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  1. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  2. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  3. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  4. LAVA (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology): A conceptual framework for automated risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Tisinger, R.M.; Brown, D.C.; FitzGerald, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed an original methodology for performing risk analyses on subject systems characterized by a general set of asset categories, a general spectrum of threats, a definable system-specific set of safeguards protecting the assets from the threats, and a general set of outcomes resulting from threats exploiting weaknesses in the safeguards system. The Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology (LAVA) models complex systems having large amounts of ''soft'' information about both the system itself and occurrences related to the system. Its structure lends itself well to automation on a portable computer, making it possible to analyze numerous similar but geographically separated installations consistently and in as much depth as the subject system warrants. LAVA is based on hierarchical systems theory, event trees, fuzzy sets, natural-language processing, decision theory, and utility theory. LAVA's framework is a hierarchical set of fuzzy event trees that relate the results of several embedded (or sub-) analyses: a vulnerability assessment providing information about the presence and efficacy of system safeguards, a threat analysis providing information about static (background) and dynamic (changing) threat components coupled with an analysis of asset ''attractiveness'' to the dynamic threat, and a consequence analysis providing information about the outcome spectrum's severity measures and impact values. By using LAVA, we have modeled our widely used computer security application as well as LAVA/CS systems for physical protection, transborder data flow, contract awards, and property management. It is presently being applied for modeling risk management in embedded systems, survivability systems, and weapons systems security. LAVA is especially effective in modeling subject systems that include a large human component.

  5. La EPA propone normas más rigurosas para las personas que aplican los plaguicidas de más alto riesgo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  6. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  7. Preliminary geohydrologic conceptual model of the Los Medanos region near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for the purpose of performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brinster, K.F. )

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a geohydrologic conceptual model of the northern Delaware Basin to be used in modeling three-dimensional, regional ground-water flow for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the Los Medanos region near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Geochemical and hydrological evidence indicates that flow is transient in the Rustler Formation and the Capitan aquifer in response to changing geologic, hydrologic, and climatic conditions. Before the Pleistocene, ground-water flow in the Rustler Formation was generally eastward, but uneven tilting of the Delaware Basin lowered the regional base level and formed fractures in the evaporitic sequence of rocks approximately parallel to the basin axis. Dissolution along the fractures, coupled with erosion, formed Nash Draw. Also, the drop in base level resulted in an increase in the carrying power of the Pecos River, which began incising the Capitan/aquifer near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Erosion and downcutting released hydraulic pressure that caused a reversal in Rustler ground-water flow direction near the WIPP. Flow in the Rustler west of the WIPP is toward Nash Draw and eventually toward Malaga Bend; flow south of the WIPP is toward Malaga Bend. 126 refs., 70 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Anuncios de servicio público para proteger a los trabajadores de plaguicidas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estos archivos de anuncios de servicio público se pueden descargar libremente para su uso en la formación, transmisiones de audio, etc.(These public service announcement files can be freely downloaded for use in training, audio broadcasts, etc.)

  9. Comprension de los conceptos de los enlaces ionico y covalente en estudiantes universitarios del primer curso de quimica general

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros Benavides, Maria Elvira

    Para este trabajo utilizamos el estudio de casos cualitativo que se llevo a cabo en una universidad privada de Puerto Rico. Empleamos como unidad de analisis el concepto de enlace quimico, ionico y covalente. Los participantes fueron los estudiantes de la seccion nocturna del curso de Quimica General I. La investigacion se desarrollo por medio de dos entrevistas de persona a persona, observaciones de las expresiones no verbales y la hoja de identificacion de conceptos. Para la triangulacion tomamos en consideracion las preconcepciones erroneas, las concepciones alternativas y el mapa de conceptos de cada participante. Preparamos un mapa de conceptos para el enlace quimico validado por un comite de expertos. Tambien, elaboramos los mapas de conceptos de los participantes que sirvieron para varios propositos: conocer la estructura conceptual, expresar los logros, hacer comparaciones e identificar la presencia de concepciones alternativas. Entre los hallazgos encontramos que todos los participantes poseen conocimiento previo de los enlaces quimicos ionico y covalente y dentro de ese conocimiento existen preconcepciones erroneas mas numerosas para el enlace ionico. Al principio del semestre el 50% de los participantes demostraron tener "carencia fuerte de conceptos" tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente. Al finalizar el semestre encontramos en el 40% de los participantes concepciones alternativas tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente y el 90% no lograron distinguir un enlace del otro. Nuestras conclusiones fueron que los participantes sin distincion del aprovechamiento academico demostraron tener la tendencia de "carencia fuerte de conceptos" tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente, presentaron dificultad al integrar los conceptos de los enlaces quimicos ionico y covalente que se pusieron de manifiesto al dar los ejemplos. Las preconcepciones erroneas contribuyen en el desarrollo de las concepciones alternativas. Ademas, los

  10. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  11. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.

  12. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  13. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  14. Conceptual Metaphor Meets Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the metaphorical representation of concepts and the appropriation of language-based construals can be hypothesized as additional sources of conceptual change alongside those previously proposed. Analyses of construals implicit in the lay and scientific use of the noun "energy" from the perspective of the theory of conceptual…

  15. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  16. Leyendo con tu hijo: Consejos practicos para los padres... (Reading with Your Child: Practical Advice for Parents...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y…

  17. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  18. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  19. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  20. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  1. Communication, Conceptualization and Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Adel; Hartley, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of interpretation starts, which invokes a process of conceptualization. According to Mayes, successful conceptualization will need the support of learning activities. Hence, machine mediated…

  2. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  3. Model Building for Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David; Strobel, Johannes; Gottdenker, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual change is a popular, contemporary conception of meaningful learning. Conceptual change describes changes in conceptual frameworks (mental models or personal theories) that learners construct to comprehend phenomena. Different theories of conceptual change describe the reorganization of conceptual frameworks that results from different…

  4. Embodied conceptual combination.

    PubMed

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature.

  5. Embodied Conceptual Combination

    PubMed Central

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature. PMID:21833267

  6. Como Prepararse a Tiempo para la Universidad: Un Manual para los Padres de Alumnos que Cursan la Escuela Intermedia (Getting Ready for College Early: A Handbook for Parents of Students in the Middle and Junior High School Years).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation.

    This Spanish language booklet, also available in English, provides "los cuatro pasos"--four steps that parents and children can take to ensure that students properly prepare for college. Step one discusses why it is important to go to college; reasons include better job opportunities, more earning potential, and the increased variety of jobs one…

  7. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  8. Conceptualizing and experiencing compassion.

    PubMed

    Condon, Paul; Feldman Barrett, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    Does compassion feel pleasant or unpleasant? Westerners tend to categorize compassion as a pleasant or positive emotion, but laboratory compassion inductions, which present another's suffering, may elicit unpleasant feelings. Across two studies, we examined whether prototypical conceptualizations of compassion (as pleasant) differ from experiences of compassion (as unpleasant). After laboratory-based neutral or compassion inductions, participants made abstract judgments about compassion relative to various emotion-related adjectives, thereby providing a prototypical conceptualization of compassion. Participants also rated their own affective states, thereby indicating experiences of compassion. Conceptualizations of compassion were pleasant across neutral and compassion inductions. After exposure to others' suffering, however, participants felt increased levels of compassion and unpleasant affect, but not pleasant affect. After neutral inductions, participants reported more pleasant than unpleasant affect, with moderate levels of compassion. Thus, prototypical conceptualizations of compassion are pleasant, but experiences of compassion can feel pleasant or unpleasant. The implications for emotion theory in general are discussed.

  9. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  10. Conceptual frameworks in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundak, David

    2016-06-01

    How to evaluate students' astronomy understanding is still an open question. Even though some methods and tools to help students have already been developed, the sources of students' difficulties and misunderstanding in astronomy is still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the development of conceptual systems in astronomy by 50 engineering students, as a result of learning a general course on astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA) that was initially used in 1989, was adapted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool included 23 questions, and five to six optional answers were given for each question. Each of the answers was characterized by one of the four conceptual astronomical frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal or scientific. The paper describes the development of the tool and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to identify the conceptual frameworks of the students at the beginning of the course and at its end. CFA enabled us to evaluate the paradigmatic change of students following the course and also the extent of the general improvement in astronomical knowledge. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index) was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their understanding of conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks.

  11. Changing Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews Giyoo Hatano's ground-breaking theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions to conceptual change research. In particular, his discovery of "vitalism" as part of children's legitimate and distinctive biology at early ages stands as a landmark. In addition, his work reinterpreted childhood "personification," changing…

  12. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  13. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  15. Conceptualizing Functional Neuroplasticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafman, Jordan

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for conceptualizing four forms of cognitive neuroplasticity. The concepts include: (1) homologous area adaptivity; (2) cross-modal reassignment; (3) map expansion; and (4) compensatory masquerade. The limitations of each form of plasticity are presented. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  17. Developing a Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Kathleen

    1979-01-01

    As a screening tool for curriculum priorities, a pattern of curriculum design and redevelopment for the associate degree technical nursing program was explored. Curriculum developers examined three components: student, setting, and subject. The evolved conceptual framework, based on Orem's self-care theory, of a continuum of nursing assistance is…

  18. Volkswagen gastará hasta $14.7 mil millones para transigir alegaciones de haber mentido en las pruebas de emisiones y haber engañado a los clientes de vehículos diesel de 2.0 litros

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comunicado de prensa de la EPA: Volkswagen gastará hasta $14.7 mil millones para transigir alegaciones de haber mentido en las pruebas de emisiones y haber engañado a los clientes de vehículos diesel de 2.0 litros

  19. Conceptual IT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  20. PRA and Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.

  1. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  2. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  3. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  4. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  5. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…

  6. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A

  7. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  8. Tactical missile conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmon, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    This thesis presents the theory necessary for the conceptual design of a tactical missile. The design process begins with the well known linear aerodynamic theory for initial sizing and later includes nonlinear effects to determine the final design of the missile. Where theory does not apply, empirical methods are presented which are known to give accurate results. An air-to-air missile is designed for a specific threat as an example which immediately follows the development of the theory for each section. Several small digital computer programs are presented and used for analysis of specific areas of the design. One large program (AEROL) is used for determining the aerodynamic coefficients of the final design.

  9. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  10. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  11. Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

  12. Further Conceptualization of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A review and extension of previous conceptualizations of treatment acceptability is provided in light of progress within the area of behavior treatment development and implementation. Factors including legislation, advances in research, and service delivery models are examined as to their relationship with a comprehensive conceptualization of…

  13. What Does Conceptual Understanding Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Florence S.; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2006-01-01

    All advocates of curriculum reform talk about an increased emphasis on conceptual understanding in mathematics. In this article, the authors use many examples to address the following issues: What does conceptual understanding mean, especially in introductory courses such as college algebra, precalculus, or calculus? How do we recognize its…

  14. Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information; Fideicomiso para la ampliacion de infraestructura y eficientizacion del agua potable, drenaje sanitario y saneamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de saltillo, coahuila

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the second of two volumes. It contains the appendices and is divided into the following sections: (1) Appendix A - Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Regulations; (2) Appendix B - Flow Monitoring Program Results; (3) Appendix C - Partial Results for the First Monitoring Period; (4) Appendix D - Characterization Program; (5) Appendix E - Characterization Program Results; (6) Appendix F - Preliminary Treatment Unit Design and Cost Estimation; (7) Appendix G - List of Threatened and Endangered Species; (8) Appendix H - Cost Estimation for the Wastewater Treatment Plant; (9) Appendix I - Hydraulic and Cost Calculations for Interceptors; (10) Appendix J - Financial Feasibility Worksheets.

  15. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e[mu] coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study [pi][sup 0] and [eta] production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the [phi] meson (via K[sup +]K[sup [minus

  16. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    ROBINSON,K.

    2006-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has prepared a conceptual design for a world class user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the ''National Synchrotron Light Source II'' (NSLS-II), will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. Together these will enable the study of material properties and functions with a spatial resolution of {approx}1 nm, an energy resolution of {approx}0.1 meV, and the ultra high sensitivity required to perform spectroscopy on a single atom. The overall objective of the NSLS-II project is to deliver a research facility to advance fundamental science and have the capability to characterize and understand physical properties at the nanoscale, the processes by which nanomaterials can be manipulated and assembled into more complex hierarchical structures, and the new phenomena resulting from such assemblages. It will also be a user facility made available to researchers engaged in a broad spectrum of disciplines from universities, industries, and other laboratories.

  17. ERHIC Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Beebe-Wang,J.; Ben-Zvi,I.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.N.; MacKay, W.W.; Montag, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2008-08-25

    The conceptual design of the high luminosity electron-ion collider, eRHIC, is presented. The goal of eRHIC is to provide collisions of electrons (and possibly positrons) with ions and protons at the center-of-mass energy range from 25 to 140 GeV, and with luminosities exceeding 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A considerable part of the physics program is based on polarized electrons, protons and He3 ions with high degree of polarization. In eRHIC electron beam will be accelerated in an energy recovery linac. Major R&D items for eRHIC include the development of a high intensity polarized electron source, studies of various aspects of energy recovery technology for high power beams and the development of compact magnets for recirculating passes. In eRHIC scheme the beam-beam interaction has several specific features, which have to be thoroughly studied. In order to maximize the collider luminosity, several upgrades of the existing RHIC accelerator are required. Those upgrades may include the increase of intensity as well as transverse and longitudinal cooling of ion and proton beams.

  18. The Conceptual Framework of Thematic Mapping in Case Conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E

    2017-04-01

    This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment.

  19. Analysis of the TREAT LEU Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Connaway, H. M.; Kontogeorgakos, D. C.; Papadias, D. D.; Brunett, A. J.; Mo, K.; Strons, P. S.; Fei, T.; Wright, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    Analyses were performed to evaluate the performance of the low enriched uranium (LEU) conceptual design fuel for the conversion of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) from its current highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel. TREAT is an experimental nuclear reactor designed to produce high neutron flux transients for the testing of reactor fuels and other materials. TREAT is currently in non-operational standby, but is being restarted under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Resumption of Transient Testing Program. The conversion of TREAT is being pursued in keeping with the mission of the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration’s Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program. The focus of this study was to demonstrate that the converted LEU core is capable of maintaining the performance of the existing HEU core, while continuing to operate safely. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic simulations have been performed to evaluate the performance of the LEU conceptual-design core under both steady-state and transient conditions, for both normal operation and reactivity insertion accident scenarios. In addition, ancillary safety analyses which were performed for previous LEU design concepts have been reviewed and updated as-needed, in order to evaluate if the converted LEU core will function safely with all existing facility systems. Simulations were also performed to evaluate the detailed behavior of the UO2-graphite fuel, to support future fuel manufacturing decisions regarding particle size specifications. The results of these analyses will be used in conjunction with work being performed at Idaho National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, in order to develop the Conceptual Design Report project deliverable.

  20. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  1. Ecosystem conceptual model- Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Foe, Chris; Klasing, Susan; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Slotton, Darell G.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2008-01-01

    mercury conceptual model and its four submodels (1. Methylation, 2. Bioaccumulation, 3. Human Health Effects, and 4. Wildlife Heath Effects) can be used to understand the general relationships among drivers and outcomes associated with mercury cycling in the Delta. Several linkages between important drivers and outcomes have been identified as important but highly uncertain (i.e. poorly understood). For example, there may be significant wildlife health effect of mercury on mammals and reptiles in the Delta, but there is currently very little or no information about it. The characteristics of such linkages are important when prioritizing and funding restoration projects and associated monitoring in the Delta and its tributaries.

  2. Conceptual design of the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Boyes, John D.; Kumpan, Steven A.; Lowdermilk, W. Howard; Sorem, Michael S.

    1995-12-01

    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a conceptual design report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a key decision zero (KD0), justification of mission need. Motivated by the progress to date by the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova technical contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 micrometer) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a memorandum of agreement in August 1993, and established a project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, we completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE defense program's site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994. Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a facilities requirements document, a conceptual design scope and plan, a target physics design document, a laser design cost basis document, a functional requirements document, an experimental plan for indirect drive ignition, and a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA) document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. On October 21, 1994 the Secretary of Energy issued a key decision one (KD1) for the NIF, which approved the project and authorized DOE to request Office of Management and Budget-approval for congressional line-item FY 1996 NIF funding for preliminary engineering design and for National Environmental Policy Act activities. In addition, the Secretary declared Livermore as the preferred site for constructing the NIF. In February 1995, the NIF Project was

  3. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  4. Conceptual object-oriented design

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    Conceptual object-oriented design (COOD) is a methodology that is being used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to study, plan, specify, and document high-level solutions to large-scale information processing problems. COOD embodies aspects of object-oriented program design philosophy (which is being applied to the implementation design of software) to provide enhanced tools and techniques for conceptual design. COOD is targeted at the phase of software development following requirements analysis and prior to implementation or detailed design. This step is necessary, particularly for large-scale information processing systems to achieve the following: allow designers to conceptually work out solutions to information processing problems where innovative thinking is required, allow a structured environment in which to capture design products, and provide a global view of the conceptual solution in an understandable form to the implementors of the solution. This will facilitate their detailed design efforts. The product of COOD is a conceptual design specification.'' This specification is delivered to an implementation team to assist the detailed design process, yet is not a software specification in and of itself.

  5. Conceptual Metaphor and the Study of Conceptual Change: Research Synthesis and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the goals of research on conceptual metaphor in science education overlap with the goals of research on conceptual change. The relevance of a conceptual metaphor perspective to the study of conceptual change has already been discussed. However, a substantial body of literature on conceptual metaphor in science education has now emerged.…

  6. Conceptual models of information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.

  7. Psychiatric disorders: a conceptual taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-04-01

    This article summarizes six conceptual dimensions that underlie common assumptions about what counts as an adequate category of psychiatric disorder. These dimensions are 1) causalism-descriptivism, 2) essentialism-nominalism, 3) objectivism-evaluativism, 4) internalism-externalism, 5) entities-agents, and 6) categories-continua. Four different versions of the medical model are described and compared with respect to these dimensions. The medical models vary in several ways, but all can be considered "essentialistic." As a counter to the essentialist homogeneity among the medical models, two nominalist analyses of psychiatric classification are reviewed. In order to fill out the space defined by the conceptual dimensions, two alternatives to medical model approaches are also described. After making some suggestions about where DSM-V might best be aligned with respect to the conceptual dimensions, the authors review the distinction between empirical and nonempirical aspects of classification--and argue that nonempirical aspects of classification are legitimate and necessary.

  8. Development of Educational Resources to Include the Teaching of Astronomy in the First Years of the Basic Education. (Spanish Title: Desarrollo de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Incluir la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en los Primeros Años de la Educación Básica.) Desenvolvimento de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Inserir o Ensino de Astronomia nas Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Morett, Samara; de Oliveira Souza, Marcelo

    2010-07-01

    In this report will be presented the development of educational resources for the presentation of concepts of astronomy in the early grades of elementary school. This material is composed by presentations developed with the use of new technological resources, by the development of experiments and by the presentation of curiosities related to this field. The experiments were constructed with low cost material in order to allow the students involved to rework them in other occasions. The material presented aims to emphasize the relationship between Astronomy and the daily life of students. The inclusion of Astronomy in elementary school is a way to demonstrate to students how this area is present in an active way in their daily lives. The classes involved in the project participated in a survey with the aim of providing information about the prior knowledge they had about topics in astronomy that were considered during the project. With the experiments conducted, and the aid of new technologies, the astronomical concepts were presented to students of 4th and 5th years of basic education of a municipal school of Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). After the presentations new data collections were carried out with the aim of verifying the level of learning obtained and it was observed that the method used was an important tool to aid the process of teaching and learning. The project obtained good results. En este informe se presenta el desarrollo de recursos pedagógicos para la presentación de los conceptos de la astronomía en los primeros grados de la escuela primaria. Este material consiste en las presentaciones hechas con el uso de nuevos recursos tecnológicos, haciendo experimentos y análisis de objetos de interés relacionados con este ámbito. Los experimentos fueron construidos con material de bajo costo a fin de que los estudiantes involucrados podrían rehacer en otras ocasiones. El material presentado tiene como objetivo destacar la relación entre la astronom

  9. Indexes of severity: conceptual development.

    PubMed Central

    Krischer, J P

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of severity index development is presented in relation to conceptual issues in index definition, analytic issues in index formulation and validation issues in index application. The CHOP index is discussed along with six severity indexes described in an earlier paper dealing with underlying concepts to illustrate the material presented. Replies are provided to specific questions raised in an accompanying paper discussing the Injury Severity Score. This conceptual material is presented to provide a foundation for severity index development, to suggest criteria to be used in their formulation and testing, and to identify analyses that can lead to the successful selection and application of an index for a defined purpose. PMID:468553

  10. Conceptualizing Conceptual Teaching: Practical Strategies for Large Instrumental Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Half a century ago, calls had already been made for instrumental ensemble directors to move beyond performance to include the teaching of musical concepts in the rehearsal hall. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that conceptual teaching remains relatively infrequent during rehearsals. Given the importance of teaching for long-term…

  11. Conceptual Model of Climate Change Impacts at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, Jean Marie

    2016-05-17

    Goal 9 of the LANL FY15 Site Sustainability Plan (LANL 2014a) addresses Climate Change Adaptation. As part of Goal 9, the plan reviews many of the individual programs the Laboratory has initiated over the past 20 years to address climate change impacts to LANL (e.g. Wildland Fire Management Plan, Forest Management Plan, etc.). However, at that time, LANL did not yet have a comprehensive approach to climate change adaptation. To fill this gap, the FY15 Work Plan for the LANL Long Term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability (LANL 2015) included a goal of (1) establishing a comprehensive conceptual model of climate change impacts at LANL and (2) establishing specific climate change indices to measure climate change and impacts at Los Alamos. Establishing a conceptual model of climate change impacts will demonstrate that the Laboratory is addressing climate change impacts in a comprehensive manner. This paper fulfills the requirement of goal 1. The establishment of specific indices of climate change at Los Alamos (goal 2), will improve our ability to determine climate change vulnerabilities and assess risk. Future work will include prioritizing risks, evaluating options/technologies/costs, and where appropriate, taking actions. To develop a comprehensive conceptual model of climate change impacts, we selected the framework provided in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Resilience Toolkit (http://toolkit.climate.gov/).

  12. La masa de los grandes impactores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Los planetas han sido formados fundamentalmente acretando masa a través de colisiones con planetesimales sólidos. La masa más grande de la distribución de planetesimales y las masas máxima y mínima de los impactores, han sido calculadas usando los valores actuales del período y de la inclinación de los planetas (Lissauer & Safronov 1991; Parisi & Brunini 1996). Recientes investigaciones han mostrado, que las órbitas de los planetas gigantes no han sufrido variaciones con el tiempo, siendo su movimiento regular durante su evolución a partir de la finalización de la etapa de acreción (Laskar 1990, 1994). Por lo tanto, la eccentricidad actual de los planetas gigantes se puede utilizar para imponer una cota máxima a las masas y velocidades orbitales de los grandes impactores. Mediante un simple modelo dinámico, y considerando lo arriba mencionado, obtenemos la cota superior para la masa del planetesimal más grande que impactó a cada planeta gigante al final de su etapa de acreción. El resultado más importante de este trabajo es la estimación de la masa máxima permitida para impactar a Júpiter, la cúal es ~ 1.136 × 10 -1, siendo en el caso de Neptuno ~ 3.99 × 10 -2 (expresada en unidades de la masa final de cada planeta). Además, fue posible obtener la velocidad orbital máxima permitida para los impactores como una función de su masa, para cada planeta. Las cotas obtenidas para la masa y velocidad de los impactores de Saturno y Urano (en unidades de la masa y velocidad final de cada planeta respectivamente) son casi las mismas que las obtenidas para Júpiter debido a que estos tres planetas poseen similar eccentricidad actual. Nuestros resultados están en buen acuerdo con los obtenidos por Lissauer & Safronov (1991). Estas cotas podrían ser utilizadas para obtener la distribución de planetesimales en el Sistema Solar primitivo.

  13. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones

  14. Compact Photon Source Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarenko, Pavel V.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2016-04-01

    We describe options for the production of an intense photon beam at the CEBAF Hall D Tagger facility, needed for creating a high-quality secondary K 0 L delivered to the Hall D detector. The conceptual design for the Compact Photon Source apparatus is presented.

  15. Mental Computation and Conceptual Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Klein, Anton S.; Beishuizen, Meindert

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the strategic flexibility of students in mental arithmetic up to the number 100. Results from 60 Dutch second graders show that students' preference for certain mathematical procedures depend on the number characteristics of the problems, indicating that the students had a good conceptual understanding of numbers and procedures. Actual…

  16. Epistemic Motivation and Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Robert A.; And Others

    While the conceptual change model of learning has contributed much to our understanding of how children learn science, recent criticisms of the model point out its lack of attention to motivational issues. This paper examines one such motivational construct of importance to the model: epistemic motivation. After a description of the construct, we…

  17. Conceptualizing the World of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, William H.; Bailey, Larry J.

    1973-01-01

    The conceptual model described here has resulted from the need to organize a body of knowledge related to the world of work which would enable curriculum developers to prepare accurate, realistic instructional materials. The world of work is described by applying Malinowski's scientific study of the structural components of culture. (Author/DS)

  18. The Theory of Conceptual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The theory of conceptual fields is a developmental theory. It has two aims: (1) to describe and analyse the progressive complexity, on a long- and medium-term basis, of the mathematical competences that students develop inside and outside school, and (2) to establish better connections between the operational form of knowledge, which consists in…

  19. Conceptual Knowledge of Decimal Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    In two studies (N's = 55 and 54), we examined a basic form of conceptual understanding of rational number arithmetic, the direction of effect of decimal arithmetic operations, at a level of detail useful for informing instruction. Middle school students were presented tasks examining knowledge of the direction of effects (e.g., "True or…

  20. A Taxonomy for Conceptualizing Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seda, E. Elliott

    This paper details the development of a taxonomy for conceptualizing teaching. This taxonomy is presented as a means to help educators understand and interpret what it is they do and continue in the process of searching and understanding. The purpose of developing a taxonomy, the basis for the dimensions--or subject matter--for the taxonomy, and…

  1. Many Mansions: Conceptualizing Translingual Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Burdick, Jake

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a vision for fostering multilingualism in schools that extends the notion of translanguaging to include the realm of multilingual curriculum theorizing. We locate our analysis at the intersection of multicultural education, multilingual education, and curriculum studies in order to conceptualize language, culture, and…

  2. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate. (MOW)

  3. Teacher Turnover: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garcia, Cynthia; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the available literature concerning teacher turnover. The seriousness of this issue was addressed as cause for concern is clearly present. Issues we examined in this conceptual analysis were the federal government's role in public education, the No Child Left Behind Act, teacher turnover, teacher retention, teacher…

  4. Conceptual Knowledge in Introductory Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Responses to rate-of-change problems were collected during and after 24 hours of conceptual calculus instruction given to first-year university students. Analysis revealed three categories of error in which variables were treated as symbols to be manipulated rather than quantities to be related. Contains test questions. (Author/MKR)

  5. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  6. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  7. The conceptual representation of number.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D; George, Gerret; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the format of plural conceptual representations using a picture-matching paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that ended with a singular noun phrase (NP), a two-quantified plural NP, or a plural definite description [The parents handed the child the (two) crayon/s] and then saw a picture of one or multiple referents for the NP. Judgement times to confirm that there was overlap between the pictured object(s) and a noun in the sentence showed an interaction between the NP's number and NP-picture match. For singular NPs and two-quantified NPs, participants were reliably faster to respond "yes" to a picture that had the exact number of objects specified by the NP, but for plural definite descriptions, the effect of the number of pictured items was not reliable. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conceptual plurals. Participants read sentences biased toward either a collective (Together the men carried a box-box is interpreted as singular) or distributed (Each of the men carried a box-box is likely interpreted as plural) reading. Experiment 2 showed the same interaction between NP conceptual plurality and NP-picture match as that in Experiment 1. These results suggest that: (a) our default conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions are no more similar to images of small sets of multiple items than to images of singular items; and (b) the difference between singular and plural conceptual representations is unlikely to be simply the presence or absence of a plural feature. The results are consistent with theories in which plurality is unmarked, such that some plural NPs can refer to singular referents [e.g., Sauerland, U., Anderssen, J., & Yatsushiro, J. (2005). The plural is semantically unmarked. In S. Kepser & M. Reis (Eds.), Linguistic evidence (pp. 413-434). Berlin: de Gruyter].

  8. Introductory Students, Conceptual Understanding, and Algorithmic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the distinction between conceptual and algorithmic learning and the clarification of what is meant by a second-tier student. Explores why novice learners in chemistry and physics are able to apply algorithms without significant conceptual understanding. (DDR)

  9. Conceptual graphs for semantics and knowledge processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fargues, J.; Landau, M.C.; Dugourd, A.; Catach, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the representational and algorithmic power of the conceptual graph model for natural language semantics and knowledge processing. Also described is a Prolog-like resolution method for conceptual graphs, which allows to perform deduction on very large semantic domains. The interpreter developed is similar to a Prolog interpreter in which the terms are any conceptual graphs and in which the unification algorithm is replaced by a specialized algorithm for conceptual graphs.

  10. Conceptual Complexity and Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagaseth, Jon A.

    This presentation focuses on a theory of personality development, conceptual systems theory, as a possible resource for the counselor assisting clients in stress. It describes the results of a factor analysis of four measures of conceptual structure which suggested that the construct of conceptual complexity is different from the construct of…

  11. Strategies for Teaching Healthy Behavior Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    By definition, conceptual knowledge is rich in relationships and understanding the kind of knowledge that may be transferred between situations. Despite the lack of importance that Conceptual Physical Education has been given in previous physical education reform efforts, research findings have shown that Conceptual Physical Education along with…

  12. Conceptual Level and Teachers' Written Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Susan L.; Yarger, Sam J.

    Teachers devise lesson plans based on one of two "conceptual levels" (degree and kind of materials, diagnosis, student background research, and classroom and time management). Higher conceptual level (HCL) teachers emphasize diagnosis and student characteristics in their plans, while lower conceptual level (LCL) teachers give special consideration…

  13. Using Knowledge Building to Foster Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hong, Huang-Yao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been many exchanges of perspectives and debates in the field of conceptual change. Most of the classical views on conceptual change have been criticized, and there have been recent discussions around bridging the cognitive and socio-cultural approaches in the research on conceptual change. On the other hand, researchers…

  14. On the Origins of the Conceptual System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandler, Jean M.

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to the conventional view of infancy as a sensorimotor period without conceptual thought, research over the past 20 years has shown that preverbal infants are capable of at least 3 conceptual functions: forming concepts with which to interpret the world, recall of the past, and engaging in conceptual generalization. Research is described…

  15. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  16. La Enseñanza/Aprendizaje del Modelo Sol-Tierra Análisis de la Situación Actual y Propuesta de Mejora Para la Formación de los Futuros Profesores de Primaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Sebastià, Bernat

    2004-12-01

    This work is an extened summary of the autor's PhD thesis. It deals with the teaching of astronomy (day/night, seasons) in primary school. At first, students teachers' undestanding of astronomical concepts related to Sun-Earth system have been analysed. Taking into account the results of the previous analysis and using a socio-constructivist approach a teaching sequence has been designed. This sequence has been tested with different groups of students teachers showing an improvement in their undestanding of elementary astronomical concepts. El trabajo que presentamos es un resumen extenso de la tesis doctoral del autor. El enfoque utilizado ha sido tratar de ligar la investigación sobre las ideas, razonamientos y obstáculos de los profesores de primaria con la planificación de la enseñanza del modelo Sol-Tierra que permite explicar el ciclo día/noche y las estaciones. En primer lugar, se ha procedido a realizar un análisis crítico de los resultados que se obtienen en el aprendizaje de los contenidos astronómicos en la enseñanza habitual. En segundo lugar se ha diseñado un curriculum potencialmente superador de esta situación desde una orientación que concibe la enseñanza y el aprendizaje como un proceso de construcción de conocimientos en una estructura problematizada. Finalmente, esta secuencia didáctica ha sido experimentada con diferentes grupos de estudiantes de magisterio, mostrando una mejora relevante en la comprensión de los conceptos astronómicos fundamentales.

  17. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    infini sur une période de temps spécifiée explique les différences entre les modèles et le ! fait que le test de traçage seul ne permet pas de déterminer les paramètres de transport à l'échelle du PA. Les résultats des simulations Monte Carlo du modèle de transport avec des temps et des distances de transport variables montrent des résultats concordances entre les différents modèles et suggère que la variation que la variation entre surface mouillée et le rapport de la différence de débits entre les lignes d'écoulement est insignifiante, en regard de la variabilité du montant de la capacité diffusive qui peut être accessible le long de la ligne de transport. Delimitando la eficacia de modelos de evaluación con resultados de pruebas de trazadores: una comparación entre dos modelos conceptuales. Se llevaron a cabo pruebas de trazadores para evaluar los parámetros de transporte de solutos en un rasgo rocoso a lo largo de una trayectoria de transporte de 5 m. Dos diferentes conceptualizaciones del transporte de solutos de porosidad doble aportan estimados de las curvas de avance de trazadores. Una de las conceptualizaciones (ritmo único) utiliza un coeficiente de difusión efectiva único en una matriz con profundidad de penetración infinita. Sin embargo, la retención del trazador entre diferentes trayectorias de flujo puede variar debido a que la relación entre la superficie mojada de flujo y el ritmo de flujo difiere entre las líneas de trayectoria. La otra conceptualización (multi-ritmo) utiliza una distribución continua de coeficientes de ritmos de difusión múltiple en una matriz con capacidad variable pero finita. La aplicación de los dos modelos con los parámetros estimados en base a las curvas de avance de trazadores producen resultados de transporte que difieren en varios órdenes de magnitud, tanto en concentración pico como en el tiempo en que se alcanza la concentración pico, en las escalas de evaluación de eficacia (PA) de

  18. Conceptual Structures in Fighter Pilots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    AA1985CONCEPTUAL STRU CTURES IN FIGHTER PLOTS(U) NEW MEXICO iI 7 AD-A29 885UNIV ALBUQUERQUE DEPT 0F PSYCHOLOGYR WSCHVANEVELD ET AL JUL 83 AFHRL-P-83...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK Department of Psychology AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS New Mexico State University 61102F...Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 2313T313 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE HQ Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFSC) July 1983

  19. GCFR steam generator conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

  20. Planets, pluralism, and conceptual lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusse, Carl

    2016-02-01

    Conceptual change can occur for a variety of reasons; some more scientifically significant than others. The 2006 definition of 'planet', which saw Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet, is an example toward the more mundane end of the scale. I argue however that this case serves as a useful example of a related phenomenon, whereby what appears to be a single kind term conceals two or more distinct concepts with independent scientific utility. I examine the historical background to this case, as a template for developing additional evidence for pluralist approaches to conceptual disputes within science and elsewhere. "I would like to note that the two speakers who have spoken so far have both done the same extremely insulting gaffe," he said. "They have used the expression 'a physical definition of a planet' - by implication, suggesting that a dynamical definition is not physics!" He said he felt he had to teach the panel "something you should know": that dynamics was indeed physics, and in fact was addressed before solid-state physics in every textbook ever written." (Boyle, 2010, p. 126)

  1. Conceptual Design - Polar Drive Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R

    2012-04-05

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester is proposing a collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and General Atomics (GA) with the goal of developing a cryogenic polar drive (PD) ignition platform on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The scope of this proposed project requires close discourse among theorists, experimentalists, and laser and system engineers. This document describes how this proposed project can be broken into a series of parallel independent activities that, if implemented, could deliver this goal in the 2017 timeframe. This Conceptual Design document is arranged into two sections: mission need and design requirements. Design requirements are divided into four subsystems: (1) A point design that details the necessary target specifications and laser pulse requirements; (2) The beam smoothing subsystem that describes the MultiFM 1D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD); (3) New optical elements that include continuous phase plates (CPP's) and distributed polarization rotators (DPR's); and (4) The cryogenic target handling and insertion subsystem, which includes the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a dedicated PD ignition target insertion cryostat (PD-ITIC). This document includes appendices covering: the primary criteria and functional requirements, the system design requirements, the work breakdown structure, the target point design, the experimental implementation plan, the theoretical unknowns and technical implementation risks, the estimated cost and schedule, the development plan for the DPR's, the development plan for MultiFM 1D SSD, and a list of acronym definitions. While work on the facility modifications required for PD ignition has been in progress for some time, some of the technical details required to define the specific modifications for a Conceptual Design Review (CDR) remain

  2. Some sociological ideas for conceptual change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smardon, Regina

    2008-07-01

    This review takes a critical position with regards to Treagust and Duit's article, Conceptual Change: A discussion of theoretical methodological and practical challenges for science education. It is proposed that conceptual change research in science education might benefit from borrowing concepts currently being developed in the sociology of emotions. It is further suggested that the study of social interaction within evolving emotional cultures is the most promising avenue for developing and extending theories about conceptual change.

  3. Conceptual Foundations of Diffusion in Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Koay, Cheng Guan; Özarslan, Evren

    2016-01-01

    A thorough review of the q-space technique is presented starting from a discussion of Fick's laws. The work presented here is primarily conceptual, theoretical and hopefully pedagogical. We offered the notion of molecular concentration to unify Fick's laws and diffusion MRI within a coherent conceptual framework. The fundamental relationship between diffusion MRI and the Fick's laws are carefully established. The conceptual and theoretical basis of the q-space technique is investigated from first principles. PMID:26997923

  4. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qué los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  5. toolkit computational mesh conceptual model.

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2010-03-01

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  6. A conceptual framework of bonding.

    PubMed

    Gay, J

    1981-01-01

    Nurses involved in maternal-infant child care should objectively analyze any tools that purport to measure attachment and/or bonding. Has the author adequately defined the terms? Are directions given for making concepts operational for the practicing nurse? What are the foundations for placing values on parental behaviors? Do deviant parental behaviors reflect poor attachment or bonding, or are such behaviors merely indicative of limited parental opportunities for acquaintance? The presentation of of any conceptual framework should not be considered complete without empirical testing. Such testing and peer critique of a framework are essential fro any theory of bonding to evolve. With further research into the parental-child relationship, nurses can learn to provide adequate care for facilitating the bonding process in families.

  7. Osmosis and diffusion conceptual assessment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Kathleen M; Williams, Kathy S; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive.

  8. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  9. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 1. Conceptualization of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    zones hydro-chimiques reflète principalement la distribution moderne des charges hydrauliques mais est incohérente avec une dépression dans le niveau d'eau dans la partie centre-ouest du bassin, ce qui indique que cette dépression est un élément transitoire du système aquifère plutôt qu'un élément à long terme. Les âges radiocarbones ajustés aux réactions géochimiques et aux processus de mélange et d'évapotranspiration/dilution qui ont lieu dans l'aquifère sont presque identiques aux âges non ajustés et varient de la période moderne jusqu'à 30 ka. Les gradients d'âge établis à partir des nids de piézomètres s'étendent de 0.1 à 2 a cm-1 et suggèrent un taux de recharge d'environ 3 cm a-1 le long du front des montagnes à l'est et pour l'infiltration provenant du Rio Grande près d'Albuquerque. Il y a eu substantiellement moins de recharge le long du front des montagnes à l'est, au nord et au sud d'Albuquerque. Se utilizaron datos químicos e isotópicos de agua subterránea a lo largo de la cuenca central del río Grande, Nuevo México, EEUU, para identificar y mapear el flujo de agua subterránea de 12 fuentes de agua a la cuenca para evaluar edades por medio de radio carbon y para refinar el modelo conceptual del sistema acuífero del Grupo Santa Fé. Se puede establecer zonas hidrotérmicas que representan el flujo de agua subterránea a lo largo de miles a miles de decenas de años en grandes distancias a través del sistema acuífero principalmente siliclástico. Las ubicaciones de las zonas hidroquímicas mayormente reflejan la distribucion de la cabeza hidráulica pre-desarollo moderna pero son inconsistentes con una depresión en los niveles de agua pre-desarollo en la zona central oeste de la cuenca. Esto indica que esta depresión es un rasgo transitorio y no un rasgo de largo plazo del sistema acuífero. Las edades de radio carbon ajustadas para los procesos de reaciones geoquímicas, de mezclado y de evapotranspiraci

  10. A Conceptual Data Model of Datum Systems

    PubMed Central

    McCaleb, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    A new conceptual data model that addresses the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing concepts of datum systems, datums, datum features, datum targets, and the relationships among these concepts, is presented. Additionally, a portion of a related data model, Part 47 of STEP (ISO 10303-47), is reviewed and a comparison is made between it and the new conceptual data model.

  11. Some Sociological Ideas for Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardon, Regina

    2008-01-01

    This review takes a critical position with regards to Treagust and Duit's article, "Conceptual Change: A discussion of theoretical methodological and practical challenges for science education." It is proposed that conceptual change research in science education might benefit from borrowing concepts currently being developed in the sociology of…

  12. Conceptual Development During the School Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.

    This study tested certain implied predictions regarding conceptual learning at each of four sequential levels of development: concrete level, identity level, classificatory level, and formal level. For this purpose, scaled batteries to assess the level of conceptual development of children, kindergarten through high school, were constructed and a…

  13. A Multivariate Model of Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Heddy, Benjamin; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model (CRKM) model of conceptual change as a framework for developing and testing how key cognitive, motivational, and emotional variables are linked to conceptual change in physics. This study extends an earlier study developed by Taasoobshirazi and Sinatra ("J Res Sci…

  14. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  15. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  16. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  17. Wargaming Effectiveness: Its Conceptualization and Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    wargaming and to explore methods for assessing these constructs. Cognitive task analysis was used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding...the wargaming conceptual framework can be feasible to administer and be reliable and valid assessments of their related psychological constructs. If

  18. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  19. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  20. Conceptual knowledge in the interpretation of idioms.

    PubMed

    Nayak, N P; Gibbs, R W

    1990-09-01

    The authors examined how people determine the contextual appropriateness of idioms. In Experiment 1, idioms referring to the same temporal stage of a conceptual prototype were judged to be more similar in meaning than idioms referring to different temporal stages. In Experiment 2, idioms in a prototypical temporal sequence were more meaningful than idioms in sentences that violated the temporal sequence. In Experiment 3, idioms referring to the same stage of a conceptual prototype were differentiable on the basis of conceptual information. The conceptual coherence between idioms and contexts facilitated the processing speed of idioms in Experiment 4. Experiment 5 showed that speakers can recover the underlying conceptual metaphors that link an idiom to its figurative meaning. Experiment 6 showed that the metaphoric information reflected in the lexical makeup of idioms also determined the metaphoric appropriateness of idioms in certain contexts.

  1. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-06-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  2. The picture superiority effect in conceptual implicit memory: a conceptual distinctiveness hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.

  3. Psychopharmacological enhancement: a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a range of new psychotropic agents raises the possibility that these will be used for enhancement purposes (smart pills, happy pills, and pep pills). The enhancement debate soon raises questions in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry (eg, what is a disorder?), and this debate in turn raises fundament questions in philosophy of language, science, and ethics. In this paper, a naturalistic conceptual framework is proposed for addressing these issues. This framework begins by contrasting classical and critical concepts of categories, and then puts forward an integrative position that is based on cognitive-affective research. This position can in turn be used to consider the debate between pharmacological Calvinism (which may adopt a moral metaphor of disorder) and psychotropic utopianism (which may emphasize a medical metaphor of disorder). I argue that psychiatric treatment of serious psychiatric disorders is justified, and that psychotropics are an acceptable kind of intervention. The use of psychotropics for sub-threshold phenomena requires a judicious weighing of the relevant facts (which are often sparse) and values. PMID:22244084

  4. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  5. Conceptual study of ETS-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzai, Takao; Oda, Mitsushige; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Imai, Ryouichi

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the Engineering Test Satellite-7 (ETS-7) conceptual study is presented. The Rendezvous and Docking (RVD) experiments will be conducted to verify equipment technologies for navigation, guidance, control algorism, and sensors and to conduct remote control technology experiment using on-orbit image information during the time period from the RVD experiment target separation to its berthing back to the satellite by Global Positioning System (GPS) correlated navigation, and approach by the rendezvous radar and proximity sensors. The space Robot (RBT) experiments will be conducted on the coordinated experiment between the robotic arm control and satellite body attitude control systems, remote control experiment from the earth using on orbit image information with time delay, and on-orbit operation technology using the task board and simulated Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). An operation system to utilize the intersatellite data relay function of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS) will be employed. Review was conducted on satellites to satisfy RVD requirements and enable piggy back launch with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The satellite bus system will be constructed by fundamentally utilizing the technologies applied to the Engineering Test Satellite-6 (ETS-6) and the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS). Prospects of realizing operation systems, including experimental window and remote control operation by images were obtained.

  6. Personalizing knowledge delivery services: a conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majchrzak, Ann; Chelleppa, Ramnath K.; Cooper, Lynne P.; Hars, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the call of the Minnesota Symposium for new theory in knowledge management, we offer a new conceptualization of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) as a portfolio of personalized knowledge delivery services. Borrowing from research on online consumer behavior, we describe the challenges imposed by personalized knowledge delivery services, and suggest design parameters that can help to overcome these challenges. We develop our design constructs through a set of hypotheses and discuss the research implications of our new conceptualization. Finally, we describe practical implications suggested by our conceptualization - practical suggestions that we hope to gain some experience with as part of an ongoing action research project at our partner organization.

  7. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  8. Conceptual and logical level of database modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.

  9. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.

  10. Mental Models, Conceptual Models, and Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greca, Ileana Maria; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Reviews science education research into representations constructed by students in their interactions with the world, its phenomena, and artefacts. Features discussions of mental models, conceptual models, and the activity of modeling. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/WRM)

  11. Conceptual design. Final report: TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the TFE Conceptual Design, which provided the design guidance for the TFE Verification program. The primary goals of this design effort were: (1) establish the conceptual design of an in-core thermionic reactor for a 2 Mw(e) space nuclear power system with a 7-year operating lifetime; (2) demonstrate scalability of the above concept over the output power range of 500 kW(e) to 5 MW(e); and (3) define the TFE which is the basis for the 2 MW (e) reactor design. This TFE specification provided the basis for the test program. These primary goals were achieved. The technical approach taking in the conceptual design effort is discussed in Section 2, and the results are discussed in Section 3. The remainder of this introduction draws a perspective on the role that this conceptual design task played in the TFE Verification Program.

  12. Pictorial and conceptual representation of glimpsed pictures.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C; Staub, Adrian; O'Connor, Daniel H; Potter, Mary C

    2004-06-01

    Pictures seen in a rapid sequence are remembered briefly, but most are forgotten within a few seconds (M. C. Potter. A. Staub, J. Rado. & D. H. O'Connor. 2002). The authors investigated the pictorial and conceptual components of this fleeting memory by presenting 5 pictured scenes and immediately testing recognition of verbal titles (e.g., people at a table) or recognition of the pictures themselves. Recognition declined during testing, but initial performance was higher and the decline steeper when pictures were tested. A final experiment included test decoy pictures that were conceptually similar to but visually distinct from the original pictures. Yeses to decoys were higher than yeses to other distractors. Fleeting memory for glimpsed pictures has a strong conceptual component (conceptual short-term memory), but there is additional highly volatile pictorial memory (pictorial short-term memory) that is not tapped hy a gist title or decoy picture.

  13. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  14. Mars orbiter conceptual systems design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, W.; Vogl, J.

    1982-01-01

    Spacecraft system and subsystem designs at the conceptual level to perform either of two Mars Orbiter missions, a Climatology Mission and an Aeronomy Mission were developed. The objectives of these missions are to obtain and return data.

  15. Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

  16. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Terrorist Groups,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    This report documents a study undertaken to develop a methodology for analyzing terrorist groups. A conceptual framework for analysis was devised and...terrorist groups and illustrates how that framework can be used to address broad questions about terrorists and their actions. This conceptual ... framework is based on data concerning 150 specific attributes of terrorist groups. These attributes fall into the following categories: (1) Organization; (2

  17. Music-therapy analyzed through conceptual mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Rodolfo; de la Fuente, Rebeca

    2002-11-01

    Conceptual maps have been employed lately as a learning tool, as a modern study technique, and as a new way to understand intelligence, which allows for the development of a strong theoretical reference, in order to prove the research hypothesis. This paper presents a music-therapy analysis based on this tool to produce a conceptual mapping network, which ranges from magic through the rigor of the hard sciences.

  18. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos MGA; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees WJ; Nelson, E Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Background Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Design Discussion Paper. Data Sources The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010–2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). Implications for Nursing A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. Conclusion By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. PMID:24684197

  19. Teacher Candidates' Conceptual Understanding of Conceptual Learning: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigler, Ellen A.; Saam, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Education researchers suggest that teacher education candidates be taught that meaningful learning is essential and that conceptual understanding be infused into all lessons. However, many teacher candidates are unable to successfully develop conceptual level lesson plans and some are unable to differentiate between skills and concepts. The…

  20. Ways of Going Wrong in Teaching for Conceptual Change: Report on the Conceptual Change Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward L.; Lott, Gerald W.

    A specific teaching strategy to effect conceptual change used with a single class of fifth grade students was evaluated. The Rand McNally SCIIS "Communities" unit used in this study can be characterized as a conceptual change strategy because it is organized around a three-phase learning cycle designed to move students from…

  1. Conceptual influences on category-based induction

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information versus perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to 5-year-old children and adults (N = 344) test these theories by teaching categories for which category membership and perceptual similarity are in conflict, and varying the conceptual basis of the novel categories. Results indicate that for non-natural kind categories that have little conceptual coherence, children make inferences based on perceptual similarity, whereas adults make inferences based on category membership. In contrast, for basic- and ontological-level categories that have a principled conceptual basis, children and adults alike make use of category membership more than perceptual similarity as the basis of their inferences. These findings provide evidence in favor of the role of conceptual information in preschoolers’ inferences, and further demonstrate that labeled categories are not all equivalent; they differ in their inductive potential. PMID:23517863

  2. Being moved: linguistic representation and conceptual structure.

    PubMed

    Kuehnast, Milena; Wagner, Valentin; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the organization of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterized by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  3. How Physicists Communicate Conceptual Meaning with Math

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Physics embeds conceptual meaning within a complex mathematical formalism. In this talk, I present a discourse analysis of faculty teaching with mathematical derivations, rearranging and simplifying equations to illuminate physical principles. Observations are interpreted through the lens of symbolic forms, conceptual and contextual meanings that are embedded in the equation. As an equation is manipulated, different forms are emphasized, subtly changing the physical interpretation. The symbolic forms framework can make explicit the motivations behind the mathematical ``moves'' in a derivation. Some manipulations change the dominant context from physics to mathematics. Other thematic manipulations -- e.g. grouping terms of a common variable -- reveal important conceptual points. While direct observational evidence supports the inference of these motivations, the reasoning is often hidden from the students. The study of mathematical discourse represents a new direction in which physics education researchers can study and inform the classroom.

  4. Enhancing conceptual change using argumentative essays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, Calvin S.; Rohar, Shelley; Wells, David

    2004-05-01

    We show the utility of following up collaborative group work with written exercises. In a previous paper we discussed promoting conceptual change using collaborative group exercises in a manner based on the notion of conceptual conflict developed by Hewson and Hewson in which representatives of differing viewpoints debate their outlook. In this paper, we describe an enhancement of this method based on Feyerabend's principle of counterinduction—the process by which one theory or idea is used to affect change in its rival. Students were required to follow up the conceptual conflict exercises with a written critique. Evaluations were done using the same enhanced version of the force concept inventory as administered to the students in the previous study.

  5. Being moved: linguistic representation and conceptual structure

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnast, Milena; Wagner, Valentin; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the organization of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterized by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved. PMID:25404924

  6. An Empirical Study of Enterprise Conceptual Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaby-Tavor, Ateret; Amid, David; Fisher, Amit; Ossher, Harold; Bellamy, Rachel; Callery, Matthew; Desmond, Michael; Krasikov, Sophia; Roth, Tova; Simmonds, Ian; de Vries, Jacqueline

    Business analysts, business architects, and solution consultants use a variety of practices and methods in their quest to understand business. The resulting work products could end up being transitioned into the formal world of software requirement definitions or as recommendations for all kinds of business activities. We describe an empirical study about the nature of these methods, diagrams, and home-grown conceptual models as reflected in real practice at IBM. We identify the models as artifacts of "enterprise conceptual modeling". We study important features of these models, suggest practical classifications, and discuss their usage. Our survey shows that the "enterprise conceptual modeling" arena presents a variety of descriptive models, each used by a relatively small group of colleagues. Together they form a "long tail" that extends from "drawings" on one end to "standards" on the other.

  7. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    PubMed

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography.

  8. Conceptual Alignment: How Brains Achieve Mutual Understanding.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    We share our thoughts with other minds, but we do not understand how. Having a common language certainly helps, but infants' and tourists' communicative success clearly illustrates that sharing thoughts does not require signals with a pre-assigned meaning. In fact, human communicators jointly build a fleeting conceptual space in which signals are a means to seek and provide evidence for mutual understanding. Recent work has started to capture the neural mechanisms supporting those fleeting conceptual alignments. The evidence suggests that communicators and addressees achieve mutual understanding by using the same computational procedures, implemented in the same neuronal substrate, and operating over temporal scales independent from the signals' occurrences.

  9. Tips for Reading Tutors = Consejos para los Tutores en Lectura.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Reading is the basis for learning and school success. While reading is learned primarily in the classroom, many students need extra time and help. Research shows that tutoring is a great way for individuals and groups outside school to support learning, but effective tutoring requires appropriate training and careful planning. This brochure,…

  10. Parents in Reading; Parents' Booklet (Folleto Para Los Padres).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truby, Roy

    Developed for Idaho's original Parents in Reading program, this booklet is designed for use by parents of preschool and elementary school students. Topics are discussed in both English and Spanish and include: reading, listening, and talking to children; controlling television viewing; using numbers with children; children's muscles and movements;…

  11. Exact and conceptual repetition dissociate conceptual memory tests: problems for transfer appropriate processing theory.

    PubMed

    McDermott, K B; Roediger, H L

    1996-03-01

    Three experiments examined whether a conceptual implicit memory test (specifically, category instance generation) would exhibit repetition effects similar to those found in free recall. The transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations among memory tests led us to predict that the tests would show parallel effects; this prediction was based upon the theory's assumption that conceptual tests will behave similarly as a function of various independent variables. In Experiment 1, conceptual repetition (i.e., following a target word [e.g., puzzles] with an associate [e.g., jigsaw]) did not enhance priming on the instance generation test relative to the condition of simply presenting the target word once, although this manipulation did affect free recall. In Experiment 2, conceptual repetition was achieved by following a picture with its corresponding word (or vice versa). In this case, there was an effect of conceptual repetition on free recall but no reliable effect on category instance generation or category cued recall. In addition, we obtained a picture superiority effect in free recall but not in category instance generation. In the third experiment, when the same study sequence was used as in Experiment 1, but with instructions that encouraged relational processing, priming on the category instance generation task was enhanced by conceptual repetition. Results demonstrate that conceptual memory tests can be dissociated and present problems for Roediger's (1990) transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations between explicit and implicit tests.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  13. Examining the influence of formative assessment on conceptual accumulation and conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Miki K.

    This study explored the effect of formative assessment on student achievement in science. Research in science education has shown that students enter science classrooms with previously formed explanatory models of the natural world; these naive "mental models" have a substantial influence on their learning of scientific conceptions. In general, conceptual change describes the pathway from pre-instructional or prior conceptions to a post-instructional or desired conception. Conceptual change involves a fundamental restructuring of a network of concepts rather than fitting new concepts into an existing conceptual network or structure. Research has shown that conceptual change is difficult to promote; for example, students may accumulate multiple conceptions over the course of instruction, including both new misconceptions and more scientifically-sound conceptions. Hellden and Solomon (2004) found that although students tended to evoke the same, less-scientific conceptions over time, they could produce more scientifically-sound conceptions during interviews with appropriate prompting; thus, students undergo conceptual accumulation rather than conceptual change. Students can recall scientifically-sound conceptions they have learned and may use them to reason, but they do so in partnership or hybridization with their less-scientific prior conceptions. Formative assessment, which focuses on providing immediate feedback by acting upon student understanding during the course of instruction, and conceptual change have both been linked to increased student achievement. Formative assessment is an instructional strategy that helps teachers to assess students' current understanding, identify the gap between current understanding and expected understanding, and provide immediate and useful feedback to students on how to close the gap. Formative assessment ranges from formal (e.g. embedded, planned-for interactions between teacher and entire class) to informal (e.g. on

  14. Towards a Conceptualization of Dialogic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrós, Maria; Flecha, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    In 1968, Freire included in his work the need of dialogue for those acting as leaders. Since then, leadership has been widely addressed by authors around the world and different conceptual frameworks have been developed. Different social and educational movements have granted dialogue a significant role for leading change. Educational research has…

  15. Assessing Intervention Responsiveness: Conceptual and Technical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and technical issues associated with options for specifying three assessment components for implementing an intervention responsiveness approach to the identification of learning disabilities: the timing of the measurement of student response to intervention; the criterion for demarcating learning as inadequate;…

  16. Re-"Conceptualizing" Procedural Knowledge in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.

    Many mathematics educators have lost sight of the critical importance of the mathematical understanding which underlies procedural competence, in part because we do not have a language to refer to this kind of understanding. The modal way of categorizing mathematical knowledge--conceptual and procedural knowledge--is limited in that: (a) it is…

  17. Culturally Conscious Organizations: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paula M.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses workplace culture in academic libraries as an aspect of organizational success in achieving on-the-job diversity. It introduces a conceptual framework in the form of selected indicators as measurements of cultural integration in the workplace. Characteristics of organizational cultural health are also identified in order to…

  18. Conceptual Acquisition and Change through Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of social interaction as a facilitator of learning in general and conceptual change in particular. Three conditions are proposed as necessary for social interaction to facilitate knowledge construction--horizontal information, comparable domain knowledge, and availability of cognitive tools. Suggests that these conditions assure…

  19. University Student Conceptual Resources for Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy…

  20. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    The "conceptual storyline" of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content…

  1. Taming Multivariate Data: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlinger, Lawrence J.; Wiorkowski, John J.; Moses, Anna I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the conceptual, methodological, and statistical challenges in selecting appropriate peer institutions for comparative purposes. The authors' approach embraces a Western scientific tradition that physical things and phenomena can be "reduced into a set of key variables--identifiable parts--that make key…

  2. Conceptual Design of a Regional Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Regional Council of Governments, CO.

    This report describes the conceptual design of a regional information system, developed in support of the Denver Regional Council of Government's established comprehensive planning work program. It includes a discussion of system objectives, available data sources, recommended system content, software and system maintenance requirements,…

  3. Pictorial and Conceptual Representation of Glimpsed Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Mary C.; Staub, Adrian; O'Connor, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    Pictures seen in a rapid sequence are remembered briefly, but most are forgotten within a few seconds (M. C. Potter. A. Staub, J. Rado. & D. H. O'Connor. 2002). The authors investigated the pictorial and conceptual components of this fleeting memory by presenting 5 pictured scenes and immediately testing recognition of verbal titles (e.g., people…

  4. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Edward Geaney

    2013-01-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around…

  5. Trade Secrets for Crafting a Conceptual Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    The author clarifies the distinction between a sound conceptual article and a literature review, outlines the creative process as it applies to written work, and provides "trade secrets" for novice writers on how to enhance their literary creativity and how to confront and solve writing problems. (Author/SR)

  6. Enhancing the Conceptual Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Describes three levels of understanding science: the phenomena (macroscopic), the particle (microscopic), and the symbolic. Suggests that the objective of science instruction at all levels is conceptual understanding of scientific inquiry. Discusses effective instructional strategies, including analogy, collaborative learning, concept mapping,…

  7. An Overview of Conceptual Change Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Clark, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    Conceptual change researchers have made significant progress on two prominent but competing theoretical perspectives regarding knowledge structure coherence. These perspectives can be broadly characterized as (1) knowledge-as-theory perspectives and (2) knowledge-as-elements perspectives. These perspectives can be briefly summarized in terms of…

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Defining Pharmaceutical Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Vaughn L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a conceptual framework to help pharmacy students and practitioners identify and document drug-related problems. Presents a preliminary description and taxonomy, using principles established within nursing's diagnostic structure, and discusses implications for contemporary pharmacy practice and education, including delineation of…

  9. Introductory Practice Experiences: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Diane E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A conceptual framework for developing pharmacy curricula to provide students with introductory practice experiences (IPEs) is outlined, including the rationale, educational objectives and outcomes, and desired characteristics of these experiences. Pharmacy literature concerning early practice experiences is also reviewed. Models and desired…

  10. High School Students' Physical Education Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Suzan F.

    2004-01-01

    The value of conceptual physical education knowledge has long been acknowledged (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1969; Kneer, 1981; NASPE, 1995) yet has not been formally measured or assessed. Seven multiple choice tests with established validity and reliability (Ayers, 2001b) were used to assess the concepts…

  11. On Automatic Assessment and Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasila, Antti; Malinen, Jarmo; Tiitu, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    We consider two complementary aspects of mathematical skills, i.e. "procedural fluency" and "conceptual understanding," from a point of view that is related to modern e-learning environments and computer-based assessment. Pedagogical background of teaching mathematics is discussed, and it is proposed that the traditional book…

  12. Prospective Teachers' Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the metaphorical images that prospective teachers in Turkey formulated to describe learners. Participants (N = 2847) completed the prompt "A student is like ... because ..." to indicate their conceptualizations of learner. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Altogether 98 well-articulated…

  13. International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    2008-01-01

    The study of conceptual change traces its heritage to the notions of paradigm (networks of shared beliefs, concepts, practices) and paradigm shift made famous by Thomas Kuhn in his book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions". Kuhn's work was quickly linked to developmental psychology (how knowledge develops) and to science education (teaching…

  14. Effects of Conceptual Complexity on Assertive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruch, Monroe A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared the assertive behavior of two groups differing in information-processing style. In experiment one, high conceptual-complexity (CC) subjects demonstrated greater content knowledge, direct delivery skill, and fewer negative self-statements. In experiment two, high versus low CC females were more assertive in difficult situations. (Author/RC)

  15. The Global Citizen Conceptualized: Accommodating Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Kathleen; Barker, Michelle; Harris, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Universities' aims for educating global citizens are rarely supported by a theoretical underpinning or evidence of outcomes. This study explored how international higher education experts conceptualize the global citizen or related terms representing the "ideal global graduate." A global notion of citizenship was accepted by the majority…

  16. Conceptual Design of a Prototype LSST Database

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Cook, K H; Abdulla, G; Brase, J

    2004-10-07

    This document describes a preliminary design for Prototype LSST Database (LSST DB). They identify key components and data structures and provide an expandable conceptual schema for the database. The authors discuss the potential user applications and post-processing algorithm to interact with the database, and give a set of example queries.

  17. Development of a Conceptual Framework of Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Considers variables which affect the acquisition of the kinetic theory of heat by children who hold alternative viewpoints. Suggests that the articulation of different viewpoints in no way hinders the acquisition of the desired conceptual framework. Emphasizes the benefit to low-reasoning students in particular. (CW)

  18. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Stacy; Bateiha, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the degree to which prospective elementary teachers had developed a meaningful and conceptual understanding of what integers are and explored their development of models for multiplication with integers that are related to everyday activities. Additionally, this study explored how these understandings informed…

  19. Conceptual Structures in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifarelli, Victor

    The processes by which conceptual knowledge is constructed during mathematical problem solving were studied, focusing on the cognitive activity of learners (i.e., the ways they elaborate, reorganize, and reconceptualize their solution activity). Underlying this research is the view that learners' mathematical conceptions evolve from their activity…

  20. Mapping Conceptual Change in Matter and Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellows, Nancy

    To analyze a student's conceptual changes, analyzing transcriptions of writing and verbal statements may not provide enough information. In a study of 25 sixth graders learning about matter and molecules, concept mapping of students' stated ideas was used to analyze the kinds of organizational changes the students made to use new science…

  1. Portfolios: Conceptual Foundations and Functional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luescher, Andreas; Sinn, John W.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the authors address several important areas that combine to illuminate the portfolio as performance, index, and design. They provide an in-depth look at the conceptual foundation and selected functional implications of portfolios. Accordingly, the foundations laid here may serve as a basis for further development and application to…

  2. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  3. Frequent Collaborative Quiz Taking and Conceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali R.

    2015-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study reports on the effectiveness of three assessment strategies for students' performance. The primary goal was to determine whether there are any improvements in students' conceptual learning when a frequent (weekly) quiz is used for grading purposes compared to using midterm and final examinations only. Another goal was…

  4. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Gases Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction (CCOI) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on overcoming 10th grade students' misconceptions on gases concepts. In addition, the effect of gender difference on students' understanding of gases concepts was investigated. The…

  5. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  6. Intergenerational Practice: Contributing to a Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Sacha; Sousa, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of the European population is creating a new demographic mix, increasing the relevance of intergenerational practice (IGP). To date, however, this field lacks an appropriate conceptual framework. This study aims to contribute to such a framework through an integrative review of peer-reviewed papers reporting on IGPs. Fifteen papers were…

  7. Biology Student Teachers' Conceptual Frameworks regarding Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikmenli, Musa

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…

  8. Learning and Unlearning: A Conceptual Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Max

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Organizational learning and unlearning are often viewed as different and distinct concepts in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the unlearning concept and reassess its position vis-à-vis learning, in particular second-order and double-loop learning. Design/methodology/approach The paper entails a conceptual analysis.…

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Job Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Black, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a conceptual framework for job change analogous to a thermostat, in which job satisfaction is the "thermometer," change in a job or between jobs is the "adjustment lever," and values, life status, readiness to change, and job opportunities are the "controls." (26 references) (SK)

  10. Conceptual Influences on Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information vs. perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to…

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Primary Source Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, David C.; Fry, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a descriptive conceptual framework to provide teachers with a means of recognizing and describing instructional activities that use primary sources. The framework provides structure for professional development programs that have been established to train teachers to access and integrate primary sources into lessons. The…

  12. Cognitive Efficiency: A Conceptual and Methodological Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive efficiency (CE) is generally defined as qualitative increases in knowledge gained in relation to the time and effort invested in knowledge acquisition. Across disciplines, limited consensus exists concerning the conceptual and measurement properties of CE partly because some researchers indiscriminately use the construct of CE to…

  13. Ghanaian Teacher Trainees' Conceptual Understanding of Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Chemical stoichiometry is a conceptual framework that encompasses other concepts such as the mole, writing of chemical equations in word and representative form, balancing of equations and the equilibrium concept. The underlying concepts enable students to understand relationships among entities of matter and required amounts for use when…

  14. Flexible Learning Itineraries Based on Conceptual Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agudelo, Olga Lucía; Salinas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The use of learning itineraries based on conceptual maps is studied in order to propose a more flexible instructional design that strengthens the learning process focused on the student, generating non-linear processes, characterising its elements, setting up relationships between them and shaping a general model with specifications for each…

  15. Collaboration Scripts--A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollar, Ingo; Fischer, Frank; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual analysis of collaboration scripts used in face-to-face and computer-mediated collaborative learning. Collaboration scripts are scaffolds that aim to improve collaboration through structuring the interactive processes between two or more learning partners. Collaboration scripts consist of at least five components:…

  16. Teaching the Conceptual Structure of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Stigler, James W.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    Many students graduate from K-12 mathematics programs without flexible, conceptual mathematics knowledge. This article reviews psychological and educational research to propose that refining K-12 classroom instruction such that students draw connections through relational comparisons may enhance their long-term ability to transfer and engage with…

  17. Young Children's Conceptual Understanding of Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…

  18. Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

  19. Conceptual Resources for Questioning "Child as Educator"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically evaluates the ways we look to children to educate us and explores how we might depart from that dynamic, exploring how a range of conceptual frameworks from historical and cultural studies and psychoanalysis might contribute to understanding the problematic of childhood, its problems and its limitations. While "child as…

  20. Leading Generative Groups: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel; Sobel-Lojeski, Karen A.; Reilly, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of leadership in generative groups. Generative groups have diverse team members who are expected to develop innovative solutions to complex, unstructured problems. The challenge for leaders of generative groups is to balance (a) establishing shared goals with recognizing members' vested interests, (b)…

  1. Multiple Mentor Model: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlew, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on developing a conceptual framework for the mentoring process. The model is based on the premise that mentoring is not a single event in the life of a worker but rather several events with several different levels of mentoring. (Author)

  2. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  3. Phonological and Conceptual Activation in Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne; McQueen, James M.; Butterfield, Sally

    2006-01-01

    We propose that speech comprehension involves the activation of token representations of the phonological forms of current lexical hypotheses, separately from the ongoing construction of a conceptual interpretation of the current utterance. In a series of cross-modal priming experiments, facilitation of lexical decision responses to visual target…

  4. The Measurement and Conceptualization of Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Petrosko, Joseph M.; Wiswell, Albert K.; Thongsukmag, Juthamas

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors tried various methods to measure and conceptualize curiosity. A sample of 369 education students (103 men, 266 women) who were attending universities on the East Coast of the United States completed 5 paper-and-pencil curiosity measures in 1 of their classes. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors found that the…

  5. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in…

  6. Teaching Modern Dance: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enghauser, Rebecca Gose

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual approach to teaching modern dance can broaden the awareness and deepen the understanding of modern dance in the educational arena in general, and in dance education specifically. This article describes a unique program that dance teachers can use to introduce modern dance to novice dancers, as well as more experienced dancers,…

  7. Prior Conceptual Knowledge and Textbook Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, James P.; Guthrie, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The role of a subject's conceptual knowledge in the procedural task of searching a text for information was studied for 51 college undergraduates in 2 experiments involving knowledge of anatomy. Students with more anatomical information were able to search a text more quickly. Educational implications are discussed. (SLD)

  8. Intercultural Historical Learning: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordgren, Kenneth; Johansson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual framework in order to systematically discuss the meaning of intercultural learning in history education and how it could be advanced. We do so by bringing together theories of historical consciousness, intercultural competence and postcolonial thinking. By combining these theories into one framework, we identify…

  9. Conceptual Basis of Educational Service Resource Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledyankina, Olga V.; Akimova, Olga B.; Fomin, Evgenii P.

    2016-01-01

    Topicality of the issue researched is preconditioned by the need to describe the conceptual basis and significance of educational service resource support of at the current development stage of Russian vocational education, classification of its main components as well as significance of the need to transform resource support from the factor that…

  10. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  11. Conceptualizing Organizational Climates. Research Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Benjamin

    Part 1 of this paper presents some logical and conceptual distinctions between job satisfaction and organizational climate, the former being viewed as micro, evaluative, individual perceptions of personal events and experiences the latter as macro, relatively descriptive, organizational level perceptions that are abstractions of organizational…

  12. When Stepfathers Claim Stepchildren: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglio, William

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Guided by social constructionist and symbolic interactionist perspectives and a grounded theory method, my conceptual analysis explores stepfathers experiences with claiming stepchildren as their own. Using indepth interviews with a diverse sample of 36 stepfathers, my analysis focuses on paternal claiming as a core category and generates…

  13. Promoting Conceptual Understanding via Adaptive Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a scalable concept map based navigation system for a digital textbook. A literature review has been conducted to identify possible methods to promote conceptual understanding in the context of a digital textbook, and these hypothesized solutions will be evaluated through…

  14. Handling Qualities Optimization for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Ben; Theodore, Colin R.; Berger, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA, under a succession of rotary-wing programs has been moving towards coupling multiple discipline analyses in a rigorous consistent manner to evaluate rotorcraft conceptual designs. Handling qualities is one of the component analyses to be included in a future NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization framework for conceptual design of VTOL aircraft. Similarly, the future vision for the capability of the Concept Design and Assessment Technology Area (CD&A-TA) of the U.S Army Aviation Development Directorate also includes a handling qualities component. SIMPLI-FLYD is a tool jointly developed by NASA and the U.S. Army to perform modeling and analysis for the assessment of flight dynamics and control aspects of the handling qualities of rotorcraft conceptual designs. An exploration of handling qualities analysis has been carried out using SIMPLI-FLYD in illustrative scenarios of a tiltrotor in forward flight and single-main rotor helicopter at hover. Using SIMPLI-FLYD and the conceptual design tool NDARC integrated into a single process, the effects of variations of design parameters such as tail or rotor size were evaluated in the form of margins to fixed- and rotary-wing handling qualities metrics as well as the vehicle empty weight. The handling qualities design margins are shown to vary across the flight envelope due to both changing flight dynamic and control characteristics and changing handling qualities specification requirements. The current SIMPLI-FLYD capability and future developments are discussed in the context of an overall rotorcraft conceptual design process.

  15. Aircraft Conceptual Design Using Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Antcliff, Kevin R.; Costa, Guillermo; Deshpande, Nachiket; Moore, Mark D.; Miguel, Edric A. San; Snyder, Alison N.

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is a parametric geometry modeling tool that is intended for use in the conceptual design of aircraft. The intent of this software is to rapidly model aircraft configurations without expending the expertise and time that is typically required for modeling with traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages. VSP accomplishes this by using parametrically defined components, such as a wing that is defined by span, area, sweep, taper ratio, thickness to cord, and so on. During this phase of frequent design builds, changes to the model can be rapidly visualized along with the internal volumetric layout. Using this geometry-based approach, parameters such as wetted areas and cord lengths can be easily extracted for rapid external performance analyses, such as a parasite drag buildup. At the completion of the conceptual design phase, VSP can export its geometry to higher fidelity tools. This geometry tool was developed by NASA and is freely available to U.S. companies and universities. It has become integral to conceptual design in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) here at NASA Langley Research Center and is currently being used at over 100 universities, aerospace companies, and other government agencies. This paper focuses on the use of VSP in recent NASA conceptual design studies to facilitate geometry-centered design methodology. Such a process is shown to promote greater levels of creativity, more rapid assessment of critical design issues, and improved ability to quickly interact with higher order analyses. A number of VSP vehicle model examples are compared to CAD-based conceptual design, from a designer perspective; comparisons are also made of the time and expertise required to build the geometry representations as well.

  16. Kuhn and conceptual change: on the analogy between conceptual changes in science and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiffenhagen, Christian; Sherman, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the analogy between conceptual changes in the history of science and conceptual changes in the development of young children is problematic. We show that the notions of ‘conceptual change’ in Kuhn and Piaget’s projects, the two thinkers whose work is most commonly drawn upon to support this analogy, are not compatible in the sense usually claimed. We contend that Kuhn’s work pertains not so much to the psychology of individual scientists, but to the way philosophers and historians should describe developments in communities of scientists. Furthermore, we argue that the analogy is based on a misunderstanding of the nature of science and the relation between science and common sense. The distinctiveness of the two notions of conceptual change has implications for science education research, since it raises serious questions about the relevance of Kuhn’s remarks for the study of pedagogical issues.

  17. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2016-07-12

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  18. Estabilidad de los modelos de Heggie y Ramamani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Vergne, M. M.; Wachlin, F. C.; Carpintero, D. D.

    Los modelos de Heggie y Ramamani de satélites galácticos en órbitas circulares se basan en una teoría aproximada, por lo que es importante verificar su estabilidad mediante simulaciones numéricas. En esta forma, hemos logrado mostrar que son estables sobre intervalos de tiempo mucho mayores que los que lograron los propios autores de los modelos. Por otra parte, dado que hemos mostrado que el caos es significativo en estos modelos, son un sistema ideal para investigar si, pese a ello, se mantienen estacionarios. Nuestras simulaciones numéricas muestran que, pese al caos, la estacionariedad se mantiene sobre intervalos de centenares de tiempos de cruce del sistema, mucho mayores que los tiempos de Liapunov característicos de sus movimientos caóticos.

  19. CADDIS Volume 5. Causal Databases: Interactive Conceptual Diagrams (ICDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In Interactive Conceptual Diagram (ICD) section of CADDIS allows users to create conceptual model diagrams, search a literature-based evidence database, and then attach that evidence to their diagrams.

  20. Integration of Language and Cognition at Pre-Conceptual Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-04

    and cognition at a pre-conceptual level, where conceptual and emotional contents are not differentiated might be interesting for theoretical linguistics and for practical development of understanding-based search engines .

  1. Computational Conceptual Change: An Explanation-Based Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    of human mental models, (2) our psychologically plausible model of analogical generalization can learn these models from examples, and (3) conceptual...four simulations. We simulate conceptual change in the domains of astronomy, biology, and force dynamics where examples of psychological conceptual...provide a consistent computational account of human mental models, (2) our psychologically plausible model of analogical generalization can learn these

  2. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  3. Individual Differences in Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge when Learning Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on children's conceptual and procedural understanding of fractions, and other arithmetic skills, has led to contradictory conclusions. Some research suggests that children learn conceptual knowledge before procedural knowledge, some suggests that they learn procedural knowledge before conceptual knowledge, and other research…

  4. Conceptual Frameworks in the Doctoral Research Process: A Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…

  5. Towards to an Explanation for Conceptual Change: A Mechanistic Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual change is one of the most studied fields in science education and psychology of learning. However, there are still some foundational issues in conceptual change research on which no clear consensus has emerged. Firstly, there is no agreement on what changes in belief and concept systems constitute conceptual change and what changes do…

  6. The Influence of Approach and Avoidance Goals on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, conceptual change research has been experiencing a warming trend (G. M. Sinatra, 2005) whereby motivational and affective factors are being explored in the conceptual change process. The purpose of this study is to explore the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goal theory in relation to students' conceptual change learning for a specific…

  7. La preparacion en ciencia de los candidatos a maestros del nivel elemental primario segun la reforma de la educacion cientifica en Puerto Rico: Una propuesta de secuencia curricular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Plaza, Evelyn

    El proposito de esta investigacion fue identificar los componentes de la preparacion en ciencia que deben recibir los estudiantes del Bachillerato en Artes en Educacion Elemental, Nivel Primario, de acuerdo a los documentos que dirigen la reforma de la educacion cientifica en Puerto Rico. Tambien, se identificaron los componentes de los cursos que forman parte de la preparacion en ciencia de estos estudiantes. Se compararon los componentes de la preparacion en ciencia y los componentes de los cursos para determinar congruencias y discrepancias. Con los datos recopilados se identificaron los componentes de los cursos de una secuencia curricular para la preparacion en ciencia de los candidatos a maestros del nivel elemental primario. La secuencia curricular que se propone en esta investigacion incluye cursos de contenido cientifico y de metodologia en la ensenanza de la ciencia disenados para satisfacer las necesidades de los candidatos. Se recomienda que en los procesos para el diseno, la implantacion y la evaluacion de estos cursos participen profesores de ciencia, profesores de educacion y maestros del nivel elemental primario. Todos los cursos de la secuencia curricular deben tener un enfoque constructivista. Las experiencias educativas que se incluyan en los cursos deben aspirar a desarrollar en los candidatos los atributos de la cultura cientifica y actitudes positivas hacia la ciencia y hacia la ensenanza de esta disciplina. El modelaje por parte de los profesores que ensenen los cursos de la secuencia curricular es fundamental en el desarrollo profesional de los candidatos. Se recomienda que en los cursos de contenido cientifico se estudien los conceptos y los conocimientos cientificos que forman parte del curriculo de Kindergarten a tercer grado de forma integrada y con una profundidad universitaria. Estos cursos deben tener un enfoque interdisciplinario e incluir el estudio de la naturaleza de la ciencia y un componente de laboratorio para desarrollar los

  8. Preserved conceptual priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla A R; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2006-10-01

    We assessed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adult control (HC) group performance on: (1) a conceptual priming task, in which participants had to make a semantic decision as to whether a degraded picture of an object encountered previously belonged to the category of living or non-living things; and (2) a recognition memory task. The AD group showed a dissociation between impaired performance on the recognition task and preserved priming for semantic decisions to degraded pictures. We argue that it is not whether priming is conceptual or perceptual that is important for the observation of priming in AD, rather it is the nature of the response that is required (c.f., Gabrieli et al., 1999).

  9. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing.

    PubMed

    Marino, Barbara F M; Borghi, Anna M; Gemmi, Luca; Cacciari, Cristina; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-07-31

    We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals) after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view.

  10. Conceptual Design of an APT Reusable Spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    This paper concerns the conceptual design of an Aerial Propellant Transfer reusable spaceplane carried out during our PhD course under the supervision of prof. Chiesa. The new conceptual design methodology employed in order to develop the APT concept and the main characteristics of the spaceplane itself will be presented and discussed. The methodology for conceptual design has been worked out during the last three years. It was originally thought for atmospheric vehicle design but, thanks to its modular structure which makes it very flexible, it has been possible to convert it to space transportation systems design by adding and/or modifying a few modules. One of the major improvements has been for example the conception and development of the mission simulation and trajectory optimisation module. The methodology includes as main characteristics and innovations the latest techniques of geometric modelling and logistic, operational and cost aspects since the first stages of the project. Computer aided design techniques are used to obtain a better definition of the product at the end of the conceptual design phase and virtual reality concepts are employed to visualise three-dimensional installation and operational aspects, at least in part replacing full-scale mock- ups. The introduction of parametric three-dimensional CAD software integrated into the conceptual design methodology represents a great improvement because it allows to carry out different layouts and to assess them immediately. It is also possible to link the CAD system to a digital prototyping software which combines 3D visualisation and assembly analysis, useful to define the so-called Digital Mock-Up at Conceptual Level (DMUCL) which studies the integration between the on board systems, sized with simulation algorithms, and the airframe. DMUCL represents a very good means to integrate the conceptual design with a methodology turned towards dealing with Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and

  11. Conceptual Spaces of the Immune System.

    PubMed

    Fierz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The immune system can be looked at as a cognitive system. This is often done in analogy to the neuro-psychological system. Here, it is demonstrated that the cognitive functions of the immune system can be properly described within a new theory of cognitive science. Gärdenfors' geometrical framework of conceptual spaces is applied to immune cognition. Basic notions, like quality dimensions, natural properties and concepts, similarities, prototypes, saliences, etc., are related to cognitive phenomena of the immune system. Constraints derived from treating the immune system within a cognitive theory, like Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, might well prove to be instrumental for the design of vaccines, immunological diagnostic tests, and immunotherapy.

  12. A dynamic conceptual model of care planning.

    PubMed

    Elf, Marie; Poutilova, Maria; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2007-12-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of the care planning process developed to identify the hypothetical links between structural, process and outcome factors important to the quality of the process. Based on existing literature, it was hypothesized that a thorough assessment of patients' health needs is an important prerequisite when making a rigorous diagnosis and preparing plans for various care interventions. Other important variables that are assumed to influence the quality of the process are the care culture and professional knowledge. The conceptual model was developed as a system dynamics causal loop diagram as a first essential step towards a computed model. System dynamics offers the potential to describe processes in a nonlinear, dynamic way and is suitable for exploring, comprehending, learning and communicating complex ideas about care processes.

  13. Vagueness, graded membership, and conceptual spaces.

    PubMed

    Douven, Igor

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with a version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership that relies on the conceptual spaces framework. Three studies are reported, one to construct a particular shape space, one to detect which shapes representable in that space are typical for certain sorts of objects, and one to elicit degrees of category membership for the various shapes from which the shape space was constructed. Taking Kamp and Partee's proposal as given, the first two studies allowed us to predict the degrees to which people would judge shapes representable in the space to be members of certain categories. These predictions were compared with the degrees that were measured in the third study. The comparison yielded a test of the account of graded membership at issue. The outcome of this test was found to support the conceptual spaces version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership.

  14. University student conceptual resources for understanding energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-06-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.

  15. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F. M.; Borghi, Anna M.; Gemmi, Luca; Cacciari, Cristina; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals) after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view. PMID:26264031

  16. Conceptualization of relative size by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; d'Amaro, Daniele; Metzler, Marita; Dyer, Adrian G

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size relationship rules to choose either the larger or smaller stimulus as the correct solution in a given context, and subsequently apply the learnt rule to novel colors and shapes providing that there is sufficient input to the long wavelength (green) photoreceptor channel. Our results add a novel, size-based conceptual rule to the set of relational concepts that honeybees have been shown to master and underline the value of bees as an animal model for studying the emergence of conceptualization abilities.

  17. Conceptualization of relative size by honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; d’Amaro, Daniele; Metzler, Marita; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size relationship rules to choose either the larger or smaller stimulus as the correct solution in a given context, and subsequently apply the learnt rule to novel colors and shapes providing that there is sufficient input to the long wavelength (green) photoreceptor channel. Our results add a novel, size-based conceptual rule to the set of relational concepts that honeybees have been shown to master and underline the value of bees as an animal model for studying the emergence of conceptualization abilities. PMID:24672444

  18. Conceptual Spaces of the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Fierz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The immune system can be looked at as a cognitive system. This is often done in analogy to the neuro-psychological system. Here, it is demonstrated that the cognitive functions of the immune system can be properly described within a new theory of cognitive science. Gärdenfors’ geometrical framework of conceptual spaces is applied to immune cognition. Basic notions, like quality dimensions, natural properties and concepts, similarities, prototypes, saliences, etc., are related to cognitive phenomena of the immune system. Constraints derived from treating the immune system within a cognitive theory, like Gärdenfors’ conceptual spaces, might well prove to be instrumental for the design of vaccines, immunological diagnostic tests, and immunotherapy. PMID:28018339

  19. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R.

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  20. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    SciTech Connect

    Garavaglia, S. Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N.; Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D.; Jelonnek, J.; Tran, Q. M.; Franke, T.

    2015-12-10

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  1. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    7 A A03 357 OREGON UNIV EUGENE GRADUATE SCHOOLSOF MANAGEMENT AND--ETC F/ 5/1 EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT TO ORGANIZATIONS: A CONC PTUAL REVIEW.CU...Management University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403 \\ . ’k. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review Richard M. Steers, University of...Review. 5 TYPE OF REPORT 8 PERIO’ COVERED .’ Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Concep- ’ tual Review. 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) 8

  2. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  3. Conceptual change strategies in teaching genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzli, Laura Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing conceptual change strategies when teaching high school genetics. The study examined the effects of structuring instruction to provide students with cognitive situations which promote conceptual change, specifically instruction was structured to elicit students' prior knowledge. The goal of the study was that the students would not only be able to solve genetics problems and define basic terminology but they would also have constructed more scientific schemas of the actual processes involved in inheritance. This study is based on the constructivist theory of learning and conceptual change research which suggest that students are actively involved in the process of relating new information to prior knowledge as they construct new knowledge. Two sections of biology II classes received inquiry based instruction and participated in structured cooperative learning groups. However, the unique difference in the treatment group's instruction was the use of structured thought time and the resulting social interaction between the students. The treatment group students' instructional design allowed students to socially construct their cognitive knowledge after elicitation of their prior knowledge. In contrast, the instructional design for the control group students allowed them to socially construct their cognitive knowledge of genetics without the individually structured thought time. The results indicated that the conceptual change strategies with individually structured thought time improved the students' scientific mastery of genetics concepts and they maintained fewer post instructional alternative conceptions. Although all students gained the ability to correctly solve genetics problems, the treatment group students were able to explain the processes involved in terms of meiosis. The treatment group students were also able to better apply their knowledge to novel genetic situations. The implications

  4. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.

  5. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  6. Tinkering: a conceptual and historical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Laubichler, Manfred D

    2007-01-01

    Francois Jacob's article 'Evolution and Tinkering' published in Science in 1977 is still the locus classicus for the concept of tinkering in biology. It first introduced the notion of tinkering to a wide audience of scientists. Jacob drew on a variety of different sources ranging from molecular biology to evolutionary biology and cultural anthropology. The notion of tinkering, or more accurately, the concept of bricolage, are conceptual abstractions that allow for the theoretical analysis of a wide range of phenomena that are united by a shared underlying process--tinkering, or the opportunistic rearrangement and recombination of existing elements. This paper looks at Jacob's analysis as itself an example of conceptual tinkering. It traces the history of some of its elements and sketches how it has become part of an inclusive discourse of theoretical biology and evolutionary developmental biology that emerged over the last 30 years. I will argue that the theoretical power of Jacob's analysis lies in the fact that he captured a widespread phenomenon. His conceptual analysis is thus an example of an interdisciplinary synthesis that is based on a shared process rather than a shared object.

  7. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest L.

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  8. Executive functions predict conceptual learning of science.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sinéad M; Booth, Josephine N; Palmer, Lorna Elise; Blythe, Richard A; Delibegovic, Mirela; Wheate, Nial J

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between executive functions and both factual and conceptual learning of science, specifically chemistry, in early adolescence. Sixty-three pupils in their second year of secondary school (aged 12-13 years) participated. Pupils completed tasks of working memory (Spatial Working Memory), inhibition (Stop-Signal), attention set-shifting (ID/ED), and planning (Stockings of Cambridge), from the CANTAB. They also participated in a chemistry teaching session, practical, and assessment on the topic of acids and alkalis designed specifically for this study. Executive function data were related to (1) the chemistry assessment which included aspects of factual and conceptual learning and (2) a recent school science exam. Correlational analyses between executive functions and both the chemistry assessment and science grades revealed that science achievements were significantly correlated with working memory. Linear regression analysis revealed that visuospatial working memory ability was predictive of chemistry performance. Interestingly, this relationship was observed solely in relation to the conceptual learning condition of the assessment highlighting the role of executive functions in understanding and applying knowledge about what is learned within science teaching.

  9. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  10. Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

  11. Influence of Learning Styles on Conceptual Learning of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Suarez, Teresita; Alarcon, Hugo

    2010-10-01

    Several studies have shown the influence of scientific reasoning on the conceptual learning of students in courses developed with methodologies that promote active learning. Given that learning styles may also influence conceptual learning of physics, a correlacional study was conducted which used two different approaches of learning styles: the Honey-Alonso and Felder-Silverman models. This quantitative study was performed in two groups of students using modeling instruction in a college course of introductory mechanics. The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation test (FMCE) was used to assess conceptual learning. The results of this work suggest the dependence of the conceptual learning of physics on the learning styles.

  12. Neutronic conceptual design of the ETRR-2 cold-neutron source using the MCNP code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M. Y.; Shaat, M. K.; Abdelfattah, A. Y.

    2005-04-01

    A conceptual neutronic design of the cold-neutron source (CNS) for the Egyptian second research reactor (ETRR-2) was done using the MCNP code. Parametric analysis to chose the type and geometry of the moderator, and the required CNS dimensions to maximize the cold neutron production was performed. The moderator cell has a spherical annulus structure containing liquid hydrogen. The cold neutron gain and cold neutron brightness are calculated together with the nuclear heat load of the CNS. Analysis of the estimated performance of the CNS has been done regarding the effect of void fraction in the moderator cell together with the ortho: para ratio.

  13. The Flexibility of Conceptual Pacts: Referring Expressions Dynamically Shift to Accommodate New Conceptualizations

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Alyssa; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    In a classic paper, Brennan and Clark argued that when interlocutors agree on a name for an object, they are forming a temporary agreement on how to conceptualize that object; that is, they are forming a conceptual pact. The literature on conceptual pacts has largely focused on the costs and benefits of breaking and maintaining lexical precedents, and the degree to which they might be partner-specific. The research presented here focuses on a question about conceptual pacts that has been largely neglected in the literature: To what extent are conceptual pacts specific to the local context of the interaction? If conceptual pacts are indeed temporary, then when the local context changes in ways that are accessible to participants, we would expect participants to seamlessly shift to referential expressions that reflect novel conceptualizations. Two experiments examined how referential forms change across context in collaborative, task-oriented dialog between naïve participants. In Experiment 1, names for parts of an unknown object were established in an “item” identification stage (e.g., a shape that looked like a wrench was called “the wrench”). In a second “build” stage, that name was often supplanted by an object-oriented name, e.g., the “leg.” These changes happened abruptly and without negotiation. In Experiment 2, interlocutors manipulated clip art and more abstract tangram pictures in a “slider” puzzle to arrange the objects into a target configuration. On some trials moving an object revealed a picture that could be construed as a contrast competitor, e.g., a clip art picture of a camel after “the camel” had been negotiated as a name for a tangram shape, or vice versa. As would be expected, modification rates increased when a potential contrast was revealed. More strikingly, the degree to which a name had been negotiated or the frequency with which it had been used did not affect the likelihood that the revealed shape would be

  14. ParaDIS_lib

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Richard D.

    2016-05-25

    The ParaDIS_lib software is a project that is funded by the DOE ASC Program. Its purpose is to provide visualization and analysis capabilities for the existing ParaDIS parallel dislocation dynamics simulation code.

  15. Towards a Conceptual Profile: Rethinking Conceptual Mediation in the Light of Recent Cognitive and Neuroscientific Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Chris

    2014-06-01

    One important focus for science education researchers over many years has been the attempts to replace students' commonsense and non-scientific explanations of various phenomena by scientific explanations. The approach we adopted almost three decades ago was conceptual mediation, and this was shown to have a considerable level of success with both conceptual and attitudinal change. However, since that time, advances have been made in the application of both cognitive science and neuroscience to science learning. In particular, evidence has accumulated that, rather than the replacement of the commonsense view, the reality is that learners develop a conceptual profile which includes both the commonsense and the scientific. If this is the case, instead of focussing on conceptual replacement, science educators need to aim more actively at strengthening the learner's executive processes which select contextually appropriate responses and inhibit inappropriate ones. In this paper, the initial development, theoretical basis and the practical applications of conceptual mediation are introduced, following which, these are re-examined in the light of more recent findings. Within this discussion, several potential links to recent cognitive and neuroscientific research are drawn, and these raise issues for further research into the most appropriate teaching approaches for tackling existing non-scientific conceptions.

  16. Conceptual structures: Information processing in mind and machine

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The broad coverage in this book combines material from philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and artificial intelligence. As a unifying force, the book focuses on conceptual graphs - networks of concepts and conceptual relations developed over the past twenty years. Important topics include: philosophical issues of knowledge and meaning; cognitive psychology in relation to linguistics and artificial intelligence; conceptual graphs as a knowledge representation language; applications for formal logic, plausible reasoning, heuristics, and computation; natural language parsing, generation, and pragmatics; knowledge-based systems, conceptual analysis, and database design and query; limits of conceptualization and unsolved problems. To accommodate readers from various disciplines, this book is designed to be read at different levels. Contents: Philosophical basis; Psychological evidence; Conceptual graphs; Reasoning and computation; Language; Knowledge engineering; Epilog; Limits of conceptualization; Appendices; Index.

  17. Towards to An Explanation for Conceptual Change: A Mechanistic Alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari

    2014-07-01

    Conceptual change is one of the most studied fields in science education and psychology of learning. However, there are still some foundational issues in conceptual change research on which no clear consensus has emerged. Firstly, there is no agreement on what changes in belief and concept systems constitute conceptual change and what changes do not. Secondly, there is no consensus on what the specific mechanisms of conceptual change are. Thirdly, there is no common explanatory framework of how to explain conceptual change. In this paper a sketch for explanations of conceptual change is outlined. According to this account, the explanation for conceptual change requires (1) a description for the information processing task and (2) a sufficiently accurate and detailed description of the cognitive mechanisms responsible for the task. The scope and limits of this type of explanation are discussed.

  18. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electricidad; Una guia para consumidores en los EE.UU.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-09-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  19. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  20. Los Alamos offers Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico is calling for applications for postdoctoral appointments and research fellowships. The positions are available in geoscience as well as other scientific disciplines.The laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy, awards J. Robert Oppenheimer Research Fellowships to scientists that either have or will soon complete doctoral degrees. The appointments are for two years, are renewable for a third year, and carry a stipend of $51,865 per year. Potential applicants should send a resume or employment application and a statement of research goals to Carol M. Rich, Div. 89, Human Resources Development Division, MS P290, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 by mid-November.

  1. A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T; Game, Edward T; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    An opportunity represents an advantageous combination of circumstances that allows goals to be achieved. We reviewed the nature of opportunity and how it manifests in different subsystems (e.g., biophysical, social, political, economic) as conceptualized in other bodies of literature, including behavior, adoption, entrepreneur, public policy, and resilience literature. We then developed a multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. We identified 3 types of conservation opportunity: potential, actors remove barriers to problem solving by identifying the capabilities within the system that can be manipulated to create support for conservation action; traction, actors identify windows of opportunity that arise from exogenous shocks, events, or changes that remove barriers to solving problems; and existing, everything is in place for conservation action (i.e., no barriers exist) and an actor takes advantage of the existing circumstances to solve problems. Different leverage points characterize each type of opportunity. Thus, unique stages of opportunity identification or creation and exploitation exist: characterizing the system and defining problems; identifying potential solutions; assessing the feasibility of solutions; identifying or creating opportunities; and taking advantage of opportunities. These stages can be undertaken independently or as part of a situational analysis and typically comprise the first stage, but they can also be conducted iteratively throughout a conservation planning process. Four types of entrepreneur can be identified (business, policy, social, and conservation), each possessing attributes that enable them to identify or create opportunities and take advantage of them. We examined how different types of conservation opportunity manifest in a social-ecological system (the Great Barrier Reef) and how they can be taken advantage of. Our multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity strengthens and

  2. Critical conceptualism in environmental modeling and prediction.

    PubMed

    Christakos, G

    2003-10-15

    Many important problems in environmental science and engineering are of a conceptual nature. Research and development, however, often becomes so preoccupied with technical issues, which are themselves fascinating, that it neglects essential methodological elements of conceptual reasoning and theoretical inquiry. This work suggests that valuable insight into environmental modeling can be gained by means of critical conceptualism which focuses on the software of human reason and, in practical terms, leads to a powerful methodological framework of space-time modeling and prediction. A knowledge synthesis system develops the rational means for the epistemic integration of various physical knowledge bases relevant to the natural system of interest in order to obtain a realistic representation of the system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, generate meaningful predictions of environmental processes in space-time, and produce science-based decisions. No restriction is imposed on the shape of the distribution model or the form of the predictor (non-Gaussian distributions, multiple-point statistics, and nonlinear models are automatically incorporated). The scientific reasoning structure underlying knowledge synthesis involves teleologic criteria and stochastic logic principles which have important advantages over the reasoning method of conventional space-time techniques. Insight is gained in terms of real world applications, including the following: the study of global ozone patterns in the atmosphere using data sets generated by instruments on board the Nimbus 7 satellite and secondary information in terms of total ozone-tropopause pressure models; the mapping of arsenic concentrations in the Bangladesh drinking water by assimilating hard and soft data from an extensive network of monitoring wells; and the dynamic imaging of probability distributions of pollutants across the Kalamazoo river.

  3. Conceptual Structure within and between Modalities.

    PubMed

    Dilkina, Katia; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2012-01-01

    Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multimodal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings, and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic, and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1) to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2) to compare structures between modalities; and (3) to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly. Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color, and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities raise the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multifaceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed.

  4. CT image visualization: a conceptual introduction.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) postprocessing produces information-rich diagnostic images, transforming enormous amounts of x-ray attenuation data into clinical information that can assist in diagnosis and treatment. This article briefly reviews the history of the technological evolution of CT imaging equipment and provides a conceptual overview of scan data visualization processes. Trends in and examples of image postprocessing, segmentation, registration and fusion techniques, and computer-aided detection are described. Finally, the uses of these visualization algorithms in selected diagnostic imaging applications are discussed.

  5. Conceptual Coordination Bridges Information Processing and Neurophysiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Norrig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Information processing theories of memory and skills can be reformulated in terms of how categories are physically and temporally related, a process called conceptual coordination. Dreaming can then be understood as a story understanding process in which two mechanisms found in everyday comprehension are missing: conceiving sequences (chunking categories in time as a categorization) and coordinating across modalities (e.g., relating the sound of a word and the image of its meaning). On this basis, we can readily identify isomorphisms between dream phenomenology and neurophysiology, and explain the function of dreaming as facilitating future coordination of sequential, cross-modal categorization (i.e., REM sleep lowers activation thresholds, "unlearning").

  6. Conceptual design of a Disk Chopper Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Copley, J.R.D.

    1997-09-01

    We describe methods that we have used for the conceptual design of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the Cold Neutron Research Facility, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Most of the discussion concerns the multiple chopper system. No single design method is best in every situation. We believe that an analytical approach is preferable, whenever possible. Graphical methods of expressing problems have been very instructive. We have also found it useful, and occasionally invaluable, to cross-check results obtained using different methods, such as analytical integration and ray-tracing.

  7. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

  8. Uncertainty and the Conceptual Site Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, V.; Nicholson, T. J.

    2007-12-01

    Our focus is on uncertainties in the underlying conceptual framework upon which all subsequent steps in numerical and/or analytical modeling efforts depend. Experienced environmental modelers recognize the value of selecting an optimal conceptual model from several competing site models, but usually do not formally explore possible alternative models, in part due to incomplete or missing site data, as well as relevant regional data for establishing boundary conditions. The value in and approach for developing alternative conceptual site models (CSM) is demonstrated by analysis of case histories. These studies are based on reported flow or transport modeling in which alternative site models are formulated using data that were not available to, or not used by, the original modelers. An important concept inherent to model abstraction of these alternative conceptual models is that it is "Far better an approximate answer to the right question, which is often vague, than the exact answer to the wrong question, which can always be made precise." (Tukey, 1962) The case histories discussed here illustrate the value of formulating alternative models and evaluating them using site-specific data: (1) Charleston Naval Site where seismic characterization data allowed significant revision of the CSM and subsequent contaminant transport modeling; (2) Hanford 300-Area where surface- and ground-water interactions affecting the unsaturated zone suggested an alternative component to the site model; (3) Savannah River C-Area where a characterization report for a waste site within the modeled area was not available to the modelers, but provided significant new information requiring changes to the underlying geologic and hydrogeologic CSM's used; (4) Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) where re-interpretation of resistivity sounding data and water-level data suggested an alternative geologic model. Simple 2-D spreadsheet modeling of the ADRS with the revised CSM provided an improved

  9. Conceptual design of ECLSS microgravity test beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodney, Matt; Dall-Bauman, Liese

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual designs were prepared for Space Station Freedom ECLSS test beds for both the Air Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) and the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem (WRMS), which will allow extended testing of equipment under microgravity conditions. The separate designs for the ARS and the WRMS include storage tanks, plumbing, and limited instrumentation that would be expected to be common to all air or water treatment equipment of interest. The beds are designed to recycle process fluids to the greatest extent possible, thus minimizing the spacecraft/test bed interface requirements. Schematic diagrams of both the ARS and the WRMS test beds are included.

  10. ATA diagnostic beam dump conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    A diagnostic beam dump, able to withstand 72,000 pulses (10 kA, 50 MeV/pulse) per shift was designed and analyzed. The analysis shows that the conceptual beam dump design consisting of 80 vitreous carbon plate-foam elements is able to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses generated. X-rays produced by bremsstrahlung are absorbed by a three element copper plate-foam x-ray absorber. Cooling between bursts of electron pulses is provided by pressurized helium.

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  12. Improvement Science: conceptual and theoretical foundations for its application to healthcare quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Martins, Mônica; Travassos, Claudia

    2016-11-03

    The development and study of healthcare quality improvement interventions have been reshaped, moving from more intuitive approaches, dominated by biomedical vision and premised on easy transferability, to gradually acknowledge the need for more planning and systematization, with greater incorporation of the social sciences and enhancement of the role of context. Improvement Science has been established, with a conceptual and methodological framework for such studies. Considering the incipient of the debate and scientific production on Improvement Science in Brazil, this article aims to expound its principal conceptual and theoretical fundamentals, focusing on three central themes: the linkage of different disciplines; recognition of the role of context; and the theoretical basis for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interventions. Resumo: O desenvolvimento e estudo de intervenções para a melhoria do cuidado de saúde tem ganhado novo contorno, movendo-se das abordagens mais intuitivas, com domínio da visão biomédica e assentadas no pressuposto de fácil transferibilidade, para gradativamente reconhecer a necessidade de mais planejamento e sistematização, com maior incorporação das ciências sociais e valorização do papel do contexto. A Ciência da Melhoria do Cuidado de Saúde vem se estabelecendo, propiciando referencial conceitual e metodológico para tais estudos. Considerando a incipiência do debate e produção sobre Ciência da Melhoria do Cuidado de Saúde no Brasil, este artigo objetiva discorrer sobre as principais bases conceituais e teóricas que a sustentam, com foco em três temas centrais: a articulação de diferentes disciplinas; o reconhecimento do papel do contexto; e o embasamento teórico para o desenho, implementação e avaliação das intervenções.

  13. Taxonomía de asteroides y cometas basada en los espectros de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Motta, V.; Froeschlé, C.

    Estudiaremos dos familias de objetos que sufren encuentros cercanos con planetas, a saber: la familia de cometas de Júpiter (JF) y los asteroides cercanos a la Tierra (NEAs). El movimiento de estos objetos es caótico en una escala de tiempo corta. Más aún, debido a los cambios erráticos en los elementos orbitales, la comparación de los valores actuales da poca información acerca de la posible vinculación dinámica entre los objetos de una misma familia. Calculamos una estimación finita de los Exponentes Característicos de Lyapunov (LCE), los llamamos Indicadores Característicos de Lyapunov (LCI) para ambas familias y analizamos las características del espacio de fase donde tiene lugar el movimiento de estos objetos. Integrando en un período suficientemente largo (e.g. 20000 años), encontramos que el LCI alcanza un valor cuasi-constante. La mayoría de los miembros de ambas familias muestran una concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov (inverso del LCI) de alrededor de 50-100 años (Tancredi, 1995, Astron & Astrop., 299, 288). La concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov es mayor para la familia de Júpiter que para los NEAs. Entre estos últimos, la menor dispersión se da para aquellos que cruzan la órbita de la Tierra. Se demostró que el espectro de los `indicadores locales' (Froeschlé et. al., 1990, Cel. Mec. 56, 307) o ``números de estiramiento'' (Voglis and Contopoulos, 1994, J. Phys. A 26, 4899) (relacionados con el LCI) son invariantes y nos dan una información más completa sobre el comportamiento caótico. Mediante la comparación de espectros discutimos la similitud entre los objetos de una misma familia y analizamos las diferentes posibles rutas al caos. Los espectros se clasifican mediante la comparación de los momentos de las distribuciones de los `números de estiramiento'. Aplicamos un método de agrupamiento jerárquico (Zappala et. al., 1990, Astron. J. 100, 2030) para identificar ``familias'' de espectros (grupos de espectros

  14. Taxquake in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    1978-01-01

    Outlines educational, personnel, legal, and political considerations facing the Los Angeles Community College District contingency planning committee in their efforts to develop plans to meet budgetary limitations foreseen in the passage of the Jarvis-Gann property tax limitation initiative. (TP)

  15. The Los Alamos primer

    SciTech Connect

    Serber, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the 1943 lecture notes of Robert Serber. Serber was a protege of J. Robert Oppenheimer and member of the team that built the first atomic bomb - reveal what the Los Alamos scientists knew, and did not know, about the terrifying weapon they were building.

  16. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  17. Conceptualizing Debates in Learning and Educational Research: Toward a Complex Systems Conceptual Framework of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Kapur, Manu; Reimann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework of learning based on perspectives and methodologies being employed in the study of complex physical and social systems to inform educational research. We argue that the contexts in which learning occurs are complex systems with elements or agents at different levels--including neuronal, cognitive,…

  18. Towards a Conceptual Profile: Rethinking Conceptual Mediation in the Light of Recent Cognitive and Neuroscientific Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    One important focus for science education researchers over many years has been the attempts to replace students' commonsense and non-scientific explanations of various phenomena by scientific explanations. The approach we adopted almost three decades ago was conceptual mediation, and this was shown to have a considerable level of success with…

  19. Conceptual Change Text: A Supplementary Material To Facilitate Conceptual Change in Electrochemical Cell Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change text (CCT) oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school in Turkey.…

  20. Achievements and Problems of Conceptual Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalheim, Bernhard

    Database and information systems technology has substantially changed. Nowadays, content management systems, (information-intensive) web services, collaborating systems, internet databases, OLAP databases etc. have become buzzwords. At the same time, object-relational technology has gained the maturity for being widely applied. Conceptual modelling has not (yet) covered all these novel topics. It has been concentrated for more than two decades around specification of structures. Meanwhile, functionality, interactivity and distribution must be included into conceptual modelling of information systems. Also, some of the open problems that have been already discussed in 1987 [15, 16] still remain to be open. At the same time, novel models such as object-relational models or XML-based models have been developed. They did not overcome all the problems but have been sharpening and extending the variety of open problems. The open problem presented are given for classical areas of database research, i.e., structuring and functionality. The entire are of distribution and interaction is currently an area of very intensive research.

  1. Conceptual Launch Vehicles Using Metallic Hydrogen Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, John W.; Silvera, Isaac F.; Foote, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Solid molecular hydrogen is predicted to transform into an atomic solid with metallic properties under pressures >4.5 Mbar. Atomic metallic hydrogen is predicted to be metastable, limited by some critical temperature and pressure, and to store very large amounts of energy. Experiments may soon determine the critical temperature, critical pressure, and specific energy availability. It is useful to consider the feasibility of using metastable atomic hydrogen as a rocket propellant. If one assumes that metallic hydrogen is stable at usable temperatures and pressures, and that it can be affordably produced, handled, and stored, then it may be a useful rocket propellant. Assuming further that the available specific energy can be determined from the recombination of the atoms into molecules (216 MJ/kg), then conceptual engines and launch vehicle concepts can be developed. Under these assumptions, metallic hydrogen would be a revolutionary new rocket fuel with a theoretical specific impulse of 1700 s at a chamber pressure of 100 atm. A practical problem that arises is that rocket chamber temperatures may be too high for the use of this pure fuel. This paper examines an engine concept that uses liquid hydrogen or water as a diluent coolant for the metallic hydrogen to reduce the chamber temperature to usable values. Several launch vehicles are then conceptually developed. Results indicate that if metallic hydrogen is experimentally found to have the properties assumed in this analysis, then there are significant benefits. These benefits become more attractive as the chamber temperatures increase.

  2. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  3. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools

  4. Harmonising Nursing Terminologies Using a Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kay; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Saba, Virginia; Hardiker, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) and the Clinical Care Classification (CCC) System are standardised nursing terminologies that identify discrete elements of nursing practice, including nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. While CCC uses a conceptual framework or model with 21 Care Components to classify these elements, ICNP, built on a formal Web Ontology Language (OWL) description logic foundation, uses a logical hierarchical framework that is useful for computing and maintenance of ICNP. Since the logical framework of ICNP may not always align with the needs of nursing practice, an informal framework may be a more useful organisational tool to represent nursing content. The purpose of this study was to classify ICNP nursing diagnoses using the 21 Care Components of the CCC as a conceptual framework to facilitate usability and inter-operability of nursing diagnoses in electronic health records. Findings resulted in all 521 ICNP diagnoses being assigned to one of the 21 CCC Care Components. Further research is needed to validate the resulting product of this study with practitioners and develop recommendations for improvement of both terminologies.

  5. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Conceptual Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschetti, Donald R.

    2007-11-01

    AutoTutor is an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in which students can learn a variety of subjects through conversation in natural language with a software agent. The agent appears as a face on the screen, with a synthesized voice, and responds to typed input from the student. Student understanding is modeled from student responses, which are matched to high quality essay responses and known misconceptions and bad answers using one of several computational linguistic techniques. With ONR and NSF support a version of AutoTutor covering Newtonian dynamics at the level of Hewitt's Conceptual Physics has been developed and extensively tested. As a byproduct of this work, several thousand student responses to a small number of conceptual physics questions have been collated and mined for misconceptions. Recent work has allowed a comparison of latent semantic analysis and inverse word frequency measures of text match with expert answers. Some results from this process will be presented along with a demonstration of AutoTutor-Physics at work.

  6. Conceptualization and measurement of celebrity worship.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Lynn E; Lange, Rense; Houran, James

    2002-02-01

    Celebrity worship has been conceptualized as having pathological and nonpathological forms. To avoid problems associated with item-level factor analysis, 'top-down purification' was used to test the validity of this conceptualization. The respondents (N = 249) completed items modelled after existing celebrity worship questionnaires. A subset of 17 unidimensional and Rasch scalable items was discovered (the local reliability ranged from.71 to.96), which showed no biases related to age and gender. This subset was dubbed the Celebrity Worship Scale (CWS). The items also showed no celebrity bias, indicating that CWS applies equally to acting, music, sports, and 'other' celebrities. The Rasch nature of the items defines celebrity worship as consisting of three qualitatively different stages. Low worship involves individualistic behaviours such as watching and reading about a celebrity. At slightly higher levels, celebrity worship takes on a social character. Lastly, the highest levels are characterized by a mixture of empathy with the celebrity's successes and failures, over-identification with the celebrity, compulsive behaviours, as well as obsession with details of the celebrity's life. Based on these findings, the authors propose a model of celebrity worship based on psychological absorption (leading to delusions of actual relationships with celebrities) and addiction (fostering the need for progressively stronger involvement to feel connected with the celebrity).

  7. Conceptual and practical problems of moral enhancement.

    PubMed

    Beck, Birgit

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the debate on human enhancement has shifted from familiar topics like cognitive enhancement and mood enhancement to a new and - to no one's surprise - controversial subject, namely moral enhancement. Some proponents from the transhumanist camp allude to the 'urgent need' of improving the moral conduct of humankind in the face of ever growing technological progress and the substantial dangers entailed in this enterprise. Other thinkers express more sceptical views about this proposal. As the debate has revealed so far, there is no shared opinion among philosophers (or scientists) about the meaning, prospects, and ethical evaluation of moral enhancement. In this article I will address several conceptual and practical problems of this issue, in order to encourage discussion about the prospects of (thinking about) moral enhancement in the future. My assumption is that (i) for the short term, there is little chance of arriving at an agreement on the proper understanding of morality and the appropriateness of one single (meta-)ethical theory; (ii) apart from this, there are further philosophical puzzles loosely referred to in the debate which add to theoretical confusion; and (iii) even if these conceptual problems could be solved, there are still practical problems to be smoothed out if moral enhancement is ever to gain relevance apart from merely theoretical interest. My tentative conclusion, therefore, will be that moral enhancement is not very likely to be made sense of - let alone realized - in the medium-term future.

  8. Coping with Serious Illness: A Conceptual Overview,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Management of the Emotional Aspects of Malignancy," Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 7:29-47, 1975. Stavraky, K. M. et al. " Psychological Factors in the... Psychological Association annual meeting in Los Angeles, California, August 1981. tI II I V. Di A ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A number of people contributed to the...OBSERVABLES VERSUS CONSTRUCTS ............................ 17 CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES ..................................... 18 Psychological

  9. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Maria S; Mitchell, Karen J; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Experiment 1) and false memories that were accompanied by the phenomenal experience of remembering them (Experiment 2) than did surface-level processing. Moreover, conceptual elaboration consistently led to higher rates of false memory than did perceptual elaboration. The false memory effects that resulted from conceptual elaboration were highly dependent on the organization of the postevent interview questions, such that conceptual elaboration only increased false memory beyond surface level processing when participants evaluated both true and suggested information in relation to the same theme or dimension.

  10. Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    BUILDING STRONG® US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the Intermodal System Dr. Mike...2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the MTS within the... Conceptual Framework c CURRENT MTS CURRENT INTERMODAL SYSTEM c MTS INVESTMENTS INTERMODAL INVESTMENTS FUTURE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION DEMAND c

  11. Distributed Tactical Decision Making: Conceptual Framework and Empirical Results,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A psychologically-oriented conceptual framework of distributed tactical decision making that is applicable to decision environments such as a future... conceptual framework distinguishes between individual, group, process-control, and task-level input factors; characteristics of the group’s interaction...adequacy of the first three intervening variables and the larger conceptual framework were tested in an initial experiment. The experiment provided

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Functions of Wetlands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    161 n aN REx’.cwE i PAPEit Wetlands Research Program Technical Report WRP-DE-3 August 1993 A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Functions of...Station Cataloging-in-Publication Data Smith, R. Daniel. A conceptual framework for assessing the functions of wetlands / by R. Daniel Smith ; prepared for...Wetland Functions A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Functions of Wetlands (TR WRP-DE-3) ISSUE: that use the different classification and model

  13. The Comprehensive Approach: A Conceptual Framework for MNE 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-06

    UNCLASSIFIED – Approved for Public Release The Comprehensive Approach: A Conceptual Framework for MNE5 Version 1.0 6 April 2009...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Comprehensive Approach: A Conceptual Framework for MNE 5 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Comprehensive Approach conceptual framework is applicable from pre-crisis situations to post-conflict reconstruction and through the transition of

  14. Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Version 1.0 Prepared for: John Garstka Office of Force Transformation Prepared by...COVERED 00-11-2003 to 00-11-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Version 1.0 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT... Conceptual Framework Version 1.0 Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction and Background

  15. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  16. Conceptual combination during sentence comprehension: evidence for compositional processes.

    PubMed

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E

    2007-05-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept.

  17. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors.

  18. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Reza

    . Considering the strength and limitations of both methodologies, the question to be answered in this thesis is: How valuable and compatible are the classical analytical methods in today's conceptual design environment? And can these methods complement each other? To answer these questions, this thesis investigates the pros and cons of classical analytical structural analysis methods during the conceptual design stage through the following objectives: Illustrate structural design methodology of these methods within the framework of Aerospace Vehicle Design (AVD) lab's design lifecycle. Demonstrate the effectiveness of moment distribution method through four case studies. This will be done by considering and evaluating the strength and limitation of these methods. In order to objectively quantify the limitation and capabilities of the analytical method at the conceptual design stage, each case study becomes more complex than the one before.

  19. Los Alamos Programming Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl

    2016-07-07

    This is the PDF of a powerpoint presentation from a teleconference on Los Alamos programming models. It starts by listing their assumptions for the programming models and then details a hierarchical programming model at the System Level and Node Level. Then it details how to map this to their internal nomenclature. Finally, a list is given of what they are currently doing in this regard.

  20. Language and cortical function: conceptual developments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M R; Hacker, P M S

    2006-09-01

    Mastery of a language is a capacity that distinguishes humans from other animals. Attempts to identify the brain functions that are necessary for the possession of linguistic skills began in the 19th century with the research of Broca and Wernicke. We trace the principal experimental developments since then, ranging from psychological studies of aphasic patients to non-invasive brain-imaging investigations. The development of theories concerning word recognition, reading aloud, fluent speech and understanding utterances are described. Possible brain regions involved in these abilities, identified by means of non-invasive imaging, are considered. We examine the various claims made by these researchers as to what their experiments show and in particular examine the validity of their theories. This conceptual analysis shows that in many cases the interpretation of experiments is confused and that the theories elaborated are not tenable. We seek to clarify what can be substantiated concerning the workings of the brain and the exercise of linguistic skills.

  1. Conceptual second-generation lunar equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. The basic assumption made in designing second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment was that a network of permanent lunar bases already existed. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground-based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. Two teams of two or three members competed on each topic and results were exhibited at a formal presentation. A clean-propellant powered lunar flying transport vehicle, an extra-vehicular activity life support system, a pressurized lunar rover for greater distances, and a robotic arm design project are discussed.

  2. Web-Delivered Conceptual Physical Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turley, R. Steven; Hatch, Dorian; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Griffen, Dana; Mason, Grant; Hendrix, Suzanne

    1999-10-01

    We present the results of our efforts to incorporate the latest developments in Web technology and pedagogical techniques into an introductory conceptual physical science course. The course is a freshman general education course which teaches principles of physics, chemistry, and geology. The work combines the efforts from faculty in each of these departments. Web presentation of the material uses email, FLASH, Java applets, Director animations, electronic quizzes with remedial correction, and digital video. The frustrations and the thrills that go with developing such a course are discussed and examples of lessons which incorporate the philosophy of the course and our pedagogical approach are shown. We have tested a sample of these lessons in two sections of the class alternating between web-based and paper-based assignments in each section. We present student reactions to using these resources and a statistical assessment of how they influenced student learning.

  3. A conceptual review of family resilience factors.

    PubMed

    Black, Keri; Lobo, Marie

    2008-02-01

    Family resilience is the successful coping of family members under adversity that enables them to flourish with warmth, support, and cohesion. An increasingly important realm of family nursing practice is to identify, enhance, and promote family resiliency. Based on a review of family research and conceptual literature, prominent factors of resilient families include: positive outlook, spirituality, family member accord, flexibility, family communication, financial management, family time, shared recreation, routines and rituals, and support networks. A family resilience orientation, based on the conviction that all families have inherent strengths and the potential for growth, provides the family nurse with an opportunity to facilitate family protective and recovery factors and to secure extrafamilial resources to help foster resilience.

  4. High school students' physical education conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Suzan F

    2004-09-01

    The value of conceptual physical education knowledge has long been acknowledged (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1969; Kneer, 1981; NASPE, 1995) yet has not been formally measured or assessed. Seven multiple choice tests with established validity and reliability (Ayers, 2001b) were used to assess the concepts identified in Mohnsen's text (1998). Tests were administered to 3,263 high school students at the schools of 17 NASPE Teachers of the Year in 16 states. On all tests, girls outscored boys, and Caucasians outscored all other racial groups. Examinees' average performance on each test was: motor development (65%), exercise physiology (62%), social psychology (60%), biomechanics (57%), aesthetic experiences (56%), motor learning (53%), and historical perspectives (49%). Analyses of each area determined concepts students knew and did not know.

  5. Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh-Ai Cheong, Irene; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students' understanding and identifying alternative conceptions with respect to malaria. Results showed that students' understanding of malaria was high for content, low for reasons, and limited and superficial for both content and reasons. The instrument revealed several common alternative conceptual understandings students' hold about malaria. The MalariaTT2 instrument developed could be used in classroom lessons for challenging alternative conceptions and enhancing conceptions of malaria.

  6. PRAYER AND MARITAL INTERVENTION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    PubMed Central

    BEACH, STEVEN R. H.; FINCHAM, FRANK D.; HURT, TERA R.; MCNAIR, LILY M.; STANLEY, SCOTT M.

    2009-01-01

    Discomfort with the integration of spiritual activities into marital interventions may be a response by practitioners to the weakness of available conceptual frameworks. We offer a framework that allows for integration of prayer into marital interventions (educational or therapeutic), and argue that when culturally appropriate, prayer can serve multiple functions in interventions that are consistent with traditional goals of skill-based approaches. Several specific ways in which prayer can be either an alternative or an addition to existing intervention strategies are outlined. The potential negative effects of prayer for couples and the dangers of integrating prayer into programs are also discussed. We conclude that effective skill-based family intervention and prevention with some traditionally underserved groups may require increased attention to integration of spiritual practices that are common in those groups. PMID:20054450

  7. Conceptual Challenges and Directions for Social Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Social neuroscience has been enormously successful and is making major contributions to fields ranging from psychiatry to economics. Yet deep and interesting conceptual challenges abound. Is social information processing domain specific? Is it universal or susceptible to individual differences and effects of culture? Are there uniquely human social cognitive abilities? What is the “social brain,” and how do we map social psychological processes onto it? Animal models together with fMRI and other cognitive neuroscience approaches in humans are providing an unprecedented level of detail and many surprising results. It may well be that social neuroscience in the near future will give us an entirely new view of who we are, how we evolved, and what might be in store for the future of our species. PMID:20346753

  8. Conceptual Hierarchies in a Flat Attractor Network

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Christopher M.; Cree, George S.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The structure of people’s conceptual knowledge of concrete nouns has traditionally been viewed as hierarchical (Collins & Quillian, 1969). For example, superordinate concepts (vegetable) are assumed to reside at a higher level than basic-level concepts (carrot). A feature-based attractor network with a single layer of semantic features developed representations of both basic-level and superordinate concepts. No hierarchical structure was built into the network. In Experiment and Simulation 1, the graded structure of categories (typicality ratings) is accounted for by the flat attractor-network. Experiment and Simulation 2 show that, as with basic-level concepts, such a network predicts feature verification latencies for superordinate concepts (vegetable ). In Experiment and Simulation 3, counterintuitive results regarding the temporal dynamics of similarity in semantic priming are explained by the model. By treating both types of concepts the same in terms of representation, learning, and computations, the model provides new insights into semantic memory. PMID:19543434

  9. LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Akerib, D. S.

    2015-03-09

    The design and performance of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) detector is described as of March 2015 in this Conceptual Design Report. LZ is a second-generation dark-matter detector with the potential for unprecedented sensitivity to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) of masses from a few GeV/c2 to hundreds of TeV/c2. With total liquid xenon mass of about 10 tonnes, LZ will be the most sensitive experiment for WIMPs in this mass region by the end of the decade. This report describes in detail the design of the LZ technical systems. Expected backgrounds are quantified and the performance of the experiment is presented. The LZ detector will be located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. The organization of the LZ Project and a summary of the expected cost and current schedule are given.

  10. Conceptual Barriers to Progress Within Evolutionary Biology

    PubMed Central

    Laland, Kevin N.; Odling-Smee, John; Feldman, Marcus W.; Kendal, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    In spite of its success, Neo-Darwinism is faced with major conceptual barriers to further progress, deriving directly from its metaphysical foundations. Most importantly, neo-Darwinism fails to recognize a fundamental cause of evolutionary change, “niche construction”. This failure restricts the generality of evolutionary theory, and introduces inaccuracies. It also hinders the integration of evolutionary biology with neighbouring disciplines, including ecosystem ecology, developmental biology, and the human sciences. Ecology is forced to become a divided discipline, developmental biology is stubbornly difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory, and the majority of biologists and social scientists are still unhappy with evolutionary accounts of human behaviour. The incorporation of niche construction as both a cause and a product of evolution removes these disciplinary boundaries while greatly generalizing the explanatory power of evolutionary theory. PMID:21572912

  11. Propulsion System Models for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design code NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) was initially implemented to model conventional rotorcraft propulsion systems, consisting of turboshaft engines burning jet fuel, connected to one or more rotors through a mechanical transmission. The NDARC propulsion system representation has been extended to cover additional propulsion concepts, including electric motors and generators, rotor reaction drive, turbojet and turbofan engines, fuel cells and solar cells, batteries, and fuel (energy) used without weight change. The paper describes these propulsion system components, the architecture of their implementation in NDARC, and the form of the models for performance and weight. Requirements are defined for improved performance and weight models of the new propulsion system components. With these new propulsion models, NDARC can be used to develop environmentally-friendly rotorcraft designs.

  12. Toward Right-Fidelity Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinsay, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The aviation Advanced Design Office (ADO) of the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) performs conceptual design of advanced Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts in support of the Army's development and acquisition of new aviation systems. In particular, ADO engages in system synthesis to assess the impact of new technologies and their application to satisfy emerging warfighter needs and requirements. Fundamental to ADO being successful in accomplishing its role; is the ability to evaluate a wide array of proposed air vehicle concepts, and independently synthesize new concepts to inform Army and DoD decision makers about the tradespace in which decisions will be made (Figure 1). ADO utilizes a conceptual design (CD) process in the execution of its role. Benefiting from colocation with NASA rotorcraft researchers at the Ames Research Center, ADO and NASA have engaged in a survey of the current rotorcraft PD practices and begun the process of improving those capabilities to enable effective design and development of the next generation of VTOL systems. A unique aspect of CD in ADO is the fact that actual designs developed in-house are not intended to move forward in the development process. Rather, they are used as reference points in discussions about requirements development and technology impact. The ultimate products of ADO CD efforts are technology impact assessments and specifications which guide industry design activity. The fact that both the requirement and design are variables in the tradespace adds to the complexity of the CD process. A frequent need is ability to assess the relative "cost" of variations in requirement for a diverse set of VTOL configurations. Each of these configurations may have fundamentally different response characteristics to this requirement variation, and such insight into how different requirements drive different designs is a critical insight ADO attempts to provide decision makers. The processes and tools

  13. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  14. Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S; Zeller, A

    2012-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

  15. Conceptual designs for antiproton space propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Five conceptual designs for antimatter space propulsion systems were compared in terms of their performance characteristics. The systems examined included solid-core liquid-propellant rockets; magnetically confined gaseous-core rockets using liquid or solid propellants; plasma-core rockets; pion rockets, which are driven directly by the mass annihilation products; and ram-augmented rockets, in which antiproton annihilation is used to heat hydrogen collected in interstellar space. It was found that, in general, as the specific impulse of the propulsion system increases, the thrust decreases. The comparison between designs showed that only fusion rockets have the capability to compete in performance with mass annihilation rockets. For very-high-speed interstellar missions, pion rockets, which can have a specific impulse of 20 million sec (although with a thrust-to-engine mass ratios of only 0.01 G) will offer best performance. 36 refs.

  16. Experts' Views Regarding the Conceptualization of Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Robert A; Hands, Aaron J; Donnellan, M Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J; Witt, Edward A

    2016-06-20

    There is debate over the definition of narcissism across social/personality and clinical psychology. The current article aims to quantify the level of disagreement by measuring experts' opinions concerning the attributes most central to narcissism. Accordingly, we developed a comprehensive list of attributes associated with narcissism and had 49 self-identified experts (among them 17 women, 23 psychologists from clinical psychology and 22 from social/personality psychology) rate these characteristics and provide their opinions on several issues related to the conceptualization of narcissism. Experts generally believe that the grandiose features of narcissism are more central than the vulnerable features. However, differences between clinical and social/personality psychologists were evident, especially regarding the relevance of self-esteem. Given the results, we suggest that researchers specify the kind of narcissism being assessed in a given study and consider using assessments of the full range of narcissistic features in future research to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the construct.

  17. Detecting hydrological changes through conceptual model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Caracciolo, Domenico; Pumo, Dario; Francipane, Antonio; Valerio Noto, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Natural changes and human modifications in hydrological systems coevolve and interact in a coupled and interlinked way. If, on one hand, climatic changes are stochastic, non-steady, and affect the hydrological systems, on the other hand, human-induced changes due to over-exploitation of soils and water resources modifies the natural landscape, water fluxes and its partitioning. Indeed, the traditional assumption of static systems in hydrological analysis, which has been adopted for long time, fails whenever transient climatic conditions and/or land use changes occur. Time series analysis is a way to explore environmental changes together with societal changes; unfortunately, the not distinguishability between causes restrict the scope of this method. In order to overcome this limitation, it is possible to couple time series analysis with an opportune hydrological model, such as a conceptual hydrological model, which offers a schematization of complex dynamics acting within a basin. Assuming that model parameters represent morphological basin characteristics and that calibration is a way to detect hydrological signature at a specific moment, it is possible to argue that calibrating the model over different time windows could be a method for detecting potential hydrological changes. In order to test the capabilities of a conceptual model in detecting hydrological changes, this work presents different "in silico" experiments. A synthetic-basin is forced with an ensemble of possible future scenarios generated with a stochastic weather generator able to simulate steady and non-steady climatic conditions. The experiments refer to Mediterranean climate, which is characterized by marked seasonality, and consider the outcomes of the IPCC 5th report for describing climate evolution in the next century. In particular, in order to generate future climate change scenarios, a stochastic downscaling in space and time is carried out using realizations of an ensemble of General

  18. CONCEPTUAL MODELS FOR THE LASSEN HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Sorey, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Lassen hydrothermal system, like a number of other systems in regions of moderate to great topographic relief, includes steam-heated features at higher elevations and high-chloride springs at lower elevations, connected to and fed by a single circulation system at depth. Two conceptual models for such systems are presented. They are similar in several ways: however, there are basic differences in terms of the nature and extent of vapor-dominated conditions beneath the steam-heated features. For some Lassen-like systems, these differences could have environmental and economic implications. Available data do not make it possible to establish a single preferred model for the Lassen system, and the actual system is complex enough that both models may apply to different parts of the system.

  19. Reliability of AIDS knowledge scales: conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Zimet, G D

    1992-01-01

    A common approach to evaluating the reliability of AIDS knowledge scales has relied on the demonstration of internal consistency through the use of Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (KR-20) or coefficient alpha. In this study, the argument was made that, in a knowledge-based scale with diverse content (exemplified by AIDS knowledge scales), internal consistency does not make sense conceptually and underestimates the scale's true reliability. It was therefore hypothesized that a split-half approach, in which items in each half were matched for content, would provide superior estimates of reliability when compared to either KR-20 or an odd-even split-half approach. Reliability analyses performed on a knowledge scale developed by the author supported this hypothesis.

  20. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-11-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  1. Supernatural beliefs, natural kinds, and conceptual structure.

    PubMed

    Walker, S J

    1992-11-01

    This article presents cross-cultural evidence in support of the notion that adults' natural kind concepts are theory based but may be informed by knowledge/belief systems other than the biological. Three groups of subjects from western Nigeria--rural, urban, and elite--participated in the study. Subjects heard stories describing alterations of appearance; that is, one natural kind was made to resemble another in both ritual and nonritual contexts. Subjects then were required to judge the identity of the altered item and to give an explanation for the category judgment. It was predicted that subjects would make more nonpreservation-of-identity category judgments supported by supernatural explanations in the ritual contexts and that subjects' use of supernatural explanations would reflect the extent of their engagement with the supernatural. The first prediction was borne out; the second prediction was only partially supported. Discussion of the results emphasizes the importance of exploring the role of sociocultural factors in conceptual structure.

  2. Promotion of social change: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Vivian; Chesir-Teran, Daniel; Becker-Klein, Rachel; Chan, May L; Duran, Valkiria; Roberts, Ann; Bardoliwalla, Nenshad

    2002-06-01

    This paper argues for the need to advance promotion efforts and proposes a conceptual framework for promotion of social change. A brief review is presented of traditional frameworks for the prevention of mental and social disorders and the promotion of wellness and social competencies, with attention to the ways in which promotion of social change extends and departs from these frameworks. In a framework for promoting social change, we advocate for promoting dynamic processes within systems, rather than outcomes within individuals. Systems are viewed as flexible and capable of facilitating multiple adaptive pathways for individuals and groups. Promoting social change also involves careful attention to critical analysis, values, language, and contextual processes. Examples are discussed throughout to illustrate how these principles have been used in the past and can be implemented in future efforts to promote social change.

  3. Conceptual Learning: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, Micah J.

    Students are leaving undergraduate science programs without the knowledge and skills they are expected to have. This is apparent in professional programs, such as medical and veterinary school, where students do not possess the critical thinking skills necessary to be successful. Physiology is a required discipline for these professional programs and often before, as a pre-requisite. Physiology classrooms are an excellent place to teach critical thinking skills because the content consists of integrated processes. Therefore, in one study, it was investigated whether focusing on physiological concepts improved student understanding of physiology in both a non-physiological science course, Invertebrate Zoology, and in an undergraduate physiology course. An educational intervention was used in Invertebrate Zoology, where students were exposed to human physiology concepts that were similar to comparative physiology concepts they had learned during the semester. A pre-/post-test was used to assess learning gains. In a second study, the use of multimedia file usage was correlated to student exam scores in a physiology course. This was done to see if providing additional study materials that focused on specific concepts improved student understanding, as assessed using exam scores. Overall these studies indicate that encouraging assimilation of new concepts that expand upon material from lecture may help students gain a more complete understanding of a concept. The integration of these concepts into pre-existing conceptual frameworks may serve to teach students valuable critical thinking skills such as evaluation of new ideas within their current understanding and synthesizing the new content with the existing information. Focusing on this type of conceptual learning may enable students to apply content knowledge and think through problems. Additionally, focusing on concepts may enable students to improve their understanding of material without being overwhelmed by

  4. Healthy public policy A conceptual cognitive framework.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, France; Turgeon, Jean; Dallaire, Clémence

    2007-04-01

    More than three decades ago, the report A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians (1974) highlighted the significance of other determinants than the healthcare system. The adoption of healthy public policy was identified in the Ottawa Charter (1986) as one of five strategies aiming to promote health. It must now be acknowledged that even if we have a better understanding of health determinants, the latter are not necessarily taken into consideration when developing public policies. The purpose of this paper is to help foster a better understanding of the healthy public policies by presenting a conceptual framework that is inspired by the Advocacy Coalition Framework developed by Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999). On the one hand, this paper intends to show the relevance of the notion of subsystem of public policies in healthy public policy process. On the other, it aims to convince that it is necessary to channel the analysis around the decision-making process, the prospective evaluation of public policies and the knowledge transfer and appropriation process. Finally, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the role of knowledge, values or beliefs in the formulation and adoption of public policies. After briefly summarizing the theoretical developments in studies on public policies, the logic and components of the ACF are introduced. The main criticisms regarding the ACF are then examined, followed by an introduction of the conceptual framework that is adapted to the reality of healthy public policies. The notions of the subsystem of public policy(ies), of process and of learning process are central to this framework.

  5. Consumers' conceptualization of ultra-processed foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Vidal, Leticia; Allegue, Gimena; Giménez, Ana; Bandeira, Elisa; Moratorio, Ximena; Molina, Verónika; Curutchet, María Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of ultra-processed foods has been associated with low diet quality, obesity and other non-communicable diseases. This situation makes it necessary to develop educational campaigns to discourage consumers from substituting meals based on unprocessed or minimally processed foods by ultra-processed foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate how consumers conceptualize the term ultra-processed foods and to evaluate if the foods they perceive as ultra-processed are in concordance with the products included in the NOVA classification system. An online study was carried out with 2381 participants. They were asked to explain what they understood by ultra-processed foods and to list foods that can be considered ultra-processed. Responses were analysed using inductive coding. The great majority of the participants was able to provide an explanation of what ultra-processed foods are, which was similar to the definition described in the literature. Most of the participants described ultra-processed foods as highly processed products that usually contain additives and other artificial ingredients, stressing that they have low nutritional quality and are unhealthful. The most relevant products for consumers' conceptualization of the term were in agreement with the NOVA classification system and included processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, burgers, powdered and packaged soups and noodles. However, some of the participants perceived processed foods, culinary ingredients and even some minimally processed foods as ultra-processed. This suggests that in order to accurately convey their message, educational campaigns aimed at discouraging consumers from consuming ultra-processed foods should include a clear definition of the term and describe some of their specific characteristics, such as the type of ingredients included in their formulation and their nutritional composition.

  6. Conceptual design report for site drainage control

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Mound Plant (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc. (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety & Health (ES&H) Upgrades Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by facility activities. The first project of this multiphase program is now in the final stages of construction, and the second project is currently under design. Four additional projects, one of which is presented in this report, are in the conceptual design stage. At Mound, 22 soil zones have become contaminated with radioactive material. These zones cover approximately 20 percent of the total area of developed property at the site. During a storm event, the rainwater washes contaminated soil from these zones into the storm sewer system. These radioactive contaminants may then be discharged along with the stormwater into the Great Miami River via the Miami Erie Canal. This conceptual design report (CDR), Site Drainage Control, the fourth project in the ES&H program, describes a project that will provide improvements and much needed repairs to inadequate and deteriorating portions of the storm drainage system on the developed property. The project also will provide a stormwater retention facility capable of storing the stormwater runoff, from the developed property, resulting from a 100-year storm event. These improvements will permit the effective control and monitoring of stormwater to prevent the spread of radioactive contaminants from contaminated soil zones and will provide a means to collect and contain accidental spills of hazardous substances.

  7. Sinking Maps: A Conceptual Tool for Visual Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giampa, Joan Marie

    2012-01-01

    Sinking maps, created by Northern Virginia Community College professor Joan Marie Giampa, are tools that teach fine art students how to construct visual metaphor by conceptually mapping sensory perceptions. Her dissertation answers the question, "Can visual metaphor be conceptually mapped in the art classroom?" In the Prologue, Giampa…

  8. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  9. TOCUSO: Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Physics educators around the world often need reliable diagnostic materials to measure students' understanding of physics concept in high school. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new diagnostic tool on High School Optics concept. Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics (TOCUSO) consists of 25 conceptual items that measures…

  10. Diagnostic and Remedial Learning Strategy Based on Conceptual Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, BinShyan; Lin, TsongWuu; Wu, YuLung; Chan, Teyi

    2004-01-01

    Numerous scholars have applied conceptual graphs for explanatory purposes. This study devised the Remedial-Instruction Decisive path (RID path) algorithm for diagnosing individual student learning situation. This study focuses on conceptual graphs. According to the concepts learned by students and the weight values of relations among these…

  11. Showing Automatically Generated Students' Conceptual Models to Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Marin, Diana; Pascual-Nieto, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    A student conceptual model can be defined as a set of interconnected concepts associated with an estimation value that indicates how well these concepts are used by the students. It can model just one student or a group of students, and can be represented as a concept map, conceptual diagram or one of several other knowledge representation…

  12. Conceptual Bases of Arithmetic Errors: The Case of Decimal Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.; And Others

    Considered is a conceptual analog of buggy algorithms and rule-based mathematical development. The investigations consider whether children's efforts to make conceptual sense of new mathematics instruction in terms of their available knowledge may sometimes lead them to make systematic errors. In particular, the possibility is explored that…

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Monitoring Children's Services. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiene, Richard

    This discussion draft of a conceptual framework for monitoring children's services was prepared by Peat, Marwick and Co. for the Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium (CFMCS), an organization spanning five states: California, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia. The primary purpose of this conceptual framework was to…

  14. Conceptual Development: Piaget's Legacy. Jean Piaget Symposium Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholnick, Ellin K., Ed.; Nelson, Katherine, Ed.; Gelman, Susan A., Ed.; Miller, Patricia H., Ed.

    Based on the papers presented at the 1996 Symposium of the Jean Piaget Society and highlighting the extent to which Piaget's ideas have served to scaffold contemporary thinking about every aspect of conceptual development, this volume examines the nature of conceptual development, its foundations, and the sources of its novelties. The chapters…

  15. Conceptual Structure and Semantic Variation for Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khetarpal, Naveen Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Semantic categories across languages appear to reflect both universal conceptual tendencies and linguistic convention. To accommodate this pattern of constrained variation, many theories assume the existence of a universal conceptual space and explain cross-language variation in category extension as language-specific partitions of that space.…

  16. Two Mechanisms of Constructive Recollection: Perceptual Recombination and Conceptual Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Manoj K.; Bluestone, Maximilian R.; Gallo, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Recollection is constructive and prone to distortion, but the mechanisms through which recollections can become embellished with rich yet illusory details are still debated. According to the conceptual fluency hypothesis, abstract semantic or conceptual activation increases the familiarity of a nonstudied event, causing one to falsely attribute…

  17. Thoughts about conceptual models, theories, and quality improvement projects.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2014-10-01

    This essay focuses on how a conceptual model of nursing can be the basis for identification of the phenomenon of interest for a quality improvement project and how a theory of quality improvement or a theory of change is the methodological guide for the project. An explanation and examples of conceptual-theoretical-empirical structures for quality improvement projects are given.

  18. Using Conceptual Change Theories to Model Position Concepts in Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chih-Chiang; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2012-01-01

    The roles of conceptual change and model building in science education are very important and have a profound and wide effect on teaching science. This study examines the change in children's position concepts after instruction, based on different conceptual change theories. Three classes were chosen and divided into three groups, including a…

  19. Elementary School Teachers' Familiarity, Conceptual Knowledge, and Interest in Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simon; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning more about light and its related concepts. This study also sought to establish the relationship between elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning light concepts. Sixty-six lower and upper…

  20. Building Conceptual Knowledge in a Fourth-Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeaux, Joan; Raney, Paige

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the authors implemented a plan that involved building conceptual knowledge through the use of manipulatives and common threads in literature to teach a week-long unit on Rosa Parks. Notes that the students were guided to build conceptual knowledge as they personally connected with fictional heroes and real heroes, such as Rosa Parks,…

  1. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  2. Examining the Conceptualizations, Perceptions, and Practices of Adolescent Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werderich, Donna E.; Armstrong, Sonya L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a mixed-methods study in which an adapted Motivation to Write Profile (MWP)--the CLMWP--was used to investigate the conceptualizations, perceptions, and practices of adolescent writers. Results of this study suggested that participants held differing conceptualizations of writing, depending on the context. In…

  3. Model of Conceptual Change for INQPRO: A Bayesian Network Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Sam, Yok-Cheng; Wong, Chee-Onn

    2013-01-01

    Constructing a computational model of conceptual change for a computer-based scientific inquiry learning environment is difficult due to two challenges: (i) externalizing the variables of conceptual change and its related variables is difficult. In addition, defining the causal dependencies among the variables is also not trivial. Such difficulty…

  4. Community College Students' Conceptual Understanding of Statistical Measures of Spread

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turegun, Mikhail; Reeder, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptual understanding of measures of spread among community college students in an introductory statistics course. The course is centered around deemphasizing computational skills and focused, rather, on development of conceptual understanding. Open-ended questions were developed to explore and assess students'…

  5. Conceptual Understanding of Multiplicative Properties through Endogenous Digital Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Andre

    2012-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of an endogenously designed instructional game on conceptual understanding of the associative and distributive properties of multiplication. Additional this study sought to investigate if performance on measures of conceptual understanding taken prior to and after game play could serve as predictors of…

  6. The Aircraft Availability Model: Conceptual Framework and Mathematics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    THE AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY MODEL: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND MATHEMATICS June 1983 T. J. O’Malley Prepared pursuant to Department of Defense Contract No...OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Aircraft Availability Model: Model Documentation Conceptual Framework and Mathematics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

  7. Conceptual Framework Approach for System-of-Systems Software Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    perturbations in system behavior. In this thesis, we explore the benefits of developing a conceptual framework as the basis for the system-of-systems...work to determine the feasibility of applying the conceptual framework techniques described in this thesis to system-of-systems acquisitions with the objective of reducing accidental complexity and controlling essential complexity.

  8. Conceptualization of Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge with Academic Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    The present study embodies a conceptual framework, and it studies the concept regarding the depth of vocabulary knowledge. Literature review is employed as a foundation for developing the conceptual framework for the present study. The current study suggests that different dimensions of depth of vocabulary knowledge, namely paradigmatic relations,…

  9. The Application of Pedagogic Knowledge to Teaching: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sai Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a conceptual approach to understand how qualified teachers in England with occupational experience use pedagogic and occupational knowledge and experiences in their teaching practices. The conceptual approach consists of two parts: (1.) "Putting Knowledge to Work" (PKtW), a generic concept which uses…

  10. Assessing Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding and Confidence of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The study examines how students' conceptual understanding changes from high confidence with incorrect conceptions to high confidence with correct conceptions when reasoning about electromagnetics. The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism test is weighted with students' self-rated confidence on each item in order to infer how strongly…

  11. Review of "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoliar, Stephen W.

    This review of the book, "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine," by John F. Sowa, argues that anyone who plans to get involved with issues of knowledge representation should have at least a passing acquaintance with Sowa's conceptual graphs for a database interface. (Used to model the underlying semantics of…

  12. Conceptual Similarity Promotes Generalization of Higher Order Fear Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; White, Allison J.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that conceptual similarity promotes generalization of conditioned fear. Using a sensory preconditioning procedure, three groups of subjects learned an association between two cues that were conceptually similar, unrelated, or mismatched. Next, one of the cues was paired with a shock. The other cue was then reintroduced to…

  13. Developing a Conceptual Article for Publication in Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to help authors better understand the purpose, process, and procedures for developing a conceptual manuscript for publication in counseling journals. The author explains the basis of a conceptual article, discusses how authors may generate ideas for writing such articles, and describes a process for developing a conceptual…

  14. Understanding Genetics: Analysis of Secondary Students' Conceptual Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual change of students in Grades 10 and 12 in three Australian senior high schools when the teachers included computer multimedia to a greater or lesser extent in their teaching of a genetics course. The study, underpinned by a multidimensional conceptual-change framework, used an interpretive approach and a…

  15. Profiles of Inconsistent Knowledge in Children's Pathways of Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Hardy, Ilonca

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual change requires learners to restructure parts of their conceptual knowledge base. Prior research has identified the fragmentation and the integration of knowledge as 2 important component processes of knowledge restructuring but remains unclear as to their relative importance and the time of their occurrence during development. Previous…

  16. Conceptualizations of Professional Competencies in School Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the conceptualization and discussion of professional competencies needed for supporting the development of the whole-school approach in school health promotion (SHP). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a conceptual synthesis of literature, guided by a theoretical perspective on…

  17. DSLM Instructional Approach to Conceptual Change Involving Thermal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2003-01-01

    Examines the process of student conceptual change regarding thermal expansion using the Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM) as an instructional approach. Indicates that DSLM promotes conceptual change and holds great potential to facilitate the process through classroom instruction at all levels. (Contains 38 references.) (Author/NB)

  18. Design and Validation of the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKagan, S. B.; Perkins, K. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    The Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS) is a 12-question survey of students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. It is intended to be used to measure the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods in modern physics courses. In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the survey, a process that included…

  19. The Instrumental Value of Conceptual Frameworks in Educational Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars from diverse fields and research traditions agree that the conceptual framework is a critically important component of disciplined inquiry. Yet, there is a pronounced lack of shared understanding regarding the definition and functions of conceptual frameworks, which impedes our ability to design effective research and mentor novice…

  20. Understanding Nursing Home Worker Conceptualizations about Good Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gawon

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how direct care workers in nursing homes conceptualize good care and how their conceptualizations are influenced by external factors surrounding their work environment and the relational dynamics between them and residents. Study participants were drawn from a local service employees' union, and in-depth interviews were…

  1. Conceptual Model Learning Objects and Design Recommendations for Small Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article presents recommendations for the design of conceptual models for applications via handheld devices such as personal digital assistants and some mobile phones. The recommendations were developed over a number of years through experience that involves design of conceptual models, and applications of these multimedia representations with…

  2. Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    SEXISM , SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism , Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Sexual Harassment .........................................................................................2 Sexism

  3. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

  4. Promoting Conceptual Coherence within Context-Based Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ummels, Micha H. J.; Kamp, Marcel J. A.; De Kroon, Hans; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2015-01-01

    In secondary science education, the learning and teaching of coherent conceptual understanding are often problematic. Context-based education has been proposed as a partial solution to this problem. This study aims to gain insight into the development of conceptual coherence and how context-embedded learning-teaching activities (LT) can promote…

  5. What Influences Children's Conceptualizations of Language Input?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Moody, Amanda; Gerken, LouAnn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children learning language conceptualize the nature of input they receive in ways that allow them to understand and construct utterances they have never heard before. This study was designed to illuminate the types of information children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) focus on to develop their conceptualizations and…

  6. Conceptual Foundations for Gifted Education: "Stock-Taking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, LeoNora M.

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual Foundations are the theoretical, conceptual, philosophical, and historical aspects; perspectives from outside the field; trends, issues, and future directions; and social, political, and economic facets that underlie our field. This paper attempted to capture these foundational aspects, taking stock of accomplishments and suggesting…

  7. Knowledge, Expectations, and Inductive Reasoning within Conceptual Hierarchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, John D.; Hayes, Brett; Lawson, Christopher; Moloney, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Previous research (e.g. "Cognition" 64 (1997) 73) suggests that the privileged level for inductive inference in a folk biological conceptual hierarchy does not correspond to the ''basic'' level (i.e. the level at which concepts are both informative and distinct). To further explore inductive inference within conceptual hierarchies, we examine…

  8. Defining Conceptual Understanding for Teaching in International Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to develop a definition of conceptual understanding for teaching in international business. In international business, professionals face complex problems like what to produce, where to manufacture, which markets to target, and when to expand abroad. A clear definition of conceptual understanding needed to…

  9. Teaching Conceptual Paragraphs in EST Courses: A Practical Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drobnic, Karl

    One portion of a course in English for Science and Technology (EST) designed for foreign nuclear engineers studying at Oregon State University dealt with the conceptual paragraph, considered a basic unit of discourse in EST. The conceptual paragraph is defined as a group of rhetorically related concepts developing a generalization to form a…

  10. Using the Conceptual Change Instruction To Improve Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alparslan, Cem; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of conceptual change instruction on grade 11 students' understanding of respiration. The Respiration Concept Test was developed and used to test students' misconceptions. Results indicate that the conceptual change instruction that explicitly addressed students' misconceptions produced significantly greater achievement in…

  11. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Boiling Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor; Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a teaching strategy for facilitating students' conceptual understanding of the boiling concept. The study is based on 52 freshman students in the primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited by a test consisting of nine questions. Conceptual change strategy was designed based on…

  12. The Role of Conceptual Understanding in Children's Addition Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Reeve, Robert A.; Pattison, Philippa E.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between 6- to 8-year olds' conceptual understanding of additive composition, commutativity, and associativity principles and addition problem-solving procedures. Results revealed that conceptual understanding was related to using order-indifferent, decomposition, and retrieval strategies and speed and accuracy in solving…

  13. Role of Overtraining in Reversal and Conceptual Shift Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Charles L.

    1973-01-01

    Sixty college students formed mixed conceptual categories in original learning (e.g., PEACH, SHIRT, PANTS, and PEAR; and SHOE, ORANGE, DRESS, and APPLE). They were then required to perform either a reversal shift or a conceptual shift. Results are discussed in relation with mediation theory. (Editor/RK)

  14. Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

  15. Conceptual Change through the Lens of Newtonian Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Stuart; Graham, Ted; Berry, John; McWilliam, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the conceptual change literature assumed that student "misconceptions" in mechanics have been formed prior to instruction. As an attempt to shed light on conceptual change, this paper examines some of the trends in the literature and argues that misconceptions may be spontaneous rather than preformed, that schema…

  16. A Cross-Cultural Comparison: Teachers' Conceptualizations of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ji; Shen, Jiliang; Wang, Xinghua; Neber, Heinz; Johji, Ikuma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand teachers' conceptualizations of creativity and its difference among 3 countries. The conceptualization of creativity denotes the concept and exhibition of creativity, the traits of creative students, and the fostering and hindering factors for creativity in school settings. A questionnaire was…

  17. Student Engagement: Developing a Conceptual Framework and Survey Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Gerald F.; Heller, Nathan A.; Burch, Jana J.; Freed, Rusty; Steed, Steve A.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement is considered to be among the better predictors of learning, yet there is growing concern that there is no consensus on the conceptual foundation. The authors propose a conceptualization of student engagement grounded in A. W. Astin's (1984) Student Involvement Theory and W. A. Kahn's (1990) employee engagement research where…

  18. The Role of Facial Microexpression State (FMES) Change in the Process of Conceptual Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Lung; Liaw, Hongming

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether facial microexpression state (FMES) changes can be used to identify moments of conceptual conflict, one of the pathways to conceptual change. It is known that when the preconditions of conceptual conflicts are met and conceptual conflicts are detected in students, it is then possible for conceptual change to take place.…

  19. Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and policy interest in health disparities, defined as systematic, plausibly avoidable health differences adversely affecting socially disadvantaged groups, has increased markedly over the past few decades. Like other research, research in health disparities is strongly influenced by the underlying conceptual model of the hypothetical causes of disparities. Conceptual models are important and a major source of debate because multiple types of factors and processes may be involved in generating disparities, because different disciplines emphasize different types of factors, and because the conceptual model often drives what is studied, how results are interpreted, and which interventions are identified as most promising. This article reviews common conceptual approaches to health disparities including the genetic model, the fundamental cause model, the pathways model, and the interaction model. Strengths and limitations of the approaches are highlighted. The article concludes by outlining key elements and implications of an integrative systems-based conceptual model. PMID:22224879

  20. Wholistic Health Care: Evolutionary Conceptual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Deborah Jean

    2016-10-01

    mobilize volunteers to support and promote individual, family, and community health. A gap existed in literature regarding the definition of wholistic health care. In addition, a lack of clarity was identified due to the use of the concept, similar or related concepts. Conceptual clarity was sought through identification and definitions of attributes, Powered by Editorial Manager(®) and ProduXion Manager(®) from Aries Systems Corporation antecedents, and consequences. The theoretical definition of wholistic health care and conceptual model can be used to support the presence of the concept, develop model-based applications, and consistently test effectiveness.

  1. Conceptual Design For Interplanetary Spaceship Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    With the recently revived national interest in Lunar and Mars missions, this design study was undertaken by the author in an attempt to satisfy the long-term space exploration vision of human travel ``to the Moon, Mars, and beyond'' with a single design or family of vehicles. This paper describes a conceptual design for an interplanetary spaceship of the not-to-distant future. It is a design that is outwardly similar to the spaceship Discovery depicted in the novel ``2001 - A Space Odyssey'' and film of the same name. Like its namesake, this spaceship could one day transport a human expedition to explore the moons of Jupiter. This spaceship Discovery is a real engineering design that is capable of being implemented using technologies that are currently at or near the state-of-the-art. The ship's main propulsion and electrical power are provided by bi-modal nuclear thermal rocket engines. Configurations are presented to satisfy four basic Design Reference Missions: (1) a high-energy mission to Jupiter's moon Callisto, (2) a high-energy mission to Mars, (3) a low-energy mission to Mars, and (4) a high-energy mission to the Moon. The spaceship design includes dual, strap-on boosters to enable the high-energy Mars and Jupiter missions. Three conceptual lander designs are presented: (1) Two types of Mars landers that utilize atmospheric and propulsive braking, and (2) a lander for Callisto or Earth's Moon that utilizes only propulsive braking. Spaceship Discovery offers many advantages for human exploration of the Solar System: (1) Nuclear propulsion enables propulsive capture and escape maneuvers at Earth and target planets, eliminating risky aero-capture maneuvers. (2) Strap-on boosters provide robust propulsive energy, enabling flexibility in mission planning, shorter transit times, expanded launch windows, and free-return abort trajectories from Mars. (3) A backup abort propulsion system enables crew aborts at multiple points in the mission. (4) Clustered NTR

  2. Conceptual aspects of geometric quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöqvist, Erik; Azimi Mousolou, Vahid; Canali, Carlo M.

    2016-10-01

    Geometric quantum computation is the idea that geometric phases can be used to implement quantum gates, i.e., the basic elements of the Boolean network that forms a quantum computer. Although originally thought to be limited to adiabatic evolution, controlled by slowly changing parameters, this form of quantum computation can as well be realized at high speed by using nonadiabatic schemes. Recent advances in quantum gate technology have allowed for experimental demonstrations of different types of geometric gates in adiabatic and nonadiabatic evolution. Here, we address some conceptual issues that arise in the realizations of geometric gates. We examine the appearance of dynamical phases in quantum evolution and point out that not all dynamical phases need to be compensated for in geometric quantum computation. We delineate the relation between Abelian and non-Abelian geometric gates and find an explicit physical example where the two types of gates coincide. We identify differences and similarities between adiabatic and nonadiabatic realizations of quantum computation based on non-Abelian geometric phases.

  3. Preliminary conceptual design about the CEPC calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haijun

    2016-11-01

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs factory was proposed in September 2013. The preliminary conceptual design report was completed in 2015.1 The CEPC detector design was using International Linear Collider Detector — ILD2 as an initial baseline. The CEPC calorimeters, including the high granularity electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and the hadron calorimeter (HCAL), are designed for precise energy measurements of electrons, photons, taus and hadronic jets. The basic resolution requirements for the ECAL and HCAL are about 16%E (GeV) and 50%E (GeV), respectively. To fully exploit the physics potential of the Higgs, W, Z and related Standard Model processes, the jet energy resolution is required to reach 3%-4%, or 30%/E (GeV) at energies below about 100 GeV. To achieve the required performance, a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) — oriented calorimetry system is being considered as the baseline design. The CEPC ECAL detector options include silicon-tungsten or scintillator-tungsten structures with analog readout, while the HCAL detector options have scintillator or gaseous detector as the active sensor and iron as the absorber. Some latest R&D studies about ECAL and HCAL within the CEPC working group is also presented.

  4. Latino terminology: conceptual bases for standardized terminology.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes-Bautista, D E; Chapa, J

    1987-01-01

    Conceptually, the only element that all Latin American countries share is not language, race, or culture, but political: the presence of United States foreign policy as pronounced in the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. The political relation between the US and Latin America has colored US domestic policy toward its populations of Latin American origin. From the beginning of US-Latin American relations, there has been a constant confusion of race for national origin, compounded by the adoption of euphemistic terms such as "Spanish surname." The term "Latino", derived from "Latin American," is offered as the term that best reflects both the diverse national origins and the nearly unitary treatment of Latinos in the US. The term Latino is operationalized to include all persons of Latin American origin or descent, irrespective of language, race, or culture. Specifically excluded are individuals of Spanish national origin outside the Western Hemisphere. When a synthetic sample has been derived, the term should be modified to reflect the basis upon which the sample was derived, e.g., "Latino (Spanish surname)." When working with Latinos from a specific national origin, that should be noted, e.g., "Mexican origin Latinos." PMID:3789240

  5. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  6. Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael F.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Cook, Philip A.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. PMID:23333416

  7. Conceptualizing Astronomical Distances for Urban Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popinchalk, Mark; Olson, Kristen; Ingber, Jenny; O'Brien, Mariel

    2017-01-01

    Students living in urban environments may have a washed-out night sky, but their enthusiasm for astronomy can still shine bright. As an educator, it can sometimes be a challenge to see the opportunities afforded by city living to the teaching of astronomy; however, several benefits can be identified. For example, the intrinsic understanding children have of the distances and scales involved in their everyday life is enhanced when they live in a regimented urban structure. This existing understanding of scale is critical to building a foundation for later conceptualizing of the universe.Leveraging the assets of New York City and the resources found in the American Museum of Natural History, The Science and Nature Program offers students (PreK through 8th grade) robust science learning experiences. To address concepts important for studying astronomy, we present a novel twist on the classic lesson “Earth as a Peppercorn,” by scaling the solar system to the size of New York City. Using local landmarks and their distance in relation to the Museum to represent the planets, students can use their prior knowledge of their surroundings to appreciate the impressive scale of our neighborhood in space in the context of their own neighborhoods. We correlate the activity with NGSS standards, present preliminary feedback on it’s success, and discuss the opportunities to apply a similar model lesson to other astronomical systems.

  8. Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal, M. F. Abdul; Sahari, K. S. Mohamed; Anuar, A.; Mohd Arshad, A. D.; Idris, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

  9. Learning environment, learning styles and conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Lourdes M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.

  10. ITER TCWS Conceptual Design Chit Resolution Report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Design Chits resulted from the External Conceptual Design Review (CDR) held at Cadarache on July 21-23, 2009 (Reference [5.1.3]). Those Chits were categorized into 3 categories in accordance with the following rules: Category 1 - Chits to be resolved before proceeding with preliminary design; Category 2 - Chits to be resolved during preliminary design; and Category 3 - Chits already resolved or covered by higher category Chits such that no further action is required. Prior to the preliminary design, all the category 1 chits were resolved and the category chit 1 resolution report was approved (Reference [5.1.4]). However, as the design has been evolving, one of the category 1 chits needs to be re-addressed. The purpose of this report is to present the resolutions to one CDR Category 1 Chit (Cat 1 Chit No.5) and twenty-three CDR Category 2 Chits. The Category 2 Chit resolutions presented are listed in order from item number one to item number twenty-three.

  11. A conceptual, distributed snow redistribution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, S.; Holzmann, H.

    2015-01-01

    When applying conceptual hydrological models using a temperature index approach for snowmelt to high alpine areas often accumulation of snow during several years can be observed. Some of the reasons why these "snow towers" do not exist in nature are vertical and lateral transport processes. While snow transport models have been developed using grid cell sizes of tens to hundreds of square meters and have been applied in several catchments, no model exists using coarser cell sizes of one km2. In this paper we present an approach that uses only gravity and snow density as a proxy for the age of the snow cover and land-use information to redistribute snow in the catchment of Ötztaler Ache, Austria. This transport model is implemented in the distributed rainfall-runoff model COSERO and a comparison between the standard model without using snow transport and the updated version is done using runoff and MODIS data for model validation. While the signal of snow redistribution can hardly be seen in the binary classification compared with MODIS, snow accumulation over several years can be prevented. In a seven year period the classic model would lead to snow accumulation of approximately 2900 mm SWE in high elevated regions whereas the updated version of the model does not show accumulation and does also predict discharge more precisely leading to a Kling-Gupta-Efficiency of 0.93 instead of 0.9.

  12. Pursuing Scalability for hypre's Conceptual Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Falgout, R D; Jones, J E; Yang, U M

    2004-07-21

    The software library hypre provides high performance preconditioners and solvers for the solution of large, sparse linear systems on massively parallel computers as well as conceptual interfaces that allow users to access the library in the way they naturally think about their problems. These interfaces include a stencil-based structured interface (Struct); a semi-structured interface (semiStruct), which is appropriate for applications that are mostly structured, e.g. block structured grids, composite grids in structured adaptive mesh refinement applications, and overset grids; a finite element interface (FEI) for unstructured problems, as well as a conventional linear-algebraic interface (IJ). It is extremely important to provide an efficient, scalable implementation of these interfaces in order to support the scalable solvers of the library, especially when using tens of thousands of processors. This paper describes the data structures, parallel implementation and resulting performance of the IJ, Struct and semiStruct interfaces. It investigates their scalability, presents successes as well as pitfalls of some of the approaches and suggests ways of dealing with them.

  13. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor.

    PubMed

    Chartoff, Elena H; Carlezon, William A

    2014-09-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress.

  14. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  15. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  16. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  17. Conceptual study on manned engineering test satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Tooru; Inomata, Masabumi; Inagaki, Jun; Oono, Shigeru

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of spacecraft used for validating technologies which will be necessary for manned space development conducted by Japan in the future is presented. An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and two-phase liquid loop radiator experiment equipment were selected as the major and optional equipment to be installed onboard the manned engineering test satellites, respectively. Mission items for ECLSS experiment equipment were extracted and traded off from the following on-ground technologies: (1) technology for removing toxic substances, offensive substances, and fine particles from the atmosphere; (2) N2 and O2 partial pressure control and CO2 removal technologies; (3) gas sensing technology; and (4) temperature and humidity control technology. Comparison was conducted on three base-line configurations such as follows: (1) pressurized module (expendable) plus bus section (expendable); (2) pressurized module (retrievable) plus bus section (expendable); and (3) pressurized module (expendable) plus bus section (expendable) plus recovery section. The results of the review on the satellite system base on configuration of the above case (1) are outlined.

  18. Vegetarian food guide pyramid: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Haddad, E H; Sabaté, J; Whitten, C G

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this article and the accompanying vegetarian food guide pyramid graphic is to provide the conceptual framework for the development of a new and unique food guide. Food guides for vegetarians have tended to be adaptations of guides developed for the general nonvegetarian population instead of being designed to emphasize the healthy components of vegetarian dietary patterns. A subcommittee of the organizers of the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition began a process that led to the development of a pyramid-shaped graphic illustration and a supporting document, both of which were introduced at the congress. The 5 major plant-based food groups (whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruit, nuts, and seeds) form the trapezoid-shaped lower portion of the pyramid. Optional food groups, which may be avoided by some vegetarians (vegetable oils, dairy, eggs, and sweets), form the smaller, separate, triangle-shaped top portion of the pyramid. The supporting document discusses the concepts that affect vegetarian food guidance and the rationale for selecting the food groups. It is hoped that this framework will provide the impetus for further research and discussion and will lead to the development of a guide that is nutritionally adequate, is conducive to good health, and can be adopted by vegetarians of diverse eating practices.

  19. Conceptual design of a data reduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A telemetry data processing system was defined of the Data Reduction. Data reduction activities in support of the developmental flights of the Space Shuttle were used as references against which requirements are assessed in general terms. A conceptual system design believed to offer significant throughput for the anticipated types of data reduction activities is presented. The design identifies the use of a large, intermediate data store as a key element in a complex of high speed, single purpose processors, each of which performs predesignated, repetitive operations on either raw or partially processed data. The recommended approach to implement the design concept is to adopt an established interface standard and rely heavily on mature or promising technologies which are considered main stream of the integrated circuit industry. The design system concept, is believed to be implementable without reliance on exotic devices and/or operational procedures. Numerical methods were employed to examine the feasibility of digital discrimination of FDM composite signals, and of eliminating line frequency noises in data measurements.

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Quality of Care

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research on defining and measuring health care quality, little attention has been given to different stakeholders’ perspectives of high-quality health care services. The main purpose of this study was to explore the attributes of quality healthcare in the Iranian context. Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with key healthcare stakeholders including clients, providers, managers, policy makers, payers, suppliers and accreditation panel members to identify the healthcare service quality attributes and dimensions. Data analysis was carried out by content analysis, with the constant comparative method. Over 100 attributes of quality healthcare service were elicited and grouped into five categories. The dimensions were: efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency, empathy, and environment. Consequently, a comprehensive model of service quality was developed for health care context. The findings of the current study led to a conceptual framework of healthcare quality. This model leads to a better understanding of the different aspects of quality in health care and provides a better basis for defining, measuring and controlling quality of health care services. PMID:23922534

  1. Conceptual Problems in Land Surface Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A land data assimilation system (LDAS) merges observations (or satellite retrievals) of land surface hydrological conditions, including soil moisture, snow, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), into a numerical model of land surface processes. In theory, the output from such a system is superior to estimates based on the observations or the model alone, thereby enhancing our ability to understand, monitor, and predict key elements of the terrestrial water cycle. In practice, however, several conceptual problems can interfere with realizing the potential improvements from data assimilation. Of particular concern is the frequent mismatch between the assimilated observations and the land surface model variables of interest. The seminar will discuss recent research with the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-S LDAS to address various aspects of this mismatch. These aspects include (i) the assimilation of coarse-scale observations into higher-resolution land surface models, (ii) the partitioning of satellite observations (such as TWS retrievals) into their constituent water cycle components, (iii) the forward modeling of microwave brightness temperatures over land for radiance-based land surface data aSSimilation, and (iv) the selection of the most relevant types of observations for the analysis of a specific water cycle variable (such as root zone soil moisture). At its core, the solution to the above challenges involves the careful construction of an observation operator that maps from the land surface model variables of interest to the space of the assimilated observations.

  2. A conceptual framework for quality of care.

    PubMed

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research on defining and measuring health care quality, little attention has been given to different stakeholders' perspectives of high-quality health care services. The main purpose of this study was to explore the attributes of quality healthcare in the Iranian context. Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with key healthcare stakeholders including clients, providers, managers, policy makers, payers, suppliers and accreditation panel members to identify the healthcare service quality attributes and dimensions. Data analysis was carried out by content analysis, with the constant comparative method. Over 100 attributes of quality healthcare service were elicited and grouped into five categories. The dimensions were: efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency, empathy, and environment. Consequently, a comprehensive model of service quality was developed for health care context. The findings of the current study led to a conceptual framework of healthcare quality. This model leads to a better understanding of the different aspects of quality in health care and provides a better basis for defining, measuring and controlling quality of health care services.

  3. Conceptual design for a Mercury relativity satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Ashby, N.; Wahr, J. M.; Vincent, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    It was shown earlier that 1 x 10 to the -14th Doppler data and 3 cm accuracy range measurements to a small Mercury Relativity Satellite in a polar orbit with four-hour period can give high-accuracy tests of gravitational theory. A particular conceptual design has been developed for such a satellite, which would take less than 10 percent of the approach mass for a possible future Mercury Orbiter Mission. The spacecraft is similar to the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, but scaled down by about a factor four in linear dimensions. A despun antenna 30 cm in diameter is used for tracking. The transmitted power is roughly 0.2 watts at K-band and 0.5 watts at X-band. The orbit parameters for individual eight-hour arcs and the gravity field of Mercury through degree and order 10 are determined mainly from the Doppler data. A 50 MHz K-band sidetone system provides the basic ranging accuracy. The spacecraft mass is 50 kg or less.

  4. Transportation node space station conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent studies have addressed the problem of a transportation node space station. How things would change or what addition facilities would be needed to support a major lunar or Mars initiative is a much often asked question. The support of a lunar base, requiring stacks on the order of 200 metric tons each to land 25 m tons on the lunar surface with reusable vehicles is addressed. The problem of maintaining and reusing large single stage Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) and single stage lander/launchers in space are examined. The required people and equipment needed, to maintain these vehicles are only vaguely known at present. The people and equipment needed depend on how well the OTV and lander/launcher can be designed for easy reuse. Since the OTV and lander/launcher are only conceptually defined at present, the real maintenance and refurbishment requirements are unobtainable. An estimate of what is needed, based on previous studies and obvious requirements was therefore made. An attempt was made to err on the conservative side.

  5. Control/structure interaction conceptual design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1990-01-01

    The JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program is developing new analytical methods for designing micro-precision spacecraft with controlled structures. One of these, the Conceptual Design Tool, will illustrate innovative new approaches to the integration of multi-disciplinary analysis and design methods. The tool will be used to demonstrate homogeneity of presentation, uniform data representation across analytical methods, and integrated systems modeling. The tool differs from current 'integrated systems' that support design teams most notably in its support for the new CSI multi-disciplinary engineer. The design tool will utilize a three dimensional solid model of the spacecraft under design as the central data organization metaphor. Various analytical methods, such as finite element structural analysis, control system analysis, and mechanical configuration layout, will store and retrieve data from a hierarchical, object oriented data structure that supports assemblies of components with associated data and algorithms. In addition to managing numerical model data, the tool will assist the designer in organizing, stating, and tracking system requirements.

  6. A conceptual framework for evaluating tsunami resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalal, Dinil

    2017-02-01

    As many coastal towns in the northeast coast of Japan were destroyed by tsunami accompanied with the Great East Japan Earthquake, a few of them were survived or little damaged with no or less casualties due to some reasons. Yoshihama in Iwate prefecture is one of such little damaged communities and is known as “Lucky Beach.” There were such “lucky” and “unlucky” regions in Indonesia and Sri Lanka too, which were affected by Indian Ocean Tsunami. Identification of reasons for vulnerability or resilience is the primary consideration of this article. It presents pragmatic conceptual framework for evaluating resilience, based on author’s firsthand experience on above both tsunamis. Integral resilience of a given area has been considered after dividing into three phases namely, onsite resilience, instantaneous survivability, and recovery potentiality of the area. The author assumes that capacity of each phase depends on socioeconomic, infrastructural and geographical factors of the area considered. The paper moves forward, arguing appropriateness of the framework by giving examples collected from Japan, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. The framework will be useful for evaluating resilience of coastal townships and also planning resilient townships, specifically focusing on tsunami.

  7. Conceptual Drivers for an Exploration Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsen, E.; Canga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary spaceflight provides unique challenges that have not been encountered in prior spaceflight experience. Extended distance and timeframes introduce new challenges such as an inability to resupply medications and consumables, inability to evacuate injured or ill crew, and communication delays that introduce a requirement for some level of autonomous medical capability. Because of these challenges the approaches used in prior programs have limited application to a proposed three year Mars mission. This paper proposes a paradigm shift in the approach to medical risk mitigation for crew health and mission objectives threatened by inadequate medical capabilities in the setting of severely limited resources. A conceptual approach is outlined to derive medical system and vehicle needs from an integrated vision of how medical care will be provided within this new paradigm. Using NASA Design Reference Missions this process assesses each mission phase to deconstruct medical needs at any point during a mission. Two operational categories are proposed, nominal operations (pre-planned activities) and contingency operations (medical conditions requiring evaluation) that meld clinical needs and research needs into a single system. These definitions are used to derive a task level analysis to support quantifiable studies into a medical capabilities trade. This trade allows system design to proceed from both a mission centric and ethics-based approach to medical limitations in an exploration class mission.

  8. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  9. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  10. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH.

  11. Estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnéticos en Cuerpos Masivos Rotantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velandia Heredia, N.; Tejeiro, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    A partir del estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnéticos en cuerpos masivos rotantes, planteamos la expresión para medir el desfase en el tiempo, para diferentes observadores, que se dan cuando viajan dos rayos de luz por una guía de onda o de manera libre (geodésicas), en el plano azimutal y en el plano polar. Con lo anterior queremos abordar el experimento tipo Michelson y Morley, de forma que podamos involucrar el valor de la densidad del momento angular (a) en el retraso temporal para los dos haces de luz que viajan por los brazos del interferómetro, cuando este último es ubicado en el plano ecuatorial.

  12. NADM Conceptual Model 1.0 -- A Conceptual Model for Geologic Map Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary -- The NADM Data Model Design Team was established in 1999 by the North American Geologic Map Data Model Steering Committee (NADMSC) with the purpose of drafting a geologic map data model for consideration as a standard for developing interoperable geologic map-centered databases by state, provincial, and federal geological surveys. The model is designed to be a technology-neutral conceptual model that can form the basis for a web-based interchange format using evolving information technology (e.g., XML, RDF, OWL), and guide implementation of geoscience databases in a common conceptual framework. The intended purpose is to allow geologic information sharing between geologic map data providers and users, independent of local information system implementation. The model emphasizes geoscience concepts and relationships related to information presented on geologic maps. Design has been guided by an informal requirements analysis, documentation of existing databases, technology developments, and other standardization efforts in the geoscience and computer-science communities. A key aspect of the model is the notion that representation of the conceptual framework (ontology) that underlies geologic map data must be part of the model, because this framework changes with time and understanding, and varies between information providers. The top level of the model distinguishes geologic concepts, geologic representation concepts, and metadata. The geologic representation part of the model provides a framework for representing the ontology that underlies geologic map data through a controlled vocabulary, and for establishing the relationships between this vocabulary and a geologic map visualization or portrayal. Top-level geologic classes in the model are Earth material (substance), geologic unit (parts of the Earth), geologic age, geologic structure, fossil, geologic process, geologic relation, and geologic event.

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dogliani, Harold O

    2011-01-19

    The purpose of the briefing is to describe general laboratory technical capabilities to be used for various groups such as military cadets or university faculty/students and post docs to recruit into a variety of Los Alamos programs. Discussed are: (1) development and application of high leverage science to enable effeictive, predictable and reliability outcomes; (2) deter, detect, characterize, reverse and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their use by adversaries and terrorists; (3) modeling and simulation to define complex processes, predict outcomes, and develop effective prevention, response, and remediation strategies; (4) energetic materials and hydrodynamic testing to develop materials for precise delivery of focused energy; (5) materials cience focused on fundamental understanding of materials behaviors, their quantum-molecular properties, and their dynamic responses, and (6) bio-science to rapidly detect and characterize pathogens, to develop vaccines and prophylactic remedies, and to develop attribution forensics.

  14. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  15. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.

  16. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  17. Conceptual change, crucial experiments and auxiliary hypotheses. A theoretical contribution.

    PubMed

    Levinas, Marcelo Leonardo; Carretero, Mario

    2010-12-01

    Theories about conceptual change have been generally related to historical and philosophical analysis of science. Yet, there is still much debate on how ideas coming from the history of science and their implications can be applied in this field. Our study intends to investigate the complex structure of conceptual change, by making use of some particularly representative features of the History and Philosophy of science, while considering the structure of so-called crucial experiments and the specific role of implicit hypotheses. Due to their historical importance and logical reasoning aspects, examining these issues may contribute to understand how conceptual change may take place.

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Grammar-Driven Synthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    AD°AlO0 159 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA FIO 9/2 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR GRAMMAR-DRIVEN SYNTHESIS.(U) DEC 80 W R SHOCKLEY, D P HADDOW...UNCLASSIFIED NL iflfl/lf/l...l../l IEIIIIEIIIEEI hhhhmmhmmmhu LEVEK NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR...1, . VT ACCg"bOk NNyls CATALOG TUMBIOR 4. T....... I Ji D COVEEO ’ I. A Conceptual Framework for Grammar-Driven Synthesi Me- - ~er’s j sisjec, 1980 P

  19. Brownfields Green Avenue Sites: Technical Memorandum - Conceptual Design for Sustainable Redevelopment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical memorandum briefly describes the site and proposed conceptual site plan, indicates conceptual design considerations, specifies recommended green and sustainable features, and offers other recommendations

  20. LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments:Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J.; Boutet, S.; Castagna, J-C.; Chapman, H.; Feng, Y.; Foyt, W.; Fritz, D.M.; Gaffney, K.J.; Gr|bel, G.; Hajdu, J.; Hastings, J.B.; Kurita, N.; Larsson, J.; Ludwig, K.; Messerschmidt, M.; Miao, J.; Reis, D.A.; Robert, A.; Stephenson, G.B.; Tschentscher, Th.; van Bakel, N.; /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /DESY /Lund Inst. Tech. /Boston U. /UCLA /Michigan U. /Argonne

    2007-10-16

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), along with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility, which will operate in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This FEL, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac will be used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons will be transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which will house a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons will be bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength will be tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS will include two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing three X-ray instruments in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of this new LCLS facility. The technical objective of the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) project is to design, build, and install at the LCLS three hard X-ray instruments that will complement the initial instrument included in the LCLS construction. As the science programs advance and new technological challenges appear, instrumentation needs to be developed and ready to conquer these new opportunities. The LCLS instrument concepts have been developed in close consultation with the scientific community through a

  1. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  2. A conceptual framework for hydropeaking mitigation.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Andreas; Tonolla, Diego; Schweizer, Steffen P; Vollenweider, Stefan; Langhans, Simone D; Wüest, Alfred

    2016-10-15

    Hydropower plants are an important source of renewable energy. In the near future, high-head storage hydropower plants will gain further importance as a key element of large-scale electricity production systems. However, these power plants can cause hydropeaking which is characterized by intense unnatural discharge fluctuations in downstream river reaches. Consequences on environmental conditions in these sections are diverse and include changes to the hydrology, hydraulics and sediment regime on very short time scales. These altered conditions affect river ecosystems and biota, for instance due to drift and stranding of fishes and invertebrates. Several structural and operational measures exist to mitigate hydropeaking and the adverse effects on ecosystems, but estimating and predicting their ecological benefit remains challenging. We developed a conceptual framework to support the ecological evaluation of hydropeaking mitigation measures based on current mitigation projects in Switzerland and the scientific literature. We refined this framework with an international panel of hydropeaking experts. The framework is based on a set of indicators, which covers all hydrological phases of hydropeaking and the most important affected abiotic and biotic processes. Effects of mitigation measures on these indicators can be predicted quantitatively using prediction tools such as discharge scenarios and numerical habitat models. Our framework allows a comparison of hydropeaking effects among alternative mitigation measures, to the pre-mitigation situation, and to reference river sections. We further identified key issues that should be addressed to increase the efficiency of current and future projects. They include the spatial and temporal context of mitigation projects, the interactions of river morphology with hydropeaking effects, and the role of appropriate monitoring to evaluate the success of mitigation projects.

  3. The conceptual foundation of environmental decision support.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Peter; Langhans, Simone D; Lienert, Judit; Schuwirth, Nele

    2015-05-01

    Environmental decision support intends to use the best available scientific knowledge to help decision makers find and evaluate management alternatives. The goal of this process is to achieve the best fulfillment of societal objectives. This requires a careful analysis of (i) how scientific knowledge can be represented and quantified, (ii) how societal preferences can be described and elicited, and (iii) how these concepts can best be used to support communication with authorities, politicians, and the public in environmental management. The goal of this paper is to discuss key requirements for a conceptual framework to address these issues and to suggest how these can best be met. We argue that a combination of probability theory and scenario planning with multi-attribute utility theory fulfills these requirements, and discuss adaptations and extensions of these theories to improve their application for supporting environmental decision making. With respect to (i) we suggest the use of intersubjective probabilities, if required extended to imprecise probabilities, to describe the current state of scientific knowledge. To address (ii), we emphasize the importance of value functions, in addition to utilities, to support decisions under risk. We discuss the need for testing "non-standard" value aggregation techniques, the usefulness of flexibility of value functions regarding attribute data availability, the elicitation of value functions for sub-objectives from experts, and the consideration of uncertainty in value and utility elicitation. With respect to (iii), we outline a well-structured procedure for transparent environmental decision support that is based on a clear separation of scientific prediction and societal valuation. We illustrate aspects of the suggested methodology by its application to river management in general and with a small, didactical case study on spatial river rehabilitation prioritization.

  4. Conceptual model for heart failure disease management.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulou, Efstathia; Abbate, Kariann; Whellan, David J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review is to propose a conceptual model for heart failure (HF) disease management (HFDM) and to define the components of an efficient HFDM plan in reference to this model. Articles that evaluated 1 or more of the following aspects of HFDM were reviewed: (1) outpatient clinic follow-up; (2) self-care interventions to enhance patient skills; and (3) remote evaluation of worsening HF either using structured telephone support (STS) or by monitoring device data (telemonitoring). The success of programs in reducing readmissions and mortality were mixed. Outpatient follow-up programs generally resulted in improved outcomes, including decreased readmissions. Based on 1 meta-analysis, specialty clinics improved outcomes and nonspecialty clinics did not. Results from self-care programs were inconsistent and might have been affected by patient cognitive status and educational level, and intervention intensity. Telemonitoring, despite initially promising meta-analyses demonstrating a decrease in the number and duration of HF-related readmissions and all-cause mortality rates at follow-up, has not been shown in randomized trials to consistently reduce readmissions or mortality. However, evidence from device monitoring trials in particular might have been influenced by technology and design issues that might be rectified in future trials. Results from the literature suggest that the ideal HFDM plan would include outpatient follow-up at an HF specialty clinic and continuous education to improve patient self-care. The end result of this plan would lead to better understanding on the part of the patient and improved patient ability to recognize and respond to signs of decompensation.

  5. Conceptual Drivers for an Exploration Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsen, Erik; Hanson, Andrea; Shah, Ronak; Reed, Rebekah; Canga, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary spaceflight, such as NASA's proposed three-year mission to Mars, provides unique and novel challenges when compared with human spaceflight to date. Extended distance and multi-year missions introduce new elements of operational complexity and additional risk. These elements include: inability to resupply medications and consumables, inability to evacuate injured or ill crew, uncharted psychosocial conditions, and communication delays that create a requirement for some level of autonomous medical capability. Because of these unique challenges, the approaches used in prior programs have limited application to a Mars mission. On a Mars mission, resource limitations will significantly constrain available medical capabilities, and require a paradigm shift in the approach to medical system design and risk mitigation for crew health. To respond to this need for a new paradigm, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element is assessing each Mars mission phase-transit, surface stay, rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and return-to identify and prioritize medical needs for the journey beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). ExMC is addressing both planned medical operations, and unplanned contingency medical operations that meld clinical needs and research needs into a single system. This assessment is being used to derive a gap analysis and studies to support meaningful medical capabilities trades. These trades, in turn, allow the exploration medical system design to proceed from both a mission centric and ethics-based approach, and to manage the risks associated with the medical limitations inherent in an exploration class mission. This paper outlines the conceptual drivers used to derive medical system and vehicle needs from an integrated vision of how medical care will be provided within this paradigm. Keywords: (Max 6 keywords: exploration, medicine, spaceflight, Mars, research, NASA)

  6. Distribución en gran escala de los cúmulos globulares en Fornax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Para analizar los cúmulos globulares azules y rojos de NGC 1399 asociados con NGC 1399 en particular, o si los cúmulos azules representaban un sistema asociado con el cúmulo de Fornax en general, se obtuvieron imágenes CCD de gran formato con el telescopio de 4m del CTIO, en las bandas C y T1. Se describe el método empleado y lo encontrado.

  7. CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS FOR A NEW HIGHWAY VEHICLE EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses six conceptual designs for a new highway vehicle emissions estimation methodology and summarizes the recommendations of each design for improving the emissions and activity factors in the emissions estimation process. he complete design reports are included a...

  8. An Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ibrahim, Abdul Rahman H.

    1982-01-01

    The Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development calls for curriculum reform and innovation to be cybernetic so that all aspects of curriculum planning get adequate attention. (CJ)

  9. Conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D.; Grant, C.; Johnson, C.; Meirick, R.; Polhemus, C.; Ray, A.; Rittenhouse, D.; Skidmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported for work performed during the first phase of the conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system. This phase consists of four tasks: General requirements, concept development, subsystem requirements and analysis, and concept evaluation.

  10. A conceptual framework for future research on mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jennifer M; Viswanathan, Meera; Ivy, Julie S

    2012-10-01

    Our goal was to develop a comprehensive conceptual research framework on mode of delivery and to identify research priorities in this topic area through a Delphi process. We convened a multidisciplinary team of 16 experts (North Carolina Collaborative on Mode of Delivery) representing the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, neonatology, midwifery, epidemiology, psychometrics, decision sciences, bioethics, health care engineering, health economics, health disparities, and women's studies. We finalized the conceptual framework after multiple iterations, including revisions during a one-day in-person conference. The conceptual framework illustrates the causal pathway for mode of delivery and the complex interplay and relationships among patient, fetal, family, provider, cultural, and societal factors as drivers of change from intended to actual mode of delivery. This conceptual framework on mode of delivery will help put specific research ideas into a broader context and identify important knowledge gaps for future investigation.

  11. Surveying Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Electricity and Magnetism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.; O'Kuma, Thomas L.; Hieggelke, Curtis J.; Van Heuvelen, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) which was developed to assess students' knowledge of topics in electricity and magnetism. Reports on the number of student difficulties in electricity and magnetism. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Conceptual Knowledge Acquisition in Biomedicine: A Methodological Review

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Mendonça, Eneida A.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Starren, Justin B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of conceptual knowledge collections or structures within the biomedical domain is pervasive, spanning a variety of applications including controlled terminologies, semantic networks, ontologies, and database schemas. A number of theoretical constructs and practical methods or techniques support the development and evaluation of conceptual knowledge collections. This review will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge concerning conceptual knowledge acquisition, drawing from multiple contributing academic disciplines such as biomedicine, computer science, cognitive science, education, linguistics, semiotics, and psychology. In addition, multiple taxonomic approaches to the description and selection of conceptual knowledge acquisition and evaluation techniques will be proposed in order to partially address the apparent fragmentation of the current literature concerning this domain. PMID:17482521

  13. Conceptual match as a determinant of reference reuse in dialogue.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Dominique; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    As speakers interact, they add references to their common ground, which they can then reuse to facilitate listener comprehension. However, all references are not equally likely to be reused. The purpose of this study was to shed light on how the speakers' conceptualizations of the referents under discussion affect reuse (along with a generation effect in memory documented in previous studies on dialogic reuse). Two experiments were conducted in which participants interactively added references to their common ground. From each participant's point of view, these references either did or did not match their own conceptualization of the referents discussed, and were either self- or partner-generated. Although self-generated references were more readily accessible in memory than partner-generated ones (Experiment 1), reference reuse was mainly guided by conceptualization (Experiment 2). These results are in line with the idea that several different cues (conceptual match, memory accessibility) constrain reference reuse in dialogue. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Conceptual model for partnership and sustainability in global health.

    PubMed

    Leffers, Jeanne; Mitchell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Although nursing has a long history of service to the global community, the profession lacks a theoretical and empirical base for nurses to frame their global practice. A study using grounded theory methodology to investigate partnership and sustainability for global health led to the development of a conceptual model. Interviews were conducted with 13 global health nurse experts. Themes from the interviews were: components for engagement, mutual goal setting, cultural bridging, collaboration, capacity building, leadership, partnership, ownership, and sustainability. Next, the identified themes were reviewed in the literature in order to evaluate their conceptual relationships. Finally, careful comparison of the interview transcripts and the supporting literature led to the Conceptual Framework for Partnership and Sustainability in Global Health Nursing. The model posits that engagement and partnership must precede any planning and intervention in order to create sustainable interventions. This conceptual framework will offer nurses important guidance for global health nursing practice.

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching about Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Concepts which represent the minimal conceptual essentials for the study of nuclear weapons in secondary level social studies classes are discussed, and issues and controversies which may rise during such a study are examined. (RM)

  16. Magnetic nanoparticle-supported glutathione: a conceptually sustainable organocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptually novel nanoparticle-supported and magnetically recoverable organocatalyst has been developed, which is readily prepared from inexpensive starting materials in a truly sustainable manner; which catalyzes Paal-Knorr reaction with high yield in pure aqueous medium that...

  17. The role of conceptual understanding in children's addition problem solving.

    PubMed

    Canobi, K H; Reeve, R A; Pattison, P E

    1998-09-01

    The study examined the relationship between children's conceptual understanding and addition problem-solving procedures. Forty-eight 6- to 8-year-olds solved addition problems and, in a 2nd task, were prompted to judge whether a puppet could use the arithmetic properties of one problem to solve the next problem. Relational properties between consecutive problems were manipulated to reflect aspects of additive composition, commutativity, and associativity principles. Conceptual understanding was assessed by the ability to spontaneously use such relational properties in problem solving (Task 1) and to recognize and explain them when prompted (Task 2). Results revealed that conceptual understanding was related to using order-indifferent, decomposition, and retrieval strategies and speed and accuracy in solving unrelated problems. The importance of conceptual understanding for addition development is discussed.

  18. The conceptual and the anecdotal history of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, Mara

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to combine the intellectual and the psychosocial aspects. blurring the distinction between the conceptual and the anecdotal history of quantum mechanics. The full realization of the importance of such “anecdotal” factors leads to the revision of our understanding of the conceptual development itself. The paper concludes with the suggestion that a major part of numerous inconsistencies in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum physics are of a psychosocial origin.

  19. Evaluation of Conceptual Selling as a job development planning process.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Linda; Smith, Galen; Rapp, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    Job development is integral to evidence-based supported employment practice. This paper reviews the limited research on job development and critically examines various definitions of job development. The authors describe Conceptual Selling, an existing method currently used in sales that can be adopted for use in job development. An exploratory evaluation of Conceptual Selling as a method for job development is described and implications discussed.

  20. Los biocombustibles y el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Cómo podremos utilizar los biocombustibles en el futuro? La ingeniera aeroespacial de la NASA, Diana Centeno Gómez nos explica el futuro de los biocombustibles y cómo un día podrías trabajar con d...

  1. Dissociating verbal and nonverbal conceptual processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Guillaume; Price, Cathy J

    2006-06-01

    Functional neuroimaging has highlighted a left-hemisphere conceptual system shared by verbal and nonverbal processing despite neuropsychological evidence that the ability to recognize verbal and nonverbal stimuli can doubly dissociate in patients with left- and right-hemisphere lesions, respectively. Previous attempts to control for perceptual differences between verbal and nonverbal stimuli in functional neuroimaging studies may have hidden differences arising at the conceptual level. Here we used a different approach and controlled for perceptual confounds by looking for amodal verbal and nonverbal conceptual activations that are common to both the visual and auditory modalities. In addition to the left-hemisphere conceptual system activated by all meaningful stimuli, we observed the left/right double dissociation in verbal and nonverbal conceptual processing, predicted by neuropsychological studies. Left middle and superior temporal regions were selectively more involved in comprehending words--heard or read--and the right midfusiform and right posterior middle temporal cortex were selectively more involved in making sense of environmental sounds and images. Thus, the neuroanatomical basis of a verbal/nonverbal conceptual processing dissociation is established.

  2. Using Conceptual Scaffolding to Foster Effective Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

    2009-11-01

    Traditional end-of-chapter problems often are localized, requiring formulas only within a single chapter. Students frequently can solve these problems by performing "plug-and-chug" without recognizing underlying concepts. We designed open-ended problems that require a synthesis of concepts that are broadly separated in the teaching time line, militating against students' blindly invoking locally introduced formulas. Each problem was encapsulated into a sequence with two preceding conceptually-based multiple-choice questions. These conceptual questions address the same underlying concepts as the subsequent problem, providing students with guided conceptual scaffolding. When solving the problem, students were explicitly advised to search for underlying connections based on the conceptual questions. Both small-scale interviews and a large-scale written test were conducted to investigate the effects of guided conceptual scaffolding on student problem solving. Specifically, student performance on the open-ended problems was compared between those who received scaffolding and those who did not. A further analysis of whether the conceptual scaffolding was equivalent to mere cueing also was conducted.

  3. Understanding genetics: Analysis of secondary students' conceptual status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2007-02-01

    This article explores the conceptual change of students in Grades 10 and 12 in three Australian senior high schools when the teachers included computer multimedia to a greater or lesser extent in their teaching of a genetics course. The study, underpinned by a multidimensional conceptual-change framework, used an interpretive approach and a case-based design with multiple data collection methods. Over 4-8 weeks, the students learned genetics in classroom lessons that included BioLogica activities, which feature multiple representations. Results of the online tests and interview tasks revealed that most students improved their understanding of genetics as evidenced in the development of genetics reasoning. However, using Thorley's (1990) status analysis categories, a cross-case analysis of the gene conceptions of 9 of the 26 students interviewed indicated that only 4 students' postinstructional conceptions were intelligible-plausible-fruitful. Students' conceptual change was consistent with classroom teaching and learning. Findings suggested that multiple representations supported conceptual understanding of genetics but not in all students. It was also shown that status can be a viable hallmark enabling researchers to identify students' conceptual change that would otherwise be less accessible. Thorley's method for analyzing conceptual status is discussed.

  4. A conceptual, distributed snow redistribution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, S.; Holzmann, H.

    2015-11-01

    When applying conceptual hydrological models using a temperature index approach for snowmelt to high alpine areas often accumulation of snow during several years can be observed. Some of the reasons why these "snow towers" do not exist in nature are vertical and lateral transport processes. While snow transport models have been developed using grid cell sizes of tens to hundreds of square metres and have been applied in several catchments, no model exists using coarser cell sizes of 1 km2, which is a common resolution for meso- and large-scale hydrologic modelling (hundreds to thousands of square kilometres). In this paper we present an approach that uses only gravity and snow density as a proxy for the age of the snow cover and land-use information to redistribute snow in alpine basins. The results are based on the hydrological modelling of the Austrian Inn Basin in Tyrol, Austria, more specifically the Ötztaler Ache catchment, but the findings hold for other tributaries of the river Inn. This transport model is implemented in the distributed rainfall-runoff model COSERO (Continuous Semi-distributed Runoff). The results of both model concepts with and without consideration of lateral snow redistribution are compared against observed discharge and snow-covered areas derived from MODIS satellite images. By means of the snow redistribution concept, snow accumulation over several years can be prevented and the snow depletion curve compared with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data could be improved, too. In a 7-year period the standard model would lead to snow accumulation of approximately 2900 mm SWE (snow water equivalent) in high elevated regions whereas the updated version of the model does not show accumulation and does also predict discharge with more accuracy leading to a Kling-Gupta efficiency of 0.93 instead of 0.9. A further improvement can be shown in the comparison of MODIS snow cover data and the calculated depletion curve, where

  5. A conceptual change analysis of nature of science conceptions: The deep roots and entangled vines of a conceptual ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Adam Thomas

    This research used theories of conceptual change to analyze learners' understandings of the nature of science (NOS). Ideas regarding the NOS have been advocated as vital aspects of science literacy, yet learners at many levels (students and teachers) have difficulty in understanding these aspects in the way that science literacy reforms advocate. Although previous research has shown the inadequacies in learners' NOS understandings and have documented ways by which to improve some of these understandings, little has been done to show how these ideas develop and why learners' preexisting conceptions of NOS are so resistant to conceptual change. The premise of this study, then, was to describe the nature of NOS conceptions and of the conceptual change process itself by deeply analyzing the conceptions of individual learners. Toward this end, 4 individuals enrolled in a physical science course designed for preservice elementary teachers were selected to participate in a qualitative research study. These individuals answered questionnaires, surveys, direct interview questions, and a variety of interview probes (e.g., critical incidents, responses to readings/videos, reflections on coursework, card sorting tasks, etc.) which were administered throughout the duration of a semester. By utilizing these in-depth, qualitative probes, learners' conceptions were not only assessed but also described in great detail, revealing the source of their conceptions as well as identifying many instances in which a learner's directly stated conception was contradictory to that which was reflected by more indirect probes. As a result of this research, implications regarding NOS conceptions and their development have been described. In addition, various descriptions of conceptual change have been further refined and informed. Especially notable, the influence of a learner's conceptual ecology and its extrarational influences on conceptual change have been highlighted. It is argued that

  6. Block 2 SRM conceptual design studies. Volume 1, Book 1: Conceptual design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brad; Williams, Neal; Miller, John; Ralston, Joe; Richardson, Jennifer; Moore, Walt; Doll, Dan; Maughan, Jeff; Hayes, Fred

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual design studies of a Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) require the elimination of asbestos-filled insulation and was open to alternate designs, such as case changes, different propellants, modified burn rate - to improve reliability and performance. Limitations were placed on SRM changes such that the outside geometry should not impact the physical interfaces with other Space Shuttle elements and should have minimum changes to the aerodynamic and dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle vehicle. Previous Space Shuttle SRM experience was assessed and new design concepts combined to define a valid approach to assured flight success and economic operation of the STS. Trade studies, preliminary designs, analyses, plans, and cost estimates are documented.

  7. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  8. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  9. The Conceptual Grouping Effect: Categories Matter (and Named Categories Matter More)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupyan, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Do conceptual categories affect basic visual processing? A conceptual grouping effect for familiar stimuli is reported using a visual search paradigm. Search through conceptually-homogeneous non-targets was faster and more efficient than search through conceptually-heterogeneous non-targets. This effect cannot be attributed to perceptual factors…

  10. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  11. Southern marl prairies conceptual ecological model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S.M.; Loftus, W.F.; Gaiser, E.E.; Huffman, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    About 190,000 ha of higher-elevation marl prairies flank either side of Shark River Slough in the southern Everglades. Water levels typically drop below the ground surface each year in this landscape. Consequently, peat soil accretion is inhibited, and substrates consist either of calcitic marl produced by algal periphyton mats or exposed limestone bedrock. The southern marl prairies support complex mosaics of wet prairie, sawgrass sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), tree islands, and tropical hammock communities and a high diversity of plant species. However, relatively short hydroperiods and annual dry downs provide stressful conditions for aquatic fauna, affecting survival in the dry season when surface water is absent. Here, we present a conceptual ecological model developed for this landscape through scientific concensus, use of empirical data, and modeling. The two major societal drivers affecting the southern marl prairies are water management practices and agricultural and urban development. These drivers lead to five groups of ecosystem stressors: loss of spatial extent and connectivity, shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity, extended hydroperiod and drying pattern reversals, introduction and spread of non-native trees, and introduction and spread of non-native fishes. Major ecological attributes include periphyton mats, plant species diversity and community mosaic, Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna prey base, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and wading bird early dry season foraging. Water management and development are hypothesized to have a negative effect on the ecological attributes of the southern marl prairies in the following ways. Periphyton mats have decreased in cover in areas where hydroperiod has been significantly reduced and changed in community composition due to inverse responses to increased nutrient availability. Plant species diversity and

  12. Los Angeles Beach Harbors, Los Angeles County, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Outdoor Recreation, USDI, Agricultural Research Service, USDA Pacific Southwest Regional Office Soil Conservation Service, USDA Geological Survey, USDI...of channels through a coastal salt marsh (once the estuary of the Los Angeles River ), filling of adjacent marshland areas, and both dredging and...the harbor area comes from: (a) the Los Angeles River , which drains an 832-square-mile basin, and (b) Dominguez Channel, an 8.5-mile-long structure

  13. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONTROL DECISION REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO CA

    2010-03-09

    This control decision addresses the Knock-Out Pot (KOP) Disposition KOP Processing System (KPS) conceptual design. The KPS functions to (1) retrieve KOP material from canisters, (2) remove particles less than 600 {micro}m in size and low density materials from the KOP material, (3) load the KOP material into Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) baskets, and (4) stage the MCO baskets for subsequent loading into MCOs. Hazard and accident analyses of the KPS conceptual design have been performed to incorporate safety into the design process. The hazard analysis is documented in PRC-STP-00098, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Project Conceptual Design Hazard Analysis. The accident analysis is documented in PRC-STP-CN-N-00167, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Sub-Project Canister Over Lift Accident Analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, and analyses performed in support of MCO transportation and MCO processing and storage activities at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and Canister Storage Building (CSB), control decision meetings were held to determine the controls required to protect onsite and offsite receptors and facility workers. At the conceptual design stage, these controls are primarily defined by their safety functions. Safety significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that could provide the identified safety functions have been selected for the conceptual design. It is anticipated that some safety SSCs identified herein will be reclassified based on hazard and accident analyses performed in support of preliminary and detailed design.

  15. Interplay Between Conceptual Expectations and Movement Predictions Underlies Action Understanding.

    PubMed

    Ondobaka, Sasha; de Lange, Floris P; Wittmann, Marco; Frith, Chris D; Bekkering, Harold

    2015-09-01

    Recent accounts of understanding goal-directed action underline the importance of a hierarchical predictive architecture. However, the neural implementation of such an architecture remains elusive. In the present study, we used functional neuroimaging to quantify brain activity associated with predicting physical movements, as they were modulated by conceptual-expectations regarding the purpose of the object involved in the action. Participants observed object-related actions preceded by a cue that generated both conceptual goal expectations and movement goal predictions. In 2 tasks, observers judged whether conceptual or movement goals matched or mismatched the cue. At the conceptual level, expected goals specifically recruited the posterior cingulate cortex, irrespectively of the task and the perceived movement goal. At the movement level, neural activation of the parieto-frontal circuit, including inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobe, reflected unpredicted movement goals. Crucially, this movement prediction error was only present when the purpose of the involved object was expected. These findings provide neural evidence that prior conceptual expectations influence processing of physical movement goals and thereby support the hierarchical predictive account of action processing.

  16. Gemini high-resolution optical spectrograph conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kei; McConnachie, Alan; Anthony, André; Bohlender, David; Crampton, David; Desaulniers, Pierre; Dunn, Jennifer; Hardy, Tim; Hill, Alexis; Monin, Dmitry; Pazder, John; Schwab, Christian; Spano, Paola; Starkenburg, Else; Thibault, Simon; Walker, Gordon; Venn, Kim; Zhang, Hu

    2012-09-01

    A multiplexed moderate resolution (R = 34,000) and a single object high resolution (R = 90,000) spectroscopic facility for the entire 340 - 950nm wavelength region has been designed for Gemini. The result is a high throughput, versatile instrument that will enable precision spectroscopy for decades to come. The extended wavelength coverage for these relatively high spectral resolutions is achieved by use of an Echelle grating with VPH cross-dispersers and for the R = 90,000 mode utilization of an image slicer. The design incorporates a fast, efficient, reliable system for acquiring targets over the7 arcmin field of Gemini. This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study instrument group of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics has been commissioned by the Gemini Observatory as one of the three competing organizations to conduct a conceptual design study for a new Gemini High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph (GHOS). This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study.

  17. Supporting user-defined granularities in a spatiotemporal conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatri, V.; Ram, S.; Snodgrass, R.T.; O'Brien, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Granularities are integral to spatial and temporal data. A large number of applications require storage of facts along with their temporal and spatial context, which needs to be expressed in terms of appropriate granularities. For many real-world applications, a single granularity in the database is insufficient. In order to support any type of spatial or temporal reasoning, the semantics related to granularities needs to be embedded in the database. Specifying granularities related to facts is an important part of conceptual database design because under-specifying the granularity can restrict an application, affect the relative ordering of events and impact the topological relationships. Closely related to granularities is indeterminacy, i.e., an occurrence time or location associated with a fact that is not known exactly. In this paper, we present an ontology for spatial granularities that is a natural analog of temporal granularities. We propose an upward-compatible, annotation-based spatiotemporal conceptual model that can comprehensively capture the semantics related to spatial and temporal granularities, and indeterminacy without requiring new spatiotemporal constructs. We specify the formal semantics of this spatiotemporal conceptual model via translation to a conventional conceptual model. To underscore the practical focus of our approach, we describe an on-going case study. We apply our approach to a hydrogeologic application at the United States Geologic Survey and demonstrate that our proposed granularity-based spatiotemporal conceptual model is straightforward to use and is comprehensive.

  18. Mathematical vs. conceptual understanding: Where do we draw the line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra; Aguilera, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This research involved high school physics students and how they learn to understand Newton's laws as they relate to falling bodies and projectile motion. Students in introductory, algebra-based, high school physics classes were evaluated based on their prior knowledge through a pretest, designed to assess their initial comprehension of the motion of falling bodies and projectiles. Groups were divided and taught separately with an emphasis on either mathematical derivation of equations, followed by brief conceptual discussions, or on thorough conceptual analysis, followed by a brief mathematical verification. After a posttest was given, an evaluation of the responses and explanations of each group of students was used to determine which method of instruction was more effective. Results indicate that after the conceptual group and math groups achieved similar scores on the pretest, the conceptual group obtained a slightly higher normalized gain of 25% on the posttest, compared to the mathematical group's normalized gain of 16% (unpaired two-tailed t-test P value for posttest results was 0.1037) and, while within standard deviations, also achieved higher overall scores on all posttest questions and higher normalized gains on all but one posttest question. Further, most students, even thoes in the mathematically-instructed group, were more inclined to give conceptually-based responses on postest questions than mathematically-based ones. In the context of this topic, the dominating difficulty for both groups was in analyzing two-dimensional projectile motion and, more specifically, the behavior of each onedimensional component of such motion.

  19. Conceptual Models and Guidelines for Clinical Assessment of Financial Capacity.

    PubMed

    Marson, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The ability to manage financial affairs is a life skill of critical importance, and neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to assess financial capacity across a variety of settings. Sound clinical assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of applicable clinical conceptual models and principles. However, the literature has presented relatively little conceptual guidance for clinicians concerning financial capacity and its assessment. This article seeks to address this gap. The article presents six clinical models of financial capacity : (1) the early gerontological IADL model of Lawton, (2) the clinical skills model and (3) related cognitive psychological model developed by Marson and colleagues, (4) a financial decision-making model adapting earlier decisional capacity work of Appelbaum and Grisso, (5) a person-centered model of financial decision-making developed by Lichtenberg and colleagues, and (6) a recent model of financial capacity in the real world developed through the Institute of Medicine. Accompanying presentation of the models is discussion of conceptual and practical perspectives they represent for clinician assessment. Based on the models, the article concludes by presenting a series of conceptually oriented guidelines for clinical assessment of financial capacity. In summary, sound assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of clinical conceptual models and principles. Awareness of such models, principles and guidelines will strengthen and advance clinical assessment of financial capacity.

  20. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) target data collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kernodle, A.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) Target Data Collection System is the result of an effort to provide a base of information from which to draw conclusions on the performance and operational condition of the overall LANSCE target system. During the conceptualization of the system several purposes and goals were defined. A survey was made of custom as well as off the shelf hardware and software which was capable of meeting these goals. The first stage of this system was successfully implemented for the LANSCE run cycle 52. From the operational experience gained thus far with the LANSCE Target Data Collection System, it would appear as though this system will indeed meet all of the previously defined requirements that seem to develop after a new system is installed.

  1. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  2. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  3. A conceptual model of nontornadic supercell thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcen, Mario

    2009-07-01

    This study uses dual-Doppler observations of nontornadic supercells obtained by ground-based mobile Doppler radars and idealized numerical simulations in order to develop a conceptual model of a nontornadic supercell, particularly at low levels and on the submesocyclone scale. In the first part of this dissertation, five nontornadic supercell thunderstorms are analyzed using high-resolution dual-Doppler radar data obtained by a pair of mobile ground-based radars. Three out of five observed supercells had well-developed low-level rotation. The observed low-level kinematic fields of the nontornadic supercells with low-level rotation are compared to the low-level kinematic fields of tornadic supercells that have been previously documented. It is determined that the observed low-level kinematic structure of nontornadic supercells is qualitatively very similar to the low-level kinematic structure of tornadic supercells, notably two out of three observed nontornadic storms had a "bent-back" rear-flank gust front just like the tornadic supercells, and one of those also had a dual rear-flank gust front, a feature that previously has been observed only in tornadic supercells. The low-level mesocyclone in the nontornadic supercells extends to the lowest analysis level in the three cases having low-level rotation, but the low-level circulation in nontornadic mesocyclones is much weaker than in tornadic mesocyclones. Also, the divergence associated with rear-flank downdrafts is stronger in nontornadic supercells than in tornadic supercells. Vortex line analyses in the observed nontornadic storms show that the vorticity field structure is consistent with baroclinic generation of horizontal vorticity and subsequent tilting into the vertical by an updraft, as has been shown in recent observational and numerical simulation studies. In the second part of this study, a series of idealized, dry three-dimensional numerical simulations are used to gain some understanding of the

  4. Guide for developing conceptual models for ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W., II

    1996-05-01

    Ecological conceptual models are the result of the problem formulation phase of an ecological risk assessment, which is an important component of the Remedial Investigation process. They present hypotheses of how the site contaminants might affect the site ecology. The contaminant sources, routes, media, routes, and endpoint receptors are presented in the form of a flow chart. This guide is for preparing the conceptual models; use of this guide will standardize the models so that they will be of high quality, useful to the assessment process, and sufficiently consistent so that connections between sources of exposure and receptors can be extended across operable units (OU). Generic conceptual models are presented for source, aquatic integrator, groundwater integrator, and terrestrial OUs.

  5. Conceptual Change from the Framework Theory Side of the Fence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosniadou, Stella; Skopeliti, Irini

    2014-07-01

    We describe the main principles of the framework theory approach to conceptual change and briefly report on the results of a text comprehension study that investigated some of the hypotheses that derive from it. We claim that children construct a naive physics which is based on observation in the context of lay culture and which forms a relatively coherent conceptual system—i.e., a framework theory—that can be used as a basis for explanation and prediction of everyday phenomena. Learning science requires fundamental ontological, epistemological, and representational changes in naive physics. These conceptual changes take a long time to be achieved, giving rise to fragmentation and synthetic conceptions. We also argue that both fragmentation and synthetic conceptions can be explained to result from learners' attempts assimilate scientific information into their existing but incompatible naive physics.

  6. Trainee multicultural case conceptualization ability and couples therapy.

    PubMed

    Schomburg, Allison M; Prieto, Loreto R

    2011-04-01

    Previous literature on the assessment of multicultural counseling competence has been concerned only with counselors' abilities when working with individual clients. We expanded this line of research by investigating trainees' multicultural case conceptualization ability in the context of working with couples. Despite the fact that trainees self-reported a high level of multicultural competency, trainees were largely inattentive to racial factors in their case conceptualization responses to vignettes involving both African American and European American clients presenting for couples therapy. On the whole, despite didactic, clinical, and extracurricular training in multiculturalism, marriage and family therapy trainees did not sufficiently incorporate cultural factors into their clinical case conceptualizations. We discuss implications for teaching, practice, and future research.

  7. A conceptual framework for homeostasis: development and validation.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Michael, Joel; Cliff, William; Wright, Ann; Modell, Harold

    2016-06-01

    We have developed and validated a conceptual framework for understanding and teaching organismal homeostasis at the undergraduate level. The resulting homeostasis conceptual framework details critical components and constituent ideas underlying the concept of homeostasis. It has been validated by a broad range of physiology faculty members from community colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, research universities, and medical schools. In online surveys, faculty members confirmed the relevance of each item in the framework for undergraduate physiology and rated the importance and difficulty of each. The homeostasis conceptual framework was constructed as a guide for teaching and learning of this critical core concept in physiology, and it also paves the way for the development of a concept inventory for homeostasis.

  8. Structuration Theory: A Conceptual Framework for HIV/AIDS Stigma.

    PubMed

    Misir, Prem

    2015-01-01

    The continuing paucity of effective interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma is troubling, given that stigma has long been recognized as a significant barrier to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. Ineffectual HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions are the product of inadequate conceptual frameworks and methodological tools. And while there is a paucity of effective interventions to reduce stigma, there is no shortage of conceptual frameworks intending to offer a comprehensive understanding of stigma, ranging from sociocognitive models at the individual level to structural models at the macrolevel. Observations highlighting inadequacies in the individualistic and structural models are offered, followed by the theory of structuration as a possible complementary conceptual base for designing HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions.

  9. Structuration Theory: A Conceptual Framework for HIV/AIDS Stigma.

    PubMed

    Misir, Prem

    2013-04-05

    The continuing paucity of effective interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma is troubling, given that stigma has long been recognized as a significant barrier to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. Ineffectual HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions are the product of inadequate conceptual frameworks and methodological tools. And while there is a paucity of effective interventions to reduce stigma, there is no shortage of conceptual frameworks intending to offer a comprehensive understanding of stigma, ranging from sociocognitive models at the individual level to structural models at the macrolevel. Observations highlighting inadequacies in the individualistic and structural models are offered, followed by the theory of structuration as a possible complementary conceptual base for designing HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions.

  10. Intact Conceptual Priming in the Absence of Declarative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D.A.; Stark, C.E.L.; Squire, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Priming is an unconscious (nondeclarative) form of memory whereby identification or production of an item is improved by an earlier encounter. It has been proposed that declarative memory and priming might be related—for example, that conceptual priming results in more fluent processing, thereby providing a basis for familiarity judgments. In two experiments, we assessed conceptual priming and recognition memory across a 5-min interval in 5 memory-impaired patients. All patients exhibited fully intact priming in tests of both free association (study tent; at test, provide an association to canvas) and category verification (study lemon; at test, decide: Is lemon a type of fruit?). Yet the 2 most severely amnesic patients performed at chance on matched tests of recognition memory. These findings count against the notion that conceptual priming provides feelings of familiarity that can support accurate recognition judgments. We suggest that priming is inaccessible to conscious awareness and does not influence declarative memory. PMID:15447639

  11. Conceptualization and Assessment of Disengagement in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Langer, Amie

    2008-01-01

    Research examining relationship distress and dissolution highlights the importance of romantic disengagement. However, prior conceptualizations and measures of romantic disengagement have tended to combine disengagement with related but distinct constructs hindering the study of romantic disengagement. In the present study we conducted exploratory factor analyses to demonstrate that disengagement is a relatively distinct construct and to clarify the conceptualization of romantic disengagement. More importantly, we developed a novel measure– the Romantic Disengagement Scale (RDS). The RDS demonstrated adequate fit across samples of dating individuals, married couples and women in physically aggressive relationships. The RDS also demonstrated strong divergent and incremental validity. Implications for enhancing conceptual models, research methodology, and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:19727315

  12. EUReKA! A Conceptual Model of Emotion Understanding.

    PubMed

    Castro, Vanessa L; Cheng, Yanhua; Halberstadt, Amy G; Grühn, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The field of emotion understanding is replete with measures, yet lacks an integrated conceptual organizing structure. To identify and organize skills associated with the recognition and knowledge of emotions, and to highlight the focus of emotion understanding as localized in the self, in specific others, and in generalized others, we introduce the conceptual framework of Emotion Understanding in Recognition and Knowledge Abilities (EUReKA). We then categorize fifty-six existing methods of emotion understanding within this framework to highlight current gaps and future opportunities in assessing emotion understanding across the lifespan. We hope the EUReKA model provides a systematic and integrated framework for conceptualizing and measuring emotion understanding for future research.

  13. Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückemann, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.

  14. The Conceptual Design Algorithm of Inland LNG Barges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łozowicka, Dorota; Kaup, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    The article concerns the problem of inland waterways transport of LNG. Its aim is to present the algorithm of conceptual design of inland barges for LNG transport, intended for exploitation on European waterways. The article describes the areas where LNG barges exist, depending on the allowable operating parameters on the waterways. It presents existing architectural and construction solutions of barges for inland LNG transport, as well as the necessary equipment, due to the nature of cargo. Then the article presents the procedure of the conceptual design of LNG barges, including navigation restrictions and functional and economic criteria. The conceptual design algorithm of LGN barges, presented in the article, allows to preliminary design calculations, on the basis of which, are obtained the main dimensions and parameters of unit, depending on the transport task and the class of inland waterways, on which the transport will be realized.

  15. Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    H. Liu

    2000-03-03

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling of unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This is in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0030 Conceptual and Numerical Models for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Processes, Rev 00''. The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this AMR are used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient and thermal conditions, which are documented in separate AMRs. This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR), the Near Field Environment PMR, and the following models: Calibrated Properties Model; UZ Flow Models and Submodels; Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes Model; Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Seepage Model; Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model; Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA); and UZ Radionuclide Transport Models.

  16. Fostering radical conceptual change through dual-situated learning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2004-02-01

    This article examines how the Dual-Situated Learning Model (DSLM) facilitates a radical change of concepts that involve the understanding of matter, process, and hierarchical attributes. The DSLM requires knowledge of students' prior beliefs of science concepts and the nature of these concepts. In addition, DSLM also serves two functions: it creates dissonance with students' prior knowledge by challenging their epistemological and ontological beliefs about science concepts, and it provides essential mental sets for students to reconstruct a more scientific view of the concepts. In this study, the concept heat transfer: heat conduction and convection, which requires an understanding of matter, process, and hierarchical attributes, was chosen to examine how DSLM can facilitate radical conceptual change among students. Results show that DSLM has great potential to foster a radical conceptual change process in learning heat transfer. Radical conceptual change can definitely be achieved and does not necessarily involve a slow or gradual process.

  17. Evolution beyond neo-Darwinism: a new conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results in epigenetics and related fields of biological research show that the Modern Synthesis (neo-Darwinist) theory of evolution requires either extension or replacement. This article examines the conceptual framework of neo-Darwinism, including the concepts of 'gene', 'selfish', 'code', 'program', 'blueprint', 'book of life', 'replicator' and 'vehicle'. This form of representation is a barrier to extending or replacing existing theory as it confuses conceptual and empirical matters. These need to be clearly distinguished. In the case of the central concept of 'gene', the definition has moved all the way from describing a necessary cause (defined in terms of the inheritable phenotype itself) to an empirically testable hypothesis (in terms of causation by DNA sequences). Neo-Darwinism also privileges 'genes' in causation, whereas in multi-way networks of interactions there can be no privileged cause. An alternative conceptual framework is proposed that avoids these problems, and which is more favourable to an integrated systems view of evolution.

  18. The earth rotation parameters - Conceptual and conventional definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.

    1986-07-01

    Conceptual definitions of the earth rotational parameters (ERP) used for obtaining astronomical references with an accuracy of 0.001 arcsec are reviewed, along with the fit between conceptual and conventional values. Conceptually, the instantaneous rotation of the earth is selected for calculating the ERP from a terrestrial frame of reference. It is shown that in calculating the third parameter, the UT1 value becomes unclear when it is related to the mean sidereal time using conventional models, and can be improved by using the stellar angle to obtain the angular speed of the earth in space directly. The accuracy of the value for the Celestial Ephemeris Pole (CEP) is demonstrated to be higher if considered conventionally in terms of the model of the precessional nutation of the earth. This formation accounts for the terrestrial motion of the instantaneous pole of rotation and the corresponding celestial motion.

  19. Conceptual competence as a component of second language fluency.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2009-12-01

    In this article we argue that conceptual competence should be seen as a component of second language (L2) communicative competence. Abstract concepts are highly expressed by means of metaphors, metonymies, idioms and other types of figurative language. In literature it is suggested that knowledge and appropriate use of these lexical segments are closely related to L2 mastery and therefore conceptual instruction is expected to facilitate L2 learning. To test the relationship between conceptual and L2 competence we conducted an experiment in which Modern Greek learners were encouraged to express their views on the concept of happiness. The results showed their weak performance in conveying their ideas in a coherent and acceptable manner.

  20. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  1. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  2. Shuttle/tethered satellite system conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A closed-loop control system was added to the tether reel which improves control over the tethered satellite. In addition to increasing the stability of the tethered satellite along local vertical, this control system is used for deployment and retrieval of tethered satellites. This conceptual design study describes a tether system for suspending a science payload at an altitude of 120 km from space shuttle orbiter flying at an altitude of 200 km. In addition to the hardware conceptual designs, various aspects concerning Orbiter accommodations are discussed.

  3. WRAP 2A advanced conceptual design report comments

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1994-10-04

    This report contains the compilation of the 393 comments that were submitted during the review of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A. The report was prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Englewood, Colorado for the United States Department of Energy. The review was performed by a variety of organizations identified in the report. The comments were addressed first by the Westinghouse cognizant engineers and then by the Raytheon cognizant engineers, and incorporated into the final issue of the Advanced Conceptual Design Report.

  4. Development to integrate conceptual design tools and a CAD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, V. H.; Ríos, J.; Vizán, A.; Pérez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The information supported by PLM/CAD systems is mainly related to Embodiment and Detail Design Phases. Information related to the Conceptual Design Phase is mainly limited to requirement specification documents and system architecture diagram documents. This work aims helping in the integration of the Conceptual Design process and its associated information flow into a commercial software system. It proposes a development framework to integrate Quality Function Deployment, Axiomatic Design, and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis into a PLM/CAD system. This communication presents the methodology used in the development, the software development environment, the modeling of the proposed application and the first results of a pilot implementation.

  5. Enabling Rapid and Robust Structural Analysis During Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.; Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-year effort to add a structural analysis subprocess to a supersonic aircraft conceptual design process. The desired capabilities include parametric geometry, automatic finite element mesh generation, static and aeroelastic analysis, and structural sizing. The paper discusses implementation details of the new subprocess, captures lessons learned, and suggests future improvements. The subprocess quickly compares concepts and robustly handles large changes in wing or fuselage geometry. The subprocess can rank concepts with regard to their structural feasibility and can identify promising regions of the design space. The automated structural analysis subprocess is deemed robust and rapid enough to be included in multidisciplinary conceptual design and optimization studies.

  6. Style: A Computational and Conceptual Blending-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguen, Joseph A.; Harrell, D. Fox

    This chapter proposes a new approach to style, arising from our work on computational media using structural blending, which enriches the conceptual blending of cognitive linguistics with structure building operations in order to encompass syntax and narrative as well as metaphor. We have implemented both conceptual and structural blending, and conducted initial experiments with poetry, including interactive multimedia poetry, although the approach generalizes to other media. The central idea is to generate multimedia content and analyze style in terms of blending principles, based on our finding that different principles from those of common sense blending are often needed for some contemporary poetic metaphors.

  7. Conceptualization of depression in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Looi, Jeffrey CL; Matis, May; Ruzich, Michelle J

    2005-01-01

    Aims To discuss the current methodological and conceptual difficulties inherent in characterizing the emotional manifestations of neurodegenerative disease through critically reviewing depression as a manifestation of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods Selective literature review of the neurobiological, psychological, and physical basis of depressive symptoms in PD from 1993–2003, with reference to key earlier articles. Conclusions There are difficulties in defining the syndromes of PD itself as well as depression in PD. The use of more conceptually reductionistic definitions of emotion and behavior in comprehensive longitudinal studies of the natural history of PD is recommended. PMID:18568058

  8. Conceptualizing policy as environment: raising awareness of practice implications.

    PubMed

    Harris, Barbara A

    2012-07-01

    Environment has long been a primary concern in nursing, beginning with Nightingale's attention to the power of the environment to heal. Policy is a dimension of the practice environment with great potential to influence patients' health. In this column, a practice vignette illustrates some of the barriers to nurses' awareness of policy-as-environment. Characteristics of conceptualizations of environment, arising from nursing science, that have potential to surmount barriers and increase awareness are identified. Creative attention to conceptualizing policy-as-environment is urged as a way to encourage nurses to consider policy activity as a satisfying aspect of practice.

  9. Toward a holistic conceptualization of empathy for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a new holistic conceptualization of empathy for nursing practice that allows different aspects of the literature to be understood. This study is based on the data of a doctoral study exploring the nature of empathy on an oncology ward. The findings revealed that empathy is not a single phenomenon. Four different forms of empathy were identified, namely, empathy as an incident, empathy as a way of knowing, empathy as a process, and empathy as a way of being. These different forms of empathy can be understood in terms of a continuum of empathy development and suggest a new way of conceptualizing empathy that can be depicted diagrammatically.

  10. Conceptual model for transferring information between small watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    Stream and watershed management and restoration can be greatly facilitated through use of physiographic landform classification to organize and communicate natural resource, hazard, and environmental information at a broad scale (1:250,000) as illustrated by the Piedmont and Coastal Plain Provinces in Maryland, or at a small scale (1:24,000) as illustrated using divisions and zones combined with a conceptual model. The conceptual model brings together geology, surficial processes, landforms and land use change information at the small watershed scale and facilitates transfer of information from one small watershed to another with similar geology and landforms. Stream flow, sediment erosion, and water quality illustrate the use of the model.

  11. Conceptual designs study for a Personnel Launch System (PLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, E. D.

    1990-01-01

    A series of conceptual designs for a manned, Earth to Low Earth Orbit transportation system was developed. Non-winged, low L/D vehicle shapes are discussed. System and subsystem trades emphasized safety, operability, and affordability using near-term technology. The resultant conceptual design includes lessons learned from commercial aviation that result in a safe, routine, operationally efficient system. The primary mission for this Personnel Launch System (PLS) would be crew rotation to the SSF; other missions, including satellite servicing, orbital sortie, and space rescue were also explored.

  12. Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A.

    2012-05-02

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UF{sub 6} in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from {sup 235}U to determine enrichment. More recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed systems that exploit the passive neutron signal from UF{sub 6} to determine uranium mass and/or enrichment. These include the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM), and the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The purpose of this report is to provide the IAEA with new ideas on technologies that may or may not be under active development but could be useful for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. To begin, we have included two feasibility studies of active interrogation techniques. There is a long history of active interrogation in the field of nuclear safeguards, especially for uranium assay. Both of the active techniques provide a direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The first is an active neutron method based on the existing PNEM design that uses a correlated {sup 252}Cf interrogation source. This technique shows great promise for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay and is based on advanced technology that could be implemented in the field in the near term. The second active technique is nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). In the NRF technique, a bremsstrahlung photon beam could be used to illuminate the cylinder, and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors would detect the characteristic de-excitation photons. The results of the feasibility study show that under certain measurement geometries, NRF is impractical for UF6 cylinder assay, but the 'grazing transmission' and 'secant transmission' geometries have more potential

  13. A conceptual model for determining career choice of CHROME alumna based on farmer's conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Lisa Simmons

    This qualitative program evaluation examines the career decision-making processes and career choices of nine, African American women who participated in the Cooperating Hampton Roads Organization for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and who graduated from urban, rural or suburban high schools in the year 2000. The CHROME program is a nonprofit, pre-college intervention program that encourages underrepresented minority and female students to enter science, technically related, engineering, and math (STEM) career fields. The study describes career choices and decisions made by each participant over a five-year period since high school graduation. Data was collected through an Annual Report, Post High School Questionnaires, Environmental Support Questionnaires, Career Choice Questionnaires, Senior Reports, and standardized open-ended interviews. Data was analyzed using a model based on Helen C. Farmer's Conceptual Models, John Ogbu's Caste Theory and Feminist Theory. The CHROME program, based on its stated goals and tenets, was also analyzed against study findings. Findings indicated that participants received very low levels of support from counselors and teachers to pursue STEM careers and high levels of support from parents and family, the CHROME program and financial backing. Findings of this study also indicated that the majority of CHROME alumna persisted in STEM careers. The most successful participants, in terms of undergraduate degree completion and occupational prestige, were the African American women who remained single, experienced no critical incidents, came from a middle class to upper middle class socioeconomic background, and did not have children.

  14. Masked priming of conceptual features reveals differential brain activation during unconscious access to conceptual action and sound information.

    PubMed

    Trumpp, Natalie M; Traub, Felix; Kiefer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested an involvement of sensory-motor brain systems during conceptual processing in support of grounded cognition theories of conceptual memory. However, in these studies with visible stimuli, contributions of strategic imagery or semantic elaboration processes to observed sensory-motor activity cannot be entirely excluded. In the present study, we therefore investigated the electrophysiological correlates of unconscious feature-specific priming of action- and sound-related concepts within a novel feature-priming paradigm to specifically probe automatic processing of conceptual features without the contribution of possibly confounding factors such as orthographic similarity or response congruency. Participants were presented with a masked subliminal prime word and a subsequent visible target word. In the feature-priming conditions primes as well as targets belonged to the same conceptual feature dimension (action or sound, e.g., typewriter or radio) whereas in the two non-priming conditions, either the primes or the targets consisted of matched control words with low feature relevance (e.g., butterfly or candle). Event-related potential analyses revealed unconscious feature-specific priming effects at fronto-central electrodes within 100 to 180 ms after target stimulus onset that differed with regard to topography and underlying neural generators. In congruency with previous findings under visible stimulation conditions, these differential subliminal ERP feature-priming effects demonstrate an unconscious automatic access to action versus sound features of concepts. The present results therefore support grounded cognition theory suggesting that activity in sensory and motor areas during conceptual processing can also occur unconsciously and is not mandatorily accompanied by a vivid conscious experience of the conceptual content such as in imagery.

  15. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  16. Action Priority: Early Neurophysiological Interaction of Conceptual and Motor Representations

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Handling our everyday life, we often react manually to verbal requests or instruction, but the functional interrelations of motor control and language are not fully understood yet, especially their neurophysiological basis. Here, we investigated whether specific motor representations for grip types interact neurophysiologically with conceptual information, that is, when reading nouns. Participants performed lexical decisions and, for words, executed a grasp-and-lift task on objects of different sizes involving precision or power grips while the electroencephalogram was recorded. Nouns could denote objects that require either a precision or a power grip and could, thus, be (in)congruent with the performed grasp. In a control block, participants pointed at the objects instead of grasping them. The main result revealed an event-related potential (ERP) interaction of grip type and conceptual information which was not present for pointing. Incongruent compared to congruent conditions elicited an increased positivity (100–200 ms after noun onset). Grip type effects were obtained in response-locked analyses of the grasping ERPs (100–300 ms at left anterior electrodes). These findings attest that grip type and conceptual information are functionally related when planning a grasping action but such an interaction could not be detected for pointing. Generally, the results suggest that control of behaviour can be modulated by task demands; conceptual noun information (i.e., associated action knowledge) may gain processing priority if the task requires a complex motor response. PMID:27973539

  17. Conceptualizing Digital Literacies and Digital Ethics for Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the need for integrating a focus on digital literacies and digital ethics into sustainability education, proposing a conceptualization of these for sustainability education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on relevant literature in the field of sustainability education and in the field…

  18. Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Treatment Integrity Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Weisz, John R.

    2009-01-01

    This special series focused on treatment integrity in the child mental health and education field is timely. The articles do a laudable job of reviewing (a) the current status of treatment integrity research and measurement, (b) existing conceptual models of treatment integrity, and (c) the limitations of prior research. Overall, this thoughtful…

  19. Using Ratings to Gain Insight Into Conceptual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Alt, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors explored a novel technique with potential for assessing conceptual development. Participants rated how "normal" to "really weird" an image was in order to determine whether (a) participants would rate images by amount of variation (slight/significant) from the standard image, (b) participants would treat…

  20. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…