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Sample records for concise total synthesis

  1. Concise total synthesis of glucosepane.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Cristian; Wang, Tina; Spiegel, David A

    2015-10-16

    Glucosepane is a structurally complex protein posttranslational modification that is believed to exist in all living organisms. Research in humans suggests that glucosepane plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both diabetes and human aging, yet comprehensive biological investigations of this metabolite have been hindered by a scarcity of chemically homogeneous material available for study. Here we report the total synthesis of glucosepane, enabled by the development of a one-pot method for preparation of the nonaromatic 4H-imidazole tautomer in the core. Our synthesis is concise (eight steps starting from commercial materials), convergent, high-yielding (12% overall), and enantioselective. We expect that these results will prove useful in the art and practice of heterocyclic chemistry and beneficial for the study of glucosepane and its role in human health and disease.

  2. A Concise Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)-Brevisamide

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Aaron T.; Martinez, Steven R.; Zakarian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    A new protecting-group-free synthesis of the marine monocyclic ether (+)-brevisamide is reported. The enantioselective synthesis utilizes a key asymmetric Henry reaction and an Achmatowicz rearrangement for the formation of the tetrahydropyran ring. A penultimate Stille cross-coupling allows for an efficient installation of the conjugated (E,E)-diene side chain ultimately delivering (+)-brevisamide. PMID:21678904

  3. Concise Total Synthesis of (+)-Gliocladins B and C

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nicolas; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The first total synthesis of (+)-gliocladin B is described. Our concise and enantioselective synthesis takes advantage of a new regioselective Friedel–Crafts-based strategy to provide an efficient multigram-scale access to the C3-(3′-indolyl)hexahydropyrroloindole substructure, a molecular foundation present in a significant subset of epipolythiodiketopiperazine natural alkaloids. Our first-generation solution to (+)-gliocladin B involved the stereoselective formation of (+)-12-deoxybionectin A, a plausible biosynthetic precursor. Our synthesis clarified the C15 stereochemistry of (+)-gliocladin B and allowed its full structure confirmation. Further studies of a versatile dihydroxylated diketopiperazine provided a concise and efficient synthesis of (+)-gliocladin B as well as access to (+)-gliocladin C. PMID:22844577

  4. A concise total synthesis of pyrovellerolactone using a rhodium-catalyzed [(3 + 2) + 2] carbocyclization reaction.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Inglesby, Phillip A; Kilbride, Kathryn

    2013-04-19

    A concise and highly convergent three-step total synthesis of the lactarane natural product, pyrovellerolactone, is described. The key step involves a regio- and diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed [(3 + 2) + 2] carbocyclization of an alkenylidenecyclopropane with a 4-hydroxybut-2-ynoate followed by an in situ intramolecular lactonization to generate the tricyclic core in a single operation. This represents the first example of a higher-order [3 + 2 + 2] carbocyclization reaction in total synthesis, which is likely to provide an important strategy for the construction of related targets within this sesquiterpene family.

  5. Concise total synthesis of albaflavenone utilizing sequential intramolecular aldol condensation: determination of absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Kon, Yutaro; Abe, Hideki; Ito, Hisanaka

    2014-12-19

    The first total synthesis of albaflavenone, a novel antibiotic sesquiterpene, has been accomplished via the concise construction of its zizaene skeleton utilizing sequential intramolecular aldol condensation followed by chemo- and diastereoselective reduction of the conjugated carbon-carbon double bond. This synthetic work was completed in nine steps from 2-cyclopenten-1-one as a starting material without the use of protecting groups and with high stereocontrol. In addition, the absolute configuration of naturally occurring albaflavenone was determined to be 1R,2S and 8S.

  6. Catalysis of Heterocyclic Azadiene Cycloaddition Reactions by Solvent Hydrogen Bonding: Concise Total Synthesis of Methoxatin.

    PubMed

    Glinkerman, Christopher M; Boger, Dale L

    2016-09-28

    Although it has been examined for decades, no general approach to catalysis of the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reactions of heterocyclic azadienes has been introduced. Typically, additives such as Lewis acids lead to nonproductive consumption of the electron-rich dienophiles without productive activation of the electron-deficient heterocyclic azadienes. Herein, we report the first general method for catalysis of such cycloaddition reactions by using solvent hydrogen bonding of non-nucleophilic perfluoroalcohols, including hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and trifluoroethanol (TFE), to activate the electron-deficient heterocyclic azadienes. Its use in promoting the cycloaddition of 1,2,3-triazine 4 with enamine 3 as the key step of a concise total synthesis of methoxatin is described.

  7. A concise and efficient total synthesis of α-mangostin and β-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; Nie, Ying; Liang, Xizhou; Ji, Ling; Hu, Songyuan; You, Qidong; Wang, Fan; Ye, Hongchun; Wang, Jinxin

    2013-08-01

    The concise, efficient synthesis of alpha-mangostin is described in eight simple steps with 8.3% overall yield. Highlights include a practical approach to construct the isopentene groups and other diverse groups at C-2 and C-8 of the xanthene skeleton through Claisen rearrangement and Wittig reaction. Meanwhile the first total synthesis of beta-mangostin is presented with a similar approach.

  8. Concise total syntheses of (+/-)-strychnine and (+/-)-akuammicine.

    PubMed

    Sirasani, Gopal; Paul, Tapas; Dougherty, William; Kassel, Scott; Andrade, Rodrigo B

    2010-05-21

    Concise total syntheses of Strychnos alkaloids strychnine (1) and akuammicine (2) have been realized in 13 and 6 operations, respectively. Key steps include (1) the vinylogous Mannich reaction; (2) a novel, sequential one-pot spirocyclization/intramolecular aza-Baylis-Hillman reaction; and (3) a Heck cyclization. The synthesis of 1 proceeds via the Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde (26).

  9. A concise synthesis of the cortistatin core

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingji; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a concise and convergent route to the core matrix of the cortistatin steroidal alkaloids. The salient features of the synthesis are the Snieckus cascade methodology and the Masamune alkylative dearomatization. This chemistry lends itself to a total synthesis of the cortistatins and to the development of a SAR program based on diverted total synthesis. PMID:19924219

  10. A concise approach for the synthesis of bitungolides: total syntheses of (-)-bitungolide B & E.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Mahender; Shashidhar, J; Ghosh, Subhash

    2014-06-21

    The first total synthesis of (-)-bitungolide B and a second-generation total synthesis of (-)-bitungolide E are described. The cornerstone of the approach comprises a convergent and flexible route involving Brown crotylation, highly diastereoselective substrate controlled Paterson anti-aldol reaction, hydroxyl-directed 1,3-syn/anti reduction, Barton-McCombie deoxygenation and RCM reactions. Via this route, a common intermediate 13 is readily accessible for the synthesis of the family of bitungolides A-E and franklinolides A-C.

  11. Highly concise routes to epothilones: the total synthesis and evaluation of epothilone 490.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kaustav; Lin, Hong; Njardarson, Jon T; Chappell, Mark D; Chou, Ting-Chao; Guan, Yongbiao; Tong, William P; He, Lifeng; Horwitz, Susan B; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2002-08-21

    A concise modular laboratory construction of the epothilone class of promising antitumor agents has been accomplished. For the first time in the epothilone area, the new synthesis exploits the power of ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) in a stereospecific way. Previous attempts at applying RCM to epothilone syntheses have been repeatedly plagued by complete lack of stereocontrol in the generation of the desired 12,13-olefin geometry in the products. The isolation of epothilone 490 (3) prompted us to reevaluate the utility of the RCM procedure for fashioning the 10,11-olefin, with the Z-12,13-olefin geometry already in place. Olefin metathesis of the triene substrate 12 afforded the product diene macrolide in stereoselective fashion. For purposes of greater synthetic convergency, the C3-(S)-alcohol was fashioned late in the synthesis, using chiral titanium-mediated aldol conditions with the entire O-alkyl fragment as a C15 acetate as the enolate component. Examination of the effects of protecting groups on the RCM process showed that deprotection of the C7 alcohol has a beneficial effect on the reaction yield. Performing the RCM as the last synthetic step in the sequence afforded a 64% yield of only the desired E-olefin. Selective diimide reduction of the new 10,11-olefin yielded 12,13-desoxyepothilone B, our current clinical candidate, demonstrating the utility of this new RCM-reduction protocol in efficiently generating the epothilone framework. Furthermore, the new olefin was selectively funtionalized to demonstrate the advantage conferred by this route for the construction of new analogues for SAR studies, in cytoxicity and microtubule affinity screens. Also described is the surprisingly poor in vivo performance of epothilone 490 in xenografts in the light of very promising in vitro data. This disappointing outcome was traced to unfavorable pharmacokinetic features of the drug in murine plasma. By the pharmacokinetic criteria, the prognosis for the

  12. Concise Asymmetric Construction of C2 -symmetric 1,9-Diarylnonanoids Using a Hypervalent Silicon Complex: Total Synthesis of (-)-Ericanone.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Shunsuke; Kai, Kosuke; Shimoda, Yasushi; Hu, Hao; Gao, Shen; Sugiura, Masaharu; Ogasawara, Masamichi; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-02-04

    By using a phosphine oxide-catalyzed enantioselective double aldol reaction, we achieved the concise construction of C2 -symmetric 1,9-diarylnonanoids, enabling the synthesis of (-)-ericanone from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in 6 steps with 65 % overall yield. The enantioselective double aldol reaction is useful for establishing C2 -symmetric 1,9-diaryl-3,7-dihydroxy-5-nonanones with a single operation. Furthermore, the use of o-nosyl-protected p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and a 4,4'-disubstituted BINAP dioxide catalyst dramatically improved the reactivity and selectivity in the double aldol reaction, enabling the total synthesis of (-)-ericanone with high yield and with excellent enantiopurity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Concise Chemoenzymatic Three-Step Total Synthesis of Isosolenopsin through Medium Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Robert C; Fuchs, Christine S; Lechner, Horst; Zepeck, Ferdinand; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A short and efficient total synthesis of the alkaloid isosolenopsin and its enantiomer has been achieved. The key step was a ω-transaminase-catalysed regioselective monoamination of the diketone pentadecane-2,6-dione, which was obtained in a single step through the application of a Grignard reaction. Initial low conversions in the biotransformation could be overcome by optimisation of the reaction conditions employing suitable cosolvents. In the presence of 20 vol.-% N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or n-heptane the best results were obtained by employing two enantiocomplementary ω-transaminases originating from Arthrobacter at 30–40 °C; under these conditions, conversions of more than 99 % and perfect stereocontrol (ee > 99 %) were achieved. Diastereoselective chemical reduction (H2/Pd/C) of the biocatalytic product gave the target compound. The linear three-step synthesis provided the natural product isosolenopsin in diastereomerically pure form (ee > 99 %, dr = 99:1) with an overall yield of 64 %. PMID:25191103

  14. Two novel innovanoside dimers from Daphne aurantiaca and a concise total synthesis of diinnovanoside A.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Liu, Shan-Xiang; Jin, Hui-Zi; Shan, Lei; Yu, Shi-Chong; Shen, Yun-Heng; Li, Hui-Liang; Wu, Qiu-Ye; Sun, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2013-08-11

    Chemical examination of the methanolic extract from the stem bark of Daphne aurantiaca led to the isolation of two innovanoside dimers (1 and 2) with an unusual four-membered cyclobutane ring, together with the isoinnovanoside 3. Their chemical structures and configurations were elucidated by extensive spectral analysis and synthesis.

  15. Concise Total Synthesis of (+)-Asperazine, (+)-Pestalazine A, and (+)-iso-Pestalazine A. Structure Revision of (+)-Pestalazine A

    PubMed Central

    Loach, Richard P.; Fenton, Owen S.; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The concise, enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-asperazine (1), (+)-iso-pestalazine A (2), and (+)-pestalazine A (3) have been achieved by the development of a late-stage C3–C8′ Friedel-Crafts union of polycyclic diketopiperazines. Our modular strategy enables the union of complex polycyclic diketopiperazines in virtually their final forms, thus providing rapid and highly convergent assembly at the challenging quaternary stereocenter of these dimeric alkaloids. The significance of this carbon–carbon bond formation can be gauged by the manifold constraints that were efficiently overcome, namely the substantial steric crowding at both reactive sites, the nucleophilic addition of C8′ over N1′ to the C3 carbocation, and the multitude of reactivity posed by the use of complex diketopiperazine fragments in the coupling event. The success of the indoline π-nucleophile that evolved through our studies is notable given the paucity of competing reaction pathways observed in the presence of the highly reactive C3 carbocation generated. This first total synthesis of (+)-pestalazine A also allowed us to revise the molecular structure for this natural alkaloid. PMID:26726924

  16. Silver-promoted Friedel-Crafts reaction: concise total synthesis of (-)-ardeemin, (-)-acetylardeemin and (-)-formylardeemin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Kong, C; Du, Y; Song, H; Zhang, D; Qin, Y

    2012-04-14

    Total syntheses of multidrug resistant inhibitors (-)-acetylardeemin 2a, (-)-ardeemin 2b, and (-)-formylardeemin 3 have been achieved within 10 steps starting from bromopyrroloinoline 13. The key step involves direct alkylation of 13 with prenyl tributylstannane 11 to yield 12 via a silver-promoted asymmetric Friedel-Crafts reaction. Highly efficient installation of the isoprenyl group allowed excellent overall yield. Moreover, the substrate scope of the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts reaction of 13 was expanded to include a variety of arenes 14 to afford natural product-like library analogues 15.

  17. Concise Synthesis of Functionalized Benzocyclobutenones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-hao; Savage, Nikolas A.; Dong, Guangbin

    2014-01-01

    A concise approach to access functionalized benzocyclobutenones from 3-halophenol derivatives is described. This modified synthesis employs a [2+2] cycloaddition between benzynes generated from dehydrohalogenation of aryl halides using LiTMP and acetaldehyde enolate generated from n-BuLi and THF, followed by oxidation of the benzocyclobutenol intermediates to provide benzocyclobutenones. The [2+2] reaction can be run on a 10-gram scale with an increased yield. A number of functional groups including alkenes and alkynes are tolerated. Coupling of benzynes with ketene silyl acetals to give 8-substituted benzocyclobutenones is also demonstrated. PMID:24926108

  18. Concise Total Synthesis of Trichodermamides A, B and C Enabled by an Efficient Construction of the 1,2-Oxazadecaline Core

    PubMed Central

    Mfuh, Adelphe M.; Zhang, Yu; Stephens, David E.; Vo, Anh X. T.; Arman, Hadi D.; Larionov, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    We report herein a facile and efficient method of the construction of the cis-1,2-oxazadecaline system, distinctive of (pre)trichodermamides, aspergillazine A, gliovirin and FA-2097. The formation of the 1,2-oxazadecaline core was accomplished by a 1,2-addition of an αC-lithiated O-silyl ethyl pyruvate oxime to benzoquinone, that is followed by an oxa-Michael ring-closure. The method was successfully applied to the concise total synthesis of trichodermamide A (in gram quantities), trichodermamide B, as well as the first synthesis of trichodermamide C. PMID:26084356

  19. Concise Total Synthesis of Lundurines A-C Enabled by Gold Catalysis and a Homodienyl Retro-Ene/Ene Isomerization.

    PubMed

    Kirillova, Mariia S; Muratore, Michael E; Dorel, Ruth; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-03-23

    The total synthesis of lundurines A-C has been accomplished in racemic and enantiopure forms in 11-13 and 12-14 steps, respectively, without protection/deprotection of functional groups, by a novel tandem double condensation/Claisen rearrangement, a gold(I)-catalyzed alkyne hydroarylation, a cyclopropanation via formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition/nitrogen extrusion, and a remarkable olefin migration through a vinylcyclopropane retro-ene/ene reaction that streamlines the endgame.

  20. Concise Total Synthesis of Lundurines A–C Enabled by Gold Catalysis and a Homodienyl Retro-Ene/Ene Isomerization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The total synthesis of lundurines A–C has been accomplished in racemic and enantiopure forms in 11–13 and 12–14 steps, respectively, without protection/deprotection of functional groups, by a novel tandem double condensation/Claisen rearrangement, a gold(I)-catalyzed alkyne hydroarylation, a cyclopropanation via formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition/nitrogen extrusion, and a remarkable olefin migration through a vinylcyclopropane retro-ene/ene reaction that streamlines the endgame. PMID:26963149

  1. A Concise and Highly Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-Mefloquine Hydrochloride: Definitive Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of the Mefloquines.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Ettore J; Coltart, Don M

    2015-11-16

    A concise asymmetric (>99:1 e.r.) total synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine hydrochloride from a common intermediate is described. The key asymmetric transformation is a Sharpless dihydroxylation of an olefin that is accessed in three steps from commercially available materials. The Sharpless-derived diol is converted into either a trans or cis epoxide, and these are subsequently converted into (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine, respectively. The synthetic (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine samples were derivatized with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether, and a crystal structure of each derivative was obtained. These are the first X-ray structures for mefloquine derivatives that were obtained by coupling to a known chiral, nonracemic compound, and provide definitive confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of (+)-anti- as well as (-)-syn-mefloquine.

  2. Concise asymmetric synthesis of (-)-sparteine.

    PubMed

    Hermet, Jean-Paul R; McGrath, Matthew J; O'Brien, Peter; Porter, David W; Gilday, John

    2004-08-21

    A six-step asymmetric synthesis of natural (-)-sparteine from ethyl 7-iodohept-2-enoate is reported, involving a connective Michael addition of an amino ester-derived enolate to an alpha,beta-unsaturated amino ester.

  3. Concise total syntheses of (±)-noruleine and (±)-uleine.

    PubMed

    Patir, Süleyman; Ertürk, Erkan

    2013-05-07

    The first total synthesis of (±)-noruleine and a concise synthesis of (±)-uleine have been accomplished via the DDQ mediated dehydrogenative cyclization of a tetrahydrocarbazole derivative bearing a non-substituted amide functionality to prepare the key azocino[4,3-b]indole precursor.

  4. Total synthesis of bryostatin 9.

    PubMed

    Wender, Paul A; Schrier, Adam J

    2011-06-22

    The total synthesis of bryostatin 9 was accomplished using a uniquely step-economical and convergent Prins-driven macrocyclization strategy. At 25 linear and 42 total steps, this is currently the most concise and convergent synthesis of a potent bryostatin.

  5. Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 9

    PubMed Central

    Wender, Paul A.; Schrier, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    The total synthesis of bryostatin 9 was accomplished using a uniquely step economical and convergent Prins-driven macrocyclization strategy. At 25 linear and 42 total steps, this is currently the most concise and convergent (5 steps post fragment coupling) synthesis of a potent bryostatin. PMID:21618969

  6. A Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of (−)-Ranirestat

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Osipov, Maksim; Dong, Guangbin

    2010-01-01

    A concise, enantioselective synthesis of the potent aldose reductase inhibitor ranirestat (1) is reported. The synthesis was accomplished employing inexpensive, commercially available starting materials. A palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (Pd-AAA) of malonate 4 was utilized as a key transformation to construct the tetrasubstituted chiral center in the target. PMID:20148531

  7. Total synthesis of atropurpuran

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.04,9.04,12]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  8. A concise flow synthesis of efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Correia, Camille A; Gilmore, Kerry; McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-04-13

    Efavirenz is an essential medicine for the treatment of HIV, which is still inaccessible to millions of people worldwide. A novel, semi-continuous process provides rac-Efavirenz with an overall yield of 45%. This streamlined proof-of-principle synthesis relies on the efficient copper-catalyzed formation of an aryl isocyanate and a subsequent intramolecular cyclization to install the carbamate core of Efavirenz in one step. The three-step method represents the shortest synthesis of this life-saving drug to date. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Silenes in organic synthesis: a concise synthesis of (+/-) -epi-picropodophyllin.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Robert D C; Sellars, Jonathan D; Steel, Patrick G

    2007-10-07

    A concise, seven step synthesis of the aryl tetralin lignan lactone epi-picropodophyllin from piperonal is described. The key steps are a silene diene Diels-Alder reaction and the Hosomi-Sakurai reaction of the resultant silacyclohexene.

  10. Total synthesis of (+/-)-chartelline C.

    PubMed

    Baran, Phil S; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2006-11-01

    The first total synthesis of (+/-)-chartelline C in a concise 10-step sequence is reported. Highlights of the completion of this decades-old puzzle include (1) chemo- and position-selective installation of the heteroaromatic halogens, (2) halogen-sparing monoreduction of an alkyne linker, (3) a simple strategy for placement of the sensitive beta-chloroenamide, (4) an unusually facile thermolysis of a vinyl carboxylic acid, and (5) a powerful ring contraction whose potential utility in heterocyclic chemistry merits further investigation.

  11. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Wortmannin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinliang; Quan, Tianfei; Lu, Yandong; Luo, Tuoping

    2017-05-24

    A concise and enantioselective total synthesis of the potent PI3K inhibitor (+)-wortmannin is described. A Pd-catalyzed cascade reaction was first developed to connect a synthon derived from Hajos-Parrish ketone to a furan moiety. The subsequent Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the β-position of a furan ring to an epoxide was optimized to establish the C10 quaternary center. (+)-Wortmannin was eventually accomplished by transformations following a late-stage oxidation of the furan allylic position. Kinome profiling and in vitro enzymatic assays were performed on 17-β-hydroxy-wortmannin and an epoxide analogue.

  12. Concise synthesis of the A/BCD-ring fragment of gambieric acid A

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Fukazawa, Ryo; Sasaki, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Gambieric acid A (GAA) and its congeners belong to the family of marine polycyclic ether natural products. Their highly complex molecular architecture and unique biological activities have been of intense interest within the synthetic community. We have previously reported the first total synthesis, stereochemical reassignment, and preliminary structure–activity relationships of GAA. Here we disclose a concise synthesis of the A/BCD-ring fragment of GAA. The synthesis started from our previously reported synthetic intermediate that represents the A/B-ring. The C-ring was synthesized via an oxiranyl anion coupling and a 6-endo cyclization, and the D-ring was forged by means of an oxidative lactonization and subsequent palladium-catalyzed functionalization of the lactone ring. In this manner, the number of linear synthetic steps required for the construction of the C- and D-rings was reduced from 22 to 11. PMID:25629027

  13. A concise synthesis of optically active solanacol, the germination stimulant for seeds of root parasitic weeds.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Mami; Kuse, Masaki; Takikawa, Hirosato

    2015-01-01

    Solanacol, isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), is a germination stimulant for seeds of root parasitic weeds. A concise synthesis of optically active solanacol has been achieved by employing enzymatic resolution as a key step.

  14. Concise total syntheses of amphidinolides C and F.

    PubMed

    Valot, Gaëlle; Mailhol, Damien; Regens, Christopher S; O'Malley, Daniel P; Godineau, Edouard; Takikawa, Hiroshi; Philipps, Petra; Fürstner, Alois

    2015-02-02

    The marine natural products amphidinolide C (1) and F (4) differ in their side chains but share a common macrolide core with a signature 1,4-diketone substructure. This particular motif inspired a synthesis plan predicating a late-stage formation of this non-consonant ("umpoled") pattern by a platinum-catalyzed transannular hydroalkoxylation of a cycloalkyne precursor. This key intermediate was assembled from three building blocks (29, 41 and 47 (or 65)) by Yamaguchi esterification, Stille cross-coupling and a macrocyclization by ring-closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM). This approach illustrates the exquisite alkynophilicity of the catalysts chosen for the RCAM and alkyne hydroalkoxylation steps, which activate triple bonds with remarkable ease but left up to five other π-systems in the respective substrates intact. Interestingly, the inverse chemoselectivity pattern was exploited for the preparation of the tetrahydrofuran building blocks 47 and 65 carrying the different side chains of the two target macrolides. These fragments derive from a common aldehyde precursor 46 formed by an exquisitely alkene-selective cobalt-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of the diunsaturated alcohol 44, which left an adjacent acetylene group untouched. The northern sector 29 was prepared by a two-directional Marshall propargylation strategy, whereas the highly adorned acid subunit 41 derives from D-glutamic acid by an intramolecular oxa-Michael addition and a proline-mediated hydroxyacetone aldol reaction as the key steps; the necessary Me3 Sn-group on the terminus of 41 for use in the Stille coupling was installed via enol triflate 39, which was obtained by selective deprotonation/triflation of the ketone site of the precursor 38 without competing enolization of the ester also present in this particular substrate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A symmetry-based concise formal synthesis of platencin, a novel lead against "superbugs".

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Xi, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Quick access: A concise and efficient formal synthesis of platencin has been accomplished in nine steps from a commercially available starting material. The synthesis utilized only one protecting group. The base-catalyzed Michael cyclization of precursor 1 afforded the key diketone 2, which was converted into the desired core structure 4 via the radical intermediate 3.

  16. A General, Concise Strategy that Enables Collective Total Syntheses of over 50 Protoberberine and Five Aporhoeadane Alkaloids within Four to Eight Steps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiqiang; Tong, Rongbiao

    2016-05-17

    A concise, catalytic, and general strategy that allowed efficient total syntheses of 22 natural 13-methylprotoberberines within four steps for each molecule is reported. This synthesis represents the most efficient and shortest route to date, featuring three catalytic processes: CuI-catalyzed redox-A(3) reaction, Pd-catalyzed reductive carbocyclization, and PtO2 -catalyzed hydrogenation. Importantly, this new strategy to the tetracyclic framework has also been applied to the collective concise syntheses of >30 natural protoberberines (without 13-methyl group) and five aporhoeadane alkaloids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A Concise Synthesis of Berkelic Acid Inspired by Combining the Natural Products Spicifernin and Pulvilloric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Christopher F.; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Paradise, Christopher L.; De Brabander, Jef K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a concise synthesis of the structurally novel fungal extremophile metabolite berkelic acid – an effort leading to an unambiguous assignment of C22 stereochemistry. Our synthetic approach was inspired by the recognition that berkelic acid displays structural characteristics reminiscent of two other fungal metabolites, spicifernin and pulvilloric acid. Based on this notion, we executed a synthesis that features a Ag-catalyzed cascade dearomatization-cycloisomerization-cycloaddition sequence to couple two natural product inspired fragments. Notably, a spicifernin-like synthon was prepared with defined C22 stereochemistry in seven steps and three purifications (24–28% overall yield). A potentially useful anti-selective conjugate propargylation reaction was developed to introduce the vicinal stereodiad. An enantioconvergent synthesis of the other coupling partner, the aromatic precursor to pulvilloric acid methyl ester, was achieved in eight steps and 48% overall yield. The total synthesis of berkelic acid and its C22 epimer was thus completed in 10 steps longest linear sequence and 11–27% overall yield. PMID:19722648

  18. A concise synthesis of berkelic acid inspired by combining the natural products spicifernin and pulvilloric acid.

    PubMed

    Bender, Christopher F; Yoshimoto, Francis K; Paradise, Christopher L; De Brabander, Jef K

    2009-08-19

    We describe a concise synthesis of the structurally novel fungal extremophile metabolite berkelic acid, an effort leading to an unambiguous assignment of C22 stereochemistry. Our synthetic approach was inspired by the recognition that berkelic acid displays structural characteristics reminiscent of two other fungal metabolites, spicifernin and pulvilloric acid. Based on this notion, we executed a synthesis that features a Ag-catalyzed cascade dearomatization-cycloisomerization-cycloaddition sequence to couple two natural product inspired fragments. Notably, a spicifernin-like synthon was prepared with defined C22 stereochemistry in seven steps and three purifications (24-28% overall yield). A potentially useful anti-selective conjugate propargylation reaction was developed to introduce the vicinal stereodiad. An enantioconvergent synthesis of the other coupling partner, the aromatic precursor to pulvilloric acid methyl ester, was achieved in eight steps and 48% overall yield. The total synthesis of berkelic acid and its C22 epimer was thus completed in a 10 step linear sequence and 11-27% overall yield.

  19. Concise Total Syntheses of the Lycopodium Alkaloids (±)-Nankakurines A and B via Luciduline

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiayun; Waters, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Total syntheses of the Lycopodium alkaloids nankakurines A and B have been accomplished in 6 and 7 steps, respectively, via a sequence that passes through a third Lycopodium alkaloid, luciduline, and forgoes the use of protecting groups on nitrogen. Key features include a short preparation of luciduline followed by a concise and stereoselective aminoallylation/ring-closing metathesis protocol to fashion the spiropiperidine ring common to nankakurines A and B. PMID:20014779

  20. Total Synthesis of (-)-Conolutinine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyang; Jiang, Guangde; Xia, Zilei; Hu, Jiadong; Wan, Xiaolong; Gao, Jin-Ming; Lai, Yisheng; Xie, Weiqing

    2015-09-18

    The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-conolutinine was achieved in 10 steps. The synthesis featured a catalytic asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptamine to forge the tricycle intermediate. Hydration of an alkene catalyzed by Co(acac)2 was also employed as a key step to diastereoselectively introduce the tertiary alcohol moiety. The absolute configuration of (-)-conolutinine was established to be (2S,5aS,8aS,13aR) based on this asymmetric total synthesis.

  1. Concise large-scale synthesis of psilocin and psilocybin, principal hallucinogenic constituents of "magic mushroom".

    PubMed

    Shirota, Osamu; Hakamata, Wataru; Goda, Yukihiro

    2003-06-01

    The concise large-scale syntheses of psilocin (1) and psilocybin (2), the principal hallucinogenic constituents of "magic mushroom", were achieved without chromatographic purification. The key step in the synthesis of 2 was the isolation of the dibenzyl-protected intermediate (7) as a zwitterionic derivative (8), which was completely identified by means of 2D NMR analyses.

  2. Total synthesis of (+)-pleuromutilin.

    PubMed

    Fazakerley, Neal J; Helm, Matthew D; Procter, David J

    2013-05-17

    The first enantiospecific total synthesis of the antibacterial natural product (+)-pleuromutilin has been achieved. The approach includes the synthesis of a non-racemic cyclisation substrate from (+)-trans-dihydrocarvone, a highly selective SmI2-mediated cyclisation cascade, an electron transfer reduction of a hindered ester, and the first efficient conversion of (+)-mutilin to the target. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Total Synthesis of Kopsinine

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Wolfe, Amanda L.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of a powerful intramolecular [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of an 1,3,4-oxadiazole in the divergent total synthesis of kopsinine (1), featuring an additional unique SmI2-promoted transannular cyclization reaction for formation of the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane central to its hexacyclic ring system, is detailed. PMID:23391149

  4. Total synthesis and biological investigation of (-)-promysalin.

    PubMed

    Steele, Andrew D; Knouse, Kyle W; Keohane, Colleen E; Wuest, William M

    2015-06-17

    Compounds that specifically target pathogenic bacteria are greatly needed, and identifying the method by which they act would provide new avenues of treatment. Herein we report the concise, high-yielding total synthesis (eight steps, 35% yield) of promysalin, a natural product that displays antivirulence phenotypes against pathogenic bacteria. Guided by bioinformatics, four diastereomers were synthesized, and the relative and absolute stereochemistries were confirmed by spectral and biological analysis. Finally, we show for the first time that promysalin displays two antivirulence phenotypes: the dispersion of mature biofilms and the inhibition of pyoverdine production, hinting at a unique pathogenic-specific mechanism of action.

  5. Total synthesis of bryostatin 7 via C-C bond-forming hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Woo, Sang Kook; Krische, Michael J

    2011-09-07

    The marine macrolide bryostatin 7 is prepared in 20 steps (longest linear sequence) and 36 total steps with five C-C bonds formed using hydrogenative methods. This approach represents the most concise synthesis of any bryostatin reported, to date.

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of C-11 formaldehyde: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Slegers, G.; Lambrecht, R.H.D.; Vandewalle, T.; Meulewaeter, L.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1984-03-01

    An enzymatic synthesis of C-11 formaldehyde from C-11 methanol is presented, with immobilized alcohol oxidase and catalase: a rapid, simple procedure, with a high and reproducible yield. Carbon-11 methanol is oxidized to C-11 formaldehyde by passage over a column on which the enzymes alcohol oxidase and catalase are immobilized. The catalase increases reaction velocity by recycling the oxygen, and prevents destruction of the alcohol oxidase by eliminating the excess of hydrogen peroxide. The yield of the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation was 80-95%. A specific activity of 400-450 mCi/..mu..mole was obtained at EOB + 20 min. Various immobilization techniques and the optimal reaction conditions of the immobilized enzymes are investigated.

  7. Development of a Concise Synthesis of Ouabagenin and Hydroxylated Corticosteroid Analogues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The natural product ouabagenin is a complex cardiotonic steroid with a highly oxygenated skeleton. This full account describes the development of a concise synthesis of ouabagenin, including the evolution of synthetic strategy to access hydroxylation at the C19 position of a steroid skeleton. In addition, approaches to install the requisite butenolide moiety at the C17 position are discussed. Lastly, methodology developed in this synthesis has been applied in the generation of novel analogues of corticosteroid drugs bearing a hydroxyl group at the C19 position. PMID:25594682

  8. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6π electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200 mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  9. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  10. Total synthesis of lodopyridone.

    PubMed

    Burckhardt, Tobias; Harms, Klaus; Koert, Ulrich

    2012-09-07

    A convergent total synthesis of the structurally unprecedented alkaloid lodopyridone was achieved using a cross-coupling of an iodopyridone fragment with a quinolinethiazolylstannane. Key features of the syntheses of the pentasubstituted 4-pyridone were a regioselective bromination of a 4-pyridone derived from kojic acid, a subsequent Cu-mediated introduction of the thioether, and a directed lithiation/iodination step. A chemoselective Negishi cross-coupling of a dibromothiazole and a quinolinylzinc reagent was used to assemble the chloroquinolinethiazol moiety.

  11. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Benzylic C(sp(3))-H Functionalization for the Concise Synthesis of Heterocycles and Its Applications.

    PubMed

    Tsukano, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    C-H functionalization reactions involve the activation of otherwise unreactive C-H bonds, and represent atom economical methods for the direct transformation of simple substrates to complex molecules. While transition metal-catalyzed C(sp(2))-H functionalization reactions are regularly used in synthesis, C(sp(3))-H functionalization is rarely applied to the synthesis of complex natural products because of the difficulties associated with controlling selectivity. With this in mind, we focused on the development of new palladium (Pd)(0)-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H functionalization reactions for the synthesis of complex molecules, resulting in several new methods capable of solving these problems. We initially developed a concise synthetic method for the facile construction of oxindoles and spirooxindoles via a Pd-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization reaction. This method was subsequently extended to the synthesis of various heterocycles, including 2-arylindoles, benzocarbazole, indolocarbazole, indoloquinazolinone, and indoloquinazolinedione, as well as the total synthesis of several pyrrolophenanthridine alkaloids without the need for any protecting groups. This method was also successfully applied to the synthesis of the right-hand fragment of benzohopane from tetrahydro-2H-fluorene, which was constructed by a Pd-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion of our most recent investigations pertaining to Pd(0)-catalyzed benzylic C(sp(3))-H functionalization.

  12. Total synthesis of dictyodendrin B.

    PubMed

    Fürstner, Alois; Domostoj, Mathias M; Scheiper, Bodo

    2005-08-24

    A concise total synthesis of dictyodendrin B (1) is reported, a scarce marine alkaloid endowed with promising telomerase inhibitory activity. Key steps of the chosen route are a reductive cyclization of ketoamide 11 to indole 12 mediated by low-valent titanium (from TiCl3 and KC8) followed by a photochemical 6pi-electrocyclization, which was performed in the presence of Pd/C and nitrobenzene to effect concomitant dehydrogenation/aromatization of the product initially formed. Regioselective bromination of the resulting pyrrolocarbazole 13 followed by lithium/bromine exchange and quenching of the resulting organolithium species with p-methoxybenzaldehyde installed the side chain at C2. Oxidation of the benzylic alcohol 15 thus obtained to ketone 17 was best achieved with catalytic amounts of tetra-n-propylammonium perruthenate (TPAP) and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMO) in dilute CH2Cl2 solution to avoid the formation of undue amounts of the unsymmetrical dimer 16. Ketone 17 was elaborated into the natural product by selective cleavage of the isopropyl ether with BCl3, introduction of the sulfate moiety with the aid of trichloroethyl chlorosulfuric acid ester, deprotection of all lateral methyl ether groups, and final reductive cleavage of the trichloroethyl ester moiety. The spectroscopic data of synthetic dictyodendrin B thus formed matched those of an authentic sample in all regards. Moreover, it was shown that global deprotection of the peripheral -OH groups in pyrrolo[2,3-c]carbazole 13 is accompanied by spontaneous air-oxidation to form the quinone core of dictyodendrin C.

  13. Quaternary Stereogenic Centers through Enantioselective Heck Arylation of Acyclic Olefins with Aryldiazonium Salts: Application in a Concise Synthesis of (R)-Verapamil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Caio C; Pfaltz, Andreas; Correia, Carlos Roque Duarte

    2015-11-16

    We describe herein a highly regio- and enantioselective Pd-catalyzed Heck arylation of unactivated trisubstituted acyclic olefins to provide all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers. Chiral N,N ligands of the pyrimidine- and pyrazino-oxazoline class were developed for that purpose, providing the desired products in good to high yields with enantiomeric ratios up to >99:1. Both linear and branched substituents on the olefins were well-tolerated. The potential of this new method is demonstrated by the straightforward synthesis of several O-methyl lactols and lactones containing quaternary stereocenters, together with a concise enantioselective total synthesis of the calcium channel blocker verapamil.

  14. Total synthesis of haliclamide.

    PubMed

    Gahalawat, Suraksha; Pandey, Satyendra Kumar

    2016-10-04

    A stereoselective approach for the synthesis of haliclamide 1, a marine natural product, has been developed. The notable features of our synthesis include MacMillan cross aldol, Mitsunobu inversion, Yamaguchi-Hirao alkylation, Steglich esterification and macrolactamization reactions and the Corey-Fuchs protocol as the key steps.

  15. The total synthesis of psymberin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianhai; Shao, Ning; Palani, Anandan; Aslanian, Robert; Buevich, Alexei

    2007-06-21

    The total synthesis of a new member of the pederin family of natural products, psymberin 1, was accomplished. Using a recently reported novel and efficient PhI(OAc)2 mediated oxidative entry to 2-(N-acylaminal)-substituted tetrahydropyrans as the key step, this total synthesis was executed in a convergent and efficient manner. The longest linear sequence of this synthesis was 22 steps starting from known 6.

  16. A new synthetic strategy for catechin-class polyphenols: concise synthesis of (-)-epicatechin and its 3-O-gallate.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Sven; Ohmori, Ken; Hattori, Fumihiko; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2012-08-28

    Concise synthesis of (-)-epicatechin and its 3-O-gallate is described, illustrating efficacy of the new strategy for catechin-class polyphenols based on assembly of lithiated fluorobenzene and epoxy alcohol followed by a pyran cyclization. 1,3,5-Trifluorobenzene serves as the A-ring equivalent for functionalization and the pyran annulation.

  17. Total Synthesis of Codeine.

    PubMed

    Li, Qilin; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-11-09

    In this paper, a new strategy towards the synthesis of codeine and morphine is reported. This new approach features a cascade cyclization to construct the dihydrofuran ring, and an intramolecular palladium catalyzed C-H olefination of unactivated aliphatic alkene to install the morphinan ring system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Total Synthesis of Propolisbenzofuran B†

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brian T.; Avetta, Christopher T.; Thomson, Regan J.

    2014-01-01

    The first total synthesis of propolisbenzofuran B, a bioactive natural product isolated from honeybee propolis resin, is reported. The convergent synthesis makes use of a silicon-tether controlled oxidative ketone–ketone cross-coupling and a novel benzofuran-generating cascade reaction to deliver the core structure of the natural product from readily prepared precursors. PMID:24976944

  19. The essence of total synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Snyder, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    For the past century, the total synthesis of natural products has served as the flagship of chemical synthesis and the principal driving force for discovering new chemical reactivity, evaluating physical organic theories, testing the power of existing synthetic methods, and enabling biology and medicine. This perspective article seeks to examine this time-honored and highly demanding art, distilling its essence in an effort to ascertain its power and future potential. PMID:15302925

  20. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of (+)-vincristine

    PubMed Central

    Kuboyama, Takeshi; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2004-01-01

    An efficient total synthesis of (+)-vincristine has been accomplished through a stereoselective coupling of demethylvindoline and the eleven-membered carbomethoxyverbanamine presursor. Demethylvindoline was prepared by oxidation of 17-hydroxy-11-methoxytabersonine, followed by regioselective acetylation with mixed anhydride method. Although an initial attempt of coupling by using demethylvindoline formamide was not successful and resulted in recovery of the starting compounds, the reaction using demethylvindoline took place smoothly to furnish the desired bisindole product with the correct stereochemistry at C18′. After formation of the piperidine ring by sequential removal of the protective groups and intramolecular nucleophilic cyclization, the total synthesis of vincristine was completed by formylation of N1. PMID:15141084

  1. Total Synthesis of Bryostatins. Development of Methodology for Atom-Economic and Stereoselective Synthesis of the C-ring Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Frontier, Alison J.; Thiel, Oliver R.; Yang, Hanbiao; Dong, Guangbin

    2012-01-01

    Bryostatins, a family of structurally complicated macrolides, exhibit an exceptional range of biological activities. The limited availability and structural complexity of these molecules makes development of an efficient total synthesis particularly important. This article describes our initial efforts towards the total synthesis of bryostatins, in which chemoselective and atom-economical methods for stereoselective assembly of the C-ring subunit were developed. A Pd-catalyzed tandem alkyne-alkyne coupling/6-endo-dig cyclization sequence was explored and successfully pursued in the synthesis of a dihydropyran ring system. Elaboration of this methodology ultimately led to a concise synthesis of the C-ring subunit of bryostatins. PMID:21793057

  2. Total Synthesis of (+)-Superstolide A

    PubMed Central

    Tortosa, Mariola; Yakelis, Neal A.; Roush, William R.

    2009-01-01

    A convergent and highly stereocontrolled total synthesis of the cytotoxic macrolide (+)-superstolide A is described. Key features of this synthesis include the use of bimetallic linchpin 36b for uniting the C(1)-C(15) (43) and the C(20)-C(27) (38) fragments of the natural product, a late-stage Suzuki macrocyclization of 49, and a highly diastereoselective transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic octanene 4. In contrast, the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of pentaenal 5 provided the desired cycloadduct with lower stereoselectivity (6:1:1). PMID:18956845

  3. Total synthesis of (−)-dihydroprotolichesterenic acid via diastereoselective conjugate addition to chiral fumarates

    PubMed Central

    Hethcox, J. Caleb; Shanahan, Charles S.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    A diastereoselective conjugate addition of a variety of monoorganocuprates, Li[RCuI], to chiral fumarates to provide funtionalized succinates has been developed. The utility of this reaction is demonstrated in a concise total synthesis of (−)-dihydroprotolichesterenic acid that required only four steps and proceeded in an overall 31% yield. PMID:23539490

  4. Total synthesis of atrochamins F, H, I, and J through cascade reactions

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Lister, Troy; Denton, Ross M.; Gelin, Christine F.

    2008-01-01

    A concise and efficient cascade-based total synthesis of artochamins F, H, I, and J is described. The potential biogenetic connection between artochamin F, or a derivative thereof, and artochamins H, I, and J, through an unusual formal [2+2] cycloaddition process, was shown to be feasible. An alternative mechanism for this transformation is also proposed. PMID:19461992

  5. Total synthesis of brevetoxin A.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Yang, Z; Shi, G; Gunzner, J L; Agrios, K A; Gärtner, P

    1998-03-19

    Brevetoxin A is the most potent neurotoxin secreted by Gymnodinium breve Davis, a marine organism often associated with harmful algal blooms known as 'red tides'. The compound, whose mechanism of action involves binding to and opening of sodium channels, is sufficiently toxic to kill fish at concentrations of nanograms per ml and, after accumulation in filter-feeding shellfish, to poison human consumers. The precise pathway by which nature constructs brevetoxin A is at present unknown, but strategies for its total synthesis have been contemplated for some time. The synthetic challenge posed by brevetoxin A reflects the high complexity of its molecular structure: 10 oxygen atoms and a chain of 44 carbon atoms are woven into a polycyclic macromolecule that includes 10 rings (containing between 5 and 9 atoms) and 22 stereogenic centres. Particularly challenging are the 7-, 8- and 9-membered rings which allow the molecule to undergo slow conformational changes and force a 90 degrees twist at one of its rings. Here we describe the successful incorporation of methods that were specifically developed for the construction of these rings into an overall strategy for the total synthesis of brevetoxin A in its naturally occurring form. The convergent synthesis reported here renders this scarce neurotoxin synthetically available and, more importantly, allows the design and synthesis of analogues for further biochemical studies.

  6. Total Synthesis of Apoptolidin A

    PubMed Central

    Crimmins, Michael T.; Christie, Hamish S.; Long, Alan; Chaudhary, Kleem

    2009-01-01

    A highly convergent, enantioselective total synthesis of the potent antitumor agent apoptolidin A, has been completed. The key transformations include highly selective glycosylations to attach the C27 disaccharide and the C9 6′-deoxy-l-glucose, a cross metathesis to incorporate the C1-C10 trienoate unit, and a Yamaguchi macrolactonization to complete the macrocycle. Twelve stereocenters in the polypropionate segments and sugar units were established through diastereoselective chlorotitanium enolate aldol reactions. PMID:19199767

  7. Total synthesis of (-)-callipeltoside A.

    PubMed

    Hoye, Thomas R; Danielson, Michael E; May, Aaron E; Zhao, Hongyu

    2010-11-05

    A total synthesis of (-)-callipeltoside A (1) has been achieved. The core macrocycle was made via a dual macrolactonization/pyran hemiketal formation reaction, developed to circumvent issues related to the reversible nature of acylketene formation from β-keto lactone substrates. Initial approaches to the core of the natural product that revolved around ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and relay ring-closing metathesis (RRCM) reactions are also described.

  8. Karlotoxin synthetic studies: concise synthesis of a C(42–63) B-ring tetrahydropyran fragment

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Takashi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Maejima, Toshihide; Yabe, Yuki; Iwata, Hiroki; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Starting from natural D-mannose, a C(42–63) B-ring tetrahydropyran fragment in karlotoxin 2 has been prepared via a common THP intermediate in a concise manner. E-selective Julia–Kocienski olefination efficiently assembled a C(51–63) chlorodiene subunit and a C(42–50) tetrahydropyran segment. PMID:24376284

  9. Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of (-)-Stemaphylline.

    PubMed

    Varela, Ana; Garve, Lennart K B; Leonori, Daniele; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2017-02-13

    Homologation of readily available α-boryl pyrrolidines with metal carbenoids is especially challenging even when good leaving groups (Cl(-) ) are employed. By performing a solvent switch from Et2 O to CHCl3 , efficient 1,2-metalate rearrangement of the intermediate boronate occurs with both halide and ester leaving groups. The methodology was used in the total synthesis of the Stemona alkaloid (-)-stemaphylline in just 11 steps (longest linear sequence), with high stereocontrol (>20:1 d.r.) and 11 % overall yield. The synthesis also features a late-stage lithiation-borylation reaction with a tertiary amine containing carbenoid. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Total chemical synthesis of crambin.

    PubMed

    Bang, Duhee; Chopra, Neeraj; Kent, Stephen B H

    2004-02-11

    Crambin is a small (46 amino acids) protein isolated from the seeds of the plant Crambe abyssinica. Crambin has been extensively used as a model protein for the development of advanced crystallography and NMR techniques and for computational folding studies. We set out to establish synthetic access to crambin. Initially, we synthesized the 46 amino acid polypeptide by native chemical ligation of two distinct sets of peptide segments (15 + 31 and 31 + 15 residues). The synthetic polypeptide chain folded in good yield to give native crambin containing three disulfide bonds. The chemically synthesized crambin was characterized by LC-MS and by 2D-NMR. However, the 31-residue peptide segments were difficult to purify, and this caused an overall low yield for the synthesis. To overcome this problem, we synthesized crambin by the native chemical ligation of three segments (15 + 16 + 15 residues). Total synthesis using the ligation of three segments gave more than a 10-fold increase in yield and a protein product of exceptionally high purity. This work demonstrates the efficacy of chemical protein synthesis by the native chemical ligation of three segments and establishes efficient synthetic access to the important model protein crambin for experimental studies of protein folding and stability.

  11. 11-Step Total Synthesis of Araiosamines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A concise route to a small family of exotic marine alkaloids known as the araiosamines has been developed, and their absolute configuration has been assigned. The dense array of functionality, high polarity, and rich stereochemistry coupled with equilibrating topologies present an unusual challenge for chemical synthesis and an opportunity for innovation. Key steps involve the use of a new reagent for guanidine installation, a remarkably selective C–H functionalization, and a surprisingly simple final step that intersects a presumed biosynthetic intermediate. Synthetic araiosamines were shown to exhibit potency against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria despite a contrary report of no activity. PMID:27748593

  12. [Total synthesis of antitumor macrolide, rhizoxin and chemistry of acylsilane].

    PubMed

    Nakada, M

    1997-08-01

    The first total synthesis of the antitumor macrolide rhizoxin in a highly stereo-controlled manner was described. The construction of the key building fragments required for the total synthesis of the antitumor macrolide rhizoxin, that arose from our retrosynthetic analysis of rhizoxin in an optically pure form by concise and efficient sequence analyses was described. Synthesis of the right-wing was started from the chiral half-ester generated by asymmetric hydrolysis of the corresponding meso-diester using pig liver esterase. The remaining chiral centers of the fragment was constracted by cyclic hydroboration. Synthesis of the left-wing was also accomplished starting from (S)-methyl 3-hydroxy-2-methylpropionate which had been prepared by enzyme mediated transformation. Coupling of the right-wing and the left-wing was accomplished by Julia coupling, and the macrocyclic lactone was constructed by the intramolecular Horner-Emmons reaction. The control of the stereoselective epoxidations was well achieved after the formation of an unsaturated 16-membered macrocyclic lactone. Chromophore-side-chain moiety was constructed at the final stage by the reaction of the phosphineoxide in 80% yield with high selectivity (E/Z = > 20/1). The present methodology will be useful for the synthesis of the homologues and man-made rhizoxin.

  13. Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 1

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Gary E.; Poudel, Yam B.; Cummins, Thomas J.; Rudra, Arnab; Covel, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Bryostatin 1 is a marine natural product that is a very promising lead compound due to the potent biological activity it displays against a variety of human disease states. We describe herein the first total synthesis of this agent. The synthetic route adopted is a highly convergent one in which preformed and heavily functionalized pyran rings A and C are united by “pyran annulation”: the TMSOTf promoted reaction between a hydroxy allylsilane appended to the A ring fragment and an aldehyde contained in the C ring fragment, with concomitant formation of the B ring. Further elaborations of the resulting very highly functionalized intermediate include macrolactonization and selective cleavage of just one of five ester linkages present. PMID:21175177

  14. Total synthesis of bryostatin 1.

    PubMed

    Keck, Gary E; Poudel, Yam B; Cummins, Thomas J; Rudra, Arnab; Covel, Jonathan A

    2011-02-02

    Bryostatin 1 is a marine natural product that is a very promising lead compound because of the potent biological activity it displays against a variety of human disease states. We describe herein the first total synthesis of this agent. The synthetic route adopted is a highly convergent one in which the preformed, heavily functionalized pyran rings A and C are united by "pyran annulation", the TMSOTf-promoted reaction between a hydroxyallylsilane appended to the A-ring fragment and an aldehyde contained in the C-ring fragment, with concomitant formation of the B ring. Further elaborations of the resulting very highly functionalized intermediate include macrolactonization and selective cleavage of just one of five ester linkages present.

  15. Total Synthesis and Study of Myrmicarin Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ondrus, Alison E.

    2010-01-01

    The myrmicarins are a family of air and temperature sensitive alkaloids that possess unique structural features. Our concise enantioselective synthesis of the tricyclic myrmicarins enabled evaluation of a potentially biomimetic assembly of the complex members via direct dimerization of simpler structures. These studies revealed that myrmicarin 215B undergoes efficient and highly diastereoselective Brønsted acid-induced dimerization to generate a new heptacyclic structure, isomyrmicarin 430A. Mechanistic analysis demonstrated that heterodimerization between myrmicarin 215B and a conformationally restricted azafulvenium ion precursor afforded a functionalized isomyrmicarin 430A structure in a manner that was consistent with a highly efficient, non-concerted ionic process. Recent advancement in heterodimerization between tricyclic derivatives has enabled the preparation of strategically functionalized hexacyclic structures. The design and synthesis of structurally versatile dimeric compounds has greatly facilitated manipulation of these structures en route to more complex myrmicarin derivatives. PMID:19585010

  16. trans-Hydrogenation: Application to a Concise and Scalable Synthesis of Brefeldin A**

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Michael; Fürstner, Alois

    2015-01-01

    The important biochemical probe molecule brefeldin A (1) has served as an inspirational target in the past, but none of the many routes has actually delivered more than just a few milligrams of product, where documented. The approach described herein is clearly more efficient; it hinges upon the first implementation of ruthenium-catalyzed trans-hydrogenation in natural products total synthesis. Because this unorthodox reaction is selective for the triple bond and does not touch the transannular alkene or the lactone site of the cycloalkyne, it outperforms the classical Birch-type reduction that could not be applied at such a late stage. Other key steps en route to 1 comprise an iron-catalyzed reductive formation of a non-terminal alkyne, an asymmetric propiolate carbonyl addition mediated by a bulky amino alcohol, and a macrocyclization by ring-closing alkyne metathesis catalyzed by a molybdenum alkylidyne. PMID:25651519

  17. trans‐Hydrogenation: Application to a Concise and Scalable Synthesis of Brefeldin A†

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The important biochemical probe molecule brefeldin A (1) has served as an inspirational target in the past, but none of the many routes has actually delivered more than just a few milligrams of product, where documented. The approach described herein is clearly more efficient; it hinges upon the first implementation of ruthenium‐catalyzed trans‐hydrogenation in natural products total synthesis. Because this unorthodox reaction is selective for the triple bond and does not touch the transannular alkene or the lactone site of the cycloalkyne, it outperforms the classical Birch‐type reduction that could not be applied at such a late stage. Other key steps en route to 1 comprise an iron‐catalyzed reductive formation of a non‐terminal alkyne, an asymmetric propiolate carbonyl addition mediated by a bulky amino alcohol, and a macrocyclization by ring‐closing alkyne metathesis catalyzed by a molybdenum alkylidyne. PMID:27478259

  18. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Gliocladin C

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Larry E.; Shin, Youseung

    2008-01-01

    The first total synthesis of gliocladin C, a fungal-derived marine alkaloid containing a rare trioxopiperazine fragment, is reported. This asymmetric synthesis establishes the absolute configuration of this structurally novel natural product. PMID:17217299

  19. Co(III)(salen)-catalyzed HKR of two stereocentered alkoxy- and azido epoxides: a concise enantioselective synthesis of (S,S)-reboxetine and (+)-epi-cytoxazone.

    PubMed

    Reddy, R Santhosh; Chouthaiwale, Pandurang V; Suryavanshi, Gurunath; Chavan, Vilas B; Sudalai, Arumugam

    2010-07-21

    The HKR of racemic syn- or anti- alkoxy- and azido epoxides catalyzed by Co(salen) complex affords a practical access to a series of enantioenriched syn- or anti- alkoxy- and azido epoxides and the corresponding 1,2-diols. This strategy has been successfully employed in the concise, enantioselective synthesis of bioactive molecules such as (S,S)-reboxetine and (+)-epi-cytoxazone.

  20. Approach to Merosesquiterpenes via Lewis Acid Catalyzed Nazarov-Type Cyclization: Total Synthesis of Akaol A.

    PubMed

    Kakde, Badrinath N; Kumar, Nivesh; Mondal, Pradip Kumar; Bisai, Alakesh

    2016-04-15

    A Lewis acid catalyzed Nazarov-type cyclization of arylvinylcarbinol has been developed for the asymmetric synthesis of carbotetracyclic core of merosesquiterpenes. The reaction works only in the presence of 2 mol % of Sn(OTf)2 and Bi(OTf)3 in dichloroethane under elevated temperature. The methodology offers the synthesis of a variety of enantioenriched arylvinylcarbinols from commercially available (3aR)-sclareolide 9 in six steps with an eventual concise total synthesis of marine sesquiterpene quinol, akaol A (1a).

  1. Total Synthesis of Mycolactones A and B

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fengbin; Fidanze, Steve; Benowitz, Andrew B.; Kishi, Yoshito

    2007-01-01

    First and second generation total syntheses of mycolactones A and B are reported. The first generation total synthesis unambiguously confirmed our earlier assignment of the relative and absolute stereochemistry of mycolactones A and B. Knowledge of the chemical properties of the mycolactones accumulated through the first generation total synthesis allowed us to implement several major improvements to the original synthesis, including: (1) optimizing the choice of protecting groups, (2) eliminating the unnecessary adjustment of protecting groups, and (3) improving the overall stereoselectivity and synthetic efficiency. The second generation total synthesis consists of 21 longest linear steps, with 8.8% overall yield. PMID:17940589

  2. Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide E

    PubMed Central

    Va, Porino; Roush, William R.

    2008-01-01

    A convergent and highly stereocontrolled synthesis of amphidinolide E (1) has been accomplished. The synthesis features a highly diastereoselective (>20:1) BF3·Et2O promoted [3+2] annulation reaction between aldehyde 3 and allylsilane 4 to afford substituted tetrahydrofuran 2. PMID:17165709

  3. Concise and Practical Asymmetric Synthesis of a Challenging Atropisomeric HIV Integrase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Fandrick, Keith R; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Yongda; Tang, Wenjun; Gao, Joe; Rodriguez, Sonia; Patel, Nitinchandra D; Reeves, Diana C; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Sanyal, Sanjit; Gonnella, Nina; Qu, Bo; Haddad, Nizar; Lorenz, Jon C; Sidhu, Kanwar; Wang, June; Ma, Shengli; Grinberg, Nelu; Lee, Heewon; Tsantrizos, Youla; Poupart, Marc-André; Busacca, Carl A; Yee, Nathan K; Lu, Bruce Z; Senanayake, Chris H

    2015-06-08

    A practical and efficient synthesis of a complex chiral atropisomeric HIV integrase inhibitor has been accomplished. The combination of a copper-catalyzed acylation along with the implementation of the BI-DIME ligands for a ligand-controlled Suzuki cross-coupling and an unprecedented bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide-catalyzed tert-butylation renders the synthesis of this complex molecule robust, safe, and economical. Furthermore, the overall synthesis was conducted in an asymmetric and diastereoselective fashion with respect to the imbedded atropisomer.

  4. Total synthesis of Ivorenolide A following a base-induced elimination protocol.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Debendra K; Umamaheshwar, Gonela; Rao, R Nageshwar; Rao, T Srinivasa; R, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Jhillu S

    2015-02-20

    A concise and stereocontrolled first total synthesis of Ivorenolide A (1) is reported in 16 longest linear steps with a 13.4% overall yield starting from (+)-diethyl tartrate (DET). Key features are base-induced elimination protocol for the construction of chiral propargyl alcohols in both fragments, Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of terminal acetylenes, and Shiina's 2-methyl-6-nitrobezoic anhydride (MNBA) mediated macrolactonization.

  5. Pyridone Annulation via Tandem Curtius Rearrangement/6π-Electrocyclization: Total Synthesis of (−)-Lyconadin C

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiayun

    2013-01-01

    A concise, enantioselective total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloid (−)-lyconadin C was achieved in 12 steps and high overall yield. Key features include construction of a luciduline congener through Mannich-type cyclization and a one-pot, tandem Curtius rearrangement/6π-electrocyclization to fashion the 2-pyridone system of lyconadin C. PMID:23909645

  6. Total synthesis of solanoeclepin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanino, Keiji; Takahashi, Motomasa; Tomata, Yoshihide; Tokura, Hiroshi; Uehara, Taketo; Narabu, Takashi; Miyashita, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Cyst nematodes are troublesome parasites that live on, and destroy, a range of important host vegetable plants. Damage caused by the potato cyst nematode has now been reported in over 50 countries. One approach to eliminating the problem is to stimulate early hatching of the nematodes, but key hatching stimuli are not naturally available in sufficient quantities to do so. Here, we report the first chemical synthesis of solanoeclepin A, the key hatch-stimulating substance for potato cyst nematode. The crucial steps in our synthesis are an intramolecular cyclization reaction for construction of the highly strained tricyclo[5.2.1.01,6]decane skeleton (DEF ring system) and an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a furan derivative for the synthesis of the ABC carbon framework. The present synthesis has the potential to contribute to addressing one of the critical food issues of the twenty-first century.

  7. Total synthesis of (-)-depyranoversicolamide B.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen-Fang; Xiao, T; Zhang, D; Deng, Lin-Feng; Wang, Y; Qin, Y

    2015-11-18

    Starting from easily prepared (R)-C3-isoprenylated pyrroloindoline, the C3-isoprenylated indolyl diketopiperazine is prepared by an efficient reductive opening of the pyrrolo ring, and undergoes biomimetic Diels-Alder reaction to generate an anti-adduct as a sole stereoisomer. Oxidation of the indoline moiety to oxindole completes the synthesis of (-)-depyranoversicolamide B.

  8. Benzothiazines in Synthesis. A Formal Total Synthesis of Pseudopteroxazole

    PubMed Central

    Harmata, Michael; Cai, Zhengxin; Chen, Yugang

    2010-01-01

    A formal total synthesis of the antitubercular natural product was accomplished. This work was undertaken to address certain stereochemical problems in our initial synthesis. By using an ester group as a surrogate for a methyl group, we were able to intercept a key intermediate in our first synthesis with better selectivity and greater convergence than had previously been the case. PMID:19537725

  9. Total Synthesis of (±)- and (−)-Actinophyllic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Connor L.; Overman, Larry E.; Rohde, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of efficient sequences for the total syntheses of (±)-actinophyllic acid (rac-1) and (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) are described. The central step in these syntheses is the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction, which constructs the previously unknown hexacyclic ring system of actinophyllic acid in one step from much simpler tetracyclic precursors. The tetracyclic hexahydro-1,5-methano-1H-azocino[4,3-b]indole ketone rac-37 is assembled from o-nitrophenylacetic acid in four steps, with oxidative cyclization of a dienolate derivative of tricyclic precursor rac-35 being the central step. In the first-generation synthesis, this intermediate is transformed in two steps to homoallyl amine rac-43, whose formaldiminium derivative undergoes efficient aza-Cope/Mannich reaction to give pentacyclic ketone rac-44. In four additional steps, this intermediate is advanced to (±)-actinophyllic acid. The synthesis is streamlined by elaborating ketone rac-37 to β-hydroxyester intermediate rac-53, which is directly transformed to (±)-actinophyllic acid upon exposure to HCl and paraformaldehyde. This concise second-generation total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid is realized in 22% overall yield from commercially available di-tert-butylmalonate and o-nitrophenylacetic acid by a sequence that proceeds by way of only six isolated intermediates. The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid (1) is accomplished by this direct sequence from tricyclic keto malonate (S)-35. Catalytic enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketone 66 is the key step in the preparation of intermediate (S)-35 from the commercially available Boc-amino acid 65. Discussed also is the possibility that the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction might be involved in the biosynthesis of (−)-actinophyllic acid. PMID:20218696

  10. A concise synthesis of the tricyclic skeleton of pleuromutilin and a new approach to cycloheptenes.

    PubMed

    Bacqué, Eric; Pautrat, François; Zard, Samir Z

    2003-02-06

    [reaction: see text] A short synthesis of the tricyclic skeleton of pleuromutilin is reported, featuring an unusually efficient 8-endo-trig radical cyclization of a xanthate precursor. In the course of this study, a one-carbon ring expansion leading to cycloheptenes was uncovered.

  11. Total Synthesis of Solandelactone I.

    PubMed

    Eichenauer, Nils C; Tschersich, Roxanne; Pietruszka, Jörg

    2015-11-25

    Since the marine natural products solandelactones A-I were isolated from the hydroid Solanderia secunda and investigated by Seo et al. in 1996, considerable synthetic efforts toward these marine oxylipins followed. However, the structure elucidation of solandelactone I remained incomplete, and no synthesis has been reported. On the basis of our retrosynthetic analysis, the key building blocks were combined in a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to create two common intermediates for the stereodivergent synthesis of all four diastereomers 1-4 matching the proposed structure of solandelactone I. Comparison of the published analytical data of natural product solandelactone I and data obtained from the synthetic endeavor toward diastereomers 1-4 enabled the structure assignment of isomer 3; the proposed biosynthetic pathway for marine oxylipins also supports the result.

  12. Total stereoselective synthesis of (+)-goniothalesdiol.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Urbano, Antonio; Colobert, Françoise

    2005-11-24

    [reaction: see text] The stereoselective synthesis of (+)-goniothalesdiol (1) was accomplished in nine steps starting from commercially available (-)-(2S,3S)-dimethyl D-tartrate (3). The key features were a completely diastereoselective reduction of a beta-ketosulfoxide to generate the stereogenic center at C-5 in 7 and formation of the 2,5-cis-substituted tetrahydrofuran ring in 10 from a stereoselective Et(3)SiH/TMSOTf-promoted reductive cyclization/deoxygenation.

  13. Development of A Concise Synthesis of (−)-Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®)

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Zhang, Ting

    2011-01-01

    We report a full account of our work towards the development of an eight-step synthesis of anti-influenza drug (−)-oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) from commercially available starting material. The final synthetic route proceeds with an overall yield of 30 %. Key transformations include a novel palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reaction (Pd-AAA) as well as a rhodium-catalyzed chemo-, regio-, and stereoselective aziridination reaction. PMID:21365707

  14. Asymmetric total synthesis of ent-cyclooroidin

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sabuj; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Lovely, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    An enantiospecific total synthesis of the pyrrole-imidazole natural product cyclooroidin from histidine is described. The key N1-C9 bond is constructed through an intramolecular SN2-type of reaction of a chloro ester. Subsequent imidazole C2-azidation at the 2-position, pyrrole bromination, azide reduction and deprotection leads to the completion of the synthesis. PMID:20929213

  15. Total Synthesis of the Proposed Banyasin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuguang; Ren, Qi; Choi, Sun; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2015-03-01

    The first total synthesis of four possible isomers of a molecule possessing the stereochemistry proposed for banyasin A is described. The structure synthesized appears to be different from that of the natural product.

  16. Concise synthesis of two trisaccharides related to the cytotoxic triterpenoid saponin isolated from Pithecellobium lucidum.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priya; Mukhopadhyay, Balaram

    2009-12-14

    Convergent synthesis of two trisaccharides related to the cytotoxic triterpenoid saponin isolated from Pithecellobium lucidum is reported. The trisaccharides are synthesized in the form of their propargyl glycosides to leave the scope for further glycoconjugate formation through various multi-component reactions. A simple protecting group manipulation is followed using commercially available monosaccharides, D-glucose, D-xylose, D-fucose and L-rhamnose. H(2)SO(4) immobilized on silica is used as the Brönsted acid source for the N-iodosuccinimide-mediated thioglycoside activation for stereoselective glycosylations and proved to be a better choice over traditional Lewis acid catalysts such as TMSOTf and TfOH.

  17. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, Brendan T; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-09-24

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents.

  18. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-09-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents.

  19. Samarium diiodide mediated reactions in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Ellery, Shelby P; Chen, Jason S

    2009-01-01

    Introduced by Henri Kagan more than three decades ago, samarium diiodide (SmI(2)) has found increasing application in chemical synthesis. This single-electron reducing agent has been particularly useful in C-C bond formations, including those found in total synthesis endeavors. This Review highlights selected applications of SmI(2) in total synthesis, with special emphasis on novel transformations and mechanistic considerations. The examples discussed are both illustrative of the power of this reagent in the construction of complex molecules and inspirational for the design of synthetic strategies toward such targets, both natural and designed.

  20. Concise Synthesis of Guanidine-Containing Heterocycles Using the Biginelli Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Bradley L.; Overman, Larry E.

    2008-01-01

    Two general methods for the synthesis of 2-imino-5-carboxy-3,4-dihydropyrimidines were developed using the 3-component Biginelli reaction. The first method utilizes pyrazole carboxamidine, a β-ketoester, and an aldehyde in an initial Biginelli reaction. After Boc protection, these products undergo aminolysis and acidic deprotection to generate 2-imino-5-carboxy-3,4-dihydropyrimidines in a 4-step sequence. The second method utilizes a triazone-protected guanidine, a β-ketoester, and an aldehyde in a Biginelli reaction. Acidic cleavage of the triazone yields 2-imino-5-carboxy-3,4-dihydropyrimidines in a 2-step sequence. We also describe the further elaboration of several of these products using a tethered Biginelli reaction to give triazaacenaphthalene structures similar to those found in crambescidin and batzelladine alkaloids. PMID:16995677

  1. Concise synthesis of guanidine-containing heterocycles using the Biginelli reaction.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bradley L; Overman, Larry E

    2006-09-29

    Two general methods for the synthesis of 2-imino-5-carboxy-3,4-dihydropyrimidines were developed using the three-component Biginelli reaction. The first method utilizes pyrazole carboxamidine, a beta-ketoester, and an aldehyde in an initial Biginelli reaction. After Boc protection, these products undergo aminolysis and acidic deprotection to generate 2-imino-5-carboxy-3,4-dihydropyrimidines in a four-step sequence. The second method utilizes a triazone-protected guanidine, a beta-ketoester, and an aldehyde in a Biginelli reaction. Acidic cleavage of the triazone yields 2-imino-5-carboxy-3,4-dihydropyrimidines in a two-step sequence. We also describe the further elaboration of several of these products using a tethered Biginelli reaction to give triazaacenaphthalene structures similar to those found in crambescidin and batzelladine alkaloids.

  2. Concise, stereodivergent and highly stereoselective synthesis of cis- and trans-2-substituted 3-hydroxypiperidines – development of a phosphite-driven cyclodehydration

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Julia C

    2014-01-01

    Summary A concise (5 to 6 steps), stereodivergent, highly diastereoselective (dr up to >19:1 for both stereoisomers) and scalable synthesis (up to 14 g) of cis- and trans-2-substituted 3-piperidinols, a core motif in numerous bioactive compounds, is presented. This sequence allowed an efficient synthesis of the NK-1 inhibitor L-733,060 in 8 steps. Additionally, a cyclodehydration-realizing simple triethylphosphite as a substitute for triphenylphosphine is developed. Here the stoichiometric oxidized P(V)-byproduct (triethylphosphate) is easily removed during the work up through saponification overcoming separation difficulties usually associated to triphenylphosphine oxide. PMID:24605158

  3. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine1. Although the efficient laboratory syntheses of alkaloids would enable researchers to study and optimize their biological properties,2 the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways – for example, through stereochemical instability and neighboring group participation – complicates their preparation in the laboratory. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen3; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduce additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies4. In this manuscript, we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest-linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route employs several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages conferred by the use of aromatic starting materials. PMID:26375010

  4. Total synthesis of (-)-tubingensin B enabled by the strategic use of an aryne cyclization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsello, Michael A.; Kim, Junyong; Garg, Neil K.

    2017-10-01

    Tubingensin B is an indole diterpenoid that bears a daunting chemical structure featuring a disubstituted carbazole unit, five stereogenic centres—three of which are quaternary—and a decorated [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle. We describe our synthetic design toward a concise and enantiospecific total synthesis of tubingensin B, which hinges on the strategic use of a transient aryne intermediate. Although initial studies led to unexpected reaction outcomes, we ultimately implemented a sequence of carbazolyne cyclization followed by Rh-catalysed fragmentation to install the seven-membered ring and vicinal quaternary stereocentres of the natural product. Coupled with a late-stage radical cyclization to construct the [3.2.2]-bridged bicycle, these efforts have enabled the total synthesis of tubingensin B. The design and evolution of our succinct total synthesis underscores the utility of long-avoided aryne intermediates for the introduction of structural motifs that have conventionally been viewed as challenging.

  5. Chemoselectivity: the mother of invention in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shenvi, Ryan A; O'Malley, Daniel P; Baran, Phil S

    2009-04-21

    IUPAC defines chemoselectivity as "the preferential reaction of a chemical reagent with one of two or more different functional groups", a definition that describes in rather understated terms the single greatest obstacle to complex molecule synthesis. Indeed, efforts to synthesize natural products often become case studies in the art and science of chemoselective control, a skill that nature has practiced deftly for billions of years but man has yet to master. Confrontation of one or perhaps a collection of functional groups that are either promiscuously reactive or stubbornly inert has the potential to unravel an entire strategic design. One could argue that the degree to which chemists can control chemoselectivity pales in comparison to the state of the art in stereocontrol. In this Account, we hope to illustrate how the combination of necessity and tenacity leads to the invention of chemoselective chemistry for the construction of complex molecules. In our laboratory, a premium is placed upon selecting targets that would be difficult or impossible to synthesize using traditional techniques. The successful total synthesis of such molecules demands a high degree of innovation, which in turn enables the discovery of new reactivity and principles for controlling chemoselectivity. In devising an approach to a difficult target, we choose bond disconnections that primarily maximize skeletal simplification, especially when the proposed chemistry is poorly precedented or completely unknown. By choosing such a strategy--rather than adapting an approach to fit known reactions--innovation and invention become the primary goal of the total synthesis. Delivery of the target molecule in a concise and convergent manner is the natural consequence of such endeavors, and invention becomes a prerequisite for success.

  6. Short, Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Chatancin**

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An enantioselective total synthesis of the polycyclic diterpene chatancin (1), a potent PAF antagonist, is reported. Proceeding in seven steps from dihydrofarnesal, this synthetic route was designed to circumvent macrocyclization-based strategies to complex, cyclized cembranoids. The described synthesis requires only six chromatographic purifications, is high yielding, and avoids protecting group chemistry. An X-ray crystal structure of this fragile marine natural product was obtained. PMID:25470723

  7. Enantioselective total synthesis of macrolide (+)-neopeltolide.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Shurrush, Khriesto A; Dawson, Zachary L

    2013-11-28

    The asymmetric total synthesis of the anti-proliferative macrolide (+)-neopeltolide has been completed. The stereochemically defined trisubstituted tetrahydropyran ring was constructed via a catalytic hetero-Diels-Alder reaction creating two new chiral centers in a highly diastereoselective manner. The other key features of this synthesis included Brown's asymmetric allylation to install the requisite C-11 and C-13 stereocenters. The synthesis of the oxazole side chain consisted of a hydrozirconation of an alkynyl stannane to establish the Z stereochemistry, followed by a palladium catalyzed cross coupling to introduce the desired Z olefin in the oxazole side chain.

  8. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-salvileucalin B.

    PubMed

    Levin, Sergiy; Nani, Roger R; Reisman, Sarah E

    2011-02-02

    An enantioselective total synthesis of the diterpenoid natural product (+)-salvileucalin B is reported. Key findings include a copper-catalyzed arene cyclopropanation reaction to provide the unusual norcaradiene core and a reversible retro-Claisen rearrangement of a highly functionalized norcaradiene intermediate.

  9. Total synthesis of zincophorin methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Defosseux, Magali; Blanchard, Nicolas; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine

    2003-10-30

    [reaction: see text]. A convergent total synthesis of the methyl ester of zincophorin, an ionophore antibiotic, has been realized relying on a diastereoselective titanium-mediated aldol coupling between the C1-C12 and C13-C25 subunits. The latter fragment was prepared by using a Carroll-Claisen rearrangement.

  10. Total Synthesis of Aeruginosin 98B

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Andersen, Neil G.; Tappertzhofen, Christoph; Fahr, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The first total synthesis of aeruginosin 98B (1) was accomplished. The key step includes a highly diastereoselective Pd-catalyzed intramolecular asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) reaction of a diastereomeric mixture of allylic carbonates, which is enabled by the use of racemic phosphine ligand L1. PMID:23116136

  11. Total synthesis of aeruginosin 98B.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Andersen, Neil G; Tappertzhofen, Christoph; Fahr, Bruce

    2012-11-21

    The first total synthesis of aeruginosin 98B was accomplished. The key step is a highly diastereoselective Pd-catalyzed intramolecular asymmetric allylic alkylation reaction of a diastereomeric mixture of allylic carbonates that is enabled by the use of racemic phosphine ligand L1.

  12. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maertens, Gaetan; L'homme, Chloe; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  13. Total synthesis of zyzzyanones A-D

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Dwayaja H.; Murugesan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Zyzzyanones A-D is a group of biologically active marine alkaloids isolated from Australian marine sponge Zyzzya fuliginosa. They contain a unique bispyrroloquinone ring system as the core structure. The first total synthesis of all four zyzzyanones is described here. The synthesis of these alkaloids started from a previously known 6-benzylamino indole-4,7-quinone derivative and involves 6–7 steps. The key step in the synthesis involves the construction of a pyrrole ring in one step using a Mn(OAc)3 mediated oxidative free radical cyclization reaction of a 6-benzylamino indole-4,7-quinone derivative with 4-benzyloxyphenyl acetaldehyde diethyl acetal in CH3CN. PMID:23956468

  14. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-galbulin via organocatalytic domino Michael-Michael-aldol condensation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bor-Cherng; Hsu, Che-Sheng; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

    2012-02-28

    A concise and practical enantioselective synthesis of (+)-galbulin has been achieved using organocatalytic domino Michael-Michael-aldol condensation and organocatalytic kinetic resolution as the key steps. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  15. Total synthesis of palau'amine

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Kohei; Kaihara, Yukari; Oda, Masataka; Nakayama, Akira; Nakayama, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanino, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Palau'amine has received a great deal of attention in the past two decades as an attractive synthetic target by virtue of its intriguing molecular architecture and significant immunosuppressive activity. Here we report the total synthesis of palau'amine characterized by the construction of an ABDE tetracyclic ring core including a trans-bicylo[3.3.0]octane skeleton at a middle stage of total synthesis. The ABDE tetracyclic ring core is constructed by a cascade reaction of a cleavage of the N–N bond, including simultaneous formation of imine, the addition of amide anion to the resulting imine (D-ring formation) and the condensation of pyrrole with methyl ester (B-ring formation) in a single step. The synthetic palau'amine is confirmed to exhibit excellent immunosuppressive activity. The present synthetic route has the potential to help elucidate a pharmacophore as well as the mechanistic details of immunosuppressive activity. PMID:26530707

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)-Merobatzelladine B

    PubMed Central

    Babij, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    The first total synthesis of (+)-merobatzelladine B was accomplished using an iterative sequence of stereoselective Pd-catalyzed alkene carboamination reactions for formation of two of the three rings. This represents a new strategy for the generation of polycyclic guanidine natural products, and provides access to compounds with a syn-relationship between the C6 H-atom and the C8 alkyl group. PMID:22431071

  17. Total Synthesis of Hapalindoles J and U

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Ryan J.; Williams, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The total synthesis of D,L-hapalindoles J and U has been accomplished. Hapalindole J was prepared in 11% overall yield over eleven synthetic steps and hapalindole U was prepared in 25% overall yield over thirteen synthetic steps from commercially available materials. The route employs a novel silyl ether-based strategy for accessing the 6:5:6:6 ring system of the hapalindoles rapidly and in good yields. PMID:22126131

  18. Formal total synthesis of selaginpulvilin D.

    PubMed

    Chinta, Bhavani Shankar; Baire, Beeraiah

    2017-07-19

    An efficient and mild synthetic strategy for the total synthesis of selaginpulvilin D has been reported. A highly chemoselective enyne-alkyne dehydro Diels-Alder reaction has been employed for the construction of the tricyclic fluorene framework present in the natural product selaginpulvilin D. An improved overall yield (10.5%) has been achieved for selaginpulvilin D, starting from commercially available m-anisaldehyde in 9 linear, operationally simple synthetic transformations.

  19. Total synthesis of (+/-)-8alpha-hydroxystreptazolone.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Izumi; Mukai, Chisato

    2002-11-28

    [reaction: see text] The intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction of 2-oxazolone derivatives with a suitable pentynyl appendage exclusively gave the corresponding 4-hydroxy-6-substituted-9-oxa-1-azatricyclo[6.2.1.0(5,11)]undec-5-en-7,10-diones. Based on this newly developed Pauson-Khand reaction of 2-oxazolone-alkyne derivatives, the first total synthesis of (+/-)-8alpha-hydroxystreptazolone was accomplished in a highly stereoselective manner.

  20. Total synthesis of (+)-antroquinonol and (+)-antroquinonol D.

    PubMed

    Sulake, Rohidas S; Chen, Chinpiao

    2015-03-06

    The first total synthesis of (+)-antroquinonol and (+)-antroquinonol D, two structurally unique quinonols with a sesquiterpene side chain, is described. The route features an iridium-catalyzed olefin isomerization-Claisen rearrangement reaction (ICR), lactonization, and Grubbs olefin metathesis. The requisite α,β-unsaturation was achieved via the selenylation/oxidation protocol and elimination of β-methoxy group to provide two natural products from a common intermediate.

  1. Total Synthesis of (-)-Nahuoic Acid Ci (Bii).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Deng, Yifan; Smith, Amos B

    2017-09-21

    A convergent total synthesis of (-)-nahuoic acid Ci(Bii) (3), a novel cis-decalin polyketide, has been achieved. Key synthetic transformations include Type II Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) to construct the polyol chain, a Ti-catalyzed asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction to generate the cis-decalin skeleton, and a late-stage large fragment union exploiting a Micalizio alkoxide-directed alkyne-alkene coupling tactic.

  2. Biomimetically inspired asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-19-dehydroxyl arisandilactone A

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yi-Xin; Jiang, Yan-Long; Li, Yong; Yu, Hai-Xin; Tong, Bing-Qi; Niu, Zhe; Zhou, Shi-Jie; Liu, Song; Lan, Yu; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Complex natural products are a proven and rich source of disease-modulating drugs and of efficient tools for the study of chemical biology and drug discovery. The architectures of complex natural products are generally considered to represent significant barriers to efficient chemical synthesis. Here we describe a concise and efficient asymmetric synthesis of 19-dehydroxyl arisandilactone A—which belongs to a family of architecturally unique, highly oxygenated nortriterpenoids isolated from the medicinal plant Schisandra arisanensis. This synthesis takes place by means of a homo-Michael reaction, a tandem retro-Michael/Michael reaction, and Cu-catalysed intramolecular cyclopropanation as key steps. The proposed mechanisms for the homo-Michael and tandem retro-Michael/Michael reactions are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The developed chemistry may find application for the synthesis of its other family members of Schisandraceae nortriterpenoids. PMID:28139648

  3. Biomimetically inspired asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-19-dehydroxyl arisandilactone A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi-Xin; Jiang, Yan-Long; Li, Yong; Yu, Hai-Xin; Tong, Bing-Qi; Niu, Zhe; Zhou, Shi-Jie; Liu, Song; Lan, Yu; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Complex natural products are a proven and rich source of disease-modulating drugs and of efficient tools for the study of chemical biology and drug discovery. The architectures of complex natural products are generally considered to represent significant barriers to efficient chemical synthesis. Here we describe a concise and efficient asymmetric synthesis of 19-dehydroxyl arisandilactone A--which belongs to a family of architecturally unique, highly oxygenated nortriterpenoids isolated from the medicinal plant Schisandra arisanensis. This synthesis takes place by means of a homo-Michael reaction, a tandem retro-Michael/Michael reaction, and Cu-catalysed intramolecular cyclopropanation as key steps. The proposed mechanisms for the homo-Michael and tandem retro-Michael/Michael reactions are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The developed chemistry may find application for the synthesis of its other family members of Schisandraceae nortriterpenoids.

  4. Total Synthesis of (−)- and ent-(+)-Vindoline and Related Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hayato; Elliott, Gregory I.; Velcicky, Juraj; Choi, Younggi; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A concise 11-step total synthesis of (−)- and ent-(+)-vindoline (3) is detailed based on a unique tandem intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole inspired by the natural product structure, in which three rings and four C–C bonds are formed central to the characteristic pentacyclic ring system setting all six stereocenters and introducing essentially all the functionality found in the natural product in a single step. As key elements of the scope and stereochemical features of the reaction were defined, a series of related natural products of increasing complexity were prepared by total synthesis including both enantiomers of minovine (4), 4-desacetoxy-6,7-dihydrovindorosine (5), 4-desacetoxyvindorosine (6), and vindorosine (7) as well as N-methylaspidospermidine (11). Subsequent extensions of the approach provided both enantiomers of 6,7-dihydrovindoline (8), 4-desacetoxyvindoline (9), and 4-desacetoxy-6,7-dihydrovindoline (10). PMID:16895428

  5. The first total synthesis of natural grenadamide.

    PubMed

    Avery, Thomas D; Culbert, Julie A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2006-01-21

    A concise, high yielding route to the naturally occurring enantiomer of grenadamide utilizing a 3,6-disubstituted 1,2-dioxine starting material is presented. The route allows for ease in synthesizing grenadamide derivatives varying at cyclopropyl carbons 2 and 3, with access to both enantiomers. Evidence for phosphorus-assisted deprotonation of 1,2-dioxines is also discussed.

  6. Total synthesis of incarviditone and incarvilleatone.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick D; Willis, Anthony C; Sherburn, Michael S; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2012-09-07

    The total synthesis of the racemic natural products (±)-incarviditone and (±)-incarvilleatone has been accomplished in three steps via biomimetic dimerization of (±)-rengyolone. Homochiral dimerization of (±)-rengyolone affords (±)-incarviditone through a domino oxa-Michael/Michael sequence. Heterochiral dimerization, involving a domino oxa-Michael/Michael/aldol reaction sequence, affords (±)-incarvilleatone. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of a derivative of (±)-incarviditone has resulted in revision of the originally proposed structure.

  7. Total Synthesis of (-)-Salvinorin A.

    PubMed

    Line, Nathan J; Burns, Aaron C; Butler, Sean C; Casbohm, Jerry; Forsyth, Craig J

    2016-12-12

    Salvinorin A (1) is natural hallucinogen that binds the human κ-opioid receptor. A total synthesis has been developed that parlays the stereochemistry of l-(+)-tartaric acid into that of (-)-1 via an unprecedented allylic dithiane intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to obtain the trans-decalin scaffold. Tsuji allylation set the C9 quaternary center and a late-stage stereoselective chiral ligand-assisted addition of a 3-titanium furan upon a C12 aldehyde/C17 methyl ester established the furanyl lactone moiety. The tartrate diol was finally converted into the C1,C2 keto-acetate.

  8. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lyngbyabellin M

    PubMed Central

    Pirovani, Rodrigo V.; Brito, Gilmar A.; Barcelos, Rosimeire C.; Pilli, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Lyngbyabellin M is a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase derived metabolite isolated from the cyanobacterium M. bouillonii displaying thiazole rings and a distinct chlorinated octanoic acid chain. Its absolute configuration was proposed based on the comparison of its spectroscopic data with those of other representatives of this family of marine natural products, as well as degradation and derivatization studies. Here the first total synthesis of (+)-lyngbyabellin M is described based on the coupling of three key intermediates: two chiral thiazole moieties and an anti hydroxycarboxylic acid prepared stereoselectively via a boron enolate mediated aldol reaction directed by Masamune’s chiral auxiliary. PMID:26023838

  9. Nineteen-Step Total Synthesis of (+)-Phorbol

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Chu, Hang; Felding, Jakob; Baran, Phil S.

    2016-01-01

    Phorbol, the flagship member of the tigliane diterpene family, has been known for over 80 years and has attracted attention from scores of chemists and biologists due to its intriguing chemical structure and the medicinal potential of phorbol esters.1 Access to useful quantities of phorbol and related analogs has relied upon isolation from natural sources and semisynthesis. Despite relentless efforts spanning 40 years, chemical synthesis has been unable to compete with these strategies due to its sheer complexity and unusual oxidation pattern. In fact, purely synthetic enantiopure phorbol has remained elusive and efforts on the synthetic biology side have not led to even the simplest members of this terpene family. Recently the chemical syntheses of eudesmanes,2 germacrenes,3 taxanes,4,5 and ingenanes6-8 have all benefited from a strategy inspired by the logic of two-phase terpene biosynthesis where powerful C–C bond constructions and C–H bond oxidations go hand in hand. In this manuscript, we show how a two-phase terpene synthesis strategy can be enlisted to achieve the first enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-phorbol in only 19 steps from the abundant monoterpene (+)-3-carene. The purpose of this route is not to displace isolation/semisynthesis as a means to generate the natural product per se, but rather to enable access to analogs containing unique oxidation patterns that are otherwise inaccessible. PMID:27007853

  10. Total synthesis of bryostatins: the development of methodology for the atom-economic and stereoselective synthesis of the ring C subunit.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Frontier, Alison J; Thiel, Oliver R; Yang, Hanbiao; Dong, Guangbin

    2011-08-22

    Bryostatins, a family of structurally complicated macrolides, exhibit an exceptional range of biological activities. The limited availability and structural complexity of these molecules makes development of an efficient total synthesis particularly important. This article describes our initial efforts towards the total synthesis of bryostatins, in which chemoselective and atom-economical methods for the stereoselective assembly of the ring C subunit were developed. A Pd-catalyzed tandem alkyne-alkyne coupling/6-endo-dig cyclization sequence was explored and successfully pursued in the synthesis of a dihydropyran ring system. Elaboration of this methodology ultimately led to a concise synthesis of the ring C subunit of bryostatins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Copper-catalyzed amination of (bromophenyl)ethanolamine for a concise synthesis of aniline-containing analogues of NMDA NR2B antagonist ifenprodil.

    PubMed

    Bouteiller, Cédric; Becerril-Ortega, Javier; Marchand, Patrice; Nicole, Olivier; Barré, Louisa; Buisson, Alain; Perrio, Cécile

    2010-03-07

    An operationally simple and concise synthesis of anilinoethanolamines, as NMDA NR2B receptor antagonist ifenprodil analogues, was developed via a copper-catalyzed amination of the corresponding bromoarene. Coupling was achieved with linear primary alkylamines, alpha,omega-diamines, hexanolamine and benzophenone imine, as well as with aqueous ammonia, in good yields using CuI and N,N-diethylsalicylamide, 2,4-pentadione or 2-acetylcyclohexanone as catalytic systems. Amination with ethylene diamine was efficient even in the absence of an additive ligand, whereas no reaction occurred with ethanolamine whatever the conditions used. The anilinoethanolamines were evaluated as NR2B receptor antagonists in a functional inhibition assay. Aminoethylanilines displayed inhibition effects close to that of ifenprodil.

  12. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acutumine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Tartakoff, Samuel S.; Castle, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    An account of the total synthesis of the tetracyclic alkaloid (−)-acutumine is presented. A first-generation approach to the spirocyclic subunit was unsuccessful due to incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. However, this work spawned a second-generation strategy in which the spirocycle was fashioned via a radical–polar crossover reaction. This process merged an intramolecular radical conjugate addition with an enolate hydroxylation, and created two stereocenters with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction was promoted by irradiation with a sunlamp, and a ditin reagent was required for aryl radical formation. These facts suggest that the substrate may function as a sensitizer, thereby facilitating homolytic cleavage of the ditin reagent. The propellane motif of the target was then installed via annulation of a pyrrolidine ring onto the spirocycle. The sequence of reactions used included a phenolic oxidation, an asymmetric ketone allylation mediated by Nakamura’s chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, a one-pot ozonolysis–reductive amination, and a Lewis acid promoted cyclization of an amine onto an α,β-unsaturated dimethyl ketal. Further studies of the asymmetric ketone allylation demonstrated the ability of the Nakamura reagent to function well in a mismatched situation. A TiCl4-catalyzed regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone completed the synthesis. PMID:19904909

  13. Total synthesis of the Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphenylline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhaoyong; Li, Yong; Deng, Jun; Li, Ang

    2013-08-01

    The Daphniphyllum alkaloids are a large class of natural products isolated from a genus of evergreen plants widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. They display a remarkable range of biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and vasorelaxation properties as well as elevation of nerve growth factor. Daphenylline is a structurally unique member among the predominately aliphatic Daphniphyllum alkaloids, and contains a tetrasubstituted arene moiety mounted on a sterically compact hexacyclic scaffold. Herein, we describe the first total synthesis of daphenylline. A gold-catalysed 6-exo-dig cyclization reaction and a subsequent intramolecular Michael addition reaction, inspired by Dixon's seminal work, were exploited to construct the bridged 6,6,5-tricyclic motif of the natural product at an early stage, and the aromatic moiety was forged through a photoinduced olefin isomerization/6π-electrocyclization cascade followed by an oxidative aromatization process.

  14. Concise and Stereodivergent Synthesis of Carbasugars Reveals Unexpected Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) of SGLT2 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai-Lung; Li, Ho-Chuen; Lau, Kit-Man; Chan, Anthony K N; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Shing, Tony K M

    2017-07-17

    Carbasugar sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are highly promising drug candidates for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the clinical usage of carbasugar SGLT2 inhibitors has been underexplored, due to the lengthy synthetic routes and the lack of structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds. Herein, we report a concise and stereodivergent synthetic route towards some novel carbasugar SGLT2 inhibitors, featuring an underexploited, regioselective, and stereospecific palladium-catalyzed allyl-aryl coupling reaction. This synthetic strategy, together with computational modeling, revealed the unexpected SAR of these carbasugar SGLT2 inhibitors, and enabled the discovery of a highly selective and potent SGLT2 inhibitor.

  15. Catalysis-based total synthesis of putative mandelalide A.

    PubMed

    Willwacher, Jens; Fürstner, Alois

    2014-04-14

    A concise synthesis of the putative structure assigned to the highly cytotoxic marine macrolide mandelalide A (1) is disclosed. Specifically, an iridium-catalyzed two-directional Krische allylation and a cobalt-catalyzed carbonylative epoxide opening served as convenient entry points for the preparation of the major building blocks. The final stages feature the first implementation of terminal-acetylene metathesis into natural product synthesis, which is remarkable as this class of substrates was beyond reach until very recently; key to success was the use of the highly selective molybdenum alkylidyne complex 42 as the catalyst. Although the constitution and stereochemistry of the synthetic samples are unambiguous, the spectra of 1 as well as of 11-epi-1 deviate from those of the natural product, which implies a subtle but deep-seated error in the original structure assignment.

  16. Total Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Irciniastatin A (a.k.a. Psymberin) and Irciniastatin B.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Shun-ichiro; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Imaizumi, Takamichi; Ota, Yu; Yoshida, Keisuke; Ebisu, Haruna; Chinen, Takumi; Nagumo, Yoko; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Kanoh, Naoki; Usui, Takeo; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2015-12-18

    Irciniastatin A (a.k.a. psymberin) and irciniastatin B are members of the pederin natural product family, which have potent antitumor activity and structural complexity. Herein, we describe a full account of our total synthesis of (+)-irciniastatin A and (-)-irciniastatin B. Our synthesis features the highly regioselective Eu(OTf)3-catalyzed, DTBMP-assisted epoxide ring opening reaction with MeOH, which enabled a concise synthesis of the C1-C6 fragment, extensive use of AZADO (2-azaadamantane N-oxyl) and its related nitroxyl radical/oxoammonium salt-catalyzed alcohol oxidation throughout the synthesis, and a late-stage assembly of C1-C6, C8-C16, and C17-C25 fragments. In addition, for the synthesis of (-)-irciniastatin B, we achieved the C11-selective control of the oxidation stage via regioselective deprotection and AZADO-catalyzed alcohol oxidation. The synthetic irciniastatins showed high levels of cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells. Furthermore, chemical footprinting experiments using synthetic compounds revealed that the binding site of irciniastatins is the E-site of the ribosome.

  17. Concise synthesis of rare pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones and related nitrogen-rich bicyclic scaffolds with a ring-junction nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Alanine, T A; Galloway, W R J D; Bartlett, S; Ciardiello, J J; McGuire, T M; Spring, D R

    2016-01-21

    Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones represent a pharmaceutically interesting class of heterocycles. The structurally related pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones are associated with a broad range of useful biological properties. Furthermore, quinolizinone-type scaffolds of these sorts with a bridgehead nitrogen are expected to display interesting physico-chemical properties. However, pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones are largely under-represented in current small molecule screening libraries and the physical and biological properties of the pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-one scaffold have been poorly explored (indeed, the same can be said for unsaturated bicyclic compounds with a bridgehead nitrogen in general). Herein, we report the development of a new strategy for the concise synthesis of substituted pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones from readily available starting materials. The synthetic route involved the acylation of the lithium amide bases of 2-aminopyridines with alkynoate esters to form alkynamides, which were then cyclised under thermal conditions. The use of lithium amide anions ensured excellent regioselectivity for the 2-oxo-isomer over the undesired 4-oxo-isomer, which offers a distinct advantage over some existing methods for the synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones. Notably, different aminoazines could also be employed in this approach, which enabled access to several very unusual bicyclic systems with higher nitrogen contents. This methodology thus represents an important contribution towards the synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones and other rare azabicycles with a ring-junction nitrogen. These heterocycles represent attractive structural templates for drug discovery.

  18. Boron-selective biaryl coupling approach to versatile dibenzoxaborins and application to concise synthesis of defucogilvocarcin M.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Yuto; Harada, Ryu; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Takamitsu

    2014-12-05

    An efficient synthetic method for versatile dibenzoxaborins based on boron-selective Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling between o-borylphenols and aryl halides or triflates bearing a 1,8-diaminonaphthalene-protected o-boryl group is reported. A short synthesis of defucogilvocarcin M was achieved using the proposed method in combination with several other boron-mediated transformations.

  19. Scalable enantioselective total synthesis of taxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Abraham; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-01-01

    Taxanes form a large family of terpenes comprising over 350 members, the most famous of which is Taxol (paclitaxel), a billion-dollar anticancer drug. Here, we describe the first practical and scalable synthetic entry to these natural products via a concise preparation of (+)-taxa-4(5),11(12)-dien-2-one, which has a suitable functional handle with which to access more oxidized members of its family. This route enables a gram-scale preparation of the ‘parent’ taxane—taxadiene—which is the largest quantity of this naturally occurring terpene ever isolated or prepared in pure form. The characteristic 6-8-6 tricyclic system of the taxane family, containing a bridgehead alkene, is forged via a vicinal difunctionalization/Diels-Alder strategy. Asymmetry is introduced by means of an enantioselective conjugate addition that forms an all-carbon quaternary centre, from which all other stereocentres are fixed through substrate control. This study lays a critical foundation for a planned access to minimally oxidized taxane analogues and a scalable laboratory preparation of Taxol itself.

  20. Total synthesis of alkyl citrate natural products.

    PubMed

    Rizzacasa, Mark A; Sturgess, Dayna

    2014-03-07

    This review highlights the synthesis of members of the alkyl citrate family of natural products. The focus is on the stereoselective construction of the alkyl citrate moiety common to these compounds.

  1. Concise formal synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A (marizomib) using a regio- and stereoselective epoxidation and reductive oxirane ring-opening strategy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Taotao; Potts, Barbara C; Macherla, Venkat R

    2010-06-04

    Expedient access to a highly functionalized 2-pyrrolidinone (8), the gamma-lactam core of 20S proteasome inhibitor (-)-salinosporamide A (marizomib; NPI-0052; 1), using a regio- and stereoselective epoxide formation/reductive oxirane ring-opening strategy is presented. Notably, the sequential construction of the C-4, C-3, and C-2 stereocenters of 1 in a completely stereocontrolled fashion is a key feature of streamlining the synthesis of intermediate 12. A related strategy is also discussed.

  2. Tandem catalysis in domino olefin cross-metathesis/intramolecular oxa-conjugate cyclization: concise synthesis of 2,6-cis-substituted tetrahydropyran derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Noguchi, Takuma; Noto, Kenkichi; Sasaki, Makoto

    2012-10-28

    Herein, we describe the concise synthesis of 2,6-cis-substituted tetrahydropyran derivatives based on a domino olefin cross-metathesis/intramolecular oxa-conjugate cyclization (CM/IOCC) reaction. We have found that the domino CM/IOCC of δ-hydroxy olefins with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (e.g., trans-crotonaldehyde or N-acryloyl-2,5-dimethylpyrrole) could be efficiently achieved in the presence of the second-generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst under elevated temperature conditions, directly affording 2,6-cis-substituted tetrahydropyrans in excellent yields with synthetically useful diastereoselectivity ("auto-tandem catalysis"). In addition, we have found that the domino CM/IOCC of δ-hydroxy olefins with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds could be achieved simply by performing CM in the presence of a Brønsted acid in CH(2)Cl(2) at 25-35 °C, which delivered 2,6-cis-substituted tetrahydropyrans in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivity ("orthogonal-tandem catalysis"). To understand the mechanism of auto-tandem catalysis in the domino CM/IOCC reaction, we have investigated the role of ruthenium hydride complexes in the IOCC of a ζ-hydroxy α,β-unsaturated ketone as a model case.

  3. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Movassaghi, Mohammad; Ondrus, Alison E.

    2010-01-01

    An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations in this convergent approach include a stereospecific palladium–catalyzed N-vinylation of a pyrrole with a vinyl triflate, a copper–catalyzed enantioselective conjugate reduction of a β-pyrrolyl enoate, and a regioselective Friedel-Crafts reaction. The synthesis of optically active and isomerically pure samples of (4aR)-myrmicarins 215A, 215B, and 217 in addition to their respective C4a-epimers is presented. PMID:16178549

  4. Concise site-specific synthesis of DTPA-peptide conjugates: application to imaging probes for the chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Ryo; Oishi, Shinya; Ohno, Hiroaki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Saji, Hideo; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2011-05-15

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a useful chelating agent for radionuclides such as (68)Ga, (99m)Tc and (111)In, which are applicable to nuclear medicine imaging. In this study, we established a facile synthetic protocol for the production of mono-DTPA-conjugated peptide probes. A novel monoreactive DTPA precursor reagent was synthesized in two steps using the chemistry of the o-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protecting group, and under mild conditions this DTPA precursor was incorporated onto an N(ε)-bromoacetylated Lys of a protected peptide resin. The site-specific DTPA conjugation was facilitated by using a highly acid-labile 4-methyltrityl (Mtt) protecting group for the target site of the bioactive peptide during the solid-phase synthesis. A combination of both techniques yielded peptides with disulfide bonds, such as octreotide and polyphemusin II-derived CXCR4 antagonists. DTPA-peptide conjugates were purified in a single step following cleavage from the resin and disulfide bond formation. This site-specific on-resin construction strategy was used for the design and synthesis of a novel In-DTPA-labeled CXCR4 antagonist, which exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against SDF-1-CXCR4 binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total synthesis of phorboxazole A via de novo oxazole formation: convergent total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Hansen, T Matthew; Weyer, Lynn; Wu, Dimao; Wang, Ting; Christmann, Mathias; Lu, Yingtao; Ying, Lu; Engler, Mary M; Cink, Russell D; Lee, Chi-Sing; Ahmed, Feryan; Forsyth, Craig J

    2011-02-09

    The phorboxazoles are mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthase/polyketide synthase biosynthetic products that embody polyketide domains joined via two serine-derived oxazole moieties. Total syntheses of phorboxazole A and analogues have been developed that rely upon the convergent coupling of three fragments via biomimetically inspired de novo oxazole formation. First, the macrolide-containing domain of phorboxazole A was assembled from C3-C17 and C18-C30 building blocks via formation of the C16-C18 oxazole, followed by macrolide ring closure involving an intramolecular Still-Genarri olefination at C2-C3. Alternatively, a ring-closing metathesis process was optimized to deliver the natural product's (2Z)-acrylate with remarkable geometrical selectivity. The C31-C46 side-chain domain was then appended to the macrolide by a second serine amide-derived oxazole assembly. Minimal deprotection then afforded phorboxazole A. This generally effective strategy was then dramatically abbreviated by employing a total synthesis approach wherein both of the natural product's oxazole moieties were installed simultaneously. A key bis-amide precursor to the bis-oxazole was formed in a chemoselective one-pot, bis-amidation sequence without the use of amino or carboxyl protecting groups. Thereafter, both oxazoles were formed from the key C18 and C31 bis-N-(1-hydroxyalkan-2-yl)amide in a simultaneous fashion, involving oxidation-cyclodehydrations. This synthetic strategy provides a total synthesis of phorboxazole A in 18% yield over nine steps from C3-C17 and C18-C30 synthetic fragments. It illustrates the utility of a synthetic design to form a mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthase/polyketide synthase biosynthetic product based upon biomimetic oxazole formation initiated by amide bond formation to join synthetic building blocks.

  6. cis-Decahydroquinolines via asymmetric organocatalysis: application to the total synthesis of lycoposerramine Z.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Ben; Luque-Corredera, Carlos; Bonjoch, Josep

    2013-01-18

    A concise synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloid lycoposerramine Z is reported. Key to the strategy is a one-pot organocatalyzed Michael reaction followed by a domino Robinson annulation/intramolecular aza-Michael reaction promoted by LiOH, leading to enantiopure cis-decahydroquinolines.

  7. Studies Toward the Total Synthesis of Eletefine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugg, Kyle William

    Eletefine is a natural product of the stephaoxocane family of alkaloids. It possesses an isoquinoline moiety functionalized with three methoxy groups forming an electron rich aromatic system. Eletefine also possesses a ten-membered ring with a novel bridged vinyl ether functionality, and a remote chiral alcohol, making it a conspicuous and desirable target for the synthetic organic chemist. The plant from which eletefine was first isolated (Cissampelos glaberrima ) has been used in traditional medicine for the relief of symptoms from urinary tract infections and asthma. The proposed synthesis of eletefine is a convergent route which features a Sonogashira coupling and a novel alkyne hydration. Herein, methods towards the synthesis of the model system des-hydroxyeletefine are described, in particular attempts towards formation of the AB ring system of des-hydroxyeletefine, as well as C8-C9 bond formation methodology via acylation and Sonogashira coupling.

  8. Isoquinoline synthesis by heterocyclization of tosylmethyl isocyanide derivatives: total synthesis of mansouramycin B.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Anna; Sucunza, David; Burgos, Carolina; Vaquero, Juan J

    2015-01-02

    A new method for the synthesis of isoquinolines through a catalytic acid-mediated cyclization of α-benzyl TosMIC derivatives has been developed. This methodology has been successfully applied to the total synthesis of mansouramycin B. This is the first total synthesis of this compound to be reported in the literature.

  9. The total synthesis of calcium atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luiz C; Vieira, Adriano S; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2016-02-21

    A practical and convergent asymmetric route to calcium atorvastatin (1) is reported. The synthesis of calcium atorvastatin (1) was performed using the remote 1,5-anti asymmetric induction in the boron-mediated aldol reaction of β-alkoxy methylketone (4) with pyrrolic aldehyde (3) as a key step. Calcium atorvastatin was obtained from aldehyde (3) after 6 steps, with a 41% overall yield.

  10. Organocatalytic cascade reactions as a new tool in total synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondal, Christoph; Jeanty, Matthieu; Enders, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    The total synthesis of natural products and biologically active compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, has reached an extraordinary level of sophistication. We are, however, still far away from the 'ideal synthesis' and the state of the art is still frequently hampered by lengthy protecting-group strategies and costly purification procedures derived from the step-by-step protocols. In recent years several new criteria have been brought forward to solve these problems and to improve total synthesis: atom, step and redox economy or protecting-group-free synthesis. Over the past decade the research area of organocatalysis has rapidly grown to become a third pillar of asymmetric catalysis standing next to metal and biocatalysis, thus paving the way for a new and powerful strategy that can help to address these issues - organocatalytic cascade reactions. In this Review we present the first applications of such asymmetric organocascade reactions to the total synthesis of natural products.

  11. Gold-catalyzed intramolecular allylic amination of 2-tosylaminophenylprop-1-en-3-ols. A concise synthesis of (+/-)-angustureine.

    PubMed

    Kothandaraman, Prasath; Foo, Shi Jia; Chan, Philip Wai Hong

    2009-08-21

    An efficient synthetic route to 1,2-dihydroquinolines that relies on AuCl(3)/AgSbF(6)-catalyzed intramolecular allylic amination of 2-tosylaminophenylprop-1-en-3-ols is described herein. Uniquely, the reactions were found to only proceed rapidly at room temperature in the presence of the gold and silver catalyst combination and produce the 1,2-dihydroquinoline products in yields of 40-91%. The method was shown to be applicable to a broad range of 2-tosylaminophenylprop-1-en-3-ols containing electron-withdrawing, electron-donating, and sterically demanding substrate combinations. The mechanism is suggested to involve activation of the alcohol substrate by the AuCl(3)/AgSbF(6) catalyst. This is followed by ionization of the starting material, which causes intramolecular nucleophilic addition of the sulfonamide unit to the allylic cation moiety and construction of the 1,2-dihydroquinoline. The utility of this N-heterocyclic ring forming strategy as a synthetic tool that makes use of alcohols as pro-electrophiles was exemplified by its application to the synthesis of the bioactive tetrahydroquinoline alkaloid (+/-)-angustureine.

  12. Recruiting the Students to Fight Cancer: Total Synthesis of Goniothalamin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahra, Fady; Riant, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A modified total synthesis of (S)-goniothalamin is described for an advanced course in organic chemistry. This experiment gives students an opportunity to handle organometallic reagents and perform an enzymatic kinetic resolution and a metathesis reaction, all in the same synthesis. Furthermore, students learn flame-drying techniques for the…

  13. Recruiting the Students to Fight Cancer: Total Synthesis of Goniothalamin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahra, Fady; Riant, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A modified total synthesis of (S)-goniothalamin is described for an advanced course in organic chemistry. This experiment gives students an opportunity to handle organometallic reagents and perform an enzymatic kinetic resolution and a metathesis reaction, all in the same synthesis. Furthermore, students learn flame-drying techniques for the…

  14. Stereoselective Total Synthesis of Bioactive Marine Natural Product Biselyngbyolide B.

    PubMed

    Das, Sayantan; Paul, Debobrata; Goswami, Rajib Kumar

    2016-04-15

    A convergent strategy for the stereoselective total synthesis of biologically active marine natural product biselyngbyolide B has been developed. Key strategies of this synthesis include Jamison protocol of trans-hydroalumination/allylation for installation of C18-C23 olefin moiety and intramolecular Heck coupling for macrocyclization.

  15. Synthesis of Polycyclic Benzofused Nitrogen Heterocycles via a Tandem Ynamide Benzannulation/Ring Closing Metathesis Strategy. Application in a Formal Total Synthesis of (+)-FR900482

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Xiao Yin; Crombie, Aimee L.; Danheiser, Rick L.

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage “tandem strategy” for the synthesis of benzofused nitrogen heterocycles is described that is particularly useful for the construction of systems with a high level of substitution on the benzenoid ring. The first stage in the strategy involves a benzannulation based on the reaction of cyclobutenones with ynamides. This cascade process proceeds via a sequence of four pericyclic reactions and furnishes a multiply substituted aniline derivative which can bear a variety of functionalized substituents at the position ortho to the nitrogen. In the second stage of the tandem strategy, ring closing metathesis generates the nitrogen heterocyclic ring. This two-step sequence provides efficient access to highly substituted dihydroquinolines, benzazepines, benzazocines, and related benzofused nitrogen heterocyclic systems. The application of this chemistry in a concise formal total synthesis of the anticancer agents (+)- FR900482 and (+)-FR66979 is described. PMID:21322545

  16. Total Synthesis and Complete Structural Assignment of Thiocillin I

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The total synthesis of the thiopeptide antibiotic, thiocillin I, is described. This work unequivocally defines the full structure (constitution and configuration) of the natural product as 1. PMID:21446660

  17. Total synthesis and structural revision of (+)-amphidinolide W.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Gong, Gangli

    2004-03-31

    An enantioselective first total syntheis of amphidinolide W (2) and a revision of its C6 absolute stereochemistry (1) are described. Amphidinolide W (1), a 12-membered macrolide isolated from Amphidinium sp., has shown potent antitumor properties against a variety of NCI tumor cell lines. The synthesis is convergent, and four of the five chiral centers were derived through asymmetric synthesis. The synthesis features Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, diastereoselective alkylation, efficient cross metathesis of functionalized substrates, and novel functional group transformations using selective lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the primary acetate group. Of particular note, the C6 absolute stereochemistry of amphidinolide W (1) has now been revised through our current synthesis.

  18. Samarium Diiodide-Mediated Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Ellery, Shelby P.; Chen, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced by Henri Kagan more than three decades ago, samarium diiodide (SmI2) has found increasing applications in chemical synthesis. This single-electron reducing agent has been particularly useful in C–C bond formations, including those found in total synthesis endeavors. This Review highlights selected applications of SmI2 in total synthesis, with special emphasis on novel transformations and mechanistic considerations. The examples discussed are both illustrative of the power of this reagent in complex molecule construction and inspirational for the design of synthetic strategies toward such targets, both natural and designed. PMID:19714695

  19. Recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianguang; Shi, Zhihao; Tang, Yuping; Chen, Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Summary An overview of recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae during the past 12 years is provided. These include mono-tetrahydrofurans, adjacent bis-tetrahydrofurans, nonadjacent bis-tetrahydrofurans, tri-tetrahydrofurans, adjacent tetrahydrofuran-tetrahydropyrans, nonadjacent tetrahydrofuran-tetrahydropyrans, mono-tetrahydropyrans, and acetogenins containing only γ-lactone. This review emphasizes only the first total synthesis of molecules of contemporary interest and syntheses that have helped to correct structures. In addition, some significant results on the novel synthesis and structure–activity relationship studies of annonaceous acetogenins are also introduced. PMID:19190742

  20. Total Synthesis Confirms the Molecular Structure Proposed for Oxidized Levuglandin D2.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shiuan; Yu, Wenyuan; Xu, Yunfeng; Salomon, Robert G

    2017-02-24

    Levuglandins (LG)D2 and LGE2 are γ-ketoaldehyde levulinaldehyde derivatives with prostanoid side chains produced by spontaneous rearrangement of the endoperoxide intermediate PGH2 in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Covalent adduction of LGs with the amyloid peptide Aβ1-42 promotes formation of the type of oligomers that have been associated with neurotoxicity and are a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Within 1 min of their generation during the production of PGH2 by cyclooxygenation of arachidonic acid, LGs are sequestered by covalent adduction to proteins. In view of this high proclivity for covalent adduction, it is understandable that free LGs have never been detected in vivo. Recently a catabolite, believed to be an oxidized derivative of LGD2 (ox-LGD2), a levulinic acid hydroxylactone with prostanoid side chains, was isolated from the red alga Gracilaria edulis and detected in mouse tissues and in the lysate of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-treated THP-1 cells incubated with arachidonic acid. Such oxidative catabolism of LGD2 is remarkable because it must be outstandingly efficient to prevail over adduction with proteins and because it requires a unique dehydrogenation. We now report a concise total synthesis that confirms the molecular structure proposed for ox-LGD2. The synthesis also produces ox-LGE2, which readily undergoes allylic rearrangement to Δ(6)-ox-LGE2.

  1. Total synthesis of bryostatin 16 using atom-economical and chemoselective approaches.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Dong, Guangbin

    2008-11-27

    Of the concepts used to improve the efficiency of organic syntheses, two have been especially effective: atom economy (the use of routes in which most of the atoms present in the reactants also end up in the product) and chemoselectivity (the use of reactions that take place only at desired positions in a molecule). Synthesis of complex natural products is the most demanding arena in which to explore such principles. The bryostatin family of compounds are especially interesting targets, because they combine structural complexity with promising biological activity. Furthermore, synthetic routes to some bryostatins have already been reported, providing a benchmark against which new syntheses can be measured. Here we report a concise total synthesis of bryostatin 16 (1), a parent structure from which almost all other bryostatins could in principle be accessed. Application of atom-economical and chemoselective reactions currently under development provides ready access to polyhydropyran motifs in the molecule, which are common structural features of many other natural products. The most notable transformations are two transition-metal-catalysed reactions. The first is a palladium-catalysed reaction of two different alkynes to form a large ring. The product of this step is then converted into a dihydropyran (the 'C ring' of bryostatins) in the second key reaction, which is catalysed by a gold compound. Analogues of bryostatin that do not exist in nature could be readily made by following this route, which might allow the biological activity of bryostatins to be fine-tuned.

  2. Total Synthesis of (+)-Condylocarpine, (+)-Isocondylocarpine, and (+)Tubotaiwine

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Connor L.; Nakamura, Seiichi; Otte, Ralf; Overman, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    The first enantioselective total syntheses of indolealk aloids of the condylocarpine type are reported. (+)-Condylocarpine, (+)-isocondylocarpine, and (+)-tubotaiwine were prepared in high enantiomeric purity (er >99:1) from (1 S,5 R)-hexahydro-1,5-methano-1 H-azocino[4,3 -b]indole-12-one 7b by way of five or six isolated intermediates. PMID:21133399

  3. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Ieodomycin B

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuangjie; Zhang, Jianting; Zhang, Zhibin; Xu, Tianxiang; Huang, Shuangping; Wang, Xiaoji

    2017-01-01

    Ieodomycin B, which shows in vitro antimicrobial activity, was isolated from a marine Bacillus species. A novel asymmetric total synthetic approach to ieodomycin B using commercially available geraniol was achieved. The approach involves the generation of 1,3-trans-dihydroxyl at C-3 and C-5 positions via a Crimmins-modified Evans aldol reaction and a chelation-controlled Mukaiyama aldol reaction of a p-methoxybenzyl-protected aldehyde, as well as the generation of a lactone ring in a deprotection–lactonization one-pot reaction. PMID:28106760

  4. Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

    2012-11-14

    The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond.

  5. Total Synthesis of (−)-4,8,10-Tridesmethyl Telithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Velvadapu, Venkata; Paul, Tapas; Wagh, Bharat; Glassford, Ian; DeBrosse, Charles; Andrade, Rodrigo B.

    2011-01-01

    Novel sources of antibiotics are required to address the serious problem of antibiotic resistance. Telithromycin (2) is a third-generation macrolide antibiotic prepared from erythromycin (1) and used clinically since 2004. Herein we report the details of our efforts that ultimately led to the total synthesis of (−)-4,8,10-tridesmethyl telithromycin (3) wherein methyl groups have been replaced with hydrogens. The synthesis of desmethyl macrolides has emerged as a novel strategy for preparing bioactive antibiotics. PMID:21815685

  6. Asymmetric total synthesis and stereochemical revision of gymnangiamide.

    PubMed

    Tone, Hitoshi; Buchotte, Marie; Mordant, Céline; Guittet, Eric; Ayad, Tahar; Ratovelomanana-Vidal, Virginie

    2009-05-07

    The asymmetric total synthesis of the originally proposed structure of gymnangiamide, a cytotoxic pentapeptide isolated from the marine hydroid Gymnangium regae Jaderholm, has been achieved. Key to the synthesis was the use of asymmetric hydrogenation of alpha-substituted beta-ketoesters through dynamic kinetic resolution for the preparation of nonproteinogenic chiral amino acids. The disparity of the NMR spectra between the synthetic material containing the L-serine residue and the natural product required a revision of the proposed structure.

  7. Concise synthesis of didebromohamacanthin A and demethylaplysinopsine: addition of ethylenediamine and guanidine derivatives to the pyrrole-amino acid diketopiperazines in oxidative conditions.

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, Ludmila; Zhaoyu, Hu; Lejeune, Clarisse; Vergne, Carine; Ratinaud, Céline; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Al-Mourabit, Ali

    2014-02-07

    Oxidative nucleophilic addition of ethylenediamine and guanidine derivatives to pyrrole-amino acid diketopiperazines was shown to provide substituted 5,6-dihydro-2(1H)-piperazinones, quinoxalinones, and 2-aminoimidazolones. On the basis of this methodology, a concise approach to natural products didebromohamacanthin A and demethylaplysinopsine has been demonstrated.

  8. Total Synthesis of Gelsenicine via a Catalyzed Cycloisomerization Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Eric T.; Knutson, Phil C.; Pedersen, Blaine A.; Ferreira, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    The first total synthesis of (±)-gelsenicine is reported. The synthetic route is highly efficient (13 steps), featuring (1) a pivotal metal-catalyzed isomerization/rearrangement process that forges the central core of the molecule and (2) two facile C–N bond-forming steps that establish the flanking heterocycles. PMID:26716762

  9. Total Synthesis of the Galbulimima Alkaloid (−)-GB17**

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Reed T.; Clift, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    A Tale of Two Michaels The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-GB17 is reported. Construction of this unique naphthoquinolizinone skeleton was achieved by two stereoselective intramolecular Michael additions. The first of these Michael additions is controlled by the use of a chiral organocatalyst, while the second cyclization is under substrate control and proceeds with concomitant lactam formation. PMID:22287499

  10. Total synthesis of zincophorin and its methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Defosseux, Magali; Blanchard, Nicolas; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine

    2004-07-09

    A total synthesis of the naturally occurring ionophore zincophorin has been realized. The route features an intramolecular oxymercuration of a cyclopropanemethanol and a Carroll-Claisen rearrangement for the respective elaboration of the C1-C12 and C13-C25 subunits, which have been assembled by using a highly diastereoselective titanium-mediated aldol condensation.

  11. Total synthesis of steroids and heterosteroids from BISTRO.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim-Ouali, Malika

    2015-06-01

    Due to their high profile biological activity, the steroids are among the most important secondary metabolites. A review of literature on the total synthesis of steroids starting from BISTRO (1,8-bis(trimethylsilyl)-2,6-octadiene) is presented.

  12. Total synthesis of the proposed structure of astakolactin

    PubMed Central

    Mameda, Keisuke; Fujishiro, Moe; Yoshinaga, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Summary The first total synthesis of the proposed structure of astakolactin, a sesterterpene metabolite isolated from the marine sponge Cacospongia scalaris, has been achieved, mainly featuring Johnson–Claisen rearrangement, asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction and MNBA-mediated lactonization. PMID:25383112

  13. Total synthesis of (±)-maistemonine and (±)-stemonamide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Zhi-Min; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Fu-Min

    2011-02-14

    The first total synthesis of polycyclic Stemona alkaloid maistemonine has been achieved. The efficient approach features a stereoselective intramolecular Schmidt reaction, a ketone-ester condensation, and a Reformatsky reaction. Additionally, another Stemona alkaloid stemonamide was divergently synthesized from a common intermediate.

  14. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Lansai B and (+)- Nocardioazines A and B **

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoxuan; Reisman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    The concise total syntheses of the bis(pyrroloindolines) (−)-lansai B and (+)- nocardioazines A and B are reported. The key pyrroloindoline building blocks are rapidly prepared by enantioselective formal (3 + 2) cycloaddition reactions. The macrocycle of (+)-nocardioazine A is constructed by an unusual intramolecular diketopiperazine formation. PMID:24777757

  15. Asymmetric total synthesis of Apocynaceae hydrocarbazole alkaloids (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine.

    PubMed

    Du, Ji-Yuan; Zeng, Chao; Han, Xiao-Jie; Qu, Hu; Zhao, Xian-He; An, Xian-Tao; Fan, Chun-An

    2015-04-01

    An unprecedented asymmetric catalytic tandem aminolysis/aza-Michael addition reaction of spirocyclic para-dienoneimides has been designed and developed through organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization. A unified strategy based on this key tandem methodology has been divergently explored for the asymmetric total synthesis of two natural Apocynaceae alkaloids, (+)-deethylibophyllidine and (+)-limaspermidine. The present studies not only enrich the tandem reaction design concerning the asymmetric catalytic assembly of a chiral all-carbon quaternary stereocenter contained in the densely functionalized hydrocarbazole synthons but also manifest the potential for the application of the asymmetric catalysis based on the para-dienone chemistry in asymmetric synthesis of natural products.

  16. Perylenequinone natural products: evolution of the total synthesis of cercosporin.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Barbara J; Mulrooney, Carol A; Kozlowski, Marisa C

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the first total synthesis of perylenequinone cercosporin is described. The key features developed during these efforts include a biscuprate epoxide alkylation, installation of the methylidene acetal, palladium-catalyzed O-arylation, and C3,C3'-decarbonylation. Due to the rapid atropisomerization of the helical axis of cercosporin (at 37 degrees C), the sequencing of these transformations was critical. To this end, the developed protocol enabled the formation of a key advanced intermediate on preparative scale absent any atropisomerization. Furthermore, the O-arylation proved to be general, and the strategy was used in an improved synthesis of a helical chiral perylenequinone structure.

  17. Total synthesis of putative 11-epi-lyngbouilloside aglycon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolleth, Amandine; Gebauer, Julian; El Marrouni, Abdellatif; Lebeuf, Raphael; Prevost, Celine; Brohan, Eric; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Cossy, Janine

    2016-08-01

    We report here the total synthesis of 11-epi-lyngbouilloside aglycon. Our strategy features a Boeckman-type esterification followed by a RCM to form the 14-membered ring macrolactone and a late-stage side chain introduction via a Wittig olefination. Overall, the final product was obtained in 20 steps and 2% overall yield starting from commercially available 3-methyl-but-3-enol. Most importantly, the strategy employed is versatile enough to eventually allow us to complete the synthesis of the natural product and irrevocably confirm its structure.

  18. Studies for the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide P†

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Myers, Brian J.; Mi, Liang; Binder, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    A convergent, enantiocontrolled total synthesis of the 15-membered macrolide, amphidinolide P, is described. The synthesis utilizes three nonracemic components for an efficient assembly of the macrolactone in 12 steps via the longest linear pathway. Key developments include studies of the Hosomi–Sakurai reaction for the formation of the C6–C7 bond, a “ligandless” palladium-mediated Stille cross-coupling of the vinylic stannane 4 and the alkenyl bromide 5 to produce a highly functionalized dienol, and a thermally induced, intramolecular lactonization via the late-stage formation of an intermediate α-acylketene. PMID:23590535

  19. Total synthesis of (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin (MM 47755).

    PubMed

    Kesenheimer, Christian; Groth, Ulrich

    2006-06-08

    A stereoselective total synthesis of the natural antibiotic (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin 1 is reported. The essential steps for this convergent synthesis are the transformation of a geraniol epoxide into a chiral octadiyne derivative, which was converted into a triyne. The cobalt-mediated [2+2+2] cycloaddition of the triyne led to a benz[a]anthracene system, which was oxidized with Ag(Py)(2)MnO(4) to a benz[a]anthraquinone. Deprotection with aqueous HF in acetonitrile and photooxidation afforded the desired product (-)-1. [reaction: see text

  20. Total synthesis of (+)-herboxidiene/GEX 1A.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Pellicena, Miquel; Krämer, Katrina; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Aullón, Gabriel; Padrón, José M

    2017-02-22

    A total synthesis of (+)-herboxidiene/GEX 1A has been accomplished from (R)- and (S)-lactate esters in a highly efficient manner. Key steps of the synthesis involve substrate-controlled titanium-mediated aldol reactions from chiral lactate-derived ethyl ketones, an oxa-Michael cyclization, an Ireland-Claisen rearrangement, and a Suzuki coupling. Furthermore, computational studies of the oxa-Michael reaction have unveiled the dramatic influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the stereochemical outcome of such cyclizations, whereas biological analyses have clearly proved the important cytoxicity of (+)-herboxidiene/GEX 1A.

  1. Total Synthesis of Putative 11-epi-Lyngbouilloside Aglycon

    PubMed Central

    Kolleth, Amandine; Gebauer, Julian; ElMarrouni, Abdelatif; Lebeuf, Raphael; Prévost, Céline; Brohan, Eric; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Cossy, Janine

    2016-01-01

    We report here the total synthesis of 11-epi-lyngbouilloside aglycon. Our strategy features a Boeckman-type esterification followed by a RCM to form the 14-membered ring macrolactone and a late-stage side chain introduction via a Wittig olefination. Overall, the final product was obtained in 20 steps and 2% overall yield starting from commercially available 3-methyl-but-3-enol. Most importantly, the strategy employed is versatile enough to eventually allow us to complete the synthesis of the natural product and irrevocably confirm its structure. PMID:27556024

  2. Studies toward total synthesis of divergolides C and D.

    PubMed

    Rasapalli, Sivappa; Jarugumilli, Gopalakrishna; Yarrapothu, Gangadhara Rao; Golen, James A; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2013-04-05

    A facile synthesis of the western segment of divergolides C and D has been developed. Exploratory studies with two disconnections, i.e., C4-C5 vs C5-C6, for elaboration of the ansa bridge to the sterically demanding hexasubstituted naphthalenic aromatic core using a chiral synthon assembled from D-glucose via a stereoselective Johnson orthoester rearrangement is described. The studies set the stage for the completion of the total synthesis of the biologically important novel ansamycins, divergolides C and D, and their structural congeners.

  3. [Total synthesis of biologically active alkaloids using bio-inspired indole oxidation].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    Many tryptophan-based dimeric diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids including WIN 64821 and ditryptophenaline, which exhibit fascinating biological activities, have been isolated from fungi. These alkaloids possess a unique architecture; therefore several total syntheses of these compounds have been accomplished via bio-inspired reactions. Despite these elegant strategies, we were convinced that a more direct bio-inspired solution for the preparation of tryptophan-based DKP alkaloids was possible because in a true biosynthesis, direct dimerization of tryptophan occurs in aqueous media without incorporation of a protecting group on the substrates. Thus we developed direct bio-inspired dimerization reactions in aqueous, acidic media, along with a novel biomimetic pathway, to provide C2-symmetric and non-symmetric dimeric compounds from commercially available amine-free tryptophan derivatives using Mn(OAc)3, VOF3, and V2O5 as one-electron oxidants. In addition, concise two-pot or three-step syntheses of the naturally occurring dimeric DKP alkaloids (+)-WIN 64821, (-)-ditryptophenaline, and (+)-naseseazine B were accomplished with total yields of 20%, 13%, and 20%, respectively. The present synthesis has several noteworthy features: 1) the tryptophan-based C2-symmetric and non-symmetric dimeric key intermediates can be prepared on a multigram scale in one step; 2) the developed oxidation reaction was carried out in aqueous, acidic solution without deactivation of the metal oxidants; 3) protection of the primary amine can be avoided by salt formation in aqueous acid; 4) for the total two-pot operation, the reaction media are environmentally friendly water and ethanol; 5) satisfactory total yields are obtained compared with previously reported syntheses.

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-panacene and correction of its relative configuration.

    PubMed

    Boukouvalas, John; Pouliot, Martin; Robichaud, Joël; MacNeil, Stephen; Snieckus, Victor

    2006-08-03

    [reaction: see text] The first synthesis of (-)-panacene has been accomplished in concise, highly stereoselective fashion from commercially available 2-methoxy-6-methylbenzoic acid (15 steps, 8.3% overall yield). The synthesis unambiguously establishes the correct relative and absolute configuration of panacene, and demonstrates the serviceability of Pd(II)-mediated tandem intramolecular alkoxycarbonylation-lactonization for the expedient assembly of its tricyclic core, and the dual role of asymmetric alkynylation as an initial source of chirality and as a powerful tool for manipulating diastereoselectivity.

  5. Synthesis of the Enantiomers of Tedanalactam and the First Total Synthesis and Configurational Assignment of (+)-Piplaroxide.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ibañez, Julio; Xochicale-Santana, Leonardo; Quintero, Leticia; Fuentes, Lilia; Sartillo-Piscil, Fernando

    2016-04-22

    Highlighting the recently established methodology for the direct synthesis of glycidic amides from tertiary allyl amines, the synthesis of the enantiomers of tedanalactam were completed in two steps from the corresponding chiral dihydropiperidine. Additionally, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of piplaroxide were obtained from their respective tedanalactam precursor, and the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring (+)-piplaroxide was determined. The present approach represents not only the shortest synthesis of (-)-tedanalactam but also the first total synthesis of (+)-piplaroxide, a repellent against the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes.

  6. Total synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan containing 92 monosaccharide units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong; Xiong, De-Cai; Chen, Si-Cong; Wang, Yong-Shi; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Carbohydrates are diverse bio-macromolecules with highly complex structures that are involved in numerous biological processes. Well-defined carbohydrates obtained by chemical synthesis are essential to the understanding of their functions. However, synthesis of carbohydrates is greatly hampered by its insufficient efficiency. So far, assembly of long carbohydrate chains remains one of the most challenging tasks for synthetic chemists. Here we describe a highly efficient assembly of a 92-mer polysaccharide by the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol. Several linear and branched oligosaccharide/polysaccharide fragments ranging from 5-mer to 31-mer in length have been rapidly constructed in one-pot manner, which enables the first total synthesis of a biologically important mycobacterial arabinogalactan through a highly convergent [31+31+30] coupling reaction. Our results show that the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol may provide access to the construction of long and complicated carbohydrate chains.

  7. Total synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan containing 92 monosaccharide units

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Xiong, De-Cai; Chen, Si-Cong; Wang, Yong-Shi; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates are diverse bio-macromolecules with highly complex structures that are involved in numerous biological processes. Well-defined carbohydrates obtained by chemical synthesis are essential to the understanding of their functions. However, synthesis of carbohydrates is greatly hampered by its insufficient efficiency. So far, assembly of long carbohydrate chains remains one of the most challenging tasks for synthetic chemists. Here we describe a highly efficient assembly of a 92-mer polysaccharide by the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol. Several linear and branched oligosaccharide/polysaccharide fragments ranging from 5-mer to 31-mer in length have been rapidly constructed in one-pot manner, which enables the first total synthesis of a biologically important mycobacterial arabinogalactan through a highly convergent [31+31+30] coupling reaction. Our results show that the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol may provide access to the construction of long and complicated carbohydrate chains. PMID:28300074

  8. Antineoplastic agents. 599. Total synthesis of dolastatin 16.

    PubMed

    Pettit, George R; Smith, Thomas H; Arce, Pablo M; Flahive, Erik J; Anderson, Collin R; Chapuis, Jean-Charles; Xu, Jun-Ping; Groy, Thomas L; Belcher, Paul E; Macdonald, Christian B

    2015-03-27

    The first 23-step total synthesis of the cyclodepsipeptide dolastatin 16 (1) has been achieved. Synthesis of the dolaphenvaline and dolamethylleuine amino acid units using simplified methods improved the overall efficiency. The formation of the 25-membered macrocycle employing lactonization with 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride completed a key step in the synthesis. Regrettably, the synthetic dolastatin 16 (1), while otherwise identical (by X-ray crystal structure and spectral analyses) with the natural product, did not reproduce the powerful (nanomolar) cancer cell growth inhibition displayed by the natural isolate. Presumably this result can be attributed to conformation(s) of the synthetic dolastatin 16 (1) or to a chemically undetected component isolated with the natural product.

  9. Inspirations, Discoveries, and Future Perspectives in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.

    2009-01-01

    The last one hundred years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the power and reach of total synthesis. The pantheon of accomplishments in the field includes the total synthesis of molecules of unimaginable beauty and diversity such as the four discussed in this article: endiandric acids (1982), calicheamicin γ1I (1992), Taxol® (1994), and brevetoxin B (1995). Chosen from the collection of the molecules synthesized in the author’s laboratories, these structures are but a small fraction of the myriad constructed in laboratories around the world over the last century. Their stories, and the background on which they were based, should serve to trace the evolution of the art of chemical synthesis to its present sharp condition, an emergence that occurred as a result of new theories and mechanistic insights, new reactions, new reagents and catalysts, and new synthetic technologies and strategies. Indeed, the advent of chemical synthesis as a whole must be considered as one of the most influential developments of the twentieth century in terms of its impact on society. PMID:19152273

  10. Thirty-five-year results after Charnley total hip arthroplasty in patients less than fifty years old. A concise follow-up of previous reports.

    PubMed

    Warth, Lucian C; Callaghan, John J; Liu, Steve S; Klaassen, Alison L; Goetz, Devon D; Johnston, Richard C

    2014-11-05

    We report the updated results for a previously described cohort of patients who were less than fifty years old at the time of the index Charnley total hip arthroplasty with cement. The original cohort consisted of ninety-three consecutive hips in sixty-nine patients. The patients were followed for a minimum of thirty-five years after surgery or until death. At the latest follow-up evaluation, there were forty-one total hip replacements (44%) in thirty-two living patients. Thirty-four (37%) of the ninety-three total hip replacements in the original cohort had been revised or removed. Twenty acetabular (22%) and seven femoral (8%) components had been revised for aseptic loosening. Since the twenty-five-year follow-up, the average six-minute-walk distance decreased from 395 m to 171 m, and this decrease correlated with increasing comorbidity. This study demonstrates the durability of cemented total hip replacements in a young patient population. Although 63% (fifty-nine) of the ninety-three original hip replacements were functioning at the latest follow-up or at the time of death, a significant decrease in activity level was seen over time (p < 0.001). Of the forty-one original implants in the patients who were alive at the time of the thirty-five-year follow-up, only 46% (nineteen) were retained. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  11. Total Navigation in Spine Surgery; A Concise Guide to Eliminate Fluoroscopy Using a Portable Intraoperative Computed Tomography 3-Dimensional Navigation System.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Lang, Gernot; Lian, Xiaofeng; Berlin, Connor; Janssen, Insa; Jada, Ajit; Alimi, Marjan; Härtl, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Portable intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) with integrated 3-dimensional navigation (NAV) offers new opportunities for more precise navigation in spinal surgery, eliminates radiation exposure for the surgical team, and accelerates surgical workflows. We present the concept of "total navigation" using iCT NAV in spinal surgery. Therefore, we propose a step-by-step guideline demonstrating how total navigation can eliminate fluoroscopy with time-efficient workflows integrating iCT NAV into daily practice. A prospective study was conducted on collected data from patients undergoing iCT NAV-guided spine surgery. Number of scans, radiation exposure, and workflow of iCT NAV (e.g., instrumentation, cage placement, localization) were documented. Finally, the accuracy of pedicle screws and time for instrumentation were determined. iCT NAV was successfully performed in 117 cases for various indications and in all regions of the spine. More than half (61%) of cases were performed in a minimally invasive manner. Navigation was used for skin incision, localization of index level, and verification of implant position. iCT NAV was used to evaluate neural decompression achieved in spinal fusion surgeries. Total navigation eliminates fluoroscopy in 75%, thus reducing staff radiation exposure entirely. The average times for iCT NAV setup and pedicle screw insertion were 12.1 and 3.1 minutes, respectively, achieving a pedicle screw accuracy of 99%. Total navigation makes spine surgery safer and more accurate, and it enhances efficient and reproducible workflows. Fluoroscopy and radiation exposure for the surgical staff can be eliminated in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Daphniphyllum Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of (−)-Calyciphylline N

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Presented here is a full account on the development of a strategy culminating in the first total synthesis of the architecturally complex daphniphyllum alkaloid, (−)-calyciphylline N. Highlights of the approach include a highly diastereoselective, intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction of a silicon-tethered acrylate; an efficient Stille carbonylation of a sterically encumbered vinyl triflate; a one-pot Nazarov cyclization/proto-desilylation sequence; and the chemoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted diene ester. PMID:25756504

  13. Total synthesis and stereochemical reassignment of mandelalide A.

    PubMed

    Lei, Honghui; Yan, Jialei; Yu, Jie; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2014-06-16

    The total synthesis of the tunicate metabolite mandelalide A and the correction of its originally assigned stereochemistry are reported. Key features of the convergent, fully stereocontrolled route include the use of a Prins cyclization for the diastereoselective construction of the tetrahydropyran subunit, Rychnovsky-Bartlett cyclization for the preparation of the tetrahydrofuran moiety, Suzuki coupling, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons macrocyclization, and glycosylation to append the L-rhamnose-derived pyranoside.

  14. Biomimetic Total Synthesis of Malbrancheamide and Malbrancheamide B

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kenneth A.; Welch, Timothy R.; Greshock, Thomas J.; Ding, Yousong; Sherman, David H.; Williams, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The biomimetic total syntheses of both malbrancheamide and malbrancheamide B are reported. The synthesis of the two mono-chloro species enabled the structure of malbrancheamide B to be unambiguously assigned. The syntheses each feature an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a 5-hydroxypyrazin-2(1H)-one to construct the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane core, which has also been proposed as the biosynthetic route to these compounds. PMID:18345688

  15. Antineoplastic agents. 571. Total synthesis of bacillistatin 2.

    PubMed

    Pettit, George R; Hu, Shougang; Knight, John C; Chapuis, Jean-Charles

    2009-03-27

    The first total synthesis of bacillistain 2 (2) has been achieved in 24 steps and 22.9% overall yield, providing a quite efficient route with maximal convergence. Notable features of this approach include two successful applications of the Mitsunobu reaction during respective assemblies of key intermediates 22 and 27, successful employment of 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride (MNBA) in the formation by lactonization of a macrocyclic (36-membered) ring, and very flexible access to structural modifications of the bacillistatin-type cyclodepsipeptides.

  16. Results of Charnley total hip arthroplasty at a minimum of thirty years. A concise follow-up of a previous report.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, John J; Templeton, Jesse E; Liu, Steve S; Pedersen, Douglas R; Goetz, Devon D; Sullivan, Patrick M; Johnston, Richard C

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to update the results of a prospective, single-surgeon series of primary Charnley total hip arthroplasties performed with cement. This investigation is one of the first studies in which hips treated with total hip arthroplasty with cement were followed for a minimum of thirty years. Twenty-seven patients (thirty-four [10.3%] of the hips in the initial study group) were alive at a minimum of thirty years postoperatively. These patients served as the focus of the present study. Revision because of aseptic loosening of the acetabular component was performed in 7.3% (twenty-three) of the hips from the original study group (excluding those revised because of infection or dislocation) and 26% (eight) of the hips in the living cohort. Revision because of aseptic loosening of the femoral component was performed in 3.2% (ten) of the hips from the original study group (excluding those revised because of infection or dislocation) and 10% (three) of the hips in the living patients. Since the twenty-five-year review, three hips were revised (one because of acetabular loosening, one because of femoral loosening, and one because of instability). This end-result study demonstrated the remarkable durability of cemented Charnley total hip replacements over a span of three decades, with 88% of the original prostheses intact at the time of the final follow-up or at the patient's death.

  17. Collective total synthesis of englerin A and B, orientalol E and F, and oxyphyllol: application of the organocatalytic [4+3] cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Shu-Guang; Sun, Bing-Feng; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Shang, Yong-Jia

    2013-02-11

    The concise collective total synthesis of englerin A and B, orientalol E and F, and oxyphyllol has been accomplished in 10-15 steps, with the total synthesis of orientalol E and oxyphyllol being achieved for the first time. The success obtained was enabled by the realization of the [4+3] cycloaddition reaction of 9 and 10. Other features of the synthesis include 1) the intramolecular Heck reaction to access the azulene core, 2) the epoxidation-S(N)2' reduction sequence to access the allylic alcohol, 3) the efficient regioselective and stereoselective formal hydration of the bridging C=C bond in the synthesis of englerins, and 4) the late-stage chemo- and stereoselective C-H oxidation in the synthesis of orientalol E. The total synthesis of these natural products has enabled the structural revision of oxyphyllol and established the absolute stereochemical features of the organocatalytic [4+3] cycloaddition reaction. The identification of 5 as the natural product oxyphyllol, the success in converting 5 to orientalol E, along with the fact that englerins and oxyphyllol were isolated from plants of the same genus Phyllanthus gives support to our proposed biosynthetic pathways. This work may enable detailed biological evaluations of these natural products and their analogues and derivatives, especially of their potential in the fight against renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

  18. A randomised, controlled trial of circumpatellar electrocautery in total knee replacement without patellar resurfacing: a concise follow-up at a mean of 3.7 years.

    PubMed

    van Jonbergen, H P W; Scholtes, V A B; Poolman, R W

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of patellar resurfacing, we have previously shown that the use of electrocautery around the margin of the patella improved the one-year clinical outcome of total knee replacement (TKR). In this prospective randomised study we compared the mean 3.7 year (1.1 to 4.2) clinical outcomes of 300 TKRs performed with and without electrocautery of the patellar rim: this is an update of a previous report. The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain was 32% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 26 to 39), and 26% (95% CI 18 to 35) in the intervention group compared with 38% (95% CI 29 to 48) in the control group (chi-squared test; p = 0.06). The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain remained unchanged between the one-year and 3.7 year follow-up (chi-squared test; p = 0.12). The mean total Western Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Indices and the American Knee Society knee and function scores at 3.7 years' follow-up were similar in the intervention and control groups (repeated measures analysis of variance p = 0.43, p = 0.09 and p = 0.59, respectively). There were no complications. A total of ten patients (intervention group three, control group seven) required secondary patellar resurfacing after the first year. Our study suggests that the improved clinical outcome with electrocautery denervation compared with no electrocautery is not maintained at a mean of 3.7 years' follow-up.

  19. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty at Five to Twelve Years Follow-Up: A Concise Follow-Up of a Previous Report.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Justin J; Callaghan, John J; Bedard, Nicholas A; Liu, Steve S; Goetz, Devon D; Mahoney, Craig R

    2016-08-01

    Concern has arisen regarding potential complications with modular metal-on-metal (MoM) acetabular components in total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to analyze longitudinally the longer term results of a previously reported cohort of patients utilizing a cementless modular acetabular component with a MoM bearing. One hundred sixty-nine consecutive but selected total hip arthroplasties were performed in 148 patients at 2 institutions using a modular acetabular MoM component. One hundred thirty-nine patients (158 hips) were living at minimum 5 years, 1 patient (1 hip) was lost to follow-up and 8 patients (10 hips) were deceased. Patients were evaluated clinically in terms of revision as well as radiographically. Additional testing (metal ion levels, advanced imaging) was performed when concerns for adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) arose. There were 6 (3.8%) additional hips revised since the prior report for a total of 7 hips (4.4%) revised at 5-12 year follow-up. All newly revised hips (3.8%) demonstrated ALTR. There were 7 (4.7%) additional cases of radiographically detected acetabular osteolysis and 7 (4.7%) cases of femoral osteolysis. Longitudinal evaluation of a modular MoM bearing surface acetabular component demonstrated increased rates of ALTR and osteolysis at longer duration follow-up. Although greater than 95% of hips in this study performed well at 5-12 years, when comparing the results to metal-on-polyethylene bearings using the same acetabular component, the results were inferior. Longitudinal surveillance is warranted with this design and this bearing surface couple as cases of ALTR and osteolysis increased with longer follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survivorship of a Charnley total hip arthroplasty. A concise follow-up, at a minimum of thirty-five years, of previous reports.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, John J; Bracha, Peter; Liu, Steve S; Piyaworakhun, Somyot; Goetz, Devon D; Johnston, Richard C

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to update the results, at a minimum of thirty-five years, in a single-surgeon series of primary Charnley total hip arthroplasties performed with cement. Twelve patients (fifteen hips) were alive, 249 patients (314 hips) had died, and one patient (one hip) had been lost to follow-up. Seven of the hips in the living patients had required at least one revision; 290 (88%) of the original group of total hip prostheses either continued to function or were in patients who had died. Since the time of a thirty-year study of this cohort, one hip that had previously been revised because of acetabular loosening required an additional revision because of acetabular loosening and two additional hips had evidence of radiographic loosening (of one acetabular and one femoral component). The survival rate with revision for any reason as the end point was 78%. This end result study should provide a benchmark for subsequent procedures and designs with the caveat that patient life expectancy will likely continue to increase and modern-design implants are being used in younger patients.

  1. Concise nuclear isobar charts

    SciTech Connect

    Bucka, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the Concise Nuclear Isobar Charts, data on binding energies of protons and neutrons in the ground state and excitation energies for low-lying nuclear energy levels are displayed, both of which are of great interest for transition processes as well as for questions of nuclear structure. Also, quantum numbers for angular momentum and parity are shown for these energy levels. For the stable nuclei, data for the relative abundances, and for unstable nucleon configurations, the transition probabilities are included in the data displayed. Due to the representation chosen for the atomic nuclei, in many cases a very clear first survey of systematic properties of nuclear energy states as well as spontaneous decay processes is achieved.

  2. Evolution of an Oxidative Dearomatization Enabled Total Synthesis of Vinigrol

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingliang; Draghici, Cristian; Li, Fang; Smith, Brandon R.; Das, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the synthetic strategy resulting in a total synthesis of vinigrol is presented. Oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition has served as the successful cornerstone for all of the approaches. Extensive radical cyclization efforts to form the tetracyclic core resulted in interesting and surprising reaction outcomes, none of which could be advanced to vinigrol. These cyclization obstacles were successfully overcome by using Heck instead of radical cyclizations. The total synthesis features a trifluoroethyl ether protecting group being used for the first time in organic synthesis. The logic of its selection and the group’s importance beyond protecting the C8a hydroxyl group is presented along with a discussion of strategies for its removal. Because of the compact tetracyclic cage the route is built around many unusual reaction observations and solutions have emerged. For example, a first of its kind Grob fragmentation reaction featuring a trifluoroethyl leaving group has been uncovered, interesting interrupted selenium dioxide allylic oxidations have been observed as well as intriguing catalyst and counterion dependent directed hydrogenations. PMID:24258093

  3. Cemented rotating-platform total knee replacement: a concise follow-up, at a minimum of twenty years, of a previous report.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, John J; Wells, Christopher W; Liu, Steve S; Goetz, Devon D; Johnston, Richard C

    2010-07-07

    We previously evaluated 119 consecutive total knee arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon in eighty-six patients with use of the cemented LCS (low contact stress) mobile-bearing, rotating-platform system and an all-polyethylene patellar component. The average age of the patients at the time of surgery was seventy years. The patients were contacted as part of their routine follow-up and were asked to participate in this study. The purpose of the present study was to report the updated results at a minimum follow-up of twenty years. Twenty patients (twenty-six knees) were living, and one was lost to follow-up. Three knees required a reoperation (two for periprosthetic fractures and one for infection). No component was revised as a part of the reoperations. No knee required revision since the fifteen-year follow-up evaluation. Osteolysis was present in six knees compared with only three knees at the time of the fifteen-year follow-up. One knee had radiographic signs of femoral component loosening, which was associated with osteolysis. It occurred after the fifteen-year follow-up study. The average range of motion was from 1 degrees of extension to 105 degrees of flexion. The average clinical and functional Knee Society scores were 43 and 49 points, respectively, at the preoperative evaluation and 89 and 67 points at the time of the final follow-up. We concluded that the cemented LCS rotating-platform knee performed well, with durable clinical and radiographic results at a minimum follow-up of twenty years. However, the prevalence of osteolysis continues to increase with a longer duration of follow-up in these patients.

  4. Total Synthesis and Evaluation of Phostriecin and Key Structural Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Christopher P.; Swingle, Mark R.; Honkanen, Richard E.; Boger, Dale L.

    2010-01-01

    Full details of the total synthesis of phostriecin (2), the assignment of its relative and absolute stereochemistry, and the resultant structural reassignment of the natural product previously represented as sultriecin (1), a phosphate versus sulfate monoester, are detailed. Studies with authentic material confirmed that phostriecin, but not sultriecin, is an effective and selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) defining a mechanism of action responsible for its antitumor activity. The extension of the studies to the synthesis and evaluation of a series of key synthetic analogues is disclosed that highlights the importance of the natural product phosphate monoester (vs sulfate or free alcohol, inactive and >250-fold), the α,β-unsaturated lactone (12-fold), and the hydrophobic Z,Z,E-triene tail (C12–C22, ca. 200-fold) including the unique importance of its unsaturation (50-fold, and no longer PP2A selective). PMID:20669916

  5. Total Synthesis, Stereochemical Revision, and Biological Reassessment of Mandelalide A: Chemical Mimicry of Intrafamily Relationships.

    PubMed

    Willwacher, Jens; Heggen, Berit; Wirtz, Conny; Thiel, Walter; Fürstner, Alois

    2015-07-13

    Mandelalide A and three congeners had recently been isolated as the supposedly highly cytotoxic principles of an ascidian collected off the South African coastline. Since these compounds are hardly available from the natural source, a concise synthesis route was developed, targeting structure 1 as the purported representation of mandelalide A. The sequence involves an iridium-catalyzed two-directional Krische allylation and a cobalt-catalyzed carbonylative epoxide opening as entry points for the preparation of the major building blocks. The final stages feature the first implementation of terminal acetylene metathesis into natural product total synthesis, which is remarkable in that this class of substrates had been beyond the reach of alkyne metathesis for decades. Synthetic 1, however, proved not to be identical with the natural product. In an attempt to clarify this issue, NMR spectra were simulated for 20 conceivable diastereomers by using DFT followed by DP4 analysis; however, this did not provide a reliable assignment either. The puzzle was ultimately solved by the preparation of three diastereomers, of which compound 6 proved identical with mandelalide A in all analytical and spectroscopic regards. As the entire "northern sector" about the tetrahydrofuran ring in 6 shows the opposite configuration of what had originally been assigned, it is highly likely that the stereostructures of the sister compounds mandelalides B-D must be corrected analogously; we propose that these natural products are accurately represented by structures 68-70. In an attempt to prove this reassignment, an entry into mandelalides C and D was sought by subjecting an advanced intermediate of the synthesis of 6 to a largely unprecedented intramolecular Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction, which furnished the γ-lactone derivative 74 as a mixture of diastereomers. Whereas (24R)-74 was amenable to a hydroxyl-directed dihydroxylation by using OsO4 /TMEDA as the reagent, the sister

  6. Total synthesis and development of bioactive natural products

    PubMed Central

    TATSUTA, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    The first total synthesis and development of a variety of bioactive natural products have been accomplished by using carbohydrates as a chiral source. In addition, practically useful intermediates have been created, analogs of natural products have been prepared, their structure-activity relationships studied, and the large-scale preparations of medicinally useful compounds established. The key target molecules have been the “Big Four” antibiotics (macrolides, aminoglycosides, β-lactams and tetracyclines), pyranonaphthoquinone antibiotics, glycosidase inhibitors, and a side-chain of cephem antibiotics. PMID:18941289

  7. Total synthesis of the antimitotic marine macrolide (-)-leiodermatolide.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Ng, Kenneth K-H; Williams, Simon; Millican, David C; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-03-03

    Leiodermatolide is an antimitotic macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Leiodermatium sp. whose potentially novel tubulin-targeting mechanism of action makes it an exciting lead for anticancer drug discovery. In pursuit of a sustainable supply, we report a highly stereocontrolled total synthesis (3.2% yield) based on a convergent sequence of palladium-mediated fragment assembly and macrolactonization. Boron-mediated aldol reactions were used to configure the three key fragments 2, 5, and 6 by employing the appropriate enantiomer of the lactate-derived ketone 7.

  8. Total synthesis of (-)-CP2-disorazole C1.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Chad D; Schmitz, John C; Chu, Edward; Wipf, Peter

    2011-08-05

    The total synthesis of a bis-cyclopropane analog of the antimitotic natural product (-)-disorazole C(1) was accomplished in 23 steps and 1.1% overall yield. A vinyl cyclopropane cross-metathesis reaction generated a key (E)-alkene segment of the target molecule. IC(50) determinations of (-)-CP(2)-disorazole C(1) in human colon cancer cell lines indicated low nanomolar cytotoxic properties. Accordingly, this synthetic bioisostere represents the first biologically active disorazole analog not containing a conjugated diene or polyene substructure element.

  9. Total Synthesis of the Antimitotic Marine Macrolide (−)-Leiodermatolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Ng, Kenneth K-H; Williams, Simon; Millican, David C; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Leiodermatolide is an antimitotic macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Leiodermatium sp. whose potentially novel tubulin-targeting mechanism of action makes it an exciting lead for anticancer drug discovery. In pursuit of a sustainable supply, we report a highly stereocontrolled total synthesis (3.2 % yield) based on a convergent sequence of palladium-mediated fragment assembly and macrolactonization. Boron-mediated aldol reactions were used to configure the three key fragments 2, 5, and 6 by employing the appropriate enantiomer of the lactate-derived ketone 7. PMID:24481746

  10. Total Synthesis and Biological Assessment of Mandelalide A.

    PubMed

    Brütsch, Tobias Michael; Bucher, Pascal; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-22

    A new convergent total synthesis of the marine macrolide mandelalide A (1) has been developed that is based on macrocyclic ring closure by a Shiina-type macrolactonization and the construction of the requisite precursor seco acid by a highly efficient Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction between two fragments of comparable complexity. Key steps in the elaboration of the acid building block were the enantioselective, catalytic addition of a protected acetylene to crotonaldehyde and the construction of the tetrahydropyran unit that is embedded in the macrocycle by means of an acid-catalyzed Prins reaction. The synthesis of the alcohol fragment features the formation of the trisubstituted tetrahydrofuran ring through an acetal cleavage/epoxide opening cascade reaction and a rarely used radical alkynylation of a primary alkyl iodide. Intriguingly, the dihydroxylation of a terminal double bond as part of the synthesis of this building block gave the same major product for both the α- and β-AD-mix reagents, albeit with moderate or low selectivity. Synthetic mandelalide A (1) was a potent proliferation inhibitor of A549, HT460, and H1299 human lung cancer cells in vitro, but not of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. However, in no case did we observe complete cell kill even at the highest compound concentration tested (5 μm).

  11. Cobalt-catalyzed diastereoselective synthesis of C-furanosides. Total synthesis of (-)-isoaltholactone.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Lionel; Izquierdo, Eva; Angibaud, Patrick; Stansfield, Ian; Meerpoel, Lieven; Reymond, Sébastien; Cossy, Janine

    2013-12-06

    An array of C-aryl and C-vinyl furanosides were prepared in good yields and diastereoselectivities from C-halogeno furanosides either with aryl Grignard or with vinyl Grignard using the convenient Co(acac)3/TMEDA catalytic system. This method is illustrated by the total synthesis of the (-)-isoaltholactone.

  12. Revisiting the Ullmann-ether reaction: a concise and amenable synthesis of novel dibenzoxepino[4,5-d]pyrazoles by intramolecular etheration of 4,5-(o,o'-halohydroxy)arylpyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Roberto; SanMartin, Raul; Churruca, Fátima; Domínguez, Esther

    2002-10-18

    A concise synthesis of a series of novel dibenzoxepino[4,5-d]pyrazoles was accomplished by implementation of an intramolecular Ullmann-ether reaction on o,o'-halohydroxy-4,5-diarylpyrazoles mediated by CuBr.DMS. An alternative useful approach based on the palladium-catalyzed biaryl-ether linkage formation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) was also successfully applied, offering limitations with regard to the steric demand of the substituents. The synthesis of the key o,o'-halohydroxy-4,5-diarylpyrazole intermediates proceeds through the construction of the heterocyclic ring by a tandem amine-exchange/heterocyclization sequence of 3-N,N-(dimethylamino)-1,2-diarylpropenones with phenylhydrazine followed by basic hydrolysis for deprotection. The enamino ketone precursors were conveniently prepared from the corresponding O-sulfonyloxy and O-benzoyloxy ortho-substituted 1,2-diarylethanones, starting from inexpensive salicylaldehyde or phenylacetic derivatives. Preliminary binding affinity experiments against peripheral and central nervous system receptors have been done with negative results.

  13. Asymmetric organocatalytic methods for the synthesis of tetrahydropyrans and their application in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vetica, Fabrizio; Chauhan, Pankaj; Dochain, Simon; Enders, Dieter

    2017-03-21

    Recent advancement in the area of asymmetric organocatalysis led to the development of new methodologies for the construction of valuable enantiopure molecules, including various heterocycles. As one of the latter class of compounds tetrahydropyrans (THPs) constitute a core structure of a wide array of bioactive natural products. A noticeable growth has been observed in the asymmetric synthesis of THPs using small organic molecules as catalysts. This Tutorial Review describes the organocatalytic methods available to furnish THPs as well as the application of these methodologies in the total synthesis of THP-based natural products.

  14. Total Synthesis of Five Lipoteichoic acids of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Hogendorf, Wouter F J; Gisch, Nicolas; Schwudke, Dominik; Heine, Holger; Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2014-10-13

    The emergence of hypervirulent resistant strains have made Clostridium difficile a notorious nosocomial pathogen and has resulted in a renewed interest in preventive strategies, such as vaccines based on (synthetic) cell wall antigens. Recently, the structure of the lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of this species has been elucidated. Additionally, this LTA was found to induce the formation of protective antibodies against C. difficile in rabbits and mice. The LTA from C. difficile is isolated as a microheterogenous mixture, differing in size and composition, impeding any structure-activity relationship studies. To ensure reliable biological results, pure and well-defined synthetic samples are required. In this work the total synthesis of LTAs from C. difficile with defined chain length is described and the initial biological results are presented.

  15. Total synthesis of (−)-kopsinine and ent-(+)-kopsinine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kiyoun; Boger, Dale L.

    2014-01-01

    The total synthesis of (−)-kopsinine and its unnatural enantiomer is detailed, enlisting a late-stage SmI2-mediated transannular free radical conjugate addition reaction for construction of the core bicyclo[2.2.2]octane ring system with strategic C21–C2 bond formation. Key to the approach is assemblage of the underlying skeleton by an intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole that provided the precursor C21 functionalized pentacyclic ring system 1 in a single step in which the C3 methyl ester found in the natural product served as a key 1,3,4-oxadiazole substituent, activating it for participation in the initiating Diels–Alder reaction and stabilizing the intermediate 1,3-dipole. PMID:26074629

  16. Total synthesis of the congested propellane alkaloid (-)-acutumine.

    PubMed

    Castle, Steven L

    2014-08-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acutumine is described. The synthetic strategy was inspired by the premise that the cyclohexenone ring could be derived from an aromatic precursor. After successful construction of a propellane model system, an initial attempt to prepare the spirocyclic subunit was thwarted by incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. A second-generation approach involving a radical-polar crossover reaction was successful, and the chemistry developed in the aforementioned model system was then applied to synthesize the natural product. Key reactions included a phenolic oxidation, a diastereoselective ketone allylation utilizing Nakamura's chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, an acid-promoted cyclization of a secondary amine onto an α,β-unsaturated ketal, and a regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone.

  17. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of Nostosin B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoji; Feng, Junmin; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao; Meng, Yi; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2017-01-01

    Nostosins A and B were isolated from a hydrophilic extract of Nostoc sp. strain from Iran, which exhibits excellent trypsin inhibitory activity. Nostosin A was the most potent natural tripeptide aldehyde as trypsin inhibitor up to now. Both r- and s-2-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)butanoic acid (Hhpba) were prepared and incorporated into the total synthesis of nostosin B, respectively. Careful comparison of the NMR spectra and optical rotation data of synthetic nostosin B (1a and 1b) with the natural product led to the unambiguous identification of the r-configuration of the Hhpba fragment, which was further confirmed by co-injection with the authentic sample on HPLC using both reversed phase column and the chiral AD-RH column. PMID:28264450

  18. Total synthesis of the marine cyanobacterial cyclodepsipeptide apratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiehao; Forsyth, Craig J.

    2004-01-01

    A total synthesis of apratoxin A was developed. Apratoxin A, isolated from Lyngbya spp. cyanobacteria, is representative of a growing class of marine cyanobacterial cyclodepsipeptides wherein discrete polypeptide and polyketide domains are merged by ester and amide or amide-derived linkages. In the apratoxins, the N terminus of the peptide domain [(Pro)-(N-Me-Ile)-(N-Me-ala)-(O-Me-Tyr)-(moCys)] is a modified vinylogous cysteine that is joined to a novel ketide [3,7-dihydroxy-2,5,8,8-tetramethylnonanoic acid (Dtna)] by an acid-sensitive thiazoline. The C-terminal proline is esterified to a hindered hydroxyl vicinal to the ketide's tert-butyl terminus. Major synthetic challenges included assembly and maintenance the thiazoline-containing moiety and macrolide formation involving acylation of the C39 hydroxyl. The Dtna domain was assembled in the biogenetic direction beginning with a Brown allylation of trimethylacetaldehyde to establish the C39 alcohol configuration. Diastereofacial selective addition of a higher-order dimethylcuprate upon a ring-closing metathesis-derived α,β-unsaturated valerolactone installed the C37 methyl-bearing center. A Paterson anti-aldol process was used to incorporate the remaining two ketide stereogenic centers at C34 and C35. Although attempts to incorporate the thiazoline moiety by condensations of thiol esters bearing α-amino carbamate derivatives failed, an intramolecular Staudinger reduction–aza-Wittig process using α-azido thiol esters was uniquely successful. Late-stage macrocycle closure proceeded well by lactam formation between Pro and N-Me-Ile residues, but attempted lactonizations of the Pro carboxylate with the C39 hydroxyl failed. Optimization of C35 hydroxyl group protection-deprotection completed the effort, which culminated in the first total synthesis of apratoxin A and will enable analog generation toward improving differential cytotoxicity. PMID:15231999

  19. Total Synthesis of Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin A Enabled by Ligand-Controlled C-H Borylation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Holte, Dane; Zoller, Jochen; Umemiya, Shigenobu; Simke, Leah R; Baran, Phil S

    2015-08-19

    Verruculogen and fumitremorgin A are bioactive alkaloids that contain a unique eight-membered endoperoxide. Although related natural products such as fumitremorgins B and C have been previously synthesized, we report the first synthesis of the more complex, endoperoxide-containing members of this family. A concise route to verruculogen and fumitremorgin A relied not only on a hydroperoxide/indole hemiaminal cyclization, but also on the ability to access the seemingly simple starting material, 6-methoxytryptophan. An iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation/Chan-Lam procedure guided by an N-TIPS group enabled the conversion of a tryptophan derivative into a 6-methoxytryptophan derivative, proving to be a general way to functionalize the C6 position of an N,C3-disubstituted indole for the synthesis of indole-containing natural products and pharmaceuticals.

  20. Divergent total synthesis of the tricyclic marine alkaloids lepadiformine, fasicularin, and isomers of polycitorols by reagent-controlled diastereoselective reductive amination.

    PubMed

    In, Jinkyung; Lee, Seokwoo; Kwon, Yongseok; Kim, Sanghee

    2014-12-22

    We describe a flexible and divergent route to the pyrrolo-/pyrido[1,2-j]quinoline frameworks of tricyclic marine alkaloids via a common intermediate formed by the ester-enolate Claisen rearrangement of a cyclic amino acid allylic ester. We have synthesized the proposed structure of polycitorols and demonstrated that the structure of these alkaloids requires revision. In addition to asymmetric formal syntheses, stereoselective and concise total syntheses of (-)-lepadiformine and (-)-fasicularin were also accomplished from simple, commercially available starting materials in a completely substrate-controlled manner. The key step in these total syntheses was the reagent-dependent stereoselective reductive amination of the common intermediate to yield either indolizidines 55 a or 55 b. Aziridinium-mediated carbon homologation of the hindered C-10 group to the homoallylic group facilitated the synthesis.

  1. Concise synthesis of the hasubanan alkaloid (±)-cepharatine A using a Suzuki coupling reaction to effect o,p-phenolic coupling.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Philip; Seipp, Charles

    2013-09-20

    Suzuki coupling of 10 and 11 resulted in 9, which was O-alkylated to provide 12. Treatment of 12 with CsF in DMF resulted in the formation of the completed core structure 13 in a single step. Reductive amination of 13 completed the synthesis of (±)-cepharatine A, 4.

  2. Intramolecular direct dehydrohalide coupling promoted by KO(t)Bu: total synthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids anhydrolycorinone and oxoassoanine.

    PubMed

    De, Subhadip; Ghosh, Santanu; Bhunia, Subhajit; Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Bisai, Alakesh

    2012-09-07

    A transition-metal-free intramolecular dehydrohalide coupling via intramolecular homolytic aromatic substitution (HAS) with aryl radicals has been developed in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide and an organic molecule as the catalyst. The methodology has been applied to a concise synthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids viz. oxoassoanine (1b), anhydrolycorinone (1d), and other related structures. Interestingly, the method also works only in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide.

  3. Total synthesis of the thiopeptide antibiotic amythiamicin D.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rachael A; Thompson, Stewart P; Alcaraz, Lilian; Moody, Christopher J

    2005-11-09

    The thiopeptide (or thiostrepton) antibiotics are a class of sulfur containing highly modified cyclic peptides with interesting biological properties, including reported activity against MRSA and malaria. Described herein is the total synthesis of the thiopeptide natural product amythiamicin D, which utilizes a biosynthesis-inspired hetero-Diels-Alder route to the pyridine core of the antibiotic as a key step. Preliminary studies using a range of serine-derived 1-ethoxy-2-azadienes established that hetero-Diels-Alder reaction with N-acetylenamines proceeded efficiently under microwave irradiation to give 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines. The thiazole building blocks of the antibiotic were obtained by either classical Hantzsch reactions or by dirhodium(II)-catalyzed chemoselective carbene N-H insertion followed by thionation, and were combined to give the bis-thiazole that forms the left-hand fragment of the antibiotic. The key Diels-Alder reaction of a tris-thiazolyl azadiene with benzyl 2-(1-acetylaminoethenyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate gave the core tetrathiazolyl pyridine, which was elaborated into the natural product by successive incorporation of glycine and bis-thiazole fragments followed by macrocyclization.

  4. Total synthesis of discodermolide: optimization of the effective synthetic route.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Elsa; Porée, François-Hugues; Bourin, Arnaud; Barbion, Julien; Agouridas, Evangelos; Lannou, Marie-Isabelle; Commerçon, Alain; Betzer, Jean-François; Pancrazi, Ange; Ardisson, Janick

    2008-01-01

    An efficient and modulable total synthesis of discodermolide (DDM), a unique marine anticancer polyketide is described including related alternative synthetic approaches. Particularly notable is the repeated application of a crotyltitanation reaction to yield homoallylic (Z)-O-ene-carbamate alcohols with excellent selectivity. Advantage was taken of this reaction not only for the stereocontrolled building of the syn-anti methyl-hydroxy-methyl triads of DDM, but also for the direct construction of the terminal (Z)-diene. Of particular interest is also the installation of the C13=C14 (Z)-double bond through a highly selective dyotropic rearrangement. The preparation of the middle C8-C14 fragment in two sequential stages and its coupling to the C1-C7 moiety was a real challenge and required careful optimization. Several synthetic routes were explored to allow high and reliable yields. Due to the flexibility and robust character of this approach, it might enable a systematic structural variation of DDM and, therefore, the elaboration and exploration of novel discodermolide structural analogues.

  5. Solid-phase total synthesis of daptomycin and analogs.

    PubMed

    Lohani, Chuda Raj; Taylor, Robert; Palmer, Michael; Taylor, Scott D

    2015-02-06

    An entirely solid-phase synthesis of daptomycin, a cyclic lipodepsipeptide antibiotic currently in clinical use, was achieved using a combination of α-azido and Fmoc amino acids. This methodology was applied to the synthesis of several daptomycin analogs, one of which did not contain kynurenine or the synthetically challenging amino acid (2S,3R)-methylglutamate yet exhibited an MIC approaching that of daptomycin.

  6. Total syntheses of the phytotoxic lactones herbarumin I and II and a synthesis-based solution of the pinolidoxin puzzle.

    PubMed

    Fürstner, Alois; Radkowski, Karin; Wirtz, Conny; Goddard, Richard; Lehmann, Christian W; Mynott, Richard

    2002-06-19

    A concise approach to a family of potent herbicidal 10-membered lactones is described on the basis of ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as the key step for the formation of the medium-sized ring. This includes the first total syntheses of herbarumin I (1) and II (2) as well as the synthesis of several possible macrolides of the pinolidoxin series. A comparison of their spectral and analytical data with those of the natural product allowed us to establish the stereostructure of pinolidoxin, a potent inhibitor of induced phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, as shown in 46. This finding, however, makes clear that a previous study dealing with the relative and absolute stereochemistry of this phytotoxic agent cannot be correct. An important aspect from the preparative point of view is the fact that the stereochemical outcome of the RCM reaction can be controlled by the choice of the catalyst. Thus, use of the ruthenium indenylidene complex 16 always leads to the corresponding (E)-alkenes, whereas the second generation catalyst 17 bearing an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand affords the isomeric (Z)-olefin with good selectivity. This course is deemed to reflect kinetic versus thermodynamic control of the cyclization reaction and therefore has potentially broader ramifications for the synthesis of medium-sized rings in general. A further noteworthy design feature is the fact that D-ribose is used as a convenient starting material for the preparation of both enantiomers of the key building block 14 by means of a "head-to-tail" interconversion strategy.

  7. Concise synthesis and anti-HIV activity of pyrimido[1,2-c][1,3]benzothiazin-6-imines and related tricyclic heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Oishi, Shinya; Ohno, Hiroaki; Shimura, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Masao; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2012-09-07

    3,4-Dihydro-2H,6H-pyrimido[1,2-c][1,3]benzothiazin-6-imine (PD 404182) is a virucidal heterocyclic compound active against various viruses, including HCV, HIV, and simian immunodeficiency virus. Using facile synthetic approaches that we developed for the synthesis of pyrimido[1,2-c][1,3]benzothiazin-6-imines and related tricyclic derivatives, the parallel structural optimizations of the central 1,3-thiazin-2-imine core, the benzene part, and the cyclic amidine part of PD 404182 were investigated. Replacement of the 6-6-6 pyrimido[1,2-c][1,3]benzothiazin-6-imine framework with 5-6-6 or 6-6-5 derivatives led to a significant loss of anti-HIV activity, and introduction of a hydrophobic group at the 9- or 10-positions improved the potency. In addition, we demonstrated that the PD 404182 derivative exerts anti-HIV effects at an early stage of viral infection.

  8. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Nardoaristolone B via a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-nardoaristolone B is accomplished by the implementation of an enantio- and diastereoselective copper(I)-catalyzed conjugate addition/enolate trapping sequence and a gold(I)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization (intermolecular oxidant), employed for the first time in total synthesis. PMID:25563976

  9. Synthesis of Rumphellaone A and Hushinone by a Gold-Catalyzed [2 + 2] Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of rumphellaone A has been accomplished in 12 steps via a diastereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed [2 + 2] macrocyclization of a 1,10-enyne as the key step to build the cyclobutene moiety. This concise approach has also led to the total synthesis of husinone. PMID:26974011

  10. A concise synthesis of 1,4-dihydro-[1,4]diazepine-5,7-dione, a novel 7-TM receptor ligand core structure with melanocortin receptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Jerzy R; Laudeman, Chris P; Sammond, Doug M; Villeneuve, Manon; Minick, Douglas J; Grizzle, Mary K; Daniels, Alejandro J; Andrews, John L; Ignar, Diane M

    2010-03-01

    Finding small non-peptide molecules for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) whose endogenous ligands are peptides, is a very important task for medicinal chemists. Over the years, compounds mimicking peptide structures have been discovered, and scaffolds emulating peptide backbones have been designed. In our work on GPCR ligands, including cholecystokinin receptor-1 (CCKR-1) agonists, we have employed benzodiazepines as a core structure. Looking for ways to reduce molecular weight and possibly improve physical properties of GPCR ligands, we embarked on the search for molecules providing similar scaffolds to the benzodiazepine with lower molecular weight. One of our target core structures was 1,4-dihydro-[1,4]diazepine-5,7-dione. There was not, however, a known synthetic route to such molecules. Here we report the discovery of a simple and concise method for synthesis of 2-[6-(1H-indazol-3-ylmethyl)-5,7-dioxo-4-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-[1,4]diazepin-1-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-acetamide as an example of a compound containing the tetrahydrodiazepine-5,7-dione core. Compounds from this series were tested in numerous GPCR assays and demonstrated activity at melanocortin 1 and 4 receptors (MC1R and MC4R). Selected compounds from this series were tested in vivo in Peptide YY (PYY)-induced food intake. Compounds dosed by intracerebroventricular and oral routes reduced PYY-induced food intake and this effect was reversed by the cyclic peptide MC4R antagonist SHU9119.

  11. A Global and Local Desymmetrization Approach to the Synthesis of Steroidal Alkaloids: Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of Paspaline

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    A stereocontrolled total synthesis of the indole diterpenoid natural product paspaline is described. Key steps include a highly diastereoselective enzymatic desymmetrization, substrate-directed epoxidation, Ireland-Claisen rearrangement, and diastereotopic group selective C–H acetoxylation to assemble the target with excellent stereofidelity. The route and results described herein outline complementary conceptual disconnections in the arena of steroid natural product synthesis. PMID:25856767

  12. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of the Indole Diterpene Alkaloid Paspaline

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of the indole diterpenoid natural product paspaline is disclosed. Critical to this approach was the implementation of stereoselective desymmetrization reactions to assemble key stereocenters of the molecule. The design and execution of these tactics are described in detail, and a thorough analysis of observed outcomes is presented, ultimately providing the title compound in high stereopurity. This synthesis provides a novel template for preparing key stereocenters in this family of molecules, and the reactions developed en route to paspaline present a series of new synthetic disconnections in preparing steroidal natural products. PMID:26398568

  13. The CP molecule labyrinth: a paradigm of how endeavors in total synthesis lead to discoveries and inventions in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Baran, Phil S

    2002-08-02

    Imagine an artist carving a sculpture from a marble slab and finding gold nuggets in the process. This thought is not a far-fetched description of the work of a synthetic chemist pursuing the total synthesis of a natural product. At the end of the day, he or she will be judged by the artistry of the final work and the weight of the gold discovered in the process. However, as colorful as this description of total synthesis may be, it does not entirely capture the essence of the endeavor, for there is much more to be told, especially with regard to the contrast of frustrating failures and exhilarating moments of discovery. To fully appreciate the often Herculean nature of the task and the rewards that accompany it, one must sense the details of the enterprise behind the scenes. A more vivid description of total synthesis as a struggle against a tough opponent is perhaps appropriate to dramatize these elements of the experience. In this article we describe one such endeavor of total synthesis which, in addition to reaching the target molecule, resulted in a wealth of new synthetic strategies and technologies for chemical synthesis. The total synthesis of the CP molecules is compared to Theseus' most celebrated athlos (Greek for exploit, accomplishment): the conquest of the dreaded Minotaur, which he accomplished through brilliance, skill, and bravery having traversed the famous labyrinth with the help of Ariadne. This story from Greek mythology comes alive in modern synthetic expeditions toward natural products as exemplified by the total synthesis of the CP molecules which serve as a paradigm for modern total synthesis endeavors, where the objectives are discovery and invention in the broader sense of organic synthesis.

  14. Studies towards the total synthesis of batzelladine A.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark C; Long, Matthew S

    2004-07-21

    Application of a diastereoselective three-component coupling to the bicyclic core of the batzelladine alkaloids is described. The synthesis features the elaboration of glutamic acid by use of Eschenmoser sulfide contraction. An earlier approach is also included, which shows some limitations of dithiane chemistry when applied to the particular compounds required for this target.

  15. Total synthesis of haouamine A: the indeno-tetrahydropyridine core

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Noah Z.; Jessing, Mikkel; Baran, Phil S.

    2009-01-01

    A full account of synthetic efforts towards the indeno-tetrahydropyridine core of haouamine A is presented. Initial failed strategies led to the unexpected discovery of a mild abnormal Chichibabin pyridine synthesis and provided knowledge and inspiration for the development of a cascade annulation that has enabled rapid and scalable access to the core in either racemic or enantiopure form. PMID:20161191

  16. A chemoenzymatic total synthesis of the phytotoxic undecenolide (-)-cladospolide A.

    PubMed

    Banwell, Martin G; Loong, David T J

    2004-07-21

    An eleven-step synthesis of the title compound (1) from biocatalytically-derived and enantiomerically pure 'building blocks' alcohol (R)-(-)-9 and ester 13 is described. Attempts to construct the twelve-membered lactone ring of cladospolide A in a direct manner by using a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction failed. However, a ten-membered lactone 19, could be constructed by such means and this was then subject to a two-carbon homologation sequence involving, inter alia, Wadsworth-Horner-Emmons and Yamaguchi lactonisation reactions in the closing stages of the synthesis. The impact of substituent stereochemistries and protecting groups on the RCM reaction leading to various ten-membered lactones is also described.

  17. Total synthesis of 8,14-dihydromorphinandienone alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ghavimi, Bahman; Magnus, Philip

    2014-03-21

    A collective synthesis of 8,14-dihydronorsalutaridine, 8,14-dihydrosalutaridine, norisosinomenine, and isosinomenine is reported. The strategy provides direct access to the correct oxidation level of the products. The combination of an organocatalyst guanidine superbase, a tertiary amine base, and a dehydrating agent was necessary for the successful Henry-Michael-dehydration cascade to form the phenanthrene motif. The required selective aliphatic nitro reduction could only be achieved under heterogeneous transfer-hydrogenation conditions.

  18. Total synthesis of starfish saponin goniopectenoside B.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guozhi; Yu, Biao

    2013-06-10

    Star quality: Goniopectenoside B, a minor asterosaponin from starfish Goniopecten demonstrans with antifouling activity, has been synthesized in a convergent 21 steps and in 4.3 % overall yield starting from adrenosterone. This represents the first synthesis of a complex asterosaponin, which are ubiquitous and characteristic in starfish as defense chemicals (see figure). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Total synthesis of cephalosporolide E via a tandem radical/polar crossover reaction. The use of the radical cations under nonoxidative conditions in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cortezano-Arellano, Omar; Quintero, Leticia; Sartillo-Piscil, Fernando

    2015-03-06

    The present work reports the first example of the use of the chemistry of radical cations under nonoxidative conditions in total synthesis. Using a late-stage tandem radical/polar crossover reaction, a highly stereoselective total synthesis of cephalosporolide E (which is typically obtained admixed with cephalosporolide F) was accomplished. The reaction of a phthalimido derivative with triphenyltin radical in refluxing toluene engenders a contact ion-pair (radical cation) that leads, in the first instance, to the cephalosporolide F, which is transformed into the cephalosporolide E via a stereocontrolled spiroketal isomerization promoted by the diphenylphosphate acid that is formed during the tandem transformation.

  20. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of fucoxanthin and its polyene chain-modified derivative.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Takayuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Iwashita, Takashi; Kosumi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Hideki; Katsumura, Shigeo

    2012-02-03

    Fucoxanthin exhibits high energy transfer efficiencies to Chlorophyll a (Chl a) in photosynthesis in the sea. In order to reveal how each characteristic functional group, such as the length of the polyene chain, allene, and conjugated carbonyl groups, of this marine natural product are responsible for its remarkably efficient ability, the total synthesis of fucoxanthin by controlling the stereochemistry was achieved. The method established for fucoxanthin synthesis was successfully applied to the synthesis of the C42 longer chain analogue.

  1. Total Synthesis of Kealiinines A-C, Kealiiquinone, 2-Deoxy-2-aminokealiiquinone and Study Towards Total Synthesis of Spirocalcaridines A-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Jayanta Kumar

    Our group is mainly interested in the total synthesis of imidazole-containing alkaloids along with other kinds of alkaloids. A new family of imidazole alkaloids, the Leucetta alkaloids, is a group of 60 or so 2-aminoimidazole natural products found in marine sponges, which have received substantial attention recently because of their challenging structures and strong biological activities. Over the past few years, our laboratory has developed several synthetic methods for the total synthesis of 2-aminoimidazole alkaloids using site selective functionalization of polyhaloimidazoles. By using the above synthetic strategy, the development of high yielding and protecting group-free total syntheses of the reported structures of the Leucetta alkaloids kealiinine A-C has been accomplished. In addition to the challenging syntheses of these, our data unequivocally prove that the reported structures of those natural products did not match synthetic material due to discrepancies in the interpretation of spectroscopic data during initial isolation and characterization. Finally, the correct structure assignment was achieved with the help of extensive experimentation using 2D NMR spectroscopy (HMBC, HSQC and ROESY) and X-ray crystallography of these synthetic natural products. A second set of targets was accessed using a biosynthetic guided strategy according to which, kealiinine C would serve as a precursor to kealiiquinone and 2-deoxy-2-aminokealiiquinone. The synthesis of both alkaloids was completed from a late stage intermediate from the kealiinine C synthesis by oxidation. Although the first total synthesis of kealiiquinone was accomplished by Ohta et al. in 1995, the current method was protecting group-free and required only 6 steps in comparison to 12 steps by the Japanese group. The first total synthesis of the 2-amino congener was also accomplished. After successful syntheses of those natural products, in collaboration with Dr. Mandal's group, the cytotoxicity of these

  2. First total synthesis of ganglioside DSG-A possessing neuritogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Fa; Tsai, Yow-Fu; Guo, Jhe-Ruei; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Hui-Ming; Liao, Chun-Chen

    2014-12-14

    The first total synthesis of ganglioside DSG-A (1) is achieved via chemoselective glycosylation and a [1 + 1 + 2] synthetic strategy. We have also developed an efficient method that can be handled on large scale (50 g) for the synthesis of the phytosphingosine.

  3. 11-Step Total Synthesis of Pallambins C and D

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The structurally intriguing terpenes pallambins C and D have been assembled in only 11 steps from a cheap commodity chemical: furfuryl alcohol. This synthesis, which features a redox-economic approach free of protecting-group manipulations, assembles all four-ring systems via a sequential cyclization strategy. Of these four-ring constructing operations, two are classical (Robinson annulation and Mukaiyama aldol) and two are newly devised. During the course of this work a method for the difunctionalization of enol ethers was developed, and the scope of this transformation was explored. PMID:27284962

  4. The Evolution of the Total Synthesis of Rocaglamide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhe; Dixon, Darryl D; Jolit, Anais; Tius, Marcus A

    2016-10-24

    The complex flavagline, (-)-rocaglamide, possesses a synthetically intriguing tricyclic scaffold with five contiguous stereocenters and also exhibits potent anticancer, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activity. This full account details distinct approaches to (±)- and (-)-rocaglamide utilizing Brønsted acid catalyzed and asymmetric Pd(0) -catalyzed Nazarov chemistry developed in our laboratory, respectively. The successful asymmetric synthesis revealed unforeseen mechanistic complexity that required adjusting our strategy to overcome an unanticipated racemization process, an unusual reversible ring-cleavage step and a very facile trialkylsilyl group migration.

  5. Tandem Allylboration–Prins Reaction for the Rapid Construction of Substituted Tetrahydropyrans: Application to the Total Synthesis of (−)‐Clavosolide A

    PubMed Central

    Millán, Alba; Smith, James R.; Chen, Jack L.‐Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tetrahydropyrans are common motifs in natural products and have now been constructed with high stereocontrol through a three‐component allylboration‐Prins reaction sequence. This methodology has been applied to a concise (13 steps) and efficient (14 % overall yield) synthesis of the macrolide (−)‐clavosolide A. The synthesis also features an early stage glycosidation reaction to introduce the xylose moiety and a lithiation‐borylation reaction to attach the cyclopropyl‐containing side chain. PMID:26766494

  6. Total synthesis of anibamine, a novel natural product as a chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Watson, Karen; Buckheit, Robert W; Zhang, Yan

    2007-05-10

    The total synthesis of anibamine, the first and only natural product known as a chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonist, is reported herein. Anibamine was synthesized from acetylacetone and cyanoacetamide in 10 steps.

  7. Total synthesis of the putative structure of the proposed Banyasin A

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuguang; Ren, Qi; Choi, Sun; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The first total synthesis of four possible isomers of a molecule possessing the configuration proposed for Banyasin A is described. The structure synthesized appears to be different from that of the natural product. PMID:25853121

  8. New approaches to the total synthesis of the bryostatin antitumor macrolides.

    PubMed

    Hale, Karl J; Manaviazar, Soraya

    2010-04-01

    In this Focus Review, we give an overview of various bryostatin total syntheses. We also discuss the synthesis of various bryostatin analogues and their biological activity. Work reviewed includes that of Masamune, Evans, Nishiyama and Yamamura, Hale and Manaviazar, Trost, Wender, Keck, Burke, Thomas, and Krische. Our coverage is primarily for the period 2001-2009, since detailed reviews already exist on bryostatin total synthesis work and biology up to this time.

  9. Enzyme-assisted asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-podophyllotoxin and (-)-picropodophyllin.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, D B; Choi, S; Maeng, J H

    2000-02-11

    Described is the first catalytic, asymmetric synthesis of (-)-podophyllotoxin and its C(2)-epimer, (-)-picropodophyllin. Asymmetry is achieved via the enzymatic desymmetrization of advanced meso diacetate 20, through PPL-mediated ester hydrolysis. A second key feature of the synthesis is the strategically late introduction of the highly oxygenated natural ring E through an arylcopper species. The successful implementation of this approach augers well for the introduction of other functionalized rings E for future SAR work. The synthesis begins from piperonal, which is fashioned into isobenzofuran (IBF) precursor 14 in three steps (bromination, acetalization, and halogen-metal exchange/hydroxymethylation). Interestingly, treatment of 14 with HOAc in commerical dimethyl maleate (contains 5% dimethyl fumarate) leads to a nearly equimolar mixture of fumarate- (15) and maleate-IBF Diels-Alder adducts (16 and 17), indicating that IBF 11 reacts about 15 times faster with dimethyl fumarate than with dimethyl maleate. With scrupulously pure dimethyl maleate a 2.8:1 endo:exo mixture of maleate DA adducts is still obtained. On the other hand, the desired meso diester 16 is obtained pure and in nearly quantitative yield by employing neat dimethyl acetylene dicarboxylate as the dienophile, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. Reduction (LiAlH(4)) of 16 provides meso diol 19, which is then treated with Ac(2)O, BzCl, and PhCH(2)COCl to provide the corresponding meso diesters, 20-22. Screening of these meso benzoxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptyl substrate candidates across a battery of acyl transfer enzymes leads to an optimized match of diacetate 20 with PPL. Even on 10-20 g scales, asymmetry is efficiently introduced here, yielding the key chiral intermediate, monoacetate 25 (66% isolated yield, 83% corrected yield, 95% ee). Protecting group manipulation and oxidation (Swern) provide aldehyde 27b, which undergoes efficient retro-Michael ring opening to produce dihydronaphthalene 30, in

  10. Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide E and Amphidinolide E Stereoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Va, Porino; Roush, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Four amphidinolide E stereoisomers, amphidinolide E (1), 2-epi-amphidinolide E (2), 19-epi-amphidinolide E (3), and 2-epi-19-epi-amphidinolide E (4), have been synthesized via the judicious union of aldehyde 5, allylsilanes 7 or 8, acids 9 or 10, and vinylstannane 6. The C19 stereocenters of the C19 epimeric allylsilanes 7 and 8 were introduced via crotylboration reactions early in the synthesis. [3+2]-Annulation reactions of aldehyde 5 with allylsilanes 7 and 8 were employed to set the core tetrahydrofuran units of 1–4. Finally, the C2 stereocenter was installed by esterification using acid 9, without incident, or with acid 10, in which case an unexpected and completely stereoselective inversion of C2 occurs. PMID:18575572

  11. Total synthesis and revision of C6 stereochemistry of (+)-amphidinolide W.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Gong, Gangli

    2006-02-03

    An enantioselective first total synthesis and structural revision of the cytotoxic natural product amphidinolide W is described. We initially investigated a ring-closing metathesis based synthetic strategy to form the 12-membered macrocycle. This strategy was unsuccessful as it led to formation of a 17-membered macrocycle. Subsequently, we explored an alternative strategy that involved cross-metathesis followed by a Yamaguchi macrolactonization reaction sequence utilizing the same key intermediates. This strategy led to the synthesis of amphidinolide W. The synthesis was carried out in a convergent manner, and four of the five stereogenic centers in amphidinolide W were set by asymmetric synthesis. The synthesis features Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, diastereoselective alkylation, efficient cross-metathesis of functionalized substrates, and novel functional group transformations using selective lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the primary acetate group. Of particular note, the C6 absolute stereochemistry of amphidinolide W has now been revised through our synthesis.

  12. Total synthesis of chiriquitoxin, an analogue of tetrodotoxin isolated from the skin of a dart frog.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Masaatsu; Imazu, Takuya; Sakakibara, Ryo; Satake, Yoshiki; Isobe, Minoru; Nishikawa, Toshio

    2014-01-27

    The first total synthesis of chiriquitoxin, the most structurally complex analogue of tetrodotoxin isolated from a Costa Rican dart frog, has been accomplished from a newly designed intermediate for a variety of tetrodotoxin derivatives. The synthesis includes the third total synthesis of tetrodotoxin in this laboratory, and its intermediate was transformed into chiriquitoxin by a stereocontrolled aldol reaction with a D-camphor-derived lactone for installation of the unique side chain, and a new deprotection of methylthiomethyl (MTM) ether by using a Pummerer rearrangement. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biogenetically-inspired total synthesis of epidithiodiketopiperazines and related alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Justin; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2015-04-21

    Natural products chemistry has historically been the prime arena for the discovery of new chemical transformations and the fountain of insights into key biological processes. It remains a fervent incubator of progress in the fields of chemistry and biology and an exchange mediating the flow of ideas between these allied fields of science. It is with this ethos that our group has taken an interest in and pursued the synthesis of a complex family of natural products termed the dimeric epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) alkaloids. We present here an Account of the highly complex target molecules to which we pegged our ambitions, our systematic and relentless efforts toward those goals, the chemistry we developed in their pursuit, and the insight we have gained for their translational potential as potent anticancer molecules. The dimeric ETP alkaloids are fungal metabolites that feature a highly complex molecular architecture comprising a densely functionalized core structure with many stereogenic centers, six of which are fully substituted, and a pair of vicinal quaternary carbon stereocenters, decorated on polycyclic architectures in addition to the unique ETP motif that has been recognized as acid-, base-, and redox-sensitive. A cyclo-dipeptide consisting of an essential tryptophan residue and a highly variable ancillary amino acid lies at the core of these structures; investigation of the transformations that take this simplistic core to the complex alkaloids lies at the heart of our research program. The dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine alkaloids have largely resisted synthesis on account of their complexity since the 1970s when the founding members of this class, chaetocin A ( Hauser , D. et al. Helv. Chim. Acta 1970 , 53 , 1061 ) and verticillin A ( Katagiri , K. et al. J. Antibiot. 1970 , 23 , 420 ), were first isolated. This was despite their potent cytotoxic and bacteriostatic activities, which were well appreciated at the time of their discovery. In the past

  14. Total synthesis of epothilones using functionalised allylstannanes for remote stereocontrol.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nathaniel; Thomas, Eric J

    2012-10-21

    Two syntheses of the C(7)–C(16)-fragment 41 of epothilone D 2 were developed that were based on tin(IV) bromide mediated reactions of 5,6-difunctionalised hex-2-enylstannanes with aldehydes. In the first synthesis, (5S)-6-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-5-hydroxy-2-methylhex-2-enyl(tributyl)stannane 20 was reacted with (E)-but-2-enal to give (2S,7R,4Z,8E)-1-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-5-methyldeca-4,8-diene-2,7-diol 26 containing ca. 20% of its (7S)-epimer. Following desilylation, the crystalline (2S,7R)-triol 32 was protected as its acetonide 33 and esterified to give the (4-methoxybenzyloxy)acetate 34. An Ireland–Claisen rearrangement of this ester gave methyl (2R,3S,10S,4E,7Z)-3,7-dimethyl-10,11-(dimethylmethylene)dioxy-2-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)undeca-4,7-dienoate 35 that was converted into (2S,9S,6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-9,10-(dimethylmethylene)dioxydec-6-en-1-ol 41 by regioselective alkene manipulation, ester reduction and cleavage of the resulting terminal diol 40 with a reductive work-up. The second synthesis involved the tin(IV) bromide mediated reaction between the stannane 20 and (3S)-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-3-methylbutanal 44 that gave (2S,7S,9S,4Z)-1-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-5,9-dimethyl-10-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)dec-4-ene-2,7-diol 45 containing ca. 20% of its (7R)-epimer. After desilylation and protection of the vicinal diol as its acetonide 46, a Barton–McCombie reductive removal of the remaining hydroxyl group gave the (2S,9S,6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-9,10-(dimethylmethylene)dioxydec-6-en-1-ol 41 after oxidative removal of the PMB-ether. The first of these syntheses uses just one chiral starting material, but the second is shorter and more convergent. It was therefore modified by the use of (5S)-6-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-5-(2-trimethylsilylethoxy)methoxy-2-methylhex-2-enyl(tributyl)stannane 49 that reacted with (3S)-4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-3-methylbutanal 44 to give a 50:50 mixture of the C(4)-epimers of (2S,9S,6Z)-10-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-1-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-2

  15. Biogenetically-Inspired Total Synthesis of Epidithiodiketopiperazines and Related Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Natural products chemistry has historically been the prime arena for the discovery of new chemical transformations and the fountain of insights into key biological processes. It remains a fervent incubator of progress in the fields of chemistry and biology and an exchange mediating the flow of ideas between these allied fields of science. It is with this ethos that our group has taken an interest in and pursued the synthesis of a complex family of natural products termed the dimeric epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) alkaloids. We present here an Account of the highly complex target molecules to which we pegged our ambitions, our systematic and relentless efforts toward those goals, the chemistry we developed in their pursuit, and the insight we have gained for their translational potential as potent anticancer molecules. The dimeric ETP alkaloids are fungal metabolites that feature a highly complex molecular architecture comprising a densely functionalized core structure with many stereogenic centers, six of which are fully substituted, and a pair of vicinal quaternary carbon stereocenters, decorated on polycyclic architectures in addition to the unique ETP motif that has been recognized as acid-, base-, and redox-sensitive. A cyclo-dipeptide consisting of an essential tryptophan residue and a highly variable ancillary amino acid lies at the core of these structures; investigation of the transformations that take this simplistic core to the complex alkaloids lies at the heart of our research program. The dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine alkaloids have largely resisted synthesis on account of their complexity since the 1970s when the founding members of this class, chaetocin A (HauserD. et al. Helv. Chim. Acta1970, 53, 10615448218) and verticillin A (KatagiriK. et al. J. Antibiot.1970, 23, 4205465723), were first isolated. This was despite their potent cytotoxic and bacteriostatic activities, which were well appreciated at the time of their discovery. In

  16. Total synthesis of antibiotics: recent achievements, limitations, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Prusov, Evgeny V

    2013-04-01

    Several recently accomplished total syntheses of antibiotic natural products were summarized in this review in order to present current trends in this area of research. Compounds from different substance classes, including polyketide, depsipeptide, polyketide-polypeptide hybrid, and saccharide, were chosen to demonstrate the advancement in both chemical methodology and corresponding synthetic strategy.

  17. Total (Bio)Synthesis: Strategies of Nature and of Chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Alexandra A.; Ryan, Katherine S.; Moore, Bradley S.; Gulder, Tobias A. M.

    The biosynthetic pathways to a number of natural products have been reconstituted in vitro using purified enzymes. Many of these molecules have also been synthesized by organic chemists. Here we compare the strategies used by nature and by chemists to reveal the underlying logic and success of each total synthetic approach for some exemplary molecules with diverse biosynthetic origins.

  18. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of grassypeptolide A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Yuqing; Wang, Zhuo; Xing, Xiangyou; Maguire, Anita R; Luesch, Hendrik; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2013-05-17

    Herein, we describe in full our investigations into the synthesis of grassypeptolide A (1) in 17 linear steps with an overall yield of 11.3 %. In particular, this work features the late-stage introduction of sensitive bis(thiazoline) heterocycles and 31-membered macrocyclization conducted at the sterically congested secondary amide site in superb conversion (72 % yield). Biological evaluation indicated that grassypeptolide A significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. It induced cancer cell apoptosis, which was associated with increased cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and decreased expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL. Furthermore, grassypeptolide A also caused cell cycle redistribution by increasing cells in the G1 phase and decreasing cells in the S and G2 phases. In addition, cell cycle arrest was correlated with downregulation of cyclin D and upregulation of p27 and p21. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Short Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tatanan A and 3‐epi‐Tatanan A Using Assembly‐Line Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Adam; Roesner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Short and highly stereoselective total syntheses of the sesquilignan natural product tatanan A and its C3 epimer are described. An assembly‐line synthesis approach, using iterative lithiation–borylation reactions, was applied to install the three contiguous stereocenters with high enantio‐ and diastereoselectivity. One of the stereocenters was installed using a configurationally labile lithiated primary benzyl benzoate, resulting in high levels of substrate‐controlled (undesired) diastereoselectivity. However, reversal of selectivity was achieved by using a novel diastereoselective Matteson homologation. Stereospecific alkynylation of a hindered secondary benzylic boronic ester enabled completion of the synthesis in a total of eight steps. PMID:27865037

  20. Toward all RNA structures, concisely

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Profound insights regarding nucleic acid structure and function can be gleaned from very simple, direct, and chemistry-based strategies. Our approach strives to incorporate the elegant physical insights that Don Crothers instilled in those who trained in his laboratory. Don emphasized the advantages of focusing on direct and concise experiments, even when the final objective was to understand something complex – potentially including the large-scale architectures of the genomes of RNA viruses and the transcriptomes of cells. Here, I review the intellectual path, plus a few detours, that led to development of the SHAPE-MaP and RING-MaP technologies for interrogating RNA structure and function at large scales. I also argue that greater attention to creating direct, less inferential experiments will convert 'omics investigations into lasting and definitive contributions to our understanding of biological function. PMID:25546503

  1. Total synthesis of two new dihydrostilbenes from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W-G; Lin, J-G; Niu, Z-Y; Zhao, R; Liu, D-L; Wang, N-L; Yao, X-S

    2007-01-01

    A total synthetic route of two new dihydrostilbenes 5-(2-benzo[1,3]dioxole-5-ylethyl)-6-methoxy benzo[1,3]dioxole-4-ol (1) and 5-(2-benzo[1,3]dioxole-5-ylethyl)benzo[1,3]dioxole-4,7-diol (2), which were isolated from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum Lindl. with significant cytotoxicity toward human cancer cell lines, was developed via Horner reaction etc. The natural products 1 and 2 were obtained in 10.5% and 3.3% overall yield, respectively.

  2. Total Synthesis and Structural Revision of Vannusals A and B. Synthesis of the True Structures of Vannusals A and B

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Adrian; Zhang, Hongjun; Guella, Graziano

    2010-01-01

    Having determined, through total synthesis, that the originally assigned structure of vannusals A and B were incorrect, we set out to uncover the identity of the true structures of these novel marine natural products. Our search was based on intelligence gathered by NMR spectroscopy and chemical synthesis and took us through the total synthesis of eight diastereomeric vannusal B structures [2, d-2, 3, d-3, 4, d-4, 5, and d-5, Figure 1]. The true structures of vannusals A and B were finally determined to be d-5 and d-1, respectively. Their total synthesis was based on a highly convergent and efficient strategy that involved fragments vinyl iodide (−)-6 and aldehyde (±)-94, and featured a stereoselective lithium-mediated coupling reaction and a samarium-induced cyclization process that forged the final ring of the carbon framework. The synthetic strategies and technologies developed in these investigations expand the scope of chemical synthesis and render these compounds readily available for biological evaluation, while the NMR spectroscopic insights gained should prove useful in future structural determination endeavors. PMID:20443558

  3. Reaction of Donor-Acceptor Cyclobutanes with Indoles: A General Protocol for the Formal Total Synthesis of (±)-Strychnine and the Total Synthesis of (±)-Akuammicine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang-Wen; Ren, Hai; Xiong, Hu; Wang, Pan; Wang, Lijia; Tang, Yong

    2017-03-06

    A ligand-promoted catalytic [4+2] annulation reaction using indole derivatives and donor-acceptor (D-A) cyclobutanes is reported, thus providing an efficient and atom-economical access to versatile cyclohexa-fused indolines with excellent levels of diastereoselectivity and a broad substrate scope. In the presence of a chiral SaBOX ligand, excellent enantioselectivity was realized with up to 94 % ee. This novel synthetic method is applied as a general protocol for the total synthesis of (±)-akuammicine and the formal total synthesis of (±)-strychnine from the same common-core scaffold. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The Total Synthesis Problem of linear multivariable control. II - Unity feedback and the design morphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Antsaklis, P. J.; Gejji, R. R.; Wyman, B. F.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Zames (1981) has observed that there is, in general, no 'separation principle' to guarantee optimality of a division between control law design and filtering of plant uncertainty. Peczkowski and Sain (1978) have solved a model matching problem using transfer functions. Taking into consideration this investigation, Peczkowski et al. (1979) proposed the Total Synthesis Problem (TSP), wherein both the command/output-response and command/control-response are to be synthesized, subject to the plant constraint. The TSP concept can be subdivided into a Nominal Design Problem (NDP), which is not dependent upon specific controller structures, and a Feedback Synthesis Problem (FSP), which is. Gejji (1980) found that NDP was characterized in terms of the plant structural matrices and a single, 'good' transfer function matrix. Sain et al. (1981) have extended this NDP work. The present investigation is concerned with a study of FSP for the unity feedback case. NDP, together with feedback synthesis, is understood as a Total Synthesis Problem.

  5. The Total Synthesis Problem of linear multivariable control. II - Unity feedback and the design morphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Antsaklis, P. J.; Gejji, R. R.; Wyman, B. F.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Zames (1981) has observed that there is, in general, no 'separation principle' to guarantee optimality of a division between control law design and filtering of plant uncertainty. Peczkowski and Sain (1978) have solved a model matching problem using transfer functions. Taking into consideration this investigation, Peczkowski et al. (1979) proposed the Total Synthesis Problem (TSP), wherein both the command/output-response and command/control-response are to be synthesized, subject to the plant constraint. The TSP concept can be subdivided into a Nominal Design Problem (NDP), which is not dependent upon specific controller structures, and a Feedback Synthesis Problem (FSP), which is. Gejji (1980) found that NDP was characterized in terms of the plant structural matrices and a single, 'good' transfer function matrix. Sain et al. (1981) have extended this NDP work. The present investigation is concerned with a study of FSP for the unity feedback case. NDP, together with feedback synthesis, is understood as a Total Synthesis Problem.

  6. Constructing molecular complexity and diversity: total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Hale, Christopher R H; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A

    2012-08-07

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules--natural and designed--of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products--the organic molecules of nature--is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature's molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years.

  7. Constructing Molecular Complexity and Diversity: Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Biological and Medicinal Importance

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Hale, Christopher R. H.; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules—natural and designed—of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products—the organic molecules of nature—is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature’s molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years. PMID:22743704

  8. Total Synthesis of the Post-translationally Modified Polyazole Peptide Antibiotic Goadsporin.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Hannah L; Williams, Huw E L; Lewis, William; Moody, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    The structurally unique polyazole antibiotic goadsporin contains six heteroaromatic oxazole and thiazole rings integrated into a linear array of amino acids that also contains two dehydroalanine residues. An efficient total synthesis of goadsporin is reported in which the key steps are the use of rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds to generate the four oxazole rings, which demonstrates the power of rhodium carbene chemistry in organic chemical synthesis.

  9. Total synthesis of virgatolide B via exploitation of intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Hume, Paul A; Furkert, Daniel P; Brimble, Margaret A

    2014-06-06

    A full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of virgatolide B is reported. Key features of the synthesis include an sp(3)-sp(2) Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of a β-trifluoroboratoamide with an aryl bromide, regioselective intramolecular carboalkoxylation, and a 1,3-anti-selective Mukaiyama aldol reaction. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding governed the regioselectivity of the key spiroketalization step, affording the natural product as a single regioisomer.

  10. Biomimetic Total Synthesis of (-)-Penibruguieramine A Using Memory of Chirality and Dynamic Kinetic Resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Seokwoo; Kim, Sanghee

    2015-09-07

    The fully stereocontrolled total synthesis of (-)-penibruguieramine A, a naturally occurring marine pyrrolizidine alkaloid, is described in this study for the first time. The key synthetic sequence is the biomimetic aldol reaction of the proline pentaketide amide. The principles of "memory of chirality" (MOC) and "dynamic kinetic resolution" (DKR) are applied to this reaction for the asymmetric synthesis using proline as the only chiral source. A mechanistic rationale is discussed for the excellent stereochemical outcome in a protic solvent environment.

  11. Total synthesis of a new cytotoxic acetogenin, jimenezin, and the revised structure.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Maeda, K; Hirota, S; Nakata, T

    1999-12-16

    The first total synthesis of jimenezin was achieved by using carbohydrates as chiral building blocks, thus revising the proposed structure 1 to 2. The key steps in this synthesis include an efficient construction of the THP-THF fragments 3 and 16 through a stereoselective condensation between the pyranyl aldehyde 5 and the acetylene derivative 6, and a palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of 3 or 16 with a terminal butenolide 4.

  12. Enantioselective and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reactions of vinyl sulfones: total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Beaudry, Christopher M

    2014-09-22

    The total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin is described. The synthesis features an enantio- and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reaction of a vinyl sulfone to construct the cyclophane architecture of the natural product. The Diels-Alder substrate was prepared by a regioselective one-pot three-component Suzuki reaction of a non-symmetric dibromoarene. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-lundurine B and determination of its absolute stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masaya; Arai, Shigeru; Nishida, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    A total synthesis of the Kopsia tenuis alkaloid (-)-lundurine B has been achieved. A quaternary chiral carbon has been created by an asymmetric deprotonation using a symmetric spiro cyclohexanone intermediate with a chiral lithium amide. The hexacyclic skeleton was sequentially constructed through metal-mediated reactions. The absolute stereochemistry of intermediate 5 has been unambiguously established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. This is the first description of the absolute stereochemistry of Kopsia tenuis alkaloids based on chemical synthesis.

  14. Total Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Systems for Dissolution of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    For purposes of Space Resource Utilization, work in the total synthesis of a new ionic liquid system for the extraction of oxygen and metals from lunar soil is studied and described. Reactions were carried out according to procedures found in the chemical literature, analyzed via Thin-Layer Chromatography and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and purified via vacuum distillation and rotary evaporation. Upon final analysis via 1H NMR, it was found that while the intermediates of the synthesis had been achieved, unexpected side products were also present. The mechanisms and constraints of the synthesis are described as well as the final results of the project and recommendations for continued study

  15. Total Synthesis of Nominal Cyclocinamide B and Investigation into the Identity of the Cyclocinamides.

    PubMed

    Curzon, Stephanie S; Garcia, Jessica M; Konopelski, Joseph P

    2015-06-03

    The total synthesis of nominal cyclocinamide B, a cyclic peptide marine natural product, is reported together with an isomer of nominal cyclocinamide A. Initial attempts at the synthesis of the title compounds by inclusion of a turn inducer failed. However, direct synthesis succeeded in formation of the 14-membered cyclic peptide structure. Comparison of the data from all synthetic cyclocinamide A and B compounds with those of the natural products leads to the conclusion that the two natural products possess the same relative stereochemistry and that the true structures have not been defined.

  16. Undergraduate Research as Chemical Education--A Symposium: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: The Total Synthesis of Maytansine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Thomas E.

    1984-01-01

    An undergraduate research program in natural product synthesis was established at a small liberal arts college. Discusses program goals (including the total synthesis of maytansine), objectives, and accomplishments to date. Guidelines for establishing such programs are offered. (JN)

  17. Fischer Indolizations as a Strategic Platform for the Total Synthesis of Picrinine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joel M; Moreno, Jesus; Boal, Ben W; Garg, Neil K

    2015-09-18

    Picrinine, which is a member of the akuammiline family of alkaloids, was first isolated in 1965 from the leaves of Alstonia scholaris. The natural product possesses a daunting polycyclic skeleton that contains a furanoindoline, a bridged [3.3.1]azabicycle, two N,O-acetal linkages, and six stereogenic centers. These structural features render picrinine a challenging and attractive target for total synthesis. This paper provides a full account of our synthetic forays toward picrinine, which culminates in the first total synthesis of this long-standing target. Central to the success of our approach is the use of the Fischer indolization reaction to introduce the C7 quaternary stereocenter and the indoline nucleus of the natural product's scaffold. We probe some of the subtleties of this classic transformation by examining some of the most complex Fischer indolization substrates to date. Additionally, we describe various roadblocks encountered in our experimental efforts, which were successfully overcome to complete the total synthesis of picrinine.

  18. A Cascade Strategy Enables a Total Synthesis of (±)‐Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shuyu; Münster, Niels; Balan, Tudor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Morphine has been a target for synthetic chemists since Robinson proposed its correct structure in 1925, resulting in a large number of total syntheses of morphine alkaloids. Here we report a total synthesis of (±)‐morphine that employs two key strategic cyclizations: 1) a diastereoselective light‐mediated cyclization of an O‐arylated butyrolactone to form a tricyclic cis‐fused benzofuran and 2) a cascade ene–yne–ene ring closing metathesis to forge the tetracyclic morphine core. This approach enables a short and stereoselective synthesis of morphine in an overall yield of 6.6 %. PMID:27735107

  19. Intestinal mucosa in diabetes: synthesis of total proteins and sucrase-isomaltase

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, W.A.; Perchellet, E.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    The effects of insulin deficiency on nitrogen metabolism in muscle and liver have been extensively studied with recent in vivo demonstration of impaired protein synthesis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Despite the significant contribution of small intestinal mucosa to overall protein metabolism, the effect of insulin deficiency on intestinal protein synthesis have not been completely defined. The authors studied the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on total protein synthesis by small intestinal mucosa and on synthesis of a single enzyme protein of the enterocyte brush-border membrane sucrase-isomaltase. They used the flood-dose technique to minimize the difficulties of measuring specific radioactivity of precursor phenylalanine and determined incorporation into mucosal proteins and sucrase-isomaltase 20 min after injection of the labeled amino acid. Diabetes did not alter mucosal mass as determined by weight and content of protein and DNA during the 5 days after injection of streptozotocin. Increased rates of sucrase-isomaltase synthesis developed beginning on day 3, and those of total protein developed on day 5. Thus intestinal mucosal protein synthesis is not an insulin-sensitive process.

  20. Chemistry of Renieramycins. Part 14: Total Synthesis of Renieramycin I and Practical Synthesis of Cribrostatin 4 (Renieramycin H)

    PubMed Central

    Yokoya, Masashi; Kobayashi, Keiichiro; Sato, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The first total synthesis of (±)-renieramycin I, which was isolated from the Indian bright blue sponge Haliclona cribricutis, is described. The key step is the selenium oxide oxidation of pentacyclic bis-p-quinone derivative (3) stereo- and regioselectively. We also report a large-scale synthesis of cribrostatin 4 (renieramycin H) via the C3-C4 double bond formation in an early stage based on the Avendaño’s protocol, from readily available 1-acetyl-3-(3-methyl-2,4,5-trimethylphenyl)methyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (8) in 18 steps (8.3% overall yield). The synthesis provides unambiguous evidence supporting the original structure of renieramycin I. PMID:26287215

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of α-quaternary Mannich adducts by palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation: total synthesis of (+)-sibirinine.

    PubMed

    Numajiri, Yoshitaka; Pritchett, Beau P; Chiyoda, Koji; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-01-28

    A catalytic enantioselective method for the synthesis of α-quaternary Mannich-type products is reported. The two-step sequence of (1) Mannich reaction followed by (2) decarboxylative enantioselective allylic alkylation serves as a novel strategy to in effect access asymmetric Mannich-type products of "thermodynamic" enolates of substrates possessing additional enolizable positions and acidic protons. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation enables the enantioselective synthesis of five-, six-, and seven-membered ketone, lactam, and other heterocyclic systems. The mild reaction conditions are notable given the acidic free N-H groups and high functional group tolerance in each of the substrates. The utility of this method is highlighted in the first total synthesis of (+)-sibirinine.

  2. [Total Synthesis of Biologically Active Natural Products toward Elucidation of the Mode of Action].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Total synthesis of biologically active cyclodepsipeptide destruxin E using solid- and solution-phase synthesis is described. The solid-phase synthesis of destruxin E was initially investigated for the efficient synthesis of destruxin analogues. Peptide elongation from polymer-supported β-alanine was efficiently performed using DIC/HOBt or PyBroP/DIEA, and subsequent cleavage from the polymer-support under weakly acidic conditions furnished a cyclization precursor in moderate yield. Macrolactonization of the cyclization precursor was smoothly performed using 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride (MNBA)/4-(dimethylamino)pyridine N-oxide (DMAPO) to afford macrolactone in moderate yield. Finally, formation of the epoxide in the side chain via three steps provided destruxin E, and the stereochemistry of the epoxide was determined to be S. Its diastereomer, epi-destruxin E, was also synthesized in the same manner used to synthesize the natural product. The stereochemistry of the epoxide was critical for the V-ATPase inhibition; natural product destruxin E exhibited 10-fold more potent V-ATPase inhibition than epi-destruxin E. Next, the scalable synthesis of destruxin E for in vivo study was also performed via solution-phase synthesis. The scalable synthesis of a key component, (S)-HA-Pro-OH, was achieved using osmium-catalyzed diastereoselective dihydroxylation with (DHQD)2PHAL as a chiral ligand; peptide synthesis using Cbz-protected amino acid derivatives furnished the cyclization precursor on a gram-scale. Macrolactonization smoothly provided the macrolactone without forming a dimerized product, even at 6 mM, and the synthesis of destruxin E was achieved via three steps on a gram scale in high purity (>98%).

  3. Total chemical synthesis and X-ray structure of kaliotoxin by racemic protein crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Pentelute, Brad L.; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Gates, Zachary P.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O.; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2010-11-05

    Here we report the total synthesis of kaliotoxin by 'one pot' native chemical ligation of three synthetic peptides. A racemic mixture of D- and L-kaliotoxin synthetic protein molecules gave crystals in the centrosymmetric space groupP that diffracted to atomic-resolution (0.95 {angstrom}), enabling the X-ray structure of kaliotoxin to be determined by direct methods.

  4. Total synthesis of ceratopicanol through tandem cycloaddition reaction of a linear substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Won-Yeob; Lee, Hee-Yoon

    2012-10-01

    Total synthesis of ceratopicanol (1) was achieved with a tandem cycloaddition reaction of allenyl diazo compound 6 via a trimethylenemethane (TMM) diyl intermediate. The TMM diyl mediated [2+3] cycloaddition reaction furnished the consecutive quaternary carbon centers and showed an unusual diastereoselectivity.

  5. Stereoselective total synthesis of Oxylipin from open chain gluco-configured building block.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Santosh Ramdas; Aidhen, Indrapal Singh

    2017-04-18

    Total synthesis of naturally occurring Oxylipin has been achieved from open chain gluco-configured building block which is readily assembled from inexpensive and commercially available D-(+)-gluconolactone. Grignard reaction and Wittig olefination reactions are key steps for the requisite CC bond formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Total synthesis and absolute stereochemistry of the proteasome inhibitors cystargolides A and B.

    PubMed

    Tello-Aburto, Rodolfo; Hallada, Liam P; Niroula, Doleshwar; Rogelj, Snezna

    2015-10-28

    The absolute stereochemistry of the cystargolides was determined by total synthesis. Evaluation of synthetic cystargolides and derivatives showed that the natural (2S,3R) stereochemistry is essential for activity. Moreover, benzyl esters (-)-10 and (-)-15 were found to be about 100 times more potent, and to selectively kill MCF-7 cancerous cells.

  7. Total synthesis of exiguamines A and B inspired by catecholamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sofiyev, Vladimir; Lumb, Jean-Philip; Volgraf, Matthew; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-04-16

    The evolution of a total synthesis of the exiguamines, two structurally unusual natural products that are highly active inhibitors of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is described. The ultimately successful strategy involves advanced cross-coupling methodology and features a potentially biosynthetic tautomerization/electrocyclization cascade reaction that forms two heterocycles and installs a quaternary ammonium ion in a single synthetic operation.

  8. Total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester via Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marek; Bałczewski, Piotr; Owsianik, Krzysztof; Różycka-Sokołowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard

    2016-02-07

    In this paper, we have described the first total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester from non-natural sources, in four steps (20% overall yield). The key step involves the Diels-Alder reaction of isobenzofuran with methyl 3-(dimethoxyphosphoryl)acrylate which is controlled by "ortho" regio- and endo stereoselectivities due to the COOMe group.

  9. Total Synthesis and Absolute Stereochemistry of the Proteasome Inhibitors Cystargolides A and B

    PubMed Central

    Tello-Aburto, Rodolfo; Hallada, Liam P.; Niroula, Doleshwar; Rogelj, Snezna

    2015-01-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of the cystargolides was determined by total synthesis. Evaluation of synthetic cystargolides and derivatives showed that the natural (2S,3R) stereochemistry is essential for activity. Moreover, benzyl esters (−)-10 and (−)-15 were found to be about 100 times more potent, and to selectively kill MCF-7 cancerous cells. PMID:26400369

  10. Nazarov cyclization initiated by peracid oxidation: the total synthesis of (+/-)-rocaglamide.

    PubMed

    Malona, John A; Cariou, Kevin; Frontier, Alison J

    2009-06-10

    The total syntheses of aglafolin, rocagloic acid, and rocaglamide using Nazarov cyclization are described. Generation of the necessary oxyallyl cation intermediate was accomplished via peracid oxidation of an allenol ether to generate an unusual oxycarbenium ion species that undergoes cyclization. The synthesis is efficient, highly diastereoselective, and strategically distinct from previous syntheses of rocaglamide.

  11. Selective bromochlorination of a homoallylic alcohol for the total synthesis of (−)-anverene

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    Summary The scope of a recently reported method for the catalytic enantioselective bromochlorination of allylic alcohols is expanded to include a specific homoallylic alcohol. Critical factors for optimization of this reaction are highlighted. The utility of the product bromochloride is demonstrated by the first total synthesis of an antibacterial polyhalogenated monoterpene, (−)-anverene. PMID:27559385

  12. Total Synthesis of α-1C-Galactosylceramide, an Immunostimulatory C-Glycosphingolipid, and Confirmation of the Stereochemistry in the First-Generation Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Byun, Hoe-Sup; Bittman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A non-isosteric α-C-glycoside analogue of KRN7000 (α-1C-GalCer, 1) was reported to induce a selective type of cytokine release in human invariant natural killer cells in vitro. We report here a very concise synthetic route to 1 and its analogue 1′. The key steps include olefin cross-metathesis, Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, and epoxide opening by NaN3/NH4Cl. Inversion of configuration at the amide-bearing carbon in the phytosphingosine backbone constructed by epoxide opening in our previous synthesis of 1 was verified, indicating that remote group participation is not involved during the epoxide-opening reaction. PMID:21958232

  13. First total synthesis of a natural product containing a chiral, beta-diketone: synthesis and stereochemical reassignment of siphonarienedione and siphonarienolone.

    PubMed

    Calter, Michael A; Liao, Wensheng

    2002-11-06

    The first total syntheses of siphonarienolone and siphonarienedione are described. The development of a stereoselective synthesis of beta-diketones facilitated the synthesis of the latter compound. The synthesis of the structures proposed for the natural products afforded compounds whose spectral data did not match those of the natural products. However, the synthesis of compounds isomeric to the proposed structures at C(4) and C(5) afforded compounds identical to the natural products, thereby reassigning the stereochemistry of the natural products.

  14. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure, highly functionalized, medium-sized carbocycles from carbohydrates: formal total synthesis of (+)-calystegine b(2).

    PubMed

    Marco-Contelles, José; de Opazo, Elsa

    2002-05-31

    The free radical cyclization (FR) and the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction have been analyzed in order to develop new and original synthetic protocols for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure, highly functionalized, medium-sized carbocycles from carbohydrates. As a result, we report here for the first time examples of the 7-exo FR cyclization of acyclic radical precursors derived from sugars. This process appears to be extremely sensitive to the conformational mobility of the radical species in the transition state. The use of two isopropylidene groups blocking four of the total present hydroxyl groups and a good radical acceptor (as an alpha,beta-unsaturated ester) are mandatory conditions for a successful ring closure protocol. The RCM reaction by using Grubbs' catalyst on selected carbohydrate-derived precursors has afforded variable yields of the expected unsaturated cycloheptane or cycloctane derivatives. The synthesis of the cycloheptitols has been carried out in good yields, regardless of the absolute configuration at the different stereocenters and the nature of the O-functional groups bound in allylic positions to one of the double bonds implicated in the metathesis reaction. Conversely, in the cyclooctane synthesis, we have observed that the success of the reaction depends not only on the absolute configuration at the different stereocenters close to the double bonds but also on the nature of the O-protecting groups on these stereocenters. Finally, the RCM strategy has been used in an attempt to prepare natural (+)-calystegine B(2) from D-glucose. The synthesis of compound 92 from D-glucose constitutes a formal total synthesis of (+)-calystegine B(2), showing the importance of the steric hindrance in allylic positions for a successful RCM reaction.

  15. Contemporary Strategies for the Synthesis of Tetrahydropyran Derivatives: Application to Total Synthesis of Neopeltolide, a Marine Macrolide Natural Product

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydropyrans are structural motifs that are abundantly present in a range of biologically important marine natural products. As such, significant efforts have been paid to the development of efficient and versatile methods for the synthesis of tetrahydropyran derivatives. Neopeltolide, a potent antiproliferative marine natural product, has been an attractive target compound for synthetic chemists because of its complex structure comprised of a 14-membered macrolactone embedded with a tetrahydropyran ring, and twenty total and formal syntheses of this natural product have been reported so far. This review summarizes the total and formal syntheses of neopeltolide and its analogues, highlighting the synthetic strategies exploited for constructing the tetrahydropyran ring. PMID:27023567

  16. Contemporary Strategies for the Synthesis of Tetrahydropyran Derivatives: Application to Total Synthesis of Neopeltolide, a Marine Macrolide Natural Product.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2016-03-25

    Tetrahydropyrans are structural motifs that are abundantly present in a range of biologically important marine natural products. As such, significant efforts have been paid to the development of efficient and versatile methods for the synthesis of tetrahydropyran derivatives. Neopeltolide, a potent antiproliferative marine natural product, has been an attractive target compound for synthetic chemists because of its complex structure comprised of a 14-membered macrolactone embedded with a tetrahydropyran ring, and twenty total and formal syntheses of this natural product have been reported so far. This review summarizes the total and formal syntheses of neopeltolide and its analogues, highlighting the synthetic strategies exploited for constructing the tetrahydropyran ring.

  17. A Pot-Economical Approach to the Total Synthesis of Sch-725674.

    PubMed

    Bodugam, Mahipal; Javed, Salim; Ganguly, Arghya; Torres, Jessica; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-02-05

    A pot-economical total synthesis of antifungal Sch-725674, 1, is reported. The approach takes advantage of a number of one-pot, sequential transformations, including a phosphate tether-mediated one-pot, sequential RCM/CM/chemoselective hydrogenation protocol, a one-pot tosylation/acrylation sequence, and a one-pot, sequential Finkelstein reaction/Boord olefination/acetonide deprotection procedure to streamline the synthesis route by reducing isolation and purification procedures, thus saving time. Overall, an asymmetric route has been developed that is efficiently accomplished in seven pots from phosphate (S,S)-triene and with minimal purification.

  18. Determination of absolute stereochemistry, total synthesis, and evaluation of peptides from the myxomycete Physarum melleum.

    PubMed

    Hanazawa, Shuwa; Arai, Midori A; Li, Xiaofan; Ishibashi, Masami

    2008-01-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of melleumin A (1) and B (2), novel peptide compounds isolated from the myxomycete Physarum melleum, was determined by synthesis of their segments and by a modified Mosher's method. Total synthesis of melleumin B (2) was achieved by a stereoselective method, which provided further evidence for all the absolute stereochemistries of melleumin B (2). The Wnt signal inhibitory activities of 2 and its 10R-epimer 19 were evaluated. Compound 19 showed moderate inhibition of Wnt signal transcription, which suggests that melleumin analogues might be useful as Wnt signal inhibitors.

  19. Total synthesis of racemic and (R) and (S)-4-methoxyalkanoic acids and their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswanath; Shinde, Digambar Balaji; Kanth, Boddu Shashi; Kamle, Avijeet; Kumar, C Ganesh

    2011-07-01

    The total synthesis of 4-methoxydecanoic acid and 4-methoxyundecanoic acid in racemic and stereoselective [(R) and (S)] forms has been accomplished. For stereoselective synthesis of the compounds (S) and (R)-BINOL complexes have been used to generate the required chiral centres. The antifungal activity of these compounds has been studied against different organisms and the results were found to be impressive. The activity of the compounds in racemic and in stereoselective forms was compared. (R)-4-Methoxydecanoic acid was found to be most potent (MIC: 0.019 mg/mL against Candida albicans MTCC 227, C. albicans MTCC 4748, Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) MTCC 281 and Issatchenkia orientalis MTCC 3020).

  20. Development of an Enantioselective Route towards the Lycopodium Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of Lycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a C15-desmethyl tricycle core of lycopodine has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthetic sequence include organocatalytic, intramolecular Michael addition of a keto sulfone and a tandem 1,3-sulfonyl shift / Mannich cyclization to construct the tricyclic core ring system. Synthetic work towards this natural product family led to the development of N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide – an organocatalyst which facilitiates enantioselective, intramolecular Michael additions. A detailed mechanistic discussion is provided for both the intramolecular Michael addition and the sulfone rearrangement. Finally, the application of these discoveries to the enantioselective total synthesis of alkaloid lycopodine is described. PMID:20586477

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis of (−)-Acetylapoaranotin

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of the epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) natural product (−)-acetylapoaranotin (3) is reported. The concise synthesis was enabled by an eight-step synthesis of a key cyclohexadienol-containing amino ester building block. The absolute stereochemistry of both amino ester building blocks used in the synthesis is set through catalytic asymmetric (1,3)-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. The formal syntheses of (−)-emethallicin E and (−)-haemotocin are also achieved through the preparation of a symmetric cyclohexadienol-containing diketopiperazine. PMID:28349698

  2. Total Synthesis of (-)-Tetrodotoxin and 11-norTTX-6(R)-ol.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Tomoaki; Motoyama, Keisuke; Toma, Tatsuya; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2017-02-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-tetrodotoxin [(-)-TTX] and 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin, which are selective blockers of voltage-gated sodium channels, was accomplished from the commercially available p-benzoquinone. This synthesis was based on efficient stereocontrol of the six contiguous stereogenic centers on the core cyclohexane ring through Ogasawara's method, [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of an allylic cyanate, and intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a nitrile oxide. Our synthetic route was applied to the synthesis of the tetrodotoxin congeners 11-norTTX-6(R)-ol and 4,9-anhydro-11-norTTX-6(R)-ol through late-stage modification of the common intermediate. Neutral deprotection at the final step enabled easy purification of tetrodotoxin and 11-norTTX-6(R)-ol without competing dehydration to their 4,9-anhydro forms.

  3. [Total synthesis of marine cyclic guanidine compounds and development of novel guanidine type asymmetric organocatalysts].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Kazuo

    2003-06-01

    Crambescidins and batzelladines, novel marine guanidine alkaloids, have unique pentacyclic and tricyclic guanidine core structures, respectively. They display a considerable array of biological activity and not surprisingly have attracted considerable synthetic interest. The first total synthesis of crambescidin 359 (7) and stereoselective total synthesis of batzelladine D (11) were accomplished based on a successive 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction strategy. During synthetic studies of 7, the absolute stereochemistry was revealed. Based on the structure of 7, the novel C2-symmetric pentacyclic guanidine compounds 69a-d were designed and synthesized as guanidine organocatalysts. The catalyst 69b works efficiently as an asymmetric catalyst of the alkylation reaction of the glycynate-benzophenone Schiff base 73, which gives 74 with 80-90% ee.

  4. Total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine via an organocatalytic Diels–Alder approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoming; Duan, Shengguo; Tao, Cheng; Zhai, Hongbin; Qiu, Fayang G.

    2015-01-01

    The structurally complex alkaloid gelsemine was previously thought to have no significant biological activities, but a recent study has shown that it has potent and specific antinociception in chronic pain. While this molecule has attracted significant interests from the synthetic community, an efficient synthetic strategy is still the goal of many synthetic chemists. Here we report the asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine, including a highly diastereoselective and enantioselective organocatalytic Diels–Alder reaction, an efficient intramolecular trans-annular aldol condensation furnishing the prolidine ring and establishing the configuration of the C20 quaternary carbon stereochemical centre. The entire gelsemine skeleton was constructed through a late-stage intramolecular SN2 substitution. The enantiomeric excess of this total synthesis is over 99%, and the overall yield is around 5%. PMID:25995149

  5. Total Synthesis of (+)-Sieboldine A: Evolution of A Pinacol-Terminated Cyclization Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Stephen M.; France, David J.; Overman, Larry E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes synthetic studies that culminated in the first total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloid sieboldine A. During this study a number of pinacol-terminated cationic cyclizations were examined to form the cis-hydrindanone core of sieboldine A. Of these, a mild Au(I)-promoted 1,6-enyne cyclization that was terminated by a semipinacol rearrangement proved to be most efficient. Fashioning the unprecedented N-hydroxyazacyclononane ring embedded within the bicyclo[5.2.1]decane-N,O-acetal moiety of sieboldine A was a formidable challenge. Ultimately, the enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-sieboldine A was completed by forming this ring in good yield by cyclization of a protected-hydroxylamine thioglycoside precursor. PMID:22734821

  6. Studies of a Diazo Cyclopropanation Strategy for the Total Synthesis of (-)-Lundurine A.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Xiu; Jin, Shuai-Jiang; Gong, Jin; Zhang, Dan; Song, Hao; Qin, Yong

    2015-09-14

    The bioactive Kopsia alkaloids lundurines A-D are the only natural products known to contain indolylcyclopropane. Achieving their syntheses can provide important insights into their biogenesis, as well as novel synthetic routes for complex natural products. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-lundurine A has previously been achieved through a Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation strategy. Here, the total synthesis of (-)-lundurine A was carried out using a metal-catalyzed diazo cyclopropanation strategy. In order to avoid a carbene CH insertion side reaction during cyclopropanation of α-diazo- carboxylates or cyanides, a one-pot, copper-catalyzed Bamford-Stevens diazotization/diazo decomposition/cyclopropanation cascade was developed, involving hydrazone. This approach simultaneously generates the C/D/E ring system and the two chiral quaternary centers at C2 and C7.

  7. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1 and its aspirin-triggered stereoisomer

    PubMed Central

    Petasis, Nicos A.; Yang, Rong; Winkler, Jeremy W.; Zhu, Min; Uddin, Jasim; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1, a potent anti-inflammatory, proresolving, and neuroprotective lipid mediator derived biosynthetically from docosahexaenoic acid, was prepared in enantiomerically pure form via total organic synthesis. The synthetic strategy is highly stereocontrolled and convergent, featuring epoxide opening of glycidol starting materials for the introduction of the 10(R) and 17(S) hydroxyl groups. The desired alkene Z geometry was secured via the cis-reduction of alkyne precursors, while the conjugated E,E,Z triene was introduced at the end, in order to minimize Z/E isomerization. The same strategy, was also employed for the total synthesis of aspirin-triggered neuroprotectin D1 / protectin D1 having the 17(R)-stereochemistry. Synthetic compounds obtained with the reported method were matched with endogenously derived materials, and helped establish their complete stereochemistry. PMID:22690022

  8. Quinones as dienophiles in the Diels-Alder reaction: history and applications in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nawrat, Christopher C; Moody, Christopher J

    2014-02-17

    In the canon of reactions available to the organic chemist engaged in total synthesis, the Diels-Alder reaction is among the most powerful and well understood. Its ability to rapidly generate molecular complexity through the simultaneous formation of two carbon-carbon bonds is almost unrivalled, and this is reflected in the great number of reported applications of this reaction. Historically, the use of quinones as dienophiles is highly significant, being the very first example investigated by Diels and Alder. Herein, we review the application of the Diels-Alder reaction of quinones in the total synthesis of natural products. The highlighted examples span some 60 years from the landmark syntheses of morphine (1952) and reserpine (1956) by Gates and Woodward, respectively, through to the present day examples, such as the tetracyclines. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Advances on Semisynthesis, Total Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationships of Honokiol and Magnolol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Honokiol and magnolol (an isomer of honokiol) are small-molecule polyphenols isolated from the barks of Magnolia officinalis, which have been widely used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines. In the last decade, a variety of biological properties of honokiol and magnolol (e.g., anti-oxidativity, antitumor activity, anti-depressant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, neuroprotective activity, anti-diabetic activity, antiviral activity, and antimicrobial activity) have been reported. Meanwhile, certain mechanisms of action of some biological activities were also investigated. Moreover, many analogs of honokiol and magnolol were prepared by structural modification or total synthesis, and some exhibited very potent pharmacological activities with improved water solubility. Therefore, the present review will provide a systematic coverage on recent developments of honokiol and magnolol derivatives in regard to semisynthesis, total synthesis, and structure-activity relationships from 2000 up to now.

  10. Zeolite-Based Organic Synthesis (ZeoBOS) of Acortatarin A: First Total Synthesis Based on Native and Metal-Doped Zeolite-Catalyzed Steps.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Eric; Borghèse, Sophie; Blanc, Aurélien; Bénéteau, Valérie; Pale, Patrick

    2017-01-31

    Similarly to polymer-supported assisted synthesis (PSAS), organic synthesis could be envisaged being performed by using zeolites, native or metal-doped, as heterogeneous catalysts. To illustrate this unprecedented Zeolite-Based Organic Synthesis (ZeoBOS), the total synthesis of acortatarin A was achieved through a novel strategy and using five out of eleven synthetic steps catalyzed by H- or metal-doped zeolites as catalysts. Notably, the formation of an yne-pyrrole intermediate with a copper-doped zeolite and the spiroketalization of an alkyne diol with a silver-doped zeolite have been developed as key steps of the synthesis.

  11. Total synthesis of chiral biaryl natural products by asymmetric biaryl coupling.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Marisa C; Morgan, Barbara J; Linton, Elizabeth C

    2009-11-01

    This tutorial review highlights the use of catalytic asymmetric 2-naphthol couplings in total synthesis. The types of chirality, chiral biaryl natural products, prior approaches to chiral biaryl natural products, and other catalytic asymmetric biaryl couplings are outlined. The three main categories of chiral catalysts for 2-naphthol coupling (Cu, V, Fe) are described with discussion of their limitations and advantages. Applications of the copper catalyzed couplings in biomimetic syntheses are discussed including nigerone, hypocrellin, calphostin D, phleichrome, and cercosporin.

  12. Total Synthesis of Ustiloxin D Utilizing an Ammonia-Ugi Reaction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aaron L; Churches, Quentin I; Hutton, Craig A

    2015-10-16

    Total synthesis of the highly functionalized cyclic peptide natural product, ustiloxin D, has been achieved in a convergent manner. Our strategy incorporates an asymmetric allylic alkylation to construct the tert-alkyl aryl ether linkage between the dopa and isoleucine residues. The elaborated β-hydroxydopa derivative is rapidly converted to a linear tripeptide through an ammonia-Ugi reaction. Subsequent cyclization and global deprotection affords ustiloxin D in six steps from a known β-hydroxydopa derivative.

  13. Total Synthesis of Chiral Biaryl Natural Products by Asymmetric Biaryl Coupling ‡

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Marisa C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; Linton, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial review highlights the use of catalytic asymmetric 2-naphthol couplings in total synthesis. The types of chirality, chiral biaryl natural products, prior approaches to chiral biaryl natural products, and other catalytic asymmetric biaryl couplings are outlined. The three main categories of chiral catalysts for 2-naphthol coupling (Cu, V, Fe) are described with discussion of their limitations and advantages. Applications of the copper catalyzed couplings in biomimetic syntheses are discussed including nigerone, hypocrellin, calphostin D, phleichrome, and cercosporin. PMID:19847351

  14. Enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A: two approaches to the macrolactone fragment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.; Burch, Jason D.; Hu, Essa; Jaeschke, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A is described. Two syntheses of the macrolactone subunit are included: the first relies upon an Ireland–Claisen rearrangement to generate the trisubstituted olefin geometry and the second utilizes an enantioselective vinylogous aldol reaction for this purpose. Enantioselective syntheses of the sugar and chlorocyclopropane side chain fragments are also disclosed. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of this natural product was determined by fragment coupling with the two enantiomers of the side chain fragment. PMID:22859865

  15. Investigating Mithramycin deoxysugar biosynthesis: enzymatic total synthesis of TDP-D-olivose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guojun; Kharel, Madan K; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jürgen

    2011-11-25

    Mix'n'match: Enzymatic total synthesis of TDP-D-olivose was achieved, starting from TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose, by combining three pathway enzymes with one cofactor-regenerating enzyme. The results also revealed that MtmC is a bifunctional enzyme that can perform a 4-ketoreduction necessary for D-olivose biosynthesis besides the previously found C-methyltransfer for D-mycarose biosynthesis.

  16. Organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management: a literature review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bloor, G

    1999-01-01

    As health services face increasing pressure to meet the expectations of different stakeholders, they must continuously improve and learn from their experience. Many fail in attempts at continuous improvement programs because managers have not understood the complexity of making changes in organisations with multiple subcultures and interests. This article examines the related concepts of organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management and shows how a synthesis of this knowledge can assist in developing continuous organisational learning and improvement.

  17. Total Synthesis of (+)-18-epi-Latrunculol A: Development of a Synthetic Route

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of an enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-18-epi-latrunculol A, a congener of the marine-sponge-derived latrunculins A and B, is reported. Key steps include a late-stage Mitsunobu macrolactonization to construct the 16-membered macrolactone, a mild Carreira alkynylation to unite the northern and southern hemispheres, a diastereoselective, acid-mediated δ-hydroxy enone cyclization/equilibration sequence, and a functional-group-tolerant cross-metathesis to access the enone cyclization precursor. PMID:25243951

  18. Studies toward the Total Synthesis of Itralamide B and Biological Evaluation of Its Structural Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoji; Lv, Chanshan; Feng, Junmin; Tang, Linjun; Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Yuqing; Meng, Yi; Ye, Tao; Xu, Zhengshuang

    2015-01-01

    Itralamides A and B were isolated from the lipophilic extract of Lyngbya majuscula collected from the eastern Caribbean. Itralamide B (1) showed cytotoxic activity towards human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293, IC50 = 6 μM). Preliminary studies disapproved the proposed stereochemistry of itralamide. In this paper, we will provide a full account of the total synthesis of four stereoisomers of itralamide B and the results derived from biological tests of these structural congeners. PMID:25871289

  19. Total Synthesis of Chlorofusin, its Seven Chromophore Diastereomers, and Key Partial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ryan C.; Lee, Sang Yeul; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorofusin is a recently isolated, naturally occurring inhibitor of p53−MDM2 complex formation whose structure is composed of a densely functionalized azaphilone-derived chromophore linked through the terminal amine of ornithine to a nine residue cyclic peptide. Herein we report the full details of the total synthesis of chlorofusin, resulting in the assignment of the absolute stereochemistry and reassignment of the relative stereochemistry of the complex chromophore. Condensation of each enantiomer of an azaphilone chromophore precursor with the Nδ-amine of a protected ornithinethreonine dipeptide, followed by a one-step oxidation/spirocyclization of the most reactive olefin provided all eight diastereomers of the fully elaborated chromophore−dipeptide conjugate. Comparison of the spectroscopic properties for these eight compounds and those of simpler models with that reported for the natural product allowed the full assignment of the (4R,8S,9R)-stereochemistry of the chlorofusin chromophore. The natural, but stereochemically reassigned, diastereomer of the dipeptide conjugate was incorporated in a convergent total synthesis of chlorofusin confirming the stereochemical reassignment and establishing its absolute stereochemistry. Similarly and enlisting the late stage convergent point in the total synthesis, the remaining seven diastereomers of the chromophore−dipeptide conjugates were individually incorporated into the 9-residue cyclic peptide of chlorofusin (4 steps each) providing all seven remaining possible chromophore diastereomers of the natural product. PMID:18712872

  20. Comparison of Whole-Blood Metal Ion Levels Among Four Types of Large-Head, Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Implants: A Concise Follow-up, at Five Years, of a Previous Report.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Jonathan; Lavigne, Martin; Lungu, Eugen; Belzile, Etienne; Morin, François; Vendittoli, Pascal-André

    2016-02-17

    Few studies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants with a large-diameter femoral head and metal-on-metal design have directly compared the progression of metal ion levels over time and the relationship to complications. As we previously reported, 144 patients received one of four types of large-diameter-head, metal-on-metal THA designs (Durom, Birmingham, ASR XL, or Magnum implants). Cobalt, chromium, and titanium ion levels were measured over five years. We compared ion levels and clinical results over time. The Durom group showed the highest levels of cobalt (p ≤ 0.002) and titanium ions (p ≤ 0.03). Both the Durom and Birmingham groups demonstrated significant ongoing cobalt increases up to five years. Eight patients (seven with a Durom implant and one with a Birmingham implant) developed adverse local tissue reaction. Six Durom implants and one Birmingham implant required revision, with one pseudotumor under surveillance at the time of the most recent follow-up. We found that ion generation and related complications varied among designs. More concerning was that, for some designs, ion levels continued to increase. Coupling a cobalt-chromium adapter sleeve to an unmodified titanium femoral trunnion along with a large metal-on-metal bearing may explain the poor performances of two of the designs in the current study.

  1. Total synthesis approaches to natural product derivatives based on the combination of chemical synthesis and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Kirschning, Andreas; Taft, Florian; Knobloch, Tobias

    2007-10-21

    Secondary metabolites are an extremely diverse and important group of natural products with industrial and biomedical implications. Advances in metabolic engineering of both native and heterologous secondary metabolite producing organisms have allowed the directed synthesis of desired novel products by exploiting their biosynthetic potentials. Metabolic engineering utilises knowledge of cellular metabolism to alter biosynthetic pathways. An important technique that combines chemical synthesis with metabolic engineering is mutasynthesis (mutational biosynthesis; MBS), which advanced from precursor-directed biosynthesis (PDB). Both techniques are based on the cellular uptake of modified biosynthetic intermediates and their incorporation into complex secondary metabolites. Mutasynthesis utilises genetically engineered organisms in conjunction with feeding of chemically modified intermediates. From a synthetic chemist's point of view the concept of mutasynthesis is highly attractive, as the method combines chemical expertise with Nature's synthetic machinery and thus can be exploited to rapidly create small libraries of secondary metabolites. However, in each case, the method has to be critically compared with semi- and total synthesis in terms of practicability and efficiency. Recent developments in metabolic engineering promise to further broaden the scope of outsourcing chemically demanding steps to biological systems.

  2. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  3. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  4. Strategic innovation in the total synthesis of complex natural products using gold catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Luo, Tuoping; Yang, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Novel organic reactions drive the advance of chemical synthesis in the same way that enabling technologies drive new scientific discoveries. One area of organic methodology that has undergone significant growth during the last decade is that of homogeneous gold-catalyzed transformations. This trend has been further enhanced by the employment of gold catalysis on a routine basis to accomplish the total synthesis of natural products. In particular, the superior π acidity of the cationic gold complex for the activation of alkynes and allenes towards nucleophilic addition has significantly enriched the toolkit of transformations available to the total synthesis community, and inspired a new era of creativity in terms of the strategic disconnection of target compounds during their retrosynthetic analysis. Instead of simply supplementing the many existing reviews of gold catalysis, this review has been organized from the perspective of synthetic target families, with particular emphasis on the use of gold-catalyzed transformations during the late stages of syntheses involving complicated substrates, and cascade reactions that significantly increase molecular complexity.

  5. Total RNA-seq to identify pharmacological effects on specific stages of mRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Sarah A; Snavely, Andrew; Landry, Heather M; Churchman, L Stirling; Gray, Jesse M; Springer, Michael

    2017-03-06

    Pharmacological perturbation is a powerful tool for understanding mRNA synthesis, but identification of the specific steps of this multi-step process that are targeted by small molecules remains challenging. Here we applied strand-specific total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify and distinguish specific pharmacological effects on transcription and pre-mRNA processing in human cells. We found unexpectedly that the natural product isoginkgetin, previously described as a splicing inhibitor, inhibits transcription elongation. Compared to well-characterized elongation inhibitors that target CDK9, isoginkgetin caused RNA polymerase accumulation within a broader promoter-proximal band, indicating that elongation inhibition by isoginkgetin occurs after release from promoter-proximal pause. RNA-seq distinguished isoginkgetin and CDK9 inhibitors from topoisomerase I inhibition, which alters elongation across gene bodies. We were able to detect these and other specific defects in mRNA synthesis at low sequencing depth using simple metagene-based metrics. These metrics now enable total-RNA-seq-based screening for high-throughput identification of pharmacological effects on individual stages of mRNA synthesis.

  6. Total Synthesis of Viridicatumtoxin B and Analogues Thereof: Strategy Evolution, Structural Revision, and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The details of the total synthesis of viridicatumtoxin B (1) are described. Initial synthetic strategies toward this intriguing tetracycline antibiotic resulted in the development of key alkylation and Lewis acid-mediated spirocyclization reactions to form the hindered EF spirojunction, as well as Michael–Dieckmann reactions to set the A and C rings. The use of an aromatic A-ring substrate, however, was found to be unsuitable for the introduction of the requisite hydroxyl groups at carbons 4a and 12a. Applying these previous tactics, we developed stepwise approaches to oxidize carbons 12a and 4a based on enol- and enolate-based oxidations, respectively, the latter of which was accomplished after systematic investigations that revealed critical reactivity patterns. The herein described synthetic strategy resulted in the total synthesis of viridicatumtoxin B (1), which, in turn, formed the basis for the revision of its originally assigned structure. The developed chemistry facilitated the synthesis of a series of viridicatumtoxin analogues, which were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, including drug-resistant pathogens, revealing the first structure–activity relationships within this structural type. PMID:25317739

  7. Development of the Concise Data Processing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2011-01-01

    The Concise Data Processing Assessment (CDPA) was developed to probe student abilities related to the nature of measurement and uncertainty and to handling data. The diagnostic is a ten question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pre-test and post-test. A key component of the development process was interviews with students, which…

  8. Total synthesis of an exceptional brominated 4-pyrone derivative of algal origin: an exercise in gold catalysis and alkyne metathesis.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeister, Laura; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Pototschnig, Gerit; Fürstner, Alois

    2015-03-16

    A concise approach to the algal metabolite 1 is described, which also determines the previously unknown stereostructure of this natural product. Compound 1 is distinguished by a rare brominated 4-pyrone nucleus linked as a ketene-acetal to a polyunsaturated macrocyclic scaffold comprising an extra homoallylic bromide entity. The synthesis of 1 is based on the elaboration and selective functionalization of the linear precursor 23 endowed with no less than six different sites of unsaturation including the highly enolized oxo-alkanoate function. Key to success was the formation of the 2-alkoxy-4-pyrone ring by a novel gold-catalyzed transformation which engages only the acetylenic β-ketoester substructure of 23 but leaves all other π-bonds untouched. The synthesis was completed by a ring-closing alkyne metathesis to forge the signature cycloalkyne motif of 1 followed by selective bromination of the ketene-acetal site in the resulting product 27 without touching the skipped diene-yne substructure resident within the macrocyclic tether. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Studies Toward the Syntheses of Pluramycin Natural Products. The First Total Synthesis of Isokidamycin.

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, B. Michael; Mans, Douglas M.; Kaelin, David E.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first total synthesis of the complex C-aryl glycoside isokidamycin, the epimer of the naturally-occurring pluramycin antibiotic kidamycin. The synthesis features a highly efficientDiels-Alder reaction between a substituted naphthyne and a glycosylatedfuran to form the anthracene core bearing a pendant angolosamine C-glycoside. The regiochemical outcome of the Diels-Alder reaction was controlled by employing a disposable silicon-tether to link the reactive napthyne and the glycosyl furan, rendering the cycloaddition intramolecular. The benzopyranone moietyof the aromatic nucleus was appended by cyclization of a functionalized vinylogous amide onto an advanced anthrol intermediate. The vancosamine amino glycoside was introduced by an O→C-glycoside rearrangement that produced the β-anomer. Subsequent refunctionalizations then led to isokidamycin. PMID:21804649

  10. Total synthesis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS repeating unit hexasaccharide.

    PubMed

    Seeberger, Peter H; Pereira, Claney L; Govindan, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS). A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4)-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3)]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups. A linear approach relying on the sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks proved superior to a convergent [3 + 3] strategy that was not successful due to steric constraints. The synthetic hexasaccharide is the starting point for further immunological investigations.

  11. Total synthesis of albicidin: a lead structure from Xanthomonas albilineans for potent antibacterial gyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kretz, Julian; Kerwat, Dennis; Schubert, Vivien; Grätz, Stefan; Pesic, Alexander; Semsary, Siamak; Cociancich, Stéphane; Royer, Monique; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2015-02-02

    The peptide antibiotic albicidin, which is synthesized by the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans, displays remarkable antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The low amounts of albicidin obtainable from the producing organism or through heterologous expression are limiting factors in providing sufficient material for bioactivity profiling and structure-activity studies. Therefore, we developed a convergent total synthesis route toward albicidin. The unexpectedly difficult formation of amide bonds between the aromatic amino acids was achieved through a triphosgene-mediated coupling strategy. The herein presented synthesis of albicidin confirms the previously determined chemical structure and underlines the extraordinary antibacterial activity of this compound. The synthetic protocol will provide multigram amounts of albicidin for further profiling of its drug properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Total synthesis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS repeating unit hexasaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Claney L; Govindan, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS). A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4)-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3)]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups. A linear approach relying on the sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks proved superior to a convergent [3 + 3] strategy that was not successful due to steric constraints. The synthetic hexasaccharide is the starting point for further immunological investigations. PMID:28228857

  13. Is there no end to the total syntheses of strychnine? Lessons learned in strategy and tactics in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Jeffrey S; Overman, Larry E

    2012-04-27

    From the 19th century to the present, the complex indole alkaloid strychnine has engaged the chemical community. In this Review, we examine why strychnine has been and remains today an important target for directed synthesis efforts. A selection of the diverse syntheses of strychnine is discussed with the aim of identifying their influence on the evolution of the strategy and tactics of organic synthesis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Total synthesis of fostriecin: via a regio- and stereoselective polyene hydration, oxidation, and hydroboration sequence.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dong; O'Doherty, George A

    2010-09-03

    A total synthesis of the fostriecin has been achieved in 24 steps from enyne 11. The lactone moiety was installed by a Leighton allylation and Grubbs ring-closing metathesis reaction. The highly reactive Z,Z,E-triene moiety was installed via a late-stage Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of a remarkably stable Z-vinyl boronate. The relative and absolute stereocenters of the C-8,9,11 triol were generated with a regio- and stereoselective asymmetric hydration/oxidation sequence.

  15. Total synthesis of biologically active 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinghui; Lin, Zongtao; Kim, Tae-Kang; Slominski, Andrzej T.; Miller, Duane D.; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A total synthetic strategy of 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 [20S-(OH)D3] involving modified synthesis of key intermediates 7 and 12, Grignard reaction to stereoseletively generate 20S-OH and Wittig-Horner coupling to establish D3 framework, was completed in 16 steps with an overall yield of 0.4 %. The synthetic 20S-(OH)D3 activated vitamin D receptor (VDR) and initiated the expression of downstream genes. In addition, 20S-(OH)D3 showed similar inhibitory potency as calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3] on proliferation of melanoma cells. PMID:26433048

  16. Studies Culminating in the Total Synthesis and Determination of the Absolute Configuration of (-)-Saudin

    PubMed Central

    Boeckman, Robert K.; del Rosario Ferreira, Maria Rico; Mitchell, Lorna H.; Shao, Pengcheng; Neeb, Michael J.; Fang, Yue

    2011-01-01

    A full account of studies that culminated in the total synthesis of both antipodes and the assignment of its absolute configuration of Saudin, a hypoglycemic natural product. Two approaches are described, the first proceeding though bicyclic lactone intermediates and related second monocyclic esters. The former was obtained via asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition and the latter by an asymmetric annulation protocol. Both approaches employ a Lewis acid promoted Claisen rearrangement, with the successful approach taking advantage of bidentate chelation to control the facial selectivity of the key Claisen rearrangement PMID:22523435

  17. Total Synthesis of Fellutamide B and Deoxy-Fellutamides B, C, and D

    PubMed Central

    Giltrap, Andrew M.; Cergol, Katie M.; Pang, Angel; Britton, Warwick J.; Payne, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The total syntheses of the marine-derived lipopeptide natural product fellutamide B and deoxy-fellutamides B, C, and D are reported. These compounds were accessed through a novel solid-phase synthetic strategy using Weinreb amide-derived resin. As part of the synthesis, a new enantioselective route to (3R)-hydroxy lauric acid was developed utilizing a Brown allylation reaction followed by an oxidative cleavage-oxidation sequence as the key steps. The activity of these natural products, and natural product analogues was also assessed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. PMID:23880930

  18. The asymmetric total synthesis of cinbotolide: a revision of the original structure.

    PubMed

    Botubol, José Manuel; Durán-Peña, María Jesús; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Hanson, James R; Collado, Isidro G; Hernández-Galán, Rosario

    2014-12-05

    The structure 3,4-dihydroxy-2,4,6,8-tetramethyldec-8-enolide (1) was assigned to a metabolite of Botrytis cinerea, but the spectra of several synthetic analogues had significant differences from that of 1. Examination of the constituents of a B. cinerea mutant that overproduces polyketides gave sufficient quantities of 1, now named cinbotolide, for chemical transformations. These led to a revised γ-butyrolactone structure for the metabolite. This structure has been confirmed by an asymmetric total synthesis, which also established its absolute configuration.

  19. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Investigation of the Marine Natural Product Neopeltolide

    PubMed Central

    Custar, Daniel W.; Zabawa, Thomas P.; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M.; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2009-01-01

    The total synthesis and biological evaluation of neopeltolide and analogs are reported. The key bond-forming step utilizes a Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular macrocyclization that installs the tetrahydropyran ring and macrocycle simultaneously. Independent of each other, neither the macrolide nor the oxazole side chain substituents of neopeltolide can inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines. The biological data of the analogs indicate that alterations to either the ester side chain or the stereochemistry of the macrolide result in a loss of biological activity. PMID:19663512

  20. Dehydromicrosclerodermin B and Microsclerodermin J: Total Synthesis and Structural Revision

    PubMed Central

    Melikhova, Ekaterina Y.; Pullin, Robert D. C.; Winter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The total synthesis of dehydromicrosclerodermin B and microsclerodermin J is described. Efficient approaches to the unusual amino acids in the target molecules were developed on the basis of a Negishi coupling (for Trp‐2‐CO2H) and Blaise reaction (for Pyrr). An incorrect assignment of the pyrrolidinone stereochemistry of both compounds was confirmed by synthesizing epimers of the proposed structures. The spectroscopic data of these epimers were in complete agreement with those for the naturally derived material. PMID:27418203

  1. Expedient total synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins via Fmoc chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; Yu, Mu; Qi, Yun-Kun; Tang, Shan; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Longhua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2014-03-05

    Total chemical synthesis provides a unique approach for the access to uncontaminated, monodisperse, and more importantly, post-translationally modified membrane proteins. In the present study we report a practical procedure for expedient and cost-effective synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins in multimilligram scale through the use of automated Fmoc chemistry. The key finding of our study is that after the attachment of a removable arginine-tagged backbone modification group, the membrane protein segments behave almost the same as ordinary water-soluble peptides in terms of Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, ligation, purification, and mass spectrometry characterization. The efficiency and practicality of the new method is demonstrated by the successful preparation of Ser64-phosphorylated M2 proton channel from influenza A virus and the membrane-embedded domain of an inward rectifier K(+) channel protein Kir5.1. Functional characterizations of these chemically synthesized membrane proteins indicate that they provide useful and otherwise-difficult-to-access materials for biochemistry and biophysics studies.

  2. Toward the total synthesis of onchidin, a cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptide from a mollusc.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shū; Kobayashi, Jun; Yazaki, Ryo; Ueno, Masaharu

    2007-01-08

    The total synthesis of onchidin (1), a cytotoxic, C2-symmetric cyclic decadepsipeptide from a marine mollusc, according to the published structure, is described. A novel beta-amino acid, (2S,3S)-3-amino-2-methyl-7-octynoic acid (AMO), was efficiently prepared in high yield with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity based on a catalytic asymmetric three-component Mannich-type reaction with a chiral zirconium catalyst. The formation of sterically unfavorable N-methyl amide and hindered ester bonds were successfully demonstrated, and final macrocyclization was achieved at a secondary-amide site. Completion of the synthesis of 1 suggested that a revision of the structure of the natural product is required. Two diastereomers were also synthesized as candidates for the actual structure of onchidin. Furthermore, efficient solid-phase methods were employed for the combinatorial synthesis of other derivatives to clarify the real structure of onchidin. The solid-phase assembly of a pentadepsipeptide containing all the building blocks was established followed by dimeric cyclization in solution.

  3. Total Synthesis of the Cyclic Carbonate-Containing Natural Product Aspergillusol B from d-(-)-Tartaric Acid.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Joshua N; Meek, Tamaryn; Banwell, Martin G; Carr, Paul D

    2017-07-28

    A total synthesis of compound 3 from d-(-)-tartaric acid is reported, thereby establishing that the structure, including relative stereochemistry, originally assigned to the cyclic carbonate-containing natural product aspergillusol B is correct.

  4. Total Synthesis of Piericidin A1. Application of a Modified Negishi Carboalumination-Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Amorelli, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    A total synthesis of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor piericidin A1 is described. It features a unique strategy for the key disconnection, highlighting a modified Negishi carboalumination/Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling on a polyenyne precursor. PMID:19138148

  5. Evolution of a total synthesis of (-)-kendomycin exploiting a Petasis-Ferrier rearrangement/ring-closing olefin metathesis strategy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Mesaros, Eugen F; Meyer, Emmanuel A

    2006-04-19

    A convergent stereocontrolled total synthesis of (-)-kendomycin (1) has been achieved. The synthesis proceeds with a longest linear sequence of 21 steps, beginning with commercially available 2,4-dimethoxy-3-methylbenzaldehyde (12). Highlights of the synthesis include an effective Petasis-Ferrier union/rearrangement tactic to construct the sterically encumbered tetrahydropyran ring, a ring-closing metathesis to generate the C(4a-13-20a) macrocycle, an effective epoxidation/deoxygenation sequence to isomerize the C(13,14) olefin, and a biomimetic quinone-methide-lactol assembly to complete the synthesis.

  6. The stereocontrolled total synthesis of spirastrellolide A methyl ester. Fragment coupling studies and completion of the synthesis.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Anderson, Edward A; Dalby, Stephen M; Lim, Jong Ho; Maltas, Philip

    2012-08-14

    The spirastrellolides are a novel family of structurally unprecedented marine macrolides which show promising anticancer properties due to their potent inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. In the preceding paper, a modular strategy for the synthesis of spirastellolide A methyl ester which allowed for the initial stereochemical uncertainties was outlined, together with the synthesis of a series of suitably functionalised fragments. In this paper, the realisation of this synthesis is described. Two alternative coupling strategies were explored for elaborating the C26-C40 DEF bis-spiroacetal fragment: a modified Julia olefination of a C26 aldehyde with a C17-C25 sulfone, and a Suzuki coupling of a C25 trialkylborane with a C17-C24 vinyl iodide, which also required the development of a double hydroboration reaction to install the C23/C24 stereocentres. The latter proved a significantly superior strategy, and was fully optimised to provide a C17 aldehyde which was coupled with a C1-C16 alkyne fragment to afford the C1-C40 carbon framework. The BC spiroacetal was then installed within this advanced intermediate by oxidative cleavage of two PMB ethers with spontaneous spiroacetalisation, which also led to unanticipated deprotection of the C23 TES ether. The ensuing truncated seco-acid was cyclised in high yield to construct the 38-membered macrolactone under Yamaguchi macrolactonisation conditions, suggesting favourable conformational pre-organisation. Exhaustive desilylation provided a crystalline macrocyclic pentaol, revealing much about the likely conformation of the macrolactone in solution. Attachment of the remainder of the side chain proved challenging, potentially due to steric hindrance by this macrocycle; an olefin cross-metathesis to install an electrophilic allylic carbonate and subsequent π-allyl Stille coupling with a C43-C47 stannane achieved this goal. Global deprotection completed the first total synthesis of (+)-spirastrellolide A methyl ester which

  7. Total Synthesis of 7-Hydroxymurrayazolinine, Murrayamine D, and Mahanine via m-Nitro Group Activated Pyran Annulation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shujie; Liu, Yong; Kong, Yali; Brown, Milton L

    2015-05-15

    The facile total synthesis of the natural product (±)-mahanine was obtained in eight steps with an overall 52% yield from readily accessible known nitrophenol derivative 6. After a one-step, acid-catalyzed annulation, two additional natural products were formed including 7-hydroxymurrayazolinine, representing its first reported total synthesis. In the whole process, the introduction of the m-nitro group significantly enhanced the key pyran annulation reaction through inductive effects.

  8. Facile total synthesis of (-)-(5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide from carbohydrate, a mosquito oviposition attractant pheromone.

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Kumar, Ashish; Al Ghamdi, Ahamad Al Khazim; Yadav, Jhillu Singh

    2012-09-01

    Total synthesis of (-)-(5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, a major component of mosquito oviposition attractant pheromones is reported. The key synthetic steps involve epoxide opening by lithiated salt of ethylpropionate and acid catalysed lactonization. The total synthesis was achieved in 11 linear steps staring from a readily available carbohydrate δ-gluconolactone in 18% overall yield making it simple, practical and elegant.

  9. Concise Synthesis of 5-Methoxy-6-hydroxy-2-methylchromone-7-O- and 5-Hydroxy-2-methylchromone-7-O-rutinosides, Investigation of their Cytotoxic Activities against Several Human Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baolin; Zhang, Wenpeng; Li, Zhonghua; Gu, Li; Wang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of two novel 2-methylchromone-7-O-rutinosides, whose synthetic precursors and themselves in vitro biological activities have been investigated based on the cytotoxcity against several human tumor cell lines, was reported. The synthesis features early-stage assembly of the acidic labile glycosidic bond between sugar and 2-methylchromone aglycon under a phase transfer catalyzed glycosidation condition, whereas all the other standard glycosylation conditions specific to a wide array of rutinosyl donors bearing different anomeric leaving groups (e.g., SPh, OC(NH)CCl3, Br, OH groups) failed to furnish any detectable products. PMID:21366286

  10. Total synthesis of woodrosin I--part 2: final stages involving RCM and an orthoester rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Fürstner, Alois; Jeanjean, Fabien; Razon, Patrick; Wirtz, Conny; Mynott, Richard

    2003-01-03

    The completion of the first total synthesis of the complex resin glycoside woodrosin I (1) is outlined using the building blocks described in the preceding paper. Key steps involve the TMSOTf-catalyzed coupling of diol 2 with trichloroacetimidate 3 which leads to the selective formation of orthoester 5 rather than to the expected tetrasaccharide. Diene 5, on treatment with catalytic amounts of the Grubbs carbene complex 6 or the phenylindenylidene ruthenium complex 7, undergoes a high yielding ring closing olefin metathesis reaction (RCM) to afford macrolide 8. Exposure of the latter to the rhamnosyl donor 4 in the presence of TMSOTf under "inverse glycosylation" conditions delivers compound 9 by a process involving glycosylation of the sterically hindered 2'-OH group and concomitant rearrangement of the adjacent orthoester into the desired beta-glycoside. This transformation constitutes one of the most advanced applications of the Kochetkov glycosidation method reported to date. Cleavage of the chloroacetate followed by exhaustive hydrogenation completes the total synthesis of the targeted glycolipid 1.

  11. Total Synthesis, Assignment of the Relative and Absolute Stereochemistry, and Structural Reassignment of Phostriecin (aka Sultriecin)

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Christopher P.; Haq, Nadia; Boger, Dale L.

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of phostriecin (2) previously known as sultriecin (1), its structural reassignment as a phosphate versus sulfate monoester, and the assignment of its relative and absolute stereochemistry are disclosed herein. Key elements of the work, which provided first the originally assigned sulfate monoester 1 and then the reassigned and renamed phosphate monoester 2, relied on diagnostic 1H NMR spectroscopic properties of the natural product for the assignment of relative and absolute stereochemistry as well as the subsequent structural reassignment, and a convergent asymmetric total synthesis to provide the unequivocal authentic materials. Key steps of the synthetic approach include a Brown allylation for diastereoselective introduction of the C9 stereochemistry, an asymmetric CBS reduction to establish the lactone C5-stereochemistry, diastereoselective oxidative ring expansion of an α-hydroxyfuran to access the pyran lactone precursor, and single-step installation of the sensitive Z,Z,E-triene unit through a chelation-controlled cuprate addition with installation of the C11 stereochemistry. The approach allows ready access to analogues that can now be used to probe important structural features required for PP2A inhibition, the mechanism of action defined herein. PMID:20108904

  12. Total synthesis, assignment of the relative and absolute stereochemistry, and structural reassignment of phostriecin (aka Sultriecin).

    PubMed

    Burke, Christopher P; Haq, Nadia; Boger, Dale L

    2010-02-24

    A total synthesis of phostriecin (2), previously known as sultriecin (1), its structural reassignment as a phosphate versus sulfate monoester, and the assignment of its relative and absolute stereochemistry are disclosed herein. Key elements of the work, which provided first the originally assigned sulfate monoester 1 and then the reassigned and renamed phosphate monoester 2, relied on diagnostic (1)H NMR spectroscopic properties of the natural product for the assignment of relative and absolute stereochemistry as well as the subsequent structural reassignment, and a convergent asymmetric total synthesis to provide the unequivocal authentic materials. Key steps of the synthetic approach include a Brown allylation for diastereoselective introduction of the C9 stereochemistry, an asymmetric CBS reduction to establish the lactone C5-stereochemistry, diastereoselective oxidative ring expansion of an alpha-hydroxyfuran to access the pyran lactone precursor, and single-step installation of the sensitive Z,Z,E-triene unit through a chelation-controlled cuprate addition with installation of the C11 stereochemistry. The approach allows ready access to analogues that can now be used to probe important structural features required for protein phosphatase 2A inhibition, the mechanism of action defined herein.

  13. Selective Formation of a Trisubstituted Alkene Motif by trans-Hydrostannation/Stille Coupling: Application to the Total Synthesis and Late-Stage Modification of 5,6-Dihydrocineromycin B.

    PubMed

    Rummelt, Stephan M; Preindl, Johannes; Sommer, Heiko; Fürstner, Alois

    2015-05-18

    Countless natural products of polyketide origin have an E-configured 2-methyl-but-2-en-1-ol substructure. An unconventional entry into this important motif was developed as part of a concise total synthesis of 5,6-dihydrocineromycin B. The choice of this particular target was inspired by a recent study, which suggested that the cineromycin family of antibiotics might have overlooked lead qualities, although our biodata do not necessarily support this view. The new approach consists of a sequence of alkyne metathesis followed by a hydroxy-directed trans-hydrostannation and a largely unprecedented methyl-Stille coupling. The excellent yield and remarkable selectivity with which the signature trisubstituted alkene site of the target was procured is noteworthy considering the rather poor outcome of a classical ring-closing metathesis reaction. Moreover, the unorthodox ruthenium-catalyzed trans-hydrostannation is shown to be a versatile handle for diversity-oriented synthesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Total chemical synthesis of enzymatically active human type II secretory phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Hackeng, Tilman M.; Mounier, Carine M.; Bon, Cassian; Dawson, Philip E.; Griffin, John H.; Kent, Stephen B. H.

    1997-01-01

    Human group II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is an enzyme found in the α granules of platelets and at inflammatory sites. Although its physiological function is unclear, sPLA2 can inhibit blood coagulation reactions independent of its lipolytic action. To study the molecular basis of PLA2 activities, we developed a total chemical synthesis of sPLA2 by chemical ligation of large unprotected peptides. The synthetic segments PLA2-(1–58)-αCOSCH2COOH and PLA2-(59–124) were prepared by stepwise solid-phase peptide synthesis and ligated to yield a peptide bond between Gly58 and Cys59. The 124-residue polypeptide product (mass: 13,920 ± 2 Da) was folded to yield one major product (mass: 13,905 ± 1 Da), the loss of 15 ± 3 Da reflecting the formation of seven disulfide bonds. Circular dichroism studies of synthetic sPLA2 showed α-helix, β-structure, and random coil contents consistent with those found in the crystal structure of sPLA2. Synthetic sPLA2 had kcat and Km values identical to those of recombinant sPLA2 for hydrolysis of 1,2-bis(heptanoylthio)-phosphatidylcholine. Synthetic sPLA2, like recombinant sPLA2, inhibited thrombin generation from prothrombinase complex (factors Xa, V, II, Ca2+, and phospholipids). In the absence of phospholipids, both synthetic and recombinant sPLA2 inhibited by 70% prothrombin activation by factors Xa, Va, and Ca2+. Thus, synthetic sPLA2 is a phospholipid-independent anticoagulant like recombinant or natural sPLA2. This study demonstrates that chemical synthesis of sPLA2 yields a fully active native-like enzyme and offers a straightforward tool to provide sPLA2 analogs for structure–activity studies of anticoagulant, lipolytic, or inflammatory activities. PMID:9223275

  15. Ru Catalyzed Alkene-Alkyne Coupling. Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide P

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Papillon, Julien P. N.; Nussbaumer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium complex catalyzed the formation of a carbon-carbon bond between two judiciously chosen alkene and alkyne partners in good yield, and in a chemo- and regioselective fashion, in spite of the significant degree of unsaturation of the substrates. The resulting 1,4-diene forms the backbone of the cytotoxic marine natural product amphidinolide P. The alkene partner was rapidly assembled from (R)-glycidyl tosylate, which served as a linchpin in a one-flask, sequential three-components coupling process using vinyllithium and a vinyl cyanocuprate. The synthesis of the alkyne partner made use of an unusual anti-selective addition under chelation control conditions of an allyltin reagent derived from tiglic acid. In addition, a remarkably E-selective E2 process using the azodicarboxylate-triphenylphosphine system is featured. Also featured is the first example of the use of a β-lactone as a thermodynamic spring to effect macrolactonization. The oxetanone ring was thus used as a productive protecting group that increased the overall efficiency of this total synthesis. This work was also an opportunity to further probe the scope of the ruthenium-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling, in particular using enynes, and studies using various functionalized substrates are described. PMID:16351124

  16. Total synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of a series of selective G protein inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Hang; Underwood, Christina R.; Harpsøe, Kasper; Gardella, Thomas J.; Wöldike, Mie F.; Mannstadt, Michael; Gloriam, David E.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    G proteins are key mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signalling, which facilitates a plethora of important physiological processes. The cyclic depsipeptides YM-254890 and FR900359 are the only known specific inhibitors of the Gq subfamily of G proteins; however, no synthetic route has been reported previously for these complex natural products and they are not easily isolated from natural sources. Here we report the first total synthesis of YM-254890 and FR900359, as well as of two known analogues, YM-385780 and YM-385781. The versatility of the synthetic approach also enabled the design and synthesis of ten analogues, which provided the first structure-activity relationship study for this class of compounds. Pharmacological characterization of all the compounds at Gq-, Gi- and Gs-mediated signalling provided succinct information on the structural requirements for inhibition, and demonstrated that both YM-254890 and FR900359 are highly potent inhibitors of Gq signalling, with FR900359 being the most potent. These natural products and their analogues represent unique tools for explorative studies of G protein inhibition.

  17. Total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin and (-)-o-quinogeldanamycin: asymmetric glycolate aldol reactions and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Merritt B; Meredith, Erik L; Hicken, Erik J; Simmons, Bryon L; Glancey, Russell R; Ma, Wei

    2003-10-17

    The total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin (GA), following a linear route, has been completed using a demethylative quinone-forming reaction as the last step. Key steps include the use of two new asymmetric boron glycolate aldol reactions. To set the anti-C11,12 hydroxymethoxy functionality, (S,S)-5,6-bis-4-methoxyphenyldioxanone 8 was used. Methylglycolate derived from norephedrine 5 set the C6,7 methoxyurethane stereochemistry. The quinone formation step using nitric acid gave the non-natural o-quino-GA product 55 10:1 over geldanamycin. Other known oxidants gave an unusual azaquinone product 49. o-Quino-GA 55 binds Hsp90 with good affinity but is less cytotoxic compared to GA.

  18. Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Total Synthesis of Lajollamide A from the Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Hong, Hanna; Correa, Jhonny; Egereva, Ekaterina; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Gross, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The marine-derived filamentous fungus Asteromyces cruciatus 763, obtained off the coast of La Jolla, San Diego, USA, yielded the new pentapeptide lajollamide A (1), along with the known compounds regiolone (2), hyalodendrin (3), gliovictin (4), 1N-norgliovicitin (5), and bis-N-norgliovictin (6). The planar structure of lajollamide A (1) was determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of lajollamide A (1) was unambiguously solved by total synthesis which provided three additional diastereomers of 1 and also revealed that an unexpected acid-mediated partial racemization (2:1) of the L-leucine and L-N-Me-leucine residues occurred during the chemical degradation process. The biological activities of the isolated metabolites, in particular their antimicrobial properties, were investigated in a series of assay systems. PMID:23342379

  19. Total synthesis of (-)-Penifulvin A, an insecticide with a dioxafenestrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Gaich, Tanja; Mulzer, Johann

    2009-01-21

    Herein we report the first total synthesis of Penifulvin A, a sesquiterpenoid with a novel dioxa-fenestrane structure. Penifulvin A is a potent insecticide against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda which causes enormous damage in the US by consuming foliage of a variety of field crops. A five-step racemic and an eight-step enantioselective route to the natural product and the determination of its absolute configuration are described. The key step involves a meta-photocycloaddition, giving rapid access to the carbon skeleton of penifulvin A in a stereoselective fashion. Finally an oxidation cascade leads to the natural product. The synthetic route is free from protecting groups, scalable, and flexible so that a variety of analogues, among them penifulvins B-E, should be available for performing SAR tests in the insecticidal role.

  20. Total Synthesis of (±)–Rocaglamide via Oxidation-Initiated Nazarov Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Malona, John A.; Cariou, Kevin; Spencer, William T.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of a Nazarov cyclization-based synthetic strategy targeting the anticancer, antiinflammatory, and insecticidal natural product (±)–rocaglamide. Initial pursuit of a polarized heteroaromatic Nazarov cyclization to construct the congested cyclopentane core revealed an unanticipated electronic bias in the pentadienyl cation. This reactivity was harnessed in a successful second-generation approach using an oxidation-initiated Nazarov cyclization of a heteroaryl alkoxyallene. Full details of these two approaches are given, as well as the characterization of undesired reaction pathways available to the Nazarov cyclization product. A sequence of experiments that led to an understanding of the unexpected reactivity of this key intermediate is described, which culminated in the successful total synthesis of (+)-rocaglamide. PMID:22283818

  1. Total synthesis of (±)-maistemonine, (±)-stemonamide, and (±)-isomaistemonine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Fu-Min

    2011-12-16

    A full account of the total synthesis of (±)-maistemonine, (±)-stemonamide, and (±)-isomaistemonine is presented. Two approaches have been developed to construct the basic pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine core of the Stemona alkaloids, featuring a tandem semipinacol/Schmidt rearrangement of a secondary azide and a highly stereoselectively desymmetrizing intramolecular Schmidt reaction, respectively. To build the common spiro-γ-butyrolactone, a new protocol was carried out by utilizing an intramolecular ketone-ester condensation as the key transformation. The vicinal butyrolactone moiety of (±)-maistemonine was stereoselectively introduced via a one-pot procedure involving the epimerization at C-3 and carbonyl allylation/lactonization. Moreover, (±)-stemonamide was divergently synthesized from a common intermediate, and (±)-isomaistemonine was obtained via the epimerization of (±)-maistemonine at C-12.

  2. Total synthesis of (±)-rocaglamide via oxidation-initiated Nazarov cyclization.

    PubMed

    Malona, John A; Cariou, Kevin; Spencer, William T; Frontier, Alison J

    2012-02-17

    This article describes the evolution of a Nazarov cyclization-based synthetic strategy targeting the anticancer, antiinflammatory, and insecticidal natural product (±)-rocaglamide. Initial pursuit of a polarized heteroaromatic Nazarov cyclization to construct the congested cyclopentane core revealed an unanticipated electronic bias in the pentadienyl cation. This reactivity was harnessed in a successful second-generation approach using an oxidation-initiated Nazarov cyclization of a heteroaryl alkoxyallene. Full details of these two approaches are given, as well as the characterization of undesired reaction pathways available to the Nazarov cyclization product. A sequence of experiments that led to an understanding of the unexpected reactivity of this key intermediate is described, which culminated in the successful total synthesis of (+)-rocaglamide.

  3. Total Synthesis and Structural Revision of Vannusals A and B. Synthesis of the Originally Assigned Structure of Vannusal B

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Ortiz, Adrian; Zhang, Hongjun; Dagneau, Philippe; Lanver, Andreas; Jennings, Michael P.; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Faraoni, Raffaella; Lizos, Dimitrios E.

    2010-01-01

    The total synthesis of the originally assigned structure of vannusal B (2) and its diastereomer (d-2) are described. Initial forays into these structures with model systems revealed the viability of a metathesis-based approach and a SmI2-mediated strategy for the key cyclization to forge the central region of the molecule, ring C. The former approach was abandoned in favor of the latter when more functionalized substrates failed to enter the cyclization process. The successful, devised convergent strategy based on the SmI2-mediated ring closure utilized vinyl iodide (−)-26 and aldehyde fragment (±)-86 as key building blocks, whose lithium-mediated coupling led to isomeric coupling products (+)-87 and (−)-88. These intermediates were separately converted to precursors (+)-25 and (−)-97, which cyclized under the influence of SmI2–HMPA to afford products (−)-90/(−)-91 and (+)-98, respectively. The former two intermediates were converted to vannusal B structure 2 while the latter gave rise to its diastereomeric structure d-2, neither of which exhibited the reported spectroscopic data of the natural product. These investigations led to the discovery and development of a number of new synthetic technologies that set the stage for the solution of the vannusal structural conundrum. PMID:20443561

  4. Approaches to Polycyclic 1,4-Dioxygenated Xanthones. Application to Total Synthesis of the Aglycone of IB-00208

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hexacyclic xanthone natural products such as IB-00208 present a formidable challenge in organic synthesis. A new approach to polycyclic 1,4-dioxygenated xanthones from benzocyclobutenones has been developed and applied to the first total synthesis of the aglycone of IB-00208. The 22-step synthesis features an acetylide stitching process that joins an aryl aldehyde with an angularly fused benzocyclobutenone, which was prepared by a ring-closing metathesis reaction. The resulting acetylenic benzocyclobutenone diol underwent a Moore rearrangement to give an intermediate that was further elaborated to the aglycone of IB-00208 as a mixture of hydroquinone–quinone tautomers. PMID:25513888

  5. Total Synthesis of (+)-7-Bromotrypargine and Unnatural Analogues: Biological Evaluation Uncovers Activity at CNS Targets of Therapeutic Relevance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first total synthesis of (+)-7-bromotrypargine, a β-carboline alkaloid from Ancornia sp. is reported. The synthesis proceeds in nine steps, eight steps longest linear sequence, in 36.9% overall yield. Biological characterization found that (+)-7-bromotrypargine is a H3 antagonist, and a selective inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET), without inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT). Moreover, unlike electron rich congeners, (+)-7-bromotrypargine is not cytotoxic and thus represents an attractive starting point for chemical optimization; therefore, we piloted a number of chemistries for the synthesis of unnatural analogues. PMID:22247792

  6. Total synthesis of a marine alkaloid from the tunicate Dendrodoa grossularia.

    PubMed

    Hupp, Christopher D; Tepe, Jetze J

    2008-09-04

    A short synthesis of an indole marine alkaloid (1) from the tunicate Dendrodoa grossularia is described. The key step in the synthesis involves a novel twist on an underutilized oxazole rearrangement, which produces the quaternary stereocenter in the molecule.

  7. (E)-,(Z)-parallel preparative methods for stereodefined β,β-diaryl- and α,β-diaryl-α,β-unsaturated esters: application to the stereocomplementary concise synthesis of zimelidine.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Yuichiro; Sato, Yuka; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Ueno, Kanako; Kai, Ken-ichiro; Nakatsuji, Hidefumi; Tanabe, Yoo

    2015-04-07

    Parallel and practical methods for the preparation of both (E)- and (Z)-β-aryl(1)-β-aryl(2)-α,β-unsaturated esters 1 and (E)- and (Z)-α-aryl(1)-β-aryl(2)-α,β-unsaturated esters 2 are described. These methods involve accessible, robust, stereocomplementary N-methylimidazole (NMI)-mediated enol tosylations (14 examples, 70-99% yield), as well as stereoretentive Suzuki-Miyaura cross-couplings (36 examples, 64-99% yield). The highlighted feature of the present protocol is the use of parallel and stereocomplementary approaches to obtain highly (E)- and (Z)-pure products 1 and 2 by utilizing sequential enol tosylations and cross-coupling reactions. An expeditious and parallel synthesis of (E)- and (Z)-zimelidine (3), which is a highly representative selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), was performed by utilizing the present methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Total synthesis of a gene for octopus rhodopsin and its preliminary expression.

    PubMed

    Harada, Y; Sakamoto, T; Shinomura, T; Takamoto, K; Senda, T; Tsuda, M

    1991-10-01

    To carry out systematic structure-function studies of octopus rhodopsin, photoreceptor protein of octopus visual cells, by means of specific amino-acid replacements, we have totally synthesized a DNA duplex of 1,365 base pairs that encodes the entire octopus rhodopsin of 455 amino acids [Ovchinnikov et al. (1988) FEBS Lett. 232, 69-72] by introducing codons preferred in Escherichia coli. Total synthesis simplifies site-specific mutagenesis in all parts of the gene by replacement of short restriction fragments by their newly synthesized counterparts containing the required nucleotide alterations. Thirty unique restriction sites were introduced in the octopus rhodopsin gene, which was assembled on a plasmid in two steps. Five cartridge genes of 344, 296, 320, 212, and 317 base pairs capable of being expressed independently were first constructed by using 48 synthetic oligonucleotides ranging in size from 54 to 73 nucleotides. The entire gene was constructed by consecutive linkage of cartridge genes. These cartridge genes were designed to correspond to the transmembrane helical unit of octopus rhodopsin, resulting in easy construction of various chimeric rhodopsins. The nucleotide sequences were confirmed by sequencing the cartridges as well as the entire gene. These synthetic genes were cloned into an expression vector carrying the trp promoter of E. coli, and were preliminarily expressed in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Total synthesis of (-)-zampanolide and structure-activity relationship studies on (-)-dactylolide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zurwerra, Didier; Glaus, Florian; Betschart, Leo; Schuster, Julia; Gertsch, Jürg; Ganci, Walter; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2012-12-21

    A new total synthesis of the marine macrolide (-)-zampanolide (1) and the structurally and stereochemically related non-natural levorotatory enantiomer of (+)-dactylolide (2), that is, ent-2, has been developed. The synthesis features a high-yielding, selective intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction to close the 20-membered macrolactone ring of 1 and ent-2. The β-keto phosphonate/aldehyde precursor for the ring-closure reaction was obtained by esterification of a ω-diethylphosphono carboxylic acid fragment and a secondary alcohol fragment incorporating the THP ring that is embedded in the macrocyclic core structure of 1 and ent-2. THP ring formation was accomplished through a segment coupling Prins-type cyclization. Employing the same overall strategy, 13-desmethylene-ent-2 as well as the monocyclic desTHP derivatives of 1 and ent-2 were prepared. Synthetic 1 inhibited human cancer cell growth in vitro with nM IC(50) values, while ent-2, which lacks the diene-containing hemiaminal-linked side chain of 1, is 25- to 260-fold less active. 13-Desmethylene-ent-2 as well as the reduced versions of ent-2 and 13-desmethylene-ent-2 all showed similar cellular activity as ent-2 itself. The same activity level was attained by the monocyclic desTHP derivative of 1. Oxidation of the aldehyde functionality of ent-2 gave a carboxylic acid that was converted into the corresponding N-hexyl amide. The latter showed only μM antiproliferative activity, thus being several hundred-fold less potent than 1. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A 7-Step Formal Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Strictamine via an Asymmetric Propargylation and Metal-Mediated Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Myles W; Zhou, Zhiyao; Gao, Alison X; Shimbayashi, Takuya; Snyder, Scott A

    2017-03-03

    Herein is shown how a novel catalytic asymmetric propargylation of 3,4-dihydro-β-carboline, followed by a designed Au(I)/Ag(I)-mediated 6-endo-dig cyclization, can directly deliver the indolenine-fused methanoquinolizidine core of the akuammiline alkaloid strictamine in its native oxidation state, ultimately achieving a 7-step formal asymmetric total synthesis. Also demonstrated are how the cyclization products can rearrange into vincorine-type skeletons and a further use for the developed propargylation with the first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of decarbomethoxydihydrogambirtannine.

  11. Scope and Limitations of Fmoc Chemistry SPPS-Based Approaches to the Total Synthesis of Insulin Lispro via Ester Insulin.

    PubMed

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Rege, Nischay; Weiss, Michael A; Eitel, Simon H; Meier, Thomas; Schoenleber, Ralph O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2017-01-31

    We have systematically explored three approaches based on 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) for the total chemical synthesis of the key depsipeptide intermediate for the efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin. The approaches used were: stepwise Fmoc chemistry SPPS; the "hybrid method", in which maximally protected peptide segments made by Fmoc chemistry SPPS are condensed in solution; and, native chemical ligation using peptide-thioester segments generated by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. A key building block in all three approaches was a Glu[O-β-(Thr)] ester-linked dipeptide equipped with a set of orthogonal protecting groups compatible with Fmoc chemistry SPPS. The most effective method for the preparation of the 51 residue ester-linked polypeptide chain of ester insulin was the use of unprotected peptide-thioester segments, prepared from peptide-hydrazides synthesized by Fmoc chemistry SPPS, and condensed by native chemical ligation. High-resolution X-ray crystallography confirmed the disulfide pairings and three-dimensional structure of synthetic insulin lispro prepared from ester insulin lispro by this route. Further optimization of these pilot studies could yield an efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin lispro (Humalog) based on peptide synthesis by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. FeCl3 catalyzed Prins-type cyclization for the synthesis of highly substituted indenes: application to the total synthesis of (±)-jungianol and epi-jungianol.

    PubMed

    Dethe, Dattatraya H; Murhade, Ganesh

    2013-02-01

    A novel approach was developed for the synthesis of highly substituted indene derivatives, using an FeCl(3) catalyzed Prins-type cyclization reaction which was further applied in the total synthesis of jungianol and epi-jungianol.

  13. A total-synthesis framework for the construction of high-order colloidal hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Matthew R.; Bondi, James F.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal hybrid nanoparticles contain multiple nanoscale domains fused together by solid-state interfaces. They represent an emerging class of multifunctional lab-on-a-particle architectures that underpin future advances in solar energy conversion, fuel-cell catalysis, medical imaging and therapy, and electronics. The complexity of these ‘artificial molecules’ is limited ultimately by the lack of a mechanism-driven design framework. Here, we show that known chemical reactions can be applied in a predictable and stepwise manner to build complex hybrid nanoparticle architectures that include M-Pt-Fe3O4 (M = Au, Ag, Ni, Pd) heterotrimers, MxS-Au-Pt-Fe3O4 (M = Pb, Cu) heterotetramers and higher-order oligomers based on the heterotrimeric Au-Pt-Fe3O4 building block. This synthetic framework conceptually mimics the total-synthesis approach used by chemists to construct complex organic molecules. The reaction toolkit applies solid-state nanoparticle analogues of chemoselective reactions, regiospecificity, coupling reactions and molecular substituent effects to the construction of exceptionally complex hybrid nanoparticle oligomers.

  14. Total Synthesis of (±)-Glyceollin II and a Dihydro Derivative.

    PubMed

    Malik, Neha; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Erhardt, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Stressed soybeans produce a group of phytoalexins that belong to the 6a-hydroxypterocarpan family of flavonoids. Certain of the more prominent members, such as the glyceollins I, II, and III, have demonstrated potential antidiabetic properties and promising cytotoxicity in both human breast and prostate cancer cell cultures with preliminary studies in animals further demonstrating antitumor effects in estrogen-dependent, human breast cancer cell implants. Although syntheses of glyceollin I have been reported previously, this work constitutes the first total directed synthesis of (±)-glyceollin II. It involves 12 steps with an overall yield of 7% using practical methods that should be readily scalable to produce quantities needed for advanced biological characterization. Highlights include a novel intramolecular benzoin condensation, a chelation-controlled lithium aluminum hydride-mediated reduction, and an intramolecular cyclization via the formation of a transient epoxide intermediate to cap the construction of the 6a-hydroxypterocarpan system. Additionally, a dihydro analogue has been obtained, and several isolated intermediates have been made available for evaluation of their biological properties and possible contributions toward elaborating key structure-activity relationship data among this family of promising phytoalexins elicited from stressed soybeans.

  15. Ubiquitin-Based Probes Prepared by Total Synthesis To Profile the Activity of Deubiquitinating Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Annemieke; Merkx, Remco; Berlin, Ilana; Rodenko, Boris; Wijdeven, Ruud H M; El Atmioui, Dris; Yalçin, Zeliha; Robson, Craig N; Neefjes, Jacques J; Ovaa, Huib

    2012-01-01

    Epitope-tagged active-site-directed probes are widely used to visualize the activity of deubiquitinases (DUBs) in cell extracts, to investigate the specificity and potency of small-molecule DUB inhibitors, and to isolate and identify DUBs by mass spectrometry. With DUBs arising as novel potential drug targets, probes are required that can be produced in sufficient amounts and to meet the specific needs of a given experiment. The established method for the generation of DUB probes makes use of labor-intensive intein-based methods that have inherent limitations concerning the incorporation of unnatural amino acids and the amount of material that can be obtained. Here, we describe the total chemical synthesis of active-site-directed probes and their application to activity-based profiling and identification of functional DUBs. This synthetic methodology allowed the easy incorporation of desired tags for specific applications, for example, fluorescent reporters, handles for immunoprecipitation or affinity pull-down, and cleavable linkers. Additionally, the synthetic method can be scaled up to provide significant amounts of probe. Fluorescent ubiquitin probes allowed faster, in-gel detection of active DUBs, as compared to (immuno)blotting procedures. A biotinylated probe holding a photocleavable linker enabled the affinity pull-down and subsequent mild, photorelease of DUBs. Also, DUB activity levels were monitored in response to overexpression or knockdown, and to inhibition by small molecules. Furthermore, fluorescent probes revealed differential DUB activity profiles in a panel of lung and prostate cancer cells. PMID:23011887

  16. Total Synthesis of Dansylated Park's Nucleotide for High-Throughput MraY Assays.

    PubMed

    Wohnig, Stephanie; Spork, Anatol P; Koppermann, Stefan; Mieskes, Gottfried; Gisch, Nicolas; Jahn, Reinhard; Ducho, Christian

    2016-12-05

    The membrane protein translocase I (MraY) is a key enzyme in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. It is therefore frequently discussed as a target for the development of novel antibiotics. The screening of compound libraries for the identification of MraY inhibitors is enabled by an established fluorescence-based MraY assay. However, this assay requires a dansylated derivative of the bacterial biosynthetic intermediate Park's nucleotide as the MraY substrate. Isolation of Park's nucleotide from bacteria and subsequent dansylation only furnishes limited amounts of this substrate, thus hampering the high-throughput screening for MraY inhibitors. Accordingly, the efficient provision of dansylated Park's nucleotide is a major bottleneck in the exploration of this promising drug target. In this work, we present the first total synthesis of dansylated Park's nucleotide, affording an unprecedented amount of the target compound for high-throughput MraY assays. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Terpenoid-Alkaloids: Their Biosynthetic Twist of Fate and Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Emily C.; Baran, Phil S.

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes and alkaloids are ever-growing classes of natural products that provide new molecular structures which inspire chemists and possess a broad range of biological activity. Terpenoid-alkaloids originate from the same prenyl units that construct terpene skeletons. However, during biosynthesis, a nitrogen atom (or atoms) is introduced in the form of β-aminoethanol, ethylamine, or methylamine. Nitrogen incorporation can occur either before, during, or after the cyclase phase. The outcome of this unique biosynthesis is the formation of natural products containing unprecedented structures. These complex structural motifs expose current limitations in organic chemistry, thus providing opportunities for invention. This review focuses on total syntheses of terpenoid-alkaloids and unique issues presented by this class of natural products. More specifically, it examines how these syntheses relate to the way terpenoid-alkaloids are made in Nature. Developments in chemistry that have facilitated these syntheses are emphasized, as well as chemical technology needed to conquer those that evade synthesis. PMID:26207071

  18. Total chemical synthesis of a 77-nucleotide-long RNA sequence having methionine-acceptance activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, K K; Usman, N; Nicoghosian, K; Cedergren, R J

    1988-01-01

    Chemical synthesis is described of a 77-nucleotide-long RNA molecule that has the sequence of an Escherichia coli Ado-47-containing tRNA(fMet) species in which the modified nucleosides have been substituted by their unmodified parent nucleosides. The sequence was assembled on a solid-phase, controlled-pore glass support in a stepwise manner with an automated DNA synthesizer. The ribonucleotide building blocks used were fully protected 5'-monomethoxytrityl-2'-silyl-3'-N,N-diisopropylaminophosphoram idites. p-Nitro-phenylethyl groups were used to protect the O6 of guanine residues. The fully deprotected tRNA analogue was characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sizing), terminal nucleotide analysis, sequencing, and total enzyme degradation, all of which indicated that the sequence was correct and contained only 3-5 linkages. The 77-mer was then assayed for amino acid acceptor activity by using E. coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase. The results indicated that the synthetic product, lacking modified bases, is a substrate for the enzyme and has an amino acid acceptance 11% of that of the major native species, tRNA(fMet) containing 7-methylguanosine at position 47. Images PMID:3413059

  19. Total synthesis of periploside A, a unique pregnane hexasaccharide with potent immunosuppressive effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaheng; Zhou, Yu; Zuo, Jianping; Yu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Periploside A is a pregnane hexasaccharide identified from the Chinese medicinal plant Periploca sepium, which features a unique seven-membered formyl acetal bridged orthoester (FABO) motif and potent immunosuppressive activities. Here, we show the synthesis of this molecule in a total of 76 steps with the longest linear sequence of 29 steps and 9.2% overall yield. The FABO motif is constructed via a combination of Sinaÿ’s and Crich’s protocol for the formation of orthoester and acetal glycosides, respectively. The 2-deoxy-β-glycosidic linkages are assembled stereoselectively with judicious choice of the glycosylation methods. The epimer at the spiro-quaternary carbon in the FABO motif has also been elaborated in a stereo-controlled manner. This epimer, as well as the synthetic analogues bearing the FABO motif, retain largely the inhibitory activities of periploside A against the proliferation of T-lymphocyte, indicating the importance of the chemical connection of the FABO motif to their immunosuppressive activity. PMID:25600477

  20. A 11-Steps Total Synthesis of Magellanine through a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Dehydro Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    McGee, Philippe; Bétournay, Geneviève; Barabé, Francis; Barriault, Louis

    2017-01-12

    We have developed an innovative strategy for the formation of angular carbocycles via a gold(I)-catalyzed dehydro Diels-Alder reaction. This transformation provides rapid access to a variety of complex angular cores in excellent diastereoselectivities and high yields. The usefulness of this Au(I) -catalyzed cycloaddition was further demonstrated by accomplishing a 11-steps total synthesis of (±)-magellanine.

  1. First total synthesis of antrocamphin A and its analogs as anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet aggregation agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Chi-Huan; Wang, Hui-Chun; Chuang, Da-Wei; Wu, Ming-Jung; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Chin-Chung; Chen, Yeh-Long; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2011-01-07

    Naturally occurring antrocamphin A (1) is a potent anti-inflammatory compound from the edible fungus Antrodia camphorata (Taiwanofungus camphoratus), whose wild fruiting body is used as a valuable folk medicine in Taiwan. This study is the first total synthesis of antrocamphin A (1) and its analogs. Their inhibition ability on NO release, superoxide anion generation, elastase release and platelet aggregation are reported herein.

  2. A formal total synthesis of (+)-zincophorin. Observation of an unusual urea-directed Stork-Crabtree hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenlei; Hsung, Richard P

    2007-05-24

    A formal total synthesis of (+)-zincophorin via interception of Miyashita's advanced intermediates is described here. This effort features the first synthetic application of an inverse demand hetero [4 + 2] cycloaddition of a chiral allenamide, and the observation of an unusual urea directed Stork-Crabtree hydrogenation.

  3. Catalysis-based enantioselective total synthesis of myxothiazole Z, (14S)-melithiazole G and (14S)-cystothiazole F.

    PubMed

    Colon, Aude; Hoffman, Thomas J; Gebauer, Julian; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Rigby, James H; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Cossy, Janine

    2012-11-04

    A common strategy for the stereoselective and protecting group-free total synthesis of the myxobacterial antibiotics myxothiazole Z, (14S)-melithiazole G and (14S)-cystothiazole F is described featuring an asymmetric organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation, a palladium-catalyzed Stille coupling and a cross-metathesis as the key steps.

  4. Iron-promoted C-C bond formation in the total synthesis of natural products and drugs.

    PubMed

    Legros, Julien; Figadère, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Iron salts are inexpensive and almost innocuous; they are thus the promoters of choice, even in stoichiometric amounts, for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds in the backbone of complex molecules. This review encompasses the key role of iron complexes in the total synthesis of some natural products or pharmacologically important compounds.

  5. Total Synthesis of (±)-Hirsutine: Application of Phosphine-Catalyzed Imine–Allene [4 + 2] Annulation

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Reymundo A.; Xu, Qihai; Kwon, Ohyun

    2012-01-01

    The total synthesis of the indole alkaloid hirsutine has been achieved, with a key step being the application of our phosphine-catalyzed [4 + 2] annulation of an imine with ethyl α-methylallenoate. From commercially available indole-2-carboxaldehyde, the target was synthesized in 14 steps and 6.7% overall yield. PMID:22920858

  6. [Concise translation of TCM terminologies and its application].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ping; Gong, Qian; You, Zhao-ling

    2007-10-01

    TCM terminologies are the professional medical terms, marked by in Chinese features of simplification and cogency, as well as rich connotations, and thus conciseness should be one of the main principles when it comes to their translation. The concise translation and its application were discussed in this paper through semantic and logic analysis on TCM terms and starting with the English word-building.

  7. The Concise AACR2: A Review and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer E.

    1984-01-01

    Examination of "The Concise Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (2nd edition)" (AACR2), published in 1981, highlights intended audience, use in small libraries, student use, paraprofessional and public service librarian use, use in non-English environments, cataloging by example, comparison of "AACR2" and "Concise AACR2,"…

  8. Biosynthesis and Total Synthesis Studies on The Jadomycin Family of Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Ehesan U.

    2013-01-01

    Jadomycins are unique angucycline polyketides, which are produced by soil bacteria Streptomyces venezuelae under specific nutrient and environmental conditions. Their unique structural complexity and biological activities have engendered extensive study of the jadomycin class of natural compounds in terms of biological activity, biosynthesis, and synthesis. This review outlines the recent developments in the study of the synthesis and biosynthesis of jadomycins. PMID:24371430

  9. Chemical Access to d-Sarmentose Units Enables the Total Synthesis of Cardenolide Monoglycoside N-1 from Nerium oleander.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Jordi; Matheu, M Isabel; Díaz, Yolanda; Castillón, Sergio; Boutureira, Omar

    2017-03-17

    Herein we present a chemical approach for the ready preparation of d-sarmentosyl donors enabling the first total synthesis and structure validation of cardenolide N-1, a challenging 2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-β-d-xylo-hexopyranoside extracted from Nerium oleander twigs that displays anti-inflammatory properties and cell growth inhibitory activity against tumor cells. The strategy highlights the synthetic value of the sequential methodology developed in our group for the synthesis of 2-deoxyglycosides. Key steps include Wittig-Horner olefination of a d-xylofuranose precursor, [I(+)]-induced 6-endo cyclization, and 1,2-trans stereoselective glycosylation.

  10. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Mandelalide A and Isomandelalide A: Discovery of a Cytotoxic Ring-Expanded Isomer.

    PubMed

    Veerasamy, Nagarathanam; Ghosh, Ankan; Li, Jinming; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Ishmael, Jane E; McPhail, Kerry L; Carter, Rich G

    2016-01-27

    The total synthesis of mandelalide A and its ring-expanded macrolide isomer isomandelalide A has been achieved. Unexpected high levels of cytotoxicity were observed with the ring-expanded isomandelalide A with a rank order of potency: mandelalide A > isomandelalide A > mandelalide B. Key aspects of the synthesis include Ag-catalyzed cyclizations (AgCC's) to construct both the THF and THP rings present in the macrocycle, diastereoselective Sharpless dihydroylation of a cis-enyne, and lithium acetylide coupling with a chiral epoxide.

  11. Intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions using chiral ruthenium Lewis acids and application in the total synthesis of ent-ledol.

    PubMed

    Thamapipol, Sirinporn; Kündig, E Peter

    2011-11-07

    One-point binding chiral ruthenium Lewis acids incorporating the C(2)-symmetric electron-poor bidentate phosphinite ligand BIPHOP-F and a Cp or an indenyl 'roof' can efficiently catalyze asymmetric intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions of trienes to form bicyclic adducts with good to excellent asymmetric induction. This reaction forms the key step in a total synthesis of ent-ledol in 96% ee. The synthesis also helps to clarify the stereochemical assignment of ledol and inconsistencies in the measured optical rotation.

  12. Cyclic 1,2-Diketones as Core Building Blocks: A Strategy for the Total Synthesis of (−)-Terpestacin

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guangbin; Vance, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a full account of our work towards the total synthesis of (−)-terpestacin (1), a sesterterpene originally isolated from fungal strain Arthrinium sp. FA1744. Its promising anti-HIV/anti-cancer activity as well as its novel structure make terpestacin an attractive synthetic target. A strategy based on the unique reactivity of cyclic 1,2-diketones (diosphenol) was developed, and total synthesis of 1 was achieved in 20 steps in the longest linear sequence from commercially available 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (19). The key feature of our synthesis is represented by double usage of a “Pd AAA-Claisen” protocol, first in the early stage to generate the C1 quaternary center and second in the late stage to install the side chain. In addition, a rather unusual ene-1,2-dione moiety was synthesized and utilized as an excellent Michael acceptor to attach the C15 substituent. Several possible routes towards the total synthesis have been examined and carefully evaluated. During our exploration, many interesting chemoselectivity issues have also been addressed, such as a highly selective ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and a challenging oxidation of a disubstituted olefin in the presence of three trisubstiuted ones. PMID:20411537

  13. Cyclic 1,2-diketones as core building blocks: a strategy for the total synthesis of (-)-terpestacin.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Dong, Guangbin; Vance, Jennifer A

    2010-06-01

    We report a full account of our work towards the total synthesis of (-)-terpestacin (1), a sesterterpene originally isolated from fungal strain Arthrinium sp. FA1744. Its promising anti-HIV and anti-cancer activity, as well as its novel structure, make terpestacin an attractive synthetic target. A strategy based on the unique reactivity of cyclic 1,2-diketones (diosphenols) was developed and total synthesis of 1 was achieved in 20 steps, in the longest linear sequence, from commercially available 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. The key feature of our synthesis is the double usage of a "Pd AAA-Claisen" protocol (AAA=asymmetric allylic alkylation), first in the early stages to generate the C1 quaternary center and then in the late stages to install the side chain. In addition, a rather unusual ene-1,2-dione moiety was synthesized and utilized as an excellent Michael acceptor to attach the C15 substituent. Several possible routes towards the total synthesis have been examined and carefully evaluated. During our exploration many interesting chemoselectivity issues have been addressed, such as a highly selective ring-closing metathesis and a challenging oxidation of a disubstituted olefin in the presence of three trisubstituted ones.

  14. Scope & Limitations of Fmoc Chemistry SPPS-Based Approaches to the Total Synthesis of Insulin Lispro via Ester Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Rege, Nischay; Weiss, Michael A.; Eitel, Simon H.; Meier, Thomas; Schoenleber, Ralph O.; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2017-01-01

    We have systematically explored three approaches based on Fmoc chemistry SPPS for the total chemical synthesis of the key depsipeptide intermediate for the efficient total chemical synthesis of insulin. The approaches used were: stepwise Fmoc chemistry SPPS; the ‘hybrid method’, in which maximally-protected peptide segments made by Fmoc chemistry SPPS are condensed in solution; and, native chemical ligation using peptide-thioester segments generated by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. A key building block in all three approaches was a Glu[Oβ(Thr)] ester-linked dipeptide equipped with a set of orthogonal protecting groups compatible with Fmoc chemistry SPPS. The most effective method for the preparation of the 51 residue ester-linked polypeptide chain of ester insulin was the use of unprotected peptide-thioester segments, prepared from peptide-hydrazides synthesized by Fmoc chemistry SPPS, and condensed by native chemical ligation. High resolution X-ray crystallography confirmed the disulfide pairings and three-dimensional structure of synthetic insulin lispro prepared from ester insulin lispro by this route. Further optimization of these pilot studies should yield an effective total chemical synthesis of insulin lispro (Humalog) based on peptide synthesis by Fmoc chemistry SPPS. PMID:27905149

  15. Total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA and iso-yatakemycin.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Karen S; Nguyen, Trinh; Nguyen, Trihn; Hwang, Inkyu; Boger, Dale L

    2009-01-28

    The total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA (5) and iso-yatakemycin (6), representing key analogues of the corresponding natural products incorporating an isomeric alkylation subunit, are detailed. This pyrrole isomer of the natural alkylation subunit displayed an enhanced reaction regioselectivity and a 2-fold diminished stability. Although still exceptionally potent, the iso-duocarmycin SA derivatives and natural product analogues exhibited a corresponding approximate 3-5-fold reduction in cytotoxic activity [L1210 IC(50) for (+)-iso-duocarmycin SA = 50 pM and for (+)-iso-yatakemycin = 15 pM] consistent with their placement on a parabolic relationship correlating activity with reactivity. The DNA alkylation selectivity of the resulting key natural product analogues was unaltered by the structure modification in spite of the minor-groove presentation of a potential H-bond donor. Additionally, a unique ortho-spirocyclization with such derivatives was explored via the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of 34 that is incapable of the more conventional para-spirocyclization. Although 34 proved sufficiently stable for isolation and characterization, it displayed little stability in protic solvents (t(1/2) = 0.19 h at pH 3, t(1/2) = 0.20 h at pH 7), a pH-independent (H(+) independent) solvolysis rate profile at pH 3/4-7, and a much reduced cytotoxic potency, but a DNA alkylation selectivity and efficiency comparable to those of duocarmycin SA and iso-duocarmycin SA. The implications of these observations on the source of the DNA alkylation selectivity and catalysis for this class of natural products are discussed.

  16. Total Synthesis and Evaluation of iso-Duocarmycin SA and iso-Yatakemycin

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Karen S.; Nguyen, Trihn; Hwang, Inkyu; Boger, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    The total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA (5) and iso-yatakemycin (6) are detailed representing key analogues of the corresponding natural products incorporating an isomeric alkylation subunit. This pyrrole isomer of the natural alkylation subunit displayed an enhanced reaction regioselectivity and a 2-fold diminished stability. Although still exceptionally potent, the iso-DSA derivatives and natural product analogues exhibited a corresponding approximate 3- to 5-fold reduction in cytotoxic activity (L1210 IC50 for (+)-iso-duocarmycin SA = 50 pM and (+)-iso-yatakemycin = 15 pM) consistent with their placement on a parabolic relationship correlating activity with reactivity. The DNA alkylation selectivity of the resulting key natural product analogues was unaltered by the structure modification in spite of the minor groove presentation of a potential H-bond donor. Additionally, a unique o-spirocyclization with such derivatives was explored with the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of 34 that is incapable of the more conventional p-spirocyclization. Although 34 proved sufficiently stable for isolation and characterization, it displayed little stability in protic solvents (t1/2 = 0.19 h at pH 3, t1/2 = 0.20 h at pH 7), a pH independent (H+ independent) solvolysis rate profile at pH 3/4–7, and a much reduced cytotoxic potency, but a DNA alkylation selectivity and efficiency comparable to duocarmycin SA and iso-duocarmycin SA. The implications of these observations on the source of the DNA alkylation selectivity and catalysis for this class of natural products are discussed. PMID:19154178

  17. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of pederin, psymberin, and highly potent analogs.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shuangyi; Wu, Fanghui; Rech, Jason C; Green, Michael E; Balachandran, Raghavan; Horne, W Seth; Day, Billy W; Floreancig, Paul E

    2011-10-19

    The potent cytotoxins pederin and psymberin have been prepared through concise synthetic routes (10 and 14 steps in the longest linear sequences, respectively) that proceed via a late-stage multicomponent approach to construct the N-acyl aminal linkages. This route allowed for the facile preparation of a number of analogs that were designed to explore the importance of the alkoxy group in the N-acyl aminal and functional groups in the two major subunits on biological activity. These analogs, including a pederin/psymberin chimera, were analyzed for their growth inhibitory effects, revealing several new potent cytotoxins and leading to postulates regarding the molecular conformational and hydrogen bonding patterns that are required for biological activity. Second generation analogs have been prepared based on the results of the initial assays and a structure-based model for the binding of these compounds to the ribosome. The growth inhibitory properties of these compounds are reported. These studies show the profound role that organic chemistry in general and specifically late-stage multicomponent reactions can play in the development of unique and potent effectors for biological responses.

  18. Biomimetic Total Synthesis of Angiopterlactone B and Other Potential Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Kotammagari, Tharun K; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Bhattacharya, Asish K

    2017-07-07

    A one-pot biomimetic synthesis of (-)-angiopterlactone B and its enantiomer (+)-angiopterlactone B has been accomplished via TBAF-catalyzed tandem ring contraction followed by oxa-Michael/Michael addition sequence. Comparison of specific optical rotations, absolute configurations, and CD spectra of natural, synthesized (-)-angiopterlactone B and (+)-angiopterlactone B unequivocally proves that the isolated angiopterlactone B must be levorotatory. Synthesis of hitherto undiscovered natural products 18 and 20 and analogues of angiopterlactone B demonstrate the versatility of this method.

  19. A randomized trial comparing concise and standard consent forms in the START trial.

    PubMed

    Grady, Christine; Touloumi, Giota; Walker, A Sarah; Smolskis, Mary; Sharma, Shweta; Babiker, Abdel G; Pantazis, Nikos; Tavel, Jorge; Florence, Eric; Sanchez, Adriana; Hudson, Fleur; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Emanuel, Ezekiel; Clewett, Megan; Munroe, David; Denning, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of research informed consent is a high priority. Some express concern about longer, more complex, written consent forms creating barriers to participant understanding. A recent meta-analysis concluded that randomized comparisons were needed. We conducted a cluster-randomized non-inferiority comparison of a standard versus concise consent form within a multinational trial studying the timing of starting antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ adults (START). Interested sites were randomized to standard or concise consent forms for all individuals signing START consent. Participants completed a survey measuring comprehension of study information and satisfaction with the consent process. Site personnel reported usual site consent practices. The primary outcome was comprehension of the purpose of randomization (pre-specified 7.5% non-inferiority margin). 77 sites (2429 participants) were randomly allocated to use standard consent and 77 sites (2000 participants) concise consent, for an evaluable cohort of 4229. Site and participant characteristics were similar for the two groups. The concise consent was non-inferior to the standard consent on comprehension of randomization (80.2% versus 82%, site adjusted difference: 0.75% (95% CI -3.8%, +5.2%)); and the two groups did not differ significantly on total comprehension score, satisfaction, or voluntariness (p>0.1). Certain independent factors, such as education, influenced comprehension and satisfaction but not differences between consent groups. An easier to read, more concise consent form neither hindered nor improved comprehension of study information nor satisfaction with the consent process among a large number of participants. This supports continued efforts to make consent forms more efficient. Informed consent substudy was registered as part of START study in clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00867048, and EudraCT # 2008-006439-12.

  20. Creatine supplementation to total parenteral nutrition improves creatine status and supports greater liver and kidney protein synthesis in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, O Chandani; Bertolo, Robert F; Brunton, Janet A

    2017-08-28

    Creatine is not included in commercial pediatric parenteral products; the entire creatine requirement must be met by de novo synthesis from arginine during parenteral nutrition (PN). Poor arginine status is common during PN in neonates which may compromise creatine accretion. We hypothesized that creatine supplementation will improve creatine status and spare arginine in PN-fed piglets. Piglets (3-5 d old) were provided PN with or without creatine for 14 d. Tissue concentrations of creatine metabolites and activities of creatine synthesizing enzymes were measured as well as tissue protein synthesis rates and liver lipid parameters. Creatine provision lowered kidney and pancreas L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT, EC number 2.1.4.1) activities and plasma guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) concentration, suggesting down-regulation of de novo creatine synthesis. Creatine increased plasma creatine concentrations to sow-fed reference levels and increased the creatine concentrations in most tissues, but not brain. PN creatine resulted in greater protein synthesis in the liver and in the kidney, but not in the pancreas, skeletal muscle or gut. Creatine supplementation also reduced liver cholesterol concentrations, but not triglyceride or total fat. The addition of creatine to PN may optimize the accretion of creatine and reduce the metabolic burden of creatine synthesis in rapidly growing neonates.Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 28 August 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.208.

  1. Evolution of a Unified Strategy for Complex Sesterterpenoids: Progress toward Astellatol and Total Synthesis of (−)-Nitidasin

    PubMed Central

    Hog, Daniel T.; Huber, Florian M. E.; Mayer, Peter; Houk, K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Astellatol and nitidasin belong to a subset of sesterterpenoids that share a sterically encumbered trans-hydrindane motif with an isopropyl substituent. In addition, these natural products feature intriguing polycyclic ring systems posing significant challenges for chemical synthesis. Herein, we detail the evolution of our stereoselective strategy for isopropyl trans-hydrindane sesterterpenoids. Our endeavors included the synthesis of several building blocks, enabling studies toward all molecules of this terpenoid subclass, and of advanced intermediates of our initial route toward a biomimetic synthesis of astellatol. These findings provided the basis for a second-generation and a third-generation approach toward astellatol that eventually culminated in the enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-nitidasin. In particular, we orchestrated a series of substrate-controlled transformations to install the ten stereogenic centers of the target molecule and forged the carbocyclic backbone in a convergent fashion. Furthermore, we disclose our progress toward the synthesis of astellatol and provide insights into some observed yet unexpected diastereoselectivities by detailed quantum-mechanical calculations. PMID:26300211

  2. Evolution of a Unified Strategy for Complex Sesterterpenoids: Progress toward Astellatol and the Total Synthesis of (-)-Nitidasin.

    PubMed

    Hog, Daniel T; Huber, Florian M E; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Mayer, Peter; Houk, Kendall N; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-09-21

    Astellatol and nitidasin belong to a subset of sesterterpenoids that share a sterically encumbered trans-hydrindane motif with an isopropyl substituent. In addition, these natural products feature intriguing polycyclic ring systems, posing significant challenges for chemical synthesis. Herein, the evolution of our stereoselective strategy for isopropyl trans-hydrindane sesterterpenoids is detailed. These endeavors included the synthesis of several building blocks, enabling studies toward all molecules of this terpenoid subclass, and of advanced intermediates of our initial route toward a biomimetic synthesis of astellatol. These findings provided the basis for a second-generation and a third-generation approach toward astellatol that eventually culminated in the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-nitidasin. In particular, a series of substrate-controlled transformations to install the ten stereogenic centers of the target molecule was orchestrated and the carbocyclic backbone was forged in a convergent fashion. Furthermore, the progress toward the synthesis of astellatol is disclosed and insights into some observed yet unexpected diastereoselectivities by detailed quantum-mechanical calculations are provided.

  3. Stereoselective Synthesis of Dienyl-Carboxylate Building Blocks: Formal Synthesis of Inthomycin C

    PubMed Central

    Souris, Caroline; Frébault, Frédéric; Patel, Ashay; Audisio, Davide; Houk, K. N.; Maulide, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    A direct synthesis of stereodefined halodienes is reported. Those key building blocks enable a concise access to polyenic products, as demonstrated in a modular synthesis of Inthomycin C. PMID:23763296

  4. A Concise Review of Amyloidosis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Woldemeskel, Moges

    2012-01-01

    Amyloidosis refers to a group of protein misfolding diseases characterized by deposition of a particular amyloid protein in various organs and tissues of animals and humans. Various types and clinical forms of amyloidosis, in which the pathology and pathogenesis is diverse depending upon the underlying causes and species affected, are reported in domestic and wild animals. The clinical findings are also quite variable consequent to the variation of the tissues and organs involved and the extent of functional disruption of the affected organs in various animal species. The affected organs may be enlarged and exhibit variable pallor grossly, or the amyloid deposit may be discernible only after microscopic examination of the affected tissues. Amyloid appears as a pale eosinophilic homogenous extracellular deposit in tissues. However, microscopic examination and Congo red staining with green birefringence under polarized light are needed to confirm amyloid and differentiate it from other apparently similar extracellular deposits such as collagen and fibrin. Identifying the type of amyloid deposit needs immunohistochemical staining, ultrastructural characterization of the amyloid fibril, and if feasible also genetic studies of the involved species for clinical and prognostic purposes. This paper provides a concise review of the occurrence of amyloidosis in domestic and wild animals. PMID:22577608

  5. Concise Care Bundles In Acute Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kivlin, Jude; Altemimi, Harith

    2015-01-01

    The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in King's Lynn, Norfolk is a 488 bed hospital providing services to approximately 331,000 people across 750 square miles. In 2012 a need was recognised for documentation (pathways) in a practical format to increase usage of national guidelines and facilitate adherence to best practice (gold standards of care) that could be easily version controlled, auditable and provide support in clinical decision-making by junior doctors. BMJ Action Sets[1] fulfilled the brief with expert knowledge, version control and support, though they were deemed too lengthy and unworkable in fast paced settings like the medical assessment unit; they formed the base creation of concise care bundles (CCB). CCB were introduced for 21 clinical presentations and one procedure. Outcomes were fully audited and showed significant improvement in a range of measures, including an increase in completions of CHADVASC score in atrial fibrillation, antibiotics prescribed per protocol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Blatchford score recorded for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleed. PMID:26734437

  6. Total Synthesis of Vinblastine, Vincristine, Related Natural Products, and Key Structural Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hayato; Colby, David A.; Seto, Shigeki; Va, Porino; Tam, Annie; Kakei, Hiroyuki; Rayl, Thomas J.; Hwang, Inkyu; Boger, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    Full details of the development of a direct coupling of catharanthine with vindoline to provide vinblastine are described along with key mechanistic and labeling studies. Following an Fe(III)-promoted coupling reaction initiated by generation of a presumed catharanthine radical cation that undergoes a subsequent oxidative fragmentation and diastereoselective coupling with vindoline, addition of the resulting reaction mixture to an Fe(III)–NaBH4/air solution leads to oxidation of the C15′–C20′ double bond and reduction of the intermediate iminium ion directly providing vinblastine (40–43%) and leurosidine (20–23%), its naturally occurring C20′ alcohol isomer. The yield of coupled products, which exclusively possess the natural C16′ stereochemistry, approaches or exceeds 80% and the combined yield of the isomeric C20′ alcohols is >60%. Preliminary studies of Fe(III)–NaBH4/air oxidation reaction illustrate a generalizable trisubstituted olefin scope, identified alternatives to O2 trap at the oxidized carbon, provides a unique entry into C20′ functionalized vinblastines, and affords initial insights into the observed C20′ diastereoselectivity. The first disclosure of the use of exo-catharanthine proceeding through Δ19′,20′-anhydrovinblastine in such coupling reactions is also detailed with identical stereochemical consequences. Incorporating either a catharanthine N-methyl group or a vindoline N-formyl group precludes Fe(III)-promoted coupling, whereas the removal of the potentially key C16 methoxy group of vindoline does not adversely impact the coupling efficiency. Extension of these studies provided a total synthesis of vincristine (2) via N-desmethylvinblastine (36, also a natural product), 16-desmethoxyvinblastine (44) and 4-desacetoxy-16-desmethoxyvinblastine (47) both of which we can now suggest are likely natural products produced by C. roseus, desacetylvinblastine (62) and 4-desacetoxyvinblastine (59), as well as a series of key

  7. Accessibility of selenomethionine proteins by total chemical synthesis: structural studies of human herpesvirus-8 MIP-II.

    PubMed

    Shao, W; Fernandez, E; Wilken, J; Thompson, D A; Siani, M A; West, J; Lolis, E; Schweitzer, B I

    1998-12-11

    The determination of high resolution three-dimensional structures by X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a time-consuming process. Here we describe an approach to circumvent the cloning and expression of a recombinant protein as well as screening for heavy atom derivatives. The selenomethionine-modified chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-II (MIP-II) from human herpesvirus-8 has been produced by total chemical synthesis, crystallized, and characterized by NMR. The protein has a secondary structure typical of other chemokines and forms a monomer in solution. These results indicate that total chemical synthesis can be used to accelerate the determination of three-dimensional structures of new proteins identified in genome programs.

  8. Immobilization methods for the rapid total chemical synthesis of proteins on microtiter plates.

    PubMed

    Zitterbart, Robert; Krumrey, Michael; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The chemical synthesis of proteins typically involves the solid-phase peptide synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments that are stitched together in solution by native chemical ligation (NCL). The process is slow, and throughput is limited because of the need for repeated high performance liquid chromatography purification steps after both solid-phase peptide synthesis and NCL. With an aim to provide faster access to functional proteins and to accelerate the functional analysis of synthetic proteins by parallelization, we developed a method for the high performance liquid chromatography-free synthesis of proteins on the surface of microtiter plates. The method relies on solid-phase synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments, immobilization of the C-terminal fragment and on-surface NCL with an unprotected peptide thioester in crude form. Herein, we describe the development of a suitable immobilization chemistry. We compared (i) formation of nickel(II)-oligohistidine complexes, (ii) Cu-based [2 + 3] alkine-azide cycloaddition and (iii) hydrazone ligation. The comparative study identified the hydrazone ligation as most suitable. The sequence of immobilization via hydrazone ligation, on-surface NCL and radical desulfurization furnished the targeted SH3 domains in near quantitative yield. The synthetic proteins were functional as demonstrated by an on-surface fluorescence-based saturation binding analysis. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An efficient total synthesis of a potent anti-inflammatory agent, benzocamphorin F, and its anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Ren; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liang, Jun-Weil; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-01-01

    A naturally occurring enynyl-benzenoid, benzocamphorin F (1), from the edible fungus Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) was characterized by comprehensive spectral analysis. It displays anti-inflammatory bioactivity and is valuable for further biological studies. The present study is the first total synthesis of benzocamphorin F and the developed strategy described is a more efficient procedure that allowe the large-scale production of benzocamphorin F for further research of the biological activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. An Efficient Total Synthesis of a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Benzocamphorin F, and Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yu-Ren; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liang, Jun-Weil; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-01-01

    A naturally occurring enynyl-benzenoid, benzocamphorin F (1), from the edible fungus Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) was characterized by comprehensive spectral analysis. It displays anti-inflammatory bioactivity and is valuable for further biological studies. The present study is the first total synthesis of benzocamphorin F and the developed strategy described is a more efficient procedure that allowe the large-scale production of benzocamphorin F for further research of the biological activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22949872

  11. Enantioselective Cyclopropanation with α-Alkyl-α-diazoesters Catalyzed by Chiral Oxazaborolidinium Ion: Total Synthesis of (+)-Hamavellone B.

    PubMed

    Shim, Su Yong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Nam, Miso; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Ryu, Do Hyun

    2016-01-15

    Chiral oxazaborolidinium ion-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation of α- or α,β-substituted acroleins with α-alkyl-α-diazoesters has been developed. With this methodology, chiral functionalized cyclopropanes containing a quaternary stereogenic center were obtained with high to excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee). The synthetic utility of optically enriched functionalized cyclopropane was demonstrated in the first total synthesis of (+)-hamavellone B, which establishes the absolute configuration of natural (+)-hamavellone B.

  12. Remote Stereoinductive Intramolecular Nitrile Oxide Cycloaddition: Asymmetric Total Synthesis and Structure Revision of (-)-11β-Hydroxycurvularin.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hyeonjeong; Pham, Thuy Trang; Lee, Joo Yun; Latif, Muhammad; Park, Haeil; Kang, Young Kee; Lee, Jongkook

    2016-03-18

    The first total synthesis and structure revision of (-)-11β-hydroxycurvularin (1b), a macrolide possessing a β-hydroxyketone moiety, were accomplished. The β-hydroxyketone moiety in this natural product was introduced by cleavage of the N-O bond in an isoxazoline ring that was formed diastereoselectively in a 1,5-remote stereocontrolled fashion by employing intramolecular nitrile oxide cycloaddition.

  13. Total synthesis of a biotinylated rocaglate: Selective targeting of the translation factors eIF4AI/II.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jennifer M; Lindqvist, Lisa M; Savage, G Paul; Rizzacasa, Mark A

    2016-01-15

    The total synthesis of a biotinylated derivative of methyl rocaglate is described. This compound was accessed from synthetic methyl rocaglate (2) via formation of the propargyl amide and subsequent click reaction with a biotin azide. Affinity purification revealed that biotinylated rocaglate (8) and methyl rocaglate (2) bind with high specificity to translation factors eIF4AI/II. This remarkable selectivity is in line with that found for the more complex rocaglate silvestrol (3).

  14. Cytotoxic 1,3-Thiazole and 1,2,4-Thiadiazole Alkaloids from Penicillium oxalicum: Structural Elucidation and Total Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng; Huang, Nianyu; Xu, Bang; Huang, Wenfeng; Xie, Tianpeng; Cheng, Fan; Zou, Kun

    2016-02-26

    Two new thiazole and thiadiazole alkaloids, penicilliumthiamine A and B (2 and 3), were isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium oxalicum, a fungus found in Acrida cinerea. Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis, total synthesis and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Biological evaluations indicated that compound 1, 3a and 3 exhibit potent cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines through inhibiting the phosphorylation of AKT/PKB (Ser 473), one of important cancer drugs target.

  15. Asymmetric aza-Mannich reactions of sulfinimines: scope and application to the total synthesis of a bromopyrrole alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Lanter, James C; Chen, Hongfeng; Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua

    2005-12-22

    [reaction: see text] An asymmetric intermolecular aza variant of the Mannich reaction is reported utilizing chiral sulfinimine anions as the nucleophile and N-sulfonyl aldimines as the electrophilic component. A wide range of nucleophiles and electrophiles are tolerated by the reaction conditions, delivering the condensation products in good to excellent yield with a high degree of stereocontrol. Application of this methodology to the total synthesis of a natural product is reported.

  16. Scalable Synthesis of (−)-Thapsigargin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Total syntheses of the complex, highly oxygenated sesquiterpenes thapsigargin (1) and nortrilobolide (2) are presented. Access to analogues of these promising bioactive natural products has been limited to tedious isolation and semisynthetic efforts. Elegant prior total syntheses demonstrated the feasibility of creating these entitites in 36–42 step processes. The currently reported route proceeds in a scalable and more concise fashion by utilizing two-phase terpene synthesis logic. Salient features of the work include application of the classic photosantonin rearrangement and precisely choreographed installation of the multiple oxygenations present on the guaianolide skeleton. PMID:28149952

  17. A concise synthesis of the molecular framework of pleuromutilin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjia; Lotesta, Stephen D; Sorensen, Erik J

    2011-02-07

    Two syntheses of the tricyclic carbon skeleton of pleuromutilin are reported. Diastereoselective 1,4-conjugate additions were used to elaborate bicyclic precursors at an early stage of each route, while ring-forming olefin metatheses were executed to complete the pleuromutilin carbon framework. The congeners prepared are appropriately functionalized to enable access to diverse pleuromutilin analogues.

  18. A Concise Synthesis of the Molecular Framework of Pleuromutilin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjia; Lotesta, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Two syntheses of the tricyclic carbon skeleton of pleuromutilin are reported. Diastereoselective 1,4-conjugate additions were used to elaborate bicyclic precursors at an early stage of each route, while ring-forming olefin metatheses were executed to complete the pleuromutilin carbon framework. The congeners prepared are appropriately functionalized to enable access to diverse pleuromutilin analogues. PMID:21079876

  19. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements: recent applications in the total synthesis of natural products†

    PubMed Central

    Ilardi, Elizabeth A.; Stivala, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Among the fundamental chemical transformations in organic synthesis, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement occupies a unique position as a powerful, reliable, and well-defined method for the stereoselective construction of carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds. While many other reactions can unite two subunits and create a new bond, the strengths of sigmatropic rearrangements derive from their ability to enable structural reorganization with unmatched build-up of complexity. Recent applications that illustrate [3,3]-sigmatropic processes as a key concept in the synthesis of complex natural products are described in this tutorial review, covering literature from about 2001 through early 2009. PMID:19847347

  20. Formal Total Synthesis of (±)-Strictamine by [2,3]-Sigmatropic Stevens Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Ruben; Breunig, Michael; Gaich, Tanja

    2017-01-10

    To date, more than 100 congeners of the akuammiline alkaloid family have been isolated. Their signature structural element is a methanoquinolizidine moiety, a cage-like scaffold structurally related to adamantane. The structural variations of the family members originate from oxidative processes that mostly trigger rearrangements of the methanoquinolizidine motif. The family of the akuammiline alkaloids is best represented by strictamine. It bears the least functionalized carbon skeleton of all family members without lacking the signature structural motifs. Herein, we report the formal synthesis of strictamine through a Stevens [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement as a key step and the synthetic pitfalls related with its synthesis.

  1. Total Synthesis of the Marine Natural Product Hemiasterlin by Organocatalyzed α-Hydrazination.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jan Hendrik; Jones, Peter G; Lindel, Thomas

    2017-09-18

    An efficient synthesis of the potently cytotoxic marine peptide hemiasterlin is presented. The tetramethyltryptophan moiety is assembled by tert-prenylation of indole, followed by the high-yielding organocatalyzed α-hydrazination of a sterically congested aldehyde with excellent enantioselectivity. 2-Bromo-N-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (BEP)-mediated peptide coupling completes the synthesis, being the first approach that does not employ chiral auxiliaries. A novel phenonium-type rearrangement of the indole system occurred when subjecting dihydroxylated 3-tert-prenylindole to Mitsunobu conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Microwave assisted total synthesis of a benzothiophene-based new chemical entity (NCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceutical scientists are required to generate diverse arrays of complex targets in short span of time, which can now be achieved by microwave-assisted organic synthesis. New chemical entities (NCE) can be built in a fraction of the time using this technique. However, there a...

  3. Application of an omonasteine ligation strategy for the total chemical synthesis of the BRD7 bromodomain.

    PubMed

    Van de Vijver, Pieter; Scheer, Liesbeth; van Beijnum, Judy; Griffioen, Arjan; Hackeng, Tilman M

    2012-09-28

    The use of omonasteine (Omo) in sequential peptide ligation strategies extends the scope of homocysteine (Hcy) ligation to longer, methionine-rich proteins. Hcy-to-Omo conversion can be performed on-resin, while the Omo-to-Hcy deprotection can be performed in situ after peptide ligation. This strategy was successfully applied in the synthesis of the BRD7 bromodomain.

  4. First total synthesis of justicidone, a p-quinone-lignan derivative from Justicia hyssopifolia.

    PubMed

    Boluda, Carlos J; López, Hermelo; Pérez, José A; Trujillo, Juan M

    2005-08-01

    The first synthesis of justicidone (4-(1',3'-Benzodioxol-5'-yl)-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-c]furan-1,5,8(3H)-trione) was carried out from piperonal, as a starting compound, through a lineal process using well known reactions.

  5. Catalyst-controlled formal [4 + 3] cycloaddition applied to the total synthesis of (+)-barekoxide and (-)-barekol.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yajing; Miller, Laura C; Born, Stephen; Sarpong, Richmond; Davies, Huw M L

    2010-09-08

    The tandem cyclopropanation/Cope rearrangement between bicyclic dienes and siloxyvinyldiazoacetate, catalyzed by the dirhodium catalyst Rh(2)(R-PTAD)(4), effectively accomplishes enantiodivergent [4 + 3] cycloadditions. The reaction proceeds by a cyclopropanation followed by a Cope rearrangement of the resulting divinylcyclopropane. This methodology was applied to the synthesis of (+)-barekoxide (1) and (-)-barekol (2).

  6. Total Synthesis of (±)-Strychnine via a [4+2]-Cycloaddition/Rearrangement Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjun; Boonsombat, Jutatip

    2008-01-01

    A new strategy for the synthesis of the Strychnos alkaloid (±)-strychnine has been developed and is based on an intramolecular [4+2]-cycloaddition/rearrangement cascade of an indolyl substituted amidofuran. The critical D-ring was assembled by an intramolecular palladium catalyzed enolate-driven cross-coupling of an N-tethered vinyl iodide. PMID:17217284

  7. Application of the Chloro Ketal Claisen Reaction to the Total Synthesis of Squalene*

    PubMed Central

    Werthemann, Lucius; Johnson, William S.

    1970-01-01

    A short, highly stereoselective (over 97%) synthesis of all-trans squalene is described. Starting with succinaldehyde, a tetraenedichlorodione having the complete squalene skeleton with the four internal trans olefinic bonds has been developed in four steps involving a sequence of two double Claisen rearrangements. Three simple operations convert this intermediate into squalene. PMID:5274470

  8. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Glycoglycerolipids from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Chunxia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-01-01

    Glycoglycerolipids occur widely in natural products, especially in the marine species. Glycoglycerolipids have been shown to possess a variety of bioactivities. This paper will review the different methodologies and strategies for the synthesis of biological glycoglycerolipids and their analogs for bioactivity assay. In addition, the bioactivities and structure-activity relationship of the glycoglycerolipids are also briefly outlined. PMID:24945415

  9. Total Synthesis of Linckosides A and B, the Representative Starfish Polyhydroxysteroid Glycosides with Neuritogenic Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dapeng; Yu, Biao

    2015-12-09

    Linckosides A and B, two starfish metabolites with promising neuritogenic activities, are synthesized in a longest linear sequence of 32 steps and 0.5% overall yield; this represents the first synthesis of members of the polyhydroxysteroid glycoside family, which occur widely in starfishes.

  10. Microwave assisted total synthesis of a benzothiophene-based new chemical entity (NCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceutical scientists are required to generate diverse arrays of complex targets in short span of time, which can now be achieved by microwave-assisted organic synthesis. New chemical entities (NCE) can be built in a fraction of the time using this technique. However, there a...

  11. Application of diazene-directed fragment assembly to the total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of (+)-desmethyl-meso-chimonanthine and related heterodimeric alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Stephen P; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first application of our methodology for heterodimerization via diazene fragmentation towards the total synthesis of (-)-calycanthidine, meso-chimonanthine, and (+)-desmethyl-meso-chimonanthine. Our syntheses of these alkaloids feature an improved route to C3a-aminocyclotryptamines, an enhanced method for sulfamide synthesis and oxidation, in addition to a late-stage diversification leading to the first enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-desmethyl-meso-chimonanthine and its unambiguous stereochemical assignment. This versatile strategy for directed assembly of heterodimeric cyclotryptamine alkaloids has broad implications for the controlled synthesis of higher order derivatives with related substructures.

  12. Synthesis of cryptophycins via an N-acyl-beta-lactam macrolactonization.

    PubMed

    Vidya, Ramdas; Eggen, MariJean; Nair, Sajiv K; Georg, Gunda I; Himes, Richard H

    2003-12-12

    An efficient and concise approach to the synthesis of the macrolide core of the cryptophycins has been developed. A novel macrolactonization utilizing a reactive acyl-beta-lactam intermediate incorporates the beta-amino acid moiety within the 16-membered macrolide core. This modular approach, involving a cyanide-initiated acyl-beta-lactam ring opening followed by cyclization, was successfully applied to the total synthesis of cryptophycin-24. The strategy was also used in an efficient synthesis of the 6,6-dimethyl-substituted dechlorocryptophycin-52. In this case, the cyanide-initiated ring opening of the bis-substituted 2-azetidinone followed by macrolactonization was achieved through a catalytic process.

  13. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tuan Hoang

    2003-01-01

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  14. Total Syntheses of (−)-Kopsifoline D and (−)-Deoxoapodine: Divergent Total Synthesis via Late-Stage Key Strategic Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Divergent total syntheses of (−)-kopsifoline D and (−)-deoxoapodine are detailed from a common pentacyclic intermediate 15, enlisting the late-stage formation of two different key strategic bonds (C21–C3 and C21–O–C6) unique to their hexacyclic ring systems that are complementary to its prior use in the total syntheses of kopsinine (C21–C2 bond formation) and (+)-fendleridine (C21–O–C19 bond formation). The combined efforts represent the total syntheses of members of four classes of natural products from a common intermediate functionalized for late-stage formation of four different key strategic bonds uniquely embedded in each natural product core structure. Key to the first reported total synthesis of a kopsifoline that is detailed herein was the development of a transannular enamide alkylation for late-stage formation of the C21–C3 bond with direct introduction of the reactive indolenine C2 oxidation state from a penultimate C21 functionalized Aspidosperma-like pentacyclic intermediate. Central to the assemblage of the underlying Apidosperma skeleton is a powerful intramolecular [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole that provided the functionalized pentacyclic ring system 15 in a single step in which the C3 methyl ester found in the natural products served as a key 1,3,4-oxadiazole substituent, activating it for participation in the initiating Diels–Alder reaction and stabilizing the intermediate 1,3-dipole. PMID:24499015

  15. Total synthesis of (-)-doliculide, structure-activity relationship studies and its binding to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Matcha, Kiran; Madduri, Ashoka V R; Roy, Sayantani; Ziegler, Slava; Waldmann, Herbert; Hirsch, Anna K H; Minnaard, Adriaan J

    2012-11-26

    Actin, an abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells, is one of the targets in cancer research. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to the synthesis and function of actin-targeting compounds and their use as effective molecular probes in chemical biology. In this study, we have developed an efficient synthesis of (-)-doliculide, a very potent actin binder with a higher cell-membrane permeability than phalloidin. Actin polymerization assays with (-)-doliculide and two analogues on HeLa and BSC-1 cells, together with a prediction of their binding mode to F-actin by unbiased computational docking, show that doliculide stabilizes F-actin in a similar way to jasplakinolide and chondramide C. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Trends in applying C-H oxidation to the total synthesis of natural products.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuanyou; Gao, Shuanhu

    2016-04-01

    Covering: 2006 to 2015C-H functionalization remains one of the frontier challenges in organic chemistry and drives quite an active area of research. It has recently been applied in various novel strategies for the synthesis of natural products. It can dramatically increase synthetic efficiency when incorporated into retrosynthetic analyses of complex natural products, making it an essential part of current trends in organic synthesis. In this Review, we focus on selected case studies of recent applications of C-H oxidation methodologies in which the C-H bond has been exploited effectively to construct C-O and C-N bonds in natural product syntheses. Examples of syntheses representing different types of C-H oxidation are discussed to illustrate the potential of this approach and inspire future applications.

  17. Total synthesis of SR 121463 A, a highly potent and selective vasopressin v(2) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, H; Davis, M C; Altas, Y; Snyder, J P; Liotta, D C

    2001-06-01

    SR 121463 A, 1, is a promising nonpeptide prototype for potent and selective antagonism of the vasopressin V(2) receptor subtype and, thus, a candidate for control of the clinically debilitating condition of hyponatremia and its associated syndromes. In the present work, we present a novel and stereoselective synthesis that stems from the preparation of three key intermediates: the substituted benzenesulfonyl chloride 2, the N-protected oxindole 3, and protected dibromide 4. The synthesis of 1 has been achieved in good overall yield, each step proceeding in greater than 80% yield. In addition, intermediate 2 and the syn isomer of 1 were prepared with complete control of stereochemistry. The latter reduction appears to proceed by lithium cation mediated chelation control. Molecular mechanics calculations with the MM3* and MMFF force fields underscore geometric and energetic aspects of the reaction.

  18. STUDIES ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF THE STEPHACIDINS AND NOTOAMIDES. TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF NOTOAMIDE S

    PubMed Central

    McAfoos, Timothy J.; Li, Shengying; Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Sherman, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Notoamide S has been suggested to be the final common precursor between two different Aspergillus sp. fungal strains before diverging to form enantiomerically opposite natural products (+)- and (−)-stephacidin A and (+)- and (−)-notoamide B. The synthesis of notoamide S comes from the coupling of N-Fmoc proline with a 6-hydroxy-7-prenyl-2-reverse prenyl tryptophan derivative that was synthesized via a late stage Claisen rearrangement from a 6-propargyl-2-reverse prenylated indole. PMID:21796227

  19. Total Synthesis of the Aristolochic Acids, Their Major Metabolites, and Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plants from the Aristolochia genus have been recommended for the treatment of a variety of human ailments since the time of Hippocrates. However, many species produce the highly toxic aristolochic acids (AAs), which are both nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. For the purposes of extensive biological studies, a versatile approach to the synthesis of the AAs and their major metabolites was devised based primarily on a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction. The key to success lies in the preparation of a common ring-A precursor, namely, the tetrahydropyranyl ether of 2-nitromethyl-3-iodo-4,5-methylendioxybenzyl alcohol (27), which was generated in excellent yield by oxidation of the aldoxime precursor 26. Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of 27 with a variety of benzaldehyde 2-boronates was accompanied by an aldol condensation/elimination reaction to give the desired phenanthrene intermediate directly. Deprotection of the benzyl alcohol followed by two sequential oxidation steps gave the desired phenanthrene nitrocarboxylic acids. This approach was used to synthesize AAs I–IV and several other related compounds, including AA I and AA II bearing an aminopropyloxy group at position-6, which were required for further conversion to fluorescent biological probes. Further successful application of the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction to the synthesis of the N-hydroxyaristolactams of AA I and AA II then allowed the synthesis of the putative, but until now elusive, N-acetoxy- and N-sulfonyloxy-aristolactam metabolites. PMID:24877584

  20. Generating a Generation of Proteasome Inhibitors: From Microbial Fermentation to Total Synthesis of Salinosporamide A (Marizomib) and Other Salinosporamides

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Barbara C.; Lam, Kin S.

    2010-01-01

    The salinosporamides are potent proteasome inhibitors among which the parent marine-derived natural product salinosporamide A (marizomib; NPI-0052; 1) is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. Methods to generate this class of compounds include fermentation and natural products chemistry, precursor-directed biosynthesis, mutasynthesis, semi-synthesis, and total synthesis. The end products range from biochemical tools for probing mechanism of action to clinical trials materials; in turn, the considerable efforts to produce the target molecules have expanded the technologies used to generate them. Here, the full complement of methods is reviewed, reflecting remarkable contributions from scientists of various disciplines over a period of 7 years since the first publication of the structure of 1. PMID:20479958

  1. Total synthesis and complete structural assignment of gambieric acid A, a large polycyclic ether marine natural product.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2014-08-01

    More than thirty years after the discovery of polycyclic ether marine natural products, they continue to receive intense attention from the chemical, biological, and pharmacological communities because of their potent biological activities and highly complex molecular architectures. Gambieric acids are intriguing polycyclic ethers that exhibit potent antifungal activity with minimal toxicity against mammals. Despite the recent advances in the synthesis of this class of natural products, gambieric acids remain unconquered due to their daunting structural complexity, which poses a formidable synthetic challenge to organic chemists. This paper reviews our long-term studies on the total synthesis, complete configurational reassignment, and structure-activity relationships of gambieric acid A over the last decade. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A cascade coupling strategy for one-pot total synthesis of β-carboline and isoquinoline-containing natural products and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-Ping; Liu, Mei-Cai; Cai, Qun; Jia, Feng-Cheng; Wu, An-Xin

    2013-07-29

    Multi-birds with one stone: A cascade coupling strategy was developed for the synthesis of β-carbolines. The method can direct the synthesis of β-carboline and isoquinoline-containing natural products with high yields. Moreover, this protocol can also be further applied towards the total synthesis of natural products fascaplysin and papaverin (see scheme). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Total Synthesis of K777: Successful Application of Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Alkyne Hydrothiolation toward the Modular Synthesis of a Potent Cysteine Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kiemele, Erica R; Wathier, Matthew; Bichler, Paul; Love, Jennifer A

    2016-02-05

    We report the total synthesis of K777 and a series of analogues via alkyne hydrothiolation catalyzed by Wilkinson's complex (ClRh(PPh3)3). The alkyne hydrothiolation reactions proceeded with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity to generate the desired E-linear vinyl sulfides in high yield. The use of Ellman's auxiliary generates the requisite propargyl amines in excellent enantiomeric excess (ee) and obviates the use of L-homophenylalanine, an expensive unnatural amino acid. The vinyl sulfone derivatives exhibit a large difference in rate toward Michael addition. Kinetic data are consistent with rate-limiting nucleophilic attack to generate the carbanion intermediate.

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Dehydration for the Synthesis of α-Vinyl Carbonyl Compounds and Total Synthesis of (−)-Aspewentin A, B, and C

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiyang; Virgil, Scott C.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    The direct α-vinylation of carbonyl compounds that forms a quaternary stereocenter is a challenging transformation. We discovered that δ-oxocarboxylic acids can serve as masked vinyl compounds and be unveiled by palladium-catalyzed decarbonylative dehydration. The carboxylic acids are readily available through enantioselective acrylate addition or asymmetric allylic alkylation. A variety of α-vinyl quaternary carbonyl compounds are obtained in good yields, and an application in the first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-aspewentin A, B, and C is demonstrated. PMID:26230413

  5. Synthesis of Macrocyclic Ketones through Catalyst-Free Electrophilic Halogen-Mediated Semipinacol Rearrangement: Application to the Total Synthesis of (±)-Muscone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yeung, Ying-Yeung

    2017-03-17

    A series of macrocycles were successfully prepared using electrophilic halogen-mediated semipinacol rearrangement under mild conditions. Although the expansion from small ring to medium ring is an energetically unfavorable process, the electrophilic halogenation was found to be powerful enough to override such an energy barrier. The rearranged products could further undergo Dowd-Beckwith rearrangement to give the corresponding one-carbon ring-expanded ketones. This approach has been applied to the total synthesis of the natural product (±)-muscone, which is widely used in modern perfumery and medicines, in a two-step sequence.

  6. Total synthesis by modern chemical ligation methods and high resolution (1.1 Å) X-ray structure of ribonuclease A

    SciTech Connect

    Boerema, David J.; Tereshko, Valentina A.; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2010-02-08

    The total chemical synthesis of RNase A using modern chemical ligation methods is described, illustrating the significant advances that have been made in chemical protein synthesis since Gutte and Merrifield's pioneering preparation of RNase A in 1969. The identity of the synthetic product was confirmed through rigorous characterization, including the determination of the X-ray crystal structure to 1.1 Angstrom resolution.

  7. General Approach to the Total Synthesis of 9-Methoxy Substituted Indole Alkaloids: Synthesis of Mitragynine, as well as 9-Methoxygeissoschizol and 9-Methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Yin, Wenyuan; Zhou, Hao; Liao, Xuebin; Cook, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Herein the full details of the synthesis of the 9-methoxy-substituted Corynanthe indole alkaloids mitragynine (1), 9-methoxygeissoschizol (3) and 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol (4) are described. Initially an efficient synthetic route to the optically active 4-methoxytryptophan ethyl ester 20 on a multigram scale was developed via a Mori-Ban-Hegedus indole synthesis. The ethyl ester of (D)-4-methoxytryptophan 20 was obtained with a radical-mediated regioselective bromination of indoline 12 serving as a key step. Alternatively, the key 4-methoxytryptophan intermediate 22 could be synthesized by the Larock heteroannulation of aryl iodide 10b with the internal alkyne 21a. The use of the Boc protected aniline 10b was crucial to the success of this heteroannulation. The α,β-unsaturated ester 6 was synthesized via the Pictet-Spengler reaction as the pivotal step. This was followed by a Ni(COD)2 mediated cyclization to set up the stereocenter at C-15. The benzyloxy group in 31 was removed to provide the intermediate ester 5. This chiral tetracyclic ester 5 was employed to accomplish the first total synthesis of 9-methoxygeissoschizol (3) and 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeisso-schizol (4) as well as the opioid agonistic indole alkaloid mitragynine (1). PMID:19046119

  8. Total synthesis of (±)-sacidumlignans D and A through Ueno-Stork radical cyclization reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Jian; Yan, Chang-Song; Peng, Yu; Luo, Zhen-Biao; Xu, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Ya-Wen

    2013-04-21

    Efficient synthesis of (±)-sacidumlignan D (4) has been successfully achieved employing Ueno-Stork radical cyclization of α-bromo acetal 21 as a key step. Two synthetic approaches for the symmetrical diaryl ketone 19 have been discussed in detail. Notably, sacidumlignan A (1) can be also efficiently synthesized in only 7 steps with 25% overall yield, where acid triggered tandem reaction starting from analogous Ueno-Stork cyclization product 27 played an important role. Moreover, potentially biomimetic conversion from (±)-sacidumlignan D (4) to sacidumlignan A (1) could be realized.

  9. A practical total synthesis of the microbial alkaline proteinase inhibitor (MAPI).

    PubMed

    Haebich, Dieter; Hillisch, Alexander; El Sheikh, Sherif

    2009-12-01

    Diverse serine and cysteine proteases as well as alkaline proteinases and elastases play a crucial role in numerous biological processes. Natural peptide aldehydes such as the "microbial alkaline proteinase inhibitor" (MAPI, 1) are valuable tools to characterize novel enzymes and to study their function in nature. Within a drug discovery program we wanted to design and explore non-natural MAPI congeners with novel biological profiles. To that end we devised a simple, practical, and scalable synthesis of MAPI 1 from readily available amino acid building blocks. The modular nature of our approach allows convenient structural modification of the MAPI backbone.

  10. Encecalol angelate, an unstable chromene from Ageratum conyzoides L.: total synthesis and investigation of its antiprotozoal activity.

    PubMed

    Harel, Dipak; Khalid, Sami A; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Wünsch, Bernhard; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2011-09-01

    In agreement with ethnomedicinal reports, the dichloromethane extract of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) was recently shown to be of considerable activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the etiologic agent of East African Human Trypanosomiasis (East African Sleeping Sickness). Isolated compounds, namely, methoxylated flavonoids as well as the chromene derivative encecalol methyl ether, were less active than the crude extract. The activity of the extract was found to decrease considerably while stored in solution. An unstable compound was detected in the fresh extract by HPLC, which was converted rapidly into the encecalol methyl ether while stored in methanolic solution. This compound, deemed to represent a constituent with antitrypanosomal activity, could not be isolated from the extract in intact form. To elucidate the structure of this unstable compound and to investigate its potential role in the antitrypanosomal activity of the total extract. UHPLC/ESI-qQTOF MSMS and NMR data of the degraded product indicated its chemical identity as encecalol angelate (1) which was therefore prepared by total synthesis via a linear six steps synthesis, starting from resorcinol and 2-methylbut-3-en-2-ol. Total synthesis, in an overall yield of 15%, led to pure 1, which was chromatographically and spectroscopically identical with the natural product. The compound degraded in methanol with a half-life of approximately 6h to yield encecalol methyl ether (2). The antiprotozoal activity of synthetic encecalol angelate against T. brucei rhodesiense as well as T. cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum was investigated and found to be quite low. The synthetic approach applied here for the first time also provides access to the related bioactive chromenes encecalin (7) and encecalol (8) with improved yields compared with reported methods. Encecalol angelate, however, is most likely not responsible for the high antitrypanosomal activity of the freshly prepared

  11. Development of a strategy for the total chemical synthesis of an allergenic protein: the peach LTP Pru p 3.

    PubMed

    Buhler, Sofie; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; A Pertinhez, Thelma; Van Ree, Ronald; Dossena, Arnaldo; Sforza, Stefano; Tedeschi, Tullia

    2017-02-10

    The possibility to obtain allergenic proteins by means of total chemical synthesis would be a big step forward in the development of cures to food allergy and in the study of the mechanism of allergic reactions, because this would allow to achieve control at the molecular level over the structure of the product and to study its relationship with the allergenic activity in fine details. This is instead not possible by using allergens produced by extraction from natural sources or by recombinant DNA techniques. In this work, we aimed to test for the first time the feasibility of the total chemical synthesis of an allergenic protein. Pru p 3, the most studied member of the family of lipid transfer proteins, relevant plant food pan-allergens, was used as model target. Strategies for the convergent assembly of the target protein, starting from five peptide fragments to be bound by means of either native chemical ligation or peptide hydrazide ligation, followed by desulfurization, to achieve ligations at alanine, were developed and tested. All the reaction conditions were set up and optimized. Two large peptides covering the two halves of the protein sequence were synthesized and structurally characterized by means of circular dichroism, and their immunogenicity was proved by means of immunoblot, using antibodies against Pru p 3, and immunoCAP inhibition tests. Finally, the five peptides were bound together to produce the whole protein stretch. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of total chemical synthesis as a new way to obtain pure allergens. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach using micro-flow amide bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Mifune, Yuto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Feglymycin is a naturally occurring, anti-HIV and antimicrobial 13-mer peptide that includes highly racemizable 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycines (Dpgs). Here we describe the total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach. Our originally developed micro-flow amide bond formation enabled highly racemizable peptide chain elongation based on a linear approach that was previously considered impossible. Our developed approach will enable the practical preparation of biologically active oligopeptides that contain highly racemizable amino acids, which are attractive drug candidates.

  13. Total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach using micro-flow amide bond formation

    PubMed Central

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Mifune, Yuto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Feglymycin is a naturally occurring, anti-HIV and antimicrobial 13-mer peptide that includes highly racemizable 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycines (Dpgs). Here we describe the total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach. Our originally developed micro-flow amide bond formation enabled highly racemizable peptide chain elongation based on a linear approach that was previously considered impossible. Our developed approach will enable the practical preparation of biologically active oligopeptides that contain highly racemizable amino acids, which are attractive drug candidates. PMID:27892469

  14. Diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed ene-cycloisomerization reactions of alkenylidenecyclopropanes: total synthesis of (-)-α-kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Inglesby, Phillip A

    2012-02-29

    The rhodium-catalyzed ene-cycloisomerization of alkenylidenecyclopropanes provides an atom-economical approach to five-membered carbo- and heterocycles that contain two new stereogenic centers. A key and striking feature of this protocol is that the alkene geometry does not impact the efficiency and diastereocontrol, which provides excellent synthetic versatility. For instance, (E)- and (Z)-allylic alcohols furnish the corresponding aldehydes with similar efficiency and selectivity. This process facilitates the construction of a key intermediate in an eight-step total synthesis of (-)-α-kainic acid. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Diastereodivergent Reverse Prenylation of Indole and Tryptophan Derivatives: Total Synthesis of Amauromine, Novoamauromine, and epi-Amauromine.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jonas M; Stark, Christian B W

    2016-04-04

    A regio- and stereoselective reverse prenylation of indole and tryptophan derivatives is presented. All four possible stereoisomers are accessible through this iridium-catalyzed reaction. The stereoselectivity is controlled by a chiral phosphoramidite ligand in combination with an achiral borane additive and can be switched by changing the nature of the borane. One enantiomer of the ligand is thus sufficient to prepare all possible isomers. The synthetic potential of this method was demonstrated by a short total synthesis of amauromine and its two natural diastereomers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Tanjungides A and B: new antitumoral bromoindole derived compounds from Diazona cf formosa. isolation and total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Carmen; Coello, Laura; Fernández, Rogelio; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Francesch, Andrés; Munt, Simon; Cuevas, Carmen

    2014-02-21

    Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey's analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  17. Tanjungides A and B: New Antitumoral Bromoindole Derived Compounds from Diazona cf formosa. Isolation and Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Carmen; Coello, Laura; Fernández, Rogelio; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Francesch, Andrés; Munt, Simon; Cuevas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey’s analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines. PMID:24566261

  18. The discovery of potent antitumor agent C11-deoxypsymberin/irciniastatin A: total synthesis and biology of advanced psymberin analogs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianhai; Shao, Ning; Huryk, Robert; Palani, Anandan; Aslanian, Robert; Seidel-Dugan, Cynthia

    2009-02-19

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies by modification of the unsaturated side chain of potent anticancer marine natural product psymberin/irciniastatin A (1) suggest that substitution at C4 and C5 is important for the cytotoxicity of psymberin, but the terminal double bond is not essential for activity. An aryl group is a good replacement for the olefin. The total synthesis of structurally simplified C11-deoxypsymberin (29) was completed, and its activity is consistently more potent than the natural product which provides a unique opportunity for further SAR studies in the psymberin and pederin family. Preliminary mechanism studies suggest the mode of action of psymberin is through cell apoptosis.

  19. A novel cis-selective cyclohexanone annulation as the key step of a total synthesis of the sesquiterpene isoacanthodoral.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Thomas; Brückner, Reinhard

    2009-11-05

    Isoacanthodoral (1) is a structurally unique sesquiterpene in that it is a bicyclo[4.4.0]dec-1-ene with a cis- rather than the common trans-junction between the constituting rings. An efficient construction of this motif has been accomplished by a novel cis-selective cyclohexanone annulation, combining the lithium enolate of ester 8, the alpha,beta-unsaturated ester 6, and vinylmagnesium bromide in a single synthetic operation. For completing the total synthesis of 1, a Shapiro-olefination/hydrogenation sequence and a reductive cyanation were employed.

  20. Samarium(II) induced asymmetric reductive cyclizations: The total synthesis of (-)-C{sub 10} desmethyl arteannuin B

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaebe, M.K.; Little, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Arteannuin B is a member of the qinghaosu family, a novel class of sesquiterpenes that exhibit powerful antimalarial activity even against chloroquinine resistant strains. It is readily convertible to qinghaosu in several high yielding steps and has potential antitumor activity. Several approaches to the construction of the cis-decalin backbone have involved the use of electrochemical and metal promoted reductions as well as alkylations. We report a short convenient total synthesis of (-)-C{sub 10} desmethyl arteannuin B utilizing an asymmetric reductive cyclization with samarium (II) iodide which selectively forms the cis-decalin ring structure while setting the trans relationship between the subunits of the {gamma}-hydroxy ester.

  1. The total synthesis of a ganglioside Hp-s1 analogue possessing neuritogenic activity by chemoselective activation glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yow-Fu; Shih, Cheng-Hua; Su, Yu-Ting; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Lian, Jang-Feng; Liao, Chun-Chen; Hsia, Ching-Wu; Shui, Hao-Ai; Rani, Rashmi

    2012-02-07

    The total synthesis of ganglioside 2, an analogue of the ganglioside Hp-s1 (1) which displays neuritogenic activity toward the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12 cell in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) with an effect (34.0%) greater than that of the mammalian ganglioside GM 1 (25.4%), was accomplished by applying a chemoselective-activation glycosylation strategy. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the synthesized ganglioside 2 exhibited neuritogenic activity toward the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y without the presence of NGF.

  2. Total synthesis and structural revision of TMG-chitotriomycin, a specific inhibitor of insect and fungal beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases.

    PubMed

    Yang, You; Li, Yao; Yu, Biao

    2009-09-02

    TMG-chitotriomycin, a potent and selective inhibitor of the beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases that possesses an unique N,N,N-trimethyl-d-glucosamine (TMG) residue, is revised to be the TMG-beta-(1-->4)-chitotriose instead of the originally proposed alpha-anomer via its total synthesis, for which a highly convergent approach was developed in which the sterically demanding (1-->4)-glycosidic linkages are efficiently constructed by the Au(I)-catalyzed glycosylation protocol with glycosyl o-hexynylbenzoates as donors.

  3. Total Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Ipomoeassin F and Its Unnatural 11R-Epimer

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Guanghui; Barber, Eric; Aljewari, Hazim; Zhou, Jianhong; Hu, Zhijian; Du, Yuchun; Shi, Wei Q.

    2015-01-01

    Ipomoeassin F, a macrolide glycoresin containing an embedded disaccharide, possesses potent in vitro antitumor activity with an unknown mechanism of function. It inhibits tumor cell growth with single-digit nanomolar IC50 values, superior to many clinical chemotherapeutic drugs. To facilitate translation of its bioactivity into protein function for drug development, we report here a new synthesis for the gram-scale production of ipomoeassin F (3.8% over 17 linear steps) from commercially-available starting materials. The conformation-controlled subtle reactivity differences of the hydroxyl groups in carbohydrates were utilized to quickly construct the disaccharide core, which, along with judicial selection of protecting groups, made the current synthesis very efficient. The same strategy was also applied to the smooth preparation of the 11R-epimer of ipomoeassin F for the first time. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated the crucial role of the natural 11S configuration. In addition, cell cycle analyses and apoptosis assays on ipomoeassin F and/or its epimer were conducted. This work has laid a solid ground for understanding the medicinal potential of the ipomoeassin family of glycolipids in the future. PMID:26317990

  4. The stereocontrolled total synthesis of spirastrellolide A methyl ester. Expedient construction of the key fragments.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Anderson, Edward A; Dalby, Stephen M; Lim, Jong Ho; Maltas, Philip; Loiseleur, Olivier; Genovino, Julien; Moessner, Christian

    2012-08-14

    Due to a combination of their promising anticancer properties, limited supply from the marine sponge source and their unprecedented molecular architecture, spirastrellolides represent attractive and challenging synthetic targets. A modular strategy for the synthesis of spirastrellolide A methyl ester, which allowed for the initial stereochemical uncertainties in the assigned structure was adopted, based on the envisaged sequential coupling of a series of suitably functionalised fragments; in this first paper, full details of the synthesis of these fragments are described. The pivotal C26-C40 DEF bis-spiroacetal was assembled by a double Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation/acetalisation cascade process on a linear diene intermediate, configuring the C31 and C35 acetal centres under suitably mild acidic conditions. A C1-C16 alkyne fragment was constructed by application of an oxy-Michael reaction to introduce the A-ring tetrahydropyran, a Sakurai allylation to install the C9 hydroxyl, and a 1,4-syn boron aldol/directed reduction sequence to establish the C11 and C13 stereocentres. Two different coupling strategies were investigated to elaborate the C26-C40 DEF fragment, involving either a C17-C25 sulfone or a C17-C24 vinyl iodide, each of which was prepared using an Evans glycolate aldol reaction. The remaining C43-C47 vinyl stannane fragment required for introduction of the unsaturated side chain was prepared from (R)-malic acid.

  5. Modular and Stereodivergent Approach to Unbranched 1,5,9,n-Polyenes: Total Synthesis of Chatenaytrienin-4.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Juliane; Stark, Christian B W

    2016-09-16

    An iterative strategy for the stereodivergent synthesis of unbranched 1,5,9,n-polyenes (and -polyynes) was investigated. Starting from a terminal alkyne the iteration cycle consists of a C3 extension (allylation), a chemoselective hydroboration, an alkyne reduction, and an oxidation of the associated alcohol with subsequent C1 homologation. Double bond geometry is controlled using stereoselective alkyne reductions, employing either the Lindlar hydrogenation protocol or an aluminum hydride reduction. In a model sequence it was demonstrated that the strategy is applicable to the synthesis of 1,5,9,n-polyenes with any possible double bond configuration accessible in equally high efficiency and selectivity. It is worth noting that our approach does not require any protecting group chemistry. Furthermore, using the same strategy, the first total synthesis of chatenaytrienin-4, the proposed unsaturated biosynthetic precursor of the bis-THF acetogenin membranacin, was examined. Thus, the all-cis 1,5,9-triene natural product was prepared in 15 steps from commercially available starting materials in 6% overall yield.

  6. Effect of total mixed ration composition on fermentation and efficiency of ruminal microbial crude protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boguhn, J; Kluth, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this study was to identify dietary factors that affect fermentation and efficiency of microbial crude protein (CP(M)) synthesis in the rumen in vitro. We used 16 total mixed, dairy cow rations with known digestibilities that varied in ingredient composition and nutrient content. Each ration was incubated in a Rusitec (n = 3) for 15 d, and fermentation of different fractions was assessed. Observed extents of fermentation in 24 h were 35 to 47% for organic matter, 25 to 60% for crude protein, 3 to 28% for neutral detergent fiber, and 31 to 45% for gross energy. Organic matter fermentation depended on the content of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber in the ration. We studied net synthesis of CP(M) using an 15N dilution technique and found that 7 d of continuous 15N application are needed to achieve an 15N enrichment plateau in the N of isolated microbes in this type of study. The efficiency of CP(M) synthesis was 141 to 286 g/kg of fermented organic matter or 4.9 to 11.1 g/MJ of metabolizable energy, and these ranges agree with those found in the literature. Multiple regressions to predict the efficiency of CP(M) synthesis by diet data showed that crude protein was the only dietary chemical fraction that had a significant effect. Fat content and the inclusion rate of corn silage in the ration also tended to improve efficiency. We suggest that microbial need for preformed amino acids may explain the crude protein effect. A large part of the variation in efficiency of microbial activity still remains unexplained.

  7. Total synthesis and stereochemical confirmation of manassantin A, B, and B1.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Reddy, Gone Jayapal; Chahal, Navjot

    2006-11-23

    Stereocontrolled total syntheses of manassantins A, B, and B1 and saucerneol are described for the first time based on a novel cycloetherification of end-differentiated benzylic alcohols as a common intermediate. [structure: see text].

  8. Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J; Maroto, Sergio

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

  9. Total synthesis of lepadiformine alkaloids using N-Boc α-amino nitriles as trianion synthons.

    PubMed

    Perry, Matthew A; Morin, Matthew D; Slafer, Brian W; Rychnovsky, Scott D

    2012-04-06

    Lepadiformine A, B, and C were synthesized in an enantiomerically pure form using a reductive cyclization strategy. N-Boc α-amino nitriles were deprotonated and alkylated with enantiomerically pure dibromides to afford the first ring. The products were manipulated to introduce phosphate leaving groups, and subsequent reductive lithiation followed by intramolecular alkylation formed the second ring with high stereoselectivity. The third ring was formed by intramolecular displacement of a mesylate by the deprotected amine. Lepadiformine A and B contain a hydroxymethyl group adjacent to the amine. This appendage was introduced in a sequence using a Polonovski-Potier reaction as the key step. The synthetic strategy is stereoselective and convergent and demonstrates the utility of N-Boc α-amino nitriles as linchpins for alkaloid synthesis.

  10. Total Synthesis of Lepadiformine Alkaloids using N-Boc α-Amino Nitriles as Trianion Synthonsa

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Matthew A.; Morin, Matthew D.; Slafer, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Lepadiformine A, B and C were synthesized in enantiomerically pure form using a reductive cyclization strategy. N-Boc α-amino nitriles were deprotonated and alkylated with enantiomerically pure dibromides to afford the first ring. The products were manipulated to introduce phosphate leaving-groups, and subsequent reductive lithiation followed by intramolecular alkylation formed the second ring with high stereoselectivity. The third ring was formed by intramolecular displacement of a mesylate by the deprotected amine. Lepadiformine A and B contain a hydroxymethyl group adjacent to the amine. This appendage was introduced in a sequence using a Polonovski-Potier reaction as the key step. The synthetic strategy is stereoselective and convergent, and demonstrates the utility of N-Boc α-amino nitriles as linchpins for alkaloid synthesis. PMID:22413935

  11. Total chemical synthesis of a ribozyme derived from a group I intron.

    PubMed

    Whoriskey, S K; Usman, N; Szostak, J W

    1995-03-28

    We describe the complete chemical synthesis of a ribozyme that catalyzes template-directed oligonucleotide ligation. The specific activity of the synthetic ribozyme is nearly identical to that of the same enzyme generated by in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. The ribozyme is derived from a group I intron and consists of three RNA fragments of 36, 43, and 59 nt that self-assemble to form a catalytically active complex. We have site-specifically substituted ribonucleotide analogs into this enzyme and have identified two 2'-hydroxyl groups that are required for full catalytic activity. In contrast, neither the 2'-hydroxyl nor the exocyclic amino group of the conserved guanosine in the guanosine binding site is necessary for catalysis. By allowing the ribozyme to be modified as easily as its substrates, this synthetic ribozyme system should be useful for testing specific hypotheses concerning ribozyme-substrate interactions and tertiary interactions within the ribozyme.

  12. Total chemical synthesis of a ribozyme derived from a group I intron.

    PubMed Central

    Whoriskey, S K; Usman, N; Szostak, J W

    1995-01-01

    We describe the complete chemical synthesis of a ribozyme that catalyzes template-directed oligonucleotide ligation. The specific activity of the synthetic ribozyme is nearly identical to that of the same enzyme generated by in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. The ribozyme is derived from a group I intron and consists of three RNA fragments of 36, 43, and 59 nt that self-assemble to form a catalytically active complex. We have site-specifically substituted ribonucleotide analogs into this enzyme and have identified two 2'-hydroxyl groups that are required for full catalytic activity. In contrast, neither the 2'-hydroxyl nor the exocyclic amino group of the conserved guanosine in the guanosine binding site is necessary for catalysis. By allowing the ribozyme to be modified as easily as its substrates, this synthetic ribozyme system should be useful for testing specific hypotheses concerning ribozyme-substrate interactions and tertiary interactions within the ribozyme. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7708666

  13. Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, P. Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J.; Maroto, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

  14. Thionium ion initiated medium-sized ring formation: the total synthesis of asteriscunolide D.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Burns, Aaron C; Bartlett, Mark J; Tautz, Thomas; Weiss, Andrew H

    2012-01-25

    The first synthesis of the biologically active humulene natural product asteriscunolide D has been accomplished in nine steps without the use of protecting groups. The challenging 11-membered ring was forged via a diastereoselective thionium ion initiated cyclization, which constitutes a formal aldol disconnection to form a strained macrocycle. A stereospecific thioether activation-elimination protocol was developed for selective E-olefin formation, thus providing access to the most biologically active asteriscunolide. The absolute stereochemical configuration was established by the Zn-ProPhenol catalyzed enantioselective addition of methyl propiolate to an aliphatic aldehyde to afford a γ-hydroxy propiolate as a handle for butenolide formation via Ru-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling.

  15. Enantioselective Approach to Quinolizidines: Total Synthesis of Cermizine D and Formal Syntheses of Senepodine G & Cermizine C

    PubMed Central

    Veerasamy, Nagarathanam; Carlson, Erik C.; Collett, Nathan D.; Saha, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The formal total syntheses of C5-epi-senepodine G and C5-epi-cermizine C have been accomplished through a novel diastereoselecetive, intramolecular amide Michael addition process. The total synthesis of cermizine D has been achieved through use of an organocatalyzed, heteroatom Michael addition to access a common intermediate. Additional key steps of this sequence include a matched, diastereoselective alkylation with an iodomethylphenyl sulfide and sulfone-aldehyde coupling/reductive desulfurization sequence to combine the major subunits. The utility of a Hartwig-style C-N coupling has been explored on functionally dense coupling partners. Diastereoselective conjugate additions to α,β-unsaturated sulfones has been investigated which provided the key sulfone intermediate in just six steps from commercially available starting materials. The formal syntheses of senepodine G and cermizine C have been accomplished through an intramolecular cyclization process of a N-Boc protected piperidine sulfone. PMID:23627426

  16. Enantioselective total synthesis of clavirolide C. Applications of Cu-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate additions and Ru-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Kevin; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2008-10-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of clavirolide C, a member of the dolabellane family of diterpenes isolated from Pacific soft coral Clavularia viridis, is disclosed. The total synthesis features the application of chiral amino acid based ligands in Cu-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition (ACA) reactions and a relatively rare application of catalytic ring-closing metathesis to access an 11-membered ring structure. The total synthesis effort has spawned the development of a new protocol for NHC.Cu-catalyzed ACA of alkylaluminum reagents to beta-substituted cycloalkenones. The enantioselective clavirolide C synthesis requires 17 steps (longest linear sequence), affords the target molecule in 3.5% overall yield, and confirms the stereochemical assignment for the natural product.

  17. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Clavirolide C. Applications of Cu-Catalyzed Asymmetric Conjugate Additions and Ru-Catalyzed Ring-Closing Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of clavirolide C, a member of the dolabellane family of diterpenes isolated from Pacific soft coral Clavularia viridis, is disclosed. The total synthesis features the application of chiral amino acid-based ligands in Cu-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition (ACA) reactions and a relatively rare application of catalytic ring-closing metathesis to access an eleven-membered ring structure. The total synthesis effort has spawned the development of a new protocol for NHC∙Cu-catalyzed ACA of alkylaluminum reagents to β-substituted cycloalkenones. The enantioselective clavirolide C synthesis requires seventeen steps (longest linear sequence), affords the target molecule in 3.5% overall yield, and confirms the stereochemical assignment for the natural product. PMID:18778057

  18. Total Synthesis of Cryptocaryol A by Enantioselective Iridium-Catalyzed Alcohol C-H Allylation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Felix; Waldeck, Andrew R; Krische, Michael J

    2016-04-11

    The polyketide natural product cryptocaryol A is prepared in 8 steps via iridium catalyzed enantioselective diol double C-H allylation, which directly generates an acetate-based triketide stereodiad. In 4 previously reported total syntheses, 17-28 steps were required. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Progress in demonstrating total homochiral selection in montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prakash C; Aldersley, Michael F; Ferris, James P

    2011-10-07

    The Na(+)-montmorillonite-catalyzed reactions of 5'-phosphorimidazolides of nucleosides generates RNA oligomers. The question arises as to how chiral selectivity was introduced into this biopolymer from a simple chemical system. We have demonstrated homochiral selection in quaternary reactions of a racemic mixture of D,L-ImpA and D,L-ImpU on Na(+)-montmorillonite. The dimer, trimer, tetramer and pentamer fractions were investigated for homochiral selection. The products were collected via ion exchange HPLC and their terminal 5'-phosphate was cleaved by alkaline phosphatase. These fractions were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC for the identification of homochiral and heterochiral isomers. Encouraged by favorable homochiral excesses of dimer (63.5 ± 0.8%) and trimer (74.3 ± 1.7%), the study was extended to the analysis of higher oligomers. The tetramer and pentamer of the quaternary reaction were separated into 26 and 22 isomers, respectively, on a reverse phase column. Their co-elution with those formed in the binary reactions of d-ImpA and D-ImpU on Na(+)-montmorillonite revealed 92.7 ± 2.0% and 97.2 ± 0.5% homochirality of the tetramer and pentamer, respectively. These results suggest that Na(+)-montmorillonite not only catalyzes the prebiotic synthesis of RNA but it also facilitates homochiral selection.

  20. Total synthesis of biologically active natural products based on highly selective synthetic methodologies.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Susumi

    2014-01-01

    Total syntheses of structurally and biologically intriguing natural products relying on new synthetic methodologies are described. This article features cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed asymmetric Morita-Baylis-Hillman reactions, heterocycle syntheses based on rhodium-catalyzed C-H amination and indium-catalyzed Conia-ene reactions, and their utilization for the syntheses of the phoslactomycin family of antibiotics, glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists, and alkaloids with characteristic highly substituted pyrrolidinone core structures.

  1. A bias-adjusted evidence synthesis of RCT and observational data: the case of total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Iglesias, Cynthia P; Arvandi, Marjan; Ciani, Oriana; Matteucci Gothe, Raffaella; Peters, Jaime; Blom, Ashley W; Taylor, Rod S; Siebert, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Evaluation of clinical effectiveness of medical devices differs in some aspects from the evaluation of pharmaceuticals. One of the main challenges identified is lack of robust evidence and a will to make use of experimental and observational studies (OSs) in quantitative evidence synthesis accounting for internal and external biases. Using a case study of total hip replacement to compare the risk of revision of cemented and uncemented implant fixation modalities, we pooled treatment effect estimates from OS and RCTs, and simplified existing methods for bias-adjusted evidence synthesis to enhance practical application. We performed an elicitation exercise using methodological and clinical experts to determine the strength of beliefs about the magnitude of internal and external bias affecting estimates of treatment effect. We incorporated the bias-adjusted treatment effects into a generalized evidence synthesis, calculating both frequentist and Bayesian statistical models. We estimated relative risks as summary effect estimates with 95% confidence/credibility intervals to capture uncertainty. When we compared alternative approaches to synthesizing evidence, we found that the pooled effect size strongly depended on the inclusion of observational data as well as on the use bias-adjusted estimates. We demonstrated the feasibility of using observational studies in meta-analyses to complement RCTs and incorporate evidence from a wider spectrum of clinically relevant studies and healthcare settings. To ensure internal validity, OS data require sufficient correction for confounding and selection bias, either through study design and primary analysis, or by applying post-hoc bias adjustments to the results. © 2017 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Fluency Training a Writing Skill: Editing for Concision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermer, Marshall L.; Lopez, Shannon L.; Messling, Paul A., III

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to design and evaluate fluency-based training units to help students eliminate inconcision. Participants first completed a 1.5-hr lesson on writing concisely and then a 5-min test during which they edited sentences containing inconcise text from the training units. Subsequently, participants were randomly assigned to an…

  3. The Dirty Dozen: A Concise Measure of the Dark Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural…

  4. Cranial nerve assessment: a concise guide to clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Omprakash; Rizk, Elias; Rodriguez, Julian; Lee, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Examination of the cranial nerves is an integral and important part of a complete neurological examination. Historically, these skills were crucial for diagnosing specific lesions. With the development of modern imaging modalities, the significance of clinical examination techniques has perhaps been undermined. The authors present an overview of each cranial nerve with a concise summary of examination techniques.

  5. The Dirty Dozen: A Concise Measure of the Dark Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural…

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: A concise introduction to perturbation theory in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Karim A.; Matravers, David R.

    2008-10-01

    We give a concise, self-contained introduction to perturbation theory in cosmology at linear and second orders, striking a balance between mathematical rigour and usability. In particular, we discuss gauge issues and the active and passive approaches to calculating gauge transformations. We also construct gauge-invariant variables, including the second-order tensor perturbation on uniform curvature hypersurfaces.

  7. Is there no end to the total syntheses of strychnine? Lessons to be learned for strategy and tactics in total synthesis**

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.; Overman, Larry E.

    2013-01-01

    From the 19th century to the present, the complex indole alkaloid strychnine has engaged the chemical community. In this review, we examine why strychnine has been and remains today an important target for directed synthesis efforts. A selection of the diverse syntheses of strychnine is discussed with the aim of identifying their influence on the evolution of the strategy and tactics of organic synthesis. PMID:22431197

  8. HemoCD as a Totally Synthetic Artificial Oxygen Carrier: Improvements in the Synthesis and O2 /CO Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Mao, Qiyue; Kitamura, Naoya; Kita, Takahiro

    2017-04-01

    HemoCD, which is composed of an iron(II)porphyrin such as 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinatoiron(II) (Fe(II)TPPS) and a cyclodextrin (CD) dimer having a pyridine linker, represents a synthetic hemoglobin (Hb) model compound that exhibits reversible oxygen (O2 ) binding ability in aqueous solution at an ambient temperature. Therefore, hemoCD has the potential to be used as a totally synthetic artificial oxygen carrier. In this article, we describe the improvements of hemoCD related to its synthesis and O2 /CO selectivity. The synthesis procedure of the CD dimer of hemoCD was re-examined, and the CD dimer was successively synthesized from inexpensive β-CD with a 38% yield (three-steps), which enabled us to obtain the CD dimer in gram-quantities. The O2 /CO selectivity of hemoCD was also markedly improved using an iron(II)porphyrin having a carboxylate group at the distal site of hemoCD. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Synthesis of hydrochloric acid solution for total mercury determination in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Patel-Sorrentino, Nathalie; Benaim, Jean-Yves; Cossa, Daniel; Lucas, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg(T)) determination requires the addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (≥10 mol L(-1) HCl) in relatively high amounts to preserve the samples and to prepare reagent solutions. A method for the preparation of concentrated HCl with Hg(T) concentration of lower than 5 ng L(-1) is described in this article. It is based on the well-known chemical reaction: 2 NH(4)Cl + H(2)SO(4) → (NH(4))(2)SO(4) + 2 HCl. This method is validated thanks to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1631 and standard reference materials BCR-579 (mercury in coastal seawater).

  10. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A-C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong D; Pham, Ngoc B; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John N A; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-07-22

    Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A-C (1-3), belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A-C (1-3), respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells.

  11. Total synthesis of the proposed structure of 8-deshydroxyajudazol A: a modified approach to 2,4-disubstituted oxazoles.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Stephen; Ganame, Danny; Hawkins, Bill C; Meiries, Sébastien; Quach, Tim; Rizzacasa, Mark A

    2013-01-04

    The total synthesis of the proposed structure for the minor myxobacterial metabolite 8-deshydroxyajudazol A (3) is described. The isochromanone moiety present in the eastern fragment was constructed by an intramolecular-Diels-Alder (IMDA). Difficulties were encountered with the formation of the 2,4-disubstituted oxazole, so this was synthesized via a modified approach. This involved selective acylation of the diol 7 with acid 8, azide displacement of the secondary alcohol, and subsequent azide reduction in the presence of base which induced an O,N shift to give the hydroxyamide 23. Cyclodehydration then gave the desired oxazole 24 and deprotection followed by mesylation and elimination produced the C15 alkene 5. Sonogashira coupling with the eastern fragment vinyl iodide 6 and partial reduction yielded 8-deshydroxyajudazol A (3).

  12. Total synthesis and antileukemic evaluations of the phenazine 5,10-dioxide natural products iodinin, myxin and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Viktorsson, Elvar Örn; Melling Grøthe, Bendik; Aesoy, Reidun; Sabir, Misbah; Snellingen, Simen; Prandina, Anthony; Høgmoen Åstrand, Ove Alexander; Bonge-Hansen, Tore; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Herfindal, Lars; Rongved, Pål

    2017-04-01

    A new efficient total synthesis of the phenazine 5,10-dioxide natural products iodinin and myxin and new compounds derived from them was achieved in few steps, a key-step being 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine di-N-oxidation. Analogues prepared from iodinin, including myxin and 2-ethoxy-2-oxoethoxy derivatives, had fully retained cytotoxic effect against human cancer cells (MOLM-13 leukemia) at atmospheric and low oxygen level. Moreover, iodinin was for the first time shown to be hypoxia selective. The structure-activity relationship for leukemia cell death induction revealed that the level of N-oxide functionality was essential for cytotoxicity. It also revealed that only one of the two phenolic functions is required for activity, allowing the other one to be modified without loss of potency.

  13. D-Glucosamine-Derived Synthons for Assembly of L-threo-Sphingoid Bases. Total Synthesis of Rhizochalinin C

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jaeyoung; Molinski, Tadeusz F.

    2012-01-01

    A five-step transformation of D-glucosamine – commencing with indium-mediated Barbier reaction, without isolation of intermediates – into (R,R)-2-aminohex-5-en-1,3-diol is described. The latter is a useful synthon for assembly of L-threo-sphingoid bases; long-chain aminoalkanols and aminoalkanediols with configurations antipodal to that found in mammalian D-erythro-sphingosine, but prevalent among invertebrate-derived sphingolipids. The utility of the method is demonstated by the first total synthesis of rhizochalinin C, the long-chain, ‘two-headed’ sphingoid base aglycone of the natural product rhizochalin C from the marine sponge Rhizochalina incrustata. PMID:23227909

  14. A Strategy for Complex Dimer Formation When Biomimicry Fails: Total Synthesis of Ten Coccinellid Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature’s presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class. PMID:24959981

  15. A strategy for complex dimer formation when biomimicry fails: total synthesis of ten coccinellid alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Trotta, Adam H; Snyder, Scott A

    2014-07-09

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature's presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class.

  16. Total synthesis and antiviral activity of indolosesquiterpenoids from the xiamycin and oridamycin families

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhanchao; Yu, Haixin; Li, Li; Tao, Wanyin; Chen, Hao; Wan, Ming; Yang, Peng; Edmonds, David J.; Zhong, Jin; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Indolosesquiterpenoids are a growing class of natural products that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Here, we report the total syntheses of xiamycin A and oridamycins A and B, indolosesquiterpenoids isolated from Streptomyces. Two parallel strategies were exploited to forge the carbazole core: 6π-electrocyclization/aromatization and indole C2–H bond activation/Heck annulation. The construction of their trans-decalin motifs relied on two diastereochemically complementary radical cyclization reactions mediated by Ti(III) and Mn(III), respectively. The C23 hydroxyl of oridamycin B was introduced by an sp3 C–H bond oxidation at a late stage. On the basis of the chemistry developed, the dimeric congener dixiamycin C has been synthesized for the first time. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of these compounds revealed that xiamycin A is a potent agent against herpes simplex virus–1 (HSV-1) in vitro. PMID:25648883

  17. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC): A Synthesis of North American Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Coe, H.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dunlea, E. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Junkermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 microg C/cubic m from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  18. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC): A Synthesis of North American Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 microg C/cubic m from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  19. Total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere: a synthesis of North American observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Coe, H.; Crounse, J. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dunlea, E. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Junkermann, W.; Kuster, W. C.; Lewis, A. C.; Meinardi, S.; Millet, D. B.; Onasch, T.; Polidori, A.; Quinn, P. K.; Riemer, D. D.; Roberts, J. M.; Salcedo, D.; Sive, B.; Swanson, A. L.; Talbot, R.; Warneke, C.; Weber, R. J.; Weibring, P.; Wennberg, P. O.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wittig, A. E.; Zhang, R.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, W.

    2008-04-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m-3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  20. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC): A synthesis of North American observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Coe, H.; Crounse, J. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dunlea, E. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Junkermann, W.; Kuster, W. C.; Lewis, A. C.; Meinardi, S.; Millet, D. B.; Onasch, T.; Polidori, A.; Quinn, P. K.; Riemer, D. D.; Roberts, J. M.; Salcedo, D.; Sive, B.; Swanson, A. L.; Talbot, R.; Warneke, C.; Weber, R. J.; Weibring, P.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wittig, A. E.; Zhang, R.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, W.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases measured upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m-3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketene and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.