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) that will be applicable in any plant species with a sequenced genome. Oligos specific to a sing...

  1. Tuberculate fruit gene Tu encodes a C2 H2 zinc finger protein that is required for the warty fruit phenotype in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuqin; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Huanle; Nie, Jingtao; Bie, Beibei; Zhao, Junlong; Ren, Guoliang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Dabing; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2014-06-01

    Cucumber fruits that have tubercules and spines (trichomes) are known to possess a warty (Wty) phenotype. In this study, the tuberculate fruit gene Tu was identified by map-based cloning, and was found to encode a transcription factor (TF) with a single C2 H2 zinc finger domain. Tu was identified in all 38 Wty lines examined, and was completely absent from all 56 non-warty (nWty) lines. Cucumber plants transgenic for Tu (TCP) revealed that Tu was required for the Wty fruit phenotype. Subcellular localization showed that the fusion protein GFP-Tu was localized mainly to the nucleus. Based on analyses of semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and mRNA in situ hybridization, we found that Tu was expressed specifically in fruit spine cells during development of fruit tubercules. Moreover, cytokinin (CTK) content measurements and cytological observations in Wty and nWty fruits revealed that the Wty fruit phenotype correlated with high endogenous CTK concentrations. As a result of further analyses on the transcriptomic profile of the nWty fruit epidermis and TCP fruit warts, expression of CTK-associated genes, and hormone content in nWty fruit epidermis, Wty fruit warts and epidermis, and TCP fruit warts and epidermis, we found that Tu probably promoted CTK biosynthesis in fruit warts. Here we show that Tu could not be expressed in the glabrous and tubercule-free mutant line gl that contained Tu, this result that futher confirmed the epistatic effect of the trichome (spine) gene Gl over Tu. Taken together, these data led us to propose a genetic pathway for the Wty fruit trait that could guide future mechanistic studies.

  2. Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Acid Invertase as Determinants of Sucrose Concentration in Developing Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Natalie L.; Huber, Steven C.; Pharr, D. Mason

    1989-01-01

    Fruits of orange-fleshed and green-fleshed muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were harvested at different times throughout development to evaluate changes in metabolism which lead to sucrose accumulation, and to determine the basis of differences in fruit sucrose accumulation among genotypes. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose saccharides, hexoses and starch, as well as activities of the sucrose metabolizing enzymes sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.4.1.14), sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13), and acid and neutral invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) were measured. Sucrose synthase and neutral invertase activities were relatively low (1.7 ± 0.3 micromole per hour per gram fresh weight and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively) and changed little throughout fruit development. Acid invertase activity decreased during fruit development, (from as high as 40 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) in unripe fruit, to undetectable activity in mature, ripened fruits, while SPS activity in the fruit increased (from 7 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) to as high as 32 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight. Genotypes which accumulated different amounts of sucrose had similar acid invertase activity but differed in SPS activity. Our results indicate that both acid invertase and SPS are determinants of sucrose accumulation in melon fruit. However, the decline in acid invertase appears to be a normal function of fruit maturation, and is not the primary factor which determines sucrose accumulation. Rather, the capacity for sucrose synthesis, reflected in the activity of SPS, appears to determine sucrose accumulation, which is an important component of fruit quality. PMID:16667212

  3. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of β-carotene bioaccessibility and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, Matthew K; Lester, Gene E; Riedl, Ken M; Kopec, Rachel E; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2011-05-11

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honeydew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honeydew, are excellent sources of β-carotene. Although β-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, its bioaccessibility/bioavailability is unknown. We compared β-carotene concentrations from previously frozen orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe melons grown under the same glasshouse conditions, and from freshly harvested field-grown, orange-fleshed honeydew melon to determine β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability, concentrations of novel β-apocarotenals, and chromoplast structure of orange-fleshed honeydew melon. β-Carotene and β-apocarotenal concentrations were determined by HPLC and/or HPLC-MS, β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability was determined by in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake, and chromoplast structure was determined by electron microscopy. The average β-carotene concentrations (μg/g dry weight) for the orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 242.8 and 176.3 respectively. The average dry weights per gram of wet weight of orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 0.094 g and 0.071 g, respectively. The bioaccessibility of field-grown orange-fleshed honeydew melons was determined to be 3.2 ± 0.3%, bioavailability in Caco-2 cells was about 11%, and chromoplast structure from orange-fleshed honeydew melons was globular (as opposed to crystalline) in nature. We detected β-apo-8'-, β-apo-10', β-apo-12'-, and β-apo-14'-carotenals and β-apo-13-carotenone in orange-fleshed melons (at a level of 1-2% of total β-carotene). Orange-fleshed honeydew melon fruit had higher amounts of β-carotene than cantaloupe. The bioaccessibility/bioavailability of β-carotene from orange-fleshed melons was comparable to that from carrot (Daucus carota).

  4. Polyploidization facilitates biotechnological in vitro techniques in the genus Cucumis.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Dagmar; Ondřej, Vladan; Doležalová, Ivana; Navrátilová, Božena; Lebeda, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Prezygotic interspecific crossability barrier in the genus Cucumis is related to the ploidy level of the species (cucumber (C. sativus), x = 7; muskmelon (C. melo) and wild Cucumis species, x = 12). Polyploidization of maternal plants helps hybridization among other Cucumis species by overcoming prezygotic genetic barriers. The main objective of this paper is to compare the results of several methods supporting interspecific crosses in cucumber without and with polyploidization (comparison between diploid (2x) and mixoploid (2x/4x) cucumber maternal plants). Mixoploid plants were obtained after in vivo and in vitro polyploidization by colchicine and oryzalin. Ploidy level was estimated by flow cytometry. Embryo rescue, in vitro pollination, and isolation of mesophyll protoplast were tested and compared. Positive effect of polyploidization was observed during all experiments presented by higher regeneration capacity of cultivated mixoploid cucumber embryos, ovules, and protoplasts. Nevertheless, the hybrid character of putative hybrid accessions obtained after cross in vivo and in vitro pollination was not confirmed. PMID:21234406

  5. Relationships of cucumbers and melons unraveled: molecular phylogenetics of Cucumis and related genera (Benincaseae, Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghebretinsae, Amanuel G; Thulin, Mats; Barber, Janet C

    2007-07-01

    Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) comprises 33 species of annuals and perennials with a major native center of diversity in tropical and southern Africa. The genus includes some economically important and widely grown vegetables such as cucumbers and melons. Monophyly of the genus has been disputed in previous studies, but with only limited sampling. Relationships within Cucumis are thus poorly understood; moreover, the validity of the closely related genera has not been thoroughly tested. The present study was undertaken to test the monophyly of Cucumis and several closely related genera, to test sectional circumscriptions within Cucumis, and to understand the biogeographical history of the genus. We sequenced the nuclear ITS and plastid trnS-trnG regions for 40 ingroup and three outgroup taxa, representing all recognized subgenera and sections. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses found Cucumella, Oreosyce, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Dicaelospermum nested within Cucumis. The clades recovered within the Cucumis complex in some instances represent the first phylogenetically derived hypothesis of relationships, whereas others correspond to previous subgeneric and sectional classifications. At least four introductions from Africa to Asia, as well as one reintroduction to Africa, are suggested within the Cucumis complex. Cucumis sativus (cucumber) is strongly supported as sister to the eastern Asian C. hystrix, whereas C. melo (melon) is strongly supported as sister to C. sagittatus in southern Africa.

  6. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites in Cucumis hystrix and in silico identification of polymorphic SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, genome HH) is a wild relative of cucumber (C. sativus L., 2n = 2x = 14) that possesses multiple disease resistances and has a great potential for cucumber improvement. Despite its importance, there is no genomic resource currently available for C. hystrix. To expedite ...

  7. Next-generation sequencing, FISH mapping and synteny-based modeling reveal mechanisms of decreasing dysploidy in Cucumis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the family of Cucurbitaceae, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is the only species with 14 chromosomes. The majority of the remaining species, including melon and the sister species of cucumber, C. hystrix, have 24 chromosomes. To understand the underlying mechanisms of chromosome reduction from n=12 to...

  8. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. I. Vegetative and reproductive growth. [Cucmuis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    CO/sub 2/ concentrations of 1000 compared to 350 microliters per liter in controlled environment chambers did not increase total fruit weight or number in a monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Chipper) nor did it increase biomass, leaf area, or relative growth rates beyond the first 16 days after seeding. Average fruit weight was slightly, but not significantly greater in the 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ treatment because fruit numbers were changed more than total weight. Plants grown at 1000 and 350 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ were similar in distribution of dry matter and leaf area between mainstem, axillary, and subaxillary branches. Early flower production was greater in 1000 microliters per liter plants. Subsequent flower numbers were either lower in enriched plants or similar in the two treatments, except for the harvest at fruiting when enriched plants produced many more male flowers than the 350 microliters per liter treatments.

  9. Chromosome-Specific Painting in Cucumis Species Using Bulked Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Han, Yonghua; Zhang, Tao; Thammapichai, Paradee; Weng, Yiqun; Jiang, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Chromosome-specific painting is a powerful technique in molecular cytogenetic and genome research. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting technique in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) that will be applicable in any plant species with a sequenced genome. Oligos specific to a single chromosome of cucumber were identified using a newly developed bioinformatic pipeline and then massively synthesized de novo in parallel. The synthesized oligos were amplified and labeled with biotin or digoxigenin for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We developed three different probes with each containing 23,000-27,000 oligos. These probes spanned 8.3-17 Mb of DNA on targeted cucumber chromosomes and had the densities of 1.5-3.2 oligos per kilobases. These probes produced FISH signals on a single cucumber chromosome and were used to paint homeologous chromosomes in other Cucumis species diverged from cucumber for up to 12 million years. The bulked oligo probes allowed us to track a single chromosome in early stages during meiosis. We were able to precisely map the pairing between cucumber chromosome 7 and chromosome 1 of Cucumis hystrix in a F1 hybrid. These two homeologous chromosomes paired in 71% of prophase I cells but only 25% of metaphase I cells, which may provide an explanation of the higher recombination rates compared to the chiasma frequencies between homeologous chromosomes reported in plant hybrids. PMID:25971668

  10. CYTOGENETICAL TREATISE OF INDIAN REPRESENTATIVE SPECIES OF CUCUMIS. A KARYOTYPIC APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Rajkumari, K; John, K J; Yadav, S R; Bhat, K V; Shamurailatpam, A; Rao, S R

    2015-01-01

    Karyomorphological studies have been carried out in nine species and five varieties of the genus Cucumis representing Indian gene pool. The present investigations reveal the occurrence of two somatic chromosome numbers 2n = 14, 24 in the genus. C. ritchiei and C. indicus the two new species, were found to be having somatic chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 2n = 20 respectively. The wild species viz. C. hystrix, C. setosus, C. prophetarum, C. dipsaceus, C. indicus have very less number of median-centromeric chromosomes, high asymmetry indices, while melon groups have intermediate number of median -centromeric chromosomes. C. sativus, C. callosus, C. ritchiei show lesser number median-cen-tromeric chromosomes and very less asymmetry indices. The importance of karyotypic variation with respect to speciation within the genus Cucumis have been discussed. PMID:26841494

  11. Cucumis monosomic alien addition lines: morphological, cytological, and genotypic analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Feng; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Qian, Chun-Tao; Jahn, Molly M; Staub, Jack E; Zhuang, Fei-Yun; Lou, Qun-Feng; Ren, Gang

    2004-05-01

    Cucumis hystrix Chakr. (HH, 2n=24), a wild relative of the cultivated cucumber, possesses several potentially valuable disease-resistance and abiotic stress-tolerance traits for cucumber ( C. sativus L., CC, 2n=14) improvement. Numerous attempts have been made to transfer desirable traits since the successful interspecific hybridization between C. hystrix and C. sativus, one of which resulted in the production of an allotriploid (HCC, 2n=26: one genome of C. hystrix and two of C. sativus). When this genotype was treated with colchicine to induce polyploidy, two monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) (plant nos. 87 and 517: 14 CC+1 H, 2n=15) were recovered among 252 viable plants. Each of these plants was morphologically distinct from allotriploids and cultivated cucumbers. Cytogenetic and molecular marker analyses were performed to confirm the genetic constitution and further characterize these two MAALs. Chromosome counts made from at least 30 meristematic cells from each plant confirmed 15 nuclear chromosomes. In pollen mother cells of plant nos. 87 and 517, seven bivalents and one univalent were observed at diakinesis and metaphase I; the frequency of trivalent formation was low (about 4-5%). At anaphase I and II, stochastic and asymmetric division led to the formation of two gamete classes: n=7 and n=8; however, pollen fertility was relatively high. Pollen stainability in plant no. 87 was 86.7% and in plant no. 517 was 93.2%. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed using 100 random 10-base primers. Genotypes obtained with eight primers (A-9, A-11, AH-13, AI-19, AJ-18, AJ-20, E-19, and N-20) showed a band common to the two MAAL plants and C. hystrix that was absent in C. sativus, confirming that the alien chromosomes present in the MAALs were derived from C. hystrix. Morphological differences and differences in banding patterns were also observed between plant nos. 87 and 517 after amplification with primers AI-5, AJ-13, N-12, and N-20

  12. Interspecific hybridization in Cucumis leads to the divergence of phenotypes in response to low light and extended photoperiods

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaqing; Hyldgaard, Benita; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Chen, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of improving shade tolerance of cucumber, Cucumis × hytivus, a newly synthesized allotetraploid, was obtained by crossing a shade tolerant wild relative, Cucumis hystrix, with a cultivated cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. ‘BejingJietou.’ The results show that the new C. × hytivus only partly is an intermediate hybrid and it has not only chlorophyll deficiency, which recovers during leaf development, but also lower carotenoid content. Three light conditions with the combination of different light intensities and photoperiods were employed to investigate the photosynthetic response of these three Cucumis species to low light and long photoperiod. The consistent order of Pmax and DWS being lowest in C. hystrix, medium in C. × hytivus and highest in ‘BejingJietou’ suggests the three species to have genetically different photosynthetic efficiency, which relates well with the natural habitats of the parent species and the hybrid as intermediate. C. × hytivus appears to be inhibited by the low light levels to the same extent as the cultivated ‘BeijingJietou,’ which indicates neither improvement of shade tolerance nor hypothetical heterosis effect in C. × hytivus. However, unexpectedly, the PSII of C. hystrix was affected by the long photoperiod in the long term, suggested by the decrease of Fv/Fm. This sensitivity toward day length has not been passed on to C. × hytivus. PMID:26483817

  13. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  14. Cucumis zambianus (Cucurbitaceae): A New Species from Northwestern Zambia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During germplasm explorations within Zambia in 1984, seven Cucumis accessions were collected that could not be identified to species. Two of the accessions were studied in-depth. Based on phenotypic characters, they were closest to Cucumis pustulatus. In ITS analyses of all available Cucumis spec...

  15. Single-copy gene-based chromosome painting in cucumber and its application for chromosome rearrangement analysis in Cucumis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qunfeng; Zhang, Yunxia; He, Yuhua; Li, Ji; Jia, Li; Cheng, Chunyan; Guan, Wei; Yang, Shuqiong; Chen, Jinfeng

    2014-04-01

    Chromosome painting based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has played an important role in chromosome identification and research into chromosome rearrangements, diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities and evolution in human and animal species. However, it has not been applied widely in plants due to the large amounts of dispersed repetitive sequences in chromosomes. In the present work, a chromosome painting method for single-copy gene pools in Cucumis sativus was successfully developed. Gene probes with sizes above 2 kb were detected consistently. A cucumber karyotype was constructed based on FISH using a cocktail containing chromosome-specific gene probes. This single-copy gene-based chromosome painting (ScgCP) technique was performed by PCR amplification, purification, pooling, labeling and hybridization onto chromosome spreads. Gene pools containing sequential genes with an interval less than 300 kb yielded painting patterns on pachytene chromosomes. Seven gene pools corresponding to individual chromosomes unambiguously painted each chromosome pair of C. sativus. Three mis-aligned regions on chromosome 4 were identified by the painting patterns. A probe pool comprising 133 genes covering the 8 Mb distal end of chromosome 4 was used to evaluate the potential utility of the ScgCP technique for chromosome rearrangement research through cross-species FISH in the Cucumis genus. Distinct painting patterns of this region were observed in C. sativus, C. melo and C. metuliferus species. A comparative chromosome map of this region was constructed between cucumber and melon. With increasing sequence resources, this ScgCP technique may be applied on any other sequenced species for chromosome painting research.

  16. Single-copy gene-based chromosome painting in cucumber and its application for chromosome rearrangement analysis in Cucumis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qunfeng; Zhang, Yunxia; He, Yuhua; Li, Ji; Jia, Li; Cheng, Chunyan; Guan, Wei; Yang, Shuqiong; Chen, Jinfeng

    2014-04-01

    Chromosome painting based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has played an important role in chromosome identification and research into chromosome rearrangements, diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities and evolution in human and animal species. However, it has not been applied widely in plants due to the large amounts of dispersed repetitive sequences in chromosomes. In the present work, a chromosome painting method for single-copy gene pools in Cucumis sativus was successfully developed. Gene probes with sizes above 2 kb were detected consistently. A cucumber karyotype was constructed based on FISH using a cocktail containing chromosome-specific gene probes. This single-copy gene-based chromosome painting (ScgCP) technique was performed by PCR amplification, purification, pooling, labeling and hybridization onto chromosome spreads. Gene pools containing sequential genes with an interval less than 300 kb yielded painting patterns on pachytene chromosomes. Seven gene pools corresponding to individual chromosomes unambiguously painted each chromosome pair of C. sativus. Three mis-aligned regions on chromosome 4 were identified by the painting patterns. A probe pool comprising 133 genes covering the 8 Mb distal end of chromosome 4 was used to evaluate the potential utility of the ScgCP technique for chromosome rearrangement research through cross-species FISH in the Cucumis genus. Distinct painting patterns of this region were observed in C. sativus, C. melo and C. metuliferus species. A comparative chromosome map of this region was constructed between cucumber and melon. With increasing sequence resources, this ScgCP technique may be applied on any other sequenced species for chromosome painting research. PMID:24635663

  17. Fine genetic mapping of a locus controlling short internode length in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A diminutive (dwarf) melon mutant line (PNU-D1) wi...

  18. Molecular mapping of genes for compact growth habit and fruit spine color in cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compact (dwarf) plant architecture and fruit spine color are two important traits in cucumber breeding, which are controlled by simply inherited recessive (cp) and dominant (B) genes, respectively. In the present study, linkage analysis of molecular markers with the two traits was conducted with...

  19. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  20. Moisturizing effect of stable cream containing Crocus sativus extracts.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Haji Muhammad-Shoaib; Ashraf, Shoaib; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Saqib, Najam-us; Bashir, Kamran

    2014-11-01

    The present study is about to prepare stable cream of water-in-oil emulsion containing extracts of Crocus sativus against its base (without extracts) taken as control, to determine its stability on different storage conditions and effects on skin moisture contents and transepidermal water loss. The formulation contains 3% Crocus sativus (Saffron) concentrated extracts, and the base containing no extract, were formulated. Different stability tests were done on samples, which placed at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C with 75% relative humidity, for 4 week period. These formulations (Creams) were applied on the cheeks of human volunteers for 8week period. To evaluate any effect produced by these formulations different skin parameters were monitored every week. The significant results of this study explored the fact that water-in-oil emulsion topical cream of saffron formulated from Crocus sativus extract has absolute physical stability at different storage conditions. The increase in skin moisture contents and changes in transepidermal water loss were significant (p<0.05) with respect to base and formulation respectively. Topical cream of Crocus sativus showed significant moisturizing effects on human skin.

  1. Arsenic Uptake by Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) Plants from Contaminated Water.

    PubMed

    Hettick, Bryan E; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E; Martin, Kirt; French, Amanda D; Klein, David M

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that occurs naturally in the environment. High levels of arsenic are found in water in some parts of the world, including Texas. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of arsenic in muskmelon (Cucumis melo) plants accumulated from arsenic spiked water and to observe effects on plant biomass. Plants were grown and irrigated using water spiked with variable concentrations of arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify arsenic in different parts of the plant and fruit. Under all conditions tested in this study, the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in the leaves, soil, and roots. Arsenic in the water had no significant effect on plant biomass. Fruits analyzed in this study had arsenic concentrations of 101 μg/kg or less. Consuming these fruits would result in less arsenic exposure than drinking water at recommended levels. PMID:27460822

  2. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits. [Cucumis melo

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in /sup 14/C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized /sup 14/C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the /sup 14/C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole.

  3. [Inheritance of parthenocarpy in monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under different eco-environments].

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Ying; Lou, Li-Na; Feng, Zhi-Hong; Lou, Qun-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Li; Li, Jin-Feng

    2010-01-01

    By using the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model of quantitative traits, a joint analysis of four-generations obtained after cross between two monoecious inbred lines was made to study the inheritance of parthenocarpy in monoecious cucumber in Jiangning (Nanjing) and Changli (Hebei). The interactions between genotype and environment were detected, and the inheritance of parthenocarpy in the monoecious cucumber was fitted in E-1-1 model and controlled by two additive-dominant-epistatic major genes and additive-dominant polygene under different eco-environments. The F1 tendency and genetic parameters of the parthenocarpy were different, and the major gene heritability of F2 ranged from 42.1% to 97.5%, which was mainly due to the differences in sunlight intensity and air temperature during fruit-setting period at the two locations. It was suggested that the parents should be highly parthenocarpic in breeding program, and the characterization of parthenocarpy should be conducted under different eco-environments. PMID:20387424

  4. Fine Mapping of Virescent Leaf Gene v-1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Miao, Han; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Min; Wang, Ye; Weng, Yiqun; Gu, Xingfang

    2016-09-22

    Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants that can be used as markers in crop breeding or as an important tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In virescent leaf mutants, young leaves are yellow in color, which gradually return to normal green when the seedlings grow large. In the present study, we conducted phenotypic characterization and genetic mapping of the cucumber virescent leaf mutant 9110Gt conferred by the v-1 locus. Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in 9110Gt was reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, as compared with its wild type parental line 9110G. Electron microscopic investigation revealed fewer chloroplasts per cell and thylakoids per chloroplast in 9110Gt than in 9110G. Fine genetic mapping allowed for the assignment of the v-1 locus to a 50.4 kb genomic DNA region in chromosome 6 with two flanking markers that were 0.14 and 0.16 cM away from v-1, respectively. Multiple lines of evidence supported CsaCNGCs as the only candidate gene for the v-1 locus, which encoded a cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channel protein. A single nucleotide change in the promoter region of v-1 seemed to be associated with the virescent color change in 9110Gt. Real-time PCR revealed significantly lower expression of CsaCNGCs in the true leaves of 9110Gt than in 9110G. This was the first report that connected the CsaCNGCs gene to virescent leaf color change, which provided a useful tool to establish linkages among virescent leaf color change, chloroplast development, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and the functions of the CsaCNGCs gene.

  5. Nitrate transport across the tonoplast of Cucumis sativus L. root cells.

    PubMed

    Kabała, Katarzyna; Kłobus, Grazyna; Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata

    2003-05-01

    Nitrate transport across the tonoplast has been studied using vacuole membranes isolated from cucumber roots grown in nitrate. The addition of NO3- ions into the tonoplast with ATP-generated transmembrane proton gradient caused the dissipation of delta pH, indicating the NO3(-)-induced proton efflux from vesicles. NO3(-)-dependent H+ efflux was almost insensitive to the transmembrane electrical potential difference, suggesting the presence of an electroneutral NO3-/H+ antiporter in the tonoplast. Apart from saturation kinetics, with respect to nitrate ions, NO3(-)-linked H+ efflux from the tonoplast of cucumber roots showed other characteristics expected of substrate-specific transporters. Experiments employing protein modifying reagents (NEM, pCMBS, PGO and SITS) indicated that a crucial role in the activity of tonoplast nitrate/proton antiporter is played by lysine residues (strong inhibition of NO3-/H+ antiport by SITS). None of the ion-channel inhibitors (NIF, ZnSO4 and TEA-Cl) used in the experiments had a direct effect on the nitrate transport into tonoplast membranes. On the other hand, every protein reagent, as well as NIF and ZnSO4, significantly affected the ATP-dependent proton transport in vesicles. Only TEA-Cl, the potassium channel blocker, had no effect on the vacuolar proton pumping activity.

  6. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  7. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar ‘EP6392’ which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns. PMID:25959296

  8. Fine mapping of virescent leaf gene v-1 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chloroplhyll gives the green color in plants. Any mutations in chloroplhyll biosynthesis or regulation may result in color changes. Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants, which can be used as markers in crop breeding or as a tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll bio...

  9. Genetic and environmental effects on production of spontaneous tetraploids in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The appearance of spontaneous tetraploid (4x) plants is a serious problem for cucumber growers and the seed industry. These plants produce unacceptable fruits with poor quality that do not meet market standards, and result in substantial losses. A higher frequency of spontaneous 4x plants has been a...

  10. Fine Mapping of Virescent Leaf Gene v-1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Han; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Min; Wang, Ye; Weng, Yiqun; Gu, Xingfang

    2016-01-01

    Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants that can be used as markers in crop breeding or as an important tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In virescent leaf mutants, young leaves are yellow in color, which gradually return to normal green when the seedlings grow large. In the present study, we conducted phenotypic characterization and genetic mapping of the cucumber virescent leaf mutant 9110Gt conferred by the v-1 locus. Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in 9110Gt was reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, as compared with its wild type parental line 9110G. Electron microscopic investigation revealed fewer chloroplasts per cell and thylakoids per chloroplast in 9110Gt than in 9110G. Fine genetic mapping allowed for the assignment of the v-1 locus to a 50.4 kb genomic DNA region in chromosome 6 with two flanking markers that were 0.14 and 0.16 cM away from v-1, respectively. Multiple lines of evidence supported CsaCNGCs as the only candidate gene for the v-1 locus, which encoded a cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channel protein. A single nucleotide change in the promoter region of v-1 seemed to be associated with the virescent color change in 9110Gt. Real-time PCR revealed significantly lower expression of CsaCNGCs in the true leaves of 9110Gt than in 9110G. This was the first report that connected the CsaCNGCs gene to virescent leaf color change, which provided a useful tool to establish linkages among virescent leaf color change, chloroplast development, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and the functions of the CsaCNGCs gene. PMID:27669214

  11. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  12. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Ying; Miao, Han; Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth plant trait in cucumber breeding and provide for future cloning of csgl3.

  13. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Antioxidant Defense in Cucumber Seeds (Cucumis sativus L.) Germinated under Chilling Stress.

    PubMed

    Marta, Bałabusta; Szafrańska, Katarzyna; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exogenous melatonin applied into cucumber seeds during osmopriming and modifications of their antioxidant defense was studied. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione pool were investigated in embryonic axes isolated from the control, osmoprimed, and osmoprimed with melatonin seeds. Germinating cucumber seeds are very sensitive to chilling. Temperature 10°C causes oxidative stress in young seedlings. Seed pre-treatment with melatonin seemed to limit H2O2 accumulation during germination under optimal condition as well as during chilling stress and recovery period. Melatonin affected superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and its isoforms during stress and recovery period but did not influence CAT and POX activities. Thus it is possible that in cucumber this indoleamine could act mostly as a direct H2O2 scavenger, but superoxide anion combat via SOD stimulation. The GSH/GSSG ratio is considered as an indirect determinant of oxidative stress. When the cells are exposed to oxidative stress GSSG is accumulated and the ratio of GSH to GSSG decreases. In our research pre-sowing melatonin application into the cucumber seeds caused high beneficial value of GSH/GSSG ratio that could be helpful for stress countering. Glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activity in the axes isolated from these seeds was two fold higher than in those isolated from the control and from the osmoprimed without melatonin ones. Additional isoforms of GSSG-R in melatonin treated seeds were also observed. It explains high and effective GSH pool restoration in the seeds pre-treated with melatonin. We confirmed that melatonin could protect cucumber seeds and young seedlings against oxidative stress directly and indirectly detoxifying ROS, thereby plants grown better even in harmful environmental conditions. This work is the first that investigated on plant in vivo model and documented melatonin influence on redox state during seed germination. This way we try to fill lack of information about melatonin-regulated pathways involved in antioxidant strategy of plant defense.

  14. [Inheritance of parthenocarpy in monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under different eco-environments].

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Ying; Lou, Li-Na; Feng, Zhi-Hong; Lou, Qun-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Li; Li, Jin-Feng

    2010-01-01

    By using the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model of quantitative traits, a joint analysis of four-generations obtained after cross between two monoecious inbred lines was made to study the inheritance of parthenocarpy in monoecious cucumber in Jiangning (Nanjing) and Changli (Hebei). The interactions between genotype and environment were detected, and the inheritance of parthenocarpy in the monoecious cucumber was fitted in E-1-1 model and controlled by two additive-dominant-epistatic major genes and additive-dominant polygene under different eco-environments. The F1 tendency and genetic parameters of the parthenocarpy were different, and the major gene heritability of F2 ranged from 42.1% to 97.5%, which was mainly due to the differences in sunlight intensity and air temperature during fruit-setting period at the two locations. It was suggested that the parents should be highly parthenocarpic in breeding program, and the characterization of parthenocarpy should be conducted under different eco-environments.

  15. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber.

  16. Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and its risk assessment on gherkin (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Selvi, C; Chandrasekaran, S

    2014-08-01

    A supervised open field trial was conducted to evaluate the dissipation pattern and risk assessment of flubendiamide in gherkin fruits following foliar application of Fame 480 SC at 60 and 120 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of gherkin fruits were drawn at different time intervals and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The maximum initial deposits of flubendiamide on gherkin were found to be 0.79 and 1.52 mg kg(-1), respectively, at recommended and double the recommended doses. The dissipation pattern of flubendiamide followed a first-order kinetics with half-lives of 1.87 to 2.16 days at 60 and 120 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. The limit of quantification of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide was observed to be 0.01 mg kg(-1) for gherkin fruit and soil substrates. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) for flubendiamide was calculated and found to be well below the maximum permissible intake (MPI) on gherkin fruits. Thus, the application of flubendiamide at the recommended dose on gherkin fruits presents no human health risks and safe to consumers.

  17. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables.

  18. Transcriptome analysis in Cucumis sativus identifies genes involved in multicellular trichome development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Pan, Jun-Song; Guan, Yuan; Nie, Jing-Tao; Yang, Jun-Jun; Qu, Mei-Ling; He, Huan-Le; Cai, Run

    2015-05-01

    The regulatory gene network of unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been studied intensively, but that of multicellular remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized cucumber trichomes as representative multicellular and unbranched structures, but in a spontaneous mutant, mict (micro-trichome), all trichomes showed a micro-size and stunted morphologies. We revealed the transcriptome profile using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology, and determined that a total of 1391 genes exhibited differential expression. We further validated the accuracy of the transcriptome data by RT-qPCR and found that 43 genes encoding critical transcription factors were likely involved in multicellular trichome development. These 43 candidate genes were subdivided into seven groups: homeodomain, MYB-domain, WRKY-domain, bHLH-domain, ethylene-responsive, zinc finger and other transcription factor genes. Our findings also serve as a powerful tool to further study the relevant molecular networks, and provide a new perspective for investigating this complex and species-specific developmental process.

  19. HANABA TARANU regulates the shoot apical meristem and leaf development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Lian; Yan, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Li; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Jianyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Han, Ying-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-12-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for continuous organogenesis in higher plants, while the leaf is the primary source organ and the leaf shape directly affects the efficiency of photosynthesis. HANABA TARANU (HAN) encodes a GATA3-type transcription factor that functions in floral organ development, SAM organization, and embryo development in Arabidopsis, but is involved in suppressing bract outgrowth and promoting branching in grass species. Here the function of the HAN homologue CsHAN1 was characterized in cucumber, an important vegetable with great agricultural and economic value. CsHAN1 is predominantly expressed at the junction of the SAM and the stem, and can partially rescue the han-2 floral organ phenotype in Arabidopsis. Overexpression and RNAi of CsHAN1 transgenic cucumber resulted in retarded growth early after embryogenesis and produced highly lobed leaves. Further, it was found that CsHAN1 may regulate SAM development through regulating the WUSCHEL (WUS) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) pathways, and mediate leaf development through a complicated gene regulatory network in cucumber.

  20. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-05-11

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  1. Inheritance and quantitative trait locus analysis of low-light tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, D D; Qin, Z W; Lian, H; Yu, G B; Sheng, Y Y; Liu, F

    2015-09-09

    The low-light tolerance index was investigated in a set of 123 F2:3 lines during the seedling stage across 2 seasons, and the heredity of low-light tolerance was assessed via different ge-netic analysis methods. The results of the classical analysis showed that low-light tolerance is controlled by an additive-dominant poly-gene, and the polygenic inheritance rate of separate generations was >30%. In addition, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) exhibited a low-light tolerance index across both seasons, including 2 QTLs (Llti1.1 and Llti1.2) on the 1st linkage group (variances of 6.0 and 9.5%) and 3 QTLs (Llti2.1, Llti2.1, and Llti2.1) on the 2nd linkage group (variances of 10.1-14.0%). The classical analysis method and QTL information on the heredity of low-light tolerance showed that it is controlled by several major genes and a mini-polygene. The results will facilitate the breeding of resistance to low-light stress in cucumber.

  2. Fine genetic mapping of target leaf spot resistance gene cca-3 in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The target leaf spot (TLS) is a very important fungal disease in cucumber. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of a recessively inherited resistance gene, cca-2 against TLS with 1,083 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line D31 and the susceptible line D5. Initial mapp...

  3. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Antioxidant Defense in Cucumber Seeds (Cucumis sativus L.) Germinated under Chilling Stress.

    PubMed

    Marta, Bałabusta; Szafrańska, Katarzyna; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exogenous melatonin applied into cucumber seeds during osmopriming and modifications of their antioxidant defense was studied. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione pool were investigated in embryonic axes isolated from the control, osmoprimed, and osmoprimed with melatonin seeds. Germinating cucumber seeds are very sensitive to chilling. Temperature 10°C causes oxidative stress in young seedlings. Seed pre-treatment with melatonin seemed to limit H2O2 accumulation during germination under optimal condition as well as during chilling stress and recovery period. Melatonin affected superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and its isoforms during stress and recovery period but did not influence CAT and POX activities. Thus it is possible that in cucumber this indoleamine could act mostly as a direct H2O2 scavenger, but superoxide anion combat via SOD stimulation. The GSH/GSSG ratio is considered as an indirect determinant of oxidative stress. When the cells are exposed to oxidative stress GSSG is accumulated and the ratio of GSH to GSSG decreases. In our research pre-sowing melatonin application into the cucumber seeds caused high beneficial value of GSH/GSSG ratio that could be helpful for stress countering. Glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activity in the axes isolated from these seeds was two fold higher than in those isolated from the control and from the osmoprimed without melatonin ones. Additional isoforms of GSSG-R in melatonin treated seeds were also observed. It explains high and effective GSH pool restoration in the seeds pre-treated with melatonin. We confirmed that melatonin could protect cucumber seeds and young seedlings against oxidative stress directly and indirectly detoxifying ROS, thereby plants grown better even in harmful environmental conditions. This work is the first that investigated on plant in vivo model and documented melatonin influence on redox state during seed germination. This way we try to fill lack of information about melatonin-regulated pathways involved in antioxidant strategy of plant defense. PMID:27200048

  4. HANABA TARANU regulates the shoot apical meristem and leaf development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lian; Yan, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Li; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Jianyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Han, Ying-yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for continuous organogenesis in higher plants, while the leaf is the primary source organ and the leaf shape directly affects the efficiency of photosynthesis. HANABA TARANU (HAN) encodes a GATA3-type transcription factor that functions in floral organ development, SAM organization, and embryo development in Arabidopsis, but is involved in suppressing bract outgrowth and promoting branching in grass species. Here the function of the HAN homologue CsHAN1 was characterized in cucumber, an important vegetable with great agricultural and economic value. CsHAN1 is predominantly expressed at the junction of the SAM and the stem, and can partially rescue the han-2 floral organ phenotype in Arabidopsis. Overexpression and RNAi of CsHAN1 transgenic cucumber resulted in retarded growth early after embryogenesis and produced highly lobed leaves. Further, it was found that CsHAN1 may regulate SAM development through regulating the WUSCHEL (WUS) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) pathways, and mediate leaf development through a complicated gene regulatory network in cucumber. PMID:26320238

  5. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Antioxidant Defense in Cucumber Seeds (Cucumis sativus L.) Germinated under Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Marta, Bałabusta; Szafrańska, Katarzyna; Posmyk, Małgorzata M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exogenous melatonin applied into cucumber seeds during osmopriming and modifications of their antioxidant defense was studied. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione pool were investigated in embryonic axes isolated from the control, osmoprimed, and osmoprimed with melatonin seeds. Germinating cucumber seeds are very sensitive to chilling. Temperature 10°C causes oxidative stress in young seedlings. Seed pre-treatment with melatonin seemed to limit H2O2 accumulation during germination under optimal condition as well as during chilling stress and recovery period. Melatonin affected superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and its isoforms during stress and recovery period but did not influence CAT and POX activities. Thus it is possible that in cucumber this indoleamine could act mostly as a direct H2O2 scavenger, but superoxide anion combat via SOD stimulation. The GSH/GSSG ratio is considered as an indirect determinant of oxidative stress. When the cells are exposed to oxidative stress GSSG is accumulated and the ratio of GSH to GSSG decreases. In our research pre-sowing melatonin application into the cucumber seeds caused high beneficial value of GSH/GSSG ratio that could be helpful for stress countering. Glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activity in the axes isolated from these seeds was two fold higher than in those isolated from the control and from the osmoprimed without melatonin ones. Additional isoforms of GSSG-R in melatonin treated seeds were also observed. It explains high and effective GSH pool restoration in the seeds pre-treated with melatonin. We confirmed that melatonin could protect cucumber seeds and young seedlings against oxidative stress directly and indirectly detoxifying ROS, thereby plants grown better even in harmful environmental conditions. This work is the first that investigated on plant in vivo model and documented melatonin influence on redox state during seed germination. This way we try to fill lack of information about melatonin-regulated pathways involved in antioxidant strategy of plant defense. PMID:27200048

  6. Fine Mapping of Virescent Leaf Gene v-1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Miao, Han; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Min; Wang, Ye; Weng, Yiqun; Gu, Xingfang

    2016-01-01

    Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants that can be used as markers in crop breeding or as an important tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In virescent leaf mutants, young leaves are yellow in color, which gradually return to normal green when the seedlings grow large. In the present study, we conducted phenotypic characterization and genetic mapping of the cucumber virescent leaf mutant 9110Gt conferred by the v-1 locus. Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in 9110Gt was reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, as compared with its wild type parental line 9110G. Electron microscopic investigation revealed fewer chloroplasts per cell and thylakoids per chloroplast in 9110Gt than in 9110G. Fine genetic mapping allowed for the assignment of the v-1 locus to a 50.4 kb genomic DNA region in chromosome 6 with two flanking markers that were 0.14 and 0.16 cM away from v-1, respectively. Multiple lines of evidence supported CsaCNGCs as the only candidate gene for the v-1 locus, which encoded a cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channel protein. A single nucleotide change in the promoter region of v-1 seemed to be associated with the virescent color change in 9110Gt. Real-time PCR revealed significantly lower expression of CsaCNGCs in the true leaves of 9110Gt than in 9110G. This was the first report that connected the CsaCNGCs gene to virescent leaf color change, which provided a useful tool to establish linkages among virescent leaf color change, chloroplast development, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and the functions of the CsaCNGCs gene. PMID:27669214

  7. Inheritance and quantitative trait locus analysis of low-light tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, D D; Qin, Z W; Lian, H; Yu, G B; Sheng, Y Y; Liu, F

    2015-01-01

    The low-light tolerance index was investigated in a set of 123 F2:3 lines during the seedling stage across 2 seasons, and the heredity of low-light tolerance was assessed via different ge-netic analysis methods. The results of the classical analysis showed that low-light tolerance is controlled by an additive-dominant poly-gene, and the polygenic inheritance rate of separate generations was >30%. In addition, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) exhibited a low-light tolerance index across both seasons, including 2 QTLs (Llti1.1 and Llti1.2) on the 1st linkage group (variances of 6.0 and 9.5%) and 3 QTLs (Llti2.1, Llti2.1, and Llti2.1) on the 2nd linkage group (variances of 10.1-14.0%). The classical analysis method and QTL information on the heredity of low-light tolerance showed that it is controlled by several major genes and a mini-polygene. The results will facilitate the breeding of resistance to low-light stress in cucumber. PMID:26400292

  8. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables. PMID:27097058

  9. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Ying; Miao, Han; Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth plant trait in cucumber breeding and provide for future cloning of csgl3. PMID:26845560

  10. Assessment of chilling injury and molecular marker analysis in cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses to chilling temperature of 12 Korean cucumber varieties were compared to those of two U.S.A. (previously determined cold tolerant NC76 and 'Chipper'), and Chinese and Japanese germplasms. Seedlings of each entry were exposed to 4 degrees C (Experiment 1) and 1 degree C (Experiments 2 ...

  11. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide, but progress in genetic and genomics research in this crop is slow. Recently the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced, (ibred line ‘9930’ and pickling cultivar ‘Gy14’), which provides a powerful tool for developing markers in large scale...

  12. Genome-wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide, but progress in genetic and genomics research in this crop is slow. Recently the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced, (ibred line ‘9930’ and pickling cultivar ‘Gy14’), which provides a powerful tool for developing markers in large scale...

  13. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C.; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth plant trait in cucumber breeding and provide for future cloning of csgl3. PMID:26845560

  14. Comparative chromosomal localization of 45S and 5S rDNAs and implications for genome evolution in Cucumis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Tao; Yang, Shu-Qiong; Li, Zi-Ang; Zhang, Yun-Xia; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Cheng, Chun-Yan; Li, Ji; Chen, Jin-Feng; Lou, Qun-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal DNAs are useful cytogenetic markers for chromosome analysis. Studies investigating site numbers and distributions of rDNAs have provided important information for elucidating genome organization and chromosomal relationships of many species by fluorescence in situ hybridization. But relevant studies are scarce for species of the genus Cucumis, especially in wild species. In the present study, FISH was conducted to investigate the organization of 45S and 5S rDNA among 20 Cucumis accessions, including cultivars and wild accessions. Our results showed that the number of 45S rDNA sites varied from one to five pairs in different accessions, and most of these sites are located at the terminal regions of chromosomes. Interestingly, up to five pairs of 45S rDNA sites were observed in C. sativus var. sativus, the species which has the lowest chromosome number, i.e., 2n = 14. Only one pair of 5S rDNA sites was detected in all accessions, except for C. heptadactylus, C. sp, and C. spp that had two pairs of 5S rDNA sites. The distributions of 5S rDNA sites showed more variation than 45S rDNA sites. The phylogenetic analysis in this study showed that 45S and 5S rDNA have contrasting evolutionary patterns. We find that 5S rDNA has a polyploidization-related tendency towards the terminal location from an interstitial location but maintains a conserved site number, whereas the 45S rDNA showed a trend of increasing site number but a relatively conserved location. PMID:27334092

  15. Comparative chromosomal localization of 45S and 5S rDNAs and implications for genome evolution in Cucumis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Tao; Yang, Shu-Qiong; Li, Zi-Ang; Zhang, Yun-Xia; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Cheng, Chun-Yan; Li, Ji; Chen, Jin-Feng; Lou, Qun-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal DNAs are useful cytogenetic markers for chromosome analysis. Studies investigating site numbers and distributions of rDNAs have provided important information for elucidating genome organization and chromosomal relationships of many species by fluorescence in situ hybridization. But relevant studies are scarce for species of the genus Cucumis, especially in wild species. In the present study, FISH was conducted to investigate the organization of 45S and 5S rDNA among 20 Cucumis accessions, including cultivars and wild accessions. Our results showed that the number of 45S rDNA sites varied from one to five pairs in different accessions, and most of these sites are located at the terminal regions of chromosomes. Interestingly, up to five pairs of 45S rDNA sites were observed in C. sativus var. sativus, the species which has the lowest chromosome number, i.e., 2n = 14. Only one pair of 5S rDNA sites was detected in all accessions, except for C. heptadactylus, C. sp, and C. spp that had two pairs of 5S rDNA sites. The distributions of 5S rDNA sites showed more variation than 45S rDNA sites. The phylogenetic analysis in this study showed that 45S and 5S rDNA have contrasting evolutionary patterns. We find that 5S rDNA has a polyploidization-related tendency towards the terminal location from an interstitial location but maintains a conserved site number, whereas the 45S rDNA showed a trend of increasing site number but a relatively conserved location.

  16. Toxicity identification evaluation of anaerobically treated swine slurry: a comparison between Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina A; Silva, Jeannette; Bay-Schmith, Enrique; Vidal, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion does not efficiently reduce ionic compounds present in swine slurry, which could present a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (surface runoff) and terrestrial ambient (irrigation). The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological characteristics of anaerobically treated swine slurry using acute and chronic (epicotyl elongation) toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus and identification of suspected toxic compounds using the Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) method. The evaluation was performed in three phases: physicochemical characterization of the slurry; acute/chronic toxicity testing with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus for each fraction of the TIE (cation and anion exchange columns, activated carbon, pH modification/aeration and EDTA) and identification of suspected toxic compounds. The anaerobically treated slurry contained concentrations of ammonium of 1,072 mg L(-1), chloride of 815 mg L(-1) and metals below 1 mg L(-1) with a D. magna acute toxicity (48h-LC50) of 5.3% and R. sativus acute toxicity (144h-LC50) of 48.1%. Epicotyl elongation of R. sativus was inhibited at concentrations above 25% (NOEC). The cation exchange reduced the toxicity and free ammonia by more than 90% for both bio-indicators. Moreover, this condition stimulated the epicotyl growth of R. sativus between 10% and 37%. In conclusion, the main compound suspected of causing acute toxicity in D. magna and acute/chronic toxicity in R. sativus is the ammonium. The findings suggest the need the ammonium treatment prior to the agricultural reuse of swine slurry given the high risk to contaminate the aquatic environment by runoff and toxicity of sensitive plants.

  17. Genotypic Variation in the Concentration of β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Seeds Is Associated with an Accumulation of Leaf and Pod β-ODAP during Vegetative and Reproductive Stages at Three Levels of Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Xiong, You-Cai; Bai, Xue; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Zhu, Hao; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Wang, Jian-Yong; Turner, Neil C

    2015-07-15

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivation is limited because of the presence in seeds and tissues of the nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin that can cause lathyrism in humans. Seven grass pea genotypes differing in seed β-ODAP concentration were grown in pots at three levels of water availability to follow changes in the concentration and amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods and seeds. The concentration and amount of β-ODAP decreased in leaves in early reproductive development and in pods as they matured, while water stress increased β-ODAP concentration in leaves and pods at these stages. The net amount of β-ODAP in leaves and pods at early podding was positively associated with seed β-ODAP concentration at maturity. We conclude that variation among genotypes in seed β-ODAP concentration results from variation in net accumulation of β-ODAP in leaves and pods during vegetative and early reproductive development.

  18. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Gug-Seoun

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo), oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon), and cucumber (C. sativus) were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV) was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii) transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP) gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea. PMID:26673519

  19. Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, R.; Ahmed, H.; Dixit, R. K.; Dharamveer; Saraf, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. belonging to the family Iridaceae (syn - kesar) comprises the dried red stigma and is widely cultivated in Iran and other countries such as India and Greece. Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds mainly terpenes, terpene alcohol, and their esters. The bitter taste and an iodoform or hay-like fragrance are caused by chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. C. sativus possesses a number of medicinally important activities such as antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, antitussive, antigenototoxic and cytotoxic effects, anxiolytic aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antidepressant, antinociceptive , anti-inflammatory, and relaxant activity. It also improves memory and learning skills, and increases blood flow in retina and choroid. The present review explores the historical background, chemical constituents, pharmacological actions, uses, substitutes and adulterants, and toxicity. It also deals with its evaluation, formulations, and chemical tests in detail. PMID:22228962

  20. Resistance in Cucumis melo germplasm to Pseudoperonospora cubensis pathotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucumis melo-Pseudoperonospora cubensis host-pathogen interaction is characterized by large variation in specificity. This report summarizes results obtained by laboratory screening of 52 C. melo accessions by 8 isolates of P. cubensis. The isolates represent 8 different pathotypes with low, m...

  1. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se.

  2. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  3. Melatonin promotes seed germination under high salinity by regulating antioxidant systems, ABA and GA₄ interaction in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Na; Yang, Rong-Chao; Wang, Li; Sun, Qian-Qian; Li, Dian-Bo; Cao, Yun-Yun; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Although previous studies have found that melatonin can promote seed germination, the mechanisms involved in perceiving and signaling melatonin remain poorly understood. In this study, it was found that melatonin was synthesized during cucumber seed germination with a peak in melatonin levels occurring 14 hr into germination. This is indicative of a correlation between melatonin synthesis and seed germination. Meanwhile, seeds pretreated with exogenous melatonin (1 μM) showed enhanced germination rates under 150 mM NaCl stress compared to water-pretreated seeds under salinity stress. There are two apparent mechanisms by which melatonin alleviated salinity-induced inhibition of seed germination. Exogenous melatonin decreased oxidative damage induced by NaCl stress by enhancing gene expression of antioxidants. Under NaCl stress, compared to untreated control, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were significantly increased by approximately 1.3-5.0-fold, with a concomitant 1.4-2.0-fold increase of CsCu-ZnSOD, CsFe-ZnSOD, CsCAT, and CsPOD in melatonin-pretreated seeds. Melatonin also alleviated salinity stress by affecting abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) biosynthesis and catabolism during seed germination. Compared to NaCl treatment, melatonin significantly up-regulated ABA catabolism genes (e.g., CsCYP707A1 and CsCYP707A2, 3.5 and 105-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 16 hr, respectively) and down-regulated ABA biosynthesis genes (e.g., CsNECD2, 0.29-fold of CK2 at 16 hr), resulting in a rapid decrease of ABA content during the early stage of germination. At the same time, melatonin positively up-regulated GA biosynthesis genes (e.g., GA20ox and GA3ox, 2.3 and 3.9-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 0 and 12 hr, respectively), contributing to a significant increase of GA (especially GA4) content. In this study, we provide new evidence suggesting that melatonin alleviates the inhibitory effects of NaCl stress on germination mainly by regulating the biosynthesis and catabolism of ABA and GA4.

  4. Long-Term In Vitro System for Maintenance and Amplification of Root-Knot Nematodes in Cucumis sativus Roots.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E; Olmo, Rocío; Cabrera, Javier; Barcala, Marta; Escobar, Carolina; Fenoll, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are polyphagous plant-parasitic roundworms that produce large crop losses, representing a relevant agricultural pest worldwide. After infection, they induce swollen root structures called galls containing giant cells (GCs) indispensable for nematode development. Among efficient control methods are biotechnology-based strategies that require a deep knowledge of underlying molecular processes during the plant-nematode interaction. Methods of achieving this knowledge include the application of molecular biology techniques such as transcriptomics (as massive sequencing or microarray hybridization), proteomics or metabolomics. These require aseptic experimental conditions, as undetected contamination with other microorganisms could compromise the interpretation of the results. Herein, we present a simple, efficient and long-term method for nematode amplification on cucumber roots grown in vitro. Amplification of juveniles (J2) from the starting inoculum is around 40-fold. The method was validated for three Meloidogyne species (Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita, and M. arenaria), producing viable and robust freshly hatched J2s. These J2s can be used for further in vitro infection of different plant species such as Arabidopsis, tobacco and tomato, as well as to maintain and amplify the population. The method allowed maintenance of around 90 Meloidogyne sp. generations (one every 2 months) from a single initial female over 15 years.

  5. [Effects of exogenous silicon on active oxygen scavenging systems in chloroplasts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings under salt stress].

    PubMed

    Qian, Qiong-Qiu; Zai, Wen-San; Zhu, Zhu-Jun; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2006-02-01

    With K(2)SiO(4) (1.0 mmol/L) treatment, the effects of Si on the distribution of Na(+), K(+) to chloroplasts and antioxidant system of cucumber leaves under 50 mmol/L NaCl stress were studied. The results showed that there was a selective transport of K(+) into the chloroplasts so that Na(+) content of chloroplasts was lower under Si treatment (Table 1); H(2)O(2) and MDA contents in chloroplasts were significantly decreased (Fig.1), and the activities of SOD, APX, GR and DHAR were increased simultaneity (Fig.2), and AsA, GSH contents were also increased in chloroplasts of salt-stressed cucumber by additional Si treatment (Fig.3). It may be concluded that Si could decrease absorption of Na(+) and increase ability of active oxygen scavenging in chloroplasts, therefore the injury of chloroplast membrane under salinity stress in cucumber was alleviated. PMID:16477139

  6. Loss-of-Function Mutations in CsMLO1 Confer Durable Powdery Mildew Resistance in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Nie, Jingtao; Wang, Yunli; He, Huanle; Guo, Chunli; Zhu, Wenying; Pan, Jian; Li, Dandan; Lian, Hongli; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. The identification of resistance genes is very important for resistance breeding to ensure cucumber production. Here, natural loss-of-function mutations at an MLO homologous locus, CsMLO1, were found to confer durable PM resistance in cucumber. CsMLO1 encoded a cell membrane protein, was mainly expressed in leaves and cotyledons, and was up-regulated by PM at the early stage of host-pathogen interaction. Ectopic expression of CsMLO1 rescued the phenotype of the PM resistant Atmlo2 Atmlo12 double mutant to PM susceptible in Arabidopsis. Domesticated and wild resistant cucumbers originating from various geographical regions of the world were found to harbor three independent natural mutations that resulted in CsMLO1 loss of function. In addition, between the near-isogenic lines (NILs) of PM resistant and susceptible, S1003 and NIL(Pm5.1), quantitative RT-PCR revealed that there is no difference at expression levels of several genes in the pathways of ethylene, jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Moreover, the two NILs were used for transcriptome profiling to explore the mechanism underlying the resistance. Several genes correlated with plant cell wall thickening are possibly involved in the PM resistance. This study revealed that loss of function of CsMLO1 conferred durable PM resistance, and that this loss of function is necessary but alone may not be sufficient for PM resistance in cucumber. These findings will facilitate the molecular breeding of PM resistant varieties to control this destructive disease in cucumber.

  7. Trichome-Related Mutants Provide a New Perspective on Multicellular Trichome Initiation and Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingwang; Bartholomew, Ezra; Cai, Yanling; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located in aerial parts of plants that function in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study the molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. Loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana have suggested that the core genes GL1 (which encodes a MYB transcription factor) and TTG1 (which encodes a WD40 repeat-containing protein) are important for the initiation and spacing of leaf trichomes, while for normal trichome initiation, the genes GL3, and EGL3 (which encode a bHLH protein) are needed. However, the positive regulatory genes involved in multicellular trichrome development in cucumber remain unclear. This review focuses on the phenotype of mutants (csgl3, tril, tbh, mict, and csgl1) with disturbed trichomes in cucumber and then infers which gene(s) play key roles in trichome initiation and development in those mutants. Evidence indicates that MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are allelic with alternative splicing. CsGL3 and TRIL are allelic and override the effect of TBH, MICT, and CsGL1 on the regulation of multicellular trichome development; and affect trichome initiation. CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 encode HD-Zip proteins with different subfamilies. Genetic and molecular analyses have revealed that CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are responsible for the differentiation of epidermal cells and the development of trichomes. Based on current knowledge, a positive regulator pathway model for trichome development in cucumber was proposed and compared to a model in Arabidopsis. These data suggest that trichome development in cucumber may differ from that in Arabidopsis.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-ping; Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-hong; Xia, Xiao-jian; Mao, Wei-hua; Shi, Kai; Chen, Zhi-xiang; Yu, Jing-quan

    2012-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2) treatment induced increases in CO(2) assimilation whilst inhibition of the H(2)O(2) accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO(2) assimilation. Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H(2)O(2)-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)). EBR and H(2)O(2) both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO(2) response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities. Moreover, EBR and H(2)O(2) increased contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, hexose, and starch, followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase. Interestingly, expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H(2)O(2). However, the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H(2)O(2) generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment. All of these results indicate that H(2)O(2) functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO(2) assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants. Our study confirms that H(2)O(2) mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H(2)O(2) regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops.

  9. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  10. Foliar applied nanoscale and microscale CeO2 and CuO alter cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Wang, Lina; Sun, Youping; Zhao, Lijuan; Niu, Genhua; Tan, Wenjuan; Rico, Cyren M; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    There is lack of information about the effects of foliar applied nanoparticles on fruit quality. In this study, three week-old soil grown cucumber seedlings were foliar-exposed to nCeO2, nCuO, and corresponding bulk counterparts at 50, 100, and 200mg/L. Respective suspensions/solutions were sprayed to experimental units in a volume of 250ml. Net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (E) were measured 15days after treatment application and in 74day-old plants. Yield, fruit characteristics (size, weight, and firmness), Ce, Cu, and nutritional elements were also measured. Results showed a nano-specific decrement on Pn (22% and 30%) and E (11% and 17%) in seedling leaves exposed to nCeO2 and nCuO at 200mg/L, respectively, compared with control. nCeO2 at 50mg/L, bCeO2 at 200mg/L, and all Cu treatments, except nCuO at 100mg/L, significantly reduced fruit firmness (p≤0.05), compared with control. However, nCuO at 200mg/L and bCuO at 50mg/L significantly increased fruit fresh weight (p≤0.05). At 200mg/L, nCeO2 and bCeO2 reduced fruit Zn by 25%, while nCuO and bCuO reduced fruit Mo by 51% and 44%, respectively, compared with control. This study has shown that when the route of exposure is the foliage, differences in particle size are less significant, compared to root-based exposure. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of foliar application of nCeO2 and nCuO upon yield and nutritional quality of cucumber. PMID:26351199

  11. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators. PMID:24962999

  12. Trichome-Related Mutants Provide a New Perspective on Multicellular Trichome Initiation and Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingwang; Bartholomew, Ezra; Cai, Yanling; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located in aerial parts of plants that function in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study the molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. Loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana have suggested that the core genes GL1 (which encodes a MYB transcription factor) and TTG1 (which encodes a WD40 repeat-containing protein) are important for the initiation and spacing of leaf trichomes, while for normal trichome initiation, the genes GL3, and EGL3 (which encode a bHLH protein) are needed. However, the positive regulatory genes involved in multicellular trichrome development in cucumber remain unclear. This review focuses on the phenotype of mutants (csgl3, tril, tbh, mict, and csgl1) with disturbed trichomes in cucumber and then infers which gene(s) play key roles in trichome initiation and development in those mutants. Evidence indicates that MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are allelic with alternative splicing. CsGL3 and TRIL are allelic and override the effect of TBH, MICT, and CsGL1 on the regulation of multicellular trichome development; and affect trichome initiation. CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 encode HD-Zip proteins with different subfamilies. Genetic and molecular analyses have revealed that CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are responsible for the differentiation of epidermal cells and the development of trichomes. Based on current knowledge, a positive regulator pathway model for trichome development in cucumber was proposed and compared to a model in Arabidopsis. These data suggest that trichome development in cucumber may differ from that in Arabidopsis. PMID:27559338

  13. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  14. Trichome-Related Mutants Provide a New Perspective on Multicellular Trichome Initiation and Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingwang; Bartholomew, Ezra; Cai, Yanling; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located in aerial parts of plants that function in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study the molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. Loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana have suggested that the core genes GL1 (which encodes a MYB transcription factor) and TTG1 (which encodes a WD40 repeat-containing protein) are important for the initiation and spacing of leaf trichomes, while for normal trichome initiation, the genes GL3, and EGL3 (which encode a bHLH protein) are needed. However, the positive regulatory genes involved in multicellular trichrome development in cucumber remain unclear. This review focuses on the phenotype of mutants (csgl3, tril, tbh, mict, and csgl1) with disturbed trichomes in cucumber and then infers which gene(s) play key roles in trichome initiation and development in those mutants. Evidence indicates that MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are allelic with alternative splicing. CsGL3 and TRIL are allelic and override the effect of TBH, MICT, and CsGL1 on the regulation of multicellular trichome development; and affect trichome initiation. CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 encode HD-Zip proteins with different subfamilies. Genetic and molecular analyses have revealed that CsGL3, TRIL, MICT, TBH, and CsGL1 are responsible for the differentiation of epidermal cells and the development of trichomes. Based on current knowledge, a positive regulator pathway model for trichome development in cucumber was proposed and compared to a model in Arabidopsis. These data suggest that trichome development in cucumber may differ from that in Arabidopsis. PMID:27559338

  15. Ultrahigh-density linkage map for cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Mor; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Eshed, Ravit; Rozen, Ada; Katzir, Nurit; Colle, Marivi; Yang, Luming; Grumet, Rebecca; Weng, Yiqun; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping arrays are tools for high-throughput genotyping, which is beneficial in constructing saturated genetic maps and therefore high-resolution mapping of complex traits. Since the report of the first cucumber genome draft, genetic maps have been constructed mainly based on simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) or on combinations of SSRs and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP). In this study, we developed the first cucumber genotyping array consisting of 32,864 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These markers cover the cucumber genome with a median interval of ~2 Kb and have expected genotype calls in parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set. The training set was validated with Fluidigm technology and showed 96% concordance with the genotype calls in the parents/F1 hybridizations. Application of the genotyping array was illustrated by constructing a 598.7 cM genetic map based on a '9930' × 'Gy14' recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprised of 11,156 SNPs. Marker collinearity between the genetic map and reference genomes of the two parents was estimated at R2 = 0.97. We also used the array-derived genetic map to investigate chromosomal rearrangements, regional recombination rate, and specific regions with segregation distortions. Finally, 82% of the linkage-map bins were polymorphic in other cucumber variants, suggesting that the array can be applied for genotyping in other lines. The genotyping array presented here, together with the genotype calls of the parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set, should be a powerful tool in future studies with high-throughput cucumber genotyping. An ultrahigh-density linkage map constructed by this genotyping array on RIL population may be invaluable for assembly improvement, and for mapping important cucumber QTLs.

  16. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  17. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-09-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators.

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression profile of homeodomain-leucine zipper Class I gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Fu, Rao; Li, Qiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2013-12-01

    The HD-Zip proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. HD-Zip genes have been grouped into four different classes: HD-Zip I to IV. In this study, we described the identification and structural characterization of Class I HD-Zip genes in cucumber. A complete set of 13 HD-Zip I genes were identified in the cucumber genome using Blast search tools and phylogeny. The cucumber HD-Zip I family contained a smaller number of identified genes compared to other higher plants such as Arabidopsis and maize due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are distributed unevenly across 5 of 7 chromosomes. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 13 cucumber HD-Zip I genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues, which suggested that cucumber HD-Zip I genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic stress conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of HD-Zip I genes that responded to one or more treatments.

  19. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Gan, Defang; Zhuang, Dan; Ding, Fei; Yu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01-CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.

  20. Foliar applied nanoscale and microscale CeO2 and CuO alter cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jie; Wang, Lina; Sun, Youping; Zhao, Lijuan; Niu, Genhua; Tan, Wenjuan; Rico, Cyren M; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    There is lack of information about the effects of foliar applied nanoparticles on fruit quality. In this study, three week-old soil grown cucumber seedlings were foliar-exposed to nCeO2, nCuO, and corresponding bulk counterparts at 50, 100, and 200mg/L. Respective suspensions/solutions were sprayed to experimental units in a volume of 250ml. Net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (E) were measured 15days after treatment application and in 74day-old plants. Yield, fruit characteristics (size, weight, and firmness), Ce, Cu, and nutritional elements were also measured. Results showed a nano-specific decrement on Pn (22% and 30%) and E (11% and 17%) in seedling leaves exposed to nCeO2 and nCuO at 200mg/L, respectively, compared with control. nCeO2 at 50mg/L, bCeO2 at 200mg/L, and all Cu treatments, except nCuO at 100mg/L, significantly reduced fruit firmness (p≤0.05), compared with control. However, nCuO at 200mg/L and bCuO at 50mg/L significantly increased fruit fresh weight (p≤0.05). At 200mg/L, nCeO2 and bCeO2 reduced fruit Zn by 25%, while nCuO and bCuO reduced fruit Mo by 51% and 44%, respectively, compared with control. This study has shown that when the route of exposure is the foliage, differences in particle size are less significant, compared to root-based exposure. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of foliar application of nCeO2 and nCuO upon yield and nutritional quality of cucumber.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, B B; Pan, J S; He, H L; Yang, X Q; Zhao, J L; Cai, R

    2013-10-07

    The plant gaseous hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To gain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the full-length cDNA encoding EIN3 (designated as CsEIN3) was cloned from cucumber for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full length of CsEIN3 was 2560 bp, with an open reading frame of 1908 bp encoding 635 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsEIN3 has high homology with other plant EIN3/EIL proteins that were derived from a common ancestor during evolution, and CsEIN3 was grouped into a cluster along with melon. Homology modeling demonstrated that CsEIN3 has a highly similar structure to the specific DNA-binding domain contained in EIN3/EIL proteins. Based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that CsEIN3 was constitutively expressed in all organs examined, and was increased during flower development and maturation in both male and female flowers. Our results suggest that CsEIN3 is involved in processes of flower development. In conclusion, this study will provide the basis for further study on the role of EIN3 in relevant biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  2. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Chryseobacterium sp. Strain GSE06, a Biocontrol Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from Cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Byeong Hyeok; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Ki Deok

    2016-06-16

    Chryseobacterium sp. strain GSE06 is a biocontrol endophytic bacterium against the destructive soilborne oomycete Phytophthora capsici, which causes Phytophthora blight of pepper. Here, we present its draft genome sequence, which contains genes related to biocontrol traits, such as colonization, antimicrobial activity, plant growth promotion, and abiotic or biotic stress adaptation.

  4. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  5. Long-Term In Vitro System for Maintenance and Amplification of Root-Knot Nematodes in Cucumis sativus Roots

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E.; Olmo, Rocío; Cabrera, Javier; Barcala, Marta; Escobar, Carolina; Fenoll, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are polyphagous plant-parasitic roundworms that produce large crop losses, representing a relevant agricultural pest worldwide. After infection, they induce swollen root structures called galls containing giant cells (GCs) indispensable for nematode development. Among efficient control methods are biotechnology-based strategies that require a deep knowledge of underlying molecular processes during the plant-nematode interaction. Methods of achieving this knowledge include the application of molecular biology techniques such as transcriptomics (as massive sequencing or microarray hybridization), proteomics or metabolomics. These require aseptic experimental conditions, as undetected contamination with other microorganisms could compromise the interpretation of the results. Herein, we present a simple, efficient and long-term method for nematode amplification on cucumber roots grown in vitro. Amplification of juveniles (J2) from the starting inoculum is around 40-fold. The method was validated for three Meloidogyne species (Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita, and M. arenaria), producing viable and robust freshly hatched J2s. These J2s can be used for further in vitro infection of different plant species such as Arabidopsis, tobacco and tomato, as well as to maintain and amplify the population. The method allowed maintenance of around 90 Meloidogyne sp. generations (one every 2 months) from a single initial female over 15 years. PMID:26941745

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Chryseobacterium sp. Strain GSE06, a Biocontrol Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from Cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Byeong Hyeok; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Ki Deok

    2016-01-01

    Chryseobacterium sp. strain GSE06 is a biocontrol endophytic bacterium against the destructive soilborne oomycete Phytophthora capsici, which causes Phytophthora blight of pepper. Here, we present its draft genome sequence, which contains genes related to biocontrol traits, such as colonization, antimicrobial activity, plant growth promotion, and abiotic or biotic stress adaptation. PMID:27313310

  7. cDNA cloning and characterization of a gibberellin-responsive gene in hypocotyls of Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Chono, M; Yamauchi, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yamane, H; Murofushi, N

    1996-07-01

    A cDNA clone corresponding to a gibberellin-responsive gene (CRG16) was isolated from cucumber hypocotyls. CRG16 was deduced to encode an extremely hydrophobic protein of 65 amino acids. The deduced sequence exhibited no significant homology to other proteins. Levels of CRG16 mRNA reflected the gibberellin-induced elongation of cucumber hypocotyls.

  8. Enantioselective residue dissipation of hexaconazole in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. caulorapa DC.), and soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiangyun; Wu, Changxing; Yang, Hongda; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qiang

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the enantioselective dissipation behavior of hexaconazole was investigated in cucumber fruit, head cabbage, and two different types of agricultural soils. The dissipation kinetics was determined by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on a cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) chiral column. Dissipation rates of hexaconazole enantiomers followed first-order kinetics; the residues of (+)-enantiomer decreased more rapidly than (-)-enantiomer in cucumber and head cabbage, resulting in relative enrichment of the (-)-form, while the two enantiomers showed similar degradation rates in the tested soils. These results indicate substantial enantioselectivity in the residue dissipation of hexaconazole enantiomers in cucumber and head cabbage; however, nonenantioselective dissipation was observed in the tested soils.

  9. Sequencing Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Chloroplast Genomes Identifies Differences Between Chilling-Tolerant and-Susceptible Cucumber Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete sequencing of cucumber chloroplast (cp)DNA was facilitated by the development of 414 consensus chloroplast sequencing primers (CCSPs) from conserved cpDNA sequences of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cpDNAs, using deg...

  10. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Chryseobacterium sp. Strain GSE06, a Biocontrol Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Byeong Hyeok; Park, Hongjae

    2016-01-01

    Chryseobacterium sp. strain GSE06 is a biocontrol endophytic bacterium against the destructive soilborne oomycete Phytophthora capsici, which causes Phytophthora blight of pepper. Here, we present its draft genome sequence, which contains genes related to biocontrol traits, such as colonization, antimicrobial activity, plant growth promotion, and abiotic or biotic stress adaptation. PMID:27313310

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, B B; Pan, J S; He, H L; Yang, X Q; Zhao, J L; Cai, R

    2013-01-01

    The plant gaseous hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To gain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the full-length cDNA encoding EIN3 (designated as CsEIN3) was cloned from cucumber for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full length of CsEIN3 was 2560 bp, with an open reading frame of 1908 bp encoding 635 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsEIN3 has high homology with other plant EIN3/EIL proteins that were derived from a common ancestor during evolution, and CsEIN3 was grouped into a cluster along with melon. Homology modeling demonstrated that CsEIN3 has a highly similar structure to the specific DNA-binding domain contained in EIN3/EIL proteins. Based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that CsEIN3 was constitutively expressed in all organs examined, and was increased during flower development and maturation in both male and female flowers. Our results suggest that CsEIN3 is involved in processes of flower development. In conclusion, this study will provide the basis for further study on the role of EIN3 in relevant biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway. PMID:24114213

  13. Gibberellin production and plant growth promotion from pure cultures of Cladosporium sp. MH-6 isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Youn-Ha; Iqbal, Ilyas; Hussain, Javid; Sohn, Eun-Young; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) production by soil fungi has received little attention, although substantial work has been carried out on other aspects of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF). In our studies we investigated GA production and growth-promoting capacity of a novel fungal strain isolated from the roots of soil-grown cucumber. Pure cultures of 19 endophytic fungi were tested for shoot length promotion of Waito-C rice to identify the GA production capacity of these fungal isolates. Isolate MH-6 significantly increased shoot length (12.9 cm) of Waito-C, in comparison to control treatments. Bioassay with culture filtrate (CF) of MH-6 also significantly promoted growth attributes of cucumber plants. Analysis of MH-6 CF showed the presence of physiologically active (GA1, 1.97 ng/mL; GA3, 5.18 ng/mL; GA4, 13.35 ng/mL and GA7, 2.4 ng/ mL) in conjunction with physiologically inactive (GA9 [0.69 ng/mL], GA12 [0.24 ng/mL], GA15 [0.68 ng/ mL, GA19 [1.94 ng/mL and GA20 [0.78 ng/mL]) gibberellins. The CF of MH-6 produced greater amounts of GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA19 than wild type Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus known for high production of GA. The fungal isolate MH-6 was identified as a new strain of Cladosporium sp. on the basis of sequence homology (99%) and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence.

  14. Ultrahigh-Density Linkage Map for Cultivated Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Using a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping Array

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Mor; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Eshed, Ravit; Rozen, Ada; Katzir, Nurit; Colle, Marivi; Yang, Luming; Grumet, Rebecca; Weng, Yiqun; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping arrays are tools for high-throughput genotyping, which is beneficial in constructing saturated genetic maps and therefore high-resolution mapping of complex traits. Since the report of the first cucumber genome draft, genetic maps have been constructed mainly based on simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) or on combinations of SSRs and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP). In this study, we developed the first cucumber genotyping array consisting of 32,864 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These markers cover the cucumber genome with a median interval of ~2 Kb and have expected genotype calls in parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set. The training set was validated with Fluidigm technology and showed 96% concordance with the genotype calls in the parents/F1 hybridizations. Application of the genotyping array was illustrated by constructing a 598.7 cM genetic map based on a ‘9930’ × ‘Gy14’ recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprised of 11,156 SNPs. Marker collinearity between the genetic map and reference genomes of the two parents was estimated at R2 = 0.97. We also used the array-derived genetic map to investigate chromosomal rearrangements, regional recombination rate, and specific regions with segregation distortions. Finally, 82% of the linkage-map bins were polymorphic in other cucumber variants, suggesting that the array can be applied for genotyping in other lines. The genotyping array presented here, together with the genotype calls of the parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set, should be a powerful tool in future studies with high-throughput cucumber genotyping. An ultrahigh-density linkage map constructed by this genotyping array on RIL population may be invaluable for assembly improvement, and for mapping important cucumber QTLs. PMID:25874931

  15. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species. PMID:23845824

  16. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  17. Somatic Embryogenesis in Crocus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sevindik, Basar; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important species in Crocus genus because of its effective usage. It is not only a very expensive spice, but it has also a big ornamental plant potential. Crocus species are propagated by corm and seed, and male sterility is the most important problem of this species. Hence, somatic embryogenesis can be regarded as a strategic tool for the multiplication of saffron plants. In this chapter, the production of saffron corms via somatic embryogenesis is described.

  18. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ritschel, Patricia Silva; Lins, Tulio Cesar de Lima; Tristan, Rodrigo Lourenço; Buso, Gláucia Salles Cortopassi; Buso, José Amauri; Ferreira, Márcio Elias

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and implementation of marker assisted breeding programs. Genomic microsatellite enriched libraries can be an efficient alternative for marker development in such species. Results Seven hundred clones containing microsatellite sequences from a Tsp-AG/TC microsatellite enriched library were identified and one-hundred and forty-four primer pairs designed and synthesized. When 67 microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of melon and other cucurbit accessions, 65 revealed DNA polymorphisms among the melon accessions. For some cucurbit species, such as Cucumis sativus, up to 50% of the melon microsatellite markers could be readily used for DNA polymophism assessment, representing a significant reduction of marker development costs. A random sample of 25 microsatellite markers was extracted from the new microsatellite marker set and characterized on 40 accessions of melon, generating an allelic frequency database for the species. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.52, varying from 0.45 to 0.70, indicating that a small set of selected markers should be sufficient to solve questions regarding genotype identity and variety protection. Genetic distances based on microsatellite polymorphism were congruent with data obtained from RAPD marker analysis. Mapping analysis was initiated with 55 newly developed markers and most primers showed segregation according to Mendelian expectations. Linkage analysis detected linkage between 56% of the markers, distributed in nine linkage groups. Conclusions Genomic library microsatellite enrichment is an efficient procedure for marker

  19. Next-generation sequencing, FISH mapping and synteny-based modeling reveal mechanisms of decreasing dysploidy in Cucumis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luming; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jiming; Luan, Feishi; Renner, Susanne S; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Sanseverino, Walter; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Casacuberta, Josep; Senalik, Douglas A; Simon, Philipp W; Chen, Jinfeng; Weng, Yiqun

    2014-01-01

    In the large Cucurbitaceae genus Cucumis, cucumber (C. sativus) is the only species with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes. The majority of the remaining species, including melon (C. melo) and the sister species of cucumber, C. hystrix, have 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes, implying a reduction from n = 12 to n = 7. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we investigated chromosome synteny among cucumber, C. hystrix and melon using integrated and complementary approaches. We identified 14 inversions and a C. hystrix lineage-specific reciprocal inversion between C. hystrix and melon. The results reveal the location and orientation of 53 C. hystrix syntenic blocks on the seven cucumber chromosomes, and allow us to infer at least 59 chromosome rearrangement events that led to the seven cucumber chromosomes, including five fusions, four translocations, and 50 inversions. The 12 inferred chromosomes (AK1-AK12) of an ancestor similar to melon and C. hystrix had strikingly different evolutionary fates, with cucumber chromosome C1 apparently resulting from insertion of chromosome AK12 into the centromeric region of translocated AK2/AK8, cucumber chromosome C3 originating from a Robertsonian-like translocation between AK4 and AK6, and cucumber chromosome C5 originating from fusion of AK9 and AK10. Chromosomes C2, C4 and C6 were the result of complex reshuffling of syntenic blocks from three (AK3, AK5 and AK11), three (AK5, AK7 and AK8) and five (AK2, AK3, AK5, AK8 and AK11) ancestral chromosomes, respectively, through 33 fusion, translocation and inversion events. Previous results (Huang, S., Li, R., Zhang, Z. et al., , Nat. Genet. 41, 1275-1281; Li, D., Cuevas, H.E., Yang, L., Li, Y., Garcia-Mas, J., Zalapa, J., Staub, J.E., Luan, F., Reddy, U., He, X., Gong, Z., Weng, Y. 2011a, BMC Genomics, 12, 396) showing that cucumber C7 stayed largely intact during the entire evolution of Cucumis are supported. Results from this study allow a fine-scale understanding of the

  20. Retrotransposon- and microsatellite sequence-associated genomic changes in early generations of a newly synthesized allotetraploid Cucumis × hytivus Chen & Kirkbride.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Biao; Lou, Qunfeng; Wu, Zhiming; Zhang, Wanping; Wang, Dong; Mbira, Kere George; Weng, Yiqun; Chen, Jinfeng

    2011-10-01

    Allopolyploidization is considered an essential evolutionary process in plants that could trigger genomic shock in allopolyploid genome through activation of transcription of retrotransposons, which may be important in plant evolution. Two retrotransposon-based markers, inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism and a microsatellite-based marker, inter simple sequence repeat were employed to investigate genomic changes in early generations of a newly synthesized allotetraploid Cucumis × hytivus Chen & Kirkbride (2n = 4x = 38) which was derived from crossing between cultivated cucumber C. sativus L. (2n = 2x = 14) and its wild relative C. hystrix Chakr. (2n = 2x = 24). Extensive genomic changes were observed, most of which involved the loss of parental DNA fragments and gain of novel fragments in the allotetraploid. Among the 28 fragments examined, 24 were lost while four were novel, suggesting that DNA sequence elimination is a relatively frequent event during polyploidization in Cucumis. Interestingly, of the 24 lost fragments, 18 were of C. hystrix origin, four were C. sativus-specific, and the remaining two were shared by both species, implying that fragment loss may be correlated with haploid DNA content (genome size) of diploid parents. Most changes were observed in the first generation after polyploidization (S(1)) and stably inherited in the subsequent three generations (S(2)-S(4)), indicating that genomic changes might be a rapid driving force for the stabilization of allotetraploids. Sequence analysis of 11 of the 28 altered DNA fragments showed that genomic changes in the allotetraploid occurred in both coding and non-coding regions, which might suggest that retrotransposons inserted into genome randomly and had a genome-wide effect on the allotetraploid evolution. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a unique distribution of retrotransposon and

  1. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils. PMID:27239694

  2. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils.

  3. Cucumis melo endornavirus: Genome organization, host range and codivergence with the host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high molecular weight dsRNA was isolated from a Cucumis melo plant (referred to as“CL01”) of an unknown cultivar and completely sequenced. Sequence analyses showed similarities with members of the Endornaviridae. The name Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) is proposed. The genome of CmEV-CL01 consis...

  4. Adenosine Phosphates in Germinating Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreland, Donald E.; Hussey, Griscelda G.; Shriner, Carole R.; Farmer, Fred S.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in concentrations of adenosine phosphates (AMP, ADP, and ATP), oxygen utilization, and fresh weights were measured during the first 48 hours after imbibition of water by quiescent radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) at 22.5 C. The changes in ATP concentrations, oxygen utilization, and fresh weights followed a triphasic time course, characterized by a rapid initial increase, which extended from 0 to approximately 1.5 hours, a lag phase from 1.5 to 16 hours, and a sharp linear increase from 16 to 48 hours. In unimbibed seeds, the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP were <0.1, 0.9, and 2.2 nmoles/seed, respectively. After imbibition of water by the quiescent seeds, for 1 hour, the ATP concentration had increased to 2.5, and ADP and AMP concentrations had decreased to 0.3 and 0.1 nmole/seed, respectively. These early changes occurred also in seeds maintained under anaerobic conditions (argon), or when treated with either 5 mm fluoroacetate, or 5 mm iodoacetate. The concentrations of ADP and AMP did not change significantly from 1 to 48 hours. The termination of the lag phase at 16 hours correlated with radicle emergence. Cell division in the radicles was initiated at approximately 28 hours. ATP concentrations in seeds maintained under argon or treated with fluoroacetate remained relatively constant from approximately 2 to 48 hours. In contrast, the ATP concentration of iodoacetate-treated seeds decreased curvilinearly from 4 to 48 hours. Oxidative phosphorylation was estimated to have contributed 15, 20, and 65% of the pool ATP at 1.5, 16, and 48 hours, respectively. PMID:16658928

  5. [Responses of non-structural carbohydrate metabolism of cucumber seedlings to drought stress and doubled CO2 concentration].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-hong; Liu, Bin-bin; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Xue-na; Ai, Xi-zhen; Li, Qing-ming

    2015-01-01

    The effects of doubled CO2 concentration on non-structural carbohydrate metabolism of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. 'Jinyou No.1') seedlings under drought stress were investigated. Split plot design was deployed, with two levels of CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 concentration, 380 µmol . mol-1, and doubled CO2 concentration, 760±20 µmol . mol-1) in the main plots, and three levels of water treatments (control, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress) simulated by PEG 6000 in the split-plots. The results showed that non-structural carbohydrates of cucumber leaves, including glucose, fructose, sucrose, and stachyose, increased with the doubling of CO2 concentration, which resulted in the decreased osmotic potential, improving the drought stress in cucumber seedlings. During the drought stress, sucrose synthase, soluble acid invertase and al- kaline invertase started with an increase, and followed with a decline in the leaves. In the root system, however, soluble acid invertase and alkaline invertase increased gradually throughout the whole process, whereas sucrose phosphate synthase firstly increased and then decreased. The treatment of doubled CO2 enhanced the activity of sucrose synthase, but decreased the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase. The synergistic action of the two enzymes and invertase accelerated the decomposition of sucrose and inhibited the synthesis of sucrose, leading to the accumulation of hexose, which lowered the cellular osmotic potential and enhanced the water uptake capacity. In conclusion, doubled CO2 concentration could alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress and improve the drought tolerance of cucumber seedlings. Such mitigating effect on cucumber was more significant under severe drought stress. PMID:25985653

  6. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  7. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, Diego Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-15

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. - Graphical abstract: Metals investigated: Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury, Nickel and Zinc. - Highlights: • The short-term phytotoxicity of seven metals was investigated with 3 higher plants. • Italian limits for arsenic and nickel in

  8. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. PMID:25841179

  9. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants.

  10. A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Ian R. H.; Schaefer, Hanno; Greuter, Werner; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As a result of his botanical explorations in northern Australia, Ferdinand von Mueller named several Cucurbitaceae that molecular data now show to be distinct, requiring their resurrection from unjustified synonymy. We here describe and illustrate Luffa saccata F. Muell. ex I.Telford, validating a manuscript name listed under Luffa graveolens Roxb. since 1859, and we lectotypify Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell. and Cucumis jucundus F. Muell. The lectotype of the name Cucumis jucundus, a synonym of Cucumis melo, is mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus, which is the sister species of the cultivated Cucumis melo as shown in a recent publication. PMID:22171190

  11. [Virus infestation of garden radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, K

    1976-01-01

    In July 1974 a mosaic disease was stated in seed plants of garden radish near Aschersleben which spread more and more within some weeks and eventually infected over 40 per cent of the stand. Investigations in comparison with healthy seed plants demonstrated the following average losses induced by the disease: number of pods 51 per cent, seed weight 67 per cent, number of seeds per plant 53 per cent, weight of 1,000 seeds 33 per cent. Nearly unaffected were: number of seeds per pod, percentage of seed germination, and percentage of emerged seedlings. However, the seedlings were smaller when they derived from diseased mother plants. From diseased seed plants cauliflower mosaic virus was isolated. Seed transmission of this virus could not be stated with several hundreds of seedlings deriving from diseased garden radish. Back transmissions were successful with sap and with aphids. Only one strain which was cultivated in greenhouse for a long time gave no positive results. Three isolates of cabbage black ring virus from different plant species and the four beetle-transmissible viruses, namely turnip yellow mosaic, turnip crinkle, turnip rosette, and radish mosaic viruses induced no symptoms on garden radish seedlings. However, Erysimum latent virus, also belonging to the beetle-transmissible viruses, sometimes caused symptoms in garden radish. For the first time the investigations demonstrated in Europe, but probably also for the other continents, a spontaneous virus infection of Raphanus sativus var. sativus.

  12. Lathyrus diversity: available resources with relevance to crop improvement – L. sativus and L. cicera as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Patto, M. C.; Rubiales, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lathyrus genus includes 160 species, some of which have economic importance as food, fodder and ornamental crops (mainly L. sativus, L. cicera and L. odoratus, respectively) and are cultivated in >1·5 Mha worldwide. However, in spite of their well-recognized robustness and potential as a source of calories and protein for populations in drought-prone and marginal areas, cultivation is in decline and there is a high risk of genetic erosion. Scope In this review, current and past taxonomic treatments of the Lathyrus genus are assessed and its current status is examined together with future prospects for germplasm conservation, characterization and utilization. A particular emphasis is placed on the importance of diversity analysis for breeding of L. sativus and L. cicera. Conclusions Efforts for improvement of L. sativus and L. cicera should concentrate on the development of publicly available joint core collections, and on high-resolution genotyping. This will be critical for permitting decentralized phenotyping. Such a co-ordinated international effort should result in more efficient and faster breeding approaches, which are particularly needed for these neglected, underutilized Lathyrus species. PMID:24623333

  13. [Effect of insulin on germination and ionic exchange in Raphanus sativus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Frasquet, M I; Viña, J; Frasquet, M; Ferriol, A; Alvarez de Laviada, T; Antón, V

    1978-06-01

    Hypoglycemic sulfamide BZ-55 activates or inhibits germination of Raphanus sativus, depending upon the dosis. Since this drug acts upon the glycemia by increasing the secretion and action of insulin, the influence of this hormone on germination and ionic changes (Na+-K+) between seeds and culture medium, were studied. Seeds were incubated during 72 h with different concentrations of insulin in 10 ml deionized water or in 10 ml 18 mM K+ (KCl) solutions at 37 degrees C in vapor saturated atmosphere. A solution of 0.125 IU insulin/ml in water increases the germination to 110% whereas 0.175 IU insulin/ml inhibits it to 40% against controls. Further increases in insulin concentration always inhibit germination. Similar results have been obtained with K+ containing media. Germination rate changes in a small concentration range suggest that insulin might affect an enzymatic activity in the seed.

  14. [Effects of grafting on physiological characteristics of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-min; Zhang, Xin-ying; Fu, Qiu-shi; He, Zhong-qun; Wang, Huai-song

    2014-12-01

    The effects of grafting on physiological characters of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress were investigated with Pumpkin Jingxinzhen No. 3 as stock and oriental melon IVF09 as scion. The results showed that the physiological characters of melon seedlings were inhibited significantly under copper stress. Compared with self-rooted seedlings, the biomass, the contents of photosynthetic pigment, glucose and fructose, the photosynthetic parameters, the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, neutral invertase and acid invertase in the leaves of the grafted seedlings were increased significantly. The uptake of nutrients was improved with the contents of K, P, Na increased and the content of Cu decreased. When the concentration of Cu2+ stress was 800 micromol L(-1), the contents of Cu in the leaves and roots of the grafted seedlings were decreased by 31.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Endogenous hormone balance of seedlings was improved by grafting. In the grafted seedlings, the content of IAA and peroxidase activity were higher, whereas the contents of ABA, maleicdialdehyde, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were lower than that in the control. It was concluded that the copper stress on the physiological characters of melon seedlings was relieved by grafting which improved the resistance of the grafted seedlings. PMID:25876409

  15. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo.

  16. CmMDb: a versatile database for Cucumis melo microsatellite markers and other horticulture crop research.

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K; Bonthala, Venkata S; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A; Polumetla, Ananda K; Prasad, Gajula M N V

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies. PMID:25885062

  17. Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2009-02-12

    An investigation was made to evaluate the pharmacological importance of fruit peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Citrullus vulgaris (CV) and Cucumis melo (CM) with respect to the possible regulation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), thyroid dysfunctions, lipid and glucose metabolism. Pre-standardized doses (200mg/kg of MI and 100mg/kg both of CV and CM), based on the maximum inhibition in hepatic LPO, were administered to Wistar albino male rats for 10 consecutive days and the changes in tissue (heart, liver and kidney) LPO and in the concentrations of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)), insulin, glucose, alpha-amylase and different lipids were examined. Administration of three test peel extracts significantly increased both the thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) with a concomitant decrease in tissue LPO, suggesting their thyroid stimulatory and antiperoxidative role. This thyroid stimulatory nature was also exhibited in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid animals. However, only minor influence was observed in serum lipid profile in which CM reduced the concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), while CV decreased triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). When the combined effects of either two (MI+CV) or three (MI+CV+CM) peel extracts were evaluated in euthyroid animals, serum T(3) concentration was increased in response to MI+CV and MI+CV+CM treatments, while T(4) level was elevated by the combinations of first two peels only. Interestingly, both the categories of combinations increased T(4) levels, but not T(3) in PTU treated hypothyroid animals. Moreover, a parallel increase in hepatic and renal LPO was observed in these animals, suggesting their unsafe nature in combination. In conclusion the three test peel extracts appear to be stimulatory to thyroid functions and inhibitory to tissue LPO but only when treated individually.

  18. Purification and characterization of a serine protease from Cucumis trigonus Roxburghi.

    PubMed

    Asif-Ullah, Mufti; Kim, Key-Sun; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2006-05-01

    Kachri fruit, Cucumis trigonus Roxburghi, contains high protease activity and has been used as meat tenderizer in the Indian subcontinent. A 67 kDa serine protease from Kachri fruit was purified by DEAE-Sepharose and CM-Sepharose chromatography, whose optimum activity was at pH 11 and 70 degrees C. Its activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF, but not by EDTA, pepstatin, or cysteine protease inhibitors. The substrate specificity of the purified protease towards synthetic peptides was comparable to cucumisin, the first characterized subtilisin class plant protease from the sarcocarp of melon fruit (Cucumis melo). These characteristics, along with the N-terminal amino acid sequence, indicated that the isolated protease from Cucumis trigonus Roxburghi is a cucumisin homologue, which belongs to the serine protease family. PMID:16603211

  19. Transcriptome profiling of Cucumis melo fruit development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Huaisong; Yi, Hongping; Zhai, Wenqiang; Wang, Guangzhi; Fu, Qiushi

    2016-01-01

    Hami melon (Cucumis melo) is the most important melon crop grown in the north-western provinces of China. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of developmental changes related to size, flesh, sugar and sour content, we performed a transcriptome profiling of its fruit development. Over 155 000 000 clean reads were mapped to MELONOMICS genome, yielding a total of 23 299 expressed genes. Of these, 554 genes were specifically expressed in flowers, and 3260 genes in fruit flesh tissues. The 7892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to fruit development and mediated diverse metabolic processes and pathways; 83 DEGs and 13 DEGs were possibly associated with sucrose and citric acid accumulation, respectively. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that six out of eight selected candidate genes displayed expression trends similar to our DEGs. This study profiled the gene expression related to different growing stages of flower and fruit at the whole transcriptome level to provide an insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying Hami melon fruit development. PMID:27162641

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  1. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  2. Transcriptome profiling of Cucumis melo fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Huaisong; Yi, Hongping; Zhai, Wenqiang; Wang, Guangzhi; Fu, Qiushi

    2016-01-01

    Hami melon (Cucumis melo) is the most important melon crop grown in the north-western provinces of China. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of developmental changes related to size, flesh, sugar and sour content, we performed a transcriptome profiling of its fruit development. Over 155 000 000 clean reads were mapped to MELONOMICS genome, yielding a total of 23 299 expressed genes. Of these, 554 genes were specifically expressed in flowers, and 3260 genes in fruit flesh tissues. The 7892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to fruit development and mediated diverse metabolic processes and pathways; 83 DEGs and 13 DEGs were possibly associated with sucrose and citric acid accumulation, respectively. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that six out of eight selected candidate genes displayed expression trends similar to our DEGs. This study profiled the gene expression related to different growing stages of flower and fruit at the whole transcriptome level to provide an insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying Hami melon fruit development. PMID:27162641

  3. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields.

  4. Six new acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Tsuji, Kouji; Yongzhen, Piao; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-09-01

    Six new acylated anthocyanins (1-6) were isolated along with the three known congeners (7-9) from the fresh roots of red radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated by our group. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic properties. Among the six new anthocyanins, the five constituents (1, 2, 4-6) were shown to contain the malonyl function at 6-OH in the glucopyranosyl residue linked to C-5 in the pelargonidin nucleus.

  5. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin; AL-Daoude, Antonious; Shoaib, Amina; Jawhar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus. PMID:25774113

  6. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review

    PubMed Central

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rezaee, Ramin; M. Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders. PMID:26468457

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Leaf Tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Gang; Xia, Heng; Wang, Xiaodong; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng; Wu, Jiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO) database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus. PMID:24265813

  8. Transcriptome analysis of leaf tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libin; Jia, Haibo; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Gang; Xia, Heng; Wang, Xiaodong; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng; Wu, Jiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO) database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus.

  9. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review.

    PubMed

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rezaee, Ramin; M Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  10. Reproductive biology of the andromonoecious Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kouonon, Leonie C.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Zoro Bi, Arsene I.; Bertin, Pierre; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Dje, Yao

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae) is cultivated in many African regions for its edible kernels used as a soup thickener. The plant, an annual, andromonoecious, trailing-vine species, is of high social, cultural and economic value for local communities. In order to improve the yield of this crop, the first step and our aim were to elucidate its breeding system. Methods Eight experimental pollination treatments were performed during three growing seasons to assess spontaneous selfing, self-compatibility and effects of pollen source (hermaphroditic vs. male flowers). Pollination success was determined by pollen tube growth and reproductive success was assessed by fruit, seed and seedling numbers and characteristics. The pollinator guild was surveyed and the pollination distance determined both by direct observations and by indirect fluorescent dye dispersal. Key Results The species is probably pollinated by several Hymenoptera, principally by Hypotrigona para. Pollinator flight distances varied from 25 to 69 cm. No evidence for apomixis or spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of insect visitors was found. The self-fertility index (SFI = 0) indicated a total dependence on pollinators for reproductive success. The effects of hand pollination on fruit set, seed number and seedling fitness differed among years. Pollen tube growth and reproductive success did not differ between self- and cross-pollinations. Accordingly, a high self-compatibility index for the fruit set (SCI = 1·00) and the seed number (SCI = 0·98) and a low inbreeding depression at all developmental stages (cumulative δ = 0·126) suggest a high selfing ability. Finally, pollen origin had no effect on fruit and seed sets. Conclusions This andromonoecious species has the potential for a mixed mating system with high dependence on insect-mediated pollination. The selfing rate through geitonogamy should be important. PMID:19671577

  11. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed. PMID:26468456

  12. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed.

  13. Crocin from Kashmiri saffron (Crocus sativus) induces in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth inhibition of Dalton's lymphoma (DLA) in mice.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Hamid A; Sam, Smitha; Feroz, Anna; Ravesh, Zeinab; Shah, Gowhar Ahmad; Sharma, Manik

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth inhibition by crocin isolated from Kashmiri saffron (Crocus sativus). It was found that crocin decreased cell viability in DLA cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Significant increase in the lifespan of Dalton's lymphoma bearing animals was noted by 37% and 44%, respectively. Furthermore, animals given treatment before induction of cancer showed 58% increase in lifespan and there was 95.6% reduction of solid tumor in crocin treated animals on the 31st day after tumor inoculation. Crocin also showed significant impact on hematological parameters, like the hemoglobin count and numbers of lymphocytes. These findings support the conclusion that crocin from Crocus sativus has significant anti-tumor activity. PMID:20104983

  14. De novo assembly of a draft genome for Cucumis hystrix, the closest relative of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, HH) is the only known species that is cross-compatible with cucumber and has a great potential for cucumber improvement, To facilitate introgression of C. hystrix chromatins into cucumber genetic background through development of introgression library, we sequenced two...

  15. Root-knot nematode resistance, yield, and fruit quality of specialty melons grafted onto cucumis metulifer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in specialty melons (Cucumis melo) with distinctive fruit characteristics has grown in the United States in recent years. However, disease management remains a major challenge in specialty melon production. In this study, grafting experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of...

  16. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  17. A golden SNP in CmOr governs fruit flesh color of melon (cucumis melo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon (Cucumis melo) flesh color is genetically determined and can be white, light green or orange with B-carotene being the predominant pigment. We associated carotenoid accumulation in melon fruit flesh with polymorphism within CmOr, a homolog of the cauliflower BoOr gene, and identified CmOr as t...

  18. Asynchronous meiosis in Cucumis hystrix-cucumber synthetic tetraploids resulting in low male fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wide hybridization is an important tool for crop improvement. Recently, we successfully developed a synthetic allotetraploid from interspecific cross between cucumber and its relative Cucumis hystrix-(2n = 2x =24) followed by chemical induction of chromosome doubling. The resulting allotetraploid wa...

  19. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  20. First Report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Infecting Gherkin (Cucumis anguira) in India.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Vidya, T; Papaiah, S; Srinivasulu, M; Mandal, Bikash; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-09-01

    A field visit in September 2011 to the Cucumis anguira (Gherkin) growing regions of Kuppam, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India revealed occurrence of mosaic, blistering and fruit malformation leading to the crop losses. Analysis of field samples revealed association of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) with the disease. This is the first confirmed report of natural occurrence of ZYMV on Gherkin in India.

  1. Biological detection and analysis of toxicity of organophosphate- and azadirachtin-based insecticides in Lathyrus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Susmita; Bhattacharya, Sima; Mandi, Sukumar; Tarafdar, Jayanta

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attention was paid to investigate the effect of organophosphate insecticides, profenofos 40% EC, methyl parathion (metacid) 50% EC, and neem-based product nimbecidine 0.03% EC (from Azadirachta indica) on somatic chromosomal behavior, level of leaf protein, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Lathyrus sativus L., the leguminous herb. The experiments on somatic chromosomes of root tip cells of L. sativus L. revealed that most common type of abnormalities were anaphase bridge, chromosome fragment, breaks, giant interphase, etc. Also, the mitotic index reduced and abnormality index enhanced, which were directly proportional to the rise in concentration as well as time period of exposure of chemicals. The profenofos and metacid induced drastic changes in mitotic index when compared with nimbecidine. The electrophoretic studies of leaf protein of L. sativus L. showed alteration of some major and minor protein bands subjected to spraying of organophosphate insecticides and induced to synthesize additional high molecular mass protein compared to untreated control. Analysis of SOD, EST, and POD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different patterns of the isoforms. Complete inhibition of EST was observed in profenofos-treated plants, while with metacid- and nimbecidine-treated plants EST was suppressed. Induction and/or increased activities of SOD and POD were generally enhanced. Our present study not only provides the important information for better understanding of the toxic and tolerance mechanisms, but as well can be used as a bio-indicator for contamination by pesticides, which could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties.

  2. Biological detection and analysis of toxicity of organophosphate- and azadirachtin-based insecticides in Lathyrus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Susmita; Bhattacharya, Sima; Mandi, Sukumar; Tarafdar, Jayanta

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attention was paid to investigate the effect of organophosphate insecticides, profenofos 40% EC, methyl parathion (metacid) 50% EC, and neem-based product nimbecidine 0.03% EC (from Azadirachta indica) on somatic chromosomal behavior, level of leaf protein, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Lathyrus sativus L., the leguminous herb. The experiments on somatic chromosomes of root tip cells of L. sativus L. revealed that most common type of abnormalities were anaphase bridge, chromosome fragment, breaks, giant interphase, etc. Also, the mitotic index reduced and abnormality index enhanced, which were directly proportional to the rise in concentration as well as time period of exposure of chemicals. The profenofos and metacid induced drastic changes in mitotic index when compared with nimbecidine. The electrophoretic studies of leaf protein of L. sativus L. showed alteration of some major and minor protein bands subjected to spraying of organophosphate insecticides and induced to synthesize additional high molecular mass protein compared to untreated control. Analysis of SOD, EST, and POD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different patterns of the isoforms. Complete inhibition of EST was observed in profenofos-treated plants, while with metacid- and nimbecidine-treated plants EST was suppressed. Induction and/or increased activities of SOD and POD were generally enhanced. Our present study not only provides the important information for better understanding of the toxic and tolerance mechanisms, but as well can be used as a bio-indicator for contamination by pesticides, which could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties. PMID:19618265

  3. Root-Zone Warming Differently Benefits Mature and Newly Unfolded Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings under Sub-Optimal Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yanxiu; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sub-optimal temperature extensively suppresses crop growth during cool-season greenhouse production. Root-zone (RZ) warming is considered an economical option to alleviate crop growth reduction. In this study we cultivated cucumber seedlings in nutrient solution under different air-RZ temperature treatments to investigate the effects of RZ warming on seedling growth- and photosynthesis-related parameters in leaves. The air-RZ temperature treatments included sub-optimal RZ temperature 13°C and sub-optimal air temperature 20/12°C (day/night) (S13), RZ warming at 19°C and sub-optimal air temperature (S19), and RZ warming at 19°C and optimal air temperature 26/18°C (day/night) (O19). In addition, for each air-RZ temperature treatment, half of the seedlings were also treated with 2% (m/m) polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in nutrient solution to distinguish the effect of root-sourced water supply from RZ temperature. At the whole-plant level, S19 significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) by approximately 18% compared with S13, although the increase was less than in O19 (50%) due to delayed leaf emergence. S19 alleviated both diffusive and metabolic limitation of photosynthesis in mature leaves compared with S13, resulting in a photosynthetic rate similar to that in O19 leaves. In newly unfolded leaves, S19 significantly promoted leaf area expansion and alleviated stomatal limitation of photosynthesis compared with S13. PEG addition had a limited influence on RGR and leaf photosynthesis, but significantly suppressed new leaf expansion. Thus, our results indicate that under sub-optimal temperature conditions, RZ warming promotes cucumber seedling growth by differently benefiting mature and newly unfolded leaves. In addition, RZ warming enhanced root-sourced water supply, mainly promoting new leaf expansion, rather than photosynthesis. PMID:27152599

  4. Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

  5. Root-Zone Warming Differently Benefits Mature and Newly Unfolded Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings under Sub-Optimal Temperature Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhuo; Zhang, Weihua; Miao, Yanxiu; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sub-optimal temperature extensively suppresses crop growth during cool-season greenhouse production. Root-zone (RZ) warming is considered an economical option to alleviate crop growth reduction. In this study we cultivated cucumber seedlings in nutrient solution under different air-RZ temperature treatments to investigate the effects of RZ warming on seedling growth- and photosynthesis-related parameters in leaves. The air-RZ temperature treatments included sub-optimal RZ temperature 13°C and sub-optimal air temperature 20/12°C (day/night) (S13), RZ warming at 19°C and sub-optimal air temperature (S19), and RZ warming at 19°C and optimal air temperature 26/18°C (day/night) (O19). In addition, for each air-RZ temperature treatment, half of the seedlings were also treated with 2% (m/m) polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in nutrient solution to distinguish the effect of root-sourced water supply from RZ temperature. At the whole-plant level, S19 significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) by approximately 18% compared with S13, although the increase was less than in O19 (50%) due to delayed leaf emergence. S19 alleviated both diffusive and metabolic limitation of photosynthesis in mature leaves compared with S13, resulting in a photosynthetic rate similar to that in O19 leaves. In newly unfolded leaves, S19 significantly promoted leaf area expansion and alleviated stomatal limitation of photosynthesis compared with S13. PEG addition had a limited influence on RGR and leaf photosynthesis, but significantly suppressed new leaf expansion. Thus, our results indicate that under sub-optimal temperature conditions, RZ warming promotes cucumber seedling growth by differently benefiting mature and newly unfolded leaves. In addition, RZ warming enhanced root-sourced water supply, mainly promoting new leaf expansion, rather than photosynthesis.

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Provides Insight into the Key Proteins Involved in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Adventitious Root Emergence under Waterlogging Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Ma, Xiaotian; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common abiotic stress in both natural and agricultural systems, and it primarily affects plant growth by the slow oxygen diffusion in water. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, a key adaptation for waterlogging tolerant plants is the formation of adventitious roots (ARs). We found that cucumber waterlogging tolerant line Zaoer-N seedlings adapt to waterlogging stress by developing a larger number of ARs in hypocotyls, while almost no AR is generated in sensitive line Pepino. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AR emergence, the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach was employed to map the proteomes of hypocotyls cells of the Zaoer-N and Pepino under control and waterlogging conditions. A total of 5508 proteins were identified and 146 were differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), of which 47 and 56 DRPs were specific to tolerant and sensitive line, respectively. In the waterlogged Zaoer-N hypocotyls, DRPs related to alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylicacid oxidases, peroxidases, 60S ribosomal proteins, GSDL esterases/lipases, histone deacetylases, and histone H5 and were strongly overrepresented to manage the energy crisis, promote ethylene release, minimize oxidative damage, mobilize storage lipids, and stimulate cell division, differentiation and growth. The evaluations of ethylene production, ADH activity, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity and ethanol production were in good agreement with the proteomic results. qRT-PCR analysis of the corresponding 146 genes further confirmed the accuracy of the observed protein abundance. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying waterlogging triggered cucumber ARs emergence, and provided valuable information for the breeding of cucumber with enhanced tolerance to waterlogging. PMID:27790230

  7. Blue light dose-responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light.

    PubMed

    Hogewoning, Sander W; Trouwborst, Govert; Maljaars, Hans; Poorter, Hendrik; van Ieperen, Wim; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2010-06-01

    The blue part of the light spectrum has been associated with leaf characteristics which also develop under high irradiances. In this study blue light dose-response curves were made for the photosynthetic properties and related developmental characteristics of cucumber leaves that were grown at an equal irradiance under seven different combinations of red and blue light provided by light-emitting diodes. Only the leaves developed under red light alone (0% blue) displayed dysfunctional photosynthetic operation, characterized by a suboptimal and heterogeneously distributed dark-adapted F(v)/F(m), a stomatal conductance unresponsive to irradiance, and a relatively low light-limited quantum yield for CO(2) fixation. Only 7% blue light was sufficient to prevent any overt dysfunctional photosynthesis, which can be considered a qualitatively blue light effect. The photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) was twice as high for leaves grown at 7% blue compared with 0% blue, and continued to increase with increasing blue percentage during growth measured up to 50% blue. At 100% blue, A(max) was lower but photosynthetic functioning was normal. The increase in A(max) with blue percentage (0-50%) was associated with an increase in leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA), nitrogen (N) content per area, chlorophyll (Chl) content per area, and stomatal conductance. Above 15% blue, the parameters A(max), LMA, Chl content, photosynthetic N use efficiency, and the Chl:N ratio had a comparable relationship as reported for leaf responses to irradiance intensity. It is concluded that blue light during growth is qualitatively required for normal photosynthetic functioning and quantitatively mediates leaf responses resembling those to irradiance intensity.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of NBS-encoding disease resistance genes in Cucumis sativus and phylogenetic study of NBS-encoding genes in Cucurbitaceae crops

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins encoded by resistance genes play an important role in the responses of plants to various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of NBS-encoding genes within the whole cucumber genome was performed, and the phylogenetic relationships of NBS-encoding resistance gene homologues (RGHs) belonging to six species in five genera of Cucurbitaceae crops were compared. Results Cucumber has relatively few NBS-encoding genes. Nevertheless, cucumber maintains genes belonging to both Toll/interleukine-1 receptor (TIR) and CC (coiled-coil) families. Eight commonly conserved motifs have been established in these two families which support the grouping into TIR and CC families. Moreover, three additional conserved motifs, namely, CNBS-1, CNBS-2 and TNBS-1, have been identified in sequences from CC and TIR families. Analyses of exon/intron configurations revealed that some intron loss or gain events occurred during the structural evolution between the two families. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that gene duplication, sequence divergence, and gene loss were proposed as the major modes of evolution of NBS-encoding genes in Cucurbitaceae species. Compared with NBS-encoding sequences from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, the remaining seven TIR familes of NBS proteins and RGHs from Cucurbitaceae species have been shown to be phylogenetically distinct from the TIR family of NBS-encoding genes in Arabidopsis, except for two subfamilies (TIR4 and TIR9). On the other hand, in the CC-NBS family, they grouped closely with the CC family of NBS-encoding genes in Arabidopsis. Thus, the NBS-encoding genes in Cucurbitaceae crops are shown to be ancient, and NBS-encoding gene expansions (especially the TIR family) may have occurred before the divergence of Cucurbitaceae and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The results of this paper will provide a genomic framework for the further isolation of candidate disease resistance NBS-encoding genes in cucumber, and contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary mode of NBS-encoding genes in Cucurbitaceae crops. PMID:23418910

  9. A single base substitution in BADH/AMADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and development of SNAP markers for the fragrance.

    PubMed

    Yundaeng, Chutintorn; Somta, Prakit; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chankaew, Sompong; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-09-01

    Sequence analysis revealed that an SNP (A1855G) in CsBADH of cucumber accession PK2011T202 causes amino acid change in a highly conserved motif, Y163C. Gene mapping showed association between the SNP and the fragrance. Pandan-like fragrance is a value-added trait in several food crops such as rice, vegetable soybean and sorghum. The fragrance is caused by the volatile chemical 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Mutation(s) in betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2; also known as aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 2) gene causes defective BADH2 and results in biosynthesis of 2AP. Recently, cucumber cultivars possessing pandan-like fragrance were discovered in Thailand. In this study, we report an association between CsBADH and the fragrance in cucumber accession "PK2011T202". Gene expression analysis of CsBADH in leaves of PK2011T202 and "301176" (non-fragrant) at various growth stages revealed that CsBADH was expressed in both accessions. Sequence comparison of CsBADH showed that PK2011T202 possesses a single base substitution (A1855G) in exon 5 which causes an amino acid change in a highly conserved motif of BADH, Y163C. Single nucleotide-amplified polymorphism markers were developed to detect the SNP polymorphism between the wild-type and fragrance alleles. Since CsBADH is located on chromosome 1, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted for this chromosome using an F2 and a backcross populations developed from the cross between PK2011T202 and 301176. QTL analysis in both populations showed that the major QTL for fragrance, qFgr, was co-localized with the CsBADH. We concluded that the defect function of CsBADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber PK2011T202. PMID:26081947

  10. Abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide induce modification of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase from Cucumis sativus L. roots under heat shock.

    PubMed

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna

    2012-11-01

    We examined the effect of heat shock (HS), for 2 h at 48°C, on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PM-H(+)-ATPase) measured as the hydrolytic and H(+)-pumping activity. Some of the plants were transferred after 2 h HS to control temperature for another 24 h, as post-stressed (PS) plants. A significant increase of PM-H(+)-ATPase in plants subjected to HS was observed. The stimulation of PM-H(+)-ATPase was higher in PS plants. Estimation of transcript levels of cucumber PM-H(+)-ATPase in roots indicated that the action of HS affected gene expression levels. Transcript levels of two isoforms, CsHA4 and CsHA8, in PS plants were elevated. The expression of PM-H(+)-ATPase genes was not affected in plants treated for 2 h with HS. HS elevated the endogenous level of abscisic acid (ABA) both in plants treated for 2 h with HS and in PS plants. Moreover, in PS plants, a distinctly higher level of H(2)O(2) was observed. It was also demonstrated that transcript levels of PM-H(+)-ATPase were elevated in cucumber roots after 24-h treatment of plants with ABA or H(2)O(2). Both of these compounds seem to play an important role in increasing ATPase activity during heat stress, because the use of the inhibitors tungstate and DPI restrained stimulation of PM-H(+)-ATPase activity by heat. Moreover, protein blot analysis with an antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 protein indicated that increased activity of PM-H(+)-ATPase under HS resulted from phosphorylation of the enzyme. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that, under post-heat stress conditions, abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide are involved in PM-ATPase modification, through stimulation of gene expression of that PM proton pump. Moreover, heat treatment of cucumber plants results in increased phosphorylation of PM-ATPase and thus fast post-translational modification, leading to activation of the enzyme protein.

  11. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-07-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the 'one-hormone hypothesis', which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified 'one-hormone hypothesis' for sex determination in cucumber is proposed.

  12. Ultraviolet-B Radiation (UV-B) Relieves Chilling-Light-Induced PSI Photoinhibition And Accelerates The Recovery Of CO2 Assimilation In Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Tikkanen, Mikko; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is generally considered to negatively impact the photosynthetic apparatus and plant growth. UV-B damages PSII but does not directly influence PSI. However, PSI and PSII successively drive photosynthetic electron transfer, therefore, the interaction between these systems is unavoidable. So we speculated that UV-B could indirectly affect PSI under chilling-light conditions. To test this hypothesis, the cucumber leaves were illuminated by UV-B prior or during the chilling-light treatment, and the leaves were then transferred to 25 °C and low-light conditions for recovery. The results showed that UV-B decreased the electron transfer to PSI by inactivating the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), thereby protecting PSI from chilling-light-induced photoinhibition. This effect advantages the recoveries of PSI and CO2 assimilation after chilling-light stress, therefore should minimize the yield loss caused by chilling-light stress. Because sunlight consists of both UV-B and visible light, we suggest that UV-B-induced OEC inactivation is critical for chilling-light-induced PSI photoinhibition in field. Moreover, additional UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to relieve PSI photoinhibition and yield loss in protected cultivation during winter. This study also demonstrates that minimizing the photoinhibition of PSI rather than that of PSII is essential for the chilling-light tolerance of the plant photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:27686324

  13. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of the V-ATPase subunit c and V-PPase isoforms in Cucumis sativus under heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Kabała, Katarzyna; Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Reda, Małgorzata; Migocka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Two electrogenic proton pumps, vacuolar H(+) transporting ATPase (V-ATPase, EC 3.6.3.14) and vacuolar H(+) transporting inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-PPase, EC 3.6.1.1), co-exist in the vacuolar membrane of plant cells. In this work, all CsVHA and CsVHP genes encoding V-ATPase and V-PPase, respectively, were identified in the cucumber genome. Among them, three CsVHA-c genes for V-ATPase subunit c and two CsVHP1 genes for type I V-PPase were analyzed in detail. Individual isogenes were differentially regulated in plant tissues and during plant development as well as under changing environmental conditions. CsVHA-c1 and CsVHA-c2 showed similar tissue-specific expression patterns with the highest levels in stamens and old leaves. CsVHP1;1 was predominantly expressed in roots and female flowers. In contrast, both CsVHA-c3 and CsVHP1;2 remained in a rather constant ratio in all examined cucumber organs. Under heavy metal stress, the transcript amount of CsVHA-c1 and CsVHP1;1 showed a pronounced stress-dependent increase after copper and nickel treatment. CsVHA-c3 was upregulated by nickel only whereas CsVHA-c2 was induced by all metals with the most visible effect of copper. Additionally, CsVHP1;2 showed a tendency to be upregulated by copper and zinc. We propose that CsVHA-c1, CsVHA-c2 and CsVHP1;1 are essential elements of mechanisms involved in adaptation of cucumber plants to copper toxicity.

  15. A single base substitution in BADH/AMADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and development of SNAP markers for the fragrance.

    PubMed

    Yundaeng, Chutintorn; Somta, Prakit; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Chankaew, Sompong; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-09-01

    Sequence analysis revealed that an SNP (A1855G) in CsBADH of cucumber accession PK2011T202 causes amino acid change in a highly conserved motif, Y163C. Gene mapping showed association between the SNP and the fragrance. Pandan-like fragrance is a value-added trait in several food crops such as rice, vegetable soybean and sorghum. The fragrance is caused by the volatile chemical 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Mutation(s) in betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2; also known as aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 2) gene causes defective BADH2 and results in biosynthesis of 2AP. Recently, cucumber cultivars possessing pandan-like fragrance were discovered in Thailand. In this study, we report an association between CsBADH and the fragrance in cucumber accession "PK2011T202". Gene expression analysis of CsBADH in leaves of PK2011T202 and "301176" (non-fragrant) at various growth stages revealed that CsBADH was expressed in both accessions. Sequence comparison of CsBADH showed that PK2011T202 possesses a single base substitution (A1855G) in exon 5 which causes an amino acid change in a highly conserved motif of BADH, Y163C. Single nucleotide-amplified polymorphism markers were developed to detect the SNP polymorphism between the wild-type and fragrance alleles. Since CsBADH is located on chromosome 1, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted for this chromosome using an F2 and a backcross populations developed from the cross between PK2011T202 and 301176. QTL analysis in both populations showed that the major QTL for fragrance, qFgr, was co-localized with the CsBADH. We concluded that the defect function of CsBADH is responsible for fragrance in cucumber PK2011T202.

  16. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected.

  17. [Auxin production by Klebsiella planticola strain TSKhA-91 and Its Effect of development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seeds].

    PubMed

    Blinkov, E A; Tsavkelova, E A; Selitskaia, O V

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of Klebsiella planticola strain TSJhA-91 for synthesis of indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) and other auxins was studied. The qualitative and quantitative composition of these compounds depends on the presence of exogeneous tryptophan and on the nitrogen source. The highest IAA yield was obtained at the stationary phase of growth. Addition of L-tryptophan to the medium resulted in a significant increase (up to 85.5 microg/mL) of auxin biosynthesis, especially in the presence of nitrates. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that the indole-3-acetamide pathway was not active in this strain. The biological activity of auxins was confirmed by plant assay with the kidney bean cuttings; the height of root formation and rdot number increased 16- and 6-fold, respectively. Under conditions of low-temperature stress, protective effect of K. planticola TSKhA-91 on development of cucumbers (Cucumissativus L.) seeds, including stimulation of germi- nation and root formation by its seeds were shown.

  18. QTL mapping of flowering time and fruit shape in Xishuangbana cucumber WI767 (Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Xishuangbanna cucumber (XIS) is a semi-wild landrace growing in the tropical southwest China, which has some unique traits that are useful for cucumber breeding. One such accession is WI7167 that exhibits dark green leaves, short hypocotyl, round fruit shape, orange flesh color in mature fruits,...

  19. [Auxin production by Klebsiella planticola strain TSKhA-91 and Its Effect of development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seeds].

    PubMed

    Blinkov, E A; Tsavkelova, E A; Selitskaia, O V

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of Klebsiella planticola strain TSJhA-91 for synthesis of indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) and other auxins was studied. The qualitative and quantitative composition of these compounds depends on the presence of exogeneous tryptophan and on the nitrogen source. The highest IAA yield was obtained at the stationary phase of growth. Addition of L-tryptophan to the medium resulted in a significant increase (up to 85.5 microg/mL) of auxin biosynthesis, especially in the presence of nitrates. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that the indole-3-acetamide pathway was not active in this strain. The biological activity of auxins was confirmed by plant assay with the kidney bean cuttings; the height of root formation and rdot number increased 16- and 6-fold, respectively. Under conditions of low-temperature stress, protective effect of K. planticola TSKhA-91 on development of cucumbers (Cucumissativus L.) seeds, including stimulation of germi- nation and root formation by its seeds were shown. PMID:25844466

  20. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected. PMID:27148281

  1. Root-Zone Warming Differently Benefits Mature and Newly Unfolded Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings under Sub-Optimal Temperature Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhuo; Zhang, Weihua; Miao, Yanxiu; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sub-optimal temperature extensively suppresses crop growth during cool-season greenhouse production. Root-zone (RZ) warming is considered an economical option to alleviate crop growth reduction. In this study we cultivated cucumber seedlings in nutrient solution under different air-RZ temperature treatments to investigate the effects of RZ warming on seedling growth- and photosynthesis-related parameters in leaves. The air-RZ temperature treatments included sub-optimal RZ temperature 13°C and sub-optimal air temperature 20/12°C (day/night) (S13), RZ warming at 19°C and sub-optimal air temperature (S19), and RZ warming at 19°C and optimal air temperature 26/18°C (day/night) (O19). In addition, for each air-RZ temperature treatment, half of the seedlings were also treated with 2% (m/m) polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in nutrient solution to distinguish the effect of root-sourced water supply from RZ temperature. At the whole-plant level, S19 significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) by approximately 18% compared with S13, although the increase was less than in O19 (50%) due to delayed leaf emergence. S19 alleviated both diffusive and metabolic limitation of photosynthesis in mature leaves compared with S13, resulting in a photosynthetic rate similar to that in O19 leaves. In newly unfolded leaves, S19 significantly promoted leaf area expansion and alleviated stomatal limitation of photosynthesis compared with S13. PEG addition had a limited influence on RGR and leaf photosynthesis, but significantly suppressed new leaf expansion. Thus, our results indicate that under sub-optimal temperature conditions, RZ warming promotes cucumber seedling growth by differently benefiting mature and newly unfolded leaves. In addition, RZ warming enhanced root-sourced water supply, mainly promoting new leaf expansion, rather than photosynthesis. PMID:27152599

  2. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05) increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter) growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse. PMID:24475204

  3. The Expression Profiling of the Lipoxygenase (LOX) Family Genes During Fruit Development, Abiotic Stress and Hormonal Treatments in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Yong; Jiang, Wei-Jie; Yu, Hong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-haem iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipids to initiate the formation of a group of biologically active compounds called oxylipins. Plant oxylipins play important and diverse functions in the cells. In the current study, expression analysis during cucumber development using semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that 13 of 23 CsLOX genes were detectable, and were tissue specific or preferential accumulation. In total, 12 genes were found to be differentially expressed during fruit development and have different patterns of expression in exocarp, endocarp and pulp at day 5 after anthesis. The expression analysis of these 12 cucumber LOX genes in response to abiotic stresses and plant growth regulator treatments revealed their differential transcript in response to more than one treatment, indicating their diverse functions in abiotic stress and hormone responses. Results suggest that in cucumber the expanded LOX genes may play more diverse roles in life cycle and comprehensive data generated will be helpful in conducting functional genomic studies to understand their precise roles in cucumber fruit development and stress responses. PMID:22408466

  4. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected. PMID:27148281

  5. In vitro activity and cytotoxicity of Crocus sativus extract against leihmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER).

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Elham; Eskandari, Alborz; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex protozoan disease comprising a wide range of clinical manifestations that is usually divided into visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis depending on leishmania parasite species and host's immune system responses. Most of the drugs produced for the treatment of leishmaniasis, from the first used to the most recently accepted, are toxic, resistance issues and poorly tolerated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its apoptotic activity against Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/ 75/ER) promastigotes. MTT assay was used to find viability of L. major promastigotes and the achieved results were explicated as IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration). ED50 (50% effective doses) for L. major amastigotes were also analyzed. Annexin-V FLUOS staining was performed to study the cell death properties of saffron by using FACS analysis. Qualitative analysis of the DNA fragmentations was accomplished by agarose gel electrophoresis and light microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of promastigotes. Our results revealed that L. major promastigotes and amastigotes are sensitive to saffron at different concentrations and time dependent manner with apoptotic features including DNA laddering, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and externalization of phosphatidylserine. IC50 and ED50 of this extract after 48 h of incubation was 0.7mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml respectively. Finally, C. sativus has shown anti-leishmanial activity against L. major promastigote and amastigote and may induce apoptosis.

  6. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  7. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03). PMID:21905714

  8. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  9. Variation in amylase activities in radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masakazu; Ito, Fumio; Asai, Tatsuo; Kuboi, Toru

    2009-09-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family which shows amylolytic activity in the taproot. However, there is little information about differences in these amylolytic activities among radish cultivars. We analyzed the amylase activities and starch contents of 7 kinds of radish cultivars. The Koshin cultivar showed the highest amylase activity, with a level approximately 6 times higher than that of the Sobutori cultivar, which had the lowest. Cultivars with higher amylase activities showed higher starch contents. These results suggest that there are intraspecies variations in amylolytic activities in radishes, and positive correlations between amylase activity and starch content.

  10. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27098287

  12. Sequencing, de novo assembly and comparative analysis of Raphanus sativus transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Libin; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Jiangsheng; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is an important Brassicaceae plant and also an edible vegetable with great economic value. However, currently there is not enough transcriptome information of R. sativus tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on R. sativus. In this study, RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of leaf tissues. Approximately 70 million clean pair-end reads were obtained and used for de novo assembly by Trinity program, which generated 68,086 unigenes with an average length of 576 bp. All the unigenes were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. In the meanwhile, we merged leaf sequencing data with existing root sequencing data and obtained better de novo assembly of R. sativus using Oases program. Accordingly, potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs), transcription factors (TFs) and enzyme codes were identified in R. sativus. Additionally, we detected a total of 3563 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P = 0.05) and tissue-specific biological processes between leaf and root tissues. Furthermore, a TFs-based regulation network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Taken together, these results not only provide a comprehensive genomic resource of R. sativus but also shed light on functional genomic and proteomic research on R. sativus in the future. PMID:26029219

  13. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake.

  14. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination.

  15. Transcriptome sequencing for SNP discovery across Cucumis melo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a highly diverse species that is cultivated worldwide. Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing have begun to allow the study of nucleotide diversity in this species. The Sanger method combined with medium-throughput 454 technology were used in a previous study to analyze the genetic diversity of germplasm representing 3 botanical varieties, yielding a collection of about 40,000 SNPs distributed in 14,000 unigenes. However, the usefulness of this resource is limited as the sequenced genotypes do not represent the whole diversity of the species, which is divided into two subspecies with many botanical varieties variable in plant, flowering, and fruit traits, as well as in stress response. As a first step to extensively document levels and patterns of nucleotide variability across the species, we used the high-throughput SOLiD™ system to resequence the transcriptomes of a set of 67 genotypes that had previously been selected from a core collection representing the extant variation of the entire species. Results The deep transcriptome resequencing of all of the genotypes, grouped into 8 pools (wild African agrestis, Asian agrestis and acidulus, exotic Far Eastern conomon, Indian momordica and Asian dudaim and flexuosus, commercial cantalupensis, subsp. melo Asian and European landraces, Spanish inodorus landraces, and Piel de Sapo breeding lines) yielded about 300 M reads. Short reads were mapped to the recently generated draft genome assembly of the DHL line Piel de Sapo (inodorus) x Songwhan Charmi (conomon) and to a new version of melon transcriptome. Regions with at least 6X coverage were used in SNV calling, generating a melon collection with 303,883 variants. These SNVs were dispersed across the entire C. melo genome, and distributed in 15,064 annotated genes. The number and variability of in silico SNVs differed considerably between pools. Our finding of higher genomic diversity in wild and exotic agrestis melons

  16. Raphanus sativus, Germination, and Inquiry: A Learning Cycle Approach for Novice Experimenters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes open-ended experiments with seeds from the common garden radish (Raphanus sativus). The phases of the 5-E learning cycle--Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and Evaluation--guide this activity series. (Author/MM)

  17. Authentic identification of stigma Croci (stigma of Crocus sativus) from its adulterants by molecular genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, X Q; Zhu, D Y; Li, S P; Dong, T T; Tsim, K W

    2001-03-01

    Stigma Croci, stigma of Crocus sativus L., is a precious traditional Chinese medicine, which is commonly used to activate blood circulation and to dissipate blood stasis. Three plant species, Carthamus tinctorius L., Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. and Hemerocallis citrina Baroni, could carry the name Stigma Croci in the commercial markets of South East Asia. However, C. sativus is the only one that has proven its effectiveness, while the others could act as adulterants. The authentic identification of C. sativus on the market is difficult. By using molecular genetic method, the spacer domains of 5S-rRNA were cloned from the genomic DNAs that were isolated from C. sativus, C. tinctorius, H. fulva and H. citrina. The cDNAs encoding the spacer domains, about 300 to 500 bp, were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of these four species showed great diversity, which could serve as markers for authentic identification of Stigma Croci to distinguish from its substitution and counterfeit. PMID:11301875

  18. The Effect of Crocus sativus L. and Its Constituents on Memory: Basic Studies and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Memory-related disorders are a common public health issue. Memory impairment is frequent in degenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson disease), cerebral injuries, and schizophrenia. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus and its constituents are implicated in cognition. Here we critically review advances in research of these emerging molecular targets for the treatment of memory disorders, and discuss their advantages over currently used cognitive enhancers as well remaining challenges. Current analysis has shown that C. sativus and its components might be a promising target for cognition impairments. PMID:25713594

  19. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Moraga, Ángela Rubio; Mozos, Almudena Trapero; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    Background Flavonol glucosides constitute the second group of secondary metabolites that accumulate in Crocus sativus stigmas. To date there are no reports of functionally characterized flavonoid glucosyltransferases in C. sativus, despite the importance of these compounds as antioxidant agents. Moreover, their bitter taste makes them excellent candidates for consideration as potential organoleptic agents of saffron spice, the dry stigmas of C. sativus. Results Using degenerate primers designed to match the plant secondary product glucosyltransferase (PSPG) box we cloned a full length cDNA encoding CsGT45 from C. sativus stigmas. This protein showed homology with flavonoid glucosyltransferases. In vitro reactions showed that CsGT45 catalyses the transfer of glucose from UDP_glucose to kaempferol and quercetin. Kaempferol is the unique flavonol present in C. sativus stigmas and the levels of its glucosides changed during stigma development, and these changes, are correlated with the expression levels of CsGT45 during these developmental stages. Conclusion Findings presented here suggest that CsGT45 is an active enzyme that plays a role in the formation of flavonoid glucosides in C. sativus. PMID:19695093

  20. Influence of culinary processing time on saffron's bioactive compounds (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Neira, Lidia; Lage-Yusty, María Asunción; López-Hernández, Julia

    2014-12-01

    Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is used as a condiment spice. The major bioactive compounds are crocins, picrocrocin and safranal, which are responsible for the sensory profile of saffron (color, flavor and aroma, respectively), and also health-promoting properties. In this paper, the effect on the bioactive compounds of different cooking times in boiling water at 100 °C in samples of Saffron from La Mancha (safranal, picrocrocin, trans-crocin 4, cis-crocin 4 and trans-crocin 3) was investigated. Performance characteristics of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Variable Wavelength Detector method, parameters of linearity, limits of detection and quantification are reported. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array-Mass Spectrometry was used as a confirmatory technique in crocins identification. When the samples are subjected to different cooking times, they present different behaviors, depending on the bioactive compound. In this way, no changes were observed in the concentration of picrocrocin, while heat culinary treatment adversely affects the concentrations of crocins and safranal.

  1. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Shariatifar, Nabi; Shoeibi, Shahram; Sani, Moslem Jaferi; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein; Zarei, Ali; Mehdizade, Abbas; Dadgarnejad, Manouchehr

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW) and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally), a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  2. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus) commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases. PMID:26950102

  3. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus) commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  4. Razi's Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi's Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases. PMID:26877844

  5. Razi's Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi's Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  6. Cadmium accumulation in the edible parts of different cultivars of radish, Raphanus sativus L., and carrot, Daucus carota var. sativa, grown in a Cd-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rui-Lun; Li, Hua-Fen; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2008-07-01

    Cadmium accumulation among 12 cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus) and 10 cultivars of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa) was studied in a Cd-contaminated soil. The Cd concentration in the edible parts of radish and carrot ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 and 0.14 to 0.19 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, respectively. All the tested carrot cultivars and 33% of the tested radish cultivars exceeded the Chinese allowable limit for Cd. The study showed a greater scope for selecting radish cultivars than for carrot to avoid the excess of the Cd limit when grown on lightly contaminated soils.

  7. Interaction of Brassinosteroids and Polyamines Enhances Copper Stress Tolerance in Raphanus Sativus

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H2O2, comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored. PMID:22915739

  8. Identification of a New Antibacterial Sulfur Compound from Raphanus sativus Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Yazbak, Ahmad; Rushrush, Salwa; Rudy, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish), a member of Brassicaceae, is widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of several diseases and disorders associated with microbial infections. The antibacterial activity of the different plant parts has been mainly attributed to several isothiocyanate (ITC) compounds. However, the low correlation between the ITC content and antibacterial activity suggests the involvement of other unknown compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potential of red radish seeds and identify the active compounds. A crude ethanol seed extract was prepared and its antibacterial activity was tested against five medically important bacteria. The ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of all tested strains. However, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract followed by HPLC, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 15N-NMR, and HMBC analysis revealed that the active fraction consisted of a single new compound identified as [5-methylsulfinyl-1-(4-methylsulfinyl-but-3-enyl)-pent-4-enylidene]-sulfamic acid, which consisted of two identical sulfur side chains similar to those found in ITCs. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of the isolated compound were in the range of 0.5–1 mg/mL. These results further highlight the role of radish as a rich source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:27781070

  9. Interaction of brassinosteroids and polyamines enhances copper stress tolerance in raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Oral, H Volkan; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H(2)O(2), comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored.

  10. Neuropharmacological Aspects of Crocus sativus L.: A Review of Preclinical Studies and Ongoing Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Singh, Damanpreet

    2015-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) is an important member of the genus Crocus having high medicinal value. Its dried stigmas, known as "saffron" are being widely used form past many centuries as a food additive, coloring agent, flavoring agent and a potential source of traditional medicine. The stigmas along with other botanical parts of Crocus sativus are being extensively used in ethnomedical treatment of varied central nervous system diseases. In line with its ethnomedical importance, several preclinical studies have been carried out to validate its traditional uses, identify active principle(s), understand pharmacological basis of therapeutic action and explore novel medicinal uses. The bioactive components of Crocus sativus have been found to modulate several synaptic processes via direct/indirect interplay with neurotransmitter receptor functions, interaction with neuronal death/survival pathways and alteration in neuronal proteins expression. Many clinical studies proving beneficial effect of Crocus sativus in depressive disorders, Alzheimer's disease and some other neurological abnormalities have also been carried out. Based on the vast literature reports available, an attempt has been made to comprehend the fragmented information on neuropharmacological aspects, chemistry and safety of Crocus sativus. Although the plant has been well explored, but still a large scope of future preclinical and clinical research exist to explore its potential in neurological diseases, that has been discussed in depth in the present review.

  11. Effect of copper on pro- and antioxidative reactions in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lukatkin, Alexander; Egorova, Irina; Michailova, Irina; Malec, Przemysław; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The generation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxidation (as measured by malone dialdehyde formation) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) were assessed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), in response to elevated concentrations of copper ions in the culture medium in vitro and in vivo. Experiments were performed on 7-day-old seedlings and 5-week-old calluses grown on media supplemented with CuSO4 in concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000μМ. The exposure to elevated Cu concentrations in the medium significantly reduced both callogenesis and the proliferation of radish calluses in vitro. Cu treatment resulted in the increased generation of the superoxide radical (O2(-)) in radish seedlings and calluses indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in radish cells, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained unchanged. Both in calluses and in radish seedlings in vivo, the relative level of oxidative stress was maximal at micromolar Cu concentrations and became attenuated with increasing Cu concentrations. Stronger oxidative stress occurred in the radish seedlings in vivo, compared with radish calluses in vitro. The observed lower sensitivity of calluses to Cu-induced oxidative stress and their ability to proliferate upon exposure to Cu concentrations of up to 1000μМ demonstrate the potential of in vitro cell-selection to obtain metal-tolerant radish plant lines.

  12. A new indole glycoside from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Lee, Dong-Sung; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2016-06-01

    A new indole glycoside, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2-(methylthio)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, named raphanuside A (1), as well as eight known compounds, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (2), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (4), (3,4-O-disinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (8) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (9) were isolated from the seeds of Raphanus sativus. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 and 6-9, were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of compounds 1-9 were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activity of these isolated compounds against interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cells was also examined. PMID:27193305

  13. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified. PMID:24848699

  14. Characterization of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Storage Proteins 1

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Monique; Aspart, Lorette; Delseny, Michel; Penon, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus cv Rond rose à bout blanc Vilmorin) seeds, as other cruciferae oil seeds, contain two major types of storage protein aggregates which can be separated by gel filtration into 12 and 1.7 Svedberg fractions. These two fractions have been characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition, and two bidimensional gel electrophoresis systems. These results were compared with those obtained with rapeseed storage proteins. Radish 12 Svedberg particles are made of a series of nine major polypeptides ranging from 33 to 30 kilodaltons. These polypeptides present charge heterogeneity. The 12 Svedberg particle is made of six subunits ≃ 55 kilodaltons. Each subunit is a couple of two polypeptides linked by a disulfide bridge. The 1.7 Svedberg particle has a simpler composition. It is made of two polypeptides of 10 and 12 kilodaltons and smaller peptides of ≃ 7 kilodaltons. Twelve and 1.7 Svedberg particles also differ in their amino acid composition, the 1.7 Svedberg being particularly rich in glutamic acid and proline. Its components are basic. The organization of the rapeseed storage protein is similar but more complex. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663449

  15. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified.

  16. Uptake, transport and transformation of arsenate in radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paula G; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2008-02-01

    The localization and identification of arsenic compounds in terrestrial plants are important for the understanding of arsenic uptake, transformation and translocation within these organisms, and contributes to our understanding of arsenic cycling in the environment. High performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis identified arsenite, arsenate and arsenic(III)-sulphur compounds in leaf, stem and root sections of Rhaphanus sativus (radish) plants grown in both arsenic contaminated mine waste, and arsenic amended liquid cultures. The total arsenic distribution was similar between the plants grown in mine waste and those grown hydroponically. Arsenate was the predominant form of arsenic available in the growth mediums, and after it was taken up by roots, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) imaging indicated that some of the arsenate was transported to the shoots via the xylem. Additionally, arsenate was reduced by the plant and arsenic(III)-sulphur compound(s) accounted for the majority of arsenic in the leaf and stem of living plants. In this study the application of synchrotron techniques permitted the identification of arsenic(III)-sulphur species which were "invisible" to conventional HPLC-ICP-MS analysis.

  17. Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zareena, A V; Variyar, P S; Gholap, A S; Bongirwar, D R

    2001-02-01

    Changes in aroma and coloring properties of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy (necessary for microbial decontamination) were investigated. The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for aroma of the spice were isolated by steam distillation and then subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). No significant qualitative changes were observed in these constituents upon irradiation, although a trained sensory panel could detect slight quality deterioration at a dose of 5 kGy. Carotene glucosides that impart color to the spice were isolated by solvent extraction and then subjected to thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of the above pigments into aglycon and glucosides was achieved by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Analysis of these fractions by HPLC revealed a decrease in glucosides and an increase in aglycon content in irradiated samples. The possibility of degradation of pigments during gamma irradiation is discussed.

  18. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-04-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.

  19. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prasan R

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; fān hóng huā) has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  20. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have emerged as major environmental contaminants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of heavy metal like chromium (Cr) on man, animals and plants have been documented. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond critical levels generates oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by antioxidant defence system and stress shielding phytohormones. Thus, the present study has been focused to analyze the effect of one of imperative group of plant hormones, i.e., brassinosteroids (BRs) which have been reported for its protective properties for wide array of environmental stresses. Raphanus sativus L. (Pusa Chetaki) seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) were raised under various concentrations of Cr(VI). It was observed that 28-HBL treatment considerably reduced the impact of Cr-stress on seedlings which was evinced upon analysis of morphological and biochemical parameters of 7-days old radish seedlings. The toxic effects of Cr in terms of reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll (Chl), protein, proline; increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and elevated metal uptake were ameliorated by applications of 28-HBL. Also, the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes except guaiacol peroxidase (POD), increased significantly when subjected to Cr stress in combination with 28-HBL. Overall, seed pre-soaking treatment of 28-HBL at 10(-7) M was most effective in ameliorating Cr stress. The present work emphasizes the protective role of 28-HBL on regulation of antioxidant enzymes and its possible link in amelioration of stress in plants.

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) petals extract against acetaminophen toxicity in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Arash; Riahinia, Narges; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Behdani, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats. Materials and Methods: Wister rats (24) were randomly assigned into four groups including: I) healthy, receiving normal saline; II) Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg); III) pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg); IV) pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg). Results: The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration. Conclusions: Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats. PMID:25386395

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) in Raphanus sativus L. and Spinacia oleracea L. plants irrigated with industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S N

    2006-05-01

    Effluent from electroplating industry contains various heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, which are used in electroplating process of industry. Effluent was slightly greenish in colour and pungent in odour. Physico-chemical properties like total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), alkalinity, Biological oxygen demand (BOD), and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) showed higher values in effluent with high metal contents like Cd, 0.013; Cr, 0.093; Ni, 0.935 and Zn 4.76 mg l(-1). plants of S. oleracea and R. sativus were raised in uncontaminated alluvial soil of Lucknow by soil pot culture method and irrigated with industrial effluent, showed visual toxic symptoms like stunted growth, necrosis followed by chlorosis in leaves and finally death of the plants. Severity of toxicity was less in plants treated with diluted effluent (50%). High accumulation of Cr, 302.0; Cu, 81.2; Ni, 155.1 and Zn 146.8 microg g(-1) dry weight in S. oleracea and Cr, 198.0; Cu, 41.0; Ni, 84.3 and Zn, 140.2 microg g(-1) dry weight in R. sativus were determined. Tissue concentration of metals and toxic effects was more in S. oleracea plants. The tissue concentration of metals showed much higher values in treated plants than that of their respective control. PMID:17436528

  3. Response of cucurbit rootstocks for grafted melon (Cucumis melo) to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are an important re-emerging pest of melon (Cucumis melo), due largely to the loss of methyl bromide as a pre-plant soil fumigant. Melon is highly susceptible to southern RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, which causes severe root galling and reduced melon fruit yields. Cucurbit...

  4. Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Diversity Analyses Provide Strategies for Germplasm Curation, Genetic Improvement and Evidentiary Support of Domestication Patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of melon market types (Cucumis melo L., 2n = 2x = 24) in China, an important secondary center of diversity, has not been examined. Therefore, reference accessions (India, Africa, Crete/Greece, Japan, Europe, USA, and Spain) and 68 Chinese cultigens (fresh market non-netted thi...

  5. Snapmelon (Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis var. momordica), indigenous cucurbitaceous vegetable species from India with immense breeding value: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snapmelon (Cucumis melo L. Momordica Group; 2n = 2x = 24) is native to India, where it is widely cultivated and is commonly called ‘phut,’ which means to split. Immature fruits are cooked or eaten raw. In this paper we review the wealth of genetic resources in Indian snapmelon landraces for resistan...

  6. Snapmelon (Cucumis melo L. Momordica group), an indigenous cucurbit from India with immense value for melon breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snapmelon [Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis var. momordica (Roxb.) Duthie et Fuller] is native to India, where it is cultivated in various states, and is commonly called ‘phut,’ which means to split. Immature fruits are cooked or eaten raw. In this paper we review the wealth of genetic resources in I...

  7. Brachypodium distachyon-Cochliobolus sativus Pathosystem is a New Model for Studying Plant-Fungal Interactions in Cereal Crops.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shaobin; Ali, Shaukat; Leng, Yueqiang; Wang, Rui; Garvin, David F

    2015-04-01

    Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana) causes spot blotch, common root rot, and kernel blight or black point in barley and wheat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. sativus or the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility in the hosts. This study aims to establish the model grass Brachypodium distachyon as a new model for studying plant-fungus interactions in cereal crops. Six B. distachyon lines were inoculated with five C. sativus isolates. The results indicated that all six B. distachyon lines were infected by the C. sativus isolates, with their levels of resistance varying depending on the fungal isolates used. Responses ranging from hypersensitive response-mediated resistance to complete susceptibility were observed in a large collection of B. distachyon (2n=2x=10) and B. hybridum (2n=4x=30) accessions inoculated with four of the C. sativus isolates. Evaluation of an F2 population derived from the cross between two of the B. distachyon lines, Bd1-1 and Bd3-1, with isolate Cs07-47-1 showed quantitative and transgressive segregation for resistance to C. sativus, suggesting that the resistance may be governed by quantitative trait loci from both parents. The availability of whole-genome sequences of both the host (B. distachyon) and the pathogen (C. sativus) makes this pathosystem an attractive model for studying this important disease of cereal crops.

  8. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul R; Barnes, David M

    2011-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. Practical Application: Understanding the influence variety and developmental stage has on the biological activity of cruciferous vegetables provides important information for further studies examining the in vivo effects of radish treatment and foundation for providing recommendations to reduce the risk of chronic disease through dietary intervention.

  9. Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2013-12-01

    Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant.

  10. In vitro development of microcorms and stigma like structures in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mir, Javid Iqbal; Ahmed, Nazeer; Wani, Shabir H; Rashid, Rizwan; Mir, Hidayatullah; Sheikh, Muneer A

    2010-12-01

    Saffron is an important spice derived from the stigmas of Crocus sativus, a species belonging to the family Iridaceae. Due to its triploid nature it is sterile and is not able to set seeds, so it is propagated only by corms. The natural propagation rate of most geophytes including saffron is relatively low. An in vitro multiplication technique like micropropagation has been used for the propagation of saffron. In the present study, various explants were cultured on different nutrient media supplemented with various concentrations of plant growth regulators to standardize the best media combination for obtaining optimum response with respect to corm production and development of Stigma Like Structures (SLS). Highest response (60 %) was observed with half ovaries on G-5 media supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA followed by 55 % on LS media with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA. Maximum size (1.3 g) of microcorms were obtained from apical buds on the LS media supplemented with 21.6 μM NAA and 22.2 μM. Stigma Like Structures were developed from half ovary explants both directly and indirectly. Maximum number (120 indirectly and 20 directly) and size (5.2 cm) of SLS were obtained in G-5 medium supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA followed by 100 indirectly and 20 directly and 4.5 cm long on LS medium supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA. PMID:23572987

  11. USDA, ARS EOM 402-10 high B-carotene cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high B-carotene cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 is being released. This line was derived from a cross between the "Xishuangbanna gourd" (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) that bears orange fruit and the non-orange-fruited cultivated c...

  12. Can Saffron (Crocus sativus) be effective in the treatment of leishmaniasis?

    PubMed

    Bagherani, Nooshin

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of some sandfly species. It is endemic in 88 countries throughout the world. Pentavalent antimonials are the standard therapy for leismaniasis. Saffron (crocus sativus) belongs to the iridaceae family. This paper will outline the benefits and challenges of repurposing saffron for treating leishmaniasis.

  13. RNA-mediated Gene Silencing in the Cereal Fungal Pathogen Cochliobolus sativus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana) is the causal agent of spot blotch, common root rot and black point in barley and wheat. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity and virulence of the pathogen. In this study, we developed a high-throughput RNA-...

  14. RNA-mediated gene silencing in the cereal fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yueqiang; Wu, Chengxiang; Liu, Zhaohui; Friesen, Timothy L; Rasmussen, Jack B; Zhong, Shaobin

    2011-04-01

    A high-throughput RNA-mediated gene silencing system was developed for Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana), the causal agent of spot blotch, common root rot and black point in barley and wheat. The green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) and the proteinaceous host-selective toxin gene (ToxA) were first introduced into C. sativus via the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation method. Transformants with a high level of expression of GFP or ToxA were generated. A silencing vector (pSGate1) based on the Gateway cloning system was developed and used to construct RNA interference (RNAi) vectors. Silencing of GFP and ToxA in the transformants was demonstrated by transformation with the RNAi construct expressing hairpin RNA (hpRNA) of the target gene. The polyketide synthase gene (CsPKS1), involved in melanin biosynthesis pathways in C. sativus, was also targeted by transformation with the RNAi vector (pSGate1-CsPKS1) encoding hpRNA of the CsPKS1 gene. The transformants with pSGate1-CsPKS1 exhibited an albino phenotype or reduced melanization, suggesting effective silencing of the endogenous CsPKS1 in C. sativus. Sectors exhibiting the wild-type phenotype of the fungus appeared in some of the CsPKS1-silenced transformants after subcultures as a result of inactivation or deletions of the RNAi transgene. The gene silencing system established provides a useful tool for functional genomics studies in C. sativus and other filamentous fungi.

  15. An experimental design approach to the chemical characterisation of pectin polysaccharides extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus.

    PubMed

    Denman, Laura J; Morris, Gordon A

    2015-03-01

    Extracted pectins have been utilised in a number of applications in both the food and pharmaceutical industries where they are generally used as gelling agents, thickeners and stabilisers, although a number of pectins have been shown to be bioactive. These functional properties will depend upon extraction conditions. A statistical experimental design approach was used to study the effects of extraction conditions pH, time and temperature on pectins extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus. The results show that the chemical composition is very sensitive to these conditions and that this has a great influence on for example the degree of branching. Higher temperatures, lower pHs and longer extraction times lead to a loss of the more acid labile arabinofuranose residues present on the pectin side chain. The fitting of regression equations relating yield and composition to extraction conditions can therefore lead to tailor-made pectins for specific properties and/or applications.

  16. Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora).

    PubMed

    Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie; Parker, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, analytical modeling, and detailed numerical simulations, the iridescence observed from the comb rows of the ctenophore Beroë cucumis was investigated. It is shown that the changing coloration which accompanies the beating of comb rows as the animal swims can be explained by the weakly-contrasted structure of the refractive index induced by the very coherent packing of locomotory cilia. The colors arising from the narrow band-gap reflection are shown to be highly saturated and, as a function of the incidence angle, cover a wide range of the visible and ultraviolet spectrum. The high transparency of the structure at the maximal bioluminescence wavelength is also explained.

  17. Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie; Parker, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, analytical modeling, and detailed numerical simulations, the iridescence observed from the comb rows of the ctenophore Beroë cucumis was investigated. It is shown that the changing coloration which accompanies the beating of comb rows as the animal swims can be explained by the weakly-contrasted structure of the refractive index induced by the very coherent packing of locomotory cilia. The colors arising from the narrow band-gap reflection are shown to be highly saturated and, as a function of the incidence angle, cover a wide range of the visible and ultraviolet spectrum. The high transparency of the structure at the maximal bioluminescence wavelength is also explained.

  18. The Andromonoecious Sex Determination Gene Predates the Separation of Cucumis and Citrullus Genera.

    PubMed

    Boualem, Adnane; Lemhemdi, Afef; Sari, Marie-Agnes; Pignoly, Sarah; Troadec, Christelle; Abou Choucha, Fadi; Solmaz, Ilknur; Sari, Nebahat; Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires the cloning and the characterization of sex determination genes. Monoecy is characterized by the presence of both male and female flowers on the same plant. Andromonoecy is characterized by plants carrying both male and bisexual flowers. In watermelon, the transition between these two sexual forms is controlled by the identity of the alleles at the A locus. We previously showed, in two Cucumis species, melon and cucumber, that the transition from monoecy to andromonoecy results from mutations in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene, ACS-7/ACS2. To test whether the ACS-7/ACS2 function is conserved in cucurbits, we cloned and characterized ClACS7 in watermelon. We demonstrated co-segregation of ClACS7, the homolog of CmACS-7/CsACS2, with the A locus. Sequence analysis of ClACS7 in watermelon accessions identified three ClACS7 isoforms, two in andromonoecious and one in monoecious lines. To determine whether the andromonoecious phenotype is due to a loss of ACS enzymatic activity, we expressed and assayed the activity of the three protein isoforms. Like in melon and cucumber, the isoforms from the andromonoecious lines showed reduced to no enzymatic activity and the isoform from the monoecious line was active. Consistent with this, the mutations leading andromonoecy were clustered in the active site of the enzyme. Based on this, we concluded that active ClACS7 enzyme leads to the development of female flowers in monoecious lines, whereas a reduction of enzymatic activity yields hermaphrodite flowers. ClACS7, like CmACS-7/CsACS2 in melon and cucumber, is highly expressed in carpel primordia of buds determined to develop carpels and not in male flowers. Based on this finding and previous investigations, we concluded that the monoecy gene, ACS7, likely predated the separation of the Cucumis and Citrullus genera. PMID:27171236

  19. The Andromonoecious Sex Determination Gene Predates the Separation of Cucumis and Citrullus Genera

    PubMed Central

    Boualem, Adnane; Lemhemdi, Afef; Sari, Marie-Agnes; Pignoly, Sarah; Troadec, Christelle; Abou Choucha, Fadi; Solmaz, Ilknur; Sari, Nebahat; Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires the cloning and the characterization of sex determination genes. Monoecy is characterized by the presence of both male and female flowers on the same plant. Andromonoecy is characterized by plants carrying both male and bisexual flowers. In watermelon, the transition between these two sexual forms is controlled by the identity of the alleles at the A locus. We previously showed, in two Cucumis species, melon and cucumber, that the transition from monoecy to andromonoecy results from mutations in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene, ACS-7/ACS2. To test whether the ACS-7/ACS2 function is conserved in cucurbits, we cloned and characterized ClACS7 in watermelon. We demonstrated co-segregation of ClACS7, the homolog of CmACS-7/CsACS2, with the A locus. Sequence analysis of ClACS7 in watermelon accessions identified three ClACS7 isoforms, two in andromonoecious and one in monoecious lines. To determine whether the andromonoecious phenotype is due to a loss of ACS enzymatic activity, we expressed and assayed the activity of the three protein isoforms. Like in melon and cucumber, the isoforms from the andromonoecious lines showed reduced to no enzymatic activity and the isoform from the monoecious line was active. Consistent with this, the mutations leading andromonoecy were clustered in the active site of the enzyme. Based on this, we concluded that active ClACS7 enzyme leads to the development of female flowers in monoecious lines, whereas a reduction of enzymatic activity yields hermaphrodite flowers. ClACS7, like CmACS-7/CsACS2 in melon and cucumber, is highly expressed in carpel primordia of buds determined to develop carpels and not in male flowers. Based on this finding and previous investigations, we concluded that the monoecy gene, ACS7, likely predated the separation of the Cucumis and Citrullus genera. PMID:27171236

  20. Cucumis melo endornavirus: Genome organization, host range and co-divergence with the host.

    PubMed

    Sabanadzovic, Sead; Wintermantel, William M; Valverde, Rodrigo A; McCreight, James D; Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina

    2016-03-01

    A high molecular weight dsRNA was isolated from a Cucumis melo L. plant (referred to as 'CL01') of an unknown cultivar and completely sequenced. Sequence analyses showed that dsRNA is associated with an endornavirus for which a name Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) is proposed. The genome of CmEV-CL01 consists of 15,078 nt, contains a single, 4939 codons-long ORF and terminates with a stretch of 10 cytosine residues. Comparisons of the putative CmEV-encoded polyprotein with available references in protein databases revealed a unique genome organization characterized by the presence of the following domains: viral helicase Superfamily 1 (Hel-1), three glucosyltransferases (doublet of putative capsular polysaccharide synthesis proteins and a putative C_28_Glycosyltransferase), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The presence of three glycome-related domains of different origin makes the genome organization of CmEV unique among endornaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of viral RdRp domains showed that CmEV belongs to a specific lineage within the family Endornaviridae made exclusively of plant-infecting endornaviruses. An RT-PCR based survey demonstrated high incidence of CmEV among melon germplasm accession (>87% of tested samples). Analyses of partial genome sequences of CmEV isolates from 26 different melon genotypes suggest fine-tuned virus adaptation and co-divergence with the host. Finally, results of the present study revealed that CmEV is present in plants belonging to three different genera in the family Cucurbitaceae. Such diverse host range is unreported for known endornaviruses and suggests a long history of CmEV association with cucurbits predating their speciation. PMID:26805037

  1. The Andromonoecious Sex Determination Gene Predates the Separation of Cucumis and Citrullus Genera.

    PubMed

    Boualem, Adnane; Lemhemdi, Afef; Sari, Marie-Agnes; Pignoly, Sarah; Troadec, Christelle; Abou Choucha, Fadi; Solmaz, Ilknur; Sari, Nebahat; Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires the cloning and the characterization of sex determination genes. Monoecy is characterized by the presence of both male and female flowers on the same plant. Andromonoecy is characterized by plants carrying both male and bisexual flowers. In watermelon, the transition between these two sexual forms is controlled by the identity of the alleles at the A locus. We previously showed, in two Cucumis species, melon and cucumber, that the transition from monoecy to andromonoecy results from mutations in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene, ACS-7/ACS2. To test whether the ACS-7/ACS2 function is conserved in cucurbits, we cloned and characterized ClACS7 in watermelon. We demonstrated co-segregation of ClACS7, the homolog of CmACS-7/CsACS2, with the A locus. Sequence analysis of ClACS7 in watermelon accessions identified three ClACS7 isoforms, two in andromonoecious and one in monoecious lines. To determine whether the andromonoecious phenotype is due to a loss of ACS enzymatic activity, we expressed and assayed the activity of the three protein isoforms. Like in melon and cucumber, the isoforms from the andromonoecious lines showed reduced to no enzymatic activity and the isoform from the monoecious line was active. Consistent with this, the mutations leading andromonoecy were clustered in the active site of the enzyme. Based on this, we concluded that active ClACS7 enzyme leads to the development of female flowers in monoecious lines, whereas a reduction of enzymatic activity yields hermaphrodite flowers. ClACS7, like CmACS-7/CsACS2 in melon and cucumber, is highly expressed in carpel primordia of buds determined to develop carpels and not in male flowers. Based on this finding and previous investigations, we concluded that the monoecy gene, ACS7, likely predated the separation of the Cucumis and Citrullus genera.

  2. Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone attenuates genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route, tested in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomie, Ganngam; Sahu, Hrushi K; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

    2016-08-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellularly from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using kernel extract from ripe mango Mengifera indica L. under four different reaction conditions of the synthesis media such as the (i) absence of the reducing agent, trisodium citrate (AgNPI), (ii) presence of the reducing agent (AgNPII), (iii) presence of the cleansing agent, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP (AgNPIII), and (iv) presence of the capping agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP (AgNPIV). The synthesis of the AgNPs was monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The AgNPs were characterised by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Functional groups on the AgNPs were established by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs (AgNPI, AgNPII, AgNPIII and AgNPIV) were spherical in shape with the diameters and size distribution-widths of 14.0±5.4, 19.2±6.6, 18.8±6.6 and 44.6±13.2nm, respectively. Genotoxicity of the AgNPs at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100mgL(-1) was determined by the Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay and several endpoint assays including the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death, lipid peroxidation, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus formation (MN), and DNA damage as determined by the Comet assay. The dose-dependent induction of genotoxicity of the silver ion (Ag(+)) and AgNPs was in the order Ag(+)>AgNPII>AgNPI>AgNPIV>AgNPIII that corresponded with their relative potencies of induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the findings underscored the CA and MN endpoint-based genotoxicity assay which demonstrated the genotoxicity of AgNPs at concentrations (≤10mgL(-1)) lower than that (≥10mgL(-1)) tested in the Comet assay. This study demonstrated the protective action of PVPP against the genotoxicity of AgNPIII which was independent of the size of the AgNPs in the L. sativus L. root bioassay

  3. Genotoxicity of ferric oxide nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus: Deciphering the role of signaling factors, oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Quaiser; Faisal, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ansari, Sabiha M; Alwathnani, Hend A; Okla, Mohammad K; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Praveen, Shelly; Khan, Shams T; Wahab, Rizwan; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) in Raphanus sativus (radish). Fe2O3-NPs retarded the root length and seed germination in radish. Ultrathin sections of treated roots showed subcellular localization of Fe2O3-NPs, along with the appearance of damaged mitochondria and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Fe2O3-NPs (1.0mg/mL) treated groups exhibited 219.5%, 161%, 120.4% and 161.4% increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) influx in radish protoplasts. A concentration dependent increase in the antioxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been recorded. Comet assay showed a concentration dependent increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in Fe2O3-NPs treated groups. Cell cycle analysis revealed 88.4% of cells in sub-G1 apoptotic phase, suggesting cell death in Fe2O3-NPs (2.0mg/mL) treated group. Taking together, the genotoxicity induced by Fe2O3-NPs highlights the importance of environmental risk associated with improper disposal of nanoparticles (NPs) and radish can serve as a good indicator for measuring the phytotoxicity of NPs grown in NP-polluted environment. PMID:27593272

  4. Genotoxicity of ferric oxide nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus: Deciphering the role of signaling factors, oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Quaiser; Faisal, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ansari, Sabiha M; Alwathnani, Hend A; Okla, Mohammad K; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Praveen, Shelly; Khan, Shams T; Wahab, Rizwan; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) in Raphanus sativus (radish). Fe2O3-NPs retarded the root length and seed germination in radish. Ultrathin sections of treated roots showed subcellular localization of Fe2O3-NPs, along with the appearance of damaged mitochondria and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Fe2O3-NPs (1.0mg/mL) treated groups exhibited 219.5%, 161%, 120.4% and 161.4% increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) influx in radish protoplasts. A concentration dependent increase in the antioxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been recorded. Comet assay showed a concentration dependent increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in Fe2O3-NPs treated groups. Cell cycle analysis revealed 88.4% of cells in sub-G1 apoptotic phase, suggesting cell death in Fe2O3-NPs (2.0mg/mL) treated group. Taking together, the genotoxicity induced by Fe2O3-NPs highlights the importance of environmental risk associated with improper disposal of nanoparticles (NPs) and radish can serve as a good indicator for measuring the phytotoxicity of NPs grown in NP-polluted environment.

  5. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  6. Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome).

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Mendiratta, S K; Anjaneyulu, A S R

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method for improving tenderness and overall qualities of tough buffalo meat using plant proteolytic enzymes from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Their tenderizing efficacy was compared with the most popular enzyme papain. 3×3×3 cm chunks from Biceps femoris muscles of spent Murrah buffaloes (4-5 years age) were marinated with distilled water (control), 2% (w/w) powdered cucumis extract, 5% (w/v) ginger extract or 0.2% (w/w) papain for 48 h at 4 °C and subjected to various physico-chemical, histological and sensory evaluations. An increase (p<0.01) in collagen solubility, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility, and reduction (p<0.01) in shear force values were observed in all enzyme-treated samples compared to control. Electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins also revealed extensive proteolysis and reduction in number of protein bands in all treated samples. Improvement (p<0.01) in flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores were observed in all enzyme-treated samples compared to controls. Ginger extract-treated meat samples received better scores for appearance, flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability. From these results, it is shown that ginger and cucumis can be used as an effective alternative to papain. PMID:22062404

  7. Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome).

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Mendiratta, S K; Anjaneyulu, A S R

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method for improving tenderness and overall qualities of tough buffalo meat using plant proteolytic enzymes from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Their tenderizing efficacy was compared with the most popular enzyme papain. 3×3×3 cm chunks from Biceps femoris muscles of spent Murrah buffaloes (4-5 years age) were marinated with distilled water (control), 2% (w/w) powdered cucumis extract, 5% (w/v) ginger extract or 0.2% (w/w) papain for 48 h at 4 °C and subjected to various physico-chemical, histological and sensory evaluations. An increase (p<0.01) in collagen solubility, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility, and reduction (p<0.01) in shear force values were observed in all enzyme-treated samples compared to control. Electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins also revealed extensive proteolysis and reduction in number of protein bands in all treated samples. Improvement (p<0.01) in flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores were observed in all enzyme-treated samples compared to controls. Ginger extract-treated meat samples received better scores for appearance, flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability. From these results, it is shown that ginger and cucumis can be used as an effective alternative to papain.

  8. Enzymatic detection of mercuric ions in ground-water from vegetable wastes by immobilizing pumpkin (Cucumis melo) urease in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Talat, Mahe; Hasan, Syed Hadi; Pandey, Rajesh K

    2008-07-01

    Present report describes a quick and simple test based on enzyme inhibition for the detection of mercury in aqueous medium by urease immobilized in alginate beads. Urease was extracted from the discarded seeds of pumpkin (Cucumis melo) and was purified to apparent homogeneity (5.2-fold) by heat treatment at 48+/-0.1 degrees C and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. The homogeneous enzyme preparation (Sp activity 353 U/mg protein, A(280)/A(260)=1.12) was immobilized in 3.5% alginate leading to 86% immobilization. Effect of mercuric ion on the activity of soluble as well as immobilized enzyme was investigated. Hg(2+) exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition both in the presence and absence of the substrate. The alginate immobilized enzyme showed less inhibition. There was no leaching of the enzyme over a period of 15 days at 4 degrees C. The inhibition was non-competitive and the K(i) was found to be 1.26x10(-1)microM. Time-dependent interaction of urease with Hg(2+) exhibited a biphasic inhibition behavior in which approximately half of the initial activity was lost rapidly (within 10 min) and reminder in a slow phase. Binding of Hg(2+) with the enzyme was largely irreversible, as the activity could not be restored by dialysis. The significance of the observations is discussed.

  9. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Lathyrus sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Insaf A.; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2006-09-01

    A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of L. sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of Lathyrus sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence showed significant homology with the 2S albumin class of seed storage proteins. The protein showed 85% sequence homology with the seed albumin of Pisum sativum within the 40 N-terminal residues. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 82.7, c = 153.4 Å.

  10. Green synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extract of anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Devi, V.; Adavallan, K.; Saranya, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we have explored anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus (saffron) as a reducing agent for one pot size controlled green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) at ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. The prepared AuNPs showed surface Plasmon resonance centered at 549 nm with average particle size of 15±5 nm. Stable, spherical and triangular crystalline AuNPs with well-defined dimensions were synthesized using anti-tumor potent Crocus sativus (saffron). Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the HR-TEM, SAED and SEM images, and XRD patterns. From the FTIR spectra it is found that the biomolecules are responsible for capping in gold nanoparticles.

  11. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    PubMed

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences. PMID:25439500

  12. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  13. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    PubMed

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences.

  14. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  15. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  16. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  17. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  18. Antilithiasic and hypolipidaemic effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on mice fed with a lithogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine.

  19. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened.

  20. Hydroalcoholic extract of Crocus sativus effects on bronchial inflammatory cells in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudabady, Maryam; Neamati, Ali; Vosooghi, Somayyeh; Aghababa, Heydar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Inflammation is one of the major components of asthma. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of C. sativus extract on total and differential white blood cells (WBC) count in lung lavage fluid (LLF) of ovalbumin-sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were divided into five groups (n = 8 for each group) as control (C), sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA) alone (S), and three groups of sensitized and treated with different doses of C. sativus extract (S50EX, S100EX, and S200EX groups). Total and differential WBC counts of LLF were evaluated in control, sensitized, and treated sensitized groups. Results: Total WBC count, neutrophil, and eosinophil percentage in LLF were increased in sensitized animals compared with the control group (p0.001). Treatment of sensitized animals with all doses of the extract significantly reduced WBC number and the percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil compared with the sensitized animals (p0.01–0.001). Conclusion: According to these results, the extract of C. sativus could be effective on alleviating lung inflammatory cells specially eosinophils in lung lavage of sensitized animals which may indicate a preventive effect of this plant on lung inflammation in asthma. PMID:25050293

  1. Histochemical characterization of early response to Cochliobolus sativus infection in selected barley genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Decuadro, Susana; Silva, Paula; Bentancur, Oscar; Gamba, Fernanda; Pritsch, Clara

    2014-07-01

    Much effort is being made to breed barley with durable resistance to leaf spot blotch incited by Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus). We hypothesized that susceptibility and resistance traits in 11 diverse barley genotypes inoculated with a single C. sativus isolate might specify a range of distinct host cell responses. Quantitative descriptions of interaction microphenotypes exhibited by different barley genotype seedlings after infection with C. sativus are provided. Early oxidative responses occurring in epidermis and mesophyll leaf tissue were monitored by histochemical analysis of H2O2 accumulation at 8, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Cell wall apposition (CWA) in epidermal cells and hypersensitive reaction (HR) of epidermal or mesophyll tissue were early defenses in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. There were differences in level, duration, and frequency of occurrence for CWA and HR for the different barley genotypes. Occurrence of HR in epidermal cells at post-penetration stages was indicative of compatibility. Patterns of cell responses were microphenotypically diverse between different resistant and susceptible genotypes. This suggests that timing and level of response are key features of microphenotypic diversity that distinguish different functional mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility present in barley.

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world's most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus.

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world's most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus. PMID:26936416

  4. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world’s most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus. PMID:26936416

  5. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-07-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  6. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  7. Efficient DNA extraction from nail clippings using the protease solution from Cucumis melo.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Nishimura, Sayaka; Okuno, Teruko; Rakuman, Miki; Takii, Yukio

    2010-09-01

    Owing to the increasing importance of genomic information, obtaining genomic DNA easily from biological specimens has become more and more important. This article proposes an efficient method for obtaining genomic DNA from nail clippings. Nail clippings can be easily obtained, are thermostable and easy to transport, and have low infectivity. The drawback of their use, however, has been the difficulty of extracting genomic material from them. We have overcome this obstacle using the protease solution obtained from Cucumis melo. The keratinolytic activity of the protease solution was 1.78-fold higher than that of proteinase K, which is commonly used to degrade keratin. With the protease solution, three times more DNA was extracted than when proteinase K was used. In order to verify the integrity of the extracted DNA, genotype analysis on 170 subjects was performed by both PCR-RFLP and Real Time PCR. The results of the genotyping showed that the extracted DNA was suitable for genotyping analysis. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient extraction method for using nail clippings as a genome source and a research tool in molecular epidemiology, medical diagnostics, and forensic science.

  8. Identification of early response genes to salt stress in roots of melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shiwei; Wang, Linmin; Zhang, Yidong; Huang, Danfeng

    2013-04-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms by which muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.) respond to salt stress, a cDNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) from the root tissue of a salt-tolerant melon cultivar, Bingxuecui. A total of 339 clones were sequenced from the SSH library, leading to 312 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), with an average size of 450 bp; representing 262 uni-ESTs comprising 29 contigs and 233 singletons. Blast analysis of the deduced protein sequences revealed that 283 ESTs had a high similarity to proteins in the non-redundant database, while 29 had low identity or no similarities. Many of the annotated sequences were homologous to genes involved in abiotic or biotic stress in plants. Functional categorization of the proteins revealed that salt tolerance could be largely determined by various proteins involved in metabolism, energy, transcription, signal transduction, protein fate, cell rescue and defense, implying a complex response to salt stress exists in melon plants. Twenty-seven ESTs were selected and analyzed by real-time PCR; the results confirmed that a high proportion of the ESTs were activated by salt stress. The complete sequences and a detailed functional analysis of these ESTs is required, in order to fully understand the broader impact of these genes in plants subjected to a high salinity environment.

  9. Chilling-Induced Lipid Degradation in Cucumber (Cucumis sativa L. cv Hybrid C) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Parkin, K L; Kuo, S J

    1989-07-01

    Chilling at 4 degrees C in the dark induced lipid degradation in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) fruit upon rewarming at 14 degrees C. Rates of ethane evolution by fruits rewarmed after 3 days of chilling were up to four-fold higher than those evolved by unchilled (14 degrees C) fruits (0.02-0.05 picomoles gram fresh weight(-1) hour(-1)). This potentiation of lipid peroxidation occurred prior to irreversible injury (requiring 3 to 7 days of chilling) as indicated by increases in ethylene evolution and visual observations. Decreases in unsaturation of peel tissue glycolipids were observed in fruits rewarmed after 3 days of chilling, indicating the plastids to be the site of the early phases of chilling-induced peroxidation. Losses in unsaturation of tissue phospholipids were first observed only after chilling for 7 days. Phospholipase D activity appeared to be potentiated in fruits rewarmed after 7 days of chilling as indicated by a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (and secondarily phosphatidylethanolamine) with a corresponding increase in phosphatidic acid. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation may have a role in conferring chilling injury.

  10. Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

  11. Recovery of crocins from saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus) in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Hernández, Bertha; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Benavides, Jorge

    2012-05-01

    Crocins are carotenoid derivates that have recently attracted the interest of the scientific community due to their nutraceutical properties. Saffron (dry Crocus sativus stigmas) is one of the main known sources of crocins. In this study the potential use of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the extraction of crocins from C. sativus stigmas was evaluated. The partitioning behavior of crocins in different types of ATPS (polymer-polymer, polymer-salt, alcohol-salt and ionic liquid-salt) was evaluated. Ethanol-potassium phosphate ATPS were selected based on their high top phase recovery yield and low cost of system constituents. The evaluation and optimization of system parameters rendered conditions (V(R)=3.2, ethanol 19.8% (w/w), potassium phosphate 16.5% (w/w), TLL of 25% (w/w), 0.1M NaCl and 2% (w/w) of sample load) under which more than 75% of total crocins were recovered in the top (ethanol rich) phase, whereas the wasted stigmas accumulated in the bottom phase. Lastly, a comparison between an optimized solid-liquid extraction using ethanol:water as solvent and ATPS was conducted demonstrating that similar yields are achieved with both strategies (76.89 ± 18% and 79.27 ± 1.6%, respectively). However, ATPS rendered a higher extraction selectivity of 1.3 ± 0.04 mg of crocins for each mg of phenolic compound, whereas ethanolic extraction showed a selectivity of 0.87 ± 0.01. The results reported herein demonstrate the potential application of ATPS, particularly ethanol-potassium phosphate systems, for the recovery of crocins from C. sativus stigmas. PMID:22463999

  12. Genetic analysis of hybrid seed formation ability of Brassica rapa in intergeneric crossings with Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Tonosaki, K; Michiba, K; Bang, S W; Kitashiba, H; Kaneko, Y; Nishio, T

    2013-03-01

    A hybridization barrier leads to the inability of seed formation after intergeneric crossings between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. Most B. rapa lines cannot set intergeneric hybrid seeds because of embryo breakdown, but a B. rapa line obtained from turnip cultivar 'Shogoin-kabu' is able to produce a large number of hybrid seeds as a maternal parent by crossings with R. sativus. In 'Shogoin-kabu' crossed with R. sativus, developments of embryos and endosperms were slower than those in intraspecific crossings, but some of them grew to mature seeds without embryo breakdown. Intergeneric hybrid seeds were obtained in a 'Shogoin-kabu' line at a rate of 0.13 per pollinated flower, while no hybrid seeds were obtained in a line developed from Chinese cabbage cultivar 'Chiifu'. F(1) hybrid plants between the lines of 'Shogoin-kabu' and 'Chiifu' set a larger number of hybrid seeds per flower, 0.68, than both the parental lines. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for hybrid seed formation were analyzed after intergeneric crossings using two different F(2) populations derived from the F(1) hybrids, and three QTLs with significant logarithm of odds scores were detected. Among them, two QTLs, i.e., one in linkage group A10 and the other in linkage group A01, were detected in both the F(2) populations. These two QTLs had contrary effects on the number of hybrid seeds. Epistatic interaction between these two QTLs was revealed. Possible candidate genes controlling hybrid seed formation ability in QTL regions were inferred using the published B. rapa genome sequences.

  13. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    PubMed

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine.

  14. Recovery of crocins from saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus) in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Hernández, Bertha; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Benavides, Jorge

    2012-05-01

    Crocins are carotenoid derivates that have recently attracted the interest of the scientific community due to their nutraceutical properties. Saffron (dry Crocus sativus stigmas) is one of the main known sources of crocins. In this study the potential use of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the extraction of crocins from C. sativus stigmas was evaluated. The partitioning behavior of crocins in different types of ATPS (polymer-polymer, polymer-salt, alcohol-salt and ionic liquid-salt) was evaluated. Ethanol-potassium phosphate ATPS were selected based on their high top phase recovery yield and low cost of system constituents. The evaluation and optimization of system parameters rendered conditions (V(R)=3.2, ethanol 19.8% (w/w), potassium phosphate 16.5% (w/w), TLL of 25% (w/w), 0.1M NaCl and 2% (w/w) of sample load) under which more than 75% of total crocins were recovered in the top (ethanol rich) phase, whereas the wasted stigmas accumulated in the bottom phase. Lastly, a comparison between an optimized solid-liquid extraction using ethanol:water as solvent and ATPS was conducted demonstrating that similar yields are achieved with both strategies (76.89 ± 18% and 79.27 ± 1.6%, respectively). However, ATPS rendered a higher extraction selectivity of 1.3 ± 0.04 mg of crocins for each mg of phenolic compound, whereas ethanolic extraction showed a selectivity of 0.87 ± 0.01. The results reported herein demonstrate the potential application of ATPS, particularly ethanol-potassium phosphate systems, for the recovery of crocins from C. sativus stigmas.

  15. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    PubMed

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  16. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    PubMed

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development. PMID:27101009

  17. Genome-wide BAC-end sequencing of Cucumis melo using two BAC libraries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an economically important fruit crop, no genome-wide sequence information is openly available at the current time. We therefore sequenced BAC-ends representing a total of 33,024 clones, half of them from a previously described melon BAC library generated with restriction endonucleases and the remainder from a new random-shear BAC library. Results We generated a total of 47,140 high-quality BAC-end sequences (BES), 91.7% of which were paired-BES. Both libraries were assembled independently and then cross-assembled to obtain a final set of 33,372 non-redundant, high-quality sequences. These were grouped into 6,411 contigs (4.5 Mb) and 26,961 non-assembled BES (14.4 Mb), representing ~4.2% of the melon genome. The sequences were used to screen genomic databases, identifying 7,198 simple sequence repeats (corresponding to one microsatellite every 2.6 kb) and 2,484 additional repeats of which 95.9% represented transposable elements. The sequences were also used to screen expressed sequence tag (EST) databases, revealing 11,372 BES that were homologous to ESTs. This suggests that ~30% of the melon genome consists of coding DNA. We observed regions of microsynteny between melon paired-BES and six other dicotyledonous plant genomes. Conclusion The analysis of nearly 50,000 BES from two complementary genomic libraries covered ~4.2% of the melon genome, providing insight into properties such as microsatellite and transposable element distribution, and the percentage of coding DNA. The observed synteny between melon paired-BES and six other plant genomes showed that useful comparative genomic data can be derived through large scale BAC-end sequencing by anchoring a small proportion of the melon genome to other sequenced genomes. PMID:21054843

  18. Analysis of the melon (Cucumis melo) small RNAome by high-throughput pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a commercially important fruit crop that is cultivated worldwide. The melon research community has recently benefited from the determination of a complete draft genome sequence and the development of associated genomic tools, which have allowed us to focus on small RNAs (sRNAs). These are short, non-coding RNAs 21-24 nucleotides in length with diverse physiological roles. In plants, they regulate gene expression and heterochromatin assembly, and control protection against virus infection. Much remains to be learned about the role of sRNAs in melon. Results We constructed 10 sRNA libraries from two stages of developing ovaries, fruits and photosynthetic cotyledons infected with viruses, and carried out high-throughput pyrosequencing. We catalogued and analysed the melon sRNAs, resulting in the identification of 26 known miRNA families (many conserved with other species), the prediction of 84 melon-specific miRNA candidates, the identification of trans-acting siRNAs, and the identification of chloroplast, mitochondrion and transposon-derived sRNAs. In silico analysis revealed more than 400 potential targets for the conserved and novel miRNAs. Conclusion We have discovered and analysed a large number of conserved and melon-specific sRNAs, including miRNAs and their potential target genes. This provides insight into the composition and function of the melon small RNAome, and paves the way towards an understanding of sRNA-mediated processes that regulate melon fruit development and melon-virus interactions. PMID:21812964

  19. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar “Yumeiren”, encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development. PMID:27101009

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  1. Identification of safranal as the main allelochemical from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Mardani, Hossein; Sekine, Takayuki; Azizi, Majid; Mishyna, Maryia; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Dried parts of 75 medicinal plant species collected from different regions in Iran were assayed by the Dish Pack Method for volatile allelopathic activity, using Lactuca sativa (lettuce) as the test plant. The highest (60%) inhibition was observed for saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus), followed by Dracocephalum kotschyi, Solanum nigrum and Artemisia aucheri. Safranal was identified as the main chemical by Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS- GC-MS) analyses of saffron. Moreover, the EC50 of safranal was evaluated as 1.2 μg/L (ppb). This is the first report on allelopathic activity of safranal as a bioactive compound identified from saffron.

  2. Ectopic expression of CsCTR1, a cucumber CTR-like gene, attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant and expression pattern analysis of CsCTR1 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, Beibei; Sun, Jin; Pan, Junsong; He, Huanle; Cai, Run

    2014-09-15

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1) was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  3. The gene CmACS-7 provides sequence variation for the development of DNA markers associated with monoecious sex expresion in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding lines in South Korea display andromonoecious sex expression (i.e., possessing both bisexual and male flowers on the same plant), which, in turn, necessitates laborious hand emasculation during F1 hybrid seed production. Thus, there is a need to develop monoecio...

  4. The genome of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Genome amplification in the absence of recent duplication in an old widely cultivated species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the genome sequence of melon (Cucumis melo L.), an important horticultural crop worldwide. We assembled 375 Mb of the double haploid line DHL92, representing 83.3 % of the estimated melon genome. We predicted 27,427 protein-coding genes, which we analyzed by reconstructing 22,218 phylogene...

  5. Possible amelioration of atherogenic diet induced dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and hyperglycemia by the peel extracts of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris fruits in rats.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-01-01

    Hitherto unknown efficacy of the peel extracts of Mangifera indica (MI), Cucumis melo (CM) and Citrullus vulgaris (CV) fruits in ameliorating the diet-induced alterations in dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus have been investigated in rats. In one study, out of 4 different doses (50-300 mg/kg), 200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for other two peel extracts could inhibit lipidperoxidation (LPO) maximally in liver. In the second experiment rats were maintained on pre-standardized atherogenic diet CCT (supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% 2-thiouracil) to induce dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus and the effects of the test peel extracts (200 mg/kg of MI and 100 mg/kg for CM and CV for 10 consecutive days) were studied by examining the changes in tissue LPO (in heart, liver and kidney), concentrations of serum lipids, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucose. Rats, treated simultaneously with either of the peel extracts reversed the CCT-diet induced increase in the levels of tissue LPO, serum lipids, glucose, creatinine kinase-MB and decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones and insulin indicating their potential to ameliorate the diet induced alterations in serum lipids, thyroid dysfunctions and hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus. A phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of a high amount of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the test peel extracts suggesting that the beneficial effects could be the result of the rich content of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the studied peels.

  6. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  7. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings. PMID:20120479

  8. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality.

  9. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  10. Large-scale microsatellite development in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an orphan legume of the arid areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14), a member of the family Leguminosae, holds great agronomic potential as grain and forage legume crop in the arid areas for its superb resilience to abiotic stresses such as drought, flood and salinity. The crop could not make much progress through conventional...

  11. Brachypodium distachyon-Cochliobolus sativus pathosystem is a new model for studying plant-fungal interactions in cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana) causes three major diseases in barley and wheat, including spot blotch, common root rot and kernel blight or black point. These diseases significantly reduce the yield and quality of the two most important cereal crops in the US and other region...

  12. Identification and possible role of a MYB transcription factor from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Gómez, Maria Dolores; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2012-03-15

    The MYB family is the most abundant group of transcription factors described for plants. Plant MYB genes have been shown to be involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant development. No MYB genes are described for saffron, the dried stigma of Crocus sativus, utilized as a colorant for foodstuffs. In this study, we used RACE-PCR to isolate a full length cDNA of 894bp with a 591bp open reading frame, encoding a putative CsMYB1 from C. sativus. Comparison between gDNA and cDNA revealed no introns. Homology studies indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence is similar to members of the R2R3 MYB subfamily. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in stigma tissue and low levels in tepals, whereas no signal was detected in either anthers or leaves. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that CsMYB1 expression is developmentally regulated during stigma development. Furthermore, expression analysis in stigmas from different Crocus species showed a correlation with stigma morphology. No transcripts were found in stigma tissues of Crocus species characterized by branched stigma morphology. Taken together, these results suggest that CsMYB1 may be involved in the regulation of stigma morphology in Crocus.

  13. Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, M; Vahabzadeh, M; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-06-01

    Commonly known as saffron, Crocus sativus L and its active components have shown several useful pharmacological effects such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, radical scavenger effects, learning and memory improving effects, etc. There has been an increasing body of data on saffron use in medical databases within the last 20 years. In the current review, the strengths and weaknesses of some of the clinical trials about different pharmacological effects of saffron will be discussed C. sativus extract has been studied in 8 anti-depressant clinical trials in comparison to placebo or some antidepressant drugs, in which saffron showed effectiveness as an antidepressant drug. Clinical trials on anti-Alzheimer effect of saffron demonstrated that it was more effective than the placebo, and as effective as donepezil. 2 clinical trials on antipruritic and complexion promoter in skin care effects of saffron both confirmed that saffron was more efficient than the placebo. In another clinical trial, it was proved that in addition to the weight loss treatment, saffron could reduce snacking frequency. Clinical trials conducted on women with premenstrual syndrome showed that saffron could reduce suffering symptoms more than the placebo and similar to standard treatments.Furthermore, additional clinical trials on effects of saffron on erection dysfunction, allergies, cardiovascular and immune system as well as its safety, toxicity and human pharmacokinetics are reviewed herein.

  14. [Identification of two Fusarium isolates and their crude toxin allelopathic effect on Cucumis melo seedlings].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Xue, Quan-Hong; Du, Jun-Zhi; Chen, Jiao-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Eight fungi isolates were obtained from Fusarium-infected Cucumis melo (melon) plants and their rhizosphere soils. Taking melon cultivar 'Xitian 1' as test material, the re-inoculation and seed germination experiments were conducted to investigate the pathogenicity and growth inhibition effect of these fungi isolates on melon. Through the determination of the induced enzyme activities, resistant substance contents, and cell membrane permeability of potted melon roots, the allelopathic effect of the crude toxins of two harmful fungi was studied, and according to the morphological characteristics and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequencing, the two harmful fungi were identified. The crude toxins of the two harmful fungi TF and HF had strong inhibition effects on the germination and growth of the melon seeds. The MDA and soluble protein contents and the cell membrane permeability of the 'Xitian 1' seedlings roots all increased, among which, the MDA content and cell membrane permeability increased by 108.6% and 40.6%, respectively when treated with the stock solution of TF toxin, compared with the control. The crude toxins of the two harmful fungi improved the induced enzyme activities of the melon roots, with the increment of the PAL and POD activities under the treatment of 10-fold dilution of TF crude toxin increased by 25.6% and 23.2%, respectively. When treated with the stock solution of HF toxin, the PAL activity significantly increased by 30.0%. The two harmful fungi TF and HF were primarily identified as Fusarium equisti and F. proliferatum, respectively. This study showed that the two Fusarium isolates could not infect melon via re-inoculation, but could negatively affect the melon's normal growth and normal physiological and biochemical metabolism via toxins excretion, and in the meantime, improve the root protective enzyme activities, with the effects of both benefit and harmfulness on melon plants. The allelopathic hazard of the crude toxins of the

  15. Water Relations of Seed Development and Germination in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Welbaum, Gregory E.; Bradford, Kent J.

    1990-01-01

    The initiation of radicle growth during seed germination may be driven by solute accumulation and increased turgor pressure, by cell wall relaxation, or by weakening of tissues surrounding the embryo. To investigate these possibilities, imbibition kinetics, water contents, and water (Ψ) and solute (ψs) potentials of intact muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seeds, decoated seeds (testa removed, but a thin perisperm/endosperm envelope remains around the embryo), and isolated cotyledons and embryonic axes were measured. Cotyledons and embryonic axes excised and imbibed as isolated tissues attained water contents 25 and 50% greater, respectively, than the same tissues hydrated within intact seeds. The effect of the testa and perisperm on embryo water content was due to mechanical restriction of embryo swelling and not to impermeability to water. The Ψ and ψs of embryo tissues were measured by psychrometry after excision from imbibed intact seeds. For intact or decoated seeds and excised cotyledons, Ψ values were >−0.2 MPa just prior to radicle emergence. The Ψ of excised embryonic axes, however, averaged only −0.6 MPa over the same period. The embryonic axis apparently is mechanically constrained within the testa/perisperm, increasing its total pressure potential until axis Ψ is in equilibrium with cotyledon Ψ, but reducing its water content and resulting in a low Ψ when the constraint is removed. There was no evidence of decreasing ψs or increasing turgor pressure (Ψ-ψs) prior to radicle growth for either intact seeds or excised tissues. Given the low relative water content of the axes within intact seeds, cell wall relaxation would be ineffective in creating a Ψ gradient for water uptake. Rather, axis growth may be initiated by weakening of the perisperm, thus releasing the external pressure and creating a Ψ gradient for water uptake into the axis. The perisperm envelope contains a cap of small, thin-walled endosperm cells adjacent to the radicle tip. We

  16. Genome mapping and QTL analysis in cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The globally ubiquitous, cross-pollinated family Cucurbitacea (synom. cucurbits) includes 825 species housed in 118 principally tropical genera of which some have economic importance. For instance, species in the genera Cucumis (cucumber; C. sativus var. sativus L; melon; Cucumis melo L.), Citrullus...

  17. Analysis of phytochelatins in plant matrices by pre-column derivatization, high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence-detection.

    PubMed

    Döring, S; Korhammer, S; Oetken, M; Markert, B

    2000-02-01

    A sensitive method for the determination of phytochelatins in plant matrices by pre-column derivatization with monobromobimane (mBrB) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on reversed phases and fluorescence-detection has been developed and applied to cucumber sprouts (Cucumis sativus) treated with cadmium and to the water moss Fontinalis antipyretica (Cd in environmentally-relevant concentrations). Whereas phytochelatins were found in the Cd-treated sprouts, no phytochelatins were detected in Fontinalis anitipyretica. PMID:11225681

  18. Evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Ghenaati, Jafar

    2006-09-01

    The antitussive activity of Crocus sativus stigma and petal extracts and its components, safranal and crocin, was evaluated using the nebolized solution of citric acid 20% in guinea pigs. The extract and agents were injected intraperitoneally. The ethanolic extract of C. sativus (100-800 mg/kg) and safranal (0.25-0.75 ml/kg) reduced the number of cough. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of petal and crocin did not show antitussive activity.

  19. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.

  20. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  1. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  2. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  3. Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    el Daly, E S

    1998-01-01

    Cisplatin [cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II)] is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that is toxic to the kidney. Concurrent administration of cysteine together with vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa reduced the toxicity of cisplatin in rats. When administered i.p. for 5 alternate days with 3 mg/kg cisplatin, cysteine (20 mg/kg) together with vitamin E (2 mg/rat) an extract of Crocus sativus stigmas (50 mg/kg) and Nigella sativa seed (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels as well as cisplatin-induced serum total lipids increases. In contrast, the protective agents given together with cisplatin led to an even greater decrease in blood glucose than that seen with cisplatin alone. The serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of cisplatin-treated rats were significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione reductase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly increased. Addition of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa in combination with cisplatin partially prevented many changes in the activities of serum enzymes. In cisplatin-treated rats, the liver activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly increased, whereas much greater changes were found in the kidneys, with increased activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased activities of alkaline phosphatase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, as well as a decreased phosphorylation to oxidation ratio in the mitochondria, indicating reduced adenosine triphosphate production. Also, administration of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa together with cisplatin partially reversed many of the kidney enzymes changes induced by cisplatin

  4. Processed stigmas of Crocus sativus L. imaged by MALDI-based MS.

    PubMed

    Pittenauer, Ernst; Rados, Edita; Koulakiotis, Nikolaos-Stavros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Allmaier, Günter

    2016-06-01

    The processed, i.e. dried under certain conditions, stigmas of Crocus sativus L. are one of the most expensive plant parts used commercially. For the color, aroma and biological activity a very complex mixture of glycolipids termed crocins are responsible. Therefore studying structural composition and distribution in the commercial plant material is of great interest. We showed successfully the application of a MALDI-based mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) approach for stigmas towards different crocin species. MSI opens up the investigation of processed plant materials in various fields allowing studying the processing in detail as well as adulteration attempts (which are quite frequent due to the price of the material). Furthermore, we could demonstrate that a similar number of crocins present in stigmas could be detected by MALDI MSI compared to the classical approach of analyzing the solvent-extract of stigmas by MALDI-MS.

  5. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes. PMID:26672790

  6. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity.

  7. Intoxication by the chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus): nervous system and skeletal findings.

    PubMed

    Cohn, D F; Streifler, M

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred patients with chronic neurolathyrism were examined 25-35 years after the appearance of signs and symptoms of intoxication of the chickling pea. Their daily food intake, in a German forced labor camp during World War II, consisted of 400 g Lathyrus sativus peas cooked in water plus 200 g bread baked of barley and straw. Apart from the classic signs of neurolathyrism, i.e., a spastic paraparesis, in five cases, the skeletal findings observed were similar to experimental osteolathyrism. There was an absence of ossification centers of the iliac creasts, ischial tuberosities and vertebrae; and bowing with thickening of the femoral shaft also occurred. These bony changes in human lathyrism have not been described before.

  8. Influence of heat stress on genome of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girjesh; Tripathi, Ritambhara

    2009-05-01

    Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability that culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. Several abiotic environmental factors such as heat may cause anomalies at genetic level that ultimately impair fertility of the plant. In the present study, the effect of heat stress on various morphological and cytological parameters has been studied in Lathyrus sativus. The most interesting anomaly recorded during the study was the formation of synezetic knot in prophase-l instead of leptotene and zygotene stages. Furthermore, a large number of interesting karyological and cytoplasmic irregularities viz. multivalents, transmigration of chromosomes, bridges, tripolarity, etc. were found among the heat treated population of 48 hr duration in M2 generation. PMID:20120467

  9. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease.

  10. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  11. Razi’s Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review

    PubMed Central

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi’s Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases. PMID:26877844

  12. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity. PMID:27530819

  13. Processed stigmas of Crocus sativus L. imaged by MALDI-based MS.

    PubMed

    Pittenauer, Ernst; Rados, Edita; Koulakiotis, Nikolaos-Stavros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Allmaier, Günter

    2016-06-01

    The processed, i.e. dried under certain conditions, stigmas of Crocus sativus L. are one of the most expensive plant parts used commercially. For the color, aroma and biological activity a very complex mixture of glycolipids termed crocins are responsible. Therefore studying structural composition and distribution in the commercial plant material is of great interest. We showed successfully the application of a MALDI-based mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) approach for stigmas towards different crocin species. MSI opens up the investigation of processed plant materials in various fields allowing studying the processing in detail as well as adulteration attempts (which are quite frequent due to the price of the material). Furthermore, we could demonstrate that a similar number of crocins present in stigmas could be detected by MALDI MSI compared to the classical approach of analyzing the solvent-extract of stigmas by MALDI-MS. PMID:27006097

  14. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w).

  15. Effects of plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Attri, Pankaj; Koga, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have studied the action of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on seeds of Raphanus sativus L. and analysis their growth. Our experimental data shows that Air, O2, and NO(10%)+N2 feeding gases plasma irradiation enhanced plant growth, whereas N2, He and Ar feeding gases plasma irradiation had little influence on plant growth. Moreover, humid air plasma irradiation was more effective in growth enhancement than dry one. More than 2.3 times faster growth was observed by 3 min air plasma irradiation with 40-90% relative humidity. The reactive species generated by plasma in gas phase were detected using optical emission spectroscopy and in liquid phase by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. We concluded that OH and O radicals were key species for plant growth enhancement. PMID:27021583

  16. Efficacy of random primer-pair arrays in plant genome analysis: a case study of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) for identification of wild and cultivated species.

    PubMed

    Gatphoh, E M; Sharma, S K; Rajkumari, K; Rama Rao, S

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of random primer-pair arrays compared to conventional RAPD method with a single decamer primer was evaluated using DNA from two species of Cucumis. The banding patterns of amplicons revealed enhanced utility of primer-pair arrays over conventional RAPDs, producing more bands and a higher degree of polymorphism, both at intra- and inter-specific levels. Amplification produced by both methods clearly distinguished a wild from a cultivated species of the genus Cucumis. The main advantage of the primer-pair RAPD over single-primer-based RAPD is the increase in the number of reactions and amplification products in the form of novel/unique bands with a limited number of primers. It also enables the generation of reliable amplicons with a large number of polymorphic bands, which can be linked to gene-governing traits, allowing sequence-characterized partial genome analysis. PMID:21823091

  17. Efficacy of random primer-pair arrays in plant genome analysis: a case study of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) for identification of wild and cultivated species.

    PubMed

    Gatphoh, E M; Sharma, S K; Rajkumari, K; Rama Rao, S

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of random primer-pair arrays compared to conventional RAPD method with a single decamer primer was evaluated using DNA from two species of Cucumis. The banding patterns of amplicons revealed enhanced utility of primer-pair arrays over conventional RAPDs, producing more bands and a higher degree of polymorphism, both at intra- and inter-specific levels. Amplification produced by both methods clearly distinguished a wild from a cultivated species of the genus Cucumis. The main advantage of the primer-pair RAPD over single-primer-based RAPD is the increase in the number of reactions and amplification products in the form of novel/unique bands with a limited number of primers. It also enables the generation of reliable amplicons with a large number of polymorphic bands, which can be linked to gene-governing traits, allowing sequence-characterized partial genome analysis.

  18. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-08-01

    The (133)Cs and (88)Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of (133)Cs, (88)Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for (88)Sr was far higher than that for (133)Cs when the concentration of (88)Sr was as the same as that of (133)Cs in the soil (The concentration of (88)Sr or (133)Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg(-1) to 40 mg kg(-1)). The highest (88)Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the highest (133)Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg(-1)), and the lowest (88)Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the lowest (133)Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg(-1)). The (88)Sr and (133)Cs TF values were 1.16-1.72 and 0.24-0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of (88)Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to (88)Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the (88)Sr stress than that under the (133)Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the (88)Sr stress than that under (133)Cs stress.

  19. In silico identification of miRNAs and their targets from the expressed sequence tags of Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Muvva, Charuvaka; Tewari, Lata; Aruna, Kasoju; Ranjit, Pabbati; MD, Zahoorullah S; MD, K A Matheen; Veeramachaneni, Hemanth

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel growing family of endogenous, small, non- coding, single-stranded RNA molecules directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database of Raphanus sativus, and according to a series of filtering criteria, a total of 48 miRNAs belonging to 9 miRNA families were identified, and 16 potential target genes of them were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode transcription factors or enzymes participating in regulation of development, growth and other physiological processes. Overall, our findings lay the foundation for further researches of miRNAs function in R.sativus. PMID:22359443

  20. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. These results suggest that the efficiency of radish foliage in increasing; root mass decreases with increased rainfall acidity since only foliage was exposed to the treatments.

  1. Cytosolic and Plastoglobule-targeted Carotenoid Dioxygenases from Crocus sativus Are Both Involved in β-Ionone Release*

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Angela; Rambla, José Luís; Santaella, Marcella; Gómez, M. Dolores; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    Saffron, the processed stigma of Crocus sativus, is characterized by the presence of several apocarotenoids that contribute to the color, flavor, and aroma of the spice. However, little is known about the synthesis of aroma compounds during the development of the C. sativus stigma. The developing stigma is nearly odorless, but before and at anthesis, the aromatic compound β-ionone becomes the principal norisoprenoid volatile in the stigma. In this study, four carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) genes, CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, CsCCD4a, and CsCCD4b, were isolated from C. sativus. Expression analysis showed that CsCCD1a was constitutively expressed, CsCCD1b was unique to the stigma tissue, but only CsCCD4a and -b had expression patterns consistent with the highest levels of β-carotene and emission of β-ionone derived during the stigma development. The CsCCD4 enzymes were localized in plastids and more specifically were present in the plastoglobules. The enzymatic activities of CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, and CsCCD4 enzymes were determined by Escherichia coli expression, and subsequent analysis of the volatile products was generated by GC/MS. The four CCDs fell in two phylogenetically divergent dioxygenase classes, but all could cleave β-carotene at the 9,10(9′,10′) positions to yield β-ionone. The data obtained suggest that all four C. sativus CCD enzymes may contribute in different ways to the production of β-ionone. In addition, the location and precise timing of β-ionone synthesis, together with its known activity as a fragrance and insect attractant, suggest that this volatile may have a role in Crocus pollination. PMID:18611853

  2. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants.

  3. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus Sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, G; Tarantilis, P A; Pitsikas, N

    2012-10-18

    Crocins are among the active components of the plant Crocus Sativus L. C. Sativus L. and its constituents were effective in different models of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder defined by the presence of obsessive thoughts and repetitive compulsive actions. The non selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist mCPP is known to induce OCD-like behavior (excessive self-grooming) in rodents and exacerbate symptoms in patients with OCD. The present study investigated whether or not crocins were able to counteract excessive self-grooming induced by mCPP (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Crocins (30 and 50mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated mCPP-induced excessive self-grooming. The present results also indicate that these effects of crocins on an animal model of OCD cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that the active constituents of C. Sativus L. crocins might play a role in compulsive behavior and support a functional interaction between crocins and the serotonergic system.

  4. Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-10-01

    Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them.

  5. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. Objectives In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive rats, in chronic exposure was evaluated. Materials and Methods Five weeks administration of three doses saffron aqueous extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of the effect of saffron on systolic blood pressure (SBP), was also evaluated. Results Our results indicated that chronic administration of saffron aqueous extract could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. This compound did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of saffron did not persist. Conclusions It is concluded that saffron aqueous extract possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:24624210

  6. Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-10-01

    Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them. PMID:23864230

  7. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency. PMID:26650829

  8. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency.

  9. Aqueous extract from Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. Var. niger) induces detoxification enzymes in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul R; Webber, David M; Barnes, David M

    2007-08-01

    Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger) is a member of the Cruciferae family that also contains broccoli and Brussels sprouts, well-known to contain health-promoting constituents. Spanish black radishes (SBR) contain high concentrations of a glucosinolate unique to the radish family, glucoraphasatin, which represents >65% of the total glucosinolates present in SBR. The metabolites of glucosinolates, such as isothiocyanates, are implicated in health promotion, although it is unclear whether glucosinolates themselves elicit a similar response. The crude aqueous extract from 0.3 to 3 mg of dry SBR material increased the activity of the phase II detoxification enzyme quinone reductase in the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line with a maximal effect at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Treatment of HepG2 cells with the crude aqueous extract of 1 mg of SBR per mL also significantly induced the expression of mRNA corresponding to the phase I detoxification enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 as well as the phase II detoxification enzymes: quinone reductase, heme oxygenase 1, and thioredoxin reductase 1. Previous studies have shown that the myrosinase metabolites of different glucosinolates vary in their ability to induce detoxification enzymes. Here, we show that while glucoraphasatin addition was ineffective, the isothiocyanate metabolite of glucoraphasatin, 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MIBITC), significantly induced phase II detoxification enzymes at a concentration of 10 microM. These data demonstrate that the crude aqueous extract of SBR and the isothiocyanate metabolite of glucoraphasatin, MIBITC, are potent inducers of detoxification enzymes in the HepG2 cell line.

  10. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest.

  11. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest. PMID:26183916

  12. Antisense suppression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) sucrose synthase 3 (CsSUS3) reduces hypoxic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyun; Sui, Xiaolei; Guo, Jinju; Wang, Zhenyu; Cheng, Jintao; Ma, Si; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2014-03-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) plays important roles in sugar metabolism and abiotic stress response. But the genes encoding SUS in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) have not been well studied. Here, we isolated four cucumber sucrose synthase genes (CsSUS). Among them, CsSUS3, which highly expressed in the roots, was chosen for further study. Immunolocalization and subcellular localization analysis indicated that CsSUS3 localized in the cytosol and the plasma membrane, and mainly existed in the companion cells of phloem in the roots. When suffering hypoxia stress from flooding, CsSUS3 expression and SUS activity in roots increased, especially in the lateral roots; moreover, the soluble SUS activity increased clearly, but the membrane fraction hardly changed. Compared with the wild-type cucumbers, the transgenic lines with antisense expression of CsSUS3 were more sensitive to flooding. After 6 d of flooding, the SUS activity, soluble sugar and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose (UDPG) content and the ratio of ATP/ADP in the roots of transgenic plants were significantly lower than that in wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic lines grew more slowly with more yellow necrosis in the leaves. These findings suggested CsSUS3 participated in resisting hypoxic stress. Furthermore, the mechanism of CsSUS3 in resisting hypoxic stress was also discussed.

  13. Effect of gamma rays on different explants of callus treatment of multiple shoots in Cucumis melo cv. Bathasa.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwarlu, M

    2008-09-01

    A mutagenesis programme was carried out using physical mutagens (gamma rays) on Cucumis melo cv. Bathasa. In irradiated seeds the number of shoots formed in the lower doses was significantly higher than the controls. Decrease in the number of shoots and shoot bud formation was observed with higher doses in all the explants studies. There was complete lethality in the 10, 15 and 20 kR doses. In irradiated stem cultures the maximum number of shoots were observed in 2 kR. The number of shoots decreased with increasing doses of irradiation. At higher doses of 4 and 5kR, light green compact callus was formed in almost all the explants. The effect of lower doses of gamma irradiation on shoot bud formation and rooting efficiency from nodal explants cultured on MS +2.0 mgl(-1) L-glutamic acid + 0.5 mgl(-1) BAP, stimulation of shoot and root induction were studied. The number of shoots and root lengths decreased with the increasing dosage of irradiation. The irradiated callus was grown on solidified MS medium with containing 2.0 mgl(-1) BAP + 1.0 mgl(-1) IAA. There was a significant stimulation of growth in the callus at lower doses. At higher doses like 15 and 20 kRs growth was drastically reduced.

  14. Chlorophenoxyacetic acid and chloropyridylphenylurea accelerate translocation of photoassimilates to parthenocarpic and seeded fruits of muskmelon (Cucumis melo).

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xian; Kobayashi, Fumiyuki; Ikeura, Hiromi; Hayata, Yasuyoshi

    2011-06-15

    We compared the effect of p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (p-CPA) and 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) on parthenocarpic and seeded muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruits in regards to fruit development and the transport of photoassimilates from leaves exposed to ¹⁴CO₂ to the developing fruits. Ten days after anthesis (DAA), the fresh weight, total ¹⁴C-radioactivity and contents of ¹⁴C-sucrose and ¹⁴C-fructose were higher in the CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits than in seeded fruits. However, at 35 DAA, fresh weight and sucrose content in mesocarp, placenta and empty seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower than in seeded fruits. Also, total ¹⁴C-radioactivity and ¹⁴C-sugar content of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower as well as the translocation rate of ¹⁴C-photoassimilates into these fruits. Application of p-CPA to the parthenocarpic fruits at 10 and 25 DAA increased fresh weight and sugar content. Moreover, these treatments elevated the total ¹⁴C-radioactivity, ¹⁴C-sucrose content and the translocation rate of ¹⁴C-photoassimilates. The ¹⁴C-radioactivity along the translocation pathway from leaf to petiole, stem, lateral shoot and peduncle showed a declining pattern but dramatically increased again in the fruits. These results suggest that the fruit's sink strength was regulated by the seed and enhanced by the application of p-CPA. PMID:21168241

  15. Revisiting extraction of bioactive apocarotenoids from Crocus sativus L. dry stigmas (saffron).

    PubMed

    Kyriakoudi, Anastasia; Chrysanthou, Andreas; Mantzouridou, Fani; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2012-11-28

    An ultrasound assisted extraction method is proposed for the recovery of bioactive glycosides (i.e. crocins and picrocrocin) from Crocus sativus L. dry stigmas using aqueous methanol. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction parameters, namely, the percentage of methanol (%), the duration (min) and the duty cycles (s) of sonication. Optical microscopy, spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC-DAD were employed to follow pros and cons of the process. Additional experiments were conducted to compare recoveries with those under other agitation conditions (e.g. magnetic stirring according to ISO 3632-2 standard). The percentage of methanol, the sonication duration and duty cycles combination that can be recommended as optimum for the recovery of crocins and picrocrocin were 50%, 30 min, 0.2s and 0.44%, 30 min, 0.6s, respectively. Picrocrocin levels were not influenced dramatically under the optimum conditions for crocins extraction (11±2 instead of 12±1 mg kg(-1) dry stigmas, respectively) so that these can be considered optimum for both categories of tested compounds. Ultrasound assisted extraction speeded up further recovery of these precious apocarotenoids. Our findings for extraction conditions are useful for both industrial and analytical applications and should be considered in a forthcoming revision of the ISO 3632-2 technical standard.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antitumor phenylpropanoid sucrosides from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Park, Yong Joo; Moon, Eunjung; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Jei Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Raphanus sativus seeds resulted in the isolation and identification of eight phenylpropanoid sucrosides (1-8) including two new compounds, named raphasativuside A and B (1-2) from the most active CHCl₃-soluble fraction. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D-NMR data, and chemical reaction experiments. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ values of 21.63 and 26.96 μM, respectively. All isolates were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15). Compounds 1-7 showed consistent cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.71-27.92 μM. Additionally, the free-radical scavenging activity of 1-8 was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay where compounds 1, 3, and 4 scavenged DPPH radical strongly with IC₅₀ values of 23.05, 27.10, and 29.63 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:25466198

  17. Methylation Pattern of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Nuclear Ribosomal RNA Genes 1

    PubMed Central

    Delseny, Michel; Laroche, Monique; Penon, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The methylation pattern of radish Raphanus sativus nuclear rDNA has been investigated using the Hpa II, Msp I, and Hha I restriction enzymes. The presence of numerous target sites for these enzymes has been shown using cloned rDNA fragments. A large fraction of the numerous rDNA units are heavily methylated, being completely resistant to Hpa II and Hpa I. However, specific sites are constantly available in another fraction of the units and are therefore unmethylated. The use of different probes allowed us to demonstrate that hypomethylated sites are present in different regions. Major hypomethylated Hha I sites have been mapped in the 5′ portion of 25S rRNA coding sequence. Among the hypomethylated fraction, different methylation patterns coexist. It has been possible to demonstrate that methylation patterns are specific for particular units. The Hha I pattern of rDNA in tissues of different developmental stages was analyzed. Evidence for possible tissue specific differences in the methylation pattern is reported. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:16663896

  18. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  19. A Case of Anaphylaxis Induced by Contact with Young Radish (Raphanus sativus L).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Kang, Hye-Ran; Ha, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Young radish (Raphanus sativus L), a member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), is a common ingredient of Kimchi. Although few reports have described anaphylaxis to cruciferous vegetables, we report the case of anaphylaxis induced by contact with young radish. A 46-year-old female with a history of contact allergy to metal presented to our emergency room (ER) with dizziness, generalized eruption and gastrointestinal upset. Her symptoms developed after re-exposure to young radish while chopping it. Hypotensive blood pressures were noted. Three days prior, the patient had experienced generalized urticaria with pruritus immediately after chopping the fresh young radish, which resolved spontaneously. In the ER, her symptoms improved by the administration of epinephrine (0.3 mL), antihistamine (chlorpheniramine) and isotonic saline hydration. A skin prick test with young radish extract showed positive reactivity. The same skin test was negative in five adult controls. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity could be an important immunologic mechanism in the development of young radish-induced anaphylaxis.

  20. Initiation of spontaneous tumors in radish (Raphanus sativus): Cellular, molecular and physiological events.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva Osipova, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Vinogradova, Alena P; Gancheva, Maria S; Azarakhsh, Mahboobeh; Ilina, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Dodueva, Irina E; Lutova, Lyudmila A

    2015-01-15

    In plant meristems, the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained by phytohormones, specifically auxin and cytokinin, as well as transcription factors. Changing of the cytokinin/auxin balance in plants may lead to developmental abnormalities, and in particular, to the formation of tumors. The examples of spontaneous tumor formation in plants include tumors formed on the roots of radish (Raphanus sativus) inbred lines. Previously, it was found that the cytokinin/auxin ratio is altered in radish tumors. In this study, a detailed histological analysis of spontaneous radish tumors was performed, revealing a possible mechanism of tumor formation, namely abnormal cambial activity. The analysis of cell proliferation patterns revealed meristematic foci in radish tumors. By using a fusion of an auxin-responsive promoter (DR5) and a reporter gene, the involvement of auxin in developmental processes in tumors was shown. In addition, the expression of the root meristem-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) gene was observed in cells adjacent to meristematic foci. Taken together, the results of the present study show that tumor tissues share some characteristics with root apical meristems, including the presence of auxin-response maxima in meristematic foci with adjacent cells expressing WOX5.

  1. Purification and characterization of a cationic peroxidase Cs in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Soo; Lee, Dong Ju

    2005-06-01

    A short distance migrating cationic peroxidase from Korean radish seeds (Raphanus sativus) was detected. Cationic peroxidase Cs was purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The molecular mass of the purified cationic peroxidase Cs was estimated to be about 44 kDa on SDS-PAGE. After reconstitution of apoperoxidase Cs with protohemin, the absorption spectra revealed a new peak in the Soret region around 400 nm, which is typical in a classical type III peroxidase family. The optimum pH of peroxidase activity for o-dianisidine oxidation was observed at pH 7.0. Kinetic studies revealed that the reconstituted cationic peroxidase Cs has Km values of 1.18 mM and of 1.27 mM for o-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The cationic peroxidase Cs showed the peroxidase activities for native substrates, such as coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and scopoletin. This result suggested that cationic peroxidase Cs plays an important role in plant cell wall formation during seed germination.

  2. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops.

  3. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-01

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  4. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.

  5. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  6. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antitumor phenylpropanoid sucrosides from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Park, Yong Joo; Moon, Eunjung; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Jei Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Raphanus sativus seeds resulted in the isolation and identification of eight phenylpropanoid sucrosides (1-8) including two new compounds, named raphasativuside A and B (1-2) from the most active CHCl₃-soluble fraction. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D-NMR data, and chemical reaction experiments. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ values of 21.63 and 26.96 μM, respectively. All isolates were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15). Compounds 1-7 showed consistent cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.71-27.92 μM. Additionally, the free-radical scavenging activity of 1-8 was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay where compounds 1, 3, and 4 scavenged DPPH radical strongly with IC₅₀ values of 23.05, 27.10, and 29.63 μg/mL, respectively.

  8. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells.

  9. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings. PMID:27403251

  10. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  11. Bacillus subtilis FZB24® Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24® on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. subtilis FZB24®. Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24® may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required. PMID:18622904

  12. Protective Effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiping; Xu, Yanjiao; Zhang, Chengliang; Deng, Li; Chang, Mujun; Yu, Zaoqin; Liu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26579201

  13. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. PMID:25305245

  14. Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Castro-Díaz, Nathaly; Salaun, Bruno; Perret, Rachel; Sierro, Sophie; Romero, Jackeline F; Fernández, Jose-Antonio; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Romero, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Protein and peptide-based vaccines provide rigorously formulated antigens. However, these purified products are only weakly immunogenic by themselves and therefore require the addition of immunostimulatory components or adjuvants in the vaccine formulation. Various compounds derived from pathogens, minerals or plants, possess pro-inflammatory properties which allow them to act as adjuvants and contribute to the induction of an effective immune response. The results presented here demonstrate the adjuvant properties of novel saponins derived from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus. In vivo immunization studies and tumor protection experiments unambiguously establish the value of saffron saponins as candidate adjuvants. These saponins were indeed able to increase both humoral and cellular immune responses to protein-based vaccines, ultimately providing a significant degree of protection against tumor challenge when administered in combination with a tumor antigen. This preclinical study provides an in depth immunological characterization of a new saponin as a vaccine adjuvant, and encourages its further development for use in vaccine formulations. PMID:22079266

  15. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings. PMID:27403251

  16. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changkeun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Seyedian, Ramin; Jo, MiNa; Kim, Jehein; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2012-12-15

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) has been an important subject of research in the past two decades because of its various biological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities. On the other hand, the molecular bases of its actions have been scarcely understood. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of the hypoglycemic actions of saffron through investigating its signaling pathways associated with glucose metabolism in C(2)C(12) skeletal muscle cells. Saffron strongly enhanced glucose uptake and the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)/ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), but not PI 3-kinase (Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt. Interestingly, the co-treatment of saffron and insulin further improved the insulin sensitivity via both insulin-independent (AMPK/ACC and MAPKs) and insulin-dependent (PI 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR) pathways. It also suggested that there is a crosstalk between the two signaling pathways of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells. These results could be confirmed from the findings of GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, AMPK plays a major role in the effects of saffron on glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells. Our study provides important insights for the possible mechanism of action of saffron and its potential as a therapeutic agent in diabetic patients.

  17. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds.

  18. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  19. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes.

  20. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes. PMID:27664653

  1. Changes in chemical composition during development of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Korus, Anna; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2003-12-01

    The level of chemical components was determined in seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), cv. Krab, harvested at a dry matter content between 25.9 and 49.6 g/100 g of the raw material, and divided into five degrees of maturity. The results presented suggest that, in general, with an increasing maturity of seeds, the level of the following components increased if related to fresh matter: starch, dietary fibre, acids, total and protein nitrogen, total amino acids and sulphur amino acids, ash and its alkalinity, magnesium, calcium, total phosphorus and phytic phosphorus, and thiamine. The following components were reduced: vitamin C, riboflavin, carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls. No such regularity could be found with respect to the accumulation of sugars, essential amino acids, and iron. By expressing the results in dry matter, increases were noted in starch, protein nitrogen, and thiamine. The content of sugars, total nitrogen, total amino acids, essential and sulphur amino acids, ash and its alkalinity, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls were reduced while that of dietary fibre, iron, calcium, and phytic phosphorus varied. PMID:14727766

  2. Protective Effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiping; Xu, Yanjiao; Zhang, Chengliang; Deng, Li; Chang, Mujun; Yu, Zaoqin; Liu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has been reported to exhibit antispasmodic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and gallbladder-repairing effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of CBS on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 5% DSS in drinking water. CBS was given orally at 50 and 150 mg/kg once per day for 7 days. Body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured. Administration of CBS significantly reserved these changes, decreased the MPO activity and MDA and NO level, and increased the SOD activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation suggested that CBS alleviated edema, mucosal damage, and inflammatory cells infiltration induced by DSS in the colon. Moreover, CBS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 in the colon tissue. Our data suggested that CBS exerted protective effect on DSS-induced UC partially through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26579201

  3. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications. PMID:24022215

  4. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications.

  5. Regulation of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis by auxin in melon, Cucumis melo L.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Y; Kanno, T; Nishio, T

    1991-08-01

    Various tissues of seeds and seedlings of melon were cultured in vitro to study the effects of auxin concentration on organogenesis and embryogenesis. Adventitious shoots and somatic embryos were formed from explants of cotyledons of mature seeds, hypocotyls of seedlings, and leaves and petioles of young plantlets. Expanded cotyledons of seedlings formed only adventitious shoots. All tissues responded similarly to the 2,4-D concentration in the media, that is, adventitious shoots were formed at low concentration, callus proliferated without differentiation at intermediate concentration and somatic embryos were induced at high concentration. Cotyledons of mature seeds formed both adventitious shoots and somatic embryos more efficiently than any other tissues cultured.Effects of three auxins, 2,4-D, NAA and IAA, on organogenesis and embryogenesis were compared using cotyledons of mature seeds. Adventitious shoots were formed at low level of auxins (0 to 0.01 mg/l 2,4-D; 0 to 0.1 mg/l NAA; 0 to 1.0 mg/l IAA), and embryos were formed at high level of auxins (1.0 to 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D; 3.0 to 10.0 mg/l NAA; 20.0 to 100.0 mg/l IAA). IAA gave more efficient shoot formation and embryogenesis than the other auxins. PMID:24221584

  6. The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

  7. Stability of polyadenylic and polyadenylated ribonucleic acids in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Aspart, L; Cooke, R; Delseny, M

    1979-08-29

    The stability of polyadenylic acid and polyadenylated RNA was investigated in young radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings. We first studied the decay of poly(A) content, using a [3H]poly(U) assay, following a complete block of transcription by cordycepin (200 microgram/ml). Two lifetime classes of polyadenylic acid have been determined in these seedlings: a short-lived component with a half-life of 30 min which represents 60% of poly(A) and a more stable component with varying half-lives of which the majority range from 4-10 h and a few are considerably longer. During this period rRNA was shown to decay linearly, taking about 41 h for half of this RNA to disappear. The life-time of the other moiety of polyadenylated-RNA was analysed by continuous labelling with [3H]uridine. We have been able to demonstrate that a significant part of the mRNA molecules turns over with a half-life similar to that of the more slowly turning-over poly(A). No evidence could be obtained for rapidly turning-over messenger RNA. Thus the rapidly turning over poly(A) could correspond to a poly(A) turn-over independent of the remainder of the sequence. When labelling was very long, an apparent steady-state was reached and we determined the polyadenylated RNA content of seedlings to be 2.2% of whole cell RNA. Finally, these results were compared with those previously obtained in studying early germination of radish embryo axes. In contrast with stored mRNA which is rapidly degraded following imbibition, part of the mRNA present in 22 h old seedlings is stable for several hours.

  8. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus and gene evolution of cruciferous mitochondrial types.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Wang, Yankun; Gu, Bingchao; He, Jianbo; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2013-03-20

    To explore the mitochondrial genes of the Cruciferae family, the mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus (sat) was sequenced and annotated. The circular mitochondrial genome of sat is 239,723 bp and includes 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 17 tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains a pair of large repeat sequences 5.9 kb in length, which may mediate genome reorganization into two sub-genomic circles, with predicted sizes of 124.8 kb and 115.0 kb, respectively. Furthermore, gene evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Cruciferae family was analyzed using sat mitochondrial type (mitotype), together with six other reported mitotypes. The cruciferous mitochondrial genomes have maintained almost the same set of functional genes. Compared with Cycas taitungensis (a representative gymnosperm), the mitochondrial genomes of the Cruciferae have lost nine protein-coding genes and seven mitochondrial-like tRNA genes, but acquired six chloroplast-like tRNAs. Among the Cruciferae, to maintain the same set of genes that are necessary for mitochondrial function, the exons of the genes have changed at the lowest rates, as indicated by the numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function in the cruciferous genomes are not conserved. Evolutionary events, such as mutations, genome reorganizations and sequence insertions or deletions (indels), have resulted in the non-conserved ORFs in the cruciferous mitochondrial genomes, which is becoming significantly different among mitotypes. This work represents the first phylogenic explanation of the evolution of genes of known function in the Cruciferae family. It revealed significant variation in ORFs and the causes of such variation.

  10. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status.

  11. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family.

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  13. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety 'BioR-231' and 'Hooghly Local', respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  14. Cell wall yield properties of growing tissue: evaluation by in vivo stress relaxation. [Pisum sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1985-06-01

    Growing pea stem tissue, when isolated from an external supply of water, undergoes stress relaxation because of continued loosening of the cell wall. A theoretical analysis is presented to show that such stress relaxation should result in an exponential decrease in turgor pressure down to the yield threshold (Y), with a rate constant given by phi epsilon where phi is the metabolically maintained irreversible extensibility of the cell wall and epsilon is the volumetric elastic modulus of the cell. Stress relaxation was measured in pea (Pisum sativus L.) stem segments using the pressure microprobe technique. From the rate of stress relaxation, phi of segments pretreated with water was calculated to be 0.08 per megapascal per hour while that of auxin-pretreated tissue was 0.24 per megapascal per hour. These values agreed closely with estimates of phi made by a steady-state technique. The yield threshold (0.29 megapascal) was not affected by auxin. A theoretical analysis is also presented to show that the tissue hydraulic conductance may be estimated from the T/sub 1/2/ of tissue swelling. Experimentally, pea stems had a swelling T/sub 1/2/ of 2.0 minutes, corresponding to a relative hydraulic conductance of about 2.0 per megapascal per hour. This value is at least 8 times larger than phi. From these data and from computer modeling, it appears that the radial gradient in water potential which sustains water uptake in growing pea segments is small (0.04 megapascal). This means that hydraulic conductance does not substantially restrict growth. The results also demonstrate that the stimulation of growth by auxin can be entirely accounted for by the change in phi.

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs.

  16. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family. PMID:25151309

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  18. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants. PMID:24231324

  19. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses.

  20. Production and characterization of intertribal somatic hybrids of Raphanus sativus and Brassica rapa with dye and medicinal plant Isatis indigotica.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yuqin; Sun, Jian; Liu, Yan; Ge, Xianhong; Zhao, Zhigang; Yao, Xingcheng; Li, Zaiyun

    2008-05-01

    Intertribal somatic hybrids of Raphanus sativus (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica rapa spp. chinensis (2n = 20, AA) with the dye and medicinal plant Isatis indigotica (2n = 14, I I) were firstly obtained by polyethylene glycol-induced symmetric fusions of mesophyll protoplasts. One mature hybrid with R. sativus established in field had intermediate morphology but was totally sterile. It had the expected chromosome number (2n = 32, RRI I) and parental chromosomes were distinguished by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis, and these chromosomes were paired as 16 bivalents in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at diakinesis and mainly segregated equally as 16:16 at anaphase I (A I), but the meiotic disturbance in second division was obvious. Five mature hybrids with B. rapa established in field were morphologically intermediate but showed some differences in phenotypic traits and fertility, two were partially fertile. Cytological and GISH investigations revealed that these hybrids had 2n = 48 with AAIIII complement and their PMCs showed normal pairing of 24 bivalents and mainly equal segregation 24:24, but meiotic abnormalities of lagging chromosomes and micronuclei appeared frequently during second divisions. AFLP analysis showed that all of these hybrids had mainly the DNA banding pattern from the addition of two parents plus some alterations. Some hybrids should be used for the genetic improvement of crops and the dye and medicinal plant.