Science.gov

Sample records for concerted movement akin

  1. An efficient algorithm to perform local concerted movements of a chain molecule.

    PubMed

    Zamuner, Stefano; Rodriguez, Alex; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the "local backbone volume", related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations. PMID:25825903

  2. An Efficient Algorithm to Perform Local Concerted Movements of a Chain Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Zamuner, Stefano; Rodriguez, Alex; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The devising of efficient concerted rotation moves that modify only selected local portions of chain molecules is a long studied problem. Possible applications range from speeding the uncorrelated sampling of polymeric dense systems to loop reconstruction and structure refinement in protein modeling. Here, we propose and validate, on a few pedagogical examples, a novel numerical strategy that generalizes the notion of concerted rotation. The usage of the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for chain description allows all possible choices for the subset of degrees of freedom to be modified in the move. They can be arbitrarily distributed along the chain and can be distanced between consecutive monomers as well. The efficiency of the methodology capitalizes on the inherent geometrical structure of the manifold defined by all chain configurations compatible with the fixed degrees of freedom. The chain portion to be moved is first opened along a direction chosen in the tangent space to the manifold, and then closed in the orthogonal space. As a consequence, in Monte Carlo simulations detailed balance is easily enforced without the need of using Jacobian reweighting. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the degrees of freedom involved in the move can be easily tuned. We show different applications: the manifold of possible configurations is explored in a very efficient way for a protein fragment and for a cyclic molecule; the “local backbone volume”, related to the volume spanned by the manifold, reproduces the mobility profile of all-α helical proteins; the refinement of small protein fragments with different secondary structures is addressed. The presented results suggest our methodology as a valuable exploration and sampling tool in the context of bio-molecular simulations. PMID:25825903

  3. Leukocyte integrin αLβ2 headpiece structures: The αI domain, the pocket for the internal ligand, and concerted movements of its loops.

    PubMed

    Sen, Mehmet; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-03-15

    High-resolution crystal structures of the headpiece of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (integrin αLβ2) reveal how the αI domain interacts with its platform formed by the α-subunit β-propeller and β-subunit βI domains. The αLβ2 structures compared with αXβ2 structures show that the αI domain, tethered through its N-linker and a disulfide to a stable β-ribbon pillar near the center of the platform, can undergo remarkable pivoting and tilting motions that appear buffered by N-glycan decorations that differ between αL and αX subunits. Rerefined β2 integrin structures reveal details including pyroglutamic acid at the β2 N terminus and bending within the EGF1 domain. Allostery is relayed to the αI domain by an internal ligand that binds to a pocket at the interface between the β-propeller and βI domains. Marked differences between the αL and αX subunit β-propeller domains concentrate near the binding pocket and αI domain interfaces. Remarkably, movement in allostery in the βI domain of specificity determining loop 1 (SDL1) causes concerted movement of SDL2 and thereby tightens the binding pocket for the internal ligand.

  4. Concerts for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Louie

    2008-01-01

    Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…

  5. Programming the Perfect Concert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Provides suggestions for developing a successful concert. Covers aspects of the performance such as literature selections, the sequence of the songs within the concert, the needs of the audience, appearance of the students, and appropriate concert length for all grades levels. (CMK)

  6. SnRK1 Isoforms AKIN10 and AKIN11 Are Differentially Regulated in Arabidopsis Plants under Phosphate Starvation1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Selene; Espíndola, Laura; Páez-Valencia, Julio; Gamboa, Alicia; Camacho, Yolanda; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar; Coello, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    During phosphate starvation, Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity significantly decreases compared with plants growing under normal nutritional conditions. An analysis of the expression of the genes encoding for the catalytic subunits of SnRK1 showed that these subunits were not affected by phosphate starvation. Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing the AKIN10 and AKIN11 catalytic subunits fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were produced, and their localizations were mainly chloroplastic with low but detectable signals in the cytoplasm. These data were corroborated with an immunocytochemistry analysis using leaf and root sections with an anti-AKIN10/AKIN11 antibody. The SnRK1 activity in transgenic plants overexpressing AKIN11-GFP was reduced by 35% to 40% in phosphate starvation, in contrast with the results observed in plants overexpressing AKIN10-GFP, which increased the activity by 100%. No differences in activity were observed in plants growing in phosphate-sufficient conditions. Biochemical analysis of the proteins indicated that AKIN11 is specifically degraded under these limited conditions and that the increase in AKIN10-GFP activity was not due to the phosphorylation of threonine-175. These results are consistent with an important role of AKIN10 in signaling during phosphate starvation. Moreover, akin10 mutant plants were deficient in starch mobilization at night during inorganic phosphate starvation, and under this condition several genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, indicating their important roles in the control of general transcription. This finding reveals novel roles for the different catalytic subunits during phosphate starvation. PMID:19211700

  7. Improving Young People's Concerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Harvey

    1998-01-01

    Stresses that symphony orchestras and other professional arts organizations need to improve young people's concerts by accounting for student learning and becoming partners with music educators. Provides an experience hierarchy that helps artists and arts organizations benefit from music teachers' knowledge and a list of five elements to consider…

  8. Teaching Bioinformatics in Concert

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anya L.; Dekhtyar, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students. PMID:25411792

  9. Teaching bioinformatics in concert.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anya L; Dekhtyar, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students. PMID:25411792

  10. Teaching bioinformatics in concert.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anya L; Dekhtyar, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students.

  11. Evaluation of Hallux Valgus Correction With Versus Without Akin Proximal Phalanx Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Thorud, Jakob C; Martin, Lanster R; Plemmons, Britton S; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Although the efficacy of Akin proximal phalanx closing wedge osteotomy as a sole procedure for correction of hallux valgus deformity is questionable, when used in combination with other osseous corrective procedures, the procedure has been believed to be efficacious. However, a limited number of comparative studies have confirmed the value of this additional procedure. We identified patients who had undergone osseous hallux valgus correction with first metatarsal osteotomy or first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with (n = 73) and without (n = 81) Akin osteotomy and evaluated their radiographic measurements at 3 points (preoperatively, within 3 months after surgery, and ≥6 months after surgery). We found that those people who had undergone the Akin procedure tended to have a larger hallux abduction angle and a more laterally deviated tibial sesamoid position preoperatively. Although the radiographic correction of the deformity was promising immediately after corrective surgery with the Akin osteotomy, maintenance of the correction was questionable in our cohort. The value of additional Akin osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity is uncertain.

  12. Evaluation of Hallux Valgus Correction With Versus Without Akin Proximal Phalanx Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Thorud, Jakob C; Martin, Lanster R; Plemmons, Britton S; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Although the efficacy of Akin proximal phalanx closing wedge osteotomy as a sole procedure for correction of hallux valgus deformity is questionable, when used in combination with other osseous corrective procedures, the procedure has been believed to be efficacious. However, a limited number of comparative studies have confirmed the value of this additional procedure. We identified patients who had undergone osseous hallux valgus correction with first metatarsal osteotomy or first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with (n = 73) and without (n = 81) Akin osteotomy and evaluated their radiographic measurements at 3 points (preoperatively, within 3 months after surgery, and ≥6 months after surgery). We found that those people who had undergone the Akin procedure tended to have a larger hallux abduction angle and a more laterally deviated tibial sesamoid position preoperatively. Although the radiographic correction of the deformity was promising immediately after corrective surgery with the Akin osteotomy, maintenance of the correction was questionable in our cohort. The value of additional Akin osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity is uncertain. PMID:27289220

  13. Case Study: William Charles Akins High School. High Schools That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Akins High School is the newest and second largest high school in the Austin Independent School District in Austin, Texas. This report describes how the school has used small learning communities and the "HSTW" framework of Key Practices to improve the school culture, personalize the learning environment, improve student achievement and raise…

  14. Hydrologic and hydraulic analyses at Akin Branch and Cayce Valley Branch, Columbia, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outlaw, George S.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbia, Tennessee, conducted hydrologic and hydraulic analyses at Akin Branch and Cayce Valley Branch in the Little Bigby Creek watershed, Columbia, Tennessee, from 1990 through 1991. Results of the analyses can be used by city planners in the development of plans to replace several deteriorating and inadequate drainage structures. Akin Branch and Cayce Valley Branch drain small watersheds of 1.69 and 1.04 square miles, respectively. Flood discharges for 5-, lo-, and 25-year recurrence-interval storm events were calculated at the stream mouths using flood-frequency relations developed for use at small urban streams in Tennessee. For each stream, flood discharges at locations upstream from the mouth were calculated by subdividing the watershed and assigning a percentage of the discharge at the mouth, based on drainage area, to each subarea. Flood profiles for the selected recurrence-interval flood discharges were simulated for Akin Branch and Cayce Valley Branch for existing conditions and conditions that might exist if drainage improvements such as larger culverts and bridges and channel improvements are constructed. The results of the simulations were used to predict changes in flood elevations that might result from such drainage improvements. Analyses indicate that reductions in existing flood elevations of as much as 2.1 feet for the 5-year flood at some sites on Akin Branch and as much as 3.8 feet for the 5-year flood at some sites on Cayce Valley Branch might be expected with the drainage improvements.

  15. Comparison of the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria to predict mortality in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Talita Machado; de Souza, Sérgio Pinto; de Magalhães, Janine Garcia; de Carvalho, Márcia Sampaio; Cunha, André Luiz Barreto; Dantas, João Gabriel Athayde de Oliveira; Cruz, Marília Galvão; Guimarães, Yasmin Laryssa Moura; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute kidney injury is a common complication in critically ill patients, and the RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria are used to classify these patients. The present study's aim was to compare these criteria as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients. Methods Prospective cohort study using medical records as the source of data. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit were included. The exclusion criteria were hospitalization for less than 24 hours and death. Patients were followed until discharge or death. Student's t test, chi-squared analysis, a multivariate logistic regression and ROC curves were used for the data analysis. Results The mean patient age was 64 years old, and the majority of patients were women of African descent. According to RIFLE, the mortality rates were 17.74%, 22.58%, 24.19% and 35.48% for patients without acute kidney injury (AKI) in stages of Risk, Injury and Failure, respectively. For AKIN, the mortality rates were 17.74%, 29.03%, 12.90% and 40.32% for patients without AKI and at stage I, stage II and stage III, respectively. For KDIGO 2012, the mortality rates were 17.74%, 29.03%, 11.29% and 41.94% for patients without AKI and at stage I, stage II and stage III, respectively. All three classification systems showed similar ROC curves for mortality. Conclusion The RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO criteria were good tools for predicting mortality in critically ill patients with no significant difference between them. PMID:24553510

  16. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2001-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  17. Teacher's Guide for Young People's Concerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed to acquaint students with the Honolulu (Hawaii) Youth Symphony Concerts program, this booklet focuses on information and activities to help make concert attendance meaningful and enjoyable for students. Goals and learning concepts are described, and information about each of the symphony's musical instruments is included. The chronology…

  18. Concert Programming: Tips from the Broadcasting Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Guy

    1978-01-01

    The author explains how music broadcasters codify musical selections by mood, tempo, and instrumentation, then arrange a sequence designed to maintain audience interest with a variety of listening experiences. Similar techniques are suggested for planning school concerts. (SJL)

  19. Concert Band Instrumentation: Realities and Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests ways to solve problems resulting from imbalanced instrumentation in school concert bands. Identifies sources of imbalance. Encourages band directors to plan for correct instrumentation, to match students' characteristics and abilities to instruments, and to recruit students to play needed instruments. Discusses the benefits of balanced…

  20. Concert Halls of Chicago Under Theodore Thomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Dale A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the musical history of Chicago, which culminated in the creation of the Chicago Symphony and the construction of Orchestra Hall. Theodore Thomas spent 30 years introducing Chicagoans to symphonic music. He founded the Chicago Symphony and, in 1904, led the first concert in Orchestra Hall. (CS)

  1. Concerted Signaling by Retinal Ganglion Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Markus; Lagnado, Leon; Baylor, Denis A.

    1995-11-01

    To analyze the rules that govern communication between eye and brain, visual responses were recorded from an intact salamander retina. Parallel observation of many retinal ganglion cells with a microelectrode array showed that nearby neurons often fired synchronously, with spike delays of less than 10 milliseconds. The frequency of such synchronous spikes exceeded the correlation expected from a shared visual stimulus up to 20-fold. Synchronous firing persisted under a variety of visual stimuli and accounted for the majority of action potentials recorded. Analysis of receptive fields showed that concerted spikes encoded information not carried by individual cells; they may represent symbols in a multineuronal code for vision.

  2. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Gintautas, Vadas; Pepe, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  3. Listening to the acoustics in concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, Leo L.; Griesinger, David

    2001-05-01

    How does acoustics affect the symphonic music performed in a concert hall? The lecture begins with an illustrated discussion of the architectural features that influence the acoustics. Boston Symphony Hall, which was built in 1900 when only one facet of architectural design was known, now rates as one of the world's great halls. How this occurred will be presented. Music is composed with some acoustical environment in mind and this varies with time from the Baroque to the Romantic to the Modern musical period. Conductors vary their interpretation according to the hall they are in. Well-traveled listeners and music critics have favorite halls. The lecture then presents a list of 58 halls rank ordered according to their acoustical quality based on interviews of music critics and conductors. Modern acoustical measurements made in these halls are compared with their rankings. Music recordings will be presented that demonstrate how halls sound that have different measured acoustical parameters. Photographs of a number of recently built halls are shown as examples of how these known acoustical factors have been incorporated into architectural design.

  4. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

  5. YOUNG PEOPLE'S CONCERTS BY THE PHOENIX SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA. TEACHING MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, GUY

    THE PHOENIX SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA PRESENTED CONCERTS TO 64,000 ARIZONA ELEMENTARY PUPILS ON 12 DIFFERENT DAYS LAST YEAR. THE CONCERTS INCLUDED 2 DIFFERENT PROGRAMS, 1 FOR GRADES 1-4 AND 1 FOR GRADES 5-8, WHICH ARE OUTLINED IN THIS DOCUMENT. THE 4 SECTIONS OF A SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA AND THE VARIOUS INSTRUMENTS INCLUDED IN EACH SECTION ARE DISCUSSED. A…

  6. New Light on a Prism: The Concert for All Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linaberry, Robin

    2004-01-01

    The prism concert concept was introduced in this country at the Eastman School of Music in 1975. The development of Eastman's inaugural prism concert is commonly attributed to Donald Hunsberger and Gustav Meier, conductors of the wind ensemble and orchestra, respectively. The basic idea is that different styles of music performed by different…

  7. Mini-Concerts: Creating Space for Student-Initiated Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Cody; Johnson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Mini-concerts are regularly occurring, low-stakes curricular events in the classroom where students perform music of their choice for their peers. An idea generated by music educators in domestic and international K-12 schools who strive to meet the needs of diverse student populations, mini-concerts have helped generate student excitement and…

  8. A concert of music by Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.; Hammer, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Orchester Göttinger Musikfreunde presented an evening of music in the magnificent Aula of the University as one of the social events of the conference. The astronomical highlights of the concert were two symphonic works by Sir William Herschel, including an oboe solo by a member of the LOC (W. Glatzel). This is the text from the concert programme. A recording of the concert is included in this proceedings. Programme --------- Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Symphony No. 13 in D Major (1762) W. A. Mozart (1756-1791): Piano Concerto No. 27 in B Major (KV 595), C. Hammer (piano) Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Fragment of an Oboe Concerto in C Major (MS790), W. Glatzel (oboe) J. Haydn (1732-1809): Symphony No. 91 E-flat Major We would like to acknowledge the Sparkasse Göttingen and the Versicherungsgesellschaft Hannover for generously making this concert possible.

  9. Concert halls with strong lateral reflections enhance musical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Robinson, Philip W; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-03-25

    One of the most thrilling cultural experiences is to hear live symphony-orchestra music build up from a whispering passage to a monumental fortissimo. The impact of such a crescendo has been thought to depend only on the musicians' skill, but here we show that interactions between the concert-hall acoustics and listeners' hearing also play a major role in musical dynamics. These interactions contribute to the shoebox-type concert hall's established success, but little prior research has been devoted to dynamic expression in this three-part transmission chain as a complete system. More forceful orchestral playing disproportionately excites high frequency harmonics more than those near the note's fundamental. This effect results in not only more sound energy, but also a different tone color. The concert hall transmits this sound, and the room geometry defines from which directions acoustic reflections arrive at the listener. Binaural directional hearing emphasizes high frequencies more when sound arrives from the sides of the head rather than from the median plane. Simultaneously, these same frequencies are emphasized by higher orchestral-playing dynamics. When the room geometry provides reflections from these directions, the perceived dynamic range is enhanced. Current room-acoustic evaluation methods assume linear behavior and thus neglect this effect. The hypothesis presented here is that the auditory excitation by reflections is emphasized with an orchestra forte most in concert halls with strong lateral reflections. The enhanced dynamic range provides an explanation for the success of rectangularly shaped concert-hall geometry.

  10. Multimodal interaction in real and virtual concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Pontus; Västfjäll, Daniel; Kleiner, Mendel

    2001-05-01

    Recently, researchers within the field of room acoustics have shown an increased interest for the understanding of how different modalities, especially vision and audition, interact in the concert hall experience. Computer auralization and virtual reality technology have brought means to efficiently study such auditory-visual interaction phenomena in concert halls. However, an important question to address is to what extent the results from such studies agree with real, unmediated situations. In this paper, we discuss some of the auditory-visual cross-modal effects discovered in previous experiments, and an account of cross-modal phenomena in room acoustic perception is proposed. Moreover, the importance of measuring simulation fidelity when performing cross-modal experiments in virtual concert halls is discussed. The conclusions are that one can expect auditory-visual interaction effects to occur in both real and virtual rooms, but that simulation fidelity might affect the results when performing experiments in virtual conditions.

  11. Concerted Cultivation and Music Learning: Global Issues and Local Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    "Concerted cultivation" has been described as a common, urban middle-class practice concerning the enrollment of children in a variety of age-specific activities that may promote the learning of valuable life skills as well as the development of individual abilities (Lareau, 2003). Music is one such activity. This study investigated the…

  12. A Theoretical Structure of High School Concert Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify a theoretical structure for high school concert band performance and to test that structure for viability, generality, and invariance. A total of 101 university students enrolled in two different bands rated two high school band performances (a "first"…

  13. Family Music Concerts: Bringing Families, Music Students, and Music Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how conductors of the top performing groups and music education faculty at one university collaborated to create a Family Concert Series for parents and children of all ages, including infants in arms. Recognizing the conflict between "The first three years of life are the most important for educating a young child in…

  14. Parenting Priorities and Pressures: Furthering Understanding of "Concerted Cultivation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Maxwell, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-examines the purposes of a planned and intentional parenting style--"concerted cultivation"--for different middle-class groups, highlighting that social class fraction, ethnicity, and also individual family disposition, guides understandings of the purposes of enrolling children in particular enrichment activities. We…

  15. Mosaic and Concerted Evolution in the Visual System of Birds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Moore, Bret A.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Corfield, Jeremy R.; Krilow, Justin M.; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Wylie, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Two main models have been proposed to explain how the relative size of neural structures varies through evolution. In the mosaic evolution model, individual brain structures vary in size independently of each other, whereas in the concerted evolution model developmental constraints result in different parts of the brain varying in size in a coordinated manner. Several studies have shown variation of the relative size of individual nuclei in the vertebrate brain, but it is currently not known if nuclei belonging to the same functional pathway vary independently of each other or in a concerted manner. The visual system of birds offers an ideal opportunity to specifically test which of the two models apply to an entire sensory pathway. Here, we examine the relative size of 9 different visual nuclei across 98 species of birds. This includes data on interspecific variation in the cytoarchitecture and relative size of the isthmal nuclei, which has not been previously reported. We also use a combination of statistical analyses, phylogenetically corrected principal component analysis and evolutionary rates of change on the absolute and relative size of the nine nuclei, to test if visual nuclei evolved in a concerted or mosaic manner. Our results strongly indicate a combination of mosaic and concerted evolution (in the relative size of nine nuclei) within the avian visual system. Specifically, the relative size of the isthmal nuclei and parts of the tectofugal pathway covary across species in a concerted fashion, whereas the relative volume of the other visual nuclei measured vary independently of one another, such as that predicted by the mosaic model. Our results suggest the covariation of different neural structures depends not only on the functional connectivity of each nucleus, but also on the diversity of afferents and efferents of each nucleus. PMID:24621573

  16. Concert halls with strong lateral reflections enhance musical dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Robinson, Philip W.; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    One of the most thrilling cultural experiences is to hear live symphony-orchestra music build up from a whispering passage to a monumental fortissimo. The impact of such a crescendo has been thought to depend only on the musicians’ skill, but here we show that interactions between the concert-hall acoustics and listeners’ hearing also play a major role in musical dynamics. These interactions contribute to the shoebox-type concert hall’s established success, but little prior research has been devoted to dynamic expression in this three-part transmission chain as a complete system. More forceful orchestral playing disproportionately excites high frequency harmonics more than those near the note’s fundamental. This effect results in not only more sound energy, but also a different tone color. The concert hall transmits this sound, and the room geometry defines from which directions acoustic reflections arrive at the listener. Binaural directional hearing emphasizes high frequencies more when sound arrives from the sides of the head rather than from the median plane. Simultaneously, these same frequencies are emphasized by higher orchestral-playing dynamics. When the room geometry provides reflections from these directions, the perceived dynamic range is enhanced. Current room-acoustic evaluation methods assume linear behavior and thus neglect this effect. The hypothesis presented here is that the auditory excitation by reflections is emphasized with an orchestra forte most in concert halls with strong lateral reflections. The enhanced dynamic range provides an explanation for the success of rectangularly shaped concert-hall geometry. PMID:24591584

  17. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  18. Concerted reactions of polynuclear metalloenzymes and their functional chemical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, A. E.

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms of the many-electron oxidation of water by a chemical model of the manganese oxidase cofactor in photosynthesis photosystem II (manganese(IV) clusters) and nitrogen reduction in chemical models of nitrogenase cofactor (vanadium(II) and molybdenum(III) clusters) were considered. The hypothesis was suggested according to which polynuclear enzyme cofactors and their functional chemical models performed two important functions, catalyzed noncomplementary processes and effected many-substrate concerted reactions with decreased activation energies.

  19. Reaction mechanism of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, concerted or step-wise

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Bruice, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics investigation of the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase catalyzed reaction, which shows that proton transfer from guanidinoacetate (GAA) to Asp-134 and methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to GAA are concerted. By self-consistent-charge density functional tight binding/molecular mechanics, the bond lengths in the concerted mechanism's transition state are 1.26 Å for both the OD1 (Asp-134)–HE (GAA) and HE (GAA)–NE (GAA) bonds, and 2.47 and 2.03 Å for the S8 (AdoMet)–C9 (AdoMet) and C9 (AdoMet)–NE (GAA) bonds, respectively. The potential-energy barrier (ΔE‡) determined by single-point B3LYP/6–31+G*//MM is 18.9 kcal/mol. The contributions of the entropy (−TΔS‡) and zero-point energy corrections Δ(ZPE)‡ by normal mode analysis are 2.3 kcal/mol and −1.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the activation enthalpy of this concerted mechanism is predicted to be ΔH‡ = ΔE‡ + Δ(ZPE)‡ = 17.2 kcal/mol. The calculated free-energy barrier for the concerted mechanism is ΔG‡ = 19.5 kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with the value of 19.0 kcal/mol calculated from the experimental rate constant (3.8 ± 0.2·min−1). PMID:17053070

  20. Concerted orientation induced unidirectional water transport through nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rongzheng; Lu, Hangjun; Li, Jinyuan; Bao, Jingdong; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping

    2009-11-14

    The dynamics of water inside nanochannels is of great importance for biological activities as well as for the design of molecular sensors, devices, and machines, particularly for sea water desalination. When confined in specially sized nanochannels, water molecules form a single-file structure with concerted dipole orientations, which collectively flip between the directions along and against the nanotube axis. In this paper, by using molecular dynamics simulations, we observed a net flux along the dipole-orientation without any application of an external electric field or external pressure difference during the time period of the particular concerted dipole orientations of the molecules along or against the nanotube axis. We found that this unique special-directional water transportation resulted from the asymmetric potential of water-water interaction along the nanochannel, which originated from the concerted dipole orientation of the water molecules that breaks the symmetry of water orientation distribution along the channel within a finite time period. This finding suggests a new mechanism for achieving high-flux water transportation, which may be useful for nanotechnology and biological applications.

  1. Concert hall acoustics assessment with individually elicited attributes.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari

    2011-08-01

    Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor.

  2. Is friendship akin to kinship?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Joshua M.; Kenrick, Douglas T.; Schaller, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although unrelated friends are genetically equivalent to strangers, several lines of reasoning suggest that close friendship may sometimes activate processes more relevant to kinship and that this may be especially true for women. We compared responses to strangers, friends, and kin in two studies designed to address distinct domains for which kinship is known to have functional significance: incest avoidance and nepotism. Study 1 examined emotional responses to imagined sexual contact with kin, friends, and strangers. Results revealed that women, compared to men, treated friends more like kin. Study 2 examined benevolent attributions to actual kin, friends, and strangers. Results revealed that women treated friends very much like kin, whereas men treated friends very much like strangers. The current findings support a domain-specific over a domain-general approach to understanding intimate relationships and raise a number of interesting questions about the modular structure of cognitive and affective processes involved in these relationships. PMID:21874104

  3. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  4. Subjective ranking of concert halls substantiated through orthogonal objective parameters.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Salvador; Giménez, Alicia; Cibrián, Rosa; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global subjective assessment, obtained from mean values of the results of surveys addressed to members of the audience of live concerts in Spanish auditoriums, through the mean values of the three orthogonal objective parameters (Tmid, IACCE3, and LEV), expressed in just noticeable differences (JNDs), regarding the best-valued hall. Results show that a linear combination of the relative variations of orthogonal parameters can largely explain the overall perceived quality of the sample. However, the mean values of certain orthogonal parameters are not representative, which shows that an alternative approach to the problem is necessary. Various possibilities are proposed.

  5. Subjective ranking of concert halls substantiated through orthogonal objective parameters.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Salvador; Giménez, Alicia; Cibrián, Rosa; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global subjective assessment, obtained from mean values of the results of surveys addressed to members of the audience of live concerts in Spanish auditoriums, through the mean values of the three orthogonal objective parameters (Tmid, IACCE3, and LEV), expressed in just noticeable differences (JNDs), regarding the best-valued hall. Results show that a linear combination of the relative variations of orthogonal parameters can largely explain the overall perceived quality of the sample. However, the mean values of certain orthogonal parameters are not representative, which shows that an alternative approach to the problem is necessary. Various possibilities are proposed. PMID:25697992

  6. Concerted hydrogen atom exchange between three HF molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komornicki, Andrew; Dixon, David A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    The termolecular reaction involving concerted hydrogen-atom exchange between three HF molecules was investigated with particular attention given to the effects of correlation at the various stationary points along the reaction. Using large segmented Gaussian basis sets to locate the (HF)3 stationary points at the SCF level, the geometries of the stable hydrogen-bonded trimer, which is of C(3h) symmetry, were located, together with the transition state for hydrogen exchange, which is of D(3h) symmetry. Then, using a large atomic natural orbital basis and correlating all valence electrons, the energetics of the exchange reaction were evaluated at the correlated level.

  7. Architectural shape and early acoustic efficiency in concert halls (L).

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Yann; Wulfrank, Thomas; Kahle, Eckhard

    2012-09-01

    Supplying sufficient early reflections to audience members is an important prerequisite to good acoustic quality in performing arts spaces. However, the relationship between the geometry of a room and its acoustic efficiency in terms of early energy has rarely been investigated using basic geometrical principles. The present study demonstrates the possibility of predicting the average value of early reflected energy across the audience area using solid angles. The formulas obtained display the influence of various factors on average early energy; in particular, the direction of arrival of early reflections is found to play a significant role, which highlights interesting implications for the acoustic design of concert halls.

  8. Concerted hydrogen atom exchange between three HF molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komornicki, Andrew; Dixon, David A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the termolecular reaction involving concerted hydrogen exchange between three HF molecules, with particular emphasis on the effects of correlation at the various stationary points along the reaction. Using an extended basis, we have located the geometries of the stable hydrogen-bonded trimer, which is of C(sub 3h) symmetry, and the transition state for hydrogen exchange, which is of D(sub 3h) symmetry. The energies of the exchange reation were then evaluated at the correlated level, using a large atomic natural orbital basis and correlating all valence electrons. Several correlation treatments were used, namely, configration interaction with single and double excitations, coupled-pair functional, and coupled-cluster methods. We are thus able to measure the effect of accounting for size-extensivity. Zero-point corrections to the correlated level energetics were determined using analytic second derivative techniques at the SCF level. Our best calculations, which include the effects of connected triple excitations in the coupled-cluster procedure, indicate that the trimer is bound by 9 +/- 1 kcal/mol relative to three separate monomers, in excellent agreement with previous estimates. The barrier to concerted hydrogen exchange is 15 kcal/mol above the trimer, or only 4.7 kcal/mol above three separated monomers. Thus the barrier to hydrogen exchange between HF molecules via this termolecular process is very low.

  9. How to compare movement? A review of physical movement similarity measures in geographic information science and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ranacher, Peter; Tzavella, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    In geographic information science, a plethora of different approaches and methods is used to assess the similarity of movement. Some of these approaches term two moving objects similar if they share akin paths. Others require objects to move at similar speed and yet others consider movement similar if it occurs at the same time. We believe that a structured and comprehensive classification of movement comparison measures is missing. We argue that such a classification not only depicts the status quo of qualitative and quantitative movement analysis, but also allows for identifying those aspects of movement for which similarity measures are scarce or entirely missing. In this review paper we, first, decompose movement into its spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal movement parameters. A movement parameter is a physical quantity of movement, such as speed, spatial path, or temporal duration. For each of these parameters we then review qualitative and quantitative methods of how to compare movement. Thus, we provide a systematic and comprehensive classification of different movement similarity measures used in geographic information science. This classification is a valuable first step toward a GIS toolbox comprising all relevant movement comparison methods. PMID:27019646

  10. Concerted Motions Networking Pores and Distant Ferroxidase Centers Enable Bacterioferritin Function and Iron Traffic£ξ

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Huili; Rui, Huan; Kumar, Ritesh; Eshelman, Kate; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Im, Wonpil; Rivera, Mario

    2015-01-01

    X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and biochemistry were utilized to investigate the effect of introducing hydrophobic interactions in the 4-fold (N148L and Q151L) and B-pores (D34F) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin B (BfrB) on BfrB function. The structures show only local structural perturbations and confirm the anticipated hydrophobic interactions. Surprisingly, structures obtained after soaking crystals in Fe2+-containing crystallization solution revealed that although iron loads into the ferroxidase centers of the mutants, the side chains of ferroxidase ligands E51 and H130 do not reorganize to bind the iron ions, as is seen in the wt BfrB structures. Similar experiments with a double mutant (C89S/K96C) prepared to introduce changes outside the pores show competent ferroxidase centers that function akin to those in wt BfrB. MD simulations comparing wt BfrB with the D34F and N148L mutants show that the mutants exhibit significantly reduced flexibility, and reveal a network of concerted motions linking ferroxidase centers and 4-fold and B-pores, which are important for imparting ferroxidase centers in BfrB with the required flexibility to function efficiently. In agreement, the efficiency of Fe2+ oxidation and uptake of the 4-fold and B-pore mutants in solution is significantly compromised relative to wt or C89S/K96C BfrB. Finally, our structures show a large number of previously unknown iron binding sites in the interior cavity and B-pores of BfrB, which reveal in unprecedented detail conduits followed by iron and phosphate ions across the BfrB shell, as well as paths in the interior cavity that may facilitate nucleation of the iron phosphate mineral. PMID:25640193

  11. One young woman's campaign: rock concerts and graffiti.

    PubMed

    Malewska, J

    1993-05-01

    Prevailing law and church dictum in 1989 Poland precluded talking about condoms and sex on the radio. Accordingly, a young woman who did a radio-theater drama with some friends about how to avoid HIV infection was thrown out of school. This youth, however, knew that her audience found the emission to be provocative and interesting, and that people were having unprotected sex at concerts in toilet stalls with unknown partners. The Ministry of Health nonetheless said funds were unavailable for condom distribution. Undeterred, the author, her younger brother, and 2 friends joined forces to make large banners with pictures of condoms, bought 500 condoms with their own money, and went to the largest rock festival in Warsaw. She described on stage what AIDS is and how to contract it while friends handed out condoms and leaflets. Their success how has them cooperating with 20 other groups and going to concerts to talk about AIDS and hand out condoms. They have also sprayed graffiti across Warsaw aimed at preventing HIV transmission and provide leaflets and condoms with money from France to ticket holders at area clubs; letters requesting cooperative action have been received. Despite the success of these activities, the Ministry of Health requires receipt of a project and budget proposal before they may consider funding. Graffiti, however, is illegal in Poland and the new Catholic government made is impossible to obtain cheap Polish condoms in shops. The activists continued to develop banners and graffiti, but failed to keep people from engaging in high risk sex with multiple partners. 3 of the author's attractive and healthy female friends therefore began going to concerts and night clubs where they feigned soliciting sexual relations and being HIV-seropositive. Unsuspecting takers without condoms were informed of the girls contrived HIV serostatus and told they must surely desire death if they are ready to have unprotected intercourse. The desire to use condoms has

  12. One young woman's campaign: rock concerts and graffiti.

    PubMed

    Malewska, J

    1993-05-01

    Prevailing law and church dictum in 1989 Poland precluded talking about condoms and sex on the radio. Accordingly, a young woman who did a radio-theater drama with some friends about how to avoid HIV infection was thrown out of school. This youth, however, knew that her audience found the emission to be provocative and interesting, and that people were having unprotected sex at concerts in toilet stalls with unknown partners. The Ministry of Health nonetheless said funds were unavailable for condom distribution. Undeterred, the author, her younger brother, and 2 friends joined forces to make large banners with pictures of condoms, bought 500 condoms with their own money, and went to the largest rock festival in Warsaw. She described on stage what AIDS is and how to contract it while friends handed out condoms and leaflets. Their success how has them cooperating with 20 other groups and going to concerts to talk about AIDS and hand out condoms. They have also sprayed graffiti across Warsaw aimed at preventing HIV transmission and provide leaflets and condoms with money from France to ticket holders at area clubs; letters requesting cooperative action have been received. Despite the success of these activities, the Ministry of Health requires receipt of a project and budget proposal before they may consider funding. Graffiti, however, is illegal in Poland and the new Catholic government made is impossible to obtain cheap Polish condoms in shops. The activists continued to develop banners and graffiti, but failed to keep people from engaging in high risk sex with multiple partners. 3 of the author's attractive and healthy female friends therefore began going to concerts and night clubs where they feigned soliciting sexual relations and being HIV-seropositive. Unsuspecting takers without condoms were informed of the girls contrived HIV serostatus and told they must surely desire death if they are ready to have unprotected intercourse. The desire to use condoms has

  13. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  14. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  15. The Organization, Administration and Presentation of Symphony Orchestra Youth Concert Activities for Music Educational Purposes in Selected Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas H.; Thompson, Helen M.

    This report on symphony orchestra concerts for students in 20 American cities provides information on (1) the history and development of youth concerts, and the artistic, cultural, and educational philosophies upon which they are based; (2) operating procedures and financing for youth concerts in each city; (3) utilization of the concerts by…

  16. Concerted Action of Two Formins in Gliding Motility and Host Cell Invasion by Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Wassim; Plattner, Fabienne; Carlier, Marie-France; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The invasive forms of apicomplexan parasites share a conserved form of gliding motility that powers parasite migration across biological barriers, host cell invasion and egress from infected cells. Previous studies have established that the duration and direction of gliding motility are determined by actin polymerization; however, regulators of actin dynamics in apicomplexans remain poorly characterized. In the absence of a complete ARP2/3 complex, the formin homology 2 domain containing proteins and the accessory protein profilin are presumed to orchestrate actin polymerization during host cell invasion. Here, we have undertaken the biochemical and functional characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii formins and established that they act in concert as actin nucleators during invasion. The importance of TgFRM1 for parasite motility has been assessed by conditional gene disruption. The contribution of each formin individually and jointly was revealed by an approach based upon the expression of dominant mutants with modified FH2 domains impaired in actin binding but still able to dimerize with their respective endogenous formin. These mutated FH2 domains were fused to the ligand-controlled destabilization domain (DD-FKBP) to achieve conditional expression. This strategy proved unique in identifying the non-redundant and critical roles of both formins in invasion. These findings provide new insights into how controlled actin polymerization drives the directional movement required for productive penetration of parasites into host cells. PMID:20949068

  17. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  18. Psychogenic Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... also look for marked improvement in symptoms following psychotherapy, use of a placebo (a medicine with no ... multi-therapy approach to treating psychogenic movement includes psychotherapy, placebo, or suggestion; antidepressants for symptoms related to ...

  19. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  20. Nanoclusters Synthesized by Synchrotron Radiolysis in Concert with Wet Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Oyanagi, Hiroyuki; Orimoto, Yuuichi; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Hatada, Keisuke; Sun, Zhihu; Zhang, Ling; Yamashita, Kenichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Masato; Fukano, Atsuyuki; Maeda, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Wet chemical reduction of metal ions, a common strategy for synthesizing metal nanoparticles, strongly depends on the electric potential of the metal, and its applications to late transition metal clusters have been limited to special cases. Here, we describe copper nanoclusters grown by synchrotron radiolysis in concert with wet chemistry. The local structure of copper aggregates grown by reducing Cu(II) pentanedionate using synchrotron x-ray beam was studied in situ by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A detailed analysis of the XANES and EXAFS spectra, compared with DFT calculations and full-potential non-muffin-tin multiple scattering calculations, identified the nanocluster as Cu13 with icosahedral symmetry. The novel “charged” nanoclusters tightly bound to electron-donating amido molecules, which formed as a result of photo-induced deprotonation of ligand amines, were stabilized by irradiation. Monodispersive deposition of nanoclusters was enabled by controlling the type and density of “monomers”, in remarkable contrast to the conventional growth of metallic nanoparticles. PMID:25425181

  1. Intramolecular Alkene Aminocarbonylation Using Concerted Cycloadditions of Amino-Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovich, Ryan A; Clavette, Christian; Vincent-Rocan, Jean-François; Roveda, Jean-Grégoire; Gorelsky, Serge I; Beauchemin, André M

    2016-06-01

    The ubiquity of nitrogen heterocycles in biologically active molecules challenges synthetic chemists to develop a variety of tools for their construction. While developing metal-free hydroamination reactions of hydrazine derivatives, it was discovered that carbazates and semicarbazides can also lead to alkene aminocarbonylation products if nitrogen-substituted isocyanates (N-isocyanates) are formed in situ as reactive intermediates. At first this reaction required high temperatures (150-200 °C), and issues included competing hydroamination and N-isocyanate dimerization pathways. Herein, improved conditions for concerted intramolecular alkene aminocarbonylation with N-isocyanates are reported. The use of βN-benzyl carbazate precursors allows the effective minimization of N-isocyanate dimerization. Diminished dimerization leads to higher yields of alkene aminocarbonylation products, to reactivity at lower temperatures, and to an improved scope for a reaction sequence involving alkene aminocarbonylation followed by 1,2-migration of the benzyl group. Furthermore, fine-tuning of the blocking (masking) group on the N-isocyanate precursor, and reaction conditions relying on base catalysis for N-isocyanate formation from simpler precursors resulted in room temperature reactivity, consequently minimizing the competing hydroamination pathway. Collectively, this work highlights that controlled reactivity of aminoisocyanates is possible, and provides a broadly applicable alkene aminocarbonylation approach to heterocycles possessing the β-aminocarbonyl motif. PMID:27112602

  2. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with 19F- and 18F-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Constanze N.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain 18F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a ‘leaving group’ leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant 18F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize 18F-PET probes. Selective 18F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of 18F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to 18F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry.

  3. Alkane desaturation by concerted double hydrogen atom transfer to benzyne.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dawen; Willoughby, Patrick H; Woods, Brian P; Baire, Beeraiah; Hoye, Thomas R

    2013-09-26

    The removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from an alkane to produce an alkene is a challenge for synthetic chemists. In nature, desaturases and acetylenases are adept at achieving this essential oxidative functionalization reaction, for example during the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, gibberellins and carotenoids. Alkane-to-alkene conversion almost always involves one or more chemical intermediates in a multistep reaction pathway; these may be either isolable species (such as alcohols or alkyl halides) or reactive intermediates (such as carbocations, alkyl radicals, or σ-alkyl-metal species). Here we report a desaturation reaction of simple, unactivated alkanes that is mechanistically unique. We show that benzynes are capable of the concerted removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from a hydrocarbon. The discovery of this exothermic, net redox process was enabled by the simple thermal generation of reactive benzyne intermediates through the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder cycloisomerization reaction of triyne substrates. We are not aware of any single-step, bimolecular reaction in which two hydrogen atoms are simultaneously transferred from a saturated alkane. Computational studies indicate a preferred geometry with eclipsed vicinal C-H bonds in the alkane donor.

  4. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with (19)F(-) and (18)F(-).

    PubMed

    Neumann, Constanze N; Hooker, Jacob M; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-05-18

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain (18)F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a 'leaving group' leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant (18)F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize (18)F-PET probes. Selective (18)F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of (18)F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to (18)F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry.

  5. Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Beldade, Patrícia; Brakefield, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    Developing organisms are thought to be modular in organization so that traits in different modules evolve independently whereas traits within a module change in a concerted manner. The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed. Several lines of evidence show that all eyespots in an individual butterfly are genetically integrated, suggesting that the whole pattern, rather than the separate eyespots, should be considered as a single character. However, despite the strong genetic correlations between the two eyespots on the dorsal forewing of B. anynana, there is great potential for independent changes. Here we use laboratory lines selected in different directions for the size of those eyespots to study correlated responses in the whole eyespot pattern. We show clear changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces, which depend on eyespot position along the anterior-posterior axis. There are also changes in the number of extra eyespots and in eyespot color composition but no changes in eyespot position relative to wing margin. Our analysis of eyespot pattern modularity is discussed in the light of what is known about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of eyespot formation and the great potential for evolutionary diversification in butterfly wing patterns. PMID:12622734

  6. Intramolecular Alkene Aminocarbonylation Using Concerted Cycloadditions of Amino-Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovich, Ryan A; Clavette, Christian; Vincent-Rocan, Jean-François; Roveda, Jean-Grégoire; Gorelsky, Serge I; Beauchemin, André M

    2016-06-01

    The ubiquity of nitrogen heterocycles in biologically active molecules challenges synthetic chemists to develop a variety of tools for their construction. While developing metal-free hydroamination reactions of hydrazine derivatives, it was discovered that carbazates and semicarbazides can also lead to alkene aminocarbonylation products if nitrogen-substituted isocyanates (N-isocyanates) are formed in situ as reactive intermediates. At first this reaction required high temperatures (150-200 °C), and issues included competing hydroamination and N-isocyanate dimerization pathways. Herein, improved conditions for concerted intramolecular alkene aminocarbonylation with N-isocyanates are reported. The use of βN-benzyl carbazate precursors allows the effective minimization of N-isocyanate dimerization. Diminished dimerization leads to higher yields of alkene aminocarbonylation products, to reactivity at lower temperatures, and to an improved scope for a reaction sequence involving alkene aminocarbonylation followed by 1,2-migration of the benzyl group. Furthermore, fine-tuning of the blocking (masking) group on the N-isocyanate precursor, and reaction conditions relying on base catalysis for N-isocyanate formation from simpler precursors resulted in room temperature reactivity, consequently minimizing the competing hydroamination pathway. Collectively, this work highlights that controlled reactivity of aminoisocyanates is possible, and provides a broadly applicable alkene aminocarbonylation approach to heterocycles possessing the β-aminocarbonyl motif.

  7. Operational modal analysis applied to the concert harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chomette, B.; Le Carrou, J.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) methods are useful to extract modal parameters of operating systems. These methods seem to be particularly interesting to investigate the modal basis of string instruments during operation to avoid certain disadvantages due to conventional methods. However, the excitation in the case of string instruments is not optimal for OMA due to the presence of damped harmonic components and low noise in the disturbance signal. Therefore, the present study investigates the least-square complex exponential (LSCE) and the modified least-square complex exponential methods in the case of a string instrument to identify modal parameters of the instrument when it is played. The efficiency of the approach is experimentally demonstrated on a concert harp excited by some of its strings and the two methods are compared to a conventional modal analysis. The results show that OMA allows us to identify modes particularly present in the instrument's response with a good estimation especially if they are close to the excitation frequency with the modified LSCE method.

  8. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with (19)F(-) and (18)F(-).

    PubMed

    Neumann, Constanze N; Hooker, Jacob M; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-06-16

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain (18)F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a 'leaving group' leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant (18)F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize (18)F-PET probes. Selective (18)F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of (18)F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to (18)F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry. PMID:27281221

  9. Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Beldade, Patrícia; Brakefield, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    Developing organisms are thought to be modular in organization so that traits in different modules evolve independently whereas traits within a module change in a concerted manner. The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed. Several lines of evidence show that all eyespots in an individual butterfly are genetically integrated, suggesting that the whole pattern, rather than the separate eyespots, should be considered as a single character. However, despite the strong genetic correlations between the two eyespots on the dorsal forewing of B. anynana, there is great potential for independent changes. Here we use laboratory lines selected in different directions for the size of those eyespots to study correlated responses in the whole eyespot pattern. We show clear changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces, which depend on eyespot position along the anterior-posterior axis. There are also changes in the number of extra eyespots and in eyespot color composition but no changes in eyespot position relative to wing margin. Our analysis of eyespot pattern modularity is discussed in the light of what is known about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of eyespot formation and the great potential for evolutionary diversification in butterfly wing patterns.

  10. Objective Measures and Musician Preference for Concert Stage Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Daniel C.

    The purpose of this research was to examine musician preference for various stage enclosures in an actual concert hall setting and to determine the extent to which preference relates to objective measures of reflected energy and on -stage sound pressure levels. Twelve string and brass trios performed standard musical selections in four stage shell configurations and gave preference ratings for the configurations based on Ease of Ensemble, Ability to Hear Oneself, and Ability to Hear the Other Players. The judgments indicate differences in preference between string and brass players for Ease of Ensemble, and a stage preference across all subjects for Ability to Hear Oneself. Objective measurements of reflected energy ratios conducted in the performance spaces indicate relatively low degrees of correlation with subjective preference, with approximately 29% as the highest level of subjective variance accounted for by the ratios. Stage shell configuration had minimal effect on sound pressure levels within the four stages. It was determined that, in terms of the influence of stage shell configuration, reflected energy ratios are preferred over measures of sound pressure level as indicators of musician preference.

  11. Reassortment and concerted evolution in banana bunchy top virus genomes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jer-Ming; Fu, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hua; Su, Hong-Ji; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2007-02-01

    The nanovirus Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has six standard components in its genome and occasionally contains components encoding additional Rep (replication initiation protein) genes. Phylogenetic network analysis of coding sequences of DNA 1 and 3 confirmed the two major groups of BBTV, a Pacific and an Asian group, but show evidence of web-like phylogenies for some genes. Phylogenetic analysis of 102 major common regions (CR-Ms) from all six components showed a possible concerted evolution within the Pacific group, which is likely due to recombination in this region. The CR-M of additional Rep genes is close to that of DNA 1 and 2. Comparison of tree topologies constructed with DNA 1 and DNA 3 coding sequences of 14 BBTV isolates showed distinct phylogenetic histories based on Kishino-Hasegawa and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. The results of principal component analysis of amino acid and codon usages indicate that DNA 1 and 3 have a codon bias different from that of all other genes of nanoviruses, including all currently known additional Rep genes of BBTV, which suggests a possible ancient genome reassortment event between distinctive nanoviruses.

  12. Introducing Children to the Symphony: Experimental Study of Pre-Concert Preparation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Peter

    This field experiment examined three responses of ninth and tenth grade students to attending symphony performances at school. Responses were attitudes toward the performance, later information seeking about the art form, and interest in obtaining a recording of symphonic works offered four weeks after the concert. Pre-concert experimental…

  13. What Did You Do to Teach Good Concert Behavior at Your School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she taught concert etiquette to her students. The author started by having her students research concert etiquette online. She then created a music Web site bibliography, beginning with the MENC site (www.menc.org/guides/etiquette /etiquette_home.html). She relates that the teaching approach she used has…

  14. The 2003 Music in Our School's Month and World's Largest Concert Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    On March 13, 2003 millions of school children, teachers, and citizens from around the world participate simultaneously in the "World's Largest Concert" (WLC). This concert, a sing-along program, is broadcast on PBS and the Armed Forces Radio and Television Network overseas. Participating in the WLC is a way to celebrate Music in Our Schools Month.…

  15. "Iitaohkanao'pi--The Meeting Place Project": An Alternative Approach to Young People's Concerts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasiak, Edwin B.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored alternative approaches to young people's concerts aimed at extending musical appreciations and cultural understandings while promoting interest in concert attendance among upper elementary students. The project, an artistic and cross-cultural collaboration grounded in a spirit of mutual respect, consisted of three components:…

  16. Science 101: How Do Acoustics Dictate the Design of a Concert Hall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This column provides background science information for elementary teachers. When the author was young he used to think that the ideal design for a concert hall would contain walls that were composed of sound-absorbing material, like foam or egg cartons or such. He noticed, though, that this was not the case. Most concert halls contain curtains…

  17. Diels–Alder Reactions of Allene with Benzene and Butadiene: Concerted, Stepwise, and Ambimodal Transition States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Multiconfigurational complete active space methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) have been used to investigate the (4 + 2) cycloadditions of allene with butadiene and with benzene. Both concerted and stepwise radical pathways were examined to determine the mechanism of the Diels–Alder reactions with an allene dienophile. Reaction with butadiene occurs via a single ambimodal transition state that can lead to either the concerted or stepwise trajectories along the potential energy surface, while reaction with benzene involves two separate transition states and favors the concerted mechanism relative to the stepwise mechanism via a diradical intermediate. PMID:25216056

  18. Diels-Alder reactions of allene with benzene and butadiene: concerted, stepwise, and ambimodal transition states.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung V; Houk, K N

    2014-10-01

    Multiconfigurational complete active space methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) have been used to investigate the (4 + 2) cycloadditions of allene with butadiene and with benzene. Both concerted and stepwise radical pathways were examined to determine the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reactions with an allene dienophile. Reaction with butadiene occurs via a single ambimodal transition state that can lead to either the concerted or stepwise trajectories along the potential energy surface, while reaction with benzene involves two separate transition states and favors the concerted mechanism relative to the stepwise mechanism via a diradical intermediate.

  19. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hruschka, Daniel  J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric  D.; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2014-12-18

    Background: Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicon—a phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Results: Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular sound change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elements—such as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traits—can change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group.

  20. Patient perception of tics and other movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lang, A

    1991-02-01

    To determine the subjective perception patients have of abnormal movements, 170 patients with various hyperkinesias were interviewed with questions directed at the "voluntary" or intentional versus "involuntary" aspects of their symptoms. One hundred and two of 110 patients with non-tic disorders thought that the abnormal movements were entirely involuntary. Forty-one of 60 tic disorder patients stated that all their motor and phonic tics were intentionally produced. Fifteen others had both voluntary and involuntary components, usually with the former predominating. A "voluntary" response could be used to predict the correct diagnostic category (tic versus non-tic) in 8 of 9 patients for whom the referral category was incorrect. These results suggest that a large proportion of the motor and phonic symptoms experienced by tic patients are irresistibly but purposefully executed, more akin to compulsions than to the other "involuntary" hyperkinesias with which they are commonly discussed.

  1. Learning New Basic Movements for Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kober, Jens; Peters, Jan

    Obtaining novel skills is one of the most important problems in robotics. Machine learning techniques may be a promising approach for automatic and autonomous acquisition of movement policies. However, this requires both an appropriate policy representation and suitable learning algorithms. Employing the most recent form of the dynamical systems motor primitives originally introduced by Ijspeert et al. [1], we show how both discrete and rhythmic tasks can be learned using a concerted approach of both imitation and reinforcement learning, and present our current best performing learning algorithms. Finally, we show that it is possible to include a start-up phase in rhythmic primitives. We apply our approach to two elementary movements, i.e., Ball-in-a-Cup and Ball-Paddling, which can be learned on a real Barrett WAM robot arm at a pace similar to human learning.

  2. Concert halls with strong and lateral sound increase the emotional impact of orchestra music.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-03-01

    An audience's auditory experience during a thrilling and emotive live symphony concert is an intertwined combination of the music and the acoustic response of the concert hall. Music in itself is known to elicit emotional pleasure, and at best, listening to music may evoke concrete psychophysiological responses. Certain concert halls have gained a reputation for superior acoustics, but despite the continuous research by a multitude of objective and subjective studies on room acoustics, the fundamental reason for the appreciation of some concert halls remains elusive. This study demonstrates that room acoustic effects contribute to the overall emotional experience of a musical performance. In two listening tests, the subjects listen to identical orchestra performances rendered in the acoustics of several concert halls. The emotional excitation during listening is measured in the first experiment, and in the second test, the subjects assess the experienced subjective impact by paired comparisons. The results showed that the sound of some traditional rectangular halls provides greater psychophysiological responses and subjective impact. These findings provide a quintessential explanation for these halls' success and reveal the overall significance of room acoustics for emotional experience in music performance. PMID:27036257

  3. Dance Education as an Aspect of Movement and Mobility in Everyday Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Dance Education can be considered an aspect of everyday living when using the correct definition of dance education. Rather than referring to the rarified form of movement that we encounter on the concert stage, dance education is the education of our moving selves with the goal as self expression. This can be initiated as an aspect of the initial…

  4. Detecting regular sound changes in linguistics as events of concerted evolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hruschka, Daniel  J.; Branford, Simon; Smith, Eric  D.; Wilkins, Jon; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2014-12-18

    Background: Concerted evolution is normally used to describe parallel changes at different sites in a genome, but it is also observed in languages where a specific phoneme changes to the same other phoneme in many words in the lexicon—a phenomenon known as regular sound change. We develop a general statistical model that can detect concerted changes in aligned sequence data and apply it to study regular sound changes in the Turkic language family. Results: Linguistic evolution, unlike the genetic substitutional process, is dominated by events of concerted evolutionary change. Our model identified more than 70 historical events of regular soundmore » change that occurred throughout the evolution of the Turkic language family, while simultaneously inferring a dated phylogenetic tree. Including regular sound changes yielded an approximately 4-fold improvement in the characterization of linguistic change over a simpler model of sporadic change, improved phylogenetic inference, and returned more reliable and plausible dates for events on the phylogenies. The historical timings of the concerted changes closely follow a Poisson process model, and the sound transition networks derived from our model mirror linguistic expectations. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a model with no prior knowledge of complex concerted or regular changes can nevertheless infer the historical timings and genealogical placements of events of concerted change from the signals left in contemporary data. Our model can be applied wherever discrete elements—such as genes, words, cultural trends, technologies, or morphological traits—can change in parallel within an organism or other evolving group.« less

  5. Paul Wittgenstein's right arm and his phantom: the saga of a famous concert pianist and his amputation.

    PubMed

    Boller, François; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs have increased in recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems are still poorly understood and are considered rather mysterious, and they are difficult to treat. In addition, they may shed light on brain physiology and neuropsychology. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Several artists have suffered from postamputation complications and this has influenced not only their personal life but also their artistic work. Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), a pianist whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert performer. His case provides insight into Post-World War I musical and political history. More specifically, the impact on the artistic life of this pianist illustrates various postamputation complications, such as phantom limb, stump pain, and especially moving phantom. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him develop the dexterity of his left hand. Wittgenstein played piano works that were written especially for him (the most famous being Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand) and composed some of his own. Additionally, several famous composers had previously written for the left hand.

  6. An Ethnomethodological Study of Concerted and Biographical Work Performed by Elderly Persons during Game Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangrum, Faye Gothard; Mangrum, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    Two groups of older adults were audio- and videotaped playing dominos. Their conversations were transcribed and analyzed, yielding three categories: biographical work, game-playing details, and concerted work. Games play a significant role for the elderly and can be used to learn life-enhancing skills. (SK)

  7. Living Room vs. Concert Hall: Patterns of Music Consumption in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roose, Henk; Stichele, Alexander Vander

    2010-01-01

    In this article we probe the interplay between public and private music consumption using a large-scale survey of the Flemish population in Belgium. We analyze whether public and private music consumption have different correlates and to what extent there is convergence between the genres that people listen to at home and at concerts. Results show…

  8. Carbon Based Lifeforms @ Cosmonova: A Concert in Sight and Sound for IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callen, T.

    2012-05-01

    Replacing its conventional analogue planetarium with a digital fulldome system, the Cosmonova theatre at the Swedish Museum of Natural History sought to come up with a variety of public offerings for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. Besides several fulldome shows it was decided that a concert of live music would both celebrate the year as well as attempt to attract a new audience.

  9. Reverse engineering the euglenoid movement

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Marino; Heltai, Luca; Millán, Daniel; DeSimone, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Euglenids exhibit an unconventional motility strategy amongst unicellular eukaryotes, consisting of large-amplitude highly concerted deformations of the entire body (euglenoid movement or metaboly). A plastic cell envelope called pellicle mediates these deformations. Unlike ciliary or flagellar motility, the biophysics of this mode is not well understood, including its efficiency and molecular machinery. We quantitatively examine video recordings of four euglenids executing such motions with statistical learning methods. This analysis reveals strokes of high uniformity in shape and pace. We then interpret the observations in the light of a theory for the pellicle kinematics, providing a precise understanding of the link between local actuation by pellicle shear and shape control. We systematically understand common observations, such as the helical conformations of the pellicle, and identify previously unnoticed features of metaboly. While two of our euglenids execute their stroke at constant body volume, the other two exhibit deviations of about 20% from their average volume, challenging current models of low Reynolds number locomotion. We find that the active pellicle shear deformations causing shape changes can reach 340%, and estimate the velocity of the molecular motors. Moreover, we find that metaboly accomplishes locomotion at hydrodynamic efficiencies comparable to those of ciliates and flagellates. Our results suggest new quantitative experiments, provide insight into the evolutionary history of euglenids, and suggest that the pellicle may serve as a model for engineered active surfaces with applications in microfluidics. PMID:23047705

  10. Concerted Services in New Mexico: An Evaluation of Developmental Change. Center Research and Development Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holemon, Richard L.; And Others

    Concerted Services in Training and Education was conceived as one way to minimize the dysfunctional effects of technological developments on rural communities. Three pilot projects were established to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a concerted approach to solving the training problem and other needs of rural people. One project was…

  11. An insight into the Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular aminocyanation and oxycyanation of alkenes: a concerted or stepwise mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiyang; Wang, Guoqiang; Li, Shuhua

    2015-10-28

    Density functional theory investigations reveal that the intramolecular additions of N-CN bonds to alkenes proceed in a novel asynchronous and concerted mechanism, while the intramolecular addition of O-CN bonds to alkenes may occur by both concerted and stepwise pathways.

  12. KCNQ1 Channels Do Not Undergo Concerted but Sequential Gating Transitions in Both the Absence and the Presence of KCNE1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Eshcar; Dvir, Meidan; Haitin, Yoni; Giladi, Moshe; Peretz, Asher; Attali, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The co-assembly of KCNQ1 with KCNE1 produces IKS, a K+ current, crucial for the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Mutations in these channel subunits lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. However, very little is known about the gating mechanisms underlying KCNQ1 channel activation. Shaker channels have provided a powerful tool to establish the basic gating mechanisms of voltage-dependent K+ channels, implying prior independent movement of all four voltage sensor domains (VSDs) followed by channel opening via a last concerted cooperative transition. To determine the nature of KCNQ1 channel gating, we performed a thermodynamic mutant cycle analysis by constructing a concatenated tetrameric KCNQ1 channel and by introducing separately a gain and a loss of function mutation, R231W and R243W, respectively, into the S4 helix of the VSD of one, two, three, and four subunits. The R231W mutation destabilizes channel closure and produces constitutively open channels, whereas the R243W mutation disrupts channel opening solely in the presence of KCNE1 by right-shifting the voltage dependence of activation. The linearity of the relationship between the shift in the voltage dependence of activation and the number of mutated subunits points to an independence of VSD movements, with each subunit incrementally contributing to channel gating. Contrary to Shaker channels, our work indicates that KCNQ1 channels do not experience a late cooperative concerted opening transition. Our data suggest that KCNQ1 channels in both the absence and the presence of KCNE1 undergo sequential gating transitions leading to channel opening even before all VSDs have moved. PMID:22908235

  13. Teaching Creative Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exiner, Johanna; Lloyd, Phyllis

    This guide to creative movement, relevant to all age groups, opens with a discussion of historical and present trends in movement and dance. Chapters treat (a) the body--body awareness, body activities, and relationships; (b) principles of movement--space, force, time, dynamics, and fluency; (c) topics within the sphere of movement, from the world…

  14. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  15. Movement of regulatory RNA between animal cells.

    PubMed

    Jose, Antony M

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that RNA can move from one cell to another and regulate genes through specific base-pairing. Mechanisms that modify or select RNA for secretion from a cell are unclear. Secreted RNA can be stable enough to be detected in the extracellular environment and can enter the cytosol of distant cells to regulate genes. Mechanisms that import RNA into the cytosol of an animal cell can enable uptake of RNA from many sources including other organisms. This role of RNA is akin to that of steroid hormones, which cross cell membranes to regulate genes. The potential diagnostic use of RNA in human extracellular fluids has ignited interest in understanding mechanisms that enable the movement of RNA between animal cells. Genetic model systems will be essential to gain more confidence in proposed mechanisms of RNA transport and to connect an extracellular RNA with a specific biological function. Studies in the worm C. elegans and in other animals have begun to reveal parts of this novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Here, I summarize the current state of this nascent field, highlight the many unknowns, and suggest future directions.

  16. Movement of regulatory RNA between animal cells

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Antony M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies suggest that RNA can move from one cell to another and regulate genes through specific base-pairing. Mechanisms that modify or select RNA for secretion from a cell are unclear. Secreted RNA can be stable enough to be detected in the extracellular environment and can enter the cytosol of distant cells to regulate genes. Mechanisms that import RNA into the cytosol of an animal cell can enable uptake of RNA from many sources including other organisms. This role of RNA is akin to that of steroid hormones, which cross cell membranes to regulate genes. The potential diagnostic use of RNA in human extracellular fluids has ignited interest in understanding mechanisms that enable the movement of RNA between animal cells. Genetic model systems will be essential to gain more confidence in proposed mechanisms of RNA transport and to connect an extracellular RNA with a specific biological function. Studies in the worm C. elegans and in other animals have begun to reveal parts of this novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Here, I summarize the current state of this nascent field, highlight the many unknowns, and suggest future directions. PMID:26138457

  17. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  18. The Concert system - Compiler and runtime technology for efficient concurrent object-oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Andrew A.; Karamcheti, Vijay; Plevyak, John; Sahrawat, Deepak

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented languages, particularly fine-grained approaches, reduce the difficulty of large scale concurrent programming by providing modularity through encapsulation while exposing large degrees of concurrency. Despite these programmability advantages, such languages have historically suffered from poor efficiency. This paper describes the Concert project whose goal is to develop portable, efficient implementations of fine-grained concurrent object-oriented languages. Our approach incorporates aggressive program analysis and program transformation with careful information management at every stage from the compiler to the runtime system. The paper discusses the basic elements of the Concert approach along with a description of the potential payoffs. Initial performance results and specific plans for system development are also detailed.

  19. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  20. Surface Activation of Electrocatalysis at Oxide Electrodes. Concerted Electron-Proton Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Jurss, Jonah W.; Thorp, H. Holden; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-03-21

    Dramatic rate enhancements are observed for the oxidation of phenols, including tyrosine, at indium-tin oxide electrodes modified by the addition of the electron-transfer relays [MII(bpy)2(4,4'-(HO)2P(O)CH2)2bpy)]2+ (M = Ru, Os) with clear evidence for the importance of proton-coupled electron transfer and concerted electron-proton transfer.

  1. Collective Motion of Humans in Mosh and Circle Pits at Heavy Metal Concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse L.; Bierbaum, Matthew; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-05-01

    Human collective behavior can vary from calm to panicked depending on social context. Using videos publicly available online, we study the highly energized collective motion of attendees at heavy metal concerts. We find these extreme social gatherings generate similarly extreme behaviors: a disordered gaslike state called a mosh pit and an ordered vortexlike state called a circle pit. Both phenomena are reproduced in flocking simulations demonstrating that human collective behavior is consistent with the predictions of simplified models.

  2. Identifying concerted evolution and gene conversion in mammalian gene pairs lasting over 100 million years

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Andrew R; Scherer, Stephen W

    2009-01-01

    Background Concerted evolution occurs in multigene families and is characterized by stretches of homogeneity and higher sequence similarity between paralogues than between orthologues. Here we identify human gene pairs that have undergone concerted evolution, caused by ongoing gene conversion, since at least the human-mouse divergence. Our strategy involved the identification of duplicated genes with greater similarity within a species than between species. These genes were required to be present in multiple mammalian genomes, suggesting duplication early in mammalian divergence. To eliminate genes that have been conserved due to strong purifying selection, our analysis also required at least one intron to have retained high sequence similarity between paralogues. Results We identified three human gene pairs undergoing concerted evolution (BMP8A/B, DDX19A/B, and TUBG1/2). Phylogenetic investigations reveal that in each case the duplication appears to have occurred prior to eutherian mammalian radiation, with exactly two paralogues present in all examined species. This indicates that all three gene duplication events were established over 100 million years ago. Conclusion The extended duration of concerted evolution in multiple distant lineages suggests that there has been prolonged homogenization of specific segments within these gene pairs. Although we speculate that selection for homogenization could have been utilized in order to maintain crucial homo- or hetero- binding domains, it remains unclear why gene conversion has persisted for such extended periods of time. Through these analyses, our results demonstrate additional examples of a process that plays a definite, although unspecified, role in molecular evolution. PMID:19583854

  3. Palladium(II)-catalyzed direct alkoxylation of arenes: evidence for solvent-assisted concerted metalation deprotonation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Megha; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2011-09-16

    Density functional theory investigations on the mechanism of palladium acetate catalyzed direct alkoxylation of N-methoxybenzamide in methanol reveal that the key steps involve solvent-assisted N-H as well as C-H bond activations. The transition state for the critical palladium-carbon bond formation through a concerted metalation deprotonation (CMD) process leading to a palladacycle intermediate has been found to be more stable in the methanol-assisted pathway as compared to an unassisted route.

  4. The link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in Tremblaya princeps

    PubMed Central

    López-Madrigal, Sergio; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. The betaproteobacterium “Candidatus Tremblaya” maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which are classified in subfamilies Phenacoccinae and Pseudococcinae. Most Phenacoccinae mealybugs have “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola” as their unique endosymbiont, while most Pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed inside another one) where every “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” cell harbors several cells of a gammaproteobacterium. Genomic characterization of the endosymbiotic consortium from Planococcus citri, composed by “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia,” unveiled several atypical features of the former's genome, including the concerted evolution of paralogous loci. Its comparison with the genome of “Ca. Tremblaya phenacola” PAVE, single endosymbiont of Phenacoccus avenae, suggests that the atypical reductive evolution of “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” could be linked to the acquisition of “Ca. Moranella endobia,” which possess an almost complete set of genes encoding proteins involved in homologous recombination. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed comparative genomics between “Ca. Tremblaya phenacola” and “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” and searched for the co-occurrence of concerted evolution and homologous recombination genes in endosymbiotic consortia from four unexplored mealybug species, Dysmicoccus boninsis, Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus longispinus, and Pseudococcus viburni. Our results support a link between concerted evolution and nested endosymbiosis. PMID:26161080

  5. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of concerted (U5/U3) integration

    PubMed Central

    Grandgenett, Duane P.; Bera, Sibes; Pandey, Krishan K.; Vora, Ajaykumar C.; Zahm, Jacob; Sinha, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    Retrovirus integrase (IN) integrates the viral linear DNA genome (~10 kb) into a host chromosome, a step which is essential for viral replication. Integration occurs via a nucleoprotein complex, termed the preintegration complex (PIC). This article focuses on the reconstitution of synaptic complexes from purified components whose molecular properties mirror those of the PIC, including the efficient concerted integration of two ends of linear viral DNA into target DNA. The methods described herein permit the biochemical and biophysical analyses of concerted integration. The methods enable: 1) the study of interactions between purified recombinant IN and its viral DNA substrates at the molecular level; 2) the identification and characterization of nucleoprotein complexes involved in the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) concerted integration pathway; 3) the determination of the multimeric state of IN within these complexes; 4) dissection of the interaction between HIV-1 IN and cellular proteins such as lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75); 5) the examination of HIV-1 Class II and strand transfer inhibitor resistant IN mutants; and 6) the mechanisms associated with strand transfer inhibitors directed against HIV-1 IN that have clinical relevance in the treatment of HIV-1/AIDS. PMID:19049878

  6. Disentangling preference ratings of concert hall acoustics using subjective sensory profiles.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari

    2012-11-01

    Subjective evaluation of acoustics was studied by recording nine concert halls with a simulated symphony orchestra on a seat 12 m from the orchestra. The recorded music was spatially reproduced for subjective listening tests and individual vocabulary profiling. In addition, the preferences of the assessors and objective parameters were gathered. The results show that concert halls were discriminated using perceptual characteristics, such as Envelopment/Loudness, Reverberance, Bassiness, Proximity, Definition, and Clarity. With these perceptual dimensions the preference ratings can be explained. Seventeen assessors were divided into two groups based on their preferences. The first group preferred concert halls with relatively intimate sound, in which it is quite easy to hear individual instruments and melody lines. In contrast, the second group preferred a louder and more reverberant sound with good envelopment and strong bass. Even though all halls were recorded exactly at the same distance, the preference is best explained with subjective Proximity and with Bassiness, Envelopment, and Loudness to some extent. Neither the preferences nor the subjective ratings could be fully explained by objective parameters (ISO3382-1:2009), although some correlations were found.

  7. Relationships between preference ratings, sensory profiles, and acoustical measurements in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of concert hall acoustics are explored with preference mapping. The investigation is performed on previously gathered data from individual vocabulary profiling of nine concert halls and three pieces of symphonic music, namely, excerpts of compositions by Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mozart. Individual preferences are regressed onto a latent three-dimensional sensory space obtained by multiple factor analysis of descriptive sensory data. Overlaying individually estimated preference surfaces onto one another produces preference maps which illustrates both the overall preference of the stimuli as well as differences between individual listeners. A comparison of the maps between music motifs illustrates how each music signal affects the weighting of different acoustical qualities in preference judgments. Differences in preferences between individuals are pronounced in the excerpts of Beethoven and Bruckner, while the responses are more homogeneous for Mozart music motif. Overall, proximity is identified as the main aspect associated with preference, but also loudness, envelopment, and bass are important. A correlation analysis of objective parameters and subjective perceptions substantiates the importance of lateral sound energy for good concert hall acoustics. Particularly, the lateral early energy fraction at high frequencies is found to be associated with the perception of proximity, and hence, also with preference.

  8. Concerted evolution at the population level: pupfish HindIII satellite DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Elder, J F; Turner, B J

    1994-01-01

    The canonical monomers (approximately 170 bp) of an abundant (1.9 x 10(6) copies per diploid genome) satellite DNA sequence family in the genome of Cyprinodon variegatus, a "pupfish" that ranges along the Atlantic coast from Cape Cod to central Mexico, are divergent in base sequence in 10 of 12 samples collected from natural populations. The divergence involves substitutions, deletions, and insertions, is marked in scope (mean pairwise sequence similarity = 61.6%; range = 35-95.9%), is largely confined to the 3' half of the monomer, and is not correlated with the distance among collecting sites. Repetitive cloning and direct genomic sequencing experiments failed to detect intrapopulation and intraindividual variation, suggesting high levels of sequence homogeneity within populations. The satellite sequence has therefore undergone "concerted evolution," at the level of the local population. Concerted evolution has previously almost always been discussed in terms of the divergence of species or higher taxa; its intraspecific occurrence apparently has not been reported previously. The generality of the observation is difficult to evaluate, for although satellite DNAs from a large number of organisms have been studied in detail, there appear to be little or no other data on their sequence variation in natural populations. The relationship (if any) between concerted, population level, satellite DNA divergence and the extent of gene flow/genetic isolation among conspecific natural populations remains to be established. Images PMID:8302879

  9. Relationships between preference ratings, sensory profiles, and acoustical measurements in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of concert hall acoustics are explored with preference mapping. The investigation is performed on previously gathered data from individual vocabulary profiling of nine concert halls and three pieces of symphonic music, namely, excerpts of compositions by Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mozart. Individual preferences are regressed onto a latent three-dimensional sensory space obtained by multiple factor analysis of descriptive sensory data. Overlaying individually estimated preference surfaces onto one another produces preference maps which illustrates both the overall preference of the stimuli as well as differences between individual listeners. A comparison of the maps between music motifs illustrates how each music signal affects the weighting of different acoustical qualities in preference judgments. Differences in preferences between individuals are pronounced in the excerpts of Beethoven and Bruckner, while the responses are more homogeneous for Mozart music motif. Overall, proximity is identified as the main aspect associated with preference, but also loudness, envelopment, and bass are important. A correlation analysis of objective parameters and subjective perceptions substantiates the importance of lateral sound energy for good concert hall acoustics. Particularly, the lateral early energy fraction at high frequencies is found to be associated with the perception of proximity, and hence, also with preference. PMID:24437764

  10. A statistical analysis of acetylcholine receptor activation in Xenopus myocytes: stepwise versus concerted models of gating.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, A

    1993-01-01

    1. The kinetic properties of single channel currents from fetal-type acetylcholine receptors in embryonic Xenopus myocytes (60 h old) have been analysed by a maximum-likelihood method. 2. At very high acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations (up to 5 mM) the effective opening rate appears to saturate at approximately 30,000 s-1. 3. The kinetics were analysed according to the standard concerted scheme that postulates a single channel-opening conformational change after two agonists are bound, and a rarely invoked stepwise scheme that postulates semi-independent conformational changes in two distinct gating domains. Both models assume that agonist cannot escape from a channel (or domain) that is in its activated conformation. 4. With either activation scheme the kinetic analyses indicate that ACh binds at a rate of approximately 2 x 10(8) s-1 M-1 and dissociates from doubly liganded receptors at a rate of approximately 28,000 s-1, and that the activation process is asymmetric, i.e. the binding (concerted model) or gating (stepwise model) transitions are not equal and independent. 5. In eighteen of twenty-seven file-by-file comparisons, the likelihood of the stepwise model was greater than that of the concerted model. In seven such comparisons, the likelihood of the concerted model was greater than that of the stepwise model, and in two there was no difference. Log likelihood ratio distributions were obtained from three files (those with the most events) by multiple cycles of resampling and fitting. The means of these distributions were significantly greater than zero, indicating that the stepwise scheme was as good as, or better than, the concerted scheme in describing receptor activation. 6. According to the stepwise view, two binding sites must be occupied and two 'gates' activated for conduction to occur. Although equivalent binding is not an essential aspect of stepwise activation, the binding sites can be identical and have a low affinity for ACh (Kd approximately 130

  11. Relationship Between Type of Bow Holding and Propagation of Performed Sound in Small Concert Hall in Violin Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2005-03-01

    The propagation of violin sound performed by eight amateur players was compared in the front and rear seats of a small concert hall. It was found that the propagation of the performed sound in the hall is different according to the type of bow holding of the players and the difference of the instrument. The relationship between the player and the instrument influences the listeners’ impressions in the concert hall. It is important to perform a sound that is adjusted to the characteristics of the concert hall to minimize the decrease in the sound level in the rear seats of the hall.

  12. Continuous cost movement models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limp, W. Fredrick

    1991-01-01

    Use of current space imaging systems and airborne platforms has direct use in survey design and site location when used in concert with a comprehensive GIS environment. Local conditions and site physical and chemical properties are key factors in successful applications. Conjoining of environmental constraints and site properties are present for the later prehistoric occupations in the Arkansas and Mississippi River areas. Direct linkages between comprehensive site databases and satellite images can be used to evaluate site distributions for research and management.

  13. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  14. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy (chorea gravidarum) Stroke Systemic lupus erythematosus Tardive dyskinesia (a condition that can be caused by medicines ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  15. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  16. Emerging Identity through Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowen, Betty

    Movement is one of the primary ways in which the young child finds out about his world. Experiences in movement help the young child to develop a healthy sense of identity. Through movement, children: (1) learn, as infants, to distinguish themselves from the outside world; (2) find out what they can do and how they can affect their environment;…

  17. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  18. [The "Participatory" Movement].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the trajectory of the Participatory Movement (MP), which was created in opposition to the policies carried out by the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). This article, written by the first president elected of the "participatory" movement, presents the principles of the movement, its organization, the struggle for leadership, and the work developed in the first administration.

  19. Exposure and materiality of the secondary room and its impact on the impulse response of coupled-volume concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty

    2005-06-01

    How does sound decay when one room is partially exposed to another (acoustically coupled)? More specifically, this research aims to quantify how operational and design decisions impact sound fields in the design of concert halls with acoustical coupling. By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer, and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study a coupled-volume shoebox concert hall is conceived with a fixed geometric volume, form, and primary-room sound absorption. Aperture size and secondary-room sound absorption levels are established as variables. Statistical analysis of sound decay in this simulated hall suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and (1) architectural composition, as defined by the aperture size exposing the chamber and (2) materiality, as defined by the sound absorptance in the coupled volume. The theoretical, mathematical predictions are compared with coupled-volume concert hall field measurements and guidelines are suggested for future designs of coupled-volume concert halls.

  20. A Coordinated Emergency Response: A Color Dust Explosion at a 2015 Concert in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, nearly 500 concert attendees suffered injuries from smoke inhalation and severe burns following a color-dust explosion at a waterpark in Taiwan. We report on the progressions of the incident and government responses, share cross-departmental mobilization and case management lessons, and reflect on clinical and complex policy issues emerged. The timely and coordinated emergency responses, a high-quality universal health care system, and dedicated clinicians voluntarily working overtime resulted in an unprecedented 2.4% mortality rate (international statistics predicted 26.8%). PMID:27459446

  1. Observation of Metastable Structural Excitations and Concerted Atomic Motions on a Crystal Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Golovchenko, Jene

    1992-11-01

    The addition of a small number of lead atoms to a germanium(111) surface reduces the energy barrier for activated processes, and with a tunneling microscope it is possible to observe concerted atomic motions and metastable structures on this surface near room temperature. The formation and annihilation of these metastable structural surface excitations is associated with the shift in position of large numbers of germanium surface atoms along a specific row direction like beads on an abacus. The effect provides a mechanism for understanding the transport of atoms on a semiconductor surface.

  2. Photodissociation of phosgene: Theoretical evidence for the ultrafast and synchronous concerted three-body process

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Qiu; Zhang Feng; Shen Lin; Fang Weihai; Luo Yi

    2009-10-28

    The potential energy surfaces for Cl{sub 2}CO dissociation into CO+Cl+Cl in the lowest two electronic singlet states (S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}) have been determined by the complete active space self-consistent field, coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (CCSD), and equation-of-motion CCSD calculations, which are followed by direct ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to explore its photodissociation dynamics at 230 nm. It is found that the C-O stretching mode is initially excited upon irradiation and the excess internal energies are transferred to the C-Cl symmetric stretching mode within 200 fs. On average, the first and the second C-Cl bonds break completely within subsequent 60 and 100 fs, respectively. Electronic structure and dynamics calculations have thus provided a strong evidence that the photoinitiated dissociation of Cl{sub 2}CO at 230 nm or shorter wavelengths is an ultrafast, adiabatic, and concerted three-body process. Since the two C-Cl bonds begin to break at the same time and the time interval between the two C-Cl bond broken fully is very short ({approx}40 fs), the photoinitiated dissociation of Cl{sub 2}CO to CO+2Cl can be considered as the synchronous concerted process.

  3. Duplication and concerted evolution in a master sex determiner under balancing selection

    PubMed Central

    Privman, Eyal; Wurm, Yannick; Keller, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is a key regulator in the signalling hierarchy controlling all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila and other insects. Here, we show that six of the seven sequenced ants have two copies of tra. Surprisingly, the two paralogues are always more similar within species than among species. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that this pattern is owing to the ongoing concerted evolution after an ancestral duplication rather than independent duplications in each of the six species. In particular, there was strong support for inter-locus recombination between the paralogues of the ant Atta cephalotes. In the five species where the location of paralogues is known, they are adjacent to each other in four cases and separated by only few genes in the fifth case. Because there have been extensive genomic rearrangements in these lineages, this suggests selection acting to conserve their synteny. In three species, we also find a signature of positive selection in one of the paralogues. In three bee species where information is available, the tra gene is also duplicated, the copies are adjacent and in at least one species there was recombination between paralogues. These results suggest that concerted evolution plays an adaptive role in the evolution of this gene family. PMID:23466984

  4. Bringing Astronomy Directly to New Audiences (50,000 People) at Outdoor Concerts and Music Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2014-07-01

    My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While < 50% of the participants took part in a science museum or activity in the past year (survey result), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). Taking science directly to people is effective in promoting science education!

  5. Stepwise Versus Concerted Mechanisms in General-Base Catalysis by Serine Proteases.

    PubMed

    Uritsky, Neta; Shokhen, Michael; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-01-26

    General-base catalysis in serine proteases still poses mechanistic challenges despite decades of research. Whether proton transfer from the catalytic Ser to His and nucleophilic attack on the substrate are concerted or stepwise is still under debate, even for the classical Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad. To address these key catalytic steps, the transformation of the Michaelis complex to tetrahedral complex in the covalent inhibition of two prototype serine proteases was studied: chymotrypsin (with the catalytic triad) inhibition by a peptidyl trifluoromethane and GlpG rhomboid (with Ser-His dyad) inhibition by an isocoumarin derivative. The sampled MD trajectories of averaged pKa  values of catalytic residues were QM calculated by the MD-QM/SCRF(VS) method on molecular clusters simulating the active site. Differences between concerted and stepwise mechanisms are controlled by the dynamically changing pKa  values of the catalytic residues as a function of their progressively reduced water exposure, caused by the incoming ligand.

  6. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  7. Concerted Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondria of Species of the Flatfish Family Bothidae (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-He; Shi, Wei; Munroe, Thomas A; Gong, Li; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mitogenomes of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) exhibit the greatest diversity of gene rear-rangements in teleostean fishes. Duplicate control regions (CRs) have been found in the mito-genomes of two flatfishes, Samariscus latus (Samaridae) and Laeops lanceolata (Bothidae), which is rare in teleosts. It has been reported that duplicate CRs have evolved in a concerted fashion in fishes and other animals, however, whether concerted evo-lution exists in flatfishes remains unknown. In this study, based on five newly sequenced and six previously reported mitogenomes of lefteye flounders in the Bothidae, we explored whether duplicate CRs and concerted evolution exist in these species. Results based on the present study and previous reports show that four out of eleven bothid species examined have duplicate CRs of their mitogenomes. The core regions of the duplicate CRs of mitogenomes in the same species have identical, or nearly identical, sequences when compared to each other. This pattern fits the typical characteristics of concerted evolution. Additionally, phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis also provided evidence to support the hypothesis that duplicate CRs evolved concertedly. The core region of concerted evolution is situated at the conserved domains of the CR of the mitogenome from the termination associated sequences (TASs) to the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Commonly, this region is con-sidered to regulate mitochondrial replication and transcription. Thus, we hypothesize that the cause of concerted evolution of the duplicate CRs in the mtDNAs of these four bothids may be related to some function of the conserved sequences of the CRs during mitochondrial rep-lication and transcription. We hope our results will provide fresh insight into the molecular mechanisms related to replication and evolution of mitogenomes.

  8. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  9. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  10. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  11. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  12. Concerted and asynchronous mechanism of ground state proton transfer in alcohol mediated 7-hydroxyquinoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Baotao; Jang, Du-Jeon; Lee, Jin Yong

    2015-07-01

    Alcohols mediated 7-hydroxyquinoline (7-HQ) complex has received enormous attractions on the issue of proton transfer reaction in the ground and excited states. In the present paper, concentrating on the ground state proton transfer (GSPT), density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to investigate the intrinsic insight into the reaction mechanism. We found that the GSPT is concerted and asynchronous process and can be accelerated by more acidic alcohol. Such GSPT was initiated by the proton transfer from alcohol to keto group of 7-HQ and finished by the proton transfer from nitrogen to alcohol. Our findings were in agreement with experimental conclusions quite well. Our results would be helpful to understand the proton transfer reaction for 7-HQ and related systems.

  13. Is the Beckmann rearrangement a concerted or stepwise reaction? A computational study.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Shinichi; Tsuchida, Noriko; Yamazaki, Shoko

    2005-12-23

    [reaction: see text] RB3LYP calculations were performed on the Beckman rearrangement by the use of three substrates, acetone oxime (1), acetophenone oxime (2), and cyclohexanone oxime (3). Acidic solvents were modeled by H+ (CH3COOH)3 and H3O+ (H2O)6, and reaction paths were determined precisely. For 1, a two-step process involving a sigma-type cationic complex was obtained. For 2, a three-step process with pi- and sigma-type complexes was found in H+ (CH3COOH)3 and a two-step process involving a sigma-type cationic complex was obtained in H3O+ (H2O)6. However, for 3, a concerted process without pi and sigma complexes was calculated, which leads to the product, epsilon-caprolactam. Three different mechanisms were explained in terms of FMO theory.

  14. An analysis of concert saxophone vibrato through the examination of recordings by eight prominent soloists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinninger, Thomas

    This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.

  15. Pyridine as proton acceptor in the concerted proton electron transfer oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Julien; Costentin, Cyrille; Robert, Marc; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Taking pyridine as a prototypal example of biologically important nitrogen bases involved in proton-coupled electron transfers, it is shown with the example of the photochemically triggered oxidation of phenol by Ru(III)(bpy)(3) that this proton acceptor partakes in a concerted pathway whose kinetic characteristics can be extracted from the overall kinetic response. The treatment of these data, implemented by the results of a parallel study carried out in heavy water, allowed the determination of the intrinsic kinetic characteristics of this proton acceptor. Comparison of the reorganization energies and of the pre-exponential factors previously derived for hydrogen phosphate and water (in water) as proton acceptors suggests that, in the case of pyridine, the proton charge is delocalized over a primary shell of water molecules firmly bound to the pyridinium cation. PMID:21499600

  16. Pyridine as proton acceptor in the concerted proton electron transfer oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Julien; Costentin, Cyrille; Robert, Marc; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Taking pyridine as a prototypal example of biologically important nitrogen bases involved in proton-coupled electron transfers, it is shown with the example of the photochemically triggered oxidation of phenol by Ru(III)(bpy)(3) that this proton acceptor partakes in a concerted pathway whose kinetic characteristics can be extracted from the overall kinetic response. The treatment of these data, implemented by the results of a parallel study carried out in heavy water, allowed the determination of the intrinsic kinetic characteristics of this proton acceptor. Comparison of the reorganization energies and of the pre-exponential factors previously derived for hydrogen phosphate and water (in water) as proton acceptors suggests that, in the case of pyridine, the proton charge is delocalized over a primary shell of water molecules firmly bound to the pyridinium cation.

  17. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  18. The Human Potential Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    The advent of the human potential movement has generated the expectation that educators unleash the intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual talents of students. This movement is characterized by its focus on (1) the person as a total being, (2) the needs and concerns of students, (3) phenomenology, (4) personal values and goals, and (5)…

  19. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  20. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  1. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  2. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins.

  3. Microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin filament precursors is regulated by actin and by the concerted action of Rho- and p21-activated kinases.

    PubMed

    Robert, Amélie; Herrmann, Harald; Davidson, Michael W; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2014-07-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) form a dense and dynamic network that is functionally associated with microtubules and actin filaments. We used the GFP-tagged vimentin mutant Y117L to study vimentin-cytoskeletal interactions and transport of vimentin filament precursors. This mutant preserves vimentin interaction with other components of the cytoskeleton, but its assembly is blocked at the unit-length filament (ULF) stage. ULFs are easy to track, and they allow a reliable and quantifiable analysis of movement. Our results show that in cultured human vimentin-negative SW13 cells, 2% of vimentin-ULFs move along microtubules bidirectionally, while the majority are stationary and tightly associated with actin filaments. Rapid motor-dependent transport of ULFs along microtubules is enhanced ≥ 5-fold by depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin B. The microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin ULFs is further regulated by Rho-kinase (ROCK) and p21-activated kinase (PAK): ROCK inhibits ULF transport, while PAK stimulates it. Both kinases act on microtubule transport independently of their effects on actin cytoskeleton. Our study demonstrates the importance of the actin cytoskeleton to restrict IF transport and reveals a new role for PAK and ROCK in the regulation of IF precursor transport.-Robert, A., Herrmann, H., Davidson, M. W., and Gelfand, V. I. Microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin filament precursors is regulated by actin and by the concerted action of Rho- and p21-activated kinases.

  4. Microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin filament precursors is regulated by actin and by the concerted action of Rho- and p21-activated kinases

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Amélie; Herrmann, Harald; Davidson, Michael W.; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) form a dense and dynamic network that is functionally associated with microtubules and actin filaments. We used the GFP-tagged vimentin mutant Y117L to study vimentin-cytoskeletal interactions and transport of vimentin filament precursors. This mutant preserves vimentin interaction with other components of the cytoskeleton, but its assembly is blocked at the unit-length filament (ULF) stage. ULFs are easy to track, and they allow a reliable and quantifiable analysis of movement. Our results show that in cultured human vimentin-negative SW13 cells, 2% of vimentin-ULFs move along microtubules bidirectionally, while the majority are stationary and tightly associated with actin filaments. Rapid motor-dependent transport of ULFs along microtubules is enhanced ≥5-fold by depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin B. The microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin ULFs is further regulated by Rho-kinase (ROCK) and p21-activated kinase (PAK): ROCK inhibits ULF transport, while PAK stimulates it. Both kinases act on microtubule transport independently of their effects on actin cytoskeleton. Our study demonstrates the importance of the actin cytoskeleton to restrict IF transport and reveals a new role for PAK and ROCK in the regulation of IF precursor transport.—Robert, A., Herrmann, H., Davidson, M. W., and Gelfand, V. I. Microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin filament precursors is regulated by actin and by the concerted action of Rho- and p21-activated kinases. PMID:24652946

  5. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire that included both closed- and open-ended questions. Question development was informed by insights from the literature on UHC, Cox's framework for action, and Kingdon's multiple-stream theory of policy formation. The closed questions were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions using grounded theory approach. The analysis demonstrates that most BRICS countries implicitly supported the global movement for UHC, and that they share an active engagement in promoting UHC. However, only Brazil, China and to some extent South Africa, were recognized as proactively pushing UHC in the global agenda. In addition, despite some concerted actions, BRICS countries seem to act more as individual countries rather that as an allied group. These findings suggest that BRICS are unlikely to be a unified political block that will transform global health governance. Yet the documented involvement of BRICS in the global movement supporting UHC, and their focus on domestic challenges, shows that BRICS individually are increasingly influential players in global health. So if BRICS countries should probably not be portrayed as the centre of future political community that will transform global health governance, their individual involvement in global health, and their documented concerted actions, may give greater voice to low- and middle-income countries supporting the emergence of multiple centres of powers in global health.

  6. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire that included both closed- and open-ended questions. Question development was informed by insights from the literature on UHC, Cox's framework for action, and Kingdon's multiple-stream theory of policy formation. The closed questions were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions using grounded theory approach. The analysis demonstrates that most BRICS countries implicitly supported the global movement for UHC, and that they share an active engagement in promoting UHC. However, only Brazil, China and to some extent South Africa, were recognized as proactively pushing UHC in the global agenda. In addition, despite some concerted actions, BRICS countries seem to act more as individual countries rather that as an allied group. These findings suggest that BRICS are unlikely to be a unified political block that will transform global health governance. Yet the documented involvement of BRICS in the global movement supporting UHC, and their focus on domestic challenges, shows that BRICS individually are increasingly influential players in global health. So if BRICS countries should probably not be portrayed as the centre of future political community that will transform global health governance, their individual involvement in global health, and their documented concerted actions, may give greater voice to low- and middle-income countries supporting the emergence of multiple centres of powers in global health. PMID:26704179

  7. Sound Pressure Levels Measured in a University Concert Band: A Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nicholas V., III

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have reported public school band directors as experiencing noise-induced hearing loss. Little research has focused on collegiate band directors and university student musicians. The present study measures the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and compares sound levels with the criteria set by the…

  8. Teachers' Guide and Program Notes for Youth Symphony Concerts Grades 4-6. Honolulu Symphony, 1983-84 Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Marvin

    These resources and activities are intended to introduce intermediate grade students to and help them enjoy and appreciate the children's concerts sponsored by the Honolulu Symphony. The guide is for the program, "A Musical Space Trip," for children in grades 4-5. The instruments used by the symphony are outlined, and pre- and post-teaching…

  9. Teachers' Guide and Program Notes for Youth Symphony Concerts Grades K-3. Honolulu Symphony, 1983-84 Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Marvin

    These resources and activities are intended to introduce primary school children to and help them enjoy and appreciate the children's concerts sponsored by the Honolulu Symphony. The guide is for the symphony program, "It's Circus Time," for children in grades K-3. The instruments used by the symphony are outlined, and pre- and post-teaching…

  10. "Posh Music Should Equal Posh Dress": An Investigation into the Concert Dress and Physical Appearance of Female Soloists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Noola K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of concert dress and physical appearance on perceptions of female classical soloists' musical abilities over a range of genres. Four female violinists were recorded playing three pieces, in four styles of dress of varying formality. Each combination of performer, piece and dress was recorded twice, once as the…

  11. A Preliminary Appraisal of Concerted Services in Training and Education in Rural Areas. Occasional Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coster, John K.

    In order to gather information on which to base decisions regarding the continuation of the Concerted Services in Training and Education in Rural Areas, a preliminary appraisal was made of three pilot projects located in Arkansas, New Mexico, and Minnesota. Overall impressions and reactions to attainment of objectives were made, and some major…

  12. Warm-Up Activities of Middle and High School Band Directors Participating in State-Level Concert Band Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Justin P.; Hancock, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the warm-ups chosen by concert band directors participating in state-level performance assessments. We observed 29 middle and high school bands and coded the frequency and duration of warm-up activities and behaviors. Results indicated that most bands rehearsed music and played scales, long tones, and…

  13. Movement coordination during conversation.

    PubMed

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S; Munhall, K G

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  14. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  15. Fluid movement and creativity.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement.

  16. Evaluation of sound fields in a concert hall involving scattered reflections applying the subjective preference theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Yukio

    2003-08-01

    Convex tilted rear walls in a stage enclosure, an array of circular columns installed in front of walls, and triangular reflectors above the stage were newly adopted as scattering obstacles in an acoustic design of Tsuyama Music Cultural Hall, called ``Bell Fole‸t Tsuyama.'' The fundamental shape of the hall was designed using the theory of subjective preference. To calculate the effects of scattered reflections on a sound field in a real concert hall is extremely laborious. For this reason, the evaluation of effects of scattered reflections on the sound field in the hall was made experimentally by use of a 110 acoustical scale. After construction of the hall, therefore, sound fields of the hall, which involves scattered reflections caused by the tilted convex rear, by the array of circular columns, and by the triangular reflectors, were measured using four orthogonal physical factors (LL, Δt1, Tsub, IACC) described in the theory and the acoustical character of these scattering obstacles was clarified. Results clearly showed that these new attempts on scattered reflections substantially improved the quality of the sound field in the hall. Thesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from Yukio Suzumura. E-mail address: ysuzu11@lapis.plala.or.jp

  17. PKA activation in concert with ARIS and asterosap induces the acrosome reaction in starfish.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Sadiqul; Kawase, O; Hase, S; Hoshi, M; Matsumoto, M

    2006-11-01

    The acrosome reaction (AR) is a fundamental event for fertilization, which is induced in concert with acrosome reaction-inducing substance (ARIS) and asterosap, both of which are components of starfish egg jelly (EJ). During the AR, a spermatozoon undergoes a series of physiological changes, such as in intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP]i), pHi and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Affinity purification of cGMP-binding protein resulted in the isolation of a regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), suggesting the involvement of a cAMP-dependent pathway in the AR. By using a cAMP enzyme immunoassay, [cAMP]i was found to increase in starfish spermatozoa when stimulated with ARIS and asterosap. ARIS could also increase the [cAMP]i in the presence of high pH seawater. Pretreatment of spermatozoa with two specific and cell-permeable PKA inhibitors, H89 and KT5720, prevented the induction of the AR in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that PKA activity participates in the induction of the AR with ARIS and asterosap. To investigate this, we have cloned a gene that encodes a regulatory subunit of PKA that had been identified in starfish spermatozoa.

  18. Sperm Bindin Divergence under Sexual Selection and Concerted Evolution in Sea Stars.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Susana; Keever, Carson C; Sunday, Jennifer M; Popovic, Iva; Byrne, Maria; Hart, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    Selection associated with competition among males or sexual conflict between mates can create positive selection for high rates of molecular evolution of gamete recognition genes and lead to reproductive isolation between species. We analyzed coding sequence and repetitive domain variation in the gene encoding the sperm acrosomal protein bindin in 13 diverse sea star species. We found that bindin has a conserved coding sequence domain structure in all 13 species, with several repeated motifs in a large central region that is similar among all sea stars in organization but highly divergent among genera in nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence. More bindin codons and lineages showed positive selection for high relative rates of amino acid substitution in genera with gonochoric outcrossing adults (and greater expected strength of sexual selection) than in selfing hermaphrodites. That difference is consistent with the expectation that selfing (a highly derived mating system) may moderate the strength of sexual selection and limit the accumulation of bindin amino acid differences. The results implicate both positive selection on single codons and concerted evolution within the repetitive region in bindin divergence, and suggest that both single amino acid differences and repeat differences may affect sperm-egg binding and reproductive compatibility.

  19. [A concertation experience: prevention of WMSDs in workmanship of Parmigiano-Reggiano].

    PubMed

    Zecchi, G

    2012-01-01

    The dairy industry of Parmigiano-Reggiano represents in Emilia a resource and an important source of employment. A Protected Designation of Origin (DOP) regulates all stages of processing of milk into cheese "forms" in excess of 40 kg weight, favouring a "traditional" working which involves various manual steps tiring and stressful. From 2002 to 2008 the Service in charge of the Azienda USL of Reggio Emilia has developed a plan focused on musculoskeletal risks in this sector. The need for comparison on the conservation "craftsmanship" of the complex manufacturing process maintaining high attention to health and safety brought the AUSL of Reggio E. and later the AUSL of Modena and Parma, to choose the path of concertation with the social partners, aiming at substantial and non-formal application of the law. It is thus obtained the adoption of preventive measures in a sector so peculiar, complex and constantly changing. Conciliation remains privileged tool in relations between social partners and AUSL of Reggio E. in dairies. PMID:23405696

  20. Probabilistic models of expectation violation predict psychophysiological emotional responses to live concert music.

    PubMed

    Egermann, Hauke; Pearce, Marcus T; Wiggins, Geraint A; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a study testing the often-theorized role of musical expectations in inducing listeners' emotions in a live flute concert experiment with 50 participants. Using an audience response system developed for this purpose, we measured subjective experience and peripheral psychophysiological changes continuously. To confirm the existence of the link between expectation and emotion, we used a threefold approach. (1) On the basis of an information-theoretic cognitive model, melodic pitch expectations were predicted by analyzing the musical stimuli used (six pieces of solo flute music). (2) A continuous rating scale was used by half of the audience to measure their experience of unexpectedness toward the music heard. (3) Emotional reactions were measured using a multicomponent approach: subjective feeling (valence and arousal rated continuously by the other half of the audience members), expressive behavior (facial EMG), and peripheral arousal (the latter two being measured in all 50 participants). Results confirmed the predicted relationship between high-information-content musical events, the violation of musical expectations (in corresponding ratings), and emotional reactions (psychologically and physiologically). Musical structures leading to expectation reactions were manifested in emotional reactions at different emotion component levels (increases in subjective arousal and autonomic nervous system activations). These results emphasize the role of musical structure in emotion induction, leading to a further understanding of the frequently experienced emotional effects of music. PMID:23605956

  1. Concerted Breaking of Two Hydrogen Bonds in Water Hexamer Prism Revealed from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jeremy O.; Perez, Cristobal; Lobsiger, Simon; Reid, Adam A.; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Wales, David J.; Pate, Brooks; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, we have used H218O water substitution to determine the structures of water clusters by molecular rotational spectroscopy. In the case of the water hexamer, the energy difference between the cage and prism structures is calculated to be about 0.1 kcal/mol and this energy difference is of the order of the zero-point energy variation between the isomers. Using rotational spectroscopy we provided experimental evidence for three isomers, i.e, cage, prism and book and established their relative energy ordering. In the special case of the prism hexamer, cluster dynamics causes measurable splitting in rotational transitions resulting from tunneling between discernible equivalent minima. Multiple isotopic substitution measurements involving all 64 possible isotopologues of the water hexamer prism (H218O)n(H216O)6-n were performed in order to identify the water molecules involved in the tunneling motion. The analysis of these tunneling-rotation spectra suggests that there are two distinct tunneling paths that involve concerted motion of two water molecules, implying a prototype scenario involving the breaking of two hydrogen bonds. C. Pérez, et al, Science. 2012, 336 897-901 J. O. Richardson et al, Science. 2016, in press

  2. Rainforests as concert halls for birds: are reverberations improving sound transmission of long song elements?

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Erwin; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel; Winkler, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In forests reverberations have probably detrimental and beneficial effects on avian communication. They constrain signal discrimination by masking fast repetitive sounds and they improve signal detection by elongating sounds. This ambivalence of reflections for animal signals in forests is similar to the influence of reverberations on speech or music in indoor sound transmission. Since comparisons of sound fields of forests and concert halls have demonstrated that reflections can contribute in both environments a considerable part to the energy of a received sound, it is here assumed that reverberations enforce also birdsong in forests. Song elements have to be long enough to be superimposed by reflections and therefore longer signals should be louder than shorter ones. An analysis of the influence of signal length on pure tones and on song elements of two sympatric rainforest thrush species demonstrates that longer sounds are less attenuated. The results indicate that higher sound pressure level is caused by superimposing reflections. It is suggested that this beneficial effect of reverberations explains interspecific birdsong differences in element length. Transmission paths with stronger reverberations in relation to direct sound should favor the use of longer signals for better propagation.

  3. Analysis of Sabine and Eyring equations and their application to concert hall audience and chair absorption.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L

    2006-09-01

    Historically, two equations have been used for predicting reverberation times, Sabine and Eyring. A precise means is presented for determining Eyring absorption coefficients alpha(eyring) when the Sabine coefficients alpha(sabine) are known, and vice versa. Thus, either formula can be used provided the absorption coefficients for the Sabine formula are allowed to exceed 1.0. The Sabine formula is not an approximation to the Eyring equation and is not a shortcoming. Given low reverberation times, the ratio of alpha(sabine) to alpha(eyring) may become greater than 2.0. It is vital that, for correct prediction of reverberation times, the absorption coefficients used in either formula must have been determined in spaces similar in size and shape, with similar locations of high absorption (audience) areas, and with similar reverberation times. For concert halls, it is found that, when the audience area (fully occupied) and midfrequency reverberation time are postulated, the hall volume is directly proportional to the audience absorption coefficient. Approximately 6% greater room volumes are needed when choosing nonrectangular versus classical-rectangular shaped halls and approximately 10% greater volumes when choosing heavily upholstered versus medium upholstered chairs. Determinations of audience sound absorption coefficients are presented, based on published acoustical and architectural data for 20 halls.

  4. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N(2) fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N(2)-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N(2) fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism.

  5. Determining the Effect of Concerted Elimination Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Lignin Using Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, D.; Clark, J.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis is a significant impediment in forming liquid fuel from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at a higher temperature than other biomass components (ie cellulose, hemicellulose) and tends to form radicals which lead to cross linking and ultimately char formation. A primary step in advances biomass-to-fuel technology will be to discover mechanisms that can disassemble lignin at lower temperatures and depolymerize lignin into more stable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin ({beta}-O4, {alpha}-O4, {beta}-{beta}, {beta}-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to the usually-assumed bond homolysis reactions, we have investigated a variety of concerted elimination pathways that will tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  6. Concerted Hydrogen Atom and Electron Transfer Mechanism for Catalysis by Lysine-Specific Demethylase

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tao; Higashi, Masahiro; Cembran, Alessandro; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the free energy profile for the postulated hydride transfer reaction mechanism for the catalysis of lysine demethylation by lysine-specific demethylase LSD1. The potential energy surface is obtained by using combined electrostatically embedded multi-configuration molecular mechanics (EE-MCMM) and single-configuration molecular mechanics (MM). We employ a constant valence bond coupling term to obtain analytical energies and gradients of the EE-MCMM subsystem, which contains 45 QM atoms and which is parametrized with a density functional calculations employing specific reaction parameters obtained by matching high-level wave function calculations. In the MM region, we employ the Amber ff03 and TIP3P force fields. The free energy of activation at 300 K is calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) umbrella sampling on a system with 102090 atoms as the maximum of the free energy profile along the reaction coordinate as obtained by the weighted histogram analysis method with 17 umbrella sampling windows. This yields a free energy of activation of only 10 kcal/mol, showing that the previously postulated direct hydride transfer reaction mechanism is plausible, although we find that it is better interpreted as a concerted transfer of a hydrogen atom and an electron. PMID:23725223

  7. Concerted effects of substituents in the reaction of •OH radicals with aromatics: The hydroxybenzaldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarran, Guadalupe; Mendoza, Edith; Schuler, Robert H.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we have examined the distribution of products in the radiolytic hydroxylation of 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to obtain information on the concerted effect of the -CHO and -OH groups at the addition site of •OH radicals. The •OH radical was found to selectively add to the free positions of the aromatic ring. Furthermore, the •OH radical reacts by substitution at the ipso position followed by elimination of the substituent, producing dihydroxybenzene compounds. Additionally, the formation of carboxylic acids as an initial product has been conclusively identified by retention times and UV and mass spectra. These acids are formed as a result of the radiolytic oxidation of the initial radical formed by the addition reaction of the •OH radicals to the meso position (exocyclic carbon). The identification of the products, dihydroxybenzaldehydes, dihydroxybenzenes and hydroxybenzoic acids and calculation of their yields were achieved through HPLC. The G values of each product are given, which reflect the charge distributions in the hydroxybenzaldehydes, such that the formyl group modifies the ortho-para directing effect of the -OH substituent. The 3 and 5 positions in 2- and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde showed increased the electronic density compared to that of phenol, indicating that the formyl group has a significant effect on the electronic structure of those hydroxybenzaldehydes. In 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, the -OH substituent had a dominant ortho-directing effect similar to that observed for phenol.

  8. The Terebridae and teretoxins: Combining phylogeny and anatomy for concerted discovery of bioactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Conoidea superfamily, comprised of cone snails, terebrids, and turrids, is an exceptionally promising group for the discovery of natural peptide toxins. The potential of conoidean toxins has been realized with the distribution of the first Conus (cone snail) drug, Prialt (ziconotide), an analgesic used to alleviate chronic pain in HIV and cancer patients. Cone snail toxins (conotoxins) are highly variable, a consequence of a high mutation rate associated to duplication events and positive selection. As Conus and terebrids diverged in the early Paleocene, the toxins from terebrids (teretoxins) may demonstrate highly divergent and unique functionalities. Recent analyses of the Terebridae, a largely distributed family with more than 300 described species, indicate they have evolutionary and pharmacological potential. Based on a three gene (COI, 12S and 16S) molecular phylogeny, including ~50 species from the West-Pacific, five main terebrid lineages were discriminated: two of these lineages independently lost their venom apparatus, and one venomous lineage was previously unknown. Knowing the phylogenetic relationships within the Terebridae aids in effectively targeting divergent lineages with novel peptide toxins. Preliminary results indicate that teretoxins are similar in structure and composition to conotoxins, suggesting teretoxins are an attractive line of research to discover and develop new therapeutics that target ion channels and receptors. Using conotoxins as a guideline, and innovative natural products discovery strategies, such as the Concerted Discovery Strategy, the potential of the Terebridae and their toxins are explored as a pioneering pharmacological resource. PMID:20849634

  9. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction

    PubMed Central

    Aranjuelo, Iker

    2013-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N2 fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N2-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N2 fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism. PMID:23440170

  10. Probabilistic models of expectation violation predict psychophysiological emotional responses to live concert music.

    PubMed

    Egermann, Hauke; Pearce, Marcus T; Wiggins, Geraint A; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a study testing the often-theorized role of musical expectations in inducing listeners' emotions in a live flute concert experiment with 50 participants. Using an audience response system developed for this purpose, we measured subjective experience and peripheral psychophysiological changes continuously. To confirm the existence of the link between expectation and emotion, we used a threefold approach. (1) On the basis of an information-theoretic cognitive model, melodic pitch expectations were predicted by analyzing the musical stimuli used (six pieces of solo flute music). (2) A continuous rating scale was used by half of the audience to measure their experience of unexpectedness toward the music heard. (3) Emotional reactions were measured using a multicomponent approach: subjective feeling (valence and arousal rated continuously by the other half of the audience members), expressive behavior (facial EMG), and peripheral arousal (the latter two being measured in all 50 participants). Results confirmed the predicted relationship between high-information-content musical events, the violation of musical expectations (in corresponding ratings), and emotional reactions (psychologically and physiologically). Musical structures leading to expectation reactions were manifested in emotional reactions at different emotion component levels (increases in subjective arousal and autonomic nervous system activations). These results emphasize the role of musical structure in emotion induction, leading to a further understanding of the frequently experienced emotional effects of music.

  11. Investigation of auditory distance perception and preferences in concert halls by using virtual acoustics.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Lokki, Tapio

    2015-11-01

    Virtual acoustics with multichannel sound reproduction was used to study auditory distance perception in four concert halls with multiple sound sources on stage. Eight subjects reported apparent auditory distances in five seating positions from 10 to 26 m to the middle of the sources on stage. The distance estimates were collected by absolute distance estimation procedure as well as a free modulus estimation procedure including both within and between halls evaluations. In addition, pairwise preferences were collected for two positions within each hall and for one position between halls. Results reveal that the perception of distance is dependent on the hall acoustics and show how the strength factor G and direct-to-reverberant energy ratio covary in relation to perceptual distances in these halls. The results also indicate that in such large spaces the overestimation of short distances may continue up to and further than 10 m from the sound sources. Preference results show that closer seats were liked more than further ones and that the strength of this preference is associated with the difference in perceptual distances. PMID:26627788

  12. Sperm Bindin Divergence under Sexual Selection and Concerted Evolution in Sea Stars.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Susana; Keever, Carson C; Sunday, Jennifer M; Popovic, Iva; Byrne, Maria; Hart, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    Selection associated with competition among males or sexual conflict between mates can create positive selection for high rates of molecular evolution of gamete recognition genes and lead to reproductive isolation between species. We analyzed coding sequence and repetitive domain variation in the gene encoding the sperm acrosomal protein bindin in 13 diverse sea star species. We found that bindin has a conserved coding sequence domain structure in all 13 species, with several repeated motifs in a large central region that is similar among all sea stars in organization but highly divergent among genera in nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence. More bindin codons and lineages showed positive selection for high relative rates of amino acid substitution in genera with gonochoric outcrossing adults (and greater expected strength of sexual selection) than in selfing hermaphrodites. That difference is consistent with the expectation that selfing (a highly derived mating system) may moderate the strength of sexual selection and limit the accumulation of bindin amino acid differences. The results implicate both positive selection on single codons and concerted evolution within the repetitive region in bindin divergence, and suggest that both single amino acid differences and repeat differences may affect sperm-egg binding and reproductive compatibility. PMID:27189549

  13. Concerted intercalation and minor groove recognition of DNA by a homodimeric thiazole orange dye.

    PubMed

    Bunkenborg, J; Gadjev, N I; Deligeorgiev, T; Jacobsen, J P

    2000-01-01

    The thiazole orange dye TOTO binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by a sequence selective bis-intercalation. Each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a (5'-CpT-3'):(5'-ApG-3') site, and the linker spans two base pairs in the minor groove. We have used one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy to examine the dsDNA binding of an analogue of TOTO in which the linker has been modified to contain a bipyridyl group (viologen) that has minor groove binding properties. We have investigated the binding of this analogue, called TOTOBIPY, to three different dsDNA sequences containing a 5'-CTAG-3', a 5'-CTTAG-3', and a 5'-CTATAG-3' sites, respectively, demonstrating that TOTOBIPY prefers to span three base pairs. The many intermolecular NOE connectivities between TOTOBIPY and the d(CGCTTAGCG):d(CGCTAAGCG) oligonucleotide in the complex shows that the bipyridyl-containing linker is positioned in the minor groove and spans three base pairs. Consequently, we have succeeded in designing and synthesizing a ligand that recognizes an extended recognition sequence of dsDNA as the result of a concerted intercalation and minor groove binding mode.

  14. Concerted copy number variation balances ribosomal DNA dosage in human and mouse genomes.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, John G; Branco, Alan T; Godinho, Susana A; Yu, Shoukai; Lemos, Bernardo

    2015-02-24

    Tandemly repeated ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are among the most evolutionary dynamic loci of eukaryotic genomes. The loci code for essential cellular components, yet exhibit extensive copy number (CN) variation within and between species. CN might be partly determined by the requirement of dosage balance between the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays. The arrays are nonhomologous, physically unlinked in mammals, and encode functionally interdependent RNA components of the ribosome. Here we show that the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays exhibit concerted CN variation (cCNV). Despite 5S and 45S rDNA elements residing on different chromosomes and lacking sequence similarity, cCNV between these loci is strong, evolutionarily conserved in humans and mice, and manifested across individual genotypes in natural populations and pedigrees. Finally, we observe that bisphenol A induces rapid and parallel modulation of 5S and 45S rDNA CN. Our observations reveal a novel mode of genome variation, indicate that natural selection contributed to the evolution and conservation of cCNV, and support the hypothesis that 5S CN is partly determined by the requirement of dosage balance with the 45S rDNA array. We suggest that human disease variation might be traced to disrupted rDNA dosage balance in the genome.

  15. Concerted and differential actions of two enzymatic domains underlie Rad5 contributions to DNA damage tolerance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Koyi; Batke, Sabrina; Szakal, Barnabas; Lowther, Jonathan; Hao, Fanfan; Sarangi, Prabha; Branzei, Dana; Ulrich, Helle D; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2015-03-11

    Many genome maintenance factors have multiple enzymatic activities. In most cases, how their distinct activities functionally relate with each other is unclear. Here we examined the conserved budding yeast Rad5 protein that has both ubiquitin ligase and DNA helicase activities. The Rad5 ubiquitin ligase activity mediates PCNA poly-ubiquitination and subsequently recombination-based DNA lesion tolerance. Interestingly, the ligase domain is embedded in a larger helicase domain comprising seven consensus motifs. How features of the helicase domain influence ligase function is controversial. To clarify this issue, we use genetic, 2D gel and biochemical analyses and show that a Rad5 helicase motif important for ATP binding is also required for PCNA poly-ubiquitination and recombination-based lesion tolerance. We determine that this requirement is due to a previously unrecognized contribution of the motif to the PCNA and ubiquitination enzyme interaction, and not due to its canonical role in supporting helicase activity. We further show that Rad5's helicase-mediated contribution to replication stress survival is separable from recombination. These findings delineate how two Rad5 enzymatic domains concertedly influence PCNA modification, and unveil their discrete contributions to stress tolerance.

  16. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L; Herr, Andrew B; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-06-14

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses. PMID:27302953

  17. Folding and membrane insertion of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin occur as a concerted process.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Matthew R; Damianoglou, Angeliki; Rodger, Alison; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2008-11-01

    Many antibiotic peptides function by binding and inserting into membranes. Understanding this process provides an insight into the fundamentals of both membrane protein folding and antibiotic peptide function. For the first time, in this work, flow-aligned linear dichroism (LD) is used to study the folding of the antibiotic peptide gramicidin. LD provides insight into the combined processes of peptide folding and insertion and has the advantage over other similar techniques of being insensitive to off-membrane aggregation events. By combining LD data with conventional measurements of protein fluorescence and circular dichroism, the mechanism of gramicidin insertion is elucidated. The mechanism consists of five separately assignable steps that include formation of a water-insoluble gramicidin aggregate, dissociation from the aggregate, partitioning of peptide to the membrane surface, oligomerisation on the surface and concerted insertion and folding of the peptide to the double-helical form of gramicidin. Measurement of the rates of each step shows that although changes in the fluorescence signal cease 10 s after the initiation of the process, the insertion of the peptide into the membrane is actually not complete for a further 60 min. This last membrane insertion phase is only apparent by measurement of LD and circular dichroism signal changes. In summary, this study demonstrates the importance of multi-technique approaches, including LD, in studies of membrane protein folding.

  18. The Organization, Administration and Presentation of Symphony Orchestra Youth Concert Activities for Music Educational Purposes in Selected Cities, Part I--The Summary. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas H.; Thompson, Helen M.

    An in-depth examination of symphony orchestra youth concerts in 20 American cities was conducted under the auspices of the American University, Washington, D.C., and with the cooperation of the American Symphony Orchestra League, to determine the role of youth concerts in cultural education. Field teams, each consisting of a music education…

  19. [Hereditary movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Schulz, J B

    2007-12-01

    Hereditary movement disorders comprise a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by an impaired control of movements, ataxia and/or spasticity. Affected individuals are disabled, their quality of life significantly reduced and their life expectancy shortened. One or more genetic causes have been identified for many of these diseases, including Huntington's disease, Wilson's disease, spinocerebellar ataxias, recessive ataxias, hereditary spastic paraplegia and hereditary dystonias. Due to their characteristic molecular and biochemical pathogenesis, these rare diseases can often serve as models for more common disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. The primary tasks of the German Network of Hereditary Movement Disorders (GeNeMove), funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), are to co-ordinate basic scientific research and clinical research into rare hereditary movement disorders and to improve the cooperation between the German centers specializing in hereditary movement disorders. For each of the diseases in its scope, GeNeMove works at creating standardized documentation of symptoms and the disease's progressive course over time; developing rating scales for clinical examinations and guidelines for therapy; improving genetic testing; fostering genetic research; and collecting samples of DNA, tissue, CSF and blood from sufferers of the disease for biobanks.

  20. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  1. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  2. Movement as utopia.

    PubMed

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination. PMID:20027697

  3. Movement as utopia.

    PubMed

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  4. The Black Civil Rights Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, George

    1986-01-01

    Presents part of the Aspen High School curriculum about the United States civil rights movement. Focuses on why Blacks were segregated and disenfranchised prior to the movement, why the movement took place, what were the results of the movement, and what is the present condition of Blacks in American society. (JDH)

  5. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  6. Combining modules for movement.

    PubMed

    Bizzi, E; Cheung, V C K; d'Avella, A; Saltiel, P; Tresch, M

    2008-01-01

    We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing a specific pattern of muscle activation. Such an organization might help to simplify the production of movements by reducing the degrees of freedom that need to be specified.

  7. Concerted evolution of life stage performances signals recent selection on yeast nitrogen use.

    PubMed

    Ibstedt, Sebastian; Stenberg, Simon; Bagés, Sara; Gjuvsland, Arne B; Salinas, Francisco; Kourtchenko, Olga; Samy, Jeevan K A; Blomberg, Anders; Omholt, Stig W; Liti, Gianni; Beltran, Gemma; Warringer, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Exposing natural selection driving phenotypic and genotypic adaptive differentiation is an extraordinary challenge. Given that an organism's life stages are exposed to the same environmental variations, we reasoned that fitness components, such as the lag, rate, and efficiency of growth, directly reflecting performance in these life stages, should often be selected in concert. We therefore conjectured that correlations between fitness components over natural isolates, in a particular environmental context, would constitute a robust signal of recent selection. Critically, this test for selection requires fitness components to be determined by different genetic loci. To explore our conjecture, we exhaustively evaluated the lag, rate, and efficiency of asexual population growth of natural isolates of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a large variety of nitrogen-limited environments. Overall, fitness components were well correlated under nitrogen restriction. Yeast isolates were further crossed in all pairwise combinations and coinheritance of each fitness component and genetic markers were traced. Trait variations tended to map to quantitative trait loci (QTL) that were private to a single fitness component. We further traced QTLs down to single-nucleotide resolution and uncovered loss-of-function mutations in RIM15, PUT4, DAL1, and DAL4 as the genetic basis for nitrogen source use variations. Effects of SNPs were unique for a single fitness component, strongly arguing against pleiotropy between lag, rate, and efficiency of reproduction under nitrogen restriction. The strong correlations between life stage performances that cannot be explained by pleiotropy compellingly support adaptive differentiation of yeast nitrogen source use and suggest a generic approach for detecting selection.

  8. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J; King, Simon J; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br(∗)), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br(∗) atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br(∗) images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br(∗), indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5 (+) from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br(+) molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation. PMID:27369520

  9. Asymmetric patterns of reassortment and concerted evolution in Cardamom bushy dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Savory, F R; Ramakrishnan, U

    2014-06-01

    Nanoviruses are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) plant viruses which have multipartite genomes consisting of discrete, individually encapsidated components. This multipartite strategy may lead to high rates of reassortment, whereby entire genome components are exchanged among different strains. However, few studies have explored the extent to which reassortment shapes the genetic diversity of nanovirus populations. Here we present an extensive analysis of reassortment among 163 Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV; Nanoviridae family, Babuvirus genus) isolates collected in Northeast India. We also examined evidence of recombination, which is known to play a role in the evolutionary dynamics of nanovirus populations. By sequencing six discrete genome components for each isolate, we demonstrate that over 40% of the isolates display evidence of at least one reassortment event during their evolutionary histories. Nevertheless, a bias in the frequencies at which different genome components reassort was observed, with the DNA-M and DNA-N components being the most predisposed to reassortment. This may reflect variation in the ability of different genome components to function efficiently in a foreign genomic background. Comparisons of the common regions of different genome components revealed signatures of concerted evolution mediated by frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This process, which has previously been reported in nanoviruses and other multipartite ssDNA viruses, may allow proteins which initiate replication to maintain control over distinct genome components. Notably, DNA-N, one of the genome components most prone to reassortment, also exhibited the most frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This supports the idea that inter-component homologous recombination may promote the efficient replication of novel components which are introduced into a genome via reassortment. PMID:24613431

  10. Dosage Sensitivity of RPL9 and Concerted Evolution of Ribosomal Protein Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Devis, Deborah; Firth, Sue M.; Liang, Zhe; Byrne, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome in higher eukaryotes is a large macromolecular complex composed of four rRNAs and eighty different ribosomal proteins. In plants, each ribosomal protein is encoded by multiple genes. Duplicate genes within a family are often necessary to provide a threshold dose of a ribosomal protein but in some instances appear to have non-redundant functions. Here, we addressed whether divergent members of the RPL9 gene family are dosage sensitive or whether these genes have non-overlapping functions. The RPL9 family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises two nearly identical members, RPL9B and RPL9C, and a more divergent member, RPL9D. Mutations in RPL9C and RPL9D genes lead to delayed growth early in development, and loss of both genes is embryo lethal, indicating that these are dosage-sensitive and redundant genes. Phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 as well as RPL4, RPL5, RPL27a, RPL36a, and RPS6 family genes in the Brassicaceae indicated that multicopy ribosomal protein genes have been largely retained following whole genome duplication. However, these gene families also show instances of tandem duplication, small scale deletion, and evidence of gene conversion. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 genes in angiosperm species showed that genes within a species are more closely related to each other than to RPL9 genes in other species, suggesting ribosomal protein genes undergo convergent evolution. Our analysis indicates that ribosomal protein gene retention following whole genome duplication contributes to the number of genes in a family. However, small scale rearrangements influence copy number and likely drive concerted evolution of these dosage-sensitive genes. PMID:26734020

  11. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J.; King, Simon J.; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br∗), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br∗ atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br∗ images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br∗, indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5+ from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br+ molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  12. Concerted Proton Transfer Mechanism of Clostridium thermocellum Ribose-5-phosphate Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi) catalyzes the interconversion of D-ribose-5-phosphate and D-ribulose-5-phosphate and plays an essential role in the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. RpiB, one of the two isoforms of Rpi, is also a potential drug target for some pathogenic bacteria. Clostridium thermocellum ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (CtRpi), belonging to RpiB family, has recently been employed to the industrial production of rare sugars because of it fast reactions kinetics and narrow substrate specificity. It is known this enzyme adopts proton transfer mechanism. It was suggested that the deprotonated Cys65 attracts the proton at C2 of substrate to initiate the isomerization reaction and this step is the rate-limiting step. However the elaborate catalytic mechanism is still unclear. We have performed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of this rate-limiting step of the reaction catalyzed by CtRpi with the substrate D-ribose. Our results demonstrate that the deprotonated Cys65 is not a stable reactant. Instead, our calculations revealed a concerted proton-transfer mechanism: Asp8, a highly conserved residue in the RpiB family performs as the base to abstract the proton at Cys65 and Cys65 in turn abstracts the proton of the D-ribose simultaneously. Moreover, we found Thr67 cannot catalyze the proton transfer from O2 to O1 of the D-ribose alone. Water molecule(s) may assist this proton transfer with Thr67. Our findings lead to a clear understanding of the catalysis mechanism of RpiB family and should guide the experiments to increase the catalysis efficiency. This study also highlights the importance of initial protonation states of cysteines. PMID:23875675

  13. Concerted electron-proton transfer in the optical excitation of hydrogen-bonded dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Westlake, Brittany C.; Brennaman, Kyle M.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Paul, Jared J.; Bettis, Stephanie E.; Hampton, Shaun D.; Miller, Stephen A.; Lebedeva, Natalia V.; Forbes, Malcolm D. E.; Moran, Andrew M.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Papanikolas, John M.

    2011-05-24

    The simultaneous, concerted transfer of electrons and protons—electron-proton transfer (EPT)—is an important mechanism utilized in chemistry and biology to avoid high energy intermediates. There are many examples of thermally activated EPT in ground-state reactions and in excited states following photoexcitation and thermal relaxation. Here we report application of ultrafast excitation with absorption and Raman monitoring to detect a photochemically driven EPT process (photo-EPT). In this process, both electrons and protons are transferred during the absorption of a photon. Photo-EPT is induced by intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) excitation of hydrogen-bonded-base adducts with either a coumarin dye or 4-nitro-4'-biphenylphenol. Femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements following ICT excitation reveal the appearance of two spectroscopically distinct states having different dynamical signatures. One of these states corresponds to a conventional ICT excited state in which the transferring H⁺ is initially associated with the proton donor. Proton transfer to the base (B) then occurs on the picosecond time scale. The other state is an ICT-EPT photoproduct. Upon excitation it forms initially in the nuclear configuration of the ground state by application of the Franck–Condon principle. However, due to the change in electronic configuration induced by the transition, excitation is accompanied by proton transfer with the protonated base formed with a highly elongated ⁺H–B bond. Coherent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of a vibrational mode corresponding to the protonated base in the optically prepared state.

  14. Asymmetric patterns of reassortment and concerted evolution in Cardamom bushy dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Savory, F R; Ramakrishnan, U

    2014-06-01

    Nanoviruses are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) plant viruses which have multipartite genomes consisting of discrete, individually encapsidated components. This multipartite strategy may lead to high rates of reassortment, whereby entire genome components are exchanged among different strains. However, few studies have explored the extent to which reassortment shapes the genetic diversity of nanovirus populations. Here we present an extensive analysis of reassortment among 163 Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV; Nanoviridae family, Babuvirus genus) isolates collected in Northeast India. We also examined evidence of recombination, which is known to play a role in the evolutionary dynamics of nanovirus populations. By sequencing six discrete genome components for each isolate, we demonstrate that over 40% of the isolates display evidence of at least one reassortment event during their evolutionary histories. Nevertheless, a bias in the frequencies at which different genome components reassort was observed, with the DNA-M and DNA-N components being the most predisposed to reassortment. This may reflect variation in the ability of different genome components to function efficiently in a foreign genomic background. Comparisons of the common regions of different genome components revealed signatures of concerted evolution mediated by frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This process, which has previously been reported in nanoviruses and other multipartite ssDNA viruses, may allow proteins which initiate replication to maintain control over distinct genome components. Notably, DNA-N, one of the genome components most prone to reassortment, also exhibited the most frequent inter-component homologous recombination. This supports the idea that inter-component homologous recombination may promote the efficient replication of novel components which are introduced into a genome via reassortment.

  15. Concerted proton transfer mechanism of Clostridium thermocellum ribose-5-phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao

    2013-08-15

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi) catalyzes the interconversion of D-ribose-5-phosphate and D-ribulose-5-phosphate and plays an essential role in the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. RpiB, one of the two isoforms of Rpi, is also a potential drug target for some pathogenic bacteria. Clostridium thermocellum ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (CtRpi), belonging to the RpiB family, has recently been employed in the industrial production of rare sugars because of its fast reaction kinetics and narrow substrate specificity. It is known that this enzyme adopts a proton transfer mechanism. It was suggested that the deprotonated Cys65 attracts the proton at C2 of the substrate to initiate the isomerization reaction, and this step is the rate-limiting step. However the elaborate catalytic mechanism is still unclear. We have performed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of this rate-limiting step of the reaction catalyzed by CtRpi with the substrate D-ribose. Our results demonstrate that the deprotonated Cys65 is not a stable reactant. Instead, our calculations revealed a concerted proton-transfer mechanism: Asp8, a highly conserved residue in the RpiB family, performs as the base to abstract the proton at Cys65 and Cys65 in turn abstracting the proton of the D-ribose simultaneously. Moreover, we found Thr67 cannot catalyze the proton transfer from O2 to O1 of the D-ribose alone. Water molecule(s) may assist this proton transfer with Thr67. Our findings lead to a clear understanding of the catalysis mechanism of the RpiB family and should guide experiments to increase the catalysis efficiency. This study also highlights the importance of initial protonation states of cysteines.

  16. A concerted action of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels regulates locus coeruleus pacemaking.

    PubMed

    Matschke, Lina A; Bertoune, Mirjam; Roeper, Jochen; Snutch, Terrance P; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Dysfunction of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is involved in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases and is an early hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). The analysis of ion channels underlying the autonomous electrical activity of LC neurons, which is ultimately coupled to cell survival signaling pathways, can lead to a better understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons. In LC neurons somatodendritic Ca(2+) oscillations, mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels, accompany spontaneous spiking and are linked to mitochondrial oxidant stress. However, the expression and functional implication of low-threshold activated T-type Ca(2+) channels in LC neurons were not yet studied. To this end we performed RT-PCR expression analysis in LC neurons. In addition, we utilized slice patch clamp recordings of in vitro brainstem slices in combination with L-type and T-type Ca(2+) channel blockers. We found the expression of a distinct set of L-type and T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes mediating a pronounced low-threshold activated Ca(2+) current component. Analyzing spike trains, we revealed that neither L-type Ca(2+) channel nor T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade alone leads to a change in firing properties. In contrast, a combined application of antagonists significantly decreased the afterhyperpolarization amplitude, resulting in an increased firing frequency. Hence, we report the functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in LC neurons and demonstrate their role in increasing the robustness of LC pacemaking by working in concert with Cav1 channels.

  17. Concerted Electronic and Nuclear Fluxes During Coherent Tunnelling in Asymmetric Double-Well Potentials.

    PubMed

    Bredtmann, Timm; Manz, Jörn; Zhao, Jian-Ming

    2016-05-19

    The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) during coherent periodic tunnelling from reactants (R) to products (P) and back to R in molecules with asymmetric double-well potentials is developed. The results are deduced from the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation as a coherent superposition of two eigenstates; here, these are the two states of the lowest tunnelling doublet. This allows the periodic time evolutions of the resulting electronic and nuclear probability densities (EPDs and NPDs) as well as the CENFs to be expressed in terms of simple sinusodial functions. These analytical results reveal various phenomena during coherent tunnelling in asymmetric double-well potentials, e.g., all EPDs and NPDs as well as all CENFs are synchronous. Distortion of the symmetric reference to a system with an asymmetric double-well potential breaks the spatial symmetry of the EPDs and NPDs, but, surprisingly, the symmetry of the CENFs is conserved. Exemplary application to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene shows that tunnelling of the ideal symmetric system can be suppressed by asymmetries induced by rather small external electric fields. The amplitude for the half tunnelling, half nontunnelling border is as low as 0.218 × 10(-8) V/cm. At the same time, the delocalized eigenstates of the symmetric reference, which can be regarded as Schrödinger's cat-type states representing R and P with equal probabilities, get localized at one or the other minima of the asymmetric double-well potential, representing either R or P.

  18. Optimal coordination and control of posture and movements.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Rolf; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of stability and coordination of posture and locomotion, together with algorithms for continuous-time quadratic optimization of motion control. Explicit solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for optimal control of rigid-body motion are obtained by solving an algebraic matrix equation. The stability is investigated with Lyapunov function theory and it is shown that global asymptotic stability holds. It is also shown how optimal control and adaptive control may act in concert in the case of unknown or uncertain system parameters. The solution describes motion strategies of minimum effort and variance. The proposed optimal control is formulated to be suitable as a posture and movement model for experimental validation and verification. The combination of adaptive and optimal control makes this algorithm a candidate for coordination and control of functional neuromuscular stimulation as well as of prostheses. Validation examples with experimental data are provided. PMID:19671443

  19. Retinal blood flow during hyperoxia in humans revisited: concerted results using different measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Barbara; Polska, Elzbieta; Dorner, Guido; Polak, Kaija; Findl, Oliver; Mayrl, Gabriele Fuchsjäger; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2002-07-01

    Retinal vasculature shows pronounced vasoconstriction in response to hyperoxia, which appears to be related to the constant oxygen demand of the retina. However, the exact amount of blood flow reduction and the exact time course of this phenomenon are still a matter of debate. We set out to investigate the retinal response to hyperoxia using innovative techniques for the assessment of retinal hemodynamics. In a total of 48 healthy volunteers we studied the effect of 100% O(2) breathing on retinal blood flow using two methods. Red blood cell movement in larger retinal veins was quantified with combined laser Doppler velocimetry and retinal vessel size measurement. Retinal white blood cell movement was quantified with the blue field entoptic technique. The time course of retinal vasoconstriction in response to hyperoxia was assessed by continuous vessel size determination using the Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer. The response to hyperoxia as measured with combined laser Doppler velocimetry and vessel size measurement was almost twice as high as that observed with the blue field technique. Vasoconstriction in response to 100% O(2) breathing occurred within the first 5 min and no counterregulatory or adaptive mechanisms were observed. Based on these results we hypothesize that hyperoxia-induced vasoconstriction differentially affects red and white blood cell movement in the human retina. This hypothesis is based on the complex interactions between red and white blood cells in microcirculation, which have been described in detail for other vascular beds.

  20. [5 years of "concerted action dose reduction in CT" -- what has been achieved and what remains to be done?].

    PubMed

    Nagel, H D; Blobel, J; Brix, G; Ewen, K; Galanski, M; Höfs, P; Loose, R; Prokop, M; Schneider, K; Stamm, G; Stender, H-S; Süss, C; Türkay, S; Vogel, H; Wucherer, M

    2004-11-01

    In May 1998, the German "Concerted Action Dose Reduction in CT" was founded by all parties involved in CT. Its intention was to achieve a significant reduction of the radiation exposure caused by CT, a matter that has increasingly been considered a major challenge since the early nineties. As a result of a number of joint efforts, the essential preconditions have been established by now. The fifth anniversary of the Concerted Action gave rise for both retrospection and outlook on the tasks that have already been accomplished and those that still need to be done. For this purpose, a one-day symposium took place in Berlin on November 4, 2003. The contents of a total of 18 contributions will be outlined here in brief. PMID:15497088

  1. Concert hall acoustics: Repertoire, listening position, and individual taste of the listeners influence the qualitative attributes and preferences.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Tervo, Sakari

    2016-07-01

    Some studies of concert hall acoustics consider the acoustics in a hall as a single entity. Here, it is shown that the acoustics vary between different seats, and the choice of music also influences the perceived acoustics. The presented study compared the acoustics of six unoccupied concert halls with extensive listening tests, applying two different music excerpts on three different seats. Twenty eight assessors rated the halls according to the subjective preference of the assesors and individual attributes with a paired comparison method. Results show that assessors can be classified into two preference groups, which prioritize different perceptual factors. In addition, the individual attributes elicited by assessors were clustered into three latent classes. PMID:27475177

  2. Human PSENEN and U2AF1L4 genes are concertedly regulated by a genuine bidirectional promoter.

    PubMed

    Didych, D A; Shamsutdinov, M F; Smirnov, N A; Akopov, S B; Monastyrskaya, G S; Uspenskaya, N Y; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2013-02-15

    Head-to-head genes with a short distance between their transcription start sites may constitute up to 10% of all genes in the genomes of various species. It was hypothesized that this intergenic space may represent bidirectional promoters which are able to initiate transcription of both genes, but the true bidirectionality was proved only for a few of them. We present experimental evidence that, according to several criteria, a 269 bp region located between the PSENEN and U2AF1L4 human genes is a genuine bidirectional promoter regulating a concerted divergent transcription of these genes. Concerted transcription of PSENEN and U2AF1L4 can be necessary for regulation of T-cell activity. PMID:23246698

  3. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  4. [Abnormal movements. Historical notes].

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, P J

    Most of the knowledge about movement disorders comes from the last fifty years. However, the ancients made some remarkable neurological depictions. We still can find some neurological descriptions including Parkinson's disease in the Bible, and the ancient writings of Atreya and Susruta. In addition, classic tests provide us of valuable information on historical personages, including the dystonia of Alexander the Great.

  5. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  6. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  7. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  8. [Architecture and movement].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  9. Managing Movement as Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  10. Teaching the Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2012-01-01

    Every January, Charles Cobb Jr. makes the 1,100-mile trek from sunny Jacksonville, Florida, to chilly Providence, Rhode Island. For the past eight years, Cobb--a veteran of the civil rights movement who in the 1960s served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi--becomes a visiting professor of…

  11. Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

  12. Influences of word predictability and type of masker noise on intelligibility of sung text in live concerts.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Antje; Knight, Sarah; Hawkins, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Vocal music is often intended to convey meaning, but how effectively this is achieved is poorly understood. This study systematically assessed the influence of three non-phonetic factors on the intelligibility of sung words in six public concerts in different venues: word predictability from sentence context, type of masker noise (spoken babble, sung vowels, [∫(w)]), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Stimuli were sung live by a professional a cappella ensemble with one male singing target sentences and five others (two female) producing the masker sounds. The concert audiences (N = 319) reported the final word of each sentence using a handheld voting device, from four phonetically- and semantically-controlled written alternatives projected onto a screen after the sentence was sung. Although overall accuracy differed between performances, intelligibility patterns were robust across concerts. They included predicted main effects of masker noise type ([∫(w)] masking least disruptive, babble most), SNR (high > low), semantic predictability (high > low), listener age (young > old), and listener language status (native > non-native), and some strong interactions. These results suggest that, despite acoustic differences between sung and spoken words and the unusual and varied experimental venues, key findings from traditional speech research apply to sung words, given appropriate musical composition. PMID:26520319

  13. Influences of word predictability and type of masker noise on intelligibility of sung text in live concerts.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Antje; Knight, Sarah; Hawkins, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Vocal music is often intended to convey meaning, but how effectively this is achieved is poorly understood. This study systematically assessed the influence of three non-phonetic factors on the intelligibility of sung words in six public concerts in different venues: word predictability from sentence context, type of masker noise (spoken babble, sung vowels, [∫(w)]), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Stimuli were sung live by a professional a cappella ensemble with one male singing target sentences and five others (two female) producing the masker sounds. The concert audiences (N = 319) reported the final word of each sentence using a handheld voting device, from four phonetically- and semantically-controlled written alternatives projected onto a screen after the sentence was sung. Although overall accuracy differed between performances, intelligibility patterns were robust across concerts. They included predicted main effects of masker noise type ([∫(w)] masking least disruptive, babble most), SNR (high > low), semantic predictability (high > low), listener age (young > old), and listener language status (native > non-native), and some strong interactions. These results suggest that, despite acoustic differences between sung and spoken words and the unusual and varied experimental venues, key findings from traditional speech research apply to sung words, given appropriate musical composition.

  14. Conformation and concerted dynamics of the integrin-binding site and the C-terminal region of echistatin revealed by homonuclear NMR

    PubMed Central

    Monleón, Daniel; Esteve, Vicent; Kovacs, Helena; Calvete, Juan J.; Celda, Bernardo

    2004-01-01

    Echistatin is a potent antagonist of the integrins αvβ3, α5β1 and αIIbβ3. Its full inhibitory activity depends on an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif expressed at the tip of the integrin-binding loop and on its C-terminal tail. Previous NMR structures of echistatin showed a poorly defined integrin-recognition sequence and an incomplete C-terminal tail, which left the molecular basis of the functional synergy between the RGD loop and the C-terminal region unresolved. We report a high-resolution structure of echistatin and an analysis of its internal motions by off-resonance ROESY (rotating-frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy). The full-length C-terminal polypeptide is visible as a β-hairpin running parallel to the RGD loop and exposing at the tip residues Pro43, His44 and Lys45. The side chains of the amino acids of the RGD motif have well-defined conformations. The integrin-binding loop displays an overall movement with maximal amplitude of 30°. Internal angular motions in the 100–300 ps timescale indicate increased flexibility for the backbone atoms at the base of the integrin-recognition loop. In addition, backbone atoms of the amino acids Ala23 (flanking the R24GD26 tripeptide) and Asp26 of the integrin-binding motif showed increased angular mobility, suggesting the existence of major and minor hinge effects at the base and the tip, respectively, of the RGD loop. A strong network of NOEs (nuclear Overhauser effects) between residues of the RGD loop and the C-terminal tail indicate concerted motions between these two functional regions. A full-length echistatin–αvβ3 docking model suggests that echistatin's C-terminal amino acids may contact αv-subunit residues and provides new insights to delineate structure–function correlations. PMID:15535803

  15. Quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes associated with adiabatic intramolecular processes.

    PubMed

    Bredtmann, Timm; Diestler, Dennis J; Li, Si-Dian; Manz, Jörn; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Tian, Wen-Juan; Wu, Yan-Bo; Yang, Yonggang; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2015-11-28

    An elementary molecular process can be characterized by the flow of particles (i.e., electrons and nuclei) that compose the system. The flow, in turn, is quantitatively described by the flux (i.e., the time-sequence of maps of the rate of flow of particles though specified surfaces of observation) or, in more detail, by the flux density. The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) associated with electronically adiabatic intramolecular processes is presented. In particular, it is emphasized how the electronic continuity equation can be employed to circumvent the failure of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which always predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). It is also shown that all CENFs accompanying coherent tunnelling between equivalent "reactant" and "product" configurations of isolated molecules are synchronous. The theory is applied to three systems of increasing complexity. The first application is to vibrating, aligned H2(+)((2)Σg(+)), or vibrating and dissociating H2(+)((2)Σg(+), J = 0, M = 0). The EFD maps manifest a rich and surprising structure in this simplest of systems; for example, they show that the EFD is not necessarily synchronous with the nuclear flux density and can alternate in direction several times over the length of the molecule. The second application is to coherent tunnelling isomerization in the model inorganic system B4, in which all CENFs are synchronous. The contributions of core and valence electrons to the EFD are separately computed and it is found that core electrons flow with the nuclei, whereas the valence electrons flow obliquely to the core electrons in distinctive patterns. The third application is to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, which also involves coherent tunnelling. An especially interesting discovery is that the so-called "pericyclic" electrons do not behave in the manner typically portrayed by the traditional Lewis structures with appended arrows. Indeed, it is

  16. Movement Coordination or Movement Interference: Visual Tracking and Spontaneous Coordination Modulate Rhythmic Movement Interference

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Veronica; Coey, Charles; Schmidt, R. C.; Richardson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    When an actor performs a rhythmic limb movement while observing a spatially incongruent movement he or she exhibits increased movement orthogonal to the instructed motion. Known as rhythmic movement interference, this phenomenon has been interpreted as a motor contagion effect, whereby observing the incongruent movement interferes with the intended movement and results in a motor production error. Here we test the hypothesis that rhythmic movement interference is an emergent property of rhythmic coordination. Participants performed rhythmic limb movements at a self-selected tempo while observing a computer stimulus moving in a congruent or incongruent manner. The degree to which participants visually tracked the stimulus was manipulated to influence whether participants became spontaneously entrained to the stimulus or not. Consistent with the rhythmic coordination hypothesis, participants only exhibited the rhythmic movement interference effect when they became spontaneously entrained to the incongruent stimulus. PMID:23028607

  17. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  18. Movement and Movement Patterns of Early Childhood. [Complete Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Caroline

    This study investigated the progressive development in movement and movement patterns of children ages 2-6. Data were collected over a 3-year period at six-month intervals, based on films of 57 children performing 25 motor tasks. The results are presented along two dimensions: (1) Descriptive analysis of progress of young children in movement with…

  19. The Human Potential Movement: Body/Movement/Non-Verbal Experiencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stratton F.

    A social, humanistic movement focusing on the needs and concerns of more advantaged, affluent persons has emerged, called the "Human Potential Movement." The emphasis of the movement centers around group processes, small group experiences, and the search for personal, interpersonal, and organizational growth. The development and emergence of…

  20. Islamist Movements in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When the United States invaded Iraq in March 2003, one of its stated intentions was to inaugurate an era of Iraqi politics in which new kinds of democratic parties would emerge. However, one of the most dramatic effects of the U.S. invasion has been the boost it has given to the Islamist parties and movements that were banned under Saddam Hussein.…

  1. Axial movements in ideomotor apraxia

    PubMed Central

    Poeck, K; Lehmkuhl, G; Willmes, K

    1982-01-01

    Non-symbolic axial movements were examined and compared to oral and limb movements in a group of 60 aphasic patients (15 of each major subgroup) with exclusively left-sided brain damage. The contention in the literature that axial movements are preserved in patients with ideomotor limb apraxia was not confirmed. PMID:6186771

  2. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  3. A Discovery Approach to Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagin, Isabel B.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the discovery approach to movement-based instruction on children's level of musicality. Finds that the students with the highest musicality were girls, demonstrated reflective movements and a personal sense of style while moving, and made sense of the music by organizing, categorizing, and developing movement ideas.…

  4. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  5. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  6. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable.

  7. Orofacial Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T; Ram, Saravanan

    2016-08-01

    Orofacial movement disorders (OMDs) include dystonia, dyskinesia, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and bruxism. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and management are detailed. OMDs are often disabling and affect patients' overall quality of life with pain, difficulty chewing food, speech difficulty, drooling, and social embarrassment. Management involves medications, botulinum toxin injections, and peripheral or central surgery. Botulinum toxin injections are the most effective management, often used in conjunction with medications. Surgery is the last resort for patients who fail to respond to medications or develop resistance to botulinum toxin type A. PMID:27475514

  8. Orofacial Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T; Ram, Saravanan

    2016-08-01

    Orofacial movement disorders (OMDs) include dystonia, dyskinesia, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and bruxism. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and management are detailed. OMDs are often disabling and affect patients' overall quality of life with pain, difficulty chewing food, speech difficulty, drooling, and social embarrassment. Management involves medications, botulinum toxin injections, and peripheral or central surgery. Botulinum toxin injections are the most effective management, often used in conjunction with medications. Surgery is the last resort for patients who fail to respond to medications or develop resistance to botulinum toxin type A.

  9. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  10. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  11. [Releasing phenomenon of learned movements].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Y; Ohno, K; Kashiwagi, T; Tanabe, H

    1998-10-01

    Involuntary movements that resembled the shooting of a basketball and piano playing were observed after brain damage in a 13-year-old female and a 74-year-old female, respectively. The movements were characterized as involuntarily triggered movements that occurred in the presence and absence of exteroceptive stimuli, movements had been practiced repeatedly just before the occurrence of the brain damage, and that could be stopped on command. According to the MRI findings, the lesions extended into the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). The characteristics of the patients movements were different from previously reported involuntary movements such as compulsive manipulation of tools, utilization behavior, and imitation behavior. Hikosaka et al (1996) reported the role of the pre-SMA in learning new sequential procedures. We speculate that damage to the pre-SMA may be associated with the etiology of these movements.

  12. [Primary versus secondary stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernandez Alvarez, E

    2004-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movements whose physiopathology and relations to other neurobehavioural disorders are still only poorly understood. In this paper our aim is to distinguish between primary stereotypic movements, which are the sole manifestation of an anomaly, while the complementary examinations, except for those involving molecular genetics, are normal; associated stereotypic movements, when they meet primary disorder criteria but there are other coexisting independent neurological signs, that is to say, they are neither the cause nor the consequence of the movement disorder; and secondary stereotypic movements, when they are the consequence of a lesion or acquired neurological dysfunction. Examples of primary stereotypic movements include episodes of parasomnia, such as head rocking, in subjects who are otherwise normal, and stereotypic movements due to emotional disorders, severe environmental deprivation or in institutionalised infants. Examples of associated stereotypic movements are those observed in Rett syndrome, in subjects with sensory defects or with mental retardation due to a variety of causes. And as instances of secondary stereotypic movements we have those that can be seen in infinite like syndrome caused by congenital cerebellar lesions. The purpose of the classification is to lay the foundations for the identification of new syndromes, which would without a doubt facilitate research into their physiopathology, their aetiology and the possible therapeutic attitude to be adopted.

  13. Computations on the primary photoreaction of Br2 with CO2: stepwise vs concerted addition of Br atoms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kewei; Korter, Timothy M; Braiman, Mark S

    2015-04-01

    It was proposed previously that Br2-sensitized photolysis of liquid CO2 proceeds through a metastable primary photoproduct, CO2Br2. Possible mechanisms for such a photoreaction are explored here computationally. First, it is shown that the CO2Br radical is not stable in any geometry. This rules out a free-radical mechanism, for example, photochemical splitting of Br2 followed by stepwise addition of Br atoms to CO2-which in turn accounts for the lack of previously observed Br2+CO2 photochemistry in gas phases. A possible alternative mechanism in liquid phase is formation of a weakly bound CO2:Br2 complex, followed by concerted photoaddition of Br2. This hypothesis is suggested by the previously published spectroscopic detection of a binary CO2:Br2 complex in the supersonically cooled gas phase. We compute a global binding-energy minimum of -6.2 kJ mol(-1) for such complexes, in a linear geometry. Two additional local minima were computed for perpendicular (C2v) and nearly parallel asymmetric planar geometries, both with binding energies near -5.4 kJ mol(-1). In these two latter geometries, C-Br and O-Br bond distances are simultaneously in the range of 3.5-3.8 Å, that is, perhaps suitable for a concerted photoaddition under the temperature and pressure conditions where Br2 + CO2 photochemistry has been observed.

  14. Regulatory potential for concerted modulation of Nrf2- and Nfkb1-mediated gene expression in inflammation and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S; Doh, S T; Chan, J Y; Kong, A-N; Cai, L

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have implicated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB1 (Nfkb1) in inflammation and cancer. However, the regulatory potential for crosstalk between these two important transcription factors in inflammation and carcinogenesis has not been explored. To delineate conserved transcription factor-binding site signatures, we performed bioinformatic analyses on the promoter regions of human and murine Nrf2 and Nfkb1. We performed multiple sequence alignment of Nrf2 and Nfkb1 genes in five mammalian species – human, chimpanzee, dog, mouse and rat – to explore conserved biological features. We constructed a canonical regulatory network for concerted modulation of Nrf2 and Nfkb1 involving several members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and present a putative model for concerted modulation of Nrf2 and Nfkb1 in inflammation/carcinogenesis. Our results reflect potential for putative crosstalk between Nrf2 and Nfkb1 modulated through the MAPK cascade that may influence inflammation-associated etiopathogenesis of cancer. Taken together, the elucidation of potential relationships between Nrf2 and Nfkb1 may help to better understand transcriptional regulation, as well as transcription factor networks, associated with the etiopathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. PMID:19050705

  15. Judgments of noticeable differences in sound fields of concert halls caused by intensity variations in early reflections.

    PubMed

    Okano, Toshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In concert halls early reflections combine with the direct sound and with reverberation to determine the subjective rating of a room's acoustics. Of interest is how variations in the amplitudes of these early reflections are related to the subjectively just-noticeable differences (jnd) in several important acoustical parameters for their wide range encountered in existing halls. Investigated were four subjective parameters, apparent source width (ASW), loudness, intimacy and clarity, which are related to the physical measurements, [1-IACC(E3)], G, ITDG, and C80, defined mathematically in Beranek [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, New York, 1996)]. Forty-eight types of sound fields were chosen in which to make variations in the amplitudes of early reflections and were reproduced electro-acoustically by multiple loudspeakers in an anechoic chamber. The results indicate that ASW and loudness are more sensitive to changes in the levels of early reflections, and were the primary parameters investigated. Although the number of subjects available with enough experience in listening classical music is limited and the measured jnd is an initial estimation, the jnd of [1-IACC(E3)] is measured as 0.065+/-0.015 in variations of sound field structures and the jnd of G was measured as 0.25+/-0.15 dB, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. PMID:11831797

  16. Judgments of noticeable differences in sound fields of concert halls caused by intensity variations in early reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Toshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In concert halls early reflections combine with the direct sound and with reverberation to determine the subjective rating of a room's acoustics. Of interest is how variations in the amplitudes of these early reflections are related to the subjectively just-noticeable differences (jnd) in several important acoustical parameters for their wide range encountered in existing halls. Investigated were four subjective parameters, apparent source width (ASW), loudness, intimacy and clarity, which are related to the physical measurements, [1-IACCE3], G, ITDG, and C80, defined mathematically in Beranek [Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, New York, 1996)]. Forty-eight types of sound fields were chosen in which to make variations in the amplitudes of early reflections and were reproduced electro-acoustically by multiple loudspeakers in an anechoic chamber. The results indicate that ASW and loudness are more sensitive to changes in the levels of early reflections, and were the primary parameters investigated. Although the number of subjects available with enough experience in listening classical music is limited and the measured jnd is an initial estimation, the jnd of [1-IACCE3] is measured as 0.065+/-0.015 in variations of sound field structures and the jnd of G was measured as 0.25+/-0.15 dB, which is consistent with the results of previous studies.

  17. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  18. Measurement of tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, R J; Worms, F W; Speidel, T M

    1976-09-01

    1. Tooth movement relative to the alveolar bone can be precisely described only by superimposing on fixed points in the bone. Implants are the best known way today. Over short-term studies laminagraphy and the use of bony trabeculations are also useful. Remodeling occurs extensively on bony surfaces, making them too labile for use as stable landmarks. To project small amounts of tooth movement based on the use of such methods is so questionable as to represent little better than a guess or a clinical impression. 2. Growth can be separated into vertical and anteroposterior vectors with respect to the dentition. Since the occlusion is the concern, orientation of vertical and anteroposterior vectors to the occlusal plane is a reasonable baseline. The vertical and anteroposterior dental changes may not show a linear relationship in the anterior and posterior parts of the mouth when jaw rotations are occurring. 3. Growth can be disproportionate in either the vertical and/or the anteroposteroir plane of space. If the vertical increments of the anterior face differ from the vertical increments at the posterior face, mandibular rotations occur. This growth is accompanied by dental compensations that tend to mask the rotation. Therefore, open bite and deep bite are frequently skeletal growth problems. 4. Disproportional forward growth of the maxilla or mandible in an anteroposterior direction can lead to Class II or III relations. The growth that leads to Class II or Class III is accompanied by dental migrations that tend to mask this disproportionate growth. Orthodontic treatment of growth disproportionalities usually represents attempts to make the teeth further compensate. If surgical options are elected, the dental compensations should be removed prior to surgery in order to achieve a full surgical correction. 5. The teeth tend to move and grow in the opposite direction of the growth disproportionality. The teeth tend to mask the disproportionality. Thus, in an open

  19. Safety in petroleum movement: Is enough being done to protect the environment. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bialas, B.H.

    1991-12-01

    This thesis is an investigation to identify whether sufficient efforts are being taken to provide the highest possible safety in petroleum movement. Current practices and on going initiatives for spill prevention and cleanup are identified. From these efforts, overall trends in spills have been identified. The small percentage of oil spilled, compared to the amount transferred is examined; in addition, long term impact on the environment is analyzed. It is concluded that oil spills are inevitable no matter how much effort is exerted; they are a part of petroleum movements. However, due to the concerted efforts by industry and government, spills should continue to decline via better prevention, and those spills that do occur will be cleaned up more promptly, with less environmental impact. The author recommends that efforts for oil spill reduction need to continue and require constant management attention. In addition, specific recommendations for the oil spill program are also included.

  20. Opening a Window into Reading Development: Eye Movements' Role Within a Broader Literacy Research Framework.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; O'Donnell, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative body of eye movement research provides significant insight into how readers process text. The heart of this work spans roughly 40 years reflecting the maturity of both the topics under study and experimental approaches used to investigate reading. Recent technological advancements offer increased flexibility to the field providing the potential to more concertedly study reading and literacy from an individual differences perspective. Historically, eye movement research focused far less on developmental issues related to individual differences in reading; however, this issue and the broader change it represents signal a meaningful transition inclusive of individual differences. The six papers in this special issue signify the recent, increased attention to and recognition of eye movement research's transition to emphasize individual differences in reading while appreciating early contributions (e.g., Rayner, 1986) in this direction. We introduce these six papers and provide some historical context for the use of eye movement methodology to examine reading and context for the eye movement field's early transition to examining individual differences, culminating in future research recommendations. PMID:24391304

  1. Postural constraints on movement variability.

    PubMed

    Lametti, Daniel R; Ostry, David J

    2010-08-01

    Movements are inherently variable. When we move to a particular point in space, a cloud of final limb positions is observed around the target. Previously we noted that patterns of variability at the end of movement to a circular target were not circular, but instead reflected patterns of limb stiffness-in directions where limb stiffness was high, variability in end position was low, and vice versa. Here we examine the determinants of variability at movement end in more detail. To do this, we have subjects move the handle of a robotic device from different starting positions into a circular target. We use position servocontrolled displacements of the robot's handle to measure limb stiffness at the end of movement and we also record patterns of end position variability. To examine the effect of change in posture on movement variability, we use a visual motor transformation in which we change the limb configuration and also the actual movement target, while holding constant the visual display. We find that, regardless of movement direction, patterns of variability at the end of movement vary systematically with limb configuration and are also related to patterns of limb stiffness, which are likewise configuration dependent. The result suggests that postural configuration determines the base level of movement variability, on top of which control mechanisms can act to further alter variability.

  2. Eye movements during transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Tebēcis, A K

    1976-01-01

    Characteristic changes in eye movements occurred during meditation with closed eyes in a proportion of subjects experienced in TM. The most common changes were an increase in slow, large-amplitude, 'rolling' eye movements and a concomitant decrease in rapid, low-amplitude, 'jerky' eye movements. Much variation occurred between individuals, however, some subjects showing no differences between TM and non-meditation. Any changes that occurred were not necessarily constant for the whole recording period nor consistent between sessions. The physiological effects of TM are far more variable than previously publicized. In general, the main changes in eye movements during TM are similar to those during passive hypnosis.

  3. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  4. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  5. Congenital mirror movements

    PubMed Central

    Méneret, Aurélie; Depienne, Christel; Riant, Florence; Trouillard, Oriane; Bouteiller, Delphine; Cincotta, Massimo; Bitoun, Pierre; Wickert, Julia; Lagroua, Isabelle; Westenberger, Ana; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Doummar, Diane; Romano, Marcello; Rossi, Simone; Defebvre, Luc; De Meirleir, Linda; Espay, Alberto J.; Fiori, Simona; Klebe, Stephan; Quélin, Chloé; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Plessis, Ghislaine; Dale, Russell C.; Sklower Brooks, Susan; Dziezyc, Karolina; Pollak, Pierre; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Vidailhet, Marie; Brice, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We screened a large series of individuals with congenital mirror movements (CMM) for mutations in the 2 identified causative genes, DCC and RAD51. Methods: We studied 6 familial and 20 simplex CMM cases. Each patient had a standardized neurologic assessment. Analysis of DCC and RAD51 coding regions included Sanger sequencing and a quantitative method allowing detection of micro rearrangements. We then compared the frequency of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic by either the PolyPhen-2 or the SIFT algorithm in our population and in the 4,300 controls of European origin on the Exome Variant Server. Results: We found 3 novel truncating mutations of DCC that segregate with CMM in 4 of the 6 families. Among the 20 simplex cases, we found one exonic deletion of DCC, one DCC mutation leading to a frameshift, 5 missense variants in DCC, and 2 missense variants in RAD51. All 7 missense variants were predicted to be pathogenic by one or both algorithms. Statistical analysis showed that the frequency of variants predicted to be deleterious was significantly different between patients and controls (p < 0.001 for both RAD51 and DCC). Conclusion: Mutations and variants in DCC and RAD51 are strongly associated with CMM, but additional genes causing CMM remain to be discovered. PMID:24808016

  6. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress.

  7. The Siraiki Movement in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    1995-01-01

    Documents the rise of the Siraiki ethnonationalist movement in economically underdeveloped Southern Pakistani Punjab. Although the Siraiki intellectuals emphasize the differences of their language from Punjabi to mobilize public opinion against the injustice of their deprivation, the Punjabi elite view the Siraiki movement as a conspiracy to…

  8. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  9. Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Kai

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

  10. Movement Education For Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Maida L., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet explores why movement education is important for preschool children, what activities to include in a program, how and where to conduct a program, and criteria that can help to structure the program environment. The first section presents a rationale for the use of movement education for helping preschool children to develop…

  11. Antecedents of the Theory Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the conceptual roots of the theory movement in educational administration, highlighting the ideas of Auguste Comte and the logical positivists. Explains how core concepts that shaped the theory movement were diffused into educational administration and sets forth implications for future study. (Author/WD)

  12. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of Differing Abilities" (Carol Stock…

  13. Unsymmetrical 1,1-diborated multisubstituted sp(3)-carbons formed via a metal-free concerted-asynchronous mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Ana B; Cid, Jessica; García-López, Diego; Carbó, Jorge J; Fernández, Elena

    2015-10-01

    We have experimentally proved the unsymmetrical 1,1-diboration of diazo compounds, formed in situ from aldehydes and cyclic and non-cyclic ketones, in the absence of any transition metal complex. The heterolytic cleavage of the mixed diboron reagent, Bpin-Bdan, and the formation of two geminal C-Bpin and C-Bdan bonds has been rationalised based on DFT calculations to occur via a concerted-asynchronous mechanism. Diastereoselection is attained on substituted cyclohexanones and DFT studies provide understanding on the origin of the selectivity. The alkoxide-assisted selective deborylation of Bpin from multisubstituted sp(3)-carbon and generation of a Bdan stabilized carbanion, easily conducts a selective protodeboronation sequence.

  14. Concerted action of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase in preventing redox cycling of dihydroxypyrimidines, and their role in antioxidant defence.

    PubMed

    Winterbourn, C C; Munday, R

    1990-01-01

    Dialuric Acid, the reduced form of the beta-cell toxin alloxan, and the related fava bean derivatives divicine and isouramil, autoxidize rapidly in neutral solution by a radical mechanism. GSH promotes redox cycling of each compound, with concomitant GSH oxidation and H2O2 production. With superoxide dismutase present, there is a lag period in which little oxidation occurs, followed by rapid oxidation. GSH extends this lag and decreases the subsequent rate of oxidation, so that with superoxide dismutase and a sufficient excess of GSH, coupled oxidation of GSH and each pyrimidine is almost completely suppressed. This mechanism may be a means whereby GSH in combination with superoxide dismutase protects against the cytotoxic effects of these reactive pyrimidines. Superoxide dismutase may also protect cells against oxidative stress in other situations where GSH acts as a radical scavenger, and we propose that the concerted action of GSH and superoxide dismutase constitutes an important antioxidant defence. PMID:2354807

  15. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS): from case reports to a call for concerted action against this neglected gynaecological disease.

    PubMed

    Christinet, Vanessa; Lazdins-Helds, Janis K; Stothard, J Russell; Reinhard-Rupp, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, control of neglected tropical diseases has been increasingly gaining momentum and interventions against schistosomiasis are being progressively scaled-up through expansion of donated praziquantel and preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, the public health importance of female genital schistosomiasis is not fully recognised nor its control is adequately addressed. Taking a clinical and anatomopathological perspective, we evaluated the available literature to highlight the importance of female genital schistosomiasis and its connections with two sexually transmitted infections of global importance, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human Papilloma Virus. Outside the long list of clinical descriptive reports beginning in 1899, there is presently a shocking gap in epidemiological assessment and a significant underestimation of the burden of FGS remains. The scarcity of integrated approaches to address female genital schistosomiasis calls for more concerted action in its detection, treatment and prevention alongside other concomitant women's health issues, otherwise female genital schistosomiasis will remain a neglected gynaecological disease. PMID:27063073

  16. The Polymerization of Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 O-Antigen LPS: Concerted Action of WecP and Wzy

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Gonzalez, Victor; Tomás, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    The repeat units of heteropolymeric O antigen are synthesized at the cytosolic side of the inner bacterial membrane via the Wzx/Wzy-dependent assembly pathway. After being translocated across the membrane by Wzx, each repeat unit is polymerized by Wzy to form a glycan chain. In this study, we demonstrate the need of the corresponding enzyme transferring the initial HexNAc to undecaprenol phosphate (lipid carrier), together with the corresponding O-antigen polymerase (Wzy), to produce the Aeromonas hydrophila O:34-antigen. We suggest, the concerted action of WecA or P enzyme (UDP-HexNAc: polyprenol-P HexNAc-1-P transferase) and Wzy is involved in the mechanism responsible for the A. hydrophila O-antigen polymerization. PMID:26161781

  17. Stepwise versus pseudo-concerted two-electron-transfer in a triarylamine-iridium dipyrrin-naphthalene diimide triad.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johannes H; Sunderland, Travis L; Kaufmann, Christina; Holzapfel, Marco; Schmiedel, Alexander; Lambert, Christoph

    2013-10-14

    A triad based on triarylamine donors, an iridium dipyrrin sensitiser and a naphthalene diimide acceptor is investigated using fs-pump-probe spectroscopy at two different pump wavelengths. Excitation of the naphthalene diimide induces a stepwise electron transfer process that yields within ca. 100 ps a charge separated state with 50-60% quantum yield in which one triarylamine is oxidised and the imide is reduced. Although being in the Marcus normal region, this state has a lifetime of 580 ns in MeCN. Excitation at the dipyrrin ligand centred absorption directly produces the charge separated state within ca. 1 ns however without formation of an intermediate. This pseudo-concerted two-electron transfer step was analysed with the help of a model dyad and a modified triad and is interpreted to be caused by inverted electron transfer rates. Although being much slower the latter process has a quantum yield of practically 100%. PMID:23959428

  18. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  19. Bacterial secretins form constitutively open pores akin to general porins.

    PubMed

    Disconzi, Elena; Guilvout, Ingrid; Chami, Mohamed; Masi, Muriel; Huysmans, Gerard H M; Pugsley, Anthony P; Bayan, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Proteins called secretins form large multimeric complexes that are essential for macromolecular transit across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Evidence suggests that the channels formed by some secretin complexes are not tightly closed, but their permeability properties have not been well characterized. Here, we used cell-free synthesis coupled with spontaneous insertion into liposomes to investigate the permeability of the secretin PulD. Leakage assays using preloaded liposomes indicated that PulD allows the efflux of small fluorescent molecules with a permeation cutoff similar to that of general porins. Other secretins were also found to form similar pores. To define the polypeptide region involved in determining the pore size, we analyzed a collection of PulD variants and studied the roles of gates 1 and 2, which were previously reported to affect the pore size of filamentous phage f1 secretin pIV, in assembly and pore formation. Liposome leakage and a novel in vivo assay showed that replacement of the conserved proline residue at position 443 in PulD by leucine increased the apparent size of the pore. The in vitro approach described here could be used to study the pore properties of membrane proteins whose production in vivo is toxic.

  20. Bacterial Secretins Form Constitutively Open Pores Akin to General Porins

    PubMed Central

    Disconzi, Elena; Guilvout, Ingrid; Chami, Mohamed; Masi, Muriel; Huysmans, Gerard H. M.; Pugsley, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins called secretins form large multimeric complexes that are essential for macromolecular transit across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Evidence suggests that the channels formed by some secretin complexes are not tightly closed, but their permeability properties have not been well characterized. Here, we used cell-free synthesis coupled with spontaneous insertion into liposomes to investigate the permeability of the secretin PulD. Leakage assays using preloaded liposomes indicated that PulD allows the efflux of small fluorescent molecules with a permeation cutoff similar to that of general porins. Other secretins were also found to form similar pores. To define the polypeptide region involved in determining the pore size, we analyzed a collection of PulD variants and studied the roles of gates 1 and 2, which were previously reported to affect the pore size of filamentous phage f1 secretin pIV, in assembly and pore formation. Liposome leakage and a novel in vivo assay showed that replacement of the conserved proline residue at position 443 in PulD by leucine increased the apparent size of the pore. The in vitro approach described here could be used to study the pore properties of membrane proteins whose production in vivo is toxic. PMID:24142256

  1. Understanding the mechanism of non-polar Diels-Alder reactions. A comparative ELF analysis of concerted and stepwise diradical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Chamorro, Eduardo; Pérez, Patricia

    2010-12-21

    The electron-reorganization along the concerted and stepwise pathways associated with the non-polar Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene (Cp, 1) and ethylene (2) has been studied using the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. ELF results for the concerted mechanism stresses that the electron-reorganization demanded on the diene and ethylene reagents to reach two pseudo-diradical structures is responsible for the high activation energy. A comparative ELF analysis of some relevant points of the non-polar Diels-Alder reaction between Cp and styrene (10) suggests that these concerted mechanisms do not have a pericyclic electron-reorganization.

  2. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esboui, Mounir

    2015-07-01

    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH3)2 complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH3)2 cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″(1πσ∗) and A'(1nσ∗) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A'(1ππ∗) and A″(1nπ∗) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two 1ππ∗-1πσ∗ conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect.

  3. Intersubunit Concerted Cooperative and cis-Type Mechanisms Modulate Allosteric Gating in Two-Pore-Domain Potassium Channel TREK-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Ren-Gong; Peng, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Hai-Tao; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Quan; Wei, Xiao-Li; Ma, Xiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    In response to diverse stimuli, two-pore-domain potassium channel TREK-2 regulates cellular excitability, and hence plays a key role in mediating neuropathic pain, mood disorders and ischemia through. Although more and more input modalities are found to achieve their modulations via acting on the channel, the potential role of subunit interaction in these modulations remains to be explored. In the current study, the deletion (lack of proximal C-terminus, ΔpCt) or point mutation (G312A) was introduced into TREK-2 subunits to limit K+ conductance and used to report subunit stoichiometry. The constructs were then combined with wild type (WT) subunit to produce concatenated dimers with defined composition, and the gating kinetics of these channels to 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and extracellular pH (pHo) were characterized. Our results show that combination of WT and ΔpCt/G312A subunits reserves similar gating properties to that of WT dimmers, suggesting that the WT subunit exerts dominant and positive effects on the mutated one, and thus the two subunits controls channel gating via a concerted cooperative manner. Further introduction of ΔpCt into the latter subunit of heterodimeric channel G312A-WT or G312A-G312A attenuated their sensitivity to 2-APB and pHo alkalization, implicating that these signals were transduced by a cis-type mechanism. Together, our findings elucidate the mechanisms for how the two subunits control the pore gating of TREK-2, in which both intersubunit concerted cooperative and cis-type manners modulate the allosteric regulations induced by 2-APB and pHo alkalization. PMID:27242438

  4. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Esboui, Mounir

    2015-07-21

    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH3)2 complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH3)2 cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″((1)πσ*) and A'((1)nσ*) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A'((1)ππ*) and A″((1)nπ*) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two (1)ππ*-(1)πσ* conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect.

  5. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Esboui, Mounir

    2015-07-21

    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″({sup 1}πσ{sup ∗}) and A′({sup 1}nσ{sup ∗}) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A′({sup 1}ππ{sup ∗}) and A″({sup 1}nπ{sup ∗}) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two {sup 1}ππ{sup ∗}-{sup 1}πσ{sup ∗} conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect.

  6. Top-down Proteomics Reveals Concerted Reductions in Myofilament and Z-disc Protein Phosphorylation after Acute Myocardial Infarction*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Valeja, Santosh G.; Zhang, Han; Cai, Wenxuan; Chen, Yi-Chen; Guner, Huseyin; Chen, Albert J.; Schwahn, Denise J.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Liu, Xiaowen; Ge, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is most often precipitated by myocardial infarction. However, the molecular changes driving cardiac dysfunction immediately after myocardial infarction remain poorly understood. Myofilament proteins, responsible for cardiac contraction and relaxation, play critical roles in signal reception and transduction in HF. Post-translational modifications of myofilament proteins afford a mechanism for the beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac function. Thus it is of paramount importance to gain a comprehensive understanding of post-translational modifications of myofilament proteins involved in regulating early molecular events in the post-infarcted myocardium. We have developed a novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based top-down proteomics strategy to comprehensively assess the modifications of key cardiac proteins in the myofilament subproteome extracted from a minimal amount of myocardial tissue with high reproducibility and throughput. The entire procedure, including tissue homogenization, myofilament extraction, and on-line LC/MS, takes less than three hours. Notably, enabled by this novel top-down proteomics technology, we discovered a concerted significant reduction in the phosphorylation of three crucial cardiac proteins in acutely infarcted swine myocardium: cardiac troponin I and myosin regulatory light chain of the myofilaments and, unexpectedly, enigma homolog isoform 2 (ENH2) of the Z-disc. Furthermore, top-down MS allowed us to comprehensively sequence these proteins and pinpoint their phosphorylation sites. For the first time, we have characterized the sequence of ENH2 and identified it as a phosphoprotein. ENH2 is localized at the Z-disc, which has been increasingly recognized for its role as a nodal point in cardiac signaling. Thus our proteomics discovery opens up new avenues for the investigation of concerted signaling between myofilament and Z-disc in the early

  7. Concerted O atom–proton transfer in the O—O bond forming step in water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J.; Hu, Xiangqian; Yang, Weitao; Hoertz, Paul G.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As the terminal step in photosystem II, and a potential half-reaction for artificial photosynthesis, water oxidation (2H2O → O2 + 4e- + 4H+) is key, but it imposes a significant mechanistic challenge with requirements for both 4e-/4H+ loss and O—O bond formation. Significant progress in water oxidation catalysis has been achieved recently by use of single-site Ru metal complex catalysts such as [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine]. When oxidized from to RuV = O3+, these complexes undergo O—O bond formation by O-atom attack on a H2O molecule, which is often the rate-limiting step. Microscopic details of O—O bond formation have been explored by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations the results of which provide detailed insight into mechanism and a strategy for enhancing catalytic rates. It utilizes added bases as proton acceptors and concerted atom–proton transfer (APT) with O-atom transfer to the O atom of a water molecule in concert with proton transfer to the base (B). Base catalyzed APT reactivity in water oxidation is observed both in solution and on the surfaces of oxide electrodes derivatized by attached phosphonated metal complex catalysts. These results have important implications for catalytic, electrocatalytic, and photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation. PMID:20360565

  8. Concerted evolution at a multicopy locus in the protozoan parasite Theileria parva: extreme divergence of potential protein-coding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R; Musoke, A; Morzaria, S; Sohanpal, B; Gobright, E

    1997-01-01

    Concerted evolution of multicopy gene families in vertebrates is recognized as an important force in the generation of biological novelty but has not been documented for the multicopy genes of protozoa. A multicopy locus, Tpr, which consists of tandemly arrayed open reading frames (ORFs) containing several repeated elements has been described for Theileria parva. Herein we show that probes derived from the 5'/N-terminal ends of ORFs in the genomic DNAs of T. parva Uganda (1,108 codons) and Boleni (699 codons) hybridized with multicopy sequences in homologous DNA but did not detect similar sequences in the DNA of 14 heterologous T. parva stocks and clones. The probe sequences were, however, protein coding according to predictive algorithms and codon usage. The 3'/C-terminal ends of the Uganda and Boleni ORFs exhibited 75% similarity and identity, respectively, to the previously identified Tpr1 and Tpr2 repetitive elements of T. parva Muguga. Tpr1-homologous sequences were detected in two additional species of Theileria. Eight different Tpr1-homologous transcripts were present in piroplasm mRNA from a single T. parva Muguga-infected animal. The Tpr1 and Tpr2 amino acid sequences contained six predicted membrane-associated segments. The ratio of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitutions indicates that Tpr1 evolves like protein-encoding DNA. The previously determined nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the p67 antigen is completely identical in T. parva Muguga, Boleni, and Uganda, including the third base in codons. The data suggest that concerted evolution can lead to the radical divergence of coding sequences and that this can be a mechanism for the generation of novel genes. PMID:9032293

  9. Pioneers of eye movement research.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined.

  10. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  11. Control of arm movements for quick change of movement direction.

    PubMed

    Takatoku, Nozomi; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the control strategy for changing movement direction during arm movements by analyzing the changes in a triphasic electromyographic pattern. Subjects performed a 40° flexion (basic) and a 40° flexion-extension to return to the start position (return) under two conditions: performing a predetermined task (SF) and performing each task in response to a signal (ST). The results revealed the agonist burst for the return task under the ST condition resembled that of the basic task under the SF condition, and the antagonist burst increased after presenting the modification signal. In conclusion, the strategy for quick change of movement direction was to increase the antagonist burst by an additional command from the central nervous system without cancelling the planned movement.

  12. Biological soliton in multicellular movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement.

  13. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970

  14. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    MedlinePlus

    ... devised improved treatments for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source ... which patients could benefit from surgery. People with cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis could also benefit ...

  15. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  16. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  17. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  18. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  19. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  20. 9 CFR 78.25 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.25 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of bison not otherwise provided for in...

  1. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  2. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  3. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon request in specific cases, permit the interstate movement of cattle not otherwise provided for in...

  4. An Investigation of the Relationship between Instructor and Institutional Characteristics and the Concert Report Assignment in Music in General Studies Courses in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kirsten Fedje

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between institutional and instructor characteristics and the assignment of the concert report within American college music in general studies courses. Four research questions were addressed: (1) Do significant differences exist in instructor practices regarding the assignment of, and…

  5. Pilot study: Exposure and materiality of the secondary room and its impact in the impulse response of coupled-volume concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty E.

    2002-05-01

    What does one room sound like when it is partially exposed to another (acoustically coupled)? More specifically, this research aims to quantify how operational and design decisions impact aural impressions in the design of concert halls with acoustical coupling. By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer, and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study, a coupled-volume shoebox concert hall was conceived with a fixed geometric volume, form, and primary-room sound absorption. Aperture size and secondary-room sound-absorption levels were established as variables. Statistical analysis of sound decay in this simulated hall suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and (1) Architectural composition, as defined by the aperture size exposing the chamber and (2) Materiality, as defined by the sound absorbance in the coupled volume. Preliminary calculations indicate that the double-sloped sound decay condition only appears when the total aperture area is less than 1.5% of the total shoebox surface area and the average absorption coefficient of the coupled volume is less than 0.07.

  6. Invarient patterns in articulatory movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaventura, Patrizia

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the reported study is to discover an effective method of characterizing movement patterns of the crucial articulator as the function of an abstract syllable magnitude and the adjacent boundary, and at the same time to investigate effects of prosodic control on utterance organization. In particular, the speed of movement when a flesh point on the tongue blade or the lower lip crosses a selected position relative to the occlusion plane is examined. The time of such crossing provides an effective measure of syllable timing and syllable duration according to previous work. In the present work, using a very limited vocabulary with only a few consonants and one vowel as the key speech materials, effects of contrastive emphasis on demisyllabic movement patterns were studied. The theoretical framework for this analysis is the C/D model of speech production in relation to the concept of an invariant part of selected articulatory movements. The results show evidence in favor of the existence of ``iceberg'' patterns, but a linear dependence of slope on the total excursion of the demisyllabic movement, instead of the approximate constancy of the threshold crossing speed as suggested in the original proposal of the iceberg, has been found. Accordingly, a revision of the original concept of iceberg, seems necessary. This refinement is consistent with the C/D model assumption on ``prominence control'' that the syllable magnitude determines the movement amplitude, accompanying directly related syllable duration change. In this assumption, the movement of a consonantal component should also be proportional to syllable magnitude. The results suggests, however, systematic outliers deviating from the linear dependence of movement speed on excursion. This deviation may be caused by the effect of the immediately following boundary, often referred to as phrase-final elongation. Thesis advisor: Osamu Fujimura Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from

  7. Emotional processing affects movement speed.

    PubMed

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Borod, Joan C; Frisina, Pasquale G; Tse, Winona; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Olanow, C Warren; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Emotions can affect various aspects of human behavior. The impact of emotions on behavior is traditionally thought to occur at central, cognitive and motor preparation stages. Using EMG to measure the effects of emotion on movement, we found that emotional stimuli differing in valence and arousal elicited highly specific effects on peripheral movement time. This result has conceptual implications for the emotion-motion link and potentially practical implications for neurorehabilitation and professional environments where fast motor reactions are critical.

  8. The movement ecology of seagrasses

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space–time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified. PMID:25297859

  9. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    PubMed Central

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal points that attract the animal's movements. (ii) Memory-based models are used to predict how accumulated experience translates into biased movement choices, employing reinforced random walk behaviour, with previous visitation increasing or decreasing the probability of repetition. (iii) Lévy movement involves a step-length distribution that is over-dispersed, relative to standard probability distributions, and adaptive in exploring new environments or searching for rare targets. Each of these modelling arenas implies more detail in the movement pattern than general models of movement can accommodate, but realistic empiric evaluation of their predictions requires dense locational data, both in time and space, only available with modern GPS telemetry. PMID:20566497

  10. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  11. Gating Movement of Acetylcholine Receptor Caught by Plunge-Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, Nigel; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor converts transiently to an open-channel form when activated by ACh released into the synaptic cleft. We describe here the conformational change underlying this event, determined by electron microscopy of ACh-sprayed and freeze-trapped postsynaptic membranes. ACh binding to the α subunits triggers a concerted rearrangement in the ligand-binding domain, involving an ~ 1‐Å outward displacement of the extracellular portion of the β subunit where it interacts with the juxtaposed ends of α-helices shaping the narrow membrane-spanning pore. The β-subunit helices tilt outward to accommodate this displacement, destabilising the arrangement of pore-lining helices, which in the closed channel bend inward symmetrically to form a central hydrophobic gate. Straightening and tangential motion of the pore-lining helices effect channel opening by widening the pore asymmetrically and increasing its polarity in the region of the gate. The pore-lining helices of the αγ and δ subunits, by flexing between alternative bent and straight conformations, undergo the greatest movements. This coupled allosteric transition shifts the structure from a tense (closed) state toward a more relaxed (open) state. PMID:22841691

  12. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

  13. Concerted Rattling in CsAg5 Te3 Leading to Ultralow Thermal Conductivity and High Thermoelectric Performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua; Tan, Gangjian; Shen, Jin-Ni; Hao, Shiqiang; Wu, Li-Ming; Calta, Nicholas; Malliakas, Christos; Wang, Si; Uher, Ctirad; Wolverton, Christopher; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-09-12

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials convert heat energy directly into electricity, and introducing new materials with high conversion efficiency is a great challenge because of the rare combination of interdependent electrical and thermal transport properties required to be present in a single material. The TE efficiency is defined by the figure of merit ZT=(S(2) σ) T/κ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, κ is the total thermal conductivity, and T is the absolute temperature. A new p-type thermoelectric material, CsAg5 Te3 , is presented that exhibits ultralow lattice thermal conductivity (ca. 0.18 Wm(-1)  K(-1) ) and a high figure of merit of about 1.5 at 727 K. The lattice thermal conductivity is the lowest among state-of-the-art thermoelectrics; it is attributed to a previously unrecognized phonon scattering mechanism that involves the concerted rattling of a group of Ag ions that strongly raises the Grüneisen parameters of the material. PMID:27513458

  14. The evolution of increased competitive ability, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons act in concert for a tropical invader.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rui-Min; Zheng, Yu-Long; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Callaway, Ragan M; Barclay, Gregor F; Pereyra, Carlos Silva; Feng, Yu-Long

    2013-02-01

    There are many non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic invasions but few studies have concurrently tested more than one hypothesis for the same species. Here, we tested the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis in two common garden experiments in which Chromolaena odorata plants originating from native and nonnative ranges were grown in competition with natives from each range, and the novel weapons hypothesis in laboratory experiments with leachates from C. odorata. Compared with conspecifics originating from the native range, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were stronger competitors at high nutrient concentrations in the nonnative range in China and experienced far more herbivore damage in the native range in Mexico. In both China and Mexico, C. odorata was more suppressed by species native to Mexico than by species native to China. Species native to China were much more inhibited by leaf extracts from C. odorata than species from Mexico, and this difference in allelopathic effects may provide a possible explanation for the biogeographic differences in competitive ability. Our results indicate that EICA, innate competitive advantages, and novel biochemical weapons may act in concert to promote invasion by C. odorata, and emphasize the importance of exploring multiple, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for invasions.

  15. Concerted two-dimensional NMR approaches to hydrogen-1, carbon-13, and nitrogen-15 resonance assignments in proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, B.J.; Reily, M.D.; Westler, W.M.; Ulrich, E.L.; Markley, J.L. )

    1989-01-10

    When used in concert, one-bond carbon-carbon correlations, one-bond and multiple-bond proton-carbon correlations, and multiple-bond proton-nitrogen correlations, derived from two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra of isotopically enriched proteins, provide a reliable method of assigning proton, carbon, and nitrogen resonances. In contrast to procedures that simply extend proton assignments to carbon or nitrogen resonances, this technique assigns proton, carbon, and nitrogen resonances coordinately on the basis of their integrated coupling networks. Redundant spin coupling pathways provide ways of resolving overlaps frequently encountered in homonuclear {sup 1}H 2D NMR spectra and facilitate the elucidation of complex proton spin systems. Carbon-carbon and proton-carbon couplings can be used to bridge the aromatic and aliphatic parts of proton spin systems; this avoids possible ambiguities that may result from the use of nuclear Overhauser effects to assign aromatic amino acid signals. The technique is illustrated for Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin and cytochrome c-553, both uniformly enriched with carbon-13 (26%) or nitrogen-15 (98%).

  16. Concerted dismutation of chlorite ion: water-soluble iron-porphyrins as first generation model complexes for chlorite dismutase.

    PubMed

    Zdilla, Michael J; Lee, Amanda Q; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2009-03-01

    Three iron-5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrins (Fe(Por-Ar4), Ar = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluro-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium (1), N,N,N-trimethylanilinium (2), and p-sulfonatophenyl (3)) have been investigated as catalysts for the dismutation of chlorite (ClO2-). Degradation of ClO2- by these catalysts occurs by two concurrent pathways. One leads to formation of chlorate (ClO3-) and chloride (Cl-), which is determined to be catalyzed by O=FeIV(Por) (Compound II) based on stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy, competition with 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid), 18O-labeling studies, and kinetics. The second pathway is a concerted dismutation of chlorite to dioxygen (O2) and chloride. On the basis of isotope labeling studies using a residual gas analyzer, the mechanism is determined to be formation of O=FeIV(Por)*+ (Compound I) from oxygen atom transfer, and subsequent rebound with the resulting hypochlorite ion (ClO-) to give dioxygen and chloride. While the chlorate production pathway is dominant for catalysts 2 and 3, the O2-producing pathway is significant for catalyst 1. In addition to chlorite dismutation, complex 1 catalyzes hypochlorite disproportionation to chloride and dioxygen quantitatively.

  17. Concerted regulation of inhibitory activity of alpha 1-antitrypsin by the native strain distributed throughout the molecule.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eun Joo; Lee, Cheolju; Yu, Myeong-Hee

    2002-04-19

    The native forms of common globular proteins are in their most stable state but the native forms of plasma serpins (serine protease inhibitors) show high energy state interactions. The high energy state strain of alpha(1)-antitrypsin, a prototype serpin, is distributed throughout the whole molecule, but the strain that regulates the function directly appears to be localized in the region where the reactive site loop is inserted during complex formation with a target protease. To examine the functional role of the strain at other regions of alpha(1)-antitrypsin, we increased the stability of the molecule greatly via combining various stabilizing single amino acid substitutions that did not affect the activity individually. The results showed that a substantial increase of stability, over 13 kcal mol(-1), affected the inhibitory activity with a correlation of 11% activity loss per kcal mol(-1). Addition of an activity affecting single residue substitution in the loop insertion region to these very stable substitutions caused a further activity decrease. The results suggest that the native strain of alpha(1)-antitrypsin distributed throughout the molecule regulates the inhibitory function in a concerted manner. PMID:11834734

  18. Concerted Rattling in CsAg5 Te3 Leading to Ultralow Thermal Conductivity and High Thermoelectric Performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua; Tan, Gangjian; Shen, Jin-Ni; Hao, Shiqiang; Wu, Li-Ming; Calta, Nicholas; Malliakas, Christos; Wang, Si; Uher, Ctirad; Wolverton, Christopher; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-09-12

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials convert heat energy directly into electricity, and introducing new materials with high conversion efficiency is a great challenge because of the rare combination of interdependent electrical and thermal transport properties required to be present in a single material. The TE efficiency is defined by the figure of merit ZT=(S(2) σ) T/κ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, κ is the total thermal conductivity, and T is the absolute temperature. A new p-type thermoelectric material, CsAg5 Te3 , is presented that exhibits ultralow lattice thermal conductivity (ca. 0.18 Wm(-1)  K(-1) ) and a high figure of merit of about 1.5 at 727 K. The lattice thermal conductivity is the lowest among state-of-the-art thermoelectrics; it is attributed to a previously unrecognized phonon scattering mechanism that involves the concerted rattling of a group of Ag ions that strongly raises the Grüneisen parameters of the material.

  19. Theoretical study of the neutral hydrolysis of hydrogen isocyanate in aqueous solution via assisted-concerted mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tolosa Arroyo, S; Hidalgo Garcia, A; Sansón Martín, J A

    2009-03-01

    A procedure is described for the theoretical study of chemical reactions in solution by means of molecular dynamics simulation, with solute-solvent interaction potentials derived from ab initio quantum calculations. We apply the procedure to the case of neutral hydrogen isocyanate hydrolysis, HNCO + 2 H(2)O --> H(2)NCOOH + H(2)O, in aqueous solution, via the assisted-concerted mechanisms and the two-water model. We used the solvent as a reaction coordinate and the free-energy curves for the calculation of the properties related to the reaction mechanisms, with a particular focus on the reaction and activation energies. The results showed that the mechanism with two water molecules attacking the C=N bond is preferred to the mechanism with three waters forming a ring of eight members. In addition, the aqueous medium significantly reduces the activation barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = 13.9 kcal/mol) and makes the process more exothermic (DeltaG = -11.1 kcal/mol) relative to the gas-phase reaction, increasing the rate constant of the process to k = 4.25 x 10(5) s(-1). PMID:19209882

  20. The Symbiosis-Related ERN Transcription Factors Act in Concert to Coordinate Rhizobial Host Root Infection1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cerri, Marion R.; Frances, Lisa; Kelner, Audrey; Middleton, Patrick H.; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Erard, Monique; Barker, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes improve their mineral nutrition through nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soil rhizobia. Rhizobial infection of legumes is regulated by a number of transcription factors, including ERF Required for Nodulation1 (ERN1). Medicago truncatula plants defective in ERN1 are unable to nodulate, but still exhibit early symbiotic responses including rhizobial infection. ERN1 has a close homolog, ERN2, which shows partially overlapping expression patterns. Here we show that ern2 mutants exhibit a later nodulation phenotype than ern1, being able to form nodules but with signs of premature senescence. Molecular characterization of the ern2-1 mutation reveals a key role for a conserved threonine for both DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In contrast to either single mutant, the double ern1-1 ern2-1 line is completely unable to initiate infection or nodule development. The strong ern1-1 ern2-1 phenotype demonstrates functional redundancy between these two transcriptional regulators and reveals the essential role of ERN1/ERN2 to coordinately induce rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis. While ERN1/ERN2 act in concert in the root epidermis, only ERN1 can efficiently allow the development of mature nodules in the cortex, probably through an independent pathway. Together, these findings reveal the key roles that ERN1/ERN2 play at the very earliest stages of root nodule development. PMID:27208242

  1. The EURONIC Project: a European concerted action on information to parents and ethical decision-making in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Cuttini, M; Kaminski, M; Saracci, R; de Vonderweid, U

    1997-10-01

    The paper presents the background, objectives and methods of a European concerted action project aimed at exploring the transmission of information to parents and the ethical decision-making process in neonatal intensive care from the perspective of health personnel, and in relation to the legal, cultural, social and ethical backgrounds of the various European countries. Eight countries are taking part in the project (France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom), which is about to be extended also to Central and Eastern Europe (Estonia, Lithuania and Hungary). In each of them, the medical and nursing personnel of a number of randomly selected units will be interviewed through an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Information on the organisation and policies of the Units and on the national legislation will also be collected. The key features of the study lie in the multidisciplinary and international approach, the random selection of the sample as a guarantee of representativeness and lack of selection bias, the focus on the staff practices as well as on their attitudes and opinions.

  2. Mean-free-paths in concert and chamber music halls and the correct method for calibrating dodecahedral sound sources.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L; Nishihara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    The Eyring/Sabine equations assume that in a large irregular room a sound wave travels in straight lines from one surface to another, that the surfaces have an average sound absorption coefficient αav, and that the mean-free-path between reflections is 4 V/Stot where V is the volume of the room and Stot is the total area of all of its surfaces. No account is taken of diffusivity of the surfaces. The 4 V/Stot relation was originally based on experimental determinations made by Knudsen (Architectural Acoustics, 1932, pp. 132-141). This paper sets out to test the 4 V/Stot relation experimentally for a wide variety of unoccupied concert and chamber music halls with seating capacities from 200 to 5000, using the measured sound strengths Gmid and reverberation times RT60,mid. Computer simulations of the sound fields for nine of these rooms (of varying shapes) were also made to determine the mean-free-paths by that method. The study shows that 4 V/Stot is an acceptable relation for mean-free-paths in the Sabine/Eyring equations except for halls of unusual shape. Also demonstrated is the proper method for calibrating the dodecahedral sound source used for measuring the sound strength G, i.e., the reverberation chamber method. PMID:24437762

  3. Mean-free-paths in concert and chamber music halls and the correct method for calibrating dodecahedral sound sources.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L; Nishihara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    The Eyring/Sabine equations assume that in a large irregular room a sound wave travels in straight lines from one surface to another, that the surfaces have an average sound absorption coefficient αav, and that the mean-free-path between reflections is 4 V/Stot where V is the volume of the room and Stot is the total area of all of its surfaces. No account is taken of diffusivity of the surfaces. The 4 V/Stot relation was originally based on experimental determinations made by Knudsen (Architectural Acoustics, 1932, pp. 132-141). This paper sets out to test the 4 V/Stot relation experimentally for a wide variety of unoccupied concert and chamber music halls with seating capacities from 200 to 5000, using the measured sound strengths Gmid and reverberation times RT60,mid. Computer simulations of the sound fields for nine of these rooms (of varying shapes) were also made to determine the mean-free-paths by that method. The study shows that 4 V/Stot is an acceptable relation for mean-free-paths in the Sabine/Eyring equations except for halls of unusual shape. Also demonstrated is the proper method for calibrating the dodecahedral sound source used for measuring the sound strength G, i.e., the reverberation chamber method.

  4. Psychopathology and Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kranick, Sarah; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Martinez, Valeria; Ameli, Rezvan; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements unrelated to a medical cause and presumed related to underlying psychological factors. Although psychological factors are of both clinical and pathophysiological relevance, very few studies to date have systematically assessed their role in psychogenic movement disorder. We sought to assess the role of previous life stress using validated quantitative measures in patients with psychogenic movement disorder compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as well as a convenience sample of patients with focal hand dystonia. Sixty-four patients with psychogenic movement disorder (72% female; mean age, 45.2 years [standard deviation, 15.2 years]), 38 healthy volunteers (74% female; mean age, 49 years [standard deviation, 13.7 years]), and 39 patients with focal hand dystonia (37% female; mean age, 48.7 years [standard deviation, 11.7 years]) were evaluated using a standardized psychological interview as well as validated quantitative scales to assess trauma and previous stressors, depression, anxiety, and personality traits. Patients with psychogenic movement disorder reported higher rates of childhood trauma, specifically greater emotional abuse and physical neglect, greater fear associated with traumatic events, and a greater number of traumatic episodes compared with healthy volunteers and patients with focal hand dystonia controlled for depressive symptoms and sex (Bonferroni corrected P < .005). There were no differences in categorical psychiatric diagnoses or scores on childhood physical or sexual abuse subscales, personality traits, or the dissociative experience scale. Our findings highlight a biopsychosocial approach toward the pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorder, although the association with psychological issues is much less prominent than expected compared with the nonepileptic seizure population. A careful psychological assessment is indicated to optimize therapeutic

  5. Mass movement in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Weihs, Brandon J.; Schettler, Megan Jensen

    Mass movements of nearly all types occur in Afghanistan but in the high relief, rugged Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains of northeastern Afghanistan, mass-movement threats to lives and property necessitated study to elucidate problems to development. Twenty-two different mass movements in bedrock in the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan were studied for this paper, including large rock falls and rock slides, along with massive slope-failure complexes with many types and rates of movement. Where higher altitudes prevail in the region, ice-cemented and ice-cored rock glaciers are also common and overlie some of the other mass movements. Inasmuch as seismic energy sources in the Eastern Hindu Kush are maximal in southern Badakhshan, and relief, slope angles and precipitation all increase from west to east as well, the causes of the pervasive mass movement are plentiful enough, although direct cause and slope-failure effect are not known. Some weak sedimentary lithologies downfaulted into, or draped across crystalline rocks, also failed. Some intermixed tills also occur but are not easily differentiated, even with analysis on the ground. Using high resolution satellite imagery and digital elevation models, we assessed geomorphologic parameters to characterize spatial-organization structures related to zones of erosion, deposition and further hazard potential. Analyses indicate that many of the massive slope failures can be characterized and differentiated into various process domains and chronologic-development zones with their different impacts upon the landscape. Mass movements in Afghanistan can exhibit unique topographic signatures that can be used to better assess hazards in other mountain areas, especially where landslide-dam breakout floods threaten. Development of roads, bridges, buildings, and irrigation networks should be done with care in these regions of Afghanistan.

  6. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  7. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  8. Eye movements in vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, A; Colpak, A I; Zee, D S

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of patients with vestibular symptoms usually begins with the question: is the lesion central or is it peripheral? The answer commonly emerges from a careful examination of eye movements, especially when the lesion is located in otherwise clinically silent areas of the brain such as the vestibular portions of the cerebellum (flocculus, paraflocculus which is called the tonsils in humans, nodulus, and uvula) and the vestibular nuclei as well as immediately adjacent areas (the perihypoglossal nuclei and the paramedian nuclei and tracts). The neural circuitry that controls vestibular eye movements is intertwined with a larger network within the brainstem and cerebellum that also controls other types of conjugate eye movements. These include saccades and pursuit as well as the mechanisms that enable steady fixation, both straight ahead and in eccentric gaze positions. Navigating through this complex network requires a thorough knowledge about all classes of eye movements to help localize lesions causing a vestibular disorder. Here we review the different classes of eye movements and how to examine them, and then describe common ocular motor findings associated with central vestibular lesions from both a topographic and functional perspective. PMID:27638066

  9. Movements of Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    Ninety-seven grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis were radio-located 6299 times during 1975–1987. Annual range sizes differed by sex, age, reproductive status and amount of precipitation. Females exhibited greater fidelity to seasonal and annual ranges than males. Weaned female offspring generally remained in the vicinity of the maternal range, while weaned males often made substantial movements to unexplored country. Average total home range size was 884 km2 for females and 3757 km2 for males. Males consistently exhibited greater indices of movement and range sizes than females. All cohorts had larger mean ranges during this study than during the period 1959–1969 when the population had access to open garbage dumps. Movements and elevational distribution of all cohorts were related to availability of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis seeds. We hypothesized that females with cubs-of-the-year and yearlings were displaced from most productive habitats during seasons and years of limited food availability.

  10. The Cycle of Movement. Spotlight: Physical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the important role of movement in Montessori early childhood education. Focuses on the cycle of movement: (1) free exploration; (2) concentration; (3) coordination; and (4) independence. Discusses the contributions of movement to abstract thought and presents information on current theories regarding the connection between movement and…

  11. A Theatre Movement Bibliography, 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lynne

    Reference materials that deal with various aspects of theater movement are grouped in this partially annotated bibliography under the following headings: anatomy, kinesiology, and physiology; combat and martial arts; integrated approaches to movement; mime; miscellaneous acting and movement approaches; movement notations systems; movement…

  12. Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, James R.

    2006-10-31

    Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods are described. In one aspect, a wireless communication device includes a housing, wireless communication circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to communicate wireless signals, movement circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to provide movement data regarding movement sensed by the movement circuitry, and event processing circuitry coupled with the housing and the movement circuitry, wherein the event processing circuitry is configured to process the movement data, and wherein at least a portion of the event processing circuitry is configured to operate in a first operational state having a different power consumption rate compared with a second operational state.

  13. Movement Perception and Movement Production in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly J.; Shiffrar, Maggie; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether motor difficulties documented in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) are related to compromised visual abilities, this study examined perception and movement in response to dynamic visual environments. Fourteen males with AS and 16 controls aged 7-23 completed measures of motor skills, postural response to optic flow, and visual…

  14. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  15. Alterations of eye movement control in neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades) to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit) to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes) involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades), saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades), and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks). On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention. PMID:24955249

  16. Synchronous concerted multiple-body photodissociation of oxalyl chloride explored by ab initio-based dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qiu; Shen, Lin; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2013-07-14

    Photo-induced multiple body dissociation is of fundamental interest in chemistry and physics. A description of the mechanism associated with n-body (n ≥ 3) photodissociation has proven to be an intriguing and yet challenging issue in the field of chemical dynamics. Oxalyl chloride, (ClCO)2, is the sole molecule reported up to date that can undergo four-body dissociation following absorption of a single UV photon, with a rich history of mechanistic debate. In the present work, the combined electronic structure calculations and dynamics simulations have been performed at the advanced level, which provides convincing evidence for resolving the mechanistic debate. More importantly, synchronous and asynchronous concertedness were explored for the first time for the (ClCO)2 photodissociation, which is based on the simulated time constants for the C-C and C-Cl bond fissions. Upon photoexcitation of (ClCO)2 to the S1 state, the adiabatic C-C or C-Cl fission takes place with little possibility. The four-body dissociation to 2Cl((2)P) and 2CO((1)Σ) was determined to a dominant channel with its branch of ∼0.7, while the three-body dissociation to ClCO((2)A(')) + CO((1)Σ) + Cl((2)P) was predicted to play a minor role in the (ClCO)2 photodissociation at 193 nm. Both the four-body and three-body dissociations are non-adiabatic processes, which proceed in a synchronous concerted way as a result of the S1 → S0 internal conversion. There is a little possibility for two-body dissociation to occur in the S0 and S1 states. PMID:23862946

  17. Fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract parasitic phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2013-11-01

    Pseudacteon tricuspis, Pseudacteon obtusus and Pseudacteon curvatus are three species of parasitic phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae), which have been introduced as classical biological control agents of imported, Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the southern USA. Previous studies demonstrated the behavioral response of P. tricuspis to the venom alkaloids and alarm pheromone of the fire ant, S. invicta. In the present study, we compared the responses of P. tricuspis, P. obtusus and P. curvatus to Solenopsis invicta alarm pheromone, venom alkaloids, or a mixture of both chemicals in four-choice olfactometer bioassays. The main hypothesis tested was that the fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract Pseudacteon phorid flies. Both sexes of all three Pseudacteon species were attracted to low doses of the fire ant alarm pheromone or venom alkaloids (i.e. 1 ant worker equivalent) alone. However, the flies were significantly more attracted to a mixture of both chemicals (i.e., 1:1 mixture of alarm pheromone+alkaloids) than to either chemical. The results suggest an additive rather than a synergistic effect of combining both chemicals. Comparing the fly species, P. tricuspis showed relatively greater attraction to cis alkaloids, whereas the alkaloid mixture (cis+trans) was preferred by P. obtusus and P. curvatus. In general, no key sexual differences were recorded, although females of P. tricuspis and P. obtusus showed slightly higher response than conspecific males to lower doses of the alarm pheromone. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed, and a host location model is proposed for parasitic phorid flies involving the use of fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids as long range and short range attractants, respectively. PMID:24035750

  18. Concerted transfer of the virulence Ti plasmid and companion At plasmid in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced plant tumour.

    PubMed

    Lang, Julien; Planamente, Sara; Mondy, Samuel; Dessaux, Yves; Moréra, Solange; Faure, Denis

    2013-12-01

    The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 harbours three independent type IV secretion (T4SS) machineries. T4SST-DNA promotes the transfer of the T-DNA to host plant cells, provoking tumour development and accumulation of opines such as nopaline and agrocinopines. T4SSpTi and T4SSpAt control the bacterial conjugation of the Ti and At plasmids respectively. Expression of T4SSpTi is controlled by the agrocinopine-responsive transcriptional repressor AccR. In this work, we compared the genome-wide transcriptional profile of the wild-type A. tumefaciens strain C58 with that of its accR KO-mutant to delineate the AccR regulon. In addition to the genes that encode agrocinopine catabolism and T4SSpTi , we found that AccR also regulated genes coding for nopaline catabolism and T4SSpAt . Further opine detection and conjugation assays confirmed the enhancement of nopaline consumption and At plasmid conjugation frequency in accR. Moreover, co-regulation of the T4SSpTi and T4SSpAt correlated with the co-transfer of the At and Ti plasmids both in vitro and in plant tumours. Finally, unlike T4SSpTi , T4SSpAt activation does not require quorum-sensing. Overall this study highlights the regulatory interplays between opines, At and Ti plasmids that contribute to a concerted dissemination of the two replicons in bacterial populations colonizing the plant tumour. PMID:24118167

  19. Platelet microparticles are internalized in neutrophils via the concerted activity of 12-lipoxygenase and secreted phospholipase A2-IIA

    PubMed Central

    Duchez, Anne-Claire; Boudreau, Luc H.; Naika, Gajendra S.; Bollinger, James; Belleannée, Clémence; Cloutier, Nathalie; Laffont, Benoit; Mendoza-Villarroel, Raifish E.; Lévesque, Tania; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Matthieu; Allaeys, Isabelle; Tremblay, Jacques J.; Poubelle, Patrice E.; Lambeau, Gérard; Pouliot, Marc; Provost, Patrick; Soulet, Denis; Gelb, Michael H.; Boilard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are anucleated blood elements highly potent at generating extracellular vesicles (EVs) called microparticles (MPs). Whereas EVs are accepted as an important means of intercellular communication, the mechanisms underlying platelet MP internalization in recipient cells are poorly understood. Our lipidomic analyses identified 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid [12(S)-HETE] as the predominant eicosanoid generated by MPs. Mechanistically, 12(S)-HETE is produced through the concerted activity of secreted phospholipase A2 IIA (sPLA2-IIA), present in inflammatory fluids, and platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), expressed by platelet MPs. Platelet MPs convey an elaborate set of transcription factors and nucleic acids, and contain mitochondria. We observed that MPs and their cargo are internalized by activated neutrophils in the endomembrane system via 12(S)-HETE. Platelet MPs are found inside neutrophils isolated from the joints of arthritic patients, and are found in neutrophils only in the presence of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO in an in vivo model of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. Using a combination of genetically modified mice, we show that the coordinated action of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO promotes inflammatory arthritis. These findings identify 12(S)-HETE as a trigger of platelet MP internalization by neutrophils, a mechanism highly relevant to inflammatory processes. Because sPLA2-IIA is induced during inflammation, and 12-LO expression is restricted mainly to platelets, these observations demonstrate that platelet MPs promote their internalization in recipient cells through highly regulated mechanisms. PMID:26106157

  20. Concerted Trafficking Regulation of Kv2.1 and KATP Channels by Leptin in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Shyng, Show-Ling; Chen, Pei-Chun

    2015-12-11

    In pancreatic β-cells, voltage-gated potassium 2.1 (Kv2.1) channels are the dominant delayed rectifier potassium channels responsible for action potential repolarization. Here, we report that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes known to inhibit insulin secretion, causes a transient increase in surface expression of Kv2.1 channels in rodent and human β-cells. The effect of leptin on Kv2.1 surface expression is mediated by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK mimics whereas inhibition of AMPK occludes the effect of leptin. Inhibition of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β, a known upstream kinase of AMPK, also blocks the effect of leptin. In addition, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is involved in Kv2.1 channel trafficking regulation. Inhibition of PKA prevents leptin or AMPK activators from increasing Kv2.1 channel density, whereas stimulation of PKA is sufficient to promote Kv2.1 channel surface expression. The increased Kv2.1 surface expression by leptin is dependent on actin depolymerization, and pharmacologically induced actin depolymerization is sufficient to enhance Kv2.1 surface expression. The signaling and cellular mechanisms underlying Kv2.1 channel trafficking regulation by leptin mirror those reported recently for ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, which are critical for coupling glucose stimulation with membrane depolarization. We show that the leptin-induced increase in surface KATP channels results in more hyperpolarized membrane potentials than control cells at stimulating glucose concentrations, and the increase in Kv2.1 channels leads to a more rapid repolarization of membrane potential in cells firing action potentials. This study supports a model in which leptin exerts concerted trafficking regulation of KATP and Kv2.1 channels to coordinately inhibit insulin secretion.

  1. Movement and self-control in protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, D L

    1980-01-01

    Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 bacteriophage tail structure show that assembly can be controlled by switching the subunits from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called "autostery", by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of a latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assemblies of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements. Images Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6894706

  2. KCNE1 divides the voltage sensor movement in KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels into two steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barro-Soria, Rene; Rebolledo, Santiago; Liin, Sara I.; Perez, Marta E.; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.; Larsson, H. Peter

    2014-04-01

    The functional properties of KCNQ1 channels are highly dependent on associated KCNE-β subunits. Mutations in KCNQ1 or KCNE subunits can cause congenital channelopathies, such as deafness, cardiac arrhythmias and epilepsy. The mechanism by which KCNE1-β subunits slow the kinetics of KCNQ1 channels is a matter of current controversy. Here we show that KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel activation occurs in two steps: first, mutually independent voltage sensor movements in the four KCNQ1 subunits generate the main gating charge movement and underlie the initial delay in the activation time course of KCNQ1/KCNE1 currents. Second, a slower and concerted conformational change of all four voltage sensors and the gate, which opens the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel. Our data show that KCNE1 divides the voltage sensor movement into two steps with widely different voltage dependences and kinetics. The two voltage sensor steps in KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels can be pharmacologically isolated and further separated by a disease-causing mutation.

  3. Movement of Movements: Culture Moves in the Long Civil Rights Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Larry

    2008-01-01

    In what way do movements move? What do we mean by the movement of movements? While still a rather unconventional stance, I advance the argument that social movements are, at root, culture production agents. Regardless of whatever else they may accomplish, movements produce new cultural forms in the course of struggle; they often change and augment…

  4. Naturalistic arm movements during obstacle avoidance in 3D and the identification of movement primitives.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Britta; Lipinski, John; Schöner, Gregor

    2012-10-01

    By studying human movement in the laboratory, a number of regularities and invariants such as planarity and the principle of isochrony have been discovered. The theoretical idea has gained traction that movement may be generated from a limited set of movement primitives that would encode these invariants. In this study, we ask if invariants and movement primitives capture naturalistic human movement. Participants moved objects to target locations while avoiding obstacles using unconstrained arm movements in three dimensions. Two experiments manipulated the spatial layout of targets, obstacles, and the locations in the transport movement where an obstacle was encountered. We found that all movement trajectories were planar, with the inclination of the movement plane reflecting the obstacle constraint. The timing of the movement was consistent with both global isochrony (same movement time for variable path lengths) and local isochrony (same movement time for two components of the obstacle avoidance movement). The identified movement primitives of transport (movement from start to target position) and lift (movement perpendicular to transport within the movement plane) varied independently with obstacle conditions. Their scaling accounted for the observed double peak structure of movement speed. Overall, the observed naturalistic movement was astoundingly regular. Its decomposition into primitives suggests simple mechanisms for movement generation.

  5. The consumer movement in India.

    PubMed

    Girimaji, P

    1993-10-01

    It was thought that passage of the Consumer Protection Act in India in 1986 would encourage consumers to stand up for their rights and lead to an overwhelming number of disputes in consumer courts. Although a consumer movement has yet to get going in India, existence of the act has stimulated the creation of many consumer organizations across the country. The number has such organizations has more the doubled in the last few years so that there are now 600-800 organizations in the voluntary sector. The movement has not blossomed because not all of the organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has hardly been any unified action which would demonstrate their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the movements. Consumers claim that the lack of consumer education makes them passive and apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. The majority of consumers in the country are even unaware of the existence of consumer courts to which they make take their grievances. Consumer rights organizations, however, counter that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for their inaction. The author acknowledges criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and considers the need to focus upon rural consumers, the significant contributions that organizations have made in laying the foundations for change, the need for consumer education, the need for specialists, the particular need for consumer protection with regard to health-related products, and support by voluntary health groups.

  6. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  7. Eye movements and information geometry.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Reiner

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system uses eye movements to gather visual information. They act as visual scanning processes and can roughly be divided into two different types: small movements around fixation points and larger movements between fixation points. The processes are often modeled as random walks, and recent models based on heavy tail distributions, also known as Levý flights, have been used in these investigations. In contrast to these approaches we do not model the stochastic processes, but we will show that the step lengths of the movements between fixation points follow generalized Pareto distributions (GPDs). We will use general arguments from the theory of extreme value statistics to motivate the usage of the GPD and show empirically that the GPDs provide good fits for measured eye tracking data. In the framework of information geometry the GPDs with a common threshold form a two-dimensional Riemann manifold with the Fisher information matrix as a metric. We compute the Fisher information matrix for the GPDs and introduce a feature vector describing a GPD by its parameters and different geometrical properties of its Fisher information matrix. In our statistical analysis we use eye tracker measurements in a database with 15 observers viewing 1003 images under free-viewing conditions. We use Matlab functions with their standard parameter settings and show that a naive Bayes classifier using the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix provides a high classification rate identifying the 15 observers in the database. PMID:27505658

  8. Connecting with New Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the emergence of unions and social movements which provide opportunities for adult educators in forwarding their adult literacy campaigns. The author describes the recent World Social Forum (WSF), held at the end of January in Porto Alegre, that provides ample opportunities for adult educators to make…

  9. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  10. Threats to the Inclusive Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiler, Anthony; Gibson, Howard

    1999-01-01

    This article explores four key threats to the movement toward inclusion within the field of special educational needs: the lack of precision in definitions of inclusion; the lack of research evidence, the tendency for some children to experience internal exclusion in the schools, and the continuing inclination to label children. (Author/CR)

  11. Modeling moisture movement in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. At harvest, rice normally has higher moisture content than the moisture content considered safe for its storage, which creates the necessity for a drying process before its storage. In addition to drying, moisture movement within the rice kernels a...

  12. Movement in the Choral Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Briana

    2007-01-01

    Associating movement with specific musical concepts is a natural way for people to broaden their musical understanding. Kinesthetic exercises in the choral rehearsal strengthen vocal technique and musicianship skills and enhance artistic expression. This approach helps all types of learners because it focuses attention and promotes active…

  13. Movement Exploration and Locomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 23 materials for teaching movement exploration and locomotor skills to handicapped students at all educational levels. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS…

  14. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  15. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  16. An Analysis of Overcorrection Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Pamela; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results suggested that although overcorrection is a valuable technique in reducing stereotyped behavior in profoundly retarded adults, the overcorrection responses (e.g., restitutional acts, positive practice, functional movement training) may not increase in the absence of specific reinforcement contingencies. (DLS)

  17. Modeling loggerhead turtle movement in the Mediterranean: importance of body size and oceanography.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Scott A; Moore, Jeffrey E; Dunn, Daniel C; van Buiten, Ricardo Sagarminaga; Eckert, Karen L; Halpin, Patrick N

    2008-03-01

    Adapting state-space models (SSMs) to telemetry data has been helpful for dealing with location error and for modeling animal movements. We used a combination of two hierarchical Bayesian SSMs to estimate movement pathways from Argos satellite-tag data for 15 juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the western Mediterranean Sea, and to probabilistically assign locations to one of two behavioral movement types and relate those behaviors to environmental features. A Monte Carlo procedure helped propagate location uncertainty from the first SSM into the estimation of behavioral states and environment--behavior relationships in the second SSM. Turtles using oceanic habitats of the Balearic Sea (n = 9 turtles) within the western Mediterranean were more likely to exhibit "intensive search" behavior as might occur during foraging, but only larger turtles responded to variations in sea-surface height. This suggests that they were better able than smaller turtles to cue on environmental features that concentrate prey resources or were more dependent on high-quality feeding areas. These findings stress the importance of individual heterogeneity in the analysis of movement behavior and, taken in concert with descriptive studies of Pacific loggerheads, suggest that directed movements toward patchy ephemeral resources may be a general property of larger juvenile loggerheads in different populations. We discovered size-based variation in loggerhead distribution and documented use of the western Mediterranean Sea by turtles larger than previously thought to occur there. With one exception, only individuals > 57 cm curved carapace length used the most westerly basin in the Mediterranean (western Alborán Sea). These observations shed new light on loggerhead migration phenology.

  18. Validation of Eye Movements Model of NLP through Stressed Recalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya S.

    Neurolinguistic Progamming (NLP) has emerged as a new approach to counseling and psychotherapy. Though not to be confused with computer programming, NLP does claim to program, deprogram, and reprogram clients' behaviors with the precision and expedition akin to computer processes. It is as a tool for therapeutic communication that NLP has rapidly…

  19. Concerted action of the cytosolic sulfotransferase, SULT1A3, and catechol-O-methyltransferase in the metabolism of dopamine in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shin; Yasuda, Tomoko; Hui, Ying; Liu, Ming-Yih; Suiko, Masahito; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2009-07-01

    Conjugation reactions catalyzed by the cytosolic sulfotransferase, SULT1A3, or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are known to be involved in the regulation and homeostasis of dopamine and other monoamine neurotransmitters. Whether different conjugation reactions may act in a concerted manner, however, remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the concerted action of SULT1A3 and COMT in dopamine metabolism. Analysis of the medium of SK-N-MC cells, metabolically labeled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of dopamine, revealed the generation and release of predominantly [(35)S]sulfated 3-methyldopamine and, to a lesser extent [(35)S]sulfated dopamine. Addition to the labeling medium of tropolone, a COMT inhibitor, enhanced the production of [(35)S]sulfated dopamine, with a concomitant decrease of [(35)S]sulfated 3-methyldopamine. Enzymatic assays using the eleven known human cytosolic SULTs revealed SULT1A3 as the major enzyme responsible for the sulfation of both dopamine and 3-methyldopamine. Kinetic analysis showed that the catalytic efficiency of SULT1A3 with 3-methyldopamine was 1.6 times than that with dopamine. Using subcellular fractions prepared from SK-N-MC cells, the majority of COMT dopamine-methylating activity was found to be present in the cytosol. Collectively, these results imply a concerted action of sulfation and methylation in the irreversible inactivation and disposal of excess dopamine in SK-N-MC cells.

  20. Aperture size, materiality of the secondary room and listener location: Impact on the simulated impulse response of a coupled-volume concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty E.; Harrison, Byron W.

    2003-04-01

    By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study, a coupled-volume concert hall based on an existing performing arts center is conceived and computer-modeled. It has a fixed geometric volume, form and primary-room sound absorption. Ray-tracing software simulates impulse responses, varying both aperture size and secondary-room sound absorption level, across a grid of receiver (listener) locations. The results are compared with statistical analysis that suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and the architecture of the space. This line of study aims to quantitatively and spatially correlate the double-sloped condition with (1) aperture size exposing the chamber, (2) sound absorptance in the coupled volume, and (3) listener location.

  1. Aperture size, materiality of the secondary room, and listener location: Impact on the simulated impulse response of a coupled-volume concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, Michael; Johnson, Marty E.; Harrison, Byron W.

    2002-11-01

    By adding a second room to a concert hall, and designing doors to control the sonic transparency between the two rooms, designers can create a new, coupled acoustic. Concert halls use coupling to achieve a variable, longer, and distinct reverberant quality for their musicians and listeners. For this study, a coupled-volume concert hall based on an existing performing arts center is conceived and computer modeled. It has a fixed geometric volume, form, and primary-room sound absorption. Ray-tracing software simulates impulse responses, varying both aperture size and secondary-room sound-absorption level, across a grid of receiver (listener) locations. The results are compared with statistical analysis that suggests a highly sensitive relationship between the double-sloped condition and the architecture of the space. This line of study aims to quantitatively and spatially correlate the double-sloped condition with (1) aperture size exposing the chamber, (2) sound absorptance in the coupled volume, and (3) listener location.

  2. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  3. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  4. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    PubMed

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

  5. Concerted but Noncooperative Activation of Nucleotide and Actuator Domains of the Ca-ATPase Upon Calcium Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Mahaney, James E.; Mayer, M. Uljana; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2008-11-25

    Calcium-dependent domain movements of the nucleotide (N) and actuator (A) domains of the SERCA2a isoform of the Ca-ATPase were assessed using constructs containing engineered tetracysteine binding motifs, which were expressed in insect High-Five cells and subsequently labeled with the biarsenical fluorophore 4’,5’-bis(1,3,2-dithoarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein (FlAsH-EDT2). Maximum catalytic function is retained in microsomes isolated from High-Five cells and labeled with FlAsH-EDT2. Distance measurements using the nucleotide analog TNP-ATP, which acts as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor from FlAsH, identify a 2.4 Å increase in the spatial separation between the N- and A-domains induced by high-affinity calcium binding; this structural change is comparable to that observed in crystal structures. No significant distance changes occur across the N-domain between FlAsH and TNP-ATP, indicating that calcium activation induces rigid body domain movements rather than intradomain conformational changes. Calcium-dependent decreases in the fluorescence of FlAsH bound respectively to either the N- or A-domains indicate coordinated and noncooperative domain movements, where both N- and A-domains domains display virtually identical calcium dependencies (i.e., Kd = 4.8 ± 0.4 μM). We suggest that occupancy of a single high-affinity calcium binding site induces the rearrangement of the A- and N-domains of the Ca-ATPase to form an intermediate state, which facilitates ATP utilization upon occupancy of the second high-affinity calcium site to enhance transport efficiency.

  6. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  7. Zero-gravity movement studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  8. Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels. PMID:21951005

  9. [Movement disorders in David Copperfield].

    PubMed

    Garćia Ruiz, P J; Gulliksen, L L

    1999-01-01

    Charles Dickens' novels are a source of vivid neurological descriptions. Besides Pickwickian syndrome, many other neurological descriptions can be found in Dickens' novels. David Copperfield contains several characters with movement disorders including generalized dystonia (Mr. Uriah Heep), restless legs syndrome (the waiter), cervical dystonia (Mr. Sharp) and spasmodic dysphonia (Mr. Creakle). These neurological descriptions an probably based on the observation of actual patients. PMID:10570623

  10. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-12-12

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement.

  11. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  12. The hospice movement: institutionalizing innovation.

    PubMed

    Abel, E K

    1986-01-01

    The early leaders of the hospice movement shared a number of attitudes with the founders of the alternative institutions of the 1960s and early 1970s: nostalgia for simple, old fashioned ways, dissatisfaction with bureaucratic and authoritarian institutions, faith in the power of nature, a determination to avoid domination by experts, and a desire to improve the quality of personal relationships. However, as hospices have become better established, they gradually have been incorporated into the dominant health care system and have lost their uniqueness. Some have affiliated with hospitals or home health agencies. Even autonomous organizations are subject to pressures for accommodation because they rely on the established order for resources, personnel, and political acceptance. Organizations receiving payment under the new Medicare benefit must adhere to a set of regulations that may distort the movement. Though creation of this benefit may have been facilitated by increased support for hospice ideals, the government views hospices primarily as a way to save money. Paradoxically, as hospices have grown in popularity, the critical force of the movement has been blunted. PMID:3514497

  13. Random root movements in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.

  14. The Transformation of the "Old Feminist" Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates how the "Old Feminist" movement, originating in broad humanitarian concerns that affirmed woman's selfhood, eventually was transformed into the essentially different "Woman Suffrage" movement. Analyzes a key episode, the 1860 divorce debate. (PD)

  15. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. PMID:26599117

  16. Social Change Movements and Transformative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auretto, Vera

    2001-01-01

    Defines social change movements and the role played by individual and collective transformation. Addresses the debate over Mezirow's transformation theory and shows how transformative learning was used in the women's movement. (SK)

  17. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled.

  18. Human movement tracking based on Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Luo, Yuan

    2006-11-01

    During the rehabilitation process of the post-stroke patients is conducted, their movements need to be localized and learned so that incorrect movement can be instantly modified or tuned. Therefore, tracking these movement becomes vital and necessary for the rehabilitative course. In the technologies of human movement tracking, the position prediction of human movement is very important. In this paper, we first analyze the configuration of the human movement system and choice of sensors. Then, The Kalman filter algorithm and its modified algorithm are proposed and to be used to predict the position of human movement. In the end, on the basis of analyzing the performance of the method, it is clear that the method described can be used to the system of human movement tracking.

  19. A central source of movement variability

    PubMed Central

    Churchland, Mark M.; Afshar, Afsheen; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Movements are universally, sometimes frustratingly, variable. When such variability causes error, we typically assume that something went wrong during the movement. The same assumption is made by recent and influential models of motor control. These posit that the principal limit on repeatable performance is neuro-muscular noise that corrupts movement as it occurs. An alternative hypothesis is that movement variability arises before movements begin, during motor preparation. We examined this possibility directly by recording the preparatory activity of single cortical neurons during a highly-practiced reach task. Small variations in preparatory neural activity were predictive of small variations in the upcoming reach. Effect magnitudes were such that at least half of the observed movement variability likely had its source during motor preparation. Thus, even for a highly-practiced task, the ability to repeatedly plan the same movement limits our ability to repeatedly execute the same movement. PMID:17178410

  20. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... throughout life, without other associated signs and symptoms. Intelligence and lifespan are not affected. People with congenital ... movement. Normally, signals from each half of the brain control movements on the opposite side of the ...

  1. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  2. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  3. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  4. Teaching the Three R's Through Movement Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    This book, which is geared toward K-6 classroom teachers with little or no experience in movement education, emphasizes the integration of movement with the academic subjects taught in the classroom. Movement experiences are presented through specific problems that children can solve by using their bodies in a variety of ways. The problems can be…

  5. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  6. Techniques for the Analysis of Human Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, D. W.; And Others

    This book presents the major analytical techniques that may be used in the appraisal of human movement. Chapter 1 is devoted to the photopgraphic analysis of movement with particular emphasis on cine filming. Cine film may be taken with little or no restriction on the performer's range of movement; information on the film is permanent and…

  7. Movement times of different arm components.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Hui, Michael C

    2010-08-01

    Data for ballistic and visually controlled movement times of different arm components are presented. Ballistic movement times gave strong support to the theoretical model that movement time is linearly related to the square-root of movement amplitude, for all arm components. It was found that there was a significant effect on movement time of the arm component being used. A scaling analysis showed that this time was linearly related to the product of the square-root of amplitude and the one-tenth power of limb mass moment of inertia. This relationship was found to be approximately true in the experiment. For visually controlled movements, movement time showed a significant interaction between Fitts' Index of Difficulty and arm component. The effect of arm component on movement time was stronger in visually controlled movements than in ballistic movements and did not allow the simple modelling in terms of limb mass moment of inertia as was possible with ballistic moves. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Different arm components take different times to move the same distance, dependent on their mass moments of inertia and muscle strength. The work investigated times for finger, wrist, forearm, and full-arm movements that are relevant to tasks such as manual assembly where there are alternative movement methods available for an operator. PMID:20658392

  8. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  9. Defining Movements Rhetorically: Casting the Widest Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    1980-01-01

    Examines four problems with current rhetorical definitions of movements: the assumption that movements are linear phenomena; over-emphasis on cause and effect analysis; stress on intentional analysis; and rigid definitions. Suggests a more open study which lets the critic define the movement by the study done and argue for its usefulness and…

  10. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  11. Coding and Interpreting Movement on the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holaday, Margot

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 26 Rorschach experts and 19 students of Rorschach use was conducted to help students using the Exner Comprehensive System determine whether to code movement for nouns with definitions that include movement. Experts and students did not reach agreement, but a literature review suggests such nouns should often be coded as movement. (SLD)

  12. Movement and Creative Drama for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowndes, Betty

    The relationships among improvisational movement, creative drama, "movement thinking," and motivation for learning in children are explored in this book. Chapters deal with (1) the meaning of movement and drama, (2) a clarification of the teacher's role and the capabilities of children, (3) sensory awareness activities, (4) body awareness--e.g.,…

  13. Latino Movement: A Target for Harassment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Members of the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan (MEChA), which translates to Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan, report that their movement is being targeted by school administrators across the country due to its demands for Chicano/Latino studies programs and protests against anti-immigration and anti-affirmative action movements.…

  14. Human Movement Potential: Its Ideokinetic Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweigard, Lulu E.

    This book focuses on the interdependence of postural alignment and the performance of movement. It provides an educational method (ideokinesis), which stresses the inherent capacity of the nervous system to determine the most efficient neuromuscular coordination for each movement. This method of teaching body balance and efficient movement has…

  15. Mexican-American: Movements and Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larralde, Carlos

    Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present.…

  16. Mechanisms of fusicoccin action: evidence for concerted modulations of secondary K(+) transport in a higher plant cell.

    PubMed

    Clint, G M; Blatt, M R

    1989-12-01

    Fusicoccin (FC) has long been known to promote K(+) uptake in higher plant cells, including stomatal guard cells, yet the precise mechanism behind this enhancement remains uncertain. Membrane hyperpolarization, thought to arise from primary H(+) pumping stimulated in FC, could help drive K(+) uptake, but the extent to which FC stimulates influx and uptake frequently exceeds any reasonable estimates from Constant Field Theory based on changes in the free-running membrane potential (V m) alone; furthermore, unidirectional flux analyses have shown that in the toxin K(+) ((86)Rb(+)) exchange plummets to 10% of the control (G.M. Clint and E.A.C. MacRobbie 1984, J. Exp. Bot.35 180-192). Thus, the activities of specific pathways for K(+) movement across the membrane could be modified in FC. We have explored a role for K(+) channels in mediating these fluxes in guard cells ofVicia faba L. The correspondence between FC-induced changes in chemical ((86)Rb(+)) flux and in electrical current under voltage clamp was followed, using the K(+) channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) to probe tracer and charge movement through K(+)-selective channels. Parallel flux and electrical measurements were carried out when cells showed little evidence of primary pump activity, thus simplifying analyses. Under these conditions, outward-directed K(+) channel current contributed appreciably to charge balance maintainingV m, and adding 10 mM TEA to block the current depolarized (positive-going)V m; TEA also reduced(86)Rb(+) efflux by 68-80%. Following treatments with 10 μM FC, both K(+) channel current and(86)Rb(+) efflux decayed, irreversbly and without apparent lag, to 10%-15% of the controls and with equivalent half-times (approx. 4 min). Fusicoccin also enhanced(86)Rb(+) influx by 13.9-fold, but the influx proved largely insensitive to TEA. Overall, FC promotednet cation uptake in 0.1 mM K(+) (Rb(+)), despite membrane potentials which were 30-60 mVpositive of the K(+) equilibrium

  17. PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 and PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED1 Mediate Photorelocation Movements of Both Chloroplasts and Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Organelle movement and positioning play important roles in fundamental cellular activities and adaptive responses to environmental stress in plants. To optimize photosynthetic light utilization, chloroplasts move toward weak blue light (the accumulation response) and escape from strong blue light (the avoidance response). Nuclei also move in response to strong blue light by utilizing the light-induced movement of attached plastids in leaf cells. Blue light receptor phototropins and several factors for chloroplast photorelocation movement have been identified through molecular genetic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 (PMI1) is a plant-specific C2-domain protein that is required for efficient chloroplast photorelocation movement. There are two PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED (PMIR) genes, PMIR1 and PMIR2, in the Arabidopsis genome. However, the mechanism in which PMI1 regulates chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements and the involvement of PMIR1 and PMIR2 in these organelle movements remained unknown. Here, we analyzed chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mutant lines of PMI1, PMIR1, and PMIR2. In mesophyll cells, the pmi1 single mutant showed severe defects in both chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements resulting from the impaired regulation of chloroplast-actin filaments. In pavement cells, pmi1 mutant plants were partially defective in both plastid and nuclear photorelocation movements, but pmi1pmir1 and pmi1pmir1pmir2 mutant lines lacked the blue light-induced movement responses of plastids and nuclei completely. These results indicated that PMI1 is essential for chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mesophyll cells and that both PMI1 and PMIR1 are indispensable for photorelocation movements of plastids and thus, nuclei in pavement cells. PMID:26324877

  18. PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 and PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED1 Mediate Photorelocation Movements of Both Chloroplasts and Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Organelle movement and positioning play important roles in fundamental cellular activities and adaptive responses to environmental stress in plants. To optimize photosynthetic light utilization, chloroplasts move toward weak blue light (the accumulation response) and escape from strong blue light (the avoidance response). Nuclei also move in response to strong blue light by utilizing the light-induced movement of attached plastids in leaf cells. Blue light receptor phototropins and several factors for chloroplast photorelocation movement have been identified through molecular genetic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 (PMI1) is a plant-specific C2-domain protein that is required for efficient chloroplast photorelocation movement. There are two PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED (PMIR) genes, PMIR1 and PMIR2, in the Arabidopsis genome. However, the mechanism in which PMI1 regulates chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements and the involvement of PMIR1 and PMIR2 in these organelle movements remained unknown. Here, we analyzed chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mutant lines of PMI1, PMIR1, and PMIR2. In mesophyll cells, the pmi1 single mutant showed severe defects in both chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements resulting from the impaired regulation of chloroplast-actin filaments. In pavement cells, pmi1 mutant plants were partially defective in both plastid and nuclear photorelocation movements, but pmi1pmir1 and pmi1pmir1pmir2 mutant lines lacked the blue light-induced movement responses of plastids and nuclei completely. These results indicated that PMI1 is essential for chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mesophyll cells and that both PMI1 and PMIR1 are indispensable for photorelocation movements of plastids and thus, nuclei in pavement cells.

  19. The Effects of Increasing Mass on the Variability of Movement & Segmental Movement Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Connell M. J.; And Others

    The effects of increasing the load of materials to be moved on rapid movement of these materials were measured using two dependent variables. The first analysis involved overall mean movement time (MT) and segmental movement times. The second analysis dealt with movement time variability evidenced by within subject MT and segmental MT standard…

  20. Lateral movement of auxin in phototropism.

    PubMed

    Dela Fuente, R K; Leopold, A C

    1968-07-01

    Lateral movement of indoleacetic acid-1-(14)C in corn coleoptiles was measured as radioactivity moving laterally following unilateral application of the auxin. The data suggest that there is an endogenous lateral movement of auxin, and that phototropic stimulation of the coleoptile depresses lateral movement towards the light and enhances lateral movement away from the light. The lateral movement was found to be principally as indoleacetic acid. In experiments using sunflower hypocotyl sections, evidence is also presented to support the suggestion that lateral redistribution of auxin may be effected by a deflection of auxin around a barrier to basipetal transport.

  1. Reading without saccadic eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G S; Turano, K

    1992-05-01

    To assess the limitation on reading speed imposed by saccadic eye movements, we measured reading speed in 13 normally-sighted observers using two modes of text presentations: PAGE text which presents an entire passage conventionally in static, paragraph format, and rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) which presents text sequentially, one word at a time at the same location in the visual field. In Expt 1, subjects read PAGE and RSVP text orally across a wide range of letter sizes (2X to 32X single-letter acuity) and reading speed was computed from the number of correct words read per minute. Reading speeds were consistently faster for RSVP compared to PAGE text at all letter sizes tested. The average speeds for text of an intermediate letter size (8X acuity) were 1171 words/min for RSVP and 303 words/min for PAGE text. In Expt 2 subjects read PAGE and RSVP text silently and a multiple-choice comprehension test was administered after each passage. All subjects continued to read RSVP text faster, and 6 subjects read at the maximum testable rate (1652 words/min) with at least 75% correct on the comprehension tests. Experiment 3 assessed the minimum word exposure time required for decoding text using RSVP to minimize potential delays due to saccadic eye movement control. Successive words were presented for a fixed duration (word duration) with a blank interval (ISI) between words. The minimum word duration required for accurate oral reading averaged 69.4 msec and was not reduced by increasing ISI. We interpret these results as an indication that the programming and execution of saccadic eye movements impose an upper limit on conventional reading speed.

  2. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  3. Visually Guided Control of Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W. (Editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The papers given at an intensive, three-week workshop on visually guided control of movement are presented. The participants were researchers from academia, industry, and government, with backgrounds in visual perception, control theory, and rotorcraft operations. The papers included invited lectures and preliminary reports of research initiated during the workshop. Three major topics are addressed: extraction of environmental structure from motion; perception and control of self motion; and spatial orientation. Each topic is considered from both theoretical and applied perspectives. Implications for control and display are suggested.

  4. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  5. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation. PMID:25482764

  6. The orthology of HLA-E and H2-Qa1 is hidden by their concerted evolution with other MHC class I molecules

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Etienne; Rouillon, Virginie

    2006-01-01

    Background Whether MHC molecules undergo concerted evolution or not has been the subject of a long-standing debate. Results By comparing sequences of eight functional homologues of HLA-E from primates and rodents with those of MHC class Ia molecules from the same eight species, we find that different portions of MHC class I molecules undergo different patterns of evolution. By focusing our analyses sequentially on these various portions, we have obtained clear evidence for concerted evolution of MHC class I molecules, suggesting the occurrence of extensive interallelic and intergenic exchanges. Intra-species homogenisation of sequences is particularly noticeable at the level of exon 4, which codes for the α3 domain, but our results suggest that homogenisation also concerns certain residues of the α1–α2 codomain that lie outside the antigen recognition site. Conclusion A model is presented in which Darwinian selective pressures due to pathogens could, at the same time, favour diversification of MHC class Ia molecules and promote concerted evolution of separate loci by spreading advantageous motifs arising by mutations in individual MHC molecules to other alleles and to other loci of the MHC region. This would also allow MHC molecules to co-evolve with the proteins with which they interact to fulfil their functions of antigen presentation and regulation of NK cell activity. One of the raisons d'être of the MHC may therefore be to favour at the same time both diversification of MHC class Ia molecules and homogenisation of the whole pool of MHC class I molecules (Ia and Ib) involved in antigen presentation. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Stephan Beck, Lutz Walter and Pierre Pontarotti. PMID:16542007

  7. Conservation law for self-paced movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-08-01

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called "drive," that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control.

  8. Conservation law for self-paced movements.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongsung; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-08-01

    Optimal control models of biological movements introduce external task factors to specify the pace of movements. Here, we present the dual to the principle of optimality based on a conserved quantity, called "drive," that represents the influence of internal motivation level on movement pace. Optimal control and drive conservation provide equivalent descriptions for the regularities observed within individual movements. For regularities across movements, drive conservation predicts a previously unidentified scaling law between the overall size and speed of various self-paced hand movements in the absence of any external tasks, which we confirmed with psychophysical experiments. Drive can be interpreted as a high-level control variable that sets the overall pace of movements and may be represented in the brain as the tonic levels of neuromodulators that control the level of internal motivation, thus providing insights into how internal states affect biological motor control. PMID:27418602

  9. Susceptibility genes in movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Sonja; Singleton, Andrew

    2008-05-15

    During the last years, remarkable progress in our understanding of molecular genetic mechanisms underlying movement disorders has been achieved. The successes of linkage studies, followed by positional cloning, have dominated the last decade and several genes underlying monogenic disorders have been discovered. The pathobiological understanding garnered from these mutations has laid the foundation for much of the search for genetic loci that confer risk for, rather than cause, disease. With the introduction of whole genome association studies as a novel tool to investigate genetic variation underlying common, complex diseases, a new era in neurogenomics has just begun. As the field rapidly moves forward several new challenges and critical questions in clinical care have to be addressed. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the discovery of susceptibility loci underlying major movement disorders, explain the newest methodologies and tools employed for finding and characterizing genes and discuss how insights into the molecular genetic basis of neurological disorders will impact therapeutic concepts in patient care.

  10. Movelets: A dictionary of movement

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiawei; Goldsmith, Jeff; Caffo, Brian; Glass, Thomas A.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances provide researchers with a way of gathering real-time information on an individual's movement through the use of wearable devices that record acceleration. In this paper, we propose a method for identifying activity types, like walking, standing, and resting, from acceleration data. Our approach decomposes movements into short components called “movelets”, and builds a reference for each activity type. Unknown activities are predicted by matching new movelets to the reference. We apply our method to data collected from a single, three-axis accelerometer and focus on activities of interest in studying physical function in elderly populations. An important technical advantage of our methods is that they allow identification of short activities, such as taking two or three steps and then stopping, as well as low frequency rare(compared with the whole time series) activities, such as sitting on a chair. Based on our results we provide simple and actionable recommendations for the design and implementation of large epidemiological studies that could collect accelerometry data for the purpose of predicting the time series of activities and connecting it to health outcomes. PMID:23293708

  11. Winter movement dynamics of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998-Mar 2000) using capture-recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  12. Concerted evolution of the tandem array encoding primate U2 snRNA occurs in situ, without changing the cytological context of the RNU2 locus.

    PubMed Central

    Pavelitz, T; Rusché, L; Matera, A G; Scharf, J M; Weiner, A M

    1995-01-01

    In primates, the tandemly repeated genes encoding U2 small nuclear RNA evolve concertedly, i.e. the sequence of the U2 repeat unit is essentially homogeneous within each species but differs somewhat between species. Using chromosome painting and the NGFR gene as an outside marker, we show that the U2 tandem array (RNU2) has remained at the same chromosomal locus (equivalent to human 17q21) through multiple speciation events over > 35 million years leading to the Old World monkey and hominoid lineages. The data suggest that the U2 tandem repeat, once established in the primate lineage, contained sequence elements favoring perpetuation and concerted evolution of the array in situ, despite a pericentric inversion in chimpanzee, a reciprocal translocation in gorilla and a paracentric inversion in orang utan. Comparison of the 11 kb U2 repeat unit found in baboon and other Old World monkeys with the 6 kb U2 repeat unit in humans and other hominids revealed that an ancestral U2 repeat unit was expanded by insertion of a 5 kb retrovirus bearing 1 kb long terminal repeats (LTRs). Subsequent excision of the provirus by homologous recombination between the LTRs generated a 6 kb U2 repeat unit containing a solo LTR. Remarkably, both junctions between the human U2 tandem array and flanking chromosomal DNA at 17q21 fall within the solo LTR sequence, suggesting a role for the LTR in the origin or maintenance of the primate U2 array. Images PMID:7828589

  13. Epidemiological evaluation of hearing damage related to strongly amplified music (personal cassette players, discotheques, rock concerts)--high-definition audiometric survey on 1364 subjects.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bisch, C

    1996-01-01

    Listening to loudly amplified music can be responsible for hearing damage of the same nature as that caused by industrial noise. This study of the repercussions on hearing is based on isolating different types of risks (PCPs (personal cassette players), discotheques and rock/variety concerts) using 'pure' exposed groups matched subject to subject for age and sex to control groups. Hearing is studied with high-definition audiometry and an 'auditory suffering' indicator. Although discotheque patrons present on average no audiometric damage (211 subjects), a statistically significant increase of average hearing thresholds is found in young people using a PCP > 7 h/week (54 subjects) compared to those using one 2-7 h/week (195 subjects) and compared to their matched controls. The same is true for subjects who go to rock concerts at least twice a month (87 subjects) compared to their matched controls. Signs of auditory suffering are found in two subjects out of three in this last exposure group, as opposed to 12% of the controls. Measures to conserve young people's hearing must include a reduction of sound levels, the education of music and entertainment professionals, and making PCP users better informed.

  14. Unraveling the Concerted Reaction Mechanism of the Noncatalyzed Mukaiyama Reaction between C,O,O-Tris(trimethylsilyl)ketene Acetal and Aldehydes Using Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Hadj Mohamed, Slim; Trabelsi, Mahmoud; Champagne, Benoît

    2016-07-21

    The uncatalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reaction between C,O,O-tris(trimethylsilyl)ketene acetal and aldehydes bearing alkyl, vinyl, and aromatic substituents has been studied theoretically using density functional theory with the M06-2X exchange-correlation functional. These DFT calculations mostly demonstrate that (i) the syn product is both kinetically and thermodynamically favored, (ii) the diastereoselectivity of the uncatalyzed reaction is larger than observed for the reaction catalyzed by HgI2 and it is inverted with respect to the latter, (iii) solvents with larger dielectric constants increase the activation barrier but reduce the diastereoselectivity, (iv) the concerted reaction is preferred over the stepwise reaction, and (v) the OSiMe3 group in geminal lowers the activation barrier and increases the energy of reaction. Analyzing the concerted mechanism unravels four types of cyclic transition states, two pro-anti and two pro-syn. Then, the relative energy of the most stable transition state of each type as well as of the corresponding anti and syn products shows that the syn reaction path is located at lower Gibbs enthalpy than the anti reaction path for all substituents.

  15. Quantum free energy landscapes from ab initio path integral metadynamics: Double proton transfer in the formic acid dimer is concerted but not correlated

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Sergei D. Grant, Ian M.; Marx, Dominik

    2015-09-28

    With the goal of computing quantum free energy landscapes of reactive (bio)chemical systems in multi-dimensional space, we combine the metadynamics technique for sampling potential energy surfaces with the ab initio path integral approach to treating nuclear quantum motion. This unified method is applied to the double proton transfer process in the formic acid dimer (FAD), in order to study the nuclear quantum effects at finite temperatures without imposing a one-dimensional reaction coordinate or reducing the dimensionality. Importantly, the ab initio path integral metadynamics technique allows one to treat the hydrogen bonds and concomitant proton transfers in FAD strictly independently and thus provides direct access to the much discussed issue of whether the double proton transfer proceeds via a stepwise or concerted mechanism. The quantum free energy landscape we compute for this H-bonded molecular complex reveals that the two protons move in a concerted fashion from initial to product state, yet world-line analysis of the quantum correlations demonstrates that the protons are as quantum-uncorrelated at the transition state as they are when close to the equilibrium structure.

  16. Concerted actions of the catechol O-methyltransferase and the cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT1A3 in the metabolism of catecholic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Alazizi, Adnan; Liu, Ming-Yih; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Sugahara, Takuya; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-11-01

    Catecholic drugs had been reported to be metabolized through conjugation reactions, particularly methylation and sulfation. Whether and how these two Phase II conjugation reactions may occur in a concerted manner, however, remained unclear. The current study was designed to investigate the methylation and/or sulfation of five catecholic drugs. Analysis of the spent media of HepG2 cells metabolically labeled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of individual catecholic drugs revealed the presence of two [(35)S]sulfated metabolites for dopamine, epinephrine, isoproterenol, and isoetharine, but only one [(35)S]sulfated metabolite for apomorphine. Further analyses using tropolone, a catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, indicated that one of the two [(35)S]sulfated metabolites of dopamine, epinephrine, isoproterenol, and isoetharine was a doubly conjugated (methylated and sulfated) product, since its level decreased proportionately with increasing concentrations of tropolone added to the labeling media. Moreover, while the inhibition of methylation resulted in a decrease of the total amount of [(35)S]sulfated metabolites, sulfation appeared to be capable of compensating the suppressed methylation in the metabolism of these four catecholic drugs. A two-stage enzymatic assay showed the sequential methylation and sulfation of dopamine, epinephrine, isoproterenol, and isoetharine mediated by, respectively, the COMT and the cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT1A3. Collectively, the results from the present study implied the concerted actions of the COMT and SULT1A3 in the metabolism of catecholic drugs.

  17. Evidence of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism, but not of parallel evolution, despite high levels of concerted evolution in the major histocompatibility complex of flamingo species.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, M A F; Courtiol, A; Teixeira, M; Galan, M; Bechet, A; Cezilly, F

    2016-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cornerstone in the study of adaptive genetic diversity. Intriguingly, highly polymorphic MHC sequences are often not more similar within species than between closely related species. Divergent selection of gene duplicates, balancing selection maintaining trans-species polymorphism (TSP) that predate speciation and parallel evolution of species sharing similar selection pressures can all lead to higher sequence similarity between species. In contrast, high rates of concerted evolution increase sequence similarity of duplicated loci within species. Assessing these evolutionary models remains difficult as relatedness and ecological similarities are often confounded. As sympatric species of flamingos are more distantly related than allopatric species, flamingos represent an ideal model to disentangle these evolutionary models. We characterized MHC Class I exon 3, Class IIB exon 2 and exon 3 of the six extant flamingo species. We found up to six MHC Class I loci and two MHC Class IIB loci. As all six species shared the same number of MHC Class IIB loci, duplication appears to predate flamingo speciation. However, the high rate of concerted evolution has prevented the divergence of duplicated loci. We found high sequence similarity between all species regardless of codon position. The latter is consistent with balancing selection maintaining TSP, as under this mechanism amino acid sites under pathogen-mediated selection should be characterized by fewer synonymous codons (due to their common ancestry) than under parallel evolution. Overall, balancing selection maintaining TSP appears to result in high MHC similarity between species regardless of species relatedness and geographical distribution.

  18. Concerted derivatization and concentration method with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for liquid chromatographic analysis of 5-hydroxyindoles in human serum.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Tadashi; Yabuuchi, Yurika; Iwamatsu, Tomomi; Tamashima, Erina; Kawami, Yusuke; Itoyama, Miki; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2013-12-15

    We developed a concerted derivatization and concentration method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the liquid chromatography (LC) determination of 5-hydroxyindoles (5-HIs; serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, N-acetylserotonin, and 5-hydroxytryptohol). Concerted derivatization and concentration could be affected by adding a mixture of an ionic liquid (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, extraction solvent), methanol (disperser), and water containing fluorescence derivatization reagents [benzylamine and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)] into the sample. The resulting sedimented phase was injected into a reversed-phase LC column using a mixture of acetonitrile and 250 mM acetate buffer (pH 4.3) as the mobile phase for gradient elution, and the derivatives obtained were fluorometrically detected at excitation and emission wavelengths of 345 nm and 452 nm, respectively. The derivatization (reagent concentrations and pH) and extraction (extraction and disperser solvent type) conditions were optimized simultaneously. The limits of detection of the 5-HIs were in the range of 0.08-0.33 nM. The method was validated for 10 and 50 pmol/mL human serum levels, and the recovery of 5-HIs was between 66% and 98%, within a relative standard deviation of 9.5%. The proposed method is well suited for the highly sensitive analysis of trace amounts of 5-HIs in human serum samples. PMID:24209305

  19. Action Potential-Independent and Nicotinic Receptor-Mediated Concerted Release of Multiple Quanta at Hippocampal CA3–Mossy Fiber Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Geeta; Grybko, Michael; Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar

    2009-01-01

    Presynaptic action potential-independent transmitter release is a potential means of information transfer across synapses. We show that in the hippocampal mossy fiber boutons, activation of the α7-subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) results in a large increase in the amplitude of spontaneous events, resulting from concerted release of multiple quanta from the mossy fiber boutons. This amplitude increase is abolished at low temperatures. Activation of α7-nAChRs causes a rise in intraterminal calcium at mossy fiber boutons, involving ryanodine receptors. Regulation of concerted release requires the subsequent activation of presynaptic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Activation of CaMKII is required to drive presynaptic action potential-independent transmission at the mossy fiber–CA3 pyramidal cell synapse. The effects of α7-nAChR activation are mediated by biologically relevant doses of nicotine. Our results demonstrate a novel form of synaptic plasticity mediated by presynaptic α7-nAChRs and store calcium that is temporally different and might respond to a different history of synaptic activity than that mediated by incoming action potentials. PMID:18322100

  20. Phantom hand and wrist movements in upper limb amputees are slow but naturally controlled movements.

    PubMed

    De Graaf, J B; Jarrassé, N; Nicol, C; Touillet, A; Coyle, T; Maynard, L; Martinet, N; Paysant, J

    2016-01-15

    After limb amputation, patients often wake up with a vivid perception of the presence of the missing limb, called "phantom limb". Phantom limbs have mostly been studied with respect to pain sensation. But patients can experience many other phantom sensations, including voluntary movements. The goal of the present study was to quantify phantom movement kinematics and relate these to intact limb kinematics and to the time elapsed since amputation. Six upper arm and two forearm amputees with various delays since amputation (6months to 32years) performed phantom finger, hand and wrist movements at self-chosen comfortable velocities. The kinematics of the phantom movements was indirectly obtained via the intact limb that synchronously mimicked the phantom limb movements, using a Cyberglove® for measuring finger movements and an inertial measurement unit for wrist movements. Results show that the execution of phantom movements is perceived as "natural" but effortful. The types of phantom movements that can be performed are variable between the patients but they could all perform thumb flexion/extension and global hand opening/closure. Finger extension movements appeared to be 24% faster than finger flexion movements. Neither the number of types of phantom movements that can be executed nor the kinematic characteristics were related to the elapsed time since amputation, highlighting the persistence of post-amputation neural adaptation. We hypothesize that the perceived slowness of phantom movements is related to altered proprioceptive feedback that cannot be recalibrated by lack of visual feedback during phantom movement execution.

  1. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. PMID:26972261

  2. Physical constraints for pathogen movement.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2015-10-01

    In this pedagogical review, we discuss the physical constraints that pathogens experience when they move in their host environment. Due to their small size, pathogens are living in a low Reynolds number world dominated by viscosity. For swimming pathogens, the so-called scallop theorem determines which kinds of shape changes can lead to productive motility. For crawling or gliding cells, the main resistance to movement comes from protein friction at the cell-environment interface. Viruses and pathogenic bacteria can also exploit intracellular host processes such as actin polymerization and motor-based transport, if they present the appropriate factors on their surfaces. Similar to cancer cells that also tend to cross various barriers, pathogens often combine several of these strategies in order to increase their motility and therefore their chances to replicate and spread.

  3. Aspectual coercion in eye movements.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David J

    2013-06-01

    Comprehension includes interpreting sentences in terms of aspectual categories such as processes (Harry climbed) and culminations (Harry reached the top). Adding a verbal modifier such as for many years to a culmination coerces its interpretation from one to many culminations. Previous studies have found that coercion increases lexical decision and meaning judgment time, but not eye fixation time. This study recorded eye movements as participants read sentences in which a coercive adverb increased the interpretation of multiple events. Adverbs appeared at the end of a clause and line; the post-adverb region appeared at the beginning of the next line; follow-up questions occasionally asked about aspectual meaning; and clause type varied systematically. Coercive adverbs increased eye fixation time in the post-adverb region and in the adverb and post-adverb regions combined. Factors that influence the appearance of aspectual coercion may include world knowledge, follow-up questions, and the location and ambiguity of adverbs.

  4. Classification of offshore mass movements

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, T. |; Cochonat, P.

    1996-01-01

    More than 100 offshore mass-movement deposits have been studied in Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The processes can be divided into three main types: slides/slumps, plastic flows, and turbidity currents, of which 13 main varieties have been recognized. The three types are differentiated mainly by motion, architecture, and shape of failure surface. For slides, the morphology of deposits can usually be linked to a process, but for plastic flows and turbidity currents, information about the motion is mainly provided by the sedimentary record. A static classification based on these features is given, and is related to a dynamic classification system to try to underline the morphological transformation of an offshore event from initiation to deposition.

  5. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes.

  6. Behavioral evaluation of movement cancellation.

    PubMed

    Walton, Mark M G; Gandhi, Neeraj J

    2006-10-01

    The countermanding saccade task has been used in many studies to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie the decision to execute or restrain rapid eye movements. In this task, the presentation of a saccade target is sometimes followed by the appearance of a stop cue that indicates that the subject should cancel the planned movement. Performance has been modeled as a race between motor preparation and cancellation processes. The signal that reaches its activation threshold first determines whether a saccade is generated or cancelled. In these studies, an important parameter is the time required to process the stop cue, referred to as the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). The SSRT is estimated using statistical approaches, the validity of which has not been unequivocally established. A more direct measure of this parameter might be obtainable if a method was available to "unmask" the developing motor command. This can be accomplished by air-puff-evoked blinks, which inhibit pontine omnipause neurons that serve as an inhibitory gate for the saccadic system. In the present study, brief puffs of air were used to elicit blinks at various times while rhesus monkeys performed a countermanding saccade task. If the developing motor command has not yet been cancelled, this should trigger a saccade. When blinks occurred between approximately 50 and 200 ms after target onset, saccades were often evoked. Saccades were rarely evoked more than approximately 70 ms after stop cue onset; this value represents a behavioral evaluation of SSRT and was comparable to the estimates obtained using standard statistical approaches. When saccades occurred near the SSRT on blink trials, they were often hypometric. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to model the effects of blink time on the race model. Overall, the study supports the validity of the statistical methods currently in use. PMID:16760340

  7. Adaptive Variability in Skilled Human Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    Human movements are produced in variable external/internal environments. Because of this variability, the same motor command can result in quite different movement patterns. Therefore, to produce skilled movements humans must coordinate the variability, not try to exclude it. In addition, because human movements are produced in redundant and complex systems, a combination of variability should be observed in different anatomical/physiological levels. In this paper, we introduce our research about human movement variability that shows remarkable coordination among components, and between organism and environment. We also introduce nonlinear dynamical models that can describe a variety of movements as a self-organization of a dynamical system, because the dynamical systems approach is a major candidate to understand the principle underlying organization of varying systems with huge degrees-of-freedom.

  8. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Fard, Sahar Abbaszadeh; Huizenga, Charlie; Paliaga, Gwelen; Brager, Gail; Zagreus, Leah

    2007-05-01

    Office workers' preferences for air movement have been extracted from a database of indoor environmental quality surveys performed in over 200 buildings. Dissatisfaction with the amount of air motion is very common, with too little air movement cited far more commonly than too much air movement. Workers were also surveyed in a detailed two-season study of a single naturally ventilated building. About one-half the building's population wanted more air movement and only 4% wanted less. This same ratio applied when the air movement in workspaces was higher than 0.2 m/s, the de facto draft limit in the current ASHRAE and ISO thermal environment standards. Preference for "less air motion" exceeded that for "more" only at thermal sensations of -2 (cool) or colder. These results raise questions about the consequences of the ASHRAE and ISO standards' restrictions on air movement, especially for neutral and warm conditions.

  9. Cortical Tremor (CT) with coincident orthostatic movements.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Frucht, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Cortical tremor (CT) is a form of cortical reflex myoclonus that can mimic essential tremor (ET). Clinical features that are helpful in distinguishing CT from ET are the irregular and jerky appearance of the movements. We report two patients with CT with coexisting orthostatic movements, either orthostatic tremor (OT) or myoclonus, who experienced functional improvement in both cortical myoclonus and orthostatic movements when treated with levetiracetam. PMID:26788343

  10. Movement disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jagota, Priya; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Lang, Anthony E

    2012-03-15

    Movement disorders are not infrequent in patients with diabetes mellitus. These may occur on the basis of both central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction and can be secondary to severe hyperglycemia, complications of diabetes or its treatment and less often to diseases in which both diabetes and a movement disorder are primary manifestations of the same underlying disease. We present a typical case of a severe movement disorder complicating diabetes as a springboard to review the spectrum of disorders associated with this condition.

  11. The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A.

    1986-11-01

    The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad is a mountain-slide type of movement. Estimations of the thickness of the layer which is moving range between 10 and 100 m. There is no proof that the movement is water induced, but it could be influenced by the water household. The slope of the slide area is H: D = 1: 2. The height difference in the moving area studied, according to this paper, is 1 km. The actual rate of movement is about 12 cm/yr.

  12. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement

    PubMed Central

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising) is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies. PMID:26283934

  13. Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Roger; Wheat, Jon; Robins, Matthew

    2007-05-01

    This paper overviews the importance for sports biomechanics of movement variability, which has been studied for some time by cognitive and ecological motor skills specialists but, until quite recently, had somewhat been overlooked by sports biomechanists. The paper considers biomechanics research reporting inter- and intra-individual movement variability in javelin and discus throwing, basketball shooting, and locomotion. The overview does not claim to be comprehensive and we exclude such issues as the theoretical background to movement and coordination variability and their measurement. We overview evidence, both theoretical and empirical, of inter-individual movement variability in seeking to achieve the same task goal, in contrast to the concept of "optimal" movement patterns. Furthermore, even elite athletes cannot reproduce identical movement patterns after many years of training, contradicting the ideas of motor invariance and "representative" trials. We contend that movement variability, far from being solely due to neuromuscular system or measurement "noise"--as sports biomechanists may have previously supposed--is, or could be, functional. Such functionality could allow environmental adaptations, reduce injury risk, and facilitate changes in coordination patterns. We conclude by recommending that sports biomechanists should focus more of their research on movement variability and on important related topics, such as control and coordination of movement, and implications for practice and skill learning.

  14. Striatal firing rate reflects head movement velocity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Barter, Joseph W; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Yin, Henry H

    2014-11-01

    Although the basal ganglia have long been implicated in the initiation of actions, their contribution to movement remains a matter of dispute. Using wireless multi-electrode recording and motion tracking, we examined the relationship between single-unit activity in the sensorimotor striatum and movement kinematics. We recorded single-unit activity from medium spiny projection neurons and fast-spiking interneurons while monitoring the movements of mice using motion tracking. In Experiment 1, we trained mice to generate movements reliably by water-depriving them and giving them periodic cued sucrose rewards. We found high correlations between single-unit activity and movement velocity in particular directions. This correlation was found in both putative medium spiny projection neurons and fast-spiking interneurons. In Experiment 2, to rule out the possibility that the observed correlations were due to reward expectancy, we repeated the same procedure but added trials in which sucrose delivery was replaced by an aversive air puff stimulus. The air puff generated avoidance movements that were clearly different from movements on rewarded trials, but the same neurons that showed velocity correlation on reward trials exhibited a similar correlation on air puff trials. These experiments show for the first time that the firing rate of striatal neurons reflects movement velocity for different types of movements, whether to seek rewards or to avoid harm. PMID:25209171

  15. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement.

    PubMed

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising) is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies. PMID:26283934

  16. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington’s disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette’s syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a

  17. Design and evaluation of a higher-order spherical microphone/ambisonic sound reproduction system for the acoustical assessment of concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Samuel W.

    Previous studies of the perception of concert hall acoustics have generally employed two methods for soliciting listeners' judgments. One method is to have listeners rate the sound in a hall while physically present in that hall. The other method is to make recordings of different halls and seat positions, and then recreate the environment for listeners in a laboratory setting via loudspeakers or headphones. In situ evaluations offer a completely faithful rendering of all aspects of the concert hall experience. However, many variables cannot be controlled and the short duration of auditory memory precludes an objective comparison of different spaces. Simulation studies allow for more control over various aspects of the evaluations, as well as A/B comparisons of different halls and seat positions. The drawback is that all simulation methods suffer from limitations in the accuracy of reproduction. If the accuracy of the simulation system is improved, then the advantages of the simulation method can be retained, while mitigating its disadvantages. Spherical microphone array technology has received growing interest in the acoustics community in recent years for many applications including beamforming, source localization, and other forms of three-dimensional sound field analysis. These arrays can decompose a measured sound field into its spherical harmonic components, the spherical harmonics being a set of spatial basis functions on the sphere that are derived from solving the wave equation in spherical coordinates. Ambisonics is a system for two- and three-dimensional spatialized sound that is based on recreating a sound field from its spherical harmonic components. Because of these shared mathematical underpinnings, ambisonics provides a natural way to present fully spatialized renderings of recordings made with a spherical microphone array. Many of the previously studied applications of spherical microphone arrays have used a narrow frequency range where the array

  18. How Create an Astronomy Outreach Program to Bring Astronomy to Thousands of People at Outdoor Concerts Astronomy Festivals, or Tourist Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I describe how to create an astronomy program for thousands of people at outdoor concerts based on my $308,000 NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013), and the Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM, 10,000 people/yr).MAUS reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and at the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. AFNM was started in 2010 with co-sponsorship by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. MAUS and AFMN combine solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners; hands-on activities, imaging with a cell phone mount; citizen science activities; hand-outs; and teacher info packet. Representatives from scientific institutions participated. Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel made guest appearances.MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). MAUS is effective in promoting science education!Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks, concert organizers, and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use social media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multiple targets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to

  19. Eye movements predict recollective experience.

    PubMed

    Sharot, Tali; Davidson, Matthew L; Carson, Meredith M; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2008-08-06

    Previously encountered stimuli can bring to mind a vivid memory of the episodic context in which the stimulus was first experienced ("remembered" stimuli), or can simply seem familiar ("known" stimuli). Past studies suggest that more attentional resources are required to encode stimuli that are subsequently remembered than known. However, it is unclear if the attentional resources are distributed differently during encoding and recognition of remembered and known stimuli. Here, we record eye movements while participants encode photos, and later while indicating whether the photos are remembered, known or new. Eye fixations were more clustered during both encoding and recognition of remembered photos relative to known photos. Thus, recognition of photos that bring to mind a vivid memory for the episodic context in which they were experienced is associated with less distributed overt attention during encoding and recognition. The results suggest that remembering is related to encoding of a few distinct details of a photo rather than the photo as a whole. In turn, during recognition remembering may be trigged by enhanced memory for the salient details of the photos.

  20. Eye Movements During Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Falck-Ytter, Terje

    2015-01-01

    An important element in social interactions is predicting the goals of others, including the goals of others’ manual actions. Over a decade ago, Flanagan and Johansson demonstrated that, when observing other people reaching for objects, the observer’s gaze arrives at the goal before the action is completed. Moreover, those authors proposed that this behavior was mediated by an embodied process, which takes advantage of the observer’s motor knowledge. Here, we scrutinize work that has followed that seminal article. We include studies on adults that have used combined eye tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation technologies to test causal hypotheses about underlying brain circuits. We also include developmental studies on human infants. We conclude that, although several aspects of the embodied process of predictive eye movements remain to be clarified, current evidence strongly suggests that the motor system plays a causal role in guiding predictive gaze shifts that focus on another person’s future goal. The early emergence of the predictive gaze in infant development underlines its importance for social cognition and interaction. PMID:26385998

  1. Eye Movements in Strategic Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Noguchi, Takao; Mullett, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In risky and other multiattribute choices, the process of choosing is well described by random walk or drift diffusion models in which evidence is accumulated over time to threshold. In strategic choices, level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models have been offered as accounts of the choice process, in which people simulate the choice processes of their opponents or partners. We recorded the eye movements in 2 × 2 symmetric games including dominance‐solvable games like prisoner's dilemma and asymmetric coordination games like stag hunt and hawk–dove. The evidence was most consistent with the accumulation of payoff differences over time: we found longer duration choices with more fixations when payoffs differences were more finely balanced, an emerging bias to gaze more at the payoffs for the action ultimately chosen, and that a simple count of transitions between payoffs—whether or not the comparison is strategically informative—was strongly associated with the final choice. The accumulator models do account for these strategic choice process measures, but the level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models do not. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27513881

  2. Competition between movement plans increases motor variability: evidence of a shared resource for movement planning.

    PubMed

    Oostwoud Wijdenes, Leonie; Ivry, Richard B; Bays, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    Do movement plans, like representations in working memory, share a limited pool of resources? If so, the precision with which each individual movement plan is specified should decrease as the total number of movement plans increases. To explore this, human participants made speeded reaching movements toward visual targets. We examined if preparing one movement resulted in less variability than preparing two movements. The number of planned movements was manipulated in a delayed response cueing procedure that limited planning to a single target (experiment 1) or hand (experiment 2) or required planning of movements toward two targets (or with two hands). For both experiments, initial movement direction variability was higher in the two-plan condition than in the one-plan condition, demonstrating a cost associated with planning multiple movements, consistent with the limited resource hypothesis. In experiment 3, we showed that the advantage in initial variability of preparing a single movement was present only when the trajectory could be fully specified. This indicates that the difference in variability between one and two plans reflects the specification of full motor plans, not a general preparedness to move. The precision cost related to concurrent plans represents a novel constraint on motor preparation, indicating that multiple movements cannot be planned independently, even if they involve different limbs. PMID:27358315

  3. The Human Potential Movement: Body/Nonverbal/Movement Approaches to Human Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stratton F.

    This report briefly describes the recent search for personal and interpersonal growth which has been termed the "Human Potential Movement," and the institutions or "growth centers" which have evolved as a result of this movement. It presents a list of body, nonverbal, and movement experiences derived from descriptive literature of the growth…

  4. Competition between movement plans increases motor variability: evidence of a shared resource for movement planning

    PubMed Central

    Ivry, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Do movement plans, like representations in working memory, share a limited pool of resources? If so, the precision with which each individual movement plan is specified should decrease as the total number of movement plans increases. To explore this, human participants made speeded reaching movements toward visual targets. We examined if preparing one movement resulted in less variability than preparing two movements. The number of planned movements was manipulated in a delayed response cueing procedure that limited planning to a single target (experiment 1) or hand (experiment 2) or required planning of movements toward two targets (or with two hands). For both experiments, initial movement direction variability was higher in the two-plan condition than in the one-plan condition, demonstrating a cost associated with planning multiple movements, consistent with the limited resource hypothesis. In experiment 3, we showed that the advantage in initial variability of preparing a single movement was present only when the trajectory could be fully specified. This indicates that the difference in variability between one and two plans reflects the specification of full motor plans, not a general preparedness to move. The precision cost related to concurrent plans represents a novel constraint on motor preparation, indicating that multiple movements cannot be planned independently, even if they involve different limbs. PMID:27358315

  5. Movement Precision and Amplitude as Separate Factors in the Control of Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Robert

    The purpose of this study was to assess Welford's dual controlling factor interpretation of Fitts' Law--describing movement time as being a linear function of movement distance (or amplitude) and the required precision of the movement (or target width). Welford's amplification of the theory postulates that two separate processes ought to be…

  6. Whatever Happened to the Free School Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Looks at the free school movement within and outside the realm of public education. Presents an historical perspective on the radical private free school movement evidence suggesting that the development of educational options within the public school system has come from within the system. (DN)

  7. The Chicano Movement: Paths to Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2011-01-01

    This article is a quick overview of the Chicano Movement (CM) with specific analyses of the five major strategies employed by its adherents to effect social change. The CM was a social movement that occurred in the United States with increased activity in the southwest and midwest during a time frame: 1950s to 1980s. Persons of Mexican ancestry…

  8. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  9. 9 CFR 78.34 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.34 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon... spread of brucellosis. The Administrator shall promptly notify the State animal health officials of...

  10. Eye Movement Analysis of Second Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Huana; Thompson, Richard A.

    An investigation was undertaken to measure objectively children's eye movements to determine whether the effect of fatigue of the average school day decreases eye movement efficiency, suggesting that children might benefit more from reading instruction in the morning than in the afternoon. Using a photoelectric instrument designed to graph eye…

  11. Eye Movement Patterns of Captioned Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl J.; Sharkawy, Sameh El; Danturthi, Ramalinga Sarma; Burch, Robert; Hsu, David

    2000-01-01

    Eye movement of six subjects (three with deafness) was recorded as they watched video segments with and without captions. The addition of captions to a video resulted in major changes in eye movement patterns, with the viewing process becoming primarily a reading process. (Contains six references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Movement and Music Education: An Historian's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Believes that Emile Jaques-Dalcroze is not the only person who has affected movement-based instruction. Highlights the history of movement-based instruction in elementary music education by addressing the influence of Isadora Duncan and modern dance, the efforts of Francois Delsarte and Rudolph von Laban, and the role of remedial perceptual-motor…

  13. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  14. Progressive Social Movements and Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article places policy development in the context of progressive social movements. It describes how social movements develop, and delineates some of the accomplishments of such contestation in U.S. history as well as in changes of education policy. The article closes by considering the possibilities and challenges of current social movement…

  15. Malcolm X: Another Side of the Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Mark

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Malcolm X, the African American religious and political leader who was prominent in a movement to unite black people throughout the world. The book presents an overview of the civil rights movement and documents Malcolm's role as an advocate for black separatism, black nationalism, and the…

  16. Digital Movement Analysis in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets offer applications (apps) that make digital movement analysis simple and efficient in physical education. Highly sophisticated movement analysis software has been available for many years but has mainly appealed to coaches of elite athletes and biomechanists. Apps on mobile devices are less expensive…

  17. 9 CFR 78.34 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.34 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon... spread of brucellosis. The Administrator shall promptly notify the State animal health officials of...

  18. 9 CFR 78.13 - Other movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.13 Other movements. The Administrator may, upon... brucellosis. The Administrator shall promptly notify the State animal health officials of the States...

  19. BREATHING PATTERN DISORDERS AND FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Dr. Esformes, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Experimental design Background: Normal breathing mechanics play a key role in posture and spinal stabilization. Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD) have been shown to contribute to pain and motor control deficits, which can result in dysfunctional movement patterns. The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) has been shown to accurately predict injury in individuals who demonstrate poor movement patterns. The role BPD play on functional movement is not well established. Furthermore, there is currently no single test to clinically diagnose BPD. A variety of methods are used, but correlations between them are poor. Purpose: To examine the relationship between BPD and functional movement and identify correlations between different measures of BPD. Methods: Breathing was assessed in 34 healthy individuals using a multi‐dimensional approach that included biomechanical, biochemical, breathing related symptoms, and breathing functionality measures. Movement was assessed using the FMS™. Analysis, involving independent t‐tests and Pearson correlation were performed to identify associations between measures. Results: Individuals who exhibited biochemical and biomechanical signs of BPD were significantly more likely to score poorly on the FMS™. These studied measures of BPD correlated highly with each other. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the importance of diaphragmatic breathing on functional movement. Inefficient breathing could result in muscular imbalance, motor control alterations, and physiological adaptations that are capable of modifying movement. These findings provide evidence for improved breathing evaluations by clinicians. Level of Evidence: 2B PMID:24567853

  20. The Primacy of Movement in Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrill, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The author is naturally a kinesthetic learner. As a child she was steeped in the wilds of seashore, fields, and woods in which she was free to roam, explore, and imagine in a deeply sensual, movement-oriented world. Because of these first experiences of freedom of movement and spontaneity in the highly intense natural world, she found the…

  1. Movement disorders induced by deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation represents a major advance in the treatment of several types of movement disorders. However, during stimulation new movement disorders may emerge, thus limiting the positive effects of this therapy. These movement disorders may be induced by: 1) stimulation of the targeted nucleus, 2) stimulation of surrounding tracts and nuclei, and 3) as a result of dose adjustment of accompanying medications, such as reduction of dopaminergic drugs in patients with Parkinson's disease. Various dyskinesias, blepharospasm, and apraxia of eyelid opening have been described mainly with subthalamic nucleus stimulation, whereas hypokinesia and freezing of gait have been observed with stimulation of the globus pallidus internus. Other deep brain stimulation-related movement disorders include dyskinesias associated with stimulation of the globus pallidus externus and ataxic gait as a side effect of chronic bilateral stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus. These movement disorders are generally reversible and usually resolved once the stimulation is reduced or turned off. This, however, typically leads to loss of benefit of the underlying movement disorder which can be re-gained by using different contacts, changing targets or stimulation parameters, and adjusting pharmacological therapy. New and innovative emerging technologies and stimulation techniques may help to prevent or overcome the various deep brain stimulation-induced movement disorders. In this review we aim to describe the clinical features, frequency, pathophysiology, and strategies for treatment of these iatrogenic movement disorders. PMID:26806438

  2. The Movement of Composition: Dance and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This piece, created at the Digital Media and Composition Institute in June 2012, is a multimodal attempt to capture and compare both the physical and conceptual movement involved in dance and writing. The project is my first step towards exploring the non-linear nature of composition as expressed in the movement of the body and of the mind.

  3. Composition Teachers and the Labor Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, William A.

    Composition teachers should combine self-identification and direct political action by belonging to the labor movement and working collectively toward expanding its range and power and consequently their own. Previously, members of the composition faculty have been involved in the labor movement, but several obstacles may interfere with deeper…

  4. Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Evan

    This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the…

  5. Sensory and intrinsic coordination of movement.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D N; Craig, C M; Grealy, M A

    1999-01-01

    A recently generalized theory of perceptual guidance (general tau theory) was used to analyse coordination in skilled movement. The theory posits that (i) guiding movement entails controlling closure of spatial and/or force gaps between effectors and goals, by sensing and regulating the tau s of the gaps (the time-to-closure at current closure rate), (ii) a principal way of coordinating movements is keeping the tau s of different gaps in constant ratio (known as tau-coupling), and (iii) intrinsically paced movements are guided and coordinated by tau-coupling onto a tau-guide, tau g, generated in the nervous system and described by the equation tau g = 0.5 (t-T 2/t) where T is the duration of the body movement and t is the time from the start of the movement. Kinematic analysis of hand to mouth movements by human adults, with eyes open or closed, indicated that hand guidance was achieved by maintaining, during 80 85% of the movement, the tau-couplings tau alpha-tau r and tau r-tau g, where tau r is tau of the hand-mouth gap, tau alpha is tau of the angular gap to be closed by steering the hand and tau g is an intrinsic tau-guide. PMID:10584340

  6. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  7. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe,...

  8. Model of Emotional Expressions in Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozaliev, Vladimir L.; Orlova, Yulia A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to automated identification of human emotions based on analysis of body movements, a recognition of gestures and poses. Methodology, models and automated system for emotion identification are considered. To characterize the person emotions in the model, body movements are described with linguistic variables and a…

  9. Task Effects on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how proofreading and reading-for-comprehension instructions influence eye movements during reading. Thirty-seven participants silently read sentences containing compound words as target words while their eye movements were being recorded. We manipulated word length and frequency to examine how task instructions influence…

  10. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  11. Effect of Canister Movement on Water Turbidity

    SciTech Connect

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-08-24

    Requirements for evaluating the adherence characteristics of sludge on the fuel stored in the K East Basin and the effect of canister movement on basin water turbidity are documented in Briggs (1996). The results of the sludge adherence testing have been documented (Bergmann 1996). This report documents the results of the canister movement tests. The purpose of the canister movement tests was to characterize water turbidity under controlled canister movements (Briggs 1996). The tests were designed to evaluate methods for minimizing the plumes and controlling water turbidity during fuel movements leading to multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading. It was expected that the test data would provide qualitative visual information for use in the design of the fuel retrieval and water treatment systems. Video recordings of the tests were to be the only information collected.

  12. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals.

  13. Abnormal movements in children with migraine.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Paul E; Mack, Kenneth J

    2015-03-01

    The cause and treatment of functional movement disorders and nonepileptic spells in children is poorly understood, and an association with migraine has not previously been reported. We retrospectively reviewed children diagnosed with chronic or episodic migraine at our institution from 2006 to 2013 to determine the proportion with nonorganic movement disorders, their phenomenology, provoking factors, and natural history. Thirty-two patients were identified, representing 4.3% of patients with chronic migraine and 0.9% of patients with episodic migraine. Twenty-four of the 32 (75%) had chronic migraine, whereas 8 (25%) had episodic migraine. Nonepileptic spells was the most common phenomenon in both cohorts, followed by tremor and functional gait disorders. Severe migraine attacks preceded these movements in the majority of patients. With appropriate migraine therapy, significant reduction or resolution of these movements was reported. We conclude that nonorganic movement disorders are observed in pediatric migraine, are more prevalent among chronic migraineurs, and can resolve with improved pain control.

  14. Modeling interdependent animal movement in continuous time.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mu; Blackwell, Paul G; Skarin, Anna

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a new approach to modeling group animal movement in continuous time. The movement of a group of animals is modeled as a multivariate Ornstein Uhlenbeck diffusion process in a high-dimensional space. Each individual of the group is attracted to a leading point which is generally unobserved, and the movement of the leading point is also an Ornstein Uhlenbeck process attracted to an unknown attractor. The Ornstein Uhlenbeck bridge is applied to reconstruct the location of the leading point. All movement parameters are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, specifically a Metropolis Hastings algorithm. We apply the method to a small group of simultaneously tracked reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus, showing that the method detects dependency in movement between individuals. PMID:26812666

  15. The antiabortion movement and Baby Jane Doe.

    PubMed

    Paige, C; Karnofsky, E B

    1986-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the leadership of the antiabortion movement became involved in a campaign to establish legal rights to extraordinary medical care for seriously handicapped newborns. Armed with political contacts in the Reagan administration and Congress, and allied with advocates for the disabled, the antiabortion movement searched for a test case to guide through the courts. Antiabortion advocate Lawrence Washburn found such a case in Baby Jane Doe, who was being treated at Stony Brook Medical Center. The movement went on to amend the Child Abuse Act to include protections for handicapped newborns. Activists in the movement chose the issue of Baby Jane Doe because they believed it would attract welcome publicity, give them the appearance of supporting civil rights, and enhance their argument as to the legal rights of the fetus and thus strengthen the case against abortion. The movement was partially successful in obtaining its goals. PMID:3745839

  16. Slow Movements of Bio-Inspired Limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babikian, Sarine; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Kanso, Eva

    2016-10-01

    Slow and accurate finger and limb movements are essential to daily activities, but the underlying mechanics is relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a mathematical framework to examine slow movements of tendon-driven limbs that are produced by modulating the tendons' stiffness parameters. Slow limb movements are driftless in the sense that movement stops when actuations stop. We demonstrate, in the context of a planar tendon-driven system representing a finger, that the control of stiffness suffices to produce stable and accurate limb postures and quasi-static (slow) transitions among them. We prove, however, that stable postures are achievable only when tendons are pretensioned, i.e., they cannot become slack. Our results further indicate that a non-smoothness in slow movements arises because the precision with which individual stiffnesses need to be altered changes substantially throughout the limb's motion.

  17. Foraging spots of streaked shearwaters in relation to ocean surface currents as identified using their drift movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Ken; Shiomi, Kozue; Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-03-01

    Ocean currents are in continuous motion and strongly influence oceanic ecosystems. In situ observation of currents is of primary importance for understanding how marine animals respond to ocean surface currents at various scales and for realizing effective ecosystem-based management and realistic oceanographic modelling. We developed a new method for obtaining in situ current measurements by using seabirds as Lagrangian current sensors akin to drifting buoys. We deployed high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) loggers on streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas) foraging in the Oyashio-Tsugaru Warm Current confluence in Japan, which is one of the most productive oceans in the world. The seabirds repeatedly performed foraging trips, including searching for prey and resting on the sea surface, over several hundred kilometres. The seabirds spent half of their time resting on the water surface and tended to be passive drifters. We inferred that the drift movements of C. leucomelas provided a direct and detailed description of the ocean surface currents, because currents deduced from their drift movements were in good agreement with ocean surface currents derived from in situ and satellite data. In addition, we extracted details of shearwaters’ intense searching flights associated with feeding (i.e. foraging spots) from GPS tracks. C. leucomelas did not forage at the core of anticyclonic eddies; rather, they used the boundary areas between eddies and the edge of eddies where primary productivity and prey density are thought to be high. Our study demonstrated that animal-borne GPS data can provide a detailed and cost-efficient tool for observing ocean surface currents and can reveal the ways in which marine animals respond to these currents at a fine scale.

  18. Mechanism of ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer reactions. Concerted transfer of OH and CH hydrogens from an alcohol to a (Cyclopentadienone)ruthenium complex.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey B; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2003-10-01

    Kinetic studies of the ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenation of 1-(4-fluorophenyl)ethanol (4) by tetrafluorobenzoquinone (7) using the Shvo catalyst 1 at 70 degrees C show that the dehydrogenation by catalytic intermediate 2 is rate-determining with the rate = k[4][1](1/2) and with deltaH++ = 17.7 kcal mol(-1) and deltaS++ = -13.0 eu. The use of specifically deuterated derivative 4-CHOD and 4-CDOH gave individual isotope effects of k(CHOH)/k(CHOD) = 1.87 +/- 0.17 and k(CHOH)/k(CDOH) = 2.57 +/- 0.26, respectively. Dideuterated derivative 4-CDOD gave a combined isotope effect of k(CHOH)/k(CDOD) = 4.61 +/- 0.37. These isotope effects are consistent with a concerted transfer of both hydrogens of the alcohol to ruthenium species 2. PMID:14510542

  19. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion in concert with a G(o)/G(q) signaling network.

    PubMed Central

    Robatzek, M; Thomas, J H

    2000-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion is a complex behavior generated by a defined set of motor neurons and interneurons. Genetic analysis shows that UNC-43, the C. elegans Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII), controls locomotion rate. Elevated UNC-43 activity, from a gain-of-function mutation, causes severely lethargic locomotion, presumably by inappropriate phosphorylation of targets. In a genetic screen for suppressors of this phenotype, we identified multiple alleles of four genes in a G(o)/G(q) G-protein signaling network, which has been shown to regulate synaptic activity via diacylglycerol. Mutations in goa-1, dgk-1, eat-16, or eat-11 strongly or completely suppressed unc-43(gf) lethargy, but affected other mutants with reduced locomotion only weakly. We conclude that CaMKII and G(o)/G(q) pathways act in concert to regulate synaptic activity, perhaps through a direct interaction between CaMKII and G(o). PMID:11063685

  20. Push-pull 1,3-thiazolium-5-thiolates. Formation via concerted and stepwise pathways, and theoretical evaluation of NLO properties.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, David; Avalos, Martín; Babiano, Reyes; Cintas, Pedro; Jiménez, José L; Light, Mark E; Palacios, Juan C; Rodríguez, Valentín

    2010-12-01

    The transformation of münchnones (mesoionic rings featuring the 1,3-oxazolium-5-olate core) into their sulfur counterparts (1,3-thiazolium-5-thiolates) by reaction with CS(2), pioneered by Huisgen and his group in the early 1970s, has been re-investigated in detail by means of both experimental and theoretical methods. The synthetic strategy can be tuned to incorporate donor and acceptor groups in appropriate positions. Calculations of molecular hyperpolarizabilities together with orbital topologies evidence that these sulfur-containing heterocycles exhibit nonlinear optical responses, thereby pointing to potential applications of mesoionic structures in the NLO field. From a mechanistic viewpoint, modeling of the whole systems at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level reveals that concerted and stepwise pathways are operative depending on the substitution pattern of the parent münchnone, which also account for the experimental results.

  1. An optimization principle for determining movement duration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Krakauer, John W; Qian, Ning

    2006-06-01

    Movement duration is an integral component of motor control, but nearly all extant optimization models of motor planning prefix duration instead of explaining it. Here we propose a new optimization principle that predicts movement duration. The model assumes that the brain attempts to minimize movement duration under the constraint of meeting an accuracy criterion. The criterion is task and context dependent but is fixed for a given task and context. The model determines a unique duration as a trade-off between speed (time optimality) and accuracy (acceptable endpoint scatter). We analyzed the model for a linear motor plant, and obtained a closed-form equation for determining movement duration. By solving the equation numerically with specific plant parameters for the eye and arm, we found that the model can reproduce saccade duration as a function of amplitude (the main sequence), and arm-movement duration as a function of the ratio of target distance to size (Fitts's law). In addition, it explains the dependency of peak saccadic speed on amplitude and the dependency of saccadic duration on initial eye position. Furthermore, for arm movements, the model predicts a scaling relationship between peak velocity and distance and a reduction in movement duration with a moderate increase in viscosity. Finally, for a linear plant, our model predicts a neural control signal identical to that of the minimum-variance model set to the same movement duration. This control signal is a smooth function of time (except at the endpoint), in contrast to the discontinuous bang-bang control found in the time-optimal control literature. We suggest that one aspect of movement planning, as revealed by movement duration, may be to assign an endpoint accuracy criterion for a given task and context. PMID:16571740

  2. Learning optimal eye movements to unusual faces

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew F.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2014-01-01

    Eye movements, which guide the fovea’s high resolution and computational power to relevant areas of the visual scene, are integral to efficient, successful completion of many visual tasks. How humans modify their eye movements through experience with their perceptual environments, and its functional role in learning new tasks, has not been fully investigated. Here, we used a face identification task where only the mouth discriminated exemplars to assess if, how, and when eye movement modulation may mediate learning. By interleaving trials of unconstrained eye movements with trials of forced fixation, we attempted to separate the contributions of eye movements and covert mechanisms to performance improvements. Without instruction, a majority of observers substantially increased accuracy and learned to direct their initial eye movements towards the optimal fixation point. The proximity of an observer’s default face identification eye movement behavior to the new optimal fixation point and the observer’s peripheral processing ability were predictive of performance gains and eye movement learning. After practice in a subsequent condition in which observers were directed to fixate different locations along the face, including the relevant mouth region, all observers learned to make eye movements to the optimal fixation point. In this fully learned state, augmented fixation strategy accounted for 43% of total efficiency improvements while covert mechanisms accounted for the remaining 57%. The findings suggest a critical role for eye movement planning to perceptual learning, and elucidate factors that can predict when and how well an observer can learn a new task with unusual exemplars. PMID:24291712

  3. Testing for shared biogeographic history in the lower Central American freshwater fish assemblage using comparative phylogeography: concerted, independent, or multiple evolutionary responses?

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Justin C; Johnson, Jerald B

    2014-01-01

    A central goal of comparative phylogeography is determining whether codistributed species experienced (1) concerted evolutionary responses to past geological and climatic events, indicated by congruent spatial and temporal patterns (“concerted-response hypothesis”); (2) independent responses, indicated by spatial incongruence (“independent-response hypothesis”); or (3) multiple responses (“multiple-response hypothesis”), indicated by spatial congruence but temporal incongruence (“pseudocongruence”) or spatial and temporal incongruence (“pseudoincongruence”). We tested these competing hypotheses using DNA sequence data from three livebearing fish species codistributed in the Nicaraguan depression of Central America (Alfaro cultratus, Poecilia gillii, and Xenophallus umbratilis) that we predicted might display congruent responses due to co-occurrence in identical freshwater drainages. Spatial analyses recovered different subdivisions of genetic structure for each species, despite shared finer-scale breaks in northwestern Costa Rica (also supported by phylogenetic results). Isolation-with-migration models estimated incongruent timelines of among-region divergences, with A. cultratus and Xenophallus populations diverging over Miocene–mid-Pleistocene while P. gillii populations diverged over mid-late Pleistocene. Approximate Bayesian computation also lent substantial support to multiple discrete divergences over a model of simultaneous divergence across shared spatial breaks (e.g., Bayes factor [B10] = 4.303 for Ψ [no. of divergences] > 1 vs. Ψ = 1). Thus, the data support phylogeographic pseudoincongruence consistent with the multiple-response hypothesis. Model comparisons also indicated incongruence in historical demography, for example, support for intraspecific late Pleistocene population growth was unique to P. gillii, despite evidence for finer-scale population expansions in the other taxa. Empirical tests for phylogeographic congruence

  4. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in a Strongly Coupled Photosystem II-Inspired Chromophore-Imidazole-Phenol Complex: Stepwise Oxidation and Concerted Reduction.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Gerald F; Fujita, Etsuko; Concepcion, Javier J

    2016-09-14

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions were studied in acetonitrile for a Photosystem II (PSII)-inspired [Ru(bpy)2(phen-imidazole-Ph(OH)((t)Bu)2)](2+), in which Ru(III) generated by a flash-quench sequence oxidizes the appended phenol and the proton is transferred to the hydrogen-bonded imidazole base. In contrast to related systems, the donor and acceptor are strongly coupled, as indicated by the shift in the Ru(III/II) couple upon phenol oxidation, and intramolecular oxidation of the phenol by Ru(III) is energetically favorable by both stepwise and concerted pathways. The phenol oxidation occurs via a stepwise ET-PT mechanism with kET = 2.7 × 10(7) s(-1) and a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 0.99 ± 0.03. The electron transfer reaction was characterized as adiabatic with λDA = 1.16 eV and 280 < HDA < 540 cm(-1) consistent with strong electronic coupling and slow solvent dynamics. Reduction of the phenoxyl radical by the quencher radical was examined as the analogue of the redox reaction between the PSII tyrosyl radical and the oxygen-evolving complex. In our PSII-inspired complex, the recombination reaction activation energy is <2 kcal mol(-1). The reaction is nonadiabatic (VPCET ≈ 22 cm(-1) (H) and 49 cm(-1) (D)) and concerted, and it exhibits an unexpected inverse KIE = 0.55 that is attributed to greater overlap of the reactant vibronic ground state with the OD vibronic states of the proton acceptor due to the smaller quantum spacing of the deuterium vibrational levels.

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of the 5S rDNA gene family in the mussel Mytilus: mixed effects of birth-and-death and concerted evolution.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ruth; Arias, Alberto; Insua, Ana M; Méndez, Josefina; Eirín-López, José M

    2010-05-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the gene family encoding the 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) has been used (together with histones) to showcase the archetypal example of a gene family subject to concerted evolution. However, recent studies have revealed conspicuous features challenging the predictions of this model, including heterogeneity of repeat units, the presence of functional 5S gene variants as well as the existence of 5S rDNA divergent pseudogenes lacking traces of homogenization. In the present work, we have broadened the scope in the evolutionary study of ribosomal gene families by studying the 5S rRNA family in mussels, a model organism which stands out among other animals due to the heterogeneity it displays regarding sequence and organization. To this end, 48 previously unknown 5S rDNA units (coding and spacer regions) were sequenced in five mussel species, leading to the characterization of two new types of units (referred to here as small-beta 5S rDNA and gamma-5S rDNA) coexisting in the genome with alpha and beta rDNA units. The intense genetic dynamics of this family is further supported by the first description of an association between gamma-5S rDNA units and tRNA genes. Molecular evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses revealed an extensive lack of homology among spacer sequences belonging to different rDNA types, suggesting the presence of independent evolutionary pathways leading to their differentiation. Overall, our results suggest that the long-term evolution of the 5S rRNA gene family in mussels is most likely mediated by a mixed mechanism involving the generation of genetic diversity through birth-and-death, followed by a process of local homogenization resulting from concerted evolution in order to maintain the genetic identities of the different 5S units, probably after their transposition to independent chromosomal locations.

  6. Evidence of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism, but not of parallel evolution, despite high levels of concerted evolution in the major histocompatibility complex of flamingo species.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, M A F; Courtiol, A; Teixeira, M; Galan, M; Bechet, A; Cezilly, F

    2016-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cornerstone in the study of adaptive genetic diversity. Intriguingly, highly polymorphic MHC sequences are often not more similar within species than between closely related species. Divergent selection of gene duplicates, balancing selection maintaining trans-species polymorphism (TSP) that predate speciation and parallel evolution of species sharing similar selection pressures can all lead to higher sequence similarity between species. In contrast, high rates of concerted evolution increase sequence similarity of duplicated loci within species. Assessing these evolutionary models remains difficult as relatedness and ecological similarities are often confounded. As sympatric species of flamingos are more distantly related than allopatric species, flamingos represent an ideal model to disentangle these evolutionary models. We characterized MHC Class I exon 3, Class IIB exon 2 and exon 3 of the six extant flamingo species. We found up to six MHC Class I loci and two MHC Class IIB loci. As all six species shared the same number of MHC Class IIB loci, duplication appears to predate flamingo speciation. However, the high rate of concerted evolution has prevented the divergence of duplicated loci. We found high sequence similarity between all species regardless of codon position. The latter is consistent with balancing selection maintaining TSP, as under this mechanism amino acid sites under pathogen-mediated selection should be characterized by fewer synonymous codons (due to their common ancestry) than under parallel evolution. Overall, balancing selection maintaining TSP appears to result in high MHC similarity between species regardless of species relatedness and geographical distribution. PMID:26606731

  7. Movement Recognition Technology as a Method of Assessing Spontaneous General Movements in High Risk Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marcroft, Claire; Khan, Aftab; Embleton, Nicholas D.; Trenell, Michael; Plötz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool, which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants. Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This article aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration, which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment. PMID:25620954

  8. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

  9. Human movement is both diffusive and directed.

    PubMed

    Padgham, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the influence of the built environment on human movement requires quantifying spatial structure in a general sense. Because of the difficulty of this task, studies of movement dynamics often ignore spatial heterogeneity and treat movement through journey lengths or distances alone. This study analyses public bicycle data from central London to reveal that, although journey distances, directions, and frequencies of occurrence are spatially variable, their relative spatial patterns remain largely constant, suggesting the influence of a fixed spatial template. A method is presented to describe this underlying space in terms of the relative orientation of movements toward, away from, and around locations of geographical or cultural significance. This produces two fields: one of convergence and one of divergence, which are able to accurately reconstruct the observed spatial variations in movement. These two fields also reveal categorical distinctions between shorter journeys merely serving diffusion away from significant locations, and longer journeys intentionally serving transport between spatially distinct centres of collective importance. Collective patterns of human movement are thus revealed to arise from a combination of both diffusive and directed movement, with aggregate statistics such as mean travel distances primarily determined by relative numbers of these two kinds of journeys.

  10. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often.

  11. Does movement proficiency impact on exergaming performance?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jess E; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Lay, Brendan S; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There is growing interest in the use of consumer level exergames in movement skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between movement proficiency and performance in virtual exergaming. Twenty seven children, aged 10-15years participated in an experiment completing the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (MABC-2) and a series of XBOX360 Kinect Sports exergaming tasks. Significant correlations were observed between MABC-2 aiming and catching percentile and exergame javelin and target kick, where the more proficient movers tended to perform better in the exergame. Statistically significant correlations were observed between MABC-2 balance percentile and exergaming sprint and target kick performance. In this study children who scored better in real life gross motor movement tasks performed better in most related exergaming activities. This suggests current exergaming technology has advanced to a point where body movement unencumbered by a physical or remote game device tether can extract movements resembling real life tasks, translate them into game play and reward proficient movers with higher in-game performance. It is possible that benefit gained in an exergaming environment by more proficient movers was a result of either their more proficient movement, or a greater ability to adapt to the exergame. PMID:24667304

  12. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... remote control movements. All remote control movements are considered shoving or pushing movements, except when the remote control operator controlling the movement is riding the leading end of the leading... other requirements of this section, (1) When initiating a remote control shoving or pushing movement:...

  13. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... remote control movements. All remote control movements are considered shoving or pushing movements, except when the remote control operator controlling the movement is riding the leading end of the leading... other requirements of this section, (1) When initiating a remote control shoving or pushing movement:...

  14. 49 CFR 218.99 - Shoving or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... remote control movements. All remote control movements are considered shoving or pushing movements, except when the remote control operator controlling the movement is riding the leading end of the leading... other requirements of this section, (1) When initiating a remote control shoving or pushing movement:...

  15. Effect of Rocking Movements on Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Ximena; Crivelli, Francesco; Heinicke, Lorenz; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Achermann, Peter; Riener, Robert

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, rocking has been used to promote sleep in babies or toddlers. Recent research suggested that relaxation could play a role in facilitating the transition from waking to sleep during rocking. Breathing techniques are often used to promote relaxation. However, studies investigating head motions and body rotations showed that vestibular stimulation might elicit a vestibulo-respiratory response, leading to an increase in respiration frequency. An increase in respiration frequency would not be considered to promote relaxation in the first place. On the other hand, a coordination of respiration to rhythmic vestibular stimulation has been observed. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different movement frequencies and amplitudes on respiration frequency. Furthermore, we tested whether subjects adapt their respiration to movement frequencies below their spontaneous respiration frequency at rest, which could be beneficial for relaxation. Twenty-one healthy subjects (24–42 years, 12 males) were investigated using an actuated bed, moving along a lateral translation. Following movement frequencies were applied: +30%, +15%, -15%, and -30% of subjects’ rest respiration frequency during baseline (no movement). Furthermore, two different movement amplitudes were tested (Amplitudes: 15 cm, 7.5 cm; movement frequency: 0.3 Hz). In addition, five subjects (25–28 years, 2 males) were stimulated with their individual rest respiration frequency. Rocking movements along a lateral translation caused a vestibulo-respiratory adaptation leading to an increase in respiration frequency. The increase was independent of the applied movement frequencies or amplitudes but did not occur when stimulating with subjects’ rest respiration frequency. Furthermore, no synchronization of the respiration frequency to the movement frequency was observed. In particular, subjects did not lower their respiration frequency below their resting frequency. Hence, it was not

  16. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  17. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  18. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  19. Video recording in movement disorders: practical issues.

    PubMed

    Duker, Andrew P

    2013-10-01

    Video recording can provide a valuable and unique record of the physical examinations of patients with a movement disorder, capturing nuances of movement and supplementing the written medical record. In addition, video is an indispensable tool for education and research in movement disorders. Digital file recording and storage has largely replaced analog tape recording, increasing the ease of editing and storing video records. Practical issues to consider include hardware and software configurations, video format, the security and longevity of file storage, patient consent, and video protocols. PMID:24092296

  20. An unusual case of rhythmic movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, R; Furuta, H; Kazuto, K; Arayama, K; Sano, J; Koshino, Y

    2000-06-01

    Rhythmic movement disorder is one of the sleep-wake transition disorders listed in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. According to this classification, the condition commonly occurs in infants and toddlers, and persistence beyond 4 years of age is unusual. Recently, we encountered a case in which rhythmic movement disorder persisted up until the age of 12 years with spikes registering on the sleep electroencephalogram. Epileptic seizure was ruled out because of the characteristic rolling movement, absence of any other epileptic symptoms (e.g. vocalization and tonic-clonic seizure) and cessation as a result of removal of the blanket.

  1. Developmental and benign movement disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cecilia; Roubertie, Agathe; Doummar, Diane; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-07-30

    Developmental and benign movement disorders are a group of movement disorders with onset in the neonatal period, infancy, or childhood. They are characterized by the absence of associated neurological manifestations and by their favorable outcome, although developmental abnormalities can be occasionally observed. Knowledge of the clinical, neurophysiological, and pathogenetic aspects of these disorders is poor. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and our practical experience, this article summarizes current knowledge in this area. We pay special attention to the recognition and management of these movement disorders in children.

  2. Time optimal movement of cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. M.; Bobrow, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    The maximization of the speed of movement along a prescribed path, of the system formed by a set of robot arms and the object they hold is examined. The actuator torques that maximize the acceleration of the system are shown to be determined by the solution to a standard linear programming problem. The combination of this result with the known control strategy for time optimal movement of a single robot arm yields an algorithm for time optimal movement of multiple robot arms holding the same workpiece.

  3. Data Movement Dominates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Bruce L.

    2015-07-01

    Over the past three years in this project, what we have observed is that the primary reason for data movement in large-scale systems is that the per-node capacity is not large enough—i.e., one of the solutions to the data-movement problem (certainly not the only solution that is required, but a significant one nonetheless) is to increase per-node capacity so that inter-node traffic is reduced. This unfortunately is not as simple as it sounds. Today’s main memory systems for datacenters, enterprise computing systems, and supercomputers, fail to provide high per-socket capacity [Dirik & Jacob 2009; Cooper-Balis et al. 2012], except at extremely high price points (factors of 10–100x the cost/bit of consumer main-memory systems) [Stokes 2008]. The reason is that our choice of technology for today’s main memory systems—i.e., DRAM, which we have used as a main-memory technology since the 1970s [Jacob et al. 2007]—can no longer keep up with our needs for density and price per bit. Main memory systems have always been built from the cheapest, densest, lowest-power memory technology available, and DRAM is no longer the cheapest, the densest, nor the lowest-power storage technology out there. It is now time for DRAM to go the way that SRAM went: move out of the way for a cheaper, slower, denser storage technology, and become a cache instead. This inflection point has happened before, in the context of SRAM yielding to DRAM. There was once a time that SRAM was the storage technology of choice for all main memories [Tomasulo 1967; Thornton 1970; Kidder 1981]. However, once DRAM hit volume production in the 1970s and 80s, it supplanted SRAM as a main memory technology because it was cheaper, and it was denser. It also happened to be lower power, but that was not the primary consideration of the day. At the time, it was recognized that DRAM was much slower than SRAM, but it was only at the supercomputer level (For instance the Cray X-MP in the 1980s and its follow

  4. The Largest Response Component in the Motor Cortex Reflects Movement Timing but Not Movement Type

    PubMed Central

    Sussillo, David; Ryu, Stephen I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neural activity in monkey motor cortex (M1) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) can reflect a chosen movement well before that movement begins. The pattern of neural activity then changes profoundly just before movement onset. We considered the prediction, derived from formal considerations, that the transition from preparation to movement might be accompanied by a large overall change in the neural state that reflects when movement is made rather than which movement is made. Specifically, we examined “components” of the population response: time-varying patterns of activity from which each neuron’s response is approximately composed. Amid the response complexity of individual M1 and PMd neurons, we identified robust response components that were “condition-invariant”: their magnitude and time course were nearly identical regardless of reach direction or path. These condition-invariant response components occupied dimensions orthogonal to those occupied by the “tuned” response components. The largest condition-invariant component was much larger than any of the tuned components; i.e., it explained more of the structure in individual-neuron responses. This condition-invariant response component underwent a rapid change before movement onset. The timing of that change predicted most of the trial-by-trial variance in reaction time. Thus, although individual M1 and PMd neurons essentially always reflected which movement was made, the largest component of the population response reflected movement timing rather than movement type. PMID:27761519

  5. [The anti-asylum movement in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lüchmann, Lígia Helena Hahn; Rodrigues, Jefferson

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the history of the national anti-asylum struggle in Brazil. It analyzes some of the movement's difficulties, achievements and challenges. The theory of social movements is used here as an important analytical tool to understand this collective action, to the degree in which theory allows an appraisal of this type of social action rooted in its many configurations, evidencing the complexity of the contemporary world. The anti-asylum movement is composed of many stakeholders whose struggles and conflicts have been developed through different social-political-institutional dimensions. It encompasses at different moments and to different degrees, a movement which articulates solidarity and conflict relations and social denunciations in an attempt to transform relations and conceptions that are discriminatory and which are intended to control the "insane" and "insanity" in our country.

  6. The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

  7. Social Movements, Class, and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    Social movements in South Africa, often organized around class-related issues, provide rich material to illustrate how class, intertwined with other social categories, shapes organizational and educational practices.

  8. Threat of nuclear movement. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, G.M.

    1997-04-01

    While weapons of mass destruction (WMD) include biological, chemical and nuclear material, this paper will focus on the nuclear component. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, nuclear material was left throughout the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). As these new states focused on economic and social issues, security and safety of nuclear material became secondary. This change in focus has provided conditions for the illicit movement of nuclear material and expertise. CIS admissions that illegal movement has occurred have been limited; however, material and technical expertise has been found in numerous locations. The United States and Russia have initiated many notable programs, but the potential exists for continual illicit movement. As such, continual emphasis needs to be placed on stemming the movement of nuclear material and expertise.

  9. The Environmental Movement: Beyond Earth Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Beth

    1995-01-01

    This collection of articles looks at the history of Earth Day and the future of the environmental movement and environmental organizations. Examines reasons environmental organizations are losing support while the public remains committed to the environment. (LZ)

  10. Sensory systems in the control of movement.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Arthur; Ellaway, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Animal movement is immensely varied, from the simplest reflexive responses to the most complex, dexterous voluntary tasks. Here, we focus on the control of movement in mammals, including humans. First, the sensory inputs most closely implicated in controlling movement are reviewed, with a focus on somatosensory receptors. The response properties of the large muscle receptors are examined in detail. The role of sensory input in the control of movement is then discussed, with an emphasis on the control of locomotion. The interaction between central pattern generators and sensory input, in particular in relation to stretch reflexes, timing, and pattern forming neuronal networks is examined. It is proposed that neural signals related to bodily velocity form the basic descending command that controls locomotion through specific and well-characterized relationships between muscle activation, step cycle phase durations, and biomechanical outcomes. Sensory input is crucial in modulating both the timing and pattern forming parts of this mechanism.

  11. Eye movements during reading: some current controversies.

    PubMed

    Starr, M S.; Rayner, K

    2001-04-01

    For many researchers, eye-movement measures have become instrumental in revealing the moment-to-moment activity of the mind during reading. In general, there has been a great deal of consistency across studies within the eye-movement literature, and researchers have discovered and examined many variables involved in the reading process that affect the nature of readers' eye movements. Despite remarkable progress, however, there are still a number of issues to be resolved. In this article, we discuss three controversial issues: (1) the extent to which eye-movement behavior is affected by low-level oculomotor factors versus higher-level cognitive processes; (2) how much information is extracted from the right of fixation; and (3) whether readers process information from more than one word at a time.

  12. Control and Functions of Fixational Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Rucci, Michele; Poletti, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other species explore a visual scene by rapidly shifting their gaze 2-3 times every second. Although the eyes may appear immobile in the brief intervals in between saccades, microscopic (fixational) eye movements are always present, even when attending to a single point. These movements occur during the very periods in which visual information is acquired and processed and their functions have long been debated. Recent technical advances in controlling retinal stimulation during normal oculomotor activity have shed new light on the visual contributions of fixational eye movements and their degree of control. The emerging body of evidence, reviewed in this article, indicates that fixational eye movements are important components of the strategy by which the visual system processes fine spatial details, enabling both precise positioning of the stimulus on the retina and encoding of spatial information into the joint space-time domain.

  13. Visual gravity influences arm movement planning.

    PubMed

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Demougeot, Laurent; Berret, Bastien; Toma, Simone; Sandini, Giulio; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    When submitted to a visuomotor rotation, subjects show rapid adaptation of visually guided arm reaching movements, indicated by a progressive reduction in reaching errors. In this study, we wanted to make a step forward by investigating to what extent this adaptation also implies changes into the motor plan. Up to now, classical visuomotor rotation paradigms have been performed on the horizontal plane, where the reaching motor plan in general requires the same kinematics (i.e., straight path and symmetric velocity profile). To overcome this limitation, we considered vertical and horizontal movement directions requiring specific velocity profiles. This way, a change in the motor plan due to the visuomotor conflict would be measurable in terms of a modification in the velocity profile of the reaching movement. Ten subjects performed horizontal and vertical reaching movements while observing a rotated visual feedback of their motion. We found that adaptation to a visuomotor rotation produces a significant change in the motor plan, i.e., changes to the symmetry of velocity profiles. This suggests that the central nervous system takes into account the visual information to plan a future motion, even if this causes the adoption of nonoptimal motor plans in terms of energy consumption. However, the influence of vision on arm movement planning is not fixed, but rather changes as a function of the visual orientation of the movement. Indeed, a clear influence on motion planning can be observed only when the movement is visually presented as oriented along the vertical direction. Thus vision contributes differently to the planning of arm pointing movements depending on motion orientation in space.

  14. Eye Movements in Reading: Models and Data

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Models of eye movement control in reading and their impact on the field are discussed. Differences between the E-Z Reader model and the SWIFT model are reviewed, as are benchmark data that need to be accounted for by any model of eye movement control. Predictions made by the models and how models can sometimes account for counterintuitive findings are also discussed. Finally, the role of models and data in further understanding the reading process is considered. PMID:20664810

  15. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    PubMed Central

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A.; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the “like attracts like” principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex. PMID:26578940

  16. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    PubMed

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  17. Temporal eye movement strategies during naturalistic viewing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helena X.; Freeman, Jeremy; Merriam, Elisha P.; Hasson, Uri; Heeger, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The deployment of eye movements to complex spatiotemporal stimuli likely involves a variety of cognitive factors. However, eye movements to movies are surprisingly reliable both within and across observers. We exploited and manipulated that reliability to characterize observers’ temporal viewing strategies. Introducing cuts and scrambling the temporal order of the resulting clips systematically changed eye movement reliability. We developed a computational model that exhibited this behavior and provided an excellent fit to the measured eye movement reliability. The model assumed that observers searched for, found, and tracked a point-of-interest, and that this process reset when there was a cut. The model did not require that eye movements depend on temporal context in any other way, and it managed to describe eye movements consistently across different observers and two movie sequences. Thus, we found no evidence for the integration of information over long time scales (greater than a second). The results are consistent with the idea that observers employ a simple tracking strategy even while viewing complex, engaging naturalistic stimuli. PMID:22262911

  18. "Requested death": a new social movement.

    PubMed

    McInerney, F

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses current developments in the right-to-die arena. While discussion of this area has traditionally been the province of disciplines other than sociology, including philosophy and bioethics, this paper offers an alternative framework from which to consider the progressive interest in control and choice at life's end which has developed this century, principally in the Western world. Taking a largely socio-historical approach, this paper argues that issues such as euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide can be seen as forming part of an international social movement, which is dubbed 'the requested death movement'. The paper traces the chronology of the movement, placing its framing activities, the emergence of individual activists and events and its progressive mobilization, within a consideration of so-called 'new' social movements, which have emerged since the 1960s. These are principally concerned with resisting state control of cultural matters, while reclaiming matters of identity, privacy and individual corporeality, which it is argued are at the core of the requested death movement. It is posited that this consideration can contribute to understandings of both the contemporary social organization of death and dying, and social movement theory more generally. PMID:10622700

  19. Separating Timing, Movement Conditions and Individual Differences in the Analysis of Human Movement

    PubMed Central

    Grimme, Britta; Schöner, Gregor; Igel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A central task in the analysis of human movement behavior is to determine systematic patterns and differences across experimental conditions, participants and repetitions. This is possible because human movement is highly regular, being constrained by invariance principles. Movement timing and movement path, in particular, are linked through scaling laws. Separating variations of movement timing from the spatial variations of movements is a well-known challenge that is addressed in current approaches only through forms of preprocessing that bias analysis. Here we propose a novel nonlinear mixed-effects model for analyzing temporally continuous signals that contain systematic effects in both timing and path. Identifiability issues of path relative to timing are overcome by using maximum likelihood estimation in which the most likely separation of space and time is chosen given the variation found in data. The model is applied to analyze experimental data of human arm movements in which participants move a hand-held object to a target location while avoiding an obstacle. The model is used to classify movement data according to participant. Comparison to alternative approaches establishes nonlinear mixed-effects models as viable alternatives to conventional analysis frameworks. The model is then combined with a novel factor-analysis model that estimates the low-dimensional subspace within which movements vary when the task demands vary. Our framework enables us to visualize different dimensions of movement variation and to test hypotheses about the effect of obstacle placement and height on the movement path. We demonstrate that the approach can be used to uncover new properties of human movement. PMID:27657545

  20. Akinesia in Parkinsonism. Relation between spontaneous movement (other than tremor) and voluntary movements made on command

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Carl Ha

    1982-01-01

    In eleven patients with Parkinsonism there was a strong inverse relationship between the frequency of spontaneous activity of the arms and the degree of fatiguing of repetitive finger movements made upon command. The prevalence of spontaneous arm movement was related inversely (but more weakly) to the time taken to complete a pegboard test or to move clothespegs by hand; it had little association with the speed of linear movement or with simple motor reaction time involving the arm. PMID:7119827